Quark confinement in a constituent quark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langfeld, K.; Rho, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique
1995-07-01
On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.
Color confinement multi quark resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Fan [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Ping, J.L. [Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China); Pang, H.R. [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chen, L.Z. [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China)
2007-06-15
A new kind microscopic resonance, the color confinement multi quark resonance is proposed and studied. The quark delocalization color screening model is compared to one of the chiral quark model, the Salamanca model, and a new mechanism of the intermediate range NN interaction, the mutual distortion of interacting nucleons, is checked to be similar to the {sigma} meson exchange.
Hadrosynthesis and Quark Confinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satz Helmut
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Multihadron production in high energy collisions, from e+e− annihilation to heavy ion interactions, shows remarkable thermal behaviour, specified by a universal “Hagedorn” temperature. We argue that this hadronic radiation is formed by tunnelling through the event horizon of colour confinement, i.e., that it is the QCD counterpart of Hawking-Unruh radiation from black holes. It is shown to be emitted at a universal temperature TH ≃ (σ/2π1/2, where σ denotes the string tension. Since the event horizon does not allow information transfer, the radiation is thermal “at birth”.
Quark confinement mechanism for baryons
Goncharov, Yu P
2013-01-01
The confinement mechanism proposed earlier and then successfully applied to meson spectroscopy by the author is extended over baryons. For this aim the wave functions of baryons are built as tensorial products of those corresponding to the 2-body problem underlying the confinement mechanism of two quarks. This allows one to obtain the Hamiltonian of the quark interactions in a baryon and, accordingly, the possible energy spectrum of the latter. Also one may construct the electric and magnetic form factors of baryon in a natural way which entails the expressions for the root-mean-square radius and anomalous magnetic moment. To ullustrate the formalism in the given Chapter for the sake of simplicity only symmetrical baryons (i.e., composed from three quarks of the same flavours) $\\Delta^{++}$, $\\Delta^{-}$, $\\Omega^-$ are considered. For them the masses, the root-mean-square radii and anomalous magnetic moments are expressed in an explicit analytical form through the parameters of the confining SU(3)-gluonic fi...
Quark Confinement and Force Unification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stone R. A. Jr.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available String theory had to adopt a bi-scale approach in order to produce the weakness of gravity. Taking a bi-scale approach to particle physics along with a spin connection produces 1 the measured proton radius, 2 a resolution of the multiplicity of measured weak angle values 3 a correct theoretical value for the Z 0 4 a reason that h is a constant and 5 a “neutral current” source. The source of the “neutral current” provides 6 an alternate solution to quark confinement, 7 produces an effective r like potential, and 8 gives a reason for the observed but unexplained Regge trajectory like J M 2 behavior seen in quark composite particle spin families.
The Quark's Model and Confinement
Novozhilov, Yuri V.
1977-01-01
Quarks are elementary particles considered to be components of the proton, the neutron, and others. This article presents the quark model as a mathematical concept. Also discussed are gluons and bag models. A bibliography is included. (MA)
The Quark's Model and Confinement
Novozhilov, Yuri V.
1977-01-01
Quarks are elementary particles considered to be components of the proton, the neutron, and others. This article presents the quark model as a mathematical concept. Also discussed are gluons and bag models. A bibliography is included. (MA)
Quark confinement and the renormalization group.
Ogilvie, Michael C
2011-07-13
Recent approaches to quark confinement are reviewed, with an emphasis on their connection to renormalization group (RG) methods. Basic concepts related to confinement are introduced: the string tension, Wilson loops and Polyakov lines, string breaking, string tension scaling laws, centre symmetry breaking and the deconfinement transition at non-zero temperature. Current topics discussed include confinement on R(3)×S(1), the real-space RG, the functional RG and the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach to confinement.
Quark Confinement and the Renormalization Group
Ogilvie, Michael C
2010-01-01
Recent approaches to quark confinement are reviewed, with an emphasis on their connection to renormalization group methods. Basic concepts related to confinement are introduced: the string tension, Wilson loops and Polyakov lines, string breaking, string tension scaling laws, center symmetry breaking, and the deconfinement transition at non-zero temperature. Current topics discussed include confinement on $R^3\\times S^1$, the real-space renormalization group, the functional renormalization group, and the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach to confinement.
Holographic Model of Dual Superconductor for Quark Confinement
Huang, Tsung-Sheng
2016-01-01
We show that a hairy black hole solution can provide a holographically dual description of quark confinement. There exists a one-parameter sensible metric which receives the backreaction of matter contents in the holographic action, where the scalar and gauge field are responsible for the condensation of chromomagnetic monopoles. This model features a preconfining phase triggered by second-order monopole condensation and a first-order confinement/deconfinement phase transition. To confirm the confinement, the quark-antiquark potential is calculated by probing a QCD string in both phases. At last, contribution from Kaluza-Klein monopoles in the confining phase is discussed.
Quark confinement and the fractional quantum Hall effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hai-Jun; GENG Wen-Tong
2008-01-01
Working in the physics of Wilson factor and Aharonov-Bohm effect,we find in the fluxtubequark system the topology of a baryon consisting of three heavy flavor quarks resembles that of the fractional quantum Hall effect(FQHE)in condensed matter.This similarity yields the result that the constituent quarks of baryon have the"filling factor"1/3.thus the previous conjecture that quark confinement is a correlation effect is confirmed.Moreover,by deriving a Hamiltonian of the system analogous to that of FQHE,we predict an energy gap for the ground state of a heavy three-quark system.
Comment on a confining theory of quarks, leptons and sarks
Yasuè, Masaki
1990-12-01
The confining SU(2) Lloc theory for composite quarks, leptons and extra weak-triplet and -singlet fermions (called sarks), which fixes the generation number ⩽3 as suggested by Frampton and Ng in their sark model, is shown to incorporate extra composite W and Z bosons, W‧ and Z‧, as the remnant of confined hypercolors carried by sark constituents. The model deals with SU(2) Lloc -and hypercolor-singlet composites that exhibit the duality of compositeness and “elementariness”, in which it differs from the original sark model of Frampton and Ng. W‧ and Z‧ primarily couple to sarks but not to quarks and leptons while the indirect coupling of Z‧ to quarks and leptons is induced as a result of the vector meson dominance of the photon.
Quark Confinement Physics from Quantum Chromodynamics
Suganuma, H; Tanaka, A; Ichie, H
2016-01-01
We show the construction of the dual superconducting theory for the confinement mechanism from QCD in the maximally abelian (MA) gauge using the lattice QCD Monte Carlo simulation. We find that essence of infrared abelian dominance is naturally understood with the off-diagonal gluon mass $m_{\\rm off} \\simeq 1.2 {\\rm GeV}$ induced by the MA gauge fixing. In the MA gauge, the off-diagonal gluon amplitude is forced to be small, and the off-diagonal gluon phase tends to be random. As the mathematical origin of abelian dominance for confinement, we demonstrate that the strong randomness of the off-diagonal gluon phase leads to abelian dominance for the string tension. In the MA gauge, there appears the macroscopic network of the monopole world-line covering the whole system. We investigate the monopole-current system in the MA gauge by analyzing the dual gluon field $B_\\mu$. We evaluate the dual gluon mass as $m_B = 0.4 \\sim$ 0.5GeV in the infrared region, which is the lattice-QCD evidence of the dual Higgs mechan...
Gauge-invariant description of Higgs phenomenon and quark confinement
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2016-11-01
We propose a novel description for the Higgs mechanism by which a gauge boson acquires the mass. We do not assume spontaneous breakdown of gauge symmetry signaled by a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of the scalar field. In fact, we give a manifestly gauge-invariant description of the Higgs mechanism in the operator level, which does not rely on spontaneous symmetry breaking. This enables us to discuss the confinement-Higgs complementarity from a new perspective. The "Abelian" dominance in quark confinement of the Yang-Mills theory is understood as a consequence of the gauge-invariant Higgs phenomenon for the relevant Yang-Mills-Higgs model.
Chiral Lagrangian and chiral quark model from confinement in QCD
Simonov, Yu A
2015-01-01
The effective chiral Lagrangian in both nonlocal form $L_{ECCL}$ and standard local form $L_{ECL}$ are derived in QCD using the confining kernel, obtained in the vacuum correlator formalism. As a result all coefficients of $L_{ECL}$ can be computed via $q\\bar q$ Green's functions. In the $p^2$ order of $L_{ECL}$ one obtains GOR relations and quark decay constants $f_a$ are calculated $a=1,...8$, while in the $p^4$ order the coefficients $L_1, L_2, L_3,L_4, L_5, L_6$ are obtained in good agreement with the values given by data. The chiral quark model is shown to be a simple consequence of $L_{ECCL}$ with defined coefficients. It is demonstrated that $L_{ECCL}$ gives an extension of the limiting low-energy Lagrangian $L_{ECL}$ to arbitrary momenta.
Polarizability of. pi. mesons in the confined quark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avakyan, E.Z.; Avakyan, S.L.; Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A. (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))
1989-05-01
The electric polarizabilities {alpha}{sub {pi}} and magnetic {beta}{sub {pi}} polarizabilities of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup 0} mesons are calculated using the confined quark model. Diagrams with intermediate vector ({rho},{omega}), axial-vector ({ital a}{sub 1}, {ital f}{sub 1}), and scalar ({Epsilon}, {ital f}{sub 0}) states are included. It turns out that the intermediate mesons contribute significantly to the pion electric and magnetic polarizabilities. The following values (in units of 10{sup {minus}43} cm{sup 3}) are obtained: {alpha}{sub {pi}{sup +}}=5.8, {beta}{sub {pi}{sup +}}={minus}5.6, {alpha}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}={minus}1.1, and {beta}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}=2.8. The widths of two-particle strong and radiative decays of scalar mesons are calculated. The results are compared with the available experimental data and the results of other approaches.
Quark confinement due to creation of micro AdS black holes in quarkonium model
Taki, Mehran
2016-01-01
We use the solution of the Dirac equation for quarkonium atom in the 4D Anti de sitter (AdS$_{4}$) space to investigate the effect of the large negative cosmological constant on the phenomenon of quark confinement. We do the required calculations in the AdS$_{4}$ space to indicate that large cosmological constant can describe the quark confinement. In fact using the coulomb potential in Dirac equation while we employ the AdS metric will additionally lead us to a linear potential in the quark-antiquark interaction which can be considered to explain the quark confinement. This confining term is arising essentially from the geometrical features of the space. On the other hand the origin of the large cosmological constant can be justified by assuming the appearance of micro black holes in the recent hadronic collision process which is now current, for instance, at the LHC project.
Perfect Abelian dominance of confinement in quark-antiquark potential in SU(3) lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suganuma, Hideo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawaoiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sakumichi, Naoyuki [Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2016-01-22
In the context of the dual superconductor picture for the confinement mechanism, we study maximally Abelian (MA) projection of quark confinement in SU(3) quenched lattice QCD with 32{sup 4} at β=6.4 (i.e., a ≃ 0.058 fm). We investigate the static quark-antiquark potential V(r), its Abelian part V{sub Abel}(r) and its off-diagonal part V{sub off}(r), respectively, from the on-axis lattice data. As a remarkable fact, we find almost perfect Abelian dominance for quark confinement, i.e., σ{sub Abel} ≃ σ for the string tension, on the fine and large-volume lattice. We find also a nontrivial summation relation of V (r) ≃ V{sub Abel}(r)+V{sub off}(r)
Some Relations for Quark Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in QCD
Suganuma, Hideo; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro
2016-01-01
We analytically study the relation between quark confinement and spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in QCD. In terms of the Dirac eigenmodes, we derive some formulae for the Polyakov loop, its fluctuations, and the string tension from the Wilson loop. We also investigate the Polyakov loop in terms of the eigenmodes of the Wilson, the clover and the domain wall fermion kernels, respectively. For the confinement quantities, the low-lying Dirac/fermion eigenmodes are found to give negligible contribution, while they are essential for chiral symmetry breaking. These relations indicate no direct one-to-one correspondence between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD, which seems to be natural because confinement is realized independently of the quark mass.
Maximal Wavelength of Confined Quarks and Gluons and Properties of Quantum Chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /YITP, Stony Brook /Durham U.; Shrock, Robert; /YITP, Stony Brook
2008-08-01
Because quarks and gluons are confined within hadrons, they have a maximum wavelength of order the confinement scale. Propagators, normally calculated for free quarks and gluons using Dyson-Schwinger equations, are modified by bound-state effects in close analogy to the calculation of the Lamb shift in atomic physics. Because of confinement, the effective quantum chromodynamic coupling stays finite in the infrared. The quark condensate which arises from spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the bound state Dyson-Schwinger equation is the expectation value of the operator {bar q}q evaluated in the background of the fields of the other hadronic constituents, in contrast to a true vacuum expectation value. Thus quark and gluon condensates reside within hadrons. The effects of instantons are also modified. We discuss the implications of the maximum quark and gluon wavelength for phenomena such as deep inelastic scattering and annihilation, the decay of heavy quarkonia, jets, and dimensional counting rules for exclusive reactions. We also discuss implications for the zero-temperature phase structure of a vectorial SU(N) gauge theory with a variable number N{sub f} of massless fermions.
Confinement and the quark Fermi-surface in SU(2N) QCD-like theories
Langfeld, Kurt; Wipf, Andreas
2009-01-01
Yang-Mills theories with a gauge group SU(N_c\\=3)and quark matter in the fundamental representation share many properties with the theory of strong interactions, QCD with N_c=3. We show that, for N_c even and in the confinement phase, the quark determinant is independent of the boundary conditions, periodic or anti-periodic ones. We then argue that a Fermi sphere of quarks can only exist under extreme conditions when the centre symmetry is spontaneously broken and colour is liberated. Our findings are supported by lattice gauge simulations for N_c=2...5 and are illustrated by means of a simple quark model.
Parallel implementation of a lattice-gauge-theory code: studying quark confinement on PC clusters
Cucchieri, A; Travieso, G; Taurines, A R; Cucchieri, Attilio; Mendes, Tereza; Travieso, Gonzalo; Taurines, Andre R.
2003-01-01
We consider the implementation of a parallel Monte Carlo code for high-performance simulations on PC clusters with MPI. We carry out tests of speedup and efficiency. The code is used for numerical simulations of pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory at very large lattice volumes, in order to study the infrared behavior of gluon and ghost propagators. This problem is directly related to the confinement of quarks and gluons in the physics of strong interactions.
Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de FÃsica, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F. [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de FÃsica, Universidade de Ãvora, 7000-671 Ãvora, Portugal; Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-03-01
We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.
Quarks as topological defects or what is confined inside a hadron?
Kovner, A
1993-01-01
We present a picture of confinement based on representation of quarks as pointlike topological defects. The topological charge carried by quarks and confined in hadrons is explicitly constructed in terms of Yang - Mills variables. In 2+1 dimensions we are able to construct a local complex scalar field $V(x)$, in terms of whichthe topological charge is $Q=-\\frac{i}{4\\pi}\\int d^2x \\epsilon_{ij}\\partial_i(V^*\\partial_i V -c.c.)$. The VEV of the field $V$ in the confining phase is nonzero and the charge is the winding number corresponding to homotopy group $\\pi_1(S^1)$. Qurks carry the charge $Q$ and therefore are topological solitons. The effective Lagrangian for $V$ is derived in models with adjoint and fundamental quarks. In 3+1 dimensions the explicit expression for $V$ and therefore a detailed picture is not available. However, assuming the validity of the same mechanism wepoint out several interesting qualitative consequences. We argue that in the Georgi - Glashow model or any grand unified model the photon...
Quark Confinement, New Cosmic Expansion and General Yang-Mills Symmetry
Hsu, Jong-Ping
2016-01-01
We discuss a unified model of quark confinement and new cosmic expansion with linear potentials based on a general $(SU_3)_{color} \\times (U_1)_{baryon}$ symmetry. The phase functions in the usual gauge transformations are generalized to new `action integrals'. The general Yang-Mills transformations have group properties and reduce to usual gauge transformations in special cases. Both quarks and `gauge bosons' are permanently confined by linear potentials. In this unified model of particle-cosmology, physics in the largest cosmos and that in the smallest quark system appear to both be dictated by the general Yang-Mills symmetry and characterized by a universal length. The basic force between two baryons is independent of distance. However, the cosmic repulsive force exerted on a baryonic supernova by a uniform sphere of galaxies is proportional to the distance from the center of the sphere. The new general Yang-Mills field may give a field-theoretic explanation of the accelerated cosmic expansion. The predict...
Quark confinement, new cosmic expansion and general Yang-Mills symmetry
Hsu, Jong-Ping
2017-01-01
We discuss a unified model of quark confinement and new cosmic expansion with linear potentials based on a general (SU 3)color×(U 1)baryon symmetry. The phase functions in the usual gauge transformations are generalized to new ‘action integrals’. The general Yang-Mills transformations have group properties and reduce to usual gauge transformations in special cases. Both quarks and ‘gauge bosons’ are permanently confined by linear potentials. In this unified model of particle-cosmology, physics in the largest cosmos and that in the smallest quark system appear to both be dictated by the general Yang-Mills symmetry and characterized by a universal length. The basic force between two baryons is independent of distance. However, the cosmic repulsive force exerted on a baryonic supernova by a uniform sphere of galaxies is proportional to the distance from the center of the sphere. The new general Yang-Mills field may give a field-theoretic explanation of the accelerated cosmic expansion. The prediction could be tested experimentally by measuring the frequency shifts of supernovae at different distances. Supported in part by the Jingshin Resealch Fund of the UMassD Foundation
Reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kato, Seikou [Fukui National College of Technology, Sabae 916-8507 (Japan); Shibata, Akihiro [Computing Research Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)
2016-01-22
We propose the reformulations of the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap. In fact, we have given a new framework for reformulating the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory using new field variables. This includes the preceding works given by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi, as a special case called the maximal option in our reformulations. The advantage of our reformulations is that the original non-Abelian gauge field variables can be changed into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge-independent way. Our reformulations can be combined with the SU (N) extension of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator to give a gauge-invariant definition for the magnetic monopole in the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory without the scalar field. In the so-called minimal option, especially, the restricted field is non-Abelian and involves the non-Abelian magnetic monopole with the stability group U (N− 1). This suggests the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement. This should be compared with the maximal option: the restricted field is Abelian and involves only the Abelian magnetic monopoles with the stability group U(1){sup N−1}, just like the Abelian projection. We give some applications of this reformulation, e.g., the stability for the homogeneous chromomagnetic condensation of the Savvidy type, the large N treatment for deriving the dimensional transmutation and understanding the mass gap, and also the numerical simulations on a lattice which are given by Dr. Shibata in a subsequent talk.
Reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru
2014-01-01
We propose the reformulations of the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap. In fact, we have given a new framework for reformulating the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory using new field variables. This includes the preceding works given by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi, as a special case called the maximal option in our reformulations. The advantage of our reformulations is that the original non-Abelian gauge field variables can be changed into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge-independent way. Our reformulations can be combined with the $SU(N)$ extension of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator to give a gauge-invariant definition for the magnetic monopole in the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory without the scalar field. In the so-called minimal option, especially, the restricted field is non-Abelian and involves the non-Abelian magnetic monopole ...
Abelian monopole or non-Abelian monopole responsible for quark confinement
Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
2015-01-01
We have pointed out that the $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills theory has a new way of reformulation using new field variables (minimal option), in addition to the conventional option adopted by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi (maximal option). The reformulation enables us to change the original non-Abelian gauge field into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge-independent way. In the minimal option, especially, the restricted field is non-Abelian $U(2)$ and involves the non-Abelian magnetic monopole. In the preceding lattice conferences, we have accumulated the numerical evidences for the non-Abelian magnetic-monopole dominance in addition to the restricted non-Abelian field dominance for quark confinement supporting the non-Abelian dual superconductivity using the minimal option for the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. This should be compared with the maximal option which is a gauge invarient version of the Abelian projection in the maxim...
Inverse Magnetic Catalysis within a Confining Contact Interaction Model for Quarks
Ahmad, Aftab
2016-01-01
We evaluate the impact of an external magnetic field on the chiral symmetry and confinement-deconfinement transition temperatures by using a vector-vector contact interaction model for quarks regularized so as to include an explicit confining scale in the corresponding gap equation. Exploring the evolution of the chiral condensate and the confining scale with temperature $T$ and magnetic field strength $eB$ ($e$ represents the fundamental electric charge), we determine the pseudo-critical temperatures for the chiral ($T_c^\\chi$) and deconfinement ($T_c^c$) transitions from their inflection points, respectively. By construction, $T_c^\\chi= T_c^c$ in the chiral limit. Within a mean field approximation, we observe the magnetic catalysis phenomenon, characterized by a rising behavior of $T_c^\\chi$ and $T_c^c$ with growing $eB$. Considering a lattice inspired running coupling which monotonically decreases with $eB$, inverse magnetic catalysis takes place in our model. Our findings are also in agreement with predic...
On PT-Symmetric Periodic Potential, Quark Confinement, and Other Impossible Pursuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christianto V.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available As we know, it has been quite common nowadays for particle physicists to think of six impossible things before breakfast, just like what their cosmology fellows used to do. In the present paper, we discuss a number of those impossible things, including PT-symmetric periodic potential, its link with condensed matter nuclear science, and possible neat link with Quark confinement theory. In recent years, the PT-symmetry and its related periodic potential have gained considerable interests among physicists. We begin with a review of some results from a preceding paper discussing derivation of PT-symmetric periodic potential from biquaternion Klein-Gordon equation and proceed further with the remaining issues. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N.; Das, M.
1983-12-01
The effect of confinement on the magnetic moment of a quark has been studied in a simple independent-quark model based on the Dirac equation with a power-law potential. The magnetic moments so obtained for the constituent quarks, which are found to be significantly different from their corresponding Dirac moments, are used in predicting the magnetic moments of baryons in the nucleon octet as well as those in the charmed and b-flavored sectors. We not only get an improved result for the proton magnetic moment, but the calculation for the rest of the nucleon octet also turns out to be in reasonable agreement with experiment. The overall predictions for the charmed and b-flavored baryons are also comparable with other model predictions.
Jido, Daisuke
2016-01-01
The possibility to have diquark configuration in heavy baryons, such as Lambda_c and Lambda_b, is examined by a nonrelativistic potential model with a heavy quark and a light scalar diquark. Assuming that the Lambda_c and Lambda_b baryons are composed of the heavy quark and the scalar-isoscalar ud diquark, we solve the two-body Schrodinger equation with the Coulomb plus linear potential and obtain the energy spectra for the heavy baryons. Contrary to our expectation, it is found that the potential determined by the quarkonium spectra fails to reproduce the excitation spectra of the Lambda_c and Lambda_b in the quark-diquark picture, while the Lambda_c and Lambda_b spectra is reproduced with a half strength of the confinement string tension than for the quarkonium. The Xi_c excitation energy is also calculated and is found to be smaller than Lambda_c in the quark-diquark model. This is not consistent with the experimental observation. These puzzles should be solved when one takes the quark-diquark picture for ...
Quark matter at high density based on an extended confined isospin-density-dependent mass model
Qauli, A. I.; Sulaksono, A.
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of the inclusion of relativistic Coulomb terms in a confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model of strange quark matter (SQM). We found that if we include the Coulomb term in scalar density form, the SQM equation of state (EOS) at high densities is stiffer but if we include the Coulomb term in vector density form it is softer than that of the standard CIDDM model. We also investigate systematically the role of each term of the extended CIDDM model. Compared with what was reported by Chu and Chen [Astrophys. J. 780, 135 (2014)], we found the stiffness of SQM EOS is controlled by the interplay among the oscillator harmonic, isospin asymmetry and Coulomb contributions depending on the parameter's range of these terms. We have found that the absolute stable condition of SQM and the mass of 2 M⊙ pulsars can constrain the parameter of oscillator harmonic κ1≈0.53 in the case the Coulomb term is excluded. If the Coulomb term is included, for the models with their parameters are consistent with SQM absolute stability condition, the 2.0 M⊙ constraint more prefers the maximum mass prediction of the model with the scalar Coulomb term than that of the model with the vector Coulomb term. On the contrary, the high densities EOS predicted by the model with the vector Coulomb is more compatible with the recent perturbative quantum chromodynamics result [1] than that predicted by the model with the scalar Coulomb. Furthermore, we also observed the quark composition in a very high density region depends quite sensitively on the kind of Coulomb term used.
Jido, Daisuke; Sakashita, Minori
2016-08-01
The possibility of having a diquark configuration in heavy baryons, such as Λ and Λ, is examined by a nonrelativistic potential model with a heavy quark and a light scalar diquark. Assuming that the Λ and Λ baryons are composed of the heavy quark and the point-like scalar-isoscalar ud diquark, we solve the two-body Schrödinger equation with the Coulomb plus linear potential and obtain the energy spectra for the heavy baryons. Contrary to our expectation, it is found that the potential determined by the quarkonium spectra fails to reproduce the excitation spectra of the Λ and Λ in the quark-diquark picture, while the Λ and Λ spectra are reproduced with half the strength of the confinement string tension than for the quarkonium. The finite size effect of the diquark is also examined and it is found that the introduction of a finite size diquark would resolve the failure of the spectrum reproduction. The Ξ excitation energy is also calculated and is found to be smaller than Λ in the quark-diquark model. This is not consistent with experimental observations.
Quark Matter at High Density based on Extended Confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass Model
Qauli, A I
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of the inclusion of relativistic Coulomb terms in a confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model of strange quark matter (SQM). We found that if we include Coulomb term in scalar density form, SQM equation of state (EOS) at high densities is stiffer but if we include Coulomb term in vector density form is softer than that of standard CIDDM model. We also investigate systematically the role of each term of the extended CIDDM model. Compared with what was reported in Ref.~\\cite {ref:isospin}, we found the stiffness of SQM EOS is controlled by the interplay among the the oscillator harmonic, isospin asymmetry and Coulomb contributions depending on the parameter's range of these terms. We have found that the absolute stable condition of SQM and the mass of 2 $M_\\odot$ pulsars can constrain the parameter of oscillator harmonic $\\kappa_1$ $\\approx 0.53$ in the case Coulomb term excluded. If the Coulomb term is included, for the models with their parameters are consistent with SQM ...
Gell-Mann, M.
In these lectures I want to speak about at least two interpretations of the concept of quarks for hadrons and the possible relations between them. First I want to talk about quarks as "constituent quarks". These were used especially by G. Zweig (1964) who referred to them as aces. One has a sort of a simple model by which one gets elementary results about the low-lying bound and resonant states of mesons and baryons, and certain crude symmetry properties of these states, by saying that the hadrons act as if they were made up of subunits, the constituent quarks q. These quarks are arranged in an isotopic spin doublet u, d and an isotopic spin singlet s, which has the same charge as d and acts as if it had a slightly higher mass…
Chemical Potential Dependence of the Dressed-Quark Propagator in a Simple Confining QCD Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; HOU Feng-Yao; CHEN Xiang-Song; LIU Yu-Xin
2004-01-01
Based on the Dyson-Schwinger approach, a method for obtaining the chemical potential dependence of the dressed quark propagator in the ‘Nambu-Goldstone' and the ‘Wigner' phase is developed. The bag constant in the presence of the non-zero chemical potential is analysed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capri, M.A.L., E-mail: caprimarcio@gmail.com; Fiorentini, D., E-mail: diegofiorentinia@gmail.com; Sorella, S.P., E-mail: silvio.sorella@gmail.com
2015-05-15
The inverse of the Faddeev–Popov operator plays a pivotal role within the Gribov–Zwanziger approach to the quantization of Euclidean Yang–Mills theories in Landau gauge. Following a recent proposal (Capri et al., 2014), we show that the inverse of the Faddeev–Popov operator can be consistently coupled to quark fields. Such a coupling gives rise to a local action while reproducing the behaviour of the quark propagator observed in lattice numerical simulations in the non-perturbative infrared region. By using the algebraic renormalization framework, we prove that the aforementioned local action is multiplicatively renormalizable to all orders.
Quark Models and Quark Phenomenology
Lipkin, Harry Jeannot
1997-01-01
Overwhelming experimental evidence for quarks as real physical constituents of hadrons along with the QCD analogs of the Balmer Formula, Bohr Atom and Schroedinger Equation already existed in 1966. A model of colored quarks interacting with a one-gluon-exchange potential explained the systematics of the meson and baryon spectrum and gave a hadron mass formula in surprising agreement with experiment. The simple quark model dismissed as heresy and witchcraft by the establishment predicted quantum numbers of an enormous number of hadronic states as well as relations between masses, reaction cross sections and electromagnetic properties, all unexplained by other approaches. Further developments leading to QCD included confinement in the large $N_c$ limit, duality, dual resonance and string models, high energy scattering systematics, unified treatment of mesons and baryons, no exotics and no free quarks.
Parametrization of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Wei-Xing; ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; SHEN Peng-Nian; HU Zhao-Hui
2005-01-01
Based on an extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized form of the quark propagator is suggested. The corresponding quark selfform of the quark propagator proposed in this work describes a confining quark propagation, and is quite convenient to be used in any numerical calculations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈世武; 彭光雄
2012-01-01
The color-flavor locked （CFL） strangelets have been investigated in a new quark model with linear con- finement and one-gluon-exchange interactions. Considering Coulomb energy, we have studied the properties of three kinds of CFL strangelets, namely, positively charged, negatively charged and nearly neutral CFL strangelets. It is found that the one-gluon-exchange effect lowers the energy of a strangelet considerably and thus makes it much more stable than without considering the effect. The charge of a positive strangelet is larger than 0.15A^2/3 with A being the baryon number, but smaller than that in bag model. The charge of a negatively charged or nearly neutral CFL strangelet is nearly proportional to A^1/3.
Continuum strong-coupling expansion of Yang-Mills theory: quark confinement and infra-red slavery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansfield, P. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom))
1994-04-25
We solve Schroedinger's equation for the ground-state of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory as an expansion in inverse powers of the coupling. Expectation values computed with the leading-order approximation are reduced to a calculation in two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory which is known to confine. Consequently the Wilson loop in the four-dimensional theory obeys an area law to leading order and the coupling becomes infinite as the mass scale goes to zero. (orig.)
Propagators and Masses of Light Quarks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Li-Juan; ZHU Ji-Zhen; MA Wei-Xing
2003-01-01
Based on Dyson-Schwinger equations in "rainbow" approximation, fully dressed confining quark propagator is obtained, and then the masses of light quarks (mu, md, and ms) are derived from the fully dressed confining quark propagator. At the same time, the local and non-local quark vacuum condensates as well as the quark-gluon mixed condensate are also predicted. Furthermore, the quark masses are also deduced from the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation and chiral perturbative theory. The results from different methods are consistent with each other.
Propagators and Masses of Light Quarks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOULi-Juan; ZHUJi-Zhen; MAWei-Xing
2003-01-01
Based on Dyson-Schwinger equations in “rainbow” approximation, fully dressed confining quark propagator is obtained, and then the masses of light quarks (mu, md, and ms) are derived from the fully dressed confining quark propagator. At the same time, the local and non-local quark vacuum condensates as well as the quark-gluon mixed condensate are also predicted. Furthermore, the quark masses are also deduced from the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation and chiral perturbative theory. The results from different methods are consistent with each other.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Mazzanti, Liuba [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Nitti, Francesco [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France)
2014-02-19
We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.
Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F
2014-01-01
We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.
Static quark-antiquark potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deo, B.B.; Barik, B.K.
1983-01-01
A heavy-quark--antiquark potential is suggested which connects asymptotic freedom and quark confinement in a unified manner by formal methods of field theory using some plausible assumptions. The potential has only one additional adjustable parameter B which is proportional to (M/sub q//m/sub q/), where M/sub q/ and m/sub q/ are the constituent and current quark masses, respectively.
Mesons in the Constituent Quark Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Li; PING Jia-Lun
2007-01-01
The quark-antiquark (q(-q)) spectrum is studied by solving the Schrǒdinger equation in the framework of non-relativistic constituent quark model. An overall good fit to the experimental data of meson is obtained. The interactions between quark and antiquark consist of quadratic colour confinement-exchange, one-gluon-exchange, and Goldstone-boson-exchange potentials.
Quark sea asymmetry of the nucleon
Mírez, Carlos; Tomio, Lauro; Trevisan, L. A.; Frederico, T.
2010-02-01
The light anti-quark and quark distribution in the proton, as well as the neutron to proton ratio of the structure functions, extracted from experimental data, are well fitted by a statistical model of linear-confined quarks. The parameters of the model are given by a temperature, which is adjusted by the Gottfried sum-rule violation, and two chemical potentials given by the corresponding up ( u) and down ( d) quark normalizations in the nucleon. The quark energy levels are generated by a relativistic linear-confined scalar plus vector potential.
No confinement without Coulomb confinement
Zwanziger, D
2003-01-01
We compare the physical potential $V_D(R)$ of an external quark-antiquark pair in the representation $D$ of SU(N), to the color-Coulomb potential $V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ which is the instantaneous part of the 44-component of the gluon propagator in Coulomb gauge, $D_{44}(\\vx,t) = V_{\\rm coul}(|\\vx|) \\delta(t)$ + (non-instantaneous). We show that if $V_D(R)$ is confining, $\\lim_{R \\to \\infty}V_D(R) = + \\infty$, then the inequality $V_D(R) \\leq - C_D V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ holds asymptotically at large $R$, where $C_D > 0$ is the Casimir in the representation $D$. This implies that $ - V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ is also confining.
Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing
2005-01-01
Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.
Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing
2005-01-01
Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.
Extended Quark Potential Model From Random Phase Approximation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENGWei－Zhen; CHENXiao－Lin; 等
2002-01-01
The quark potential model is extended to include the sea quark excitation using the random phase approximation.The effective quark interaction preserves the important QCD properties-chiral symmetry and confinement simultaneously.A primary qualitative analysis shows that the π meson as a well-known typical Goldstone boson and the other mesons made up of valence qq quark pair such as the ρ meson can also be described in this extended quark potential model.
Composite Models of Quarks and Leptons.
Geng, Chaoqiang
1987-09-01
We review the various constraints on composite models of quarks and leptons. Some dynamical mechanisms for chiral symmetry breaking in chiral preon models are discussed. We have constructed several "realistic candidate" chiral preon models satisfying complementarity between the Higgs and confining phases. The models predict three to four generations of ordinary quarks and leptons.
Applicability of Parametrized Form of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
According to extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation with an effective gluon propagator, a parametrized fully dressed confining quark propagator is suggested in this paper. The parametrized quark propagator describes a confined quark propagation in hadron, and is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The vector and scalar self-energy functions [1 - Af(p2)] and [Bf(p2) - mf], dynamically running effective mass of quark Mf(p2) and the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensates as well as local quark vacuum condensates are predicted by use of the parametrized quark propagator. The results are compatible with other theoretical calculations.
Overlap Quark Propagator in Coulomb Gauge QCD
Mercado, Ydalia Delgado; Schröck, Mario
2014-01-01
The chirally symmetric Overlap quark propagator is explored in Coulomb gauge. This gauge is well suited for studying the relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, since confinement can be attributed to the infrared divergent Lorentz-vector dressing function. Using quenched gauge field configurations on a $20^4$ lattice, the quark propagator dressing functions are evaluated, the dynamical quark mass is extracted and the chiral limit of these quantities is discussed. By removing the low-lying modes of the Dirac operator, chiral symmetry is artificially restored. Its effect on the dressing functions is discussed.
2003-01-01
Fitted with new state-of-the-art silicon detectors, NA60 is prepared to study the phase transition from confined hadronic matter to a deconfined (free) quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter which probably existed an instant after the Big Bang.
Statistical Quark Model for the Nucleon Structure Function
Mirez, Carlos; Tomio, Lauro; Trevisan, Luis A.; Frederico, Tobias
2009-06-01
A statistical quark model, with quark energy levels given by a central linear confining potential is used to obtain the light sea-quark asymmetry, d¯/ū, and also for the ratio d/u, inside the nucleon. After adjusting a temperature parameter by the Gottfried sum rule violation, and chemical potentials by the valence up and down quark normalizations, the results are compared with experimental data available.
Quark Model and multiquark system
da Silva, Cristiane Oldoni
2010-01-01
The discovery of many particles, especially in the 50's, when the firsts accelerators appeared, caused the searching for a model that would describe in a simple form the whole of known particles. The Quark Model, based in the mathematical structures of group theory, provided in the beginning of the 60's a simplified description of hadronic matter already known, proposing that three particles, called quarks, would originate all the observed hadrons. This model was able to preview the existence of particles that were later detected, confirming its consistency. Extensions of the Quark Model were made in the beginning of the 70's, focusing in describing observed particles that were excited states of the fundamental particles and others that presented new quantum numbers (flavors). Recently, exotic states as tetraquarks and pentaquarks types, also called multiquarks systems, previewed by the model, were observed, what renewed the interest in the way as quarks are confined inside the hadrons. In this article we pre...
Magnetic Moments of Baryons containing all heavy quarks in Quark-Diquark Model
Thakkar, Kaushal; Vinodkumar, P C
2016-01-01
The triply heavy flavour baryons are studied using the Quark-diquark description of the three-body system. The confinement potential for present study of triply heavy flavour baryons is assumed as coulomb plus power potential with power index $\
Deforming baryons into confining strings
Hartnoll, S A; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Portugues, Ruben
2004-01-01
We find explicit probe D3-brane solutions in the infrared of the Maldacena-Nunez background. The solutions describe deformed baryon vertices: q external quarks are separated in spacetime from the remaining N-q. As the separation is taken to infinity we recover known solutions describing infinite confining strings in ${\\mathcal{N}}=1$ gauge theory. We present results for the mass of finite confining strings as a function of length. We also find probe D2-brane solutions in a confining type IIA geometry, the reduction of a G_2 holonomy M theory background. The interpretation of these solutions as deformed baryons/confining strings is not as straightforward.
Colour-Charged Quark Matter in Astrophysics?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIU Cong-Xin; XU Ren-Xin
2006-01-01
Colour confinement is only a supposition, which has not yet been proven in QCD. Here we propose that macroscopic quark-gluon plasma in astrophysics could hardly maintain colourless because of causality. It is expected that the existence of chromatic strange quark stars as well as chromatic strangelets preserved from the QCD phase transition in the early Universe could be unavoidable if their colourless correspondents do exist.
Chiral phases of fundamental and adjoint quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Natale, A. A. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física Teórica - UNESP Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bl.II - 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2016-01-22
We consider a QCD chiral symmetry breaking model where the gap equation contains an effective confining propagator and a dressed gluon propagator with a dynamically generated mass. This model is able to explain the ratios between the chiral transition and deconfinement temperatures in the case of fundamental and adjoint quarks. It also predicts the recovery of the chiral symmetry for a large number of quarks (n{sub f} ≈ 11 – 13) in agreement with lattice data.
Chiral symmetry and the constituent quark model
Glozman, L Ya
1995-01-01
New results on baryon structure and spectrum developed in collaboration with Dan Riska [1-4] are reported. The main idea is that beyond the chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks.
Baryons in chiral constituent quark model
Glozman, L Ya
1996-01-01
Beyond the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a flavor-spin chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks. One cannot exclude, however, the possibility that this flavor-spin interaction has an appreciable vector- and higher meson exchange component.
Menke, Sven; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronises, analyses of events containing top quarks allow to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This talk will focus on recent precision top-quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration: Single top-quark and top-quark pair production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented, as well as measurements of top-quark pair production in association with a W or Z boson and measurements of top quark properties such as the spin correlation and W boson helicity in top quark pair events.
Zero temperature quark matter equation of state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grassi, F.
1987-09-01
An equation of state is computed for a plasma of one flavor quarks interacting through some phenomenological potential, in the Hartree approximation, at zero temperature. Assuming that the confining potential is scalar and color-independent, it is shown that the quarks undergo a first-order mass phase transition. In addition, due to the way screening is introduced, all the thermodynamic quantities computed are independent of the actual shape of the interquark potential. This equation of state is then generalized to a potential with scalar and vector components, Fock corrections are discussed and the case of a several quark flavor plasma is studied. 19 refs., 2 figs.
Dynamically Running Mass of Light Quark and QCD Vacuum Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOULi-Juan; PINGRong-Gang
2004-01-01
Based on Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in “rainbow”approximation, the dynamically running mass of light quark and QCD vacuum condensate are investigated. The structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate, the values of local vacuum condensate of quarks and quark-gluon mixture, and dynamical transition of quark mass from current quark to constituent quark are illustrated. At the same time, according to the knowledge and experience learned from an extensive study of the solutions of DSEs， a parameterized form of confining quark propagator is suggested for a practical use. The new parameterized form of quark propagator is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The predictions for p2-dependence of effective quark masses, Mr(p2), defined by the self-energy functions Af(p2) and Bf(p2), both from the numerical solutions of DSEs and from its parameterized form, are shown dynamically. Our conclusion is that all numerical results are consistent with empirical values used in(QCD sum rules and lattice QCD calculations. For a qualitative study, the parameterized form is a sumciently good approximation to confining quark propagator.
Dynamically Running Mass of Light Quark and QCD Vacuum Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Li-Juan; PING Rong-Gang; MA Wei-Xing
2004-01-01
Based on Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in "rainbow" approximation, the dynamically running mass of light quark and QCD vacuum condensate are investigated. The structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate, the values of local vacuum condensate of quarks and quark-gluon mixture, and dynamical transition of quark mass from current quark to constituent quark are illustrated. At the same time, according to the knowledge and experience learned from an extensive study of the solutions of DSEs, a parameterized form of confining quark propagator is suggested for a practical use. The new parameterized form of quark propagator is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The predictions for p2-dependence of effective quark masses, Mf(p2), defined by the self-energy functions Af(p2) and Bf(p2), both from the numerical solutions of DSEs and from its parameterized form, are shown dynamically. Our conclusion is that all numerical results are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules and lattice QCD calculations. For a qualitative study, the parameterized form is a sufficiently good approximation to confining quark propagator.
Confinement Contains Condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.
2012-03-12
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.
Exceptional Confinement in G(2) Gauge Theory
Holland, K; Pepé, M; Wiese, U J
2003-01-01
We study theories with the exceptional gauge group G(2). The 14 adjoint "gluons" of a G(2) gauge theory transform as {3}, {3bar} and {8} under the subgroup SU(3), and hence have the color quantum numbers of ordinary quarks, anti-quarks and gluons in QCD. Since G(2) has a trivial center, a "quark" in the {7} representation of G(2) can be screened by "gluons". As a result, in G(2) Yang-Mills theory the string between a pair of static "quarks" can break. In G(2) QCD there is a hybrid consisting of one "quark" and three "gluons". In supersymmetric G(2) Yang-Mills theory with a {14} Majorana "gluino" the chiral symmetry is Z(4)_\\chi. Chiral symmetry breaking gives rise to distinct confined phases separated by confined-confined domain walls. A scalar Higgs field in the {7} representation breaks G(2) to SU(3) and allows us to interpolate between theories with exceptional and ordinary confinement. We also present strong coupling lattice calculations that reveal basic features of G(2) confinement. Just as in QCD, wher...
Light baryons in a constituent quark model with chiral dynamics
Glozman, L Ya; Plessas, W
1996-01-01
It is shown from rigorous three-body Faddeev calculations that the masses of all 14 lowest states in the N and \\Delta spectra can be described within a constituent quark model with a Goldstone-boson-exch ange interaction plus linear confinement between the constituent quarks.
Excited State Mass spectra and Regge trajectories of Bottom Baryons in Hypercentral quark Model
Thakkar, Kaushal; Rai, Ajay Kumar; Vinodkumar, P C
2016-01-01
We present the mass spectra of excited states of singly heavy baryons consist of a bottom quark and light quarks (u, d and s). The QCD motivated hypercentral quark model is employed for the three body description of baryons. The form of confinement potential is hyper coloumb plus power potential with potential index $\
Statistical mechanics of confined quantum particles
Bannur, V M; Bannur, Vishnu M.
2006-01-01
We develop statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of Bose and Fermi systems in relativistic harmonic oscillator (RHO) confining potential, which may be applicable in quark gluon plasma (QGP), astrophysics, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), condensed matter physics etc. Detailed study of QGP system is carried out and compared with lattice results. Further, as an application, our equation of state (EoS) of QGP is used to study compact stars like quark star.
Statistical Mechanics of Confined Quantum Particles
Bannur, Vishnu M.; Udayanandan, K. M.
We develop statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of Bose and Fermi systems in relativistic harmonic oscillator (RHO) confining potential, which is applicable in quark gluon plasma (QGP), astrophysics, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) etc. Detailed study of QGP system is carried out and compared with lattice results. Furthermore, as an application, our equation of state (EoS) of QGP is used to study compact stars like quark star.
Decaying hadrons within constituent-quark models
Kleinhappel, Regina
2012-01-01
Within conventional constituent-quark models hadrons come out as stable bound states of the valence (anti)quarks. Thereby the resonance character of hadronic excitations is completely ignored. A more realistic description of hadron spectra can be achieved by including explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, which couple directly to the constituent quarks. We will present a coupled-channel formalism that describes such hybrid systems in a relativistically invariant way and allows for the decay of excited hadrons. The formalism is based on the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. If the confining forces between the (anti)quarks are described by instantaneous interactions it can be formally shown that the mass-eigenvalue problem for a system that consists of dynamical (anti)quarks and mesons reduces to a hadronic eigenvalue problem in which the eigenstates of the pure confinement problem (bare hadrons) are coupled via meson loops. The only point where the quark substructure enters are form factors at the m...
Niggli, Ernst; Egger, Marcel
2002-05-01
Elementary subcellular Ca2+ signals arising from the opening of single ion channels may offer the possibility to examine the stochastic behavior and the microscopic chemical reaction rates of these channel proteins in their natural environment. Such an analysis can yield detailed information about the molecular function that cannot be derived from recordings obtained from an ensemble of channels. In this review, we summarize experimental evidence suggesting that Ca2+ sparks, elementary Ca2+ signaling events of cardiac and skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling, may be comprised of a number of smaller Ca2+ signaling events, the Ca2+ quarks.
Baryon Wave Functions in Covariant Relativistic Quark Models
Dillig, M
2002-01-01
We derive covariant baryon wave functions for arbitrary Lorentz boosts. Modeling baryons as quark-diquark systems, we reduce their manifestly covariant Bethe-Salpeter equation to a covariant 3-dimensional form by projecting on the relative quark-diquark energy. Guided by a phenomenological multigluon exchange representation of a covariant confining kernel, we derive for practical applications explicit solutions for harmonic confinement and for the MIT Bag Model. We briefly comment on the interplay of boosts and center-of-mass corrections in relativistic quark models.
Quark mass effects in quark number susceptibilities
Graf, Thorben
2016-01-01
The quark degrees of freedom of the QGP with special focus on mass effects are investigated. A next-to-leading-order perturbation theory approach with quark mass dependence is applied and compared to lattice QCD results.
Magnetic charge quantisation and fractionally charged quarks
Hooft, G. 't
1976-01-01
If magnetic monopoles with Schwinger's value of the magnetic charge would exist then that would pose serious restrictions on theories with fractionally charged quarks, even if they are confined. Weak and electromagnetic interactions must be unified with color, leading to a Weinberg angle w close to
Chiral transition of fundamental and adjoint quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capdevilla, R.M. [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bloco II, 01140-070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Doff, A., E-mail: agomes@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Natale, A.A., E-mail: natale@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bloco II, 01140-070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-170 Santo André, SP (Brazil)
2014-01-20
The chiral symmetry breaking transition of quarks in the fundamental and adjoint representation is studied in a model where the gap equation contains two contributions, one containing a confining propagator and another corresponding to the exchange of one-dressed dynamically massive gluons. When quarks are in the fundamental representation the confinement effect dominates the chiral symmetry breaking while the gluon exchange is suppressed due to the dynamical gluon mass effect in the propagator and in the coupling constant. In this case the chiral and deconfinement transition temperatures are approximately the same. For quarks in the adjoint representation, due to the larger Casimir eigenvalue, the gluon exchange is operative and the chiral transition happens at a larger temperature than the deconfinement one.
Quark masses and their hierarchies
Ida, M.
1987-12-01
Electroweak symmetry breaking is attributed to dynamical generation of quark masses. Quarks q (and leptons l) are assumed to be produced by hypercolor confinement of preons at an intermediate scale Λ hc. Hierarchies observed in the q mass spectra can be explained by a BCS mechanism if the color interaction is enough asymptotically free and if residual ones emerging by the confinement are medium strong. The former assumption claims that N≦4, where N is the family number of q and l. Dynamical equations to determine q masses and mixings are given, but they require knowledge on the physics at Λ hc. A phenomenological approach is also made on the basis of an SU(7)× SU(7) chiral preon model with N=4. The mass ratio m t/ mb is related to ( m c/ m s)ηB with η B≃1.1 and m t'/ mb' to ( m u/ m d)ηA with η A≃1.4. In this scheme the fourth down quark is the heaviest (˜ 110 GeV) and contributes dominantly to F 2, where F is the Fermi scale.
Hadron-quark phase transition in dense stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grassi, F.
1987-10-01
An equation of state is computed for a plasma of one flavor quarks interacting through some phenomenological potential, at zero temperature. Assuming that the confining potential is scalar and color-independent, it is shown that the quarks undergo a first-order mass phase transition. In addition, due to the way screening is introduced, all the thermodynamic quantities computed are independent of the actual shape of the interquark potential. This equation of state is then generalized to a several quark flavor plasma and applied to the study of the hadron-quark phase transition inside a neutron star. 45 refs., 4 figs.
Quark-Quark Forces in Quantum Chromodynamics
Arkhipov, A A
2014-01-01
By single-time reduction technique of Bethe-Salpeter formalism for two-fermion systems analytical expressions for the quasipotential of quark-quark interactions in QCD have been obtained in one-gluon exchange approximation. The influence of infrared singularities of gluon Green`s functions on the character of quark-quark forces in QCD has been investigated. The way the asymptotic freedom manifests itself in terms of two-quark interaction quasipotential in quantum chromodynamics is shown. Consistent relativistic consideration of quark interaction problem by single-time reduction technique in QFT allows one to establish a nontrivial energy dependence of the two-quark interaction quasipotential. As a result of the energy dependence of the interaction quasipotential, the character of the forces changes qualitatively during the transition from the discrete spectrum (the region of the negative values of the binding energy) to the continuous spectrum (that of the positive values of the binding energy): the smooth be...
Black, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.
Suganuma, H.; Fukushima, M.; Toki, H.
The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Opening Address * Monopole Condensation and Quark Confinement * Dual QCD, Effective String Theory, and Regge Trajectories * Abelian Dominance and Monopole Condensation * Non-Abelian Stokes Theorem and Quark Confinement in QCD * Infrared Region of QCD and Confining Configurations * BRS Quartet Mechanism for Color Confinement * Color Confinement and Quartet Mechanism * Numerical Tests of the Kugo-Ojima Color Confinement Criterion * Monopoles and Confinement in Lattice QCD * SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory at T > 0 in a Finite Box with Fixed Holonomy * Confining and Dirac Strings in Gluodynamics * Cooling, Monopoles, and Vortices in SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory * Quark Confinement Physics from Lattice QCD * An (Almost) Perfect Lattice Action for SU(2) and SU(3) Gluodynamics * Vortices and Confinement in Lattice QCD * P-Vortices, Nexuses and Effects of Gribov Copies in the Center Gauges * Laplacian Center Vortices * Center Vortices at Strong Couplings and All Couplings * Simulations in SO(3) × Z(2) Lattice Gauge Theory * Exciting a Vortex - the Cost of Confinement * Instantons in QCD * Deformation of Instanton in External Color Fields * Field Strength Correlators in the Instanton Liquid * Instanton and Meron Physics in Lattice QCD * The Dual Ginzburg-Landau Theory for Confinement and the Role of Instantons * Lattice QCD for Quarks, Gluons and Hadrons * Hadronic Spectral Functions in QCD * Universality and Chaos in Quantum Field Theories * Lattice QCD Study of Three Quark Potential * Probing the QCD Vacuum with Flavour Singlet Objects : η' on the Lattice * Lattice Studies of Quarks and Gluons * Quarks and Hadrons in QCD * Supersymmetric Nonlinear Sigma Models * Chiral Transition and Baryon-number Susceptibility * Light Quark Masses in QCD * Chiral Symmetry of Baryons and Baryon Resonances * Confinement and Bound States in QCD * Parallel Session * Off-diagonal Gluon Mass Generation and Strong Randomness of Off
On the strange quark mass with improved staggered quarks
Hein, J.; Davies, C.; Lepage, G. P.; Mason, Q.; Trottier, H.
2002-01-01
We present results on the sum of the masses of light and strange quark using improved staggered quarks. Our calculation uses 2+1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The effects of the dynamical quarks are clearly visible.
Confinement and fat-center-vortices model
Deldar, S
2004-01-01
In this paper I review shortly potentials obtained for SU(2), SU(3) and SU(4) static sources from fat-center-vortices model. Results confirm the confinement of quarks in all three gauge groups. Proportionality of string tensions with flux tube counting is better than Casimir scaling especially for SU(4).
Hazeltine, R D
2003-01-01
Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Yuji Takeuchi
2012-10-01
Since the top quark was discovered at Tevatron in 1995, many top quark properties have been measured. However, the top quark is still interesting due to unique features which originate from the extremely heavy mass, and providing various test grounds on the Standard Model as well as searches for a new physics. Though the measurements of the top quark had been performed only at Tevatron so far, LHC is now ready for measurements with more top quarks than Tevatron. In this article, recent measurements of top quark properties from Tevatron (CDF and DØ) as well as LHC (ATLAS and CMS) are presented.
Mountain building of solid quark stars
Yang, Haifeng
2011-01-01
One of the key differences between normal neutron and (bare) quark stars is relevant to the fact that the former are gravitationally bound while the latter self-confined unless their masses approach the maximum mass. This difference results in the possibility that quark stars could be very low massive whereas neutron stars cannot. Mountains could also be build on quark stars if realistic cold quark matter is in a solid state, and an alternative estimation of the mountain building is present. As spinning compact objects with non-axisymmetric mass distribution will radiate gravitational waves, the equations of states of pulsars could be constraint by the amplitude of gravitational waves being dependent on the heights of mountains. We then estimate the maximum mountains and thus quadrupole moment on solid quark stars, to be consistent with that by Owen (2005) if the breaking strain is 0.1, addressing that a solid quark star with mass < 10^{-2} Msun could be `potato-like'. We estimate the gravitational wave am...
Dibaryons with two strange quarks and one heavy flavor in a constituent quark model
Park, Aaron; Park, Woosung; Lee, Su Houng
2016-09-01
We investigate the symmetry property and the stability of dibaryons containing two strange quarks and one heavy flavor with isospin I =1/2 . We construct the wave function of the dibaryon in two ways. First, we directly construct the color and spin state of the dibaryon starting from the four possible S U (3 ) flavor states. Second, we consider the states composed of five light quarks and then construct the wave function of the dibaryon by adding one heavy quark. The stability of the dibaryon against the strong decay into two baryons is discussed by using the variational method in a constituent quark model with a confining and hyperfine potential. We find that, for all configurations with spin S =0 , 1, 2, the ground states of the dibaryons are the sum of two baryons, and there is no compact bound state that is stable against the strong decay.
Heavy quark free energies for three quark systems at finite temperature
Hübner, K; Kaczmarek, O; Vogt, O
2007-01-01
We study the free energy of static three quark systems in singlet, octet, decuplet and average color channels in the quenched approximation and in 2-flavor QCD at finite temperature. We show that in the high temperature phase singlet and decuplet free energies of three quark systems are well described by the sum of the free energies of three diquark systems plus self energy contributions of the three quarks. In the confining low temperature phase we find evidence for a Y-shaped flux tube in SU(3) pure gauge theory, which is less evident in 2-flavor QCD due to the onset of string breaking. We also compare the short distance behavior of octet and decuplet free energies to the free energies of single static quarks in the corresponding color representations.
Dibaryons with two strange quarks and one heavy flavor in a constituent quark model
Park, Aaron; Lee, Su Houng
2016-01-01
We investigate the symmetry property and the stability of dibaryons containing two strange quarks and one heavy flavor with $I=\\frac{1}{2}$. We construct the wave function of the dibaryon in two ways. First, we directly construct the color and spin state of the dibaryon starting from the four possible SU(3) flavor state. Second, we consider the states composed of five light quarks, and then construct the wave function of the dibaryon by adding one heavy quark. The stability of the dibaryon against the strong decay into two baryons is discussed by using variational method in a constituent quark model with confining and hyperfine potential. We find that for all configurations with S=0,1,2, the ground states of the dibaryons are the sum of two baryons, and there are no compact bound state that is stable against the strong decay.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; WU Xiao-Hua; SUN Wei-Min; ZHAO En-Guang; WANG Fan
2003-01-01
A method for obtaining the smallcurrent quark mass dependence of the dressed quark propagator froman effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach the small current quark mass effects ondressed-quark propagator have been studied. A comparison with previous results is given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paschos, E A
1976-01-01
This contribution reviews the evidence accumulated over the past year in favor of quarks and partons. Then it applies the quark ideas in order to interpret the neutrino-induced production of charm and the structure of neutral currents.
Quark mass functions and pion structure in Minkowski space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Institute Superior Tecnico; Gross, Franz L. [JLAB; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Institute Superior Tecnico; Stadler, Alfred [University of Evora
2014-03-01
We present a study of the dressed quark mass function and the pion structure in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. We use an interaction kernel in momentum space that is a relativistic generalization of the linear confining q-qbar potential and a constant potential shift that defines the energy scale. The confining interaction has a Lorentz scalar part that is not chirally invariant by itself but decouples from the equations in the chiral limit and therefore allows the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism to work. We adjust the parameters of our quark mass function calculated in Minkowski-space to agree with LQCD data obtained in Euclidean space. Results of a calculation of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the relativistic impulse approximation using the same mass function are presented and compared with experimental data.
Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria
2016-01-01
Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on dif- ferential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.
ATLAS collaboration; LHCb collaboration
2016-01-01
Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on differential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.
A Study of confinement for $Q\\bar{Q}$ potentials on D3, M2 & M5 branes
Quijada, Edward
2016-01-01
We study analytically and numerically the interaction potentials between a pair of quark an anti-quark on D3, M2 and M5 branes. These potentials are obtained using Maldacena's method involving Wilson loops and present confining and non-confining behaviours in different situations that we explore in this work.
Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter
Brito, F A; Serafim, W
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of `anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell's equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance which is associated with {a screening phase
Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brito, F.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Serafim, W. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil)
2014-12-01
In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of 'anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like in an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to the condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance, which is associated with a screening phase. (orig.)
Quark-cluster Stars: hints from the surface
Dai, Shi
2012-01-01
The matter inside pulsar-like compact stars could be in a quark-cluster phase since in cold dense matter at a few nuclear densities (2 to 10 times), quarks could be coupled still very strongly and condensate in position space to form quark clusters. Quark-cluster stars are chromatically confined and could initially be bare, therefore the surface properties of quark-cluster stars would be quite different from that of conventional neutron stars. Some facts indicate that a bare and self-confined surface of pulsar-like compact stars might be necessary in order to naturally understand different observational manifestations. On one hand, as for explaining the drifting sub-pulse phenomena, the binding energy of particles on pulsar surface should be high enough to produce vacuum gaps, which indicates that pulsar's surface might be strongly self-confined. On the other hand, a bare surface of quark-cluster star can overcome the baryon contamination problem of Gamma-ray burst as well as promote a successful core-collaps...
Constituent quark masses from modified perturbative QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabo Montes de Oca, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); International Institute for Theoretical and Applied Physics (IITAP), UNESCO and Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Rigol Madrazo, M. [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)
2002-03-01
A recently proposed modified perturbative expansion for QCD incorporating gluon condensation is employed to evaluate the quark and gluon self-energy corrections in first approximation. The results predict mass values of 1/3 of the nucleon mass for the light quarks u, d, and s and a monotonously growing variation with the current mass. The only phenomenological input is that left angle G{sup 2} right angle is evaluated up to order g{sup 2} as a function of the unique parameter C defining the modified propagator, and then C is fixed to give a current estimate of left angle g{sup 2}G{sup 2} right angle. The light quarks u and d as a result are found to be confined and the s, c, b and t ones show damped propagation modes, suggesting a model for the large differences in stability between the nucleons and the higher resonances. The above properties of quark modes diverge from the fully confinement result following from the similar gluon propagator previously considered by Munczek and Nemirovski. On the other hand, the condensate effects on the gluon self-energy furnish a tachyonic mass shell as predicted by the Fukuda analysis of gluon condensation in QCD. (orig.)
Relativistic Covariance and Quark-Diquark Wave Functions
Dillig, M
2006-01-01
We derive covariant wave functions for hadrons composed of two constituents for arbitrary Lorentz boosts. Focussing explicitly on baryons as quark-diquark systems, we reduce their manifestly covariant Bethe-Salpeter equation to covariant 3-dimensional forms by projecting on the relative quark-diquark energy. Guided by a phenomenological multi gluon exchange representation of covariant confining kernels, we derive explicit solutions for harmonic confinement and for the MIT Bag Model. We briefly sketch implications of breaking the spherical symmetry of the ground state and the transition from the instant form to the light cone via the infinite momentum frame.
Space-Time Geometry of Quark and Strange Quark Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We study quark and strange quark matter in the context of general relativity. For this purpose, we solve Einstein's field equations for quark and strange quark matter in spherical symmetric space-times. We analyze strange quark matter for the different equations of state (EOS) in the spherical symmetric space-times, thus we are able to obtain the space-time geometries of quark and strange quark matter. Also, we discuss die features of the obtained solutions. The obtained solutions are consistent with the results of Brookhaven Laboratory, i.e. the quark-gluon plasma has a vanishing shear (i.e. quark-gluon plasma is perfect).
Phenomenological sizes of confinement regions in baryons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, G.E.; Klimt, S.; Weise, W.; Rho, M.
1988-10-01
Standard order of magnitude estimates from QCD indicate that the radius of the quark-gluon core in the nucleon is ..lambda../sup -1//sub QCD/ > or approx. 1 fm. However, in work with the chiral bag model, we have found that the effective confinement size for low energy reactions can be as small as approx. = 1/2 fm or smaller. This shrinking of the effective confinement size has been attributed to the pressure of the pion cloud surrounding the quark core. The concept of confinement size is evidently subtle in light-quark systems, due to the chiral vacuum structure. This is indicated by the 'Cheshire Cat' phenomenon, in which physical observables tend to be insensitive to the bag radius R. We suggest that when strange quarks are present, a qualitative change occurs in the Cheshire Cat picture; in particular, we propose that strangeness provides an obstruction to this picture. We present a phenomenological indication that when strange quarks are present, the bag radius R is frozen at a value substantially larger than 0.5 fm by as much as a factor of two. Roughly speaking, the Cheshire Cat picture emerges from a near cancellation between repulsive quark kinetic and attractive pion-cloud energies in the case of the nucleon. In the ..lambda.. and ..sigma.. particles, however, replacement of one up or down quark by a strange quark removes part of the attraction from the coupling of the quarks to the pion cloud. This upsets the balance needed for the Cheshire Cat phenomenon and makes larger strange baryons more favorable energetically than the 0.5 fm ones appropriate for pure u- and d-systems. We find that magnetic moments of strange baryons favor a bag radius R approx. = 1.1 fm. We find that the excited states of the ..lambda..-hyperons favor similarly large bag radii. Somewhat less convincingly, due to perturbative effects - the bag radius appropriate to the ..delta..(1232) lies intermediate between that of the nucleon and of the stran
Banerjee, D; Jiang, F -J; Wiese, U -J
2013-01-01
We show that exotic phases arise in generalized lattice gauge theories known as quantum link models in which classical gauge fields are replaced by quantum operators. While these quantum models with discrete variables have a finite-dimensional Hilbert space per link, the continuous gauge symmetry is still exact. An efficient cluster algorithm is used to study these exotic phases. The $(2+1)$-d system is confining at zero temperature with a spontaneously broken translation symmetry. A crystalline phase exhibits confinement via multi-stranded strings between charge-anti-charge pairs. A phase transition between two distinct confined phases is weakly first order and has an emergent spontaneously broken approximate $SO(2)$ global symmetry. The low-energy physics is described by a $(2+1)$-d $\\mathbb{R}P(1)$ effective field theory, perturbed by a dangerously irrelevant $SO(2)$ breaking operator, which prevents the interpretation of the emergent pseudo-Goldstone boson as a dual photon. This model is an ideal candidat...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmadov, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bauer, U.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E. L.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T. M. P.
2000-03-24
The top quark, when it was finally discovered at Fermilab in 1995 completed the three-generation structure of the Standard Model (SM) and opened up the new field of top quark physics. Viewed as just another SM quark, the top quark appears to be a rather uninteresting species. Produced predominantly, in hadron-hadron collisions, through strong interactions, it decays rapidly without forming hadrons, and almost exclusively through the single mode t {r_arrow} Wb. The relevant CKM coupling V{sub tb} is already determined by the (three-generation) unitarity of the CKM matrix. Rare decays and CP violation are unmeasurable small in the SM. Yet the top quark is distinguished by its large mass, about 35 times larger than the mass of the next heavy quark, and intriguingly close to the scale of electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. This unique property raises a number of interesting questions. Is the top quark mass generated by the Higgs mechanism as the SM predicts and is its mass related to the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling? Or does it play an even more fundamental role in the EW symmetry breaking mechanism? If there are new particles lighter than the top quark, does the top quark decay into them? Could non-SM physics first manifest itself in non-standard couplings of the top quark which show up as anomalies in top quark production and decays? Top quark physics tries to answer these questions. Several properties of the top quark have already been examined at the Tevatron. These include studies of the kinematical properties of top production, the measurements of the top mass, of the top production cross-section, the reconstruction of t{bar t}pairs in the fully hadronic final states, the study of {tau} decays of the top quark, the reconstruction of hadronic decays of the W boson from top decays, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, the measurement of the W helicity in top decays, and bounds on t{bar t} spin correlations. Most of these measurements are limited by
Testa, Massimo
1990-01-01
In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.
Juste, A
2006-01-01
Ten years after its discovery at the Tevatron collider, we still know little about the top quark. Its large mass suggests it may play a key role in the mechanism of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB), or open a window of sensitivity to new physics related to EWSB and preferentially coupled to it. To determine whether this is the case, precision measurements of top quark properties are necessary. The high statistics samples being collected by the Tevatron experiments during Run II start to incisively probe the top quark sector. This report summarizes the experimental status of the top quark, focusing in particular on the recent measurements from the Tevatron Run II.
Cuevas Maestro, Javier
2016-01-01
An overview of recent top quark measurements in proton-proton collisions at 7, and 8 TeV in data collected with the CMS and ATLAS experiments at the LHC, using a data sample collected during the years 2011, 2012 is presented. The results include measurements of top-quark pairs spin correlation, the top pair charge asymmetry, the cross section of top-quark pair events produced in association with a W or a Z boson. The mass of the top quark is estimated by different methods. Some results on the same topics are also presented in data collected by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron collider.
New quarks: exotic versus strong
Holdom, B.
2011-01-01
The new quarks of a fourth family are being pushed into the strongly interacting regime due to the lower limits on their masses. The theoretical basis and experimental implications of such quarks are compared with exotic quarks.
Dakin, James T.
1974-01-01
Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)
Dakin, James T.
1974-01-01
Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)
Meson Spectroscopy in the Light Quark Sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Vita, R.; Lunardi, S.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bucci, C.; Chiari, M.; Dainese, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Menegazzo, R.; Nannini, A.; Signorini, C.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.
2014-01-01
Understanding the hadron spectrum is one of the fundamental issues in modern particle physics. We know that existing hadron configurations include baryons, made of three quarks, and mesons, made of quark-antiquark pairs. However most of the mass of the hadrons is not due to the mass of these elementary constituents but to their binding force. Studying the hadron spectrum is therefore a tool to understand one of the fundamental forces in nature, the strong force, and Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD), the theory that describes it. This investigation can provide an answer to fundamental questions as what is the origin of the mass of hadrons, what is the origin of quark confinement, what are the relevant degrees of freedom to describe these complex systems and how the transition between the elementary constituents, quarks and gluons, and baryons and mesons occurs. In this field a key tool is given by meson spectroscopy. Mesons, being made by a quark and an anti-quark, are the simplest quark bound system and therefore the ideal benchmark to study the interaction between quarks and understand what the role of gluons is. In this investigation, it is fundamental to precisely determine the spectrum and properties of mesons but also to search for possible unconventional states beyond the configuration q{anti q} as tetraquarks (qq{anti qq}), hybrids (q{anti q}g) and glueballs. These states can be distinguished unambiguously from regular mesons when they have exotic quantum numbers, i.e. combinations of total angular momentum, spin and parity that are not allowed for q{anti q} states. These are called exotic quantum numbers and the corresponding states are referred to as exotics. The study of the meson spectrum and the search for exotics is among the goals of several experiments in the world that exploit different reaction processes, as e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation, p{anti p} annihilation, pion scattering, proton-proton scattering and photo-production, to produce meson states
Confinement at Finite Temperature
Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Marco
2017-05-01
We show the flux tubes produced by static quark-antiquark, quark-quark and quark-gluon charges at finite temperature. The sources are placed on the lattice with fundamental and adjoint Polyakov loops. We compute the squared strengths of the chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields above and below the critical temperature. Our results are for pure gauge SU(3) gauge theory, they are invariant and all computations are done with GPUs using CUDA.
The mass spectrum of double heavy baryons in new potential quark models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kovalenko Vladimir
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A new approach to study the mass spectrum of double heavy baryons (QQ′q containing strange and charmed quarks is proposed. It is based on the separation of variables in the Schrodinger equation in the prolate spheroidal coordinates. Two nonrelativistic potential models are considered. In the first model, the interaction potential of the quarks is the sum of the Coulomb and non-spherically symmetrical linear confinement potential. In the second model it is assumed that the quark confinement provided by a spherically symmetric harmonic oscillator potential. In both models the mass spectrum is calculated, and a comparison with previous results from other models is performed.
Strangeness content and structure function of the nucleon in a statistical quark model
Trevisan, L A; Tomio, L
1999-01-01
The strangeness content of the nucleon is determined from a statistical model using confined quark levels, and is shown to have a good agreement with the corresponding values extracted from experimental data. The quark levels are generated in a Dirac equation that uses a linear confining potential (scalar plus vector). With the requirement that the result for the Gottfried sum rule violation, given by the new muon collaboration (NMC), is well reproduced, we also obtain the difference between the structure functions of the proton and neutron, and the corresponding sea quark contributions. (27 refs).
Gaussian Confinement in a Jkj Decay Model
da Silva, Mario L. L.; Hadjimichef, Dimiter; Vasconcellos, Cesar A. Z.
In microscopic decay models, one attempts to describe hadron strong decays in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom. We begin by assuming that strong decays are driven by the same interquark Hamiltonian which determines the spectrum, and that it incorporates gaussian confinement. An A → BC decay matrix element of the JKJ Hamiltonian involves a pair-production current matrix elements times a scatering matrix element. Diagrammatically this corresponds to an interaction between an initial line and produced pair.
E. Laenen
2011-01-01
The theoretical aspects of a number of top quark properties such as its mass and its couplings are reviewed. Essential aspects in the theoretical description of top quark production, singly, in pairs and in association, as well as its decay related to spin and angular correlations are discussed.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Eric Laenen
2012-10-01
The theoretical aspects of a number of top quark properties such as its mass and its couplings are reviewed. Essential aspects in the theoretical description of top quark production, singly, in pairs and in association, as well as its decay related to spin and angular correlations are discussed.
Novel Heavy Quark Phenomena in QCD
Brodsky, Stanley J
2014-01-01
Heavy quarks provide a new dimension to QCD, allowing tests of fundamental theory, the nature of color confinement, and the production of new exotic multiquark states. I also discuss novel explanations for several apparently anomalous experimental results, such as the large $t \\bar t$ forward-backward asymmetry observed in $p \\bar p$ colisions at the Tevatron, the large rates for $\\gamma$ or $Z$ plus high-$p_T$ charm jets observed at the Tevatron, the strong nuclear absorption of the $J/\\psi$ observed in $pA$ collisions at the LHC, as well as fixed target experiments at high $x_F$. Precision measurements of the heavy quark distribution in hadrons at high $x$ are needed since intrinsic heavy quarks can play an important role in high $x$ phenomenology as well as predicting a new mechanism for high-$x_F$ Higgs production. The role of multi-parton interactions, such as di-gluon initiated subprocesses for forward quarkonium hadroproduction, is discussed. I also briefly discuss a new approach to the QCD confinement...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erbacher, Robin D.; /UC, Davis
2005-10-01
While the top quark was discovered in 1995 at the Fermilab Tevatron, a decade later they still have very little information about the top. As the heaviest particle yet discovered, the top quark is interesting in and of itself, but some speculate that it may play a special role in physics beyond the Standard Model. With Run 2 of the Tevatron well underway, they have the opportunity to study top quark properties with much better sensitivity, and to test whether top quarks behave as predicted by current theories. This article focuses on the basics of top quark physics at the Tevatron, highlighting only a sample of the many recent measurements, as new results are being released monthly, and constantly changing the landscape of our knowledge of top.
Pion Decay Constant and Masses of Light Quarks and In-medium Goldstone Bosons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing
2006-01-01
Based on the fully dressed confining quark propagator, the pion decay constant fπ, local quark vacuum condensate, and the masses of light quarks and in-medium Goldstone bosons are investigated. The pion decay constant fπ is predicted and compared with its value of experimental measurement. A great agreement is obtained. With the predicted fπ and values of Goldstone boson masses measured by experiments in free configuration the current masses of light quarks and the masses of in-medium Goldstone bosons are obtained.
QCD deconfinement phase transitions and collapsing quark stars
Bednarek, I; Manka, R; Bednarek, Ilona; Biesiada, Marek; Manka, Ryszard
1996-01-01
In this paper we discuss the QCD phase-transitions in the nontopological soliton model of quark confinement and explore possible astrophysical consequences. Our key idea is to look at quark stars (which are believed to exist since the quark matter is energetically preferred over the ordinary matter) from the point of view of soliton model. We propose that the phase transition taking place during the core collapse of massive evolved star may provide a new physical effect not taken into account in modeling the supernova explosions. We also point out the possibility that merging quark stars may produce gamma-ray bursts energetic enough to be at cosmological distances. Our idea based on the finite-temperature nontopologiocal soliton model overcomes major difficulties present in neutron star merger scenario --- the baryon loading problem and nonthermal spectra of the bursts.
Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations
Hoang, A. H.
2001-01-01
Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.
Barik, N; Mohanty, D K; Panda, P K; Frederico, T
2013-01-01
We have calculated the properties of nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner with quark-meson coupling mechanism incorporating structure of nucleons in vacuum through a relativistic potential model; where the dominant confining interaction for the free independent quarks inside a nucleon, is represented by a phenomenologically average potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. Corrections due to spurious centre of mass motion as well as those due to other residual interactions such as the one gluon exchange at short distances and quark-pion coupling arising out of chiral symmetry restoration; have been considered in a perturbation manner to obtain the nucleon mass in vacuum. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to sigma and omega mesons through mean field approximations. The relevant parameters of the interaction are obtained self consistently while realizing the saturation properties such as the binding energy, pressure a...
Fritzsch, Harald
1983-01-01
Quark rossi, verdi e blu ; quark dotati di stranezza e di incanto ; quark 'su' e 'giù' : sembra che i fisici delle particelle giochino a confondere la curiosità del profano, con queste denominazioni fantasiose. Che cosa significano ? e, soprattutto, i quark sono i costituenti davvero elementari della materia ?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG Jin-Song; ZHOU Li-Juan; MENG Cheng-Ju; PAN Ji-Huan; MA Wei-Xing; YUAN Tong-Quan
2013-01-01
Based on the fully dressed quark propagator and chiral perturbation theory,we study the ratio of the strange quark mass ms to up or down quark mass mu,d.The ratio is related to the determination of quark masses which are fundamental input parameters of QCD Lagrangian in the Standard Model of particle physics and can not be directly measured since the quark is confined within a hadron.An accurate determination of these QCD free parameters is extremely important for both phenomenological and theoretical applications.We begin with a brief introduction to the non-perturbation QCD theory,and then study the mass ratio in the framework of the chiral perturbation theory (xPT) with a parameterized fully dressed quark propagator which describes confining fully dressed quark propagation and is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation so there are no quark production thresholds in any theoretical calculations of observable data.Our prediction for the ratio ms/mu,d is consistent with other model predictions such as Lattice QCD,instanton model,QCD sum rules and the empirical values used widely in the literature.As a by-product of this study,our theoretical results,together with other predictions of physical quantities that used this quark propagator in our previous publications,clearly show that the parameterized form of the fully dressed quark propagator is an applicable and reliable approximation to the solution of the Dyson-Schwinger Equation of quark propagator in the QCD.
Top quark measurements at ATLAS
Grancagnolo, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; PING Jia-Lun; SUN Wei-Min; CHANG Chao-Hsi; WANG Fan
2002-01-01
We exhibit a method for obtaining the low chemical potential dependence of the dressed quark propagatorfrom an effective quark-quark interaction model. Within this approach we explore the chemical potential dependenceof the dressed-quark propagator, which provides a means of determining the behavior of the chiral and deconfinementorder parameters. A comparison with the results of previous researches is given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)
2005-07-01
The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n {approx}1.5X10{sup 20}m{sup -3}). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO{sub 2} interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 {mu}s) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong
Chiral effects in the confining QCD vacuum
Simonov, Yu A
1994-01-01
Configurations are introduced into the standard instanton vacuum model. This drastically improves theoretical properties of the vacuum: instanton size density $d(\\rho)$ stabilizes at $\\rho\\sim 0.2 fm$, all chiral effects are formulated in a gauge-invariant way and quarks are confined. An interesting interplay of chiral and confining dynamics is observed; for the realistic values of parameters the Georgi-Manohar picture emerges with chiral radius $R_{ch}\\sim \\rho\\sim 0.2 fm$ much less than confining radius $R_c\\sim$ hadron radius $\\sim 1 fm$. In the limit $R_{ch}\\ll R_c$ the chiral mass $M_{ch}(p)$ is unaffected by confinement and can be taken in the local limit $M_{ch}(p=0)$. Different types of effective chiral Lagrangians (ECL) are obtained, containing all or a part of gluon, quark and Nambu--Goldstone--meson fields. The ECL are manifestly gauge--invariant and in the limit of no gluon fields coincide with those found previously. The problem of the double role of the pion -- as a Goldstone meson or as a $q\\ba...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parke, S.
1998-01-01
In this presentation I will primarily focus on top quark physics but I will include a discussion of the W-boson mass and the possibility of discovering a light Higgs boson via associated production at the Tevatron.
Guichon, P A M; Thomas, A W
1996-01-01
We describe the development of a theoretical description of the structure of finite nuclei based on a relativistic quark model of the structure of the bound nucleons which interact through the (self-consistent) exchange of scalar and vector mesons.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Narendra Singh
2003-01-01
Assuming a relation between the quark mass matrices of the two sectors a unique solution can be obtained for the CKM ﬂavor mixing matrix. A numerical example is worked out which is in excellent agreement with experimental data.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Paul Haase; Taylor, John C.
1984-01-01
Processes with coloured particles in the initial state are generally infrared divergent. We investigate the effect of this on processes with colourless particles in the initial state, when the amplitude is near an intermediate quark pole. The result is a characteristic logarithmic depedence...... on the 'binding energy'(even though spectator interactions are taken into account), and the result is gauge-invariant. Summed to all orders the logarithms could perhaps suppress the quark pole....
Two flavor QCD and Confinement
D'Elia, M; Pica, C
2005-01-01
We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation is performed with staggered fermions on lattices with N_t=4 and N_s=12,16,20,24,32 and quark masses am_q ranging from 0.01335 to 0.307036. The specific heat and a number of susceptibilities are measured and compared with the expectations of an O(4) second order and of a first order phase transition. A second order transition in the O(4) and O(2) universality classes are excluded. Substantial evidence emerges for a first order transition. A detailed comparison with previous works is performed.
Phase diagram and critical end point for strongly interacting quarks.
Qin, Si-xue; Chang, Lei; Chen, Huan; Liu, Yu-xin; Roberts, Craig D
2011-04-29
We introduce a method based on chiral susceptibility, which enables one to draw a phase diagram in the chemical-potential-temperature plane for strongly interacting quarks whose interactions are described by any reasonable gap equation, even if the diagrammatic content of the quark-gluon vertex is unknown. We locate a critical end point at (μ(E),T(E))∼(1.0,0.9)T(c), where T(c) is the critical temperature for chiral-symmetry restoration at μ=0, and find that a domain of phase coexistence opens at the critical end point whose area increases as a confinement length scale grows.
A Quark Transport Theory to describe Nucleon--Nucleon Collisions
Kalmbach, U; Biro, T S; Mosel, U
1993-01-01
On the basis of the Friedberg-Lee model we formulate a semiclassical transport theory to describe the phase-space evolution of nucleon-nucleon collisions on the quark level. The time evolution is given by a Vlasov-equation for the quark phase-space distribution and a Klein-Gordon equation for the mean-field describing the nucleon as a soliton bag. The Vlasov equation is solved numerically using an extended testparticle method. We test the confinement mechanism and mean-field effects in 1+1 dimensional simulations.
Heavy quark potential from QCD-related effective coupling
Ayala, César; González, Pedro; Vento, Vicente
2016-12-01
We implement our past investigations of quark-antiquark interaction through a non-perturbative running coupling defined in terms of a gluon mass function, similar to that used in some Schwinger-Dyson approaches. This coupling leads to a quark-antiquark potential, which satisfies not only asymptotic freedom but also describes linear confinement correctly. From this potential, we calculate the bottomonium and charmonium spectra below the first open flavor meson-meson thresholds and show that for a small range of values of the free parameter determining the gluon mass function an excellent agreement with data is attained.
Dynamics of Quarks in a 2D Flux Tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koshelkin, Andrey V. [Moscow Institute for Physics and Engineering, Russia; Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL
2015-01-01
On the basis of a compactification of the (3+1) into (1+1) dimensional space-time [1], the quark states inside the 2D flux tube are studied for the case of a linear transverse confining potential. The derived states are classified by both the projections of the orbital momentum and the spin along the tube direction. The spectrum of the fermion states is evaluated. It is found that the energy eigenvalues of the quarks appear to be approximately related to the square root of the eigenvalues of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator.
Asymptotic freedom and quarks confinement treated through Thompson's approach
Nassif, Claudio; Silva, P R
2007-01-01
In this work,we firstly use Thompson's renormalization group method to treat QCD-vacuum behavior close to the regime of asymptotic freedom. QCD-vacuum behaves effectively like a "paramagnetic system" of a classical theory in the sense that virtual color charges (gluons) emerge in it as spin effect of a paramagnetic material when a magnetic field aligns their microscopic magnetic dipoles. Making a classical analogy with the paramagnetism of Landau's theory,we are able to introduce a kind of Landau effective action without temperature and phase transition for simply representing QCD-vacuum behavior at higher energies as magnetization of a paramagnetic material in the presence of a magnetic field $H$. This reasoning allows us to use Thompson's heuristic approach in order to extract an "effective susceptibility" ($\\chi>0$) of QCD-vacuum. It depends on logarithmic of energy scale $u$ to investigate hadronic matter. Consequently,we are able to get an ``effective magnetic permeability" ($\\mu>1$) of such a "paramagne...
The quark mean field model with pion and gluon corrections
Xing, Xueyong; Shen, Hong
2016-01-01
The properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei are studied within the quark mean field (QMF) model by taking the effects of pion and gluon into account at the quark level. The nucleon is described as the combination of three constituent quarks confined by a harmonic oscillator potential. To satisfy the spirit of QCD theory, the contributions of pion and gluon on the nucleon structure are treated in second-order perturbation theory. For the nuclear many-body system, nucleons interact with each other by exchanging mesons between quarks. With different constituent quark mass, $m_q$, we determine three parameter sets about the coupling constants between mesons and quarks, named as QMF-NK1, QMF-NK2, and QMF-NK3 by fitting the ground-state properties of several closed-shell nuclei. It is found that all of the three parameter sets can give satisfactory description on properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, meanwhile they can also predict the larger neutron star mass around $2.3M_\\odot$ without the hypero...
Quark mean field model with pion and gluon corrections
Xing, Xueyong; Hu, Jinniu; Shen, Hong
2016-10-01
The properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei are studied within the quark mean field (QMF) model by taking the effects of pions and gluons into account at the quark level. The nucleon is described as the combination of three constituent quarks confined by a harmonic oscillator potential. To satisfy the spirit of QCD theory, the contributions of pions and gluons on the nucleon structure are treated in second-order perturbation theory. In a nuclear many-body system, nucleons interact with each other by exchanging mesons between quarks. With different constituent quark mass, mq, we determine three parameter sets for the coupling constants between mesons and quarks, named QMF-NK1, QMF-NK2, and QMF-NK3, by fitting the ground-state properties of several closed-shell nuclei. It is found that all of the three parameter sets can give a satisfactory description of properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, moreover they also predict a larger neutron star mass around 2.3 M⊙ without hyperon degrees of freedom.
Recursive fragmentation model with quark spin. Application to quark polarimetry
Artru, X
2010-01-01
An elementary recursive model accounting for the quark spin in the fragmentation of a quark into mesons is presented. The quark spin degree of freedom is represented by a two-components spinor. Spin one meson can be included. The model produces Collins effect and jet handedness. The influence of the initial quark polarisation decays exponentially with the rank of the meson, at dierent rates for longitudinal and transverse polarisations
Bootstrapping quarks and gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chew, G.F.
1979-04-01
Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces.
Rizzo, T G
1979-01-01
The weak decay of heavy b and t quarks is discussed using the mixing angles obtained in Fritzsch's model (1978). The author finds that the decay b to c dominates over b to u for 7
Quark structure of chiral solitons
Diakonov, D
2004-01-01
There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ``chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ``soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.
Mulders, Martijn
2016-01-01
Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I wil...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
H Weigel
2003-11-01
In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark ﬂavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully regularizes the effective action but also leads the scaling laws for structure functions. For the nucleon structure functions the present approach serves to determine the regularization prescription for structure functions whose leading moments are not given by matrix elements of local operators. Some numerical results are presented for the spin structure functions.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burkardt Matthias
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.
Quark Helicity and Transversity Distributions
Hwang, Dae Sung
2016-01-01
The quark transversity distribution inside nucleon is less understood than the quark unpolarized and helicity distributions inside nucleon. In particular, it is important to know clearly why the quark helicity and transversity distributions are different. We investigate the origin of their discrepancy.
Nuclear symmetry energy in a modified quark meson coupling model
Mishra, R N; Panda, P K; Barik, N; Frederico, T
2015-01-01
We study nuclear symmetry energy and the thermodynamic instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark-meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically averaged potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to $\\sigma$, $\\omega$, and $\\rho$ mesons through mean-field approximations. We find an analytic expression for the symmetry energy ${\\cal E}_{sym}$ as a function of its slope $L$. Our result establishes a linear correlation between $L$ and ${\\cal E}_{sym}$. We also analyze the constraint on neutron star radii in $(pn)$ matter with $\\beta$ equilibrium.
The effect of instanton-induced interaction on -wave meson spectra in constituent quark model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bhavyashri; S Sarangi; Godfrey Saldanha; K B Vijaya Kumar
2008-01-01
The mass spectrum of the -wave mesons is considered in a non-relativistic constituent quark model. The full Hamiltonian used in the investigation includes the kinetic energy, the confinement potential, the one-gluon-exchange potential (OGEP) and the instanton-induced quark-antiquark interaction (III). A good description of the mass spectrum is obtained. The respective role of III and OGEP in the P-wave meson spectrum is discussed.
Observable Properties of Quark-Hadron Phase Transition at the Large Hadron Collider
Hwa, Rudolph C
2016-01-01
Quark-hadron phase transition is simulated by an event generator that incorporates the dynamical properties of contraction due to QCD confinement forces and randomization due to the thermal behavior of a large quark system on the edge of hadronization. Fluctuations of emitted pions in the $(\\eta,\\phi)$ space are analyzed using normalized factorial moments in a wide range of bin sizes. The scaling index $\
Demilly, A; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
Properties of the top quark are measured with the ATLAS detector using LHC proton-proton collisions data. Measurements of the top-quark mass and polarisation, as well as of the polarization of W bosons in top quark decays to probe the Wtb-vertex are presented. In addition, measurements of the spin correlation between top and anti-top quarks as well as of the top- quark charge asymmetry, which constitute important tests of QCD and are sensitive to new physics, are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maki, Tuula [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)
2008-03-18
The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.
Mulders, Martijn
2016-10-01
Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I will discuss the status of those techniques and their results, and present a brief outlook of further improvements in the experimental determination of the top quark mass to be expected at the LHC and beyond.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C P Singh
2000-04-01
Recent trends in the research of quark gluon plasma (QGP) are surveyed and the current experimental and theoretical status regarding the properties and signals of QGP is reported. We hope that the experiments commencing at relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) in 2000 will provide a glimpse of the QGP formation.
Pallante, E.; Petronzio, R.
1995-01-01
We construct an effective Lagrangian for low energy hadronic interactions through an infinite expansion in inverse powers of the low energy cutoff Î›Ï‡ of all possible chiral invariant non-renormalizable interactions between quarks and mesons degrees of freedom arising from the bosonization of a gen
Fermion confinement by a relativistic flux tube
Olsson, M G; Williams, K; Olsson, M G; Veseli, S; Williams, K
1996-01-01
We formulate the description of the dynamic confinement of a single fermion by a flux tube. The range of validity extends from the relativistic corrections of a slowly moving quark to the ultra-relativistic motion in a heavy-light meson. The reduced Salpeter equation, also known as the no-pair equation, provides the framework for our discussion. The Regge structure is that of a Nambu string with one end fixed. Numerical solutions are found giving very good fits to heavy-light meson masses. The Isgur-Wise function with a zero recoil slope of \\xi'(1)\\simeq -1.23 is obtained.
Width of the confining string in Yang-Mills theory.
Gliozzi, F; Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J
2010-06-11
We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.
Baryon octet electromagnetic form factors in a confining NJL model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel E. Carrillo-Serrano
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet are studied using a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model which utilizes the proper-time regularization scheme to simulate aspects of colour confinement. In addition, the model also incorporates corrections to the dressed quarks from vector meson correlations in the t-channel and the pion cloud. Comparison with recent chiral extrapolations of lattice QCD results shows a remarkable level of consistency. For the charge radii we find the surprising result that rEp
Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model
Chen, H.; Wei, J.-B.; Schulze, H.-J.
2016-09-01
We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 × 10^{53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars.
Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model
Chen, H; Schulze, H -J
2016-01-01
We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9--11 km. We obtain an energy release as large as $3.6 \\times 10^{53}\\,\\text{erg}$ from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars.
Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, H.; Wei, J.B. [China University of Geosciences, School of Mathematics and Physics, Wuhan (China); Schulze, H.J. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy)
2016-09-15
We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11 km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 x 10{sup 53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars. (orig.)
Statistical physics of dyons and confinement
Diakonov, Dmitri
2008-01-01
We present a semiclassical description of the SU(N) Yang--Mills theory whose partition function at nonzero temperatures is approximated by that of an ensemble of N kinds of interacting dyons. The ensemble is mathematically described by an exactly solvable 3d quantum field theory, allowing calculation of correlations functions relevant to confinement. We show that all known criteria of confinement are satisfied in this semiclassical approximation: (i) the average Polyakov line is zero below some critical temperature, and nonzero above it, (ii) static quarks in any nonzero N-ality representation have linear rising potential energy, (iii) the average spatial Wilson loop falls off exponentially with the area, (iv) N^2 gluons are canceled out from the spectrum, (v) the critical temperature is in good agreement with lattice data.
Are partons confined tachyons?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H.P.
1996-03-01
The author notes that if hadrons are gravitationally stabilized ``black holes``, as discrete physics suggests, it is possible that partons, and in particular quarks, could be modeled as tachyons, i.e. particles having v{sup 2} > c{sup 2}, without conflict with the observational fact that neither quarks nor tachyons have appeared as ``free particles``. Some consequences of this model are explored.
SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF QUARKS IN THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
KARSCH,F.; KITAZAWA, M.
2007-07-30
We analyze the spectral properties of the quark propagator above the critical temperature for the deconfinement phase transition in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions. The bare quark mass dependence of the quark spectral function is analyzed by varying the hopping parameter {kappa} in Landau gauge. We assume a two-pole structure for the quark spectral function, which is numerically found to work quite well for any value of {kappa}. It is shown that in the chiral limit the quark spectral function has two collective modes that correspond to the normal and plasmino excitations, while it is dominated by a single-pole structure when the bare quark mass becomes large.
Spectral Properties of Quarks in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Karsch, F
2007-01-01
We analyze the spectral properties of the quark propagator above the critical temperature for the deconfinement phase transition in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions. The bare quark mass dependence of the quark spectral function is analyzed by varying the hopping parameter \\kappa in Landau gauge. We assume a two-pole structure for the quark spectral function, which is numerically found to work quite well for any value of \\kappa. It is shown that in the chiral limit the quark spectral function has two collective modes that correspond to the normal and plasmino excitations, while it is dominated by a single-pole structure when the bare quark mass becomes large.
Barik, N.; Mishra, R. N.; Mohanty, D. K.; Panda, P. K.; Frederico, T.
2013-07-01
We have calculated the properties of nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner with a quark-meson coupling mechanism incorporating the structure of nucleons in vacuum through a relativistic potential model; where the dominant confining interaction for the free independent quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically average potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. Corrections due to spurious center of mass motion as well as those due to other residual interactions, such as the one gluon exchange at short distances and quark-pion coupling arising out of chiral symmetry restoration, have been considered in a perturbative manner to obtain the nucleon mass in vacuum. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ and ω mesons through mean field approximations. The relevant parameters of the interaction are obtained self-consistently while realizing the saturation properties such as the binding energy, pressure, and compressibility of the nuclear matter. We also discuss some implications of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter along with the nucleon and nuclear σ term and the sensitivity of nuclear matter binding energy with variations in the light quark mass.
Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pumsa-ard, K.
2006-07-01
In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints
The Multimedia Project Quarked!
Bean, Alice
2011-01-01
Can exposure to fundamental ideas about the nature of matter help motivate children in math and science and support the development of their understanding of these ideas later? Physicists, designers, and museum educators at the University of Kansas created the Quarked!(tm) Adventures in the subatomic Universe project to provide an opportunity for youth to explore the subatomic world in a fun and user friendly way. The project components include a website (located at http://www.quarked.org) and hands-on education programs. These are described and assessment results are presented. Questions addressed include the following. Can you engage elementary and middle school aged children with concepts related to particle physics? Can young children make sense of something they can't directly see? Do teachers think the material is relevant to their students?
Domain-like Structures in the QCD Vacuum, Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking
Kalloniatis, Alexander C
2001-01-01
We discuss how the inclusion of singular gauge fields in the partition function for QCD can lead to a domain-like picture for the QCD vacuum by virtue of specific conditions on quantum fluctuations at the singularities. With a simplified model of hyperspherical domain regions with interiors of constant field strength we calculate the basic parameters of the QCD vacuum, the gluon condensate, topological susceptibility, string constant and quark condensate, and briefly discuss confinement of dynamical quarks and gluons.
Riordan, M
1992-05-29
Quarks are widely recognized today as being among the elementary particles of which matter is composed. The key evidence for their existence came from a series of inelastic electron-nucleon scattering experiments conducted between 1967 and 1973 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Other theoretical and experimental advances of the 1970s confirmed this discovery, leading to the present standard model of elementary particle physics.
Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks
Rafelski, Johann
2015-01-01
In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustra...
Kane, Gordon L.; Perry, Malcolm J.
2015-03-01
We are used to thinking of quarks as fundamental particles in the same way we think of the electron, or gauge bosons, neutrinos, leptons. In strong theory, these objects are unified with gravitation and the physics of spacetime into what is hoped to be an ultimate theory, string/M theory. The string/M theory paradigm completely changes the way we think of the socalled elementary particles in quantum field theory.
Santopinto, E
2015-01-01
In this contribution, we briefly discuss the results for charmonium and bottomonium spectra with self-energy corrections in the unquenched quark model, due to the coupling to the meson-meson continuum. The UQM formalism can be extended to include also the effects of hybrid mesons, i.e. hybrid loops. Finally, we discuss the results of a calculation of hybrid mesons spectrum in Coulomb Gauge QCD.
Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Chang-Seong [INFN, Pisa
2016-06-02
We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying into $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $t\\bar t$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.
Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Sandvik, Anders; Unsal, Mithat
2016-01-01
In a spontaneously dimerized quantum antiferromagnet (a valence-bond-solid, VBS) in two or three dimensions, elementary spin-1/2 excitations (spinons) are confined by strings akin to the strings confining quarks in non-abelian gauge theories. The VBS has multiple degenerate ground states (vacua) and domain walls between regions of inequivalent vacua. Here we demonstrate that, if the number of vacua is two, the spinons become liberated (deconfined) on the domain wall. This is in close analogy to supersymmetric gauge theories, where quarks deconfine on domain walls separating two vacua, as first conjecture by Rey and Witten. We show that the confinement mechanism in the VBS and Super-Yang-Mills theory are identical in certain regimes. This remarkable close analogy opens doors to improving our understanding of confinement by computational and experimental studies in quantum magnetism. As an illustration, we present a numerical demonstration of spinon deconfinement on domain walls in a two-dimensional quantum mag...
Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav
2014-01-01
At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.
Quarks and gluons in the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welzbacher, Christian Andreas
2016-07-14
In this dissertation we study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter by approaching the theory of quantum chromodynamics in the functional approach of Dyson-Schwinger equations. With these quantum (field) equations of motions we calculate the non-perturbative quark propagator within the Matsubara formalism. We built up on previous works and extend the so-called truncation scheme, which is necessary to render the infinite tower of Dyson-Schwinger equations finite and study phase transitions of chiral symmetry and the confinement/deconfinement transition. In the first part of this thesis we discuss general aspects of quantum chromodynamics and introduce the Dyson-Schwinger equations in general and present the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation together with its counterpart for the gluon. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is introduced which is necessary to perform two-body bound state calculations. A view on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics is given, including the discussion of order parameter for chiral symmetry and confinement. Here we also discuss the dependence of the phase structure on the masses of the quarks. In the following we present the truncation and our results for an unquenched N{sub f} = 2+1 calculation and compare it to previous studies. We highlight some complementary details for the quark and gluon propagator and discus the resulting phase diagram, which is in agreement with previous work. Results for an equivalent of the Columbia plot and the critical surface are discussed. A systematically improved truncation, where the charm quark as a dynamical quark flavour is added, will be presented in Ch. 4. An important aspect in this investigation is the proper adjustment of the scales. This is done by matching vacuum properties of the relevant pseudoscalar mesons separately for N{sub f} = 2+1 and N f = 2+1+1 via a solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. A comparison of the resulting N{sub f} = 2+1 and N{sub f} = 2+1+1 phase diagram indicates
String worldsheet for accelerating quark
Hubeny, Veronika E.; Semenoff, Gordon W.
2015-10-01
We consider the AdS bulk dual to an external massive quark in SYM following an arbitrary trajectory on Minkowski background. While a purely outgoing boundary condition on the gluonic field allows one to express the corresponding string worldsheet in a closed form, the setup has curious consequences. In particular, we argue that any quark whose trajectory on flat spacetime approaches that of a light ray in the remote past (as happens e.g. in the case of uniform acceleration) must necessarily be accompanied by an anti-quark. This is puzzling from the field theory standpoint, since one would expect that a sole quark following any timelike trajectory should be allowed. We explain the resolution in terms of boundary and initial conditions. We analyze the configuration in global AdS, which naturally suggests a modification to the boundary conditions allowing for a single accelerated quark without accompanying anti-quark. We contrast this resolution with earlier proposals.
Excitation rates of heavy quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canal, C.A.G.; Santangelo, E.M.; Ducati, M.B.G.
1985-06-01
We obtain the production rates for c, b, and t quarks in deep-inelastic neutrino- (antineutrino-) nucleon interactions, in the standard six-quark model with left-handed couplings. The results are obtained with the most recent mixing parameters and we include a comparison between quark parametrizations. The excitations are calculated separately for each flavor, allowing the understanding of the role of threshold effects when considered through different rescaling variables.
Quark matter or new particles?
Michel, F. Curtis
1988-01-01
It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).
Quark matter or new particles?
Michel, F. Curtis
1988-01-01
It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).
Phenomenology of heavy quark systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilman, F.J.
1987-03-01
The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model. (LEW)
Exotic Signals of Vectorlike Quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobrescu, Bogdan A. [Fermilab; Yu, Felix [U. Mainz, PRISMA
2016-12-06
Vectorlike fermions are an important target for hadron collider searches. We show that the vectorlike quarks may predominantly decay via higher-dimensional operators into a quark plus a couple of other Standard Model fermions. Pair production of vectorlike quarks of charge 2/3 at the LHC would then lead to a variety of possible final states, including $t\\bar t + 4\\tau$, $t\\bar b\
Antinori, Federico; Bass, Steffen A.; Bellwied, Rene; Ullrich, Thomas; Velkovska, Julia; Wiedemann, Urs
2005-04-01
Why another conference devoted to ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics? As we looked around the landscape of the existing international conferences and workshops, we realized that there was not a single one tailored to the people who are most directly involved with the actual research work: students, post-docs, and junior faculty/research scientists. Of course there are schools, but that was not what we had in mind. We wanted a meeting where young researchers could come together to discuss in depth the physics that they are working on without any hindrance. The major conferences have very limited time for discussions which is often shared amongst the most established. This leaves little room for young people to ask their questions and to get the detailed feedback which they deserve and which satisfies their curiosity. A discussion-driven workshop, centering on those without whom there will be no future—that seemed like what was needed. And thus the Hot Quarks workshop was born. The aim of Hot Quarks was to enhance the direct exchange of scientific information among the younger members of the community, from both experiment and theory. Participation was by invitation only in order to emphasize the contributions from junior researchers. This approach makes the workshop unique among the many forums in the field. For young scientists it represented an opportunity for exposure that they would not have had in one of the major conferences. The hope is that this meeting has helped to stimulate the next generation of scientists in our field and, at the same time, strengthened their sense of community. It all came together from 18 24 July 2004, when the 77 participants met at The Inn at Snakedance in the Taos Ski Valley, New Mexico, USA, for the first Hot Quarks workshop. Photograph Participants gather in the sunshine at the foot of the Taos Ski Valley chairlift. By all accounts, Hot Quarks 2004 was a great success. Every participant had the opportunity to present her or
Top Quark Current Experimental Status
Juste, A
2006-01-01
Ten years after its discovery at the Tevatron collider, we still know little about the top quark. Its large mass suggests it may play a key role in the mechanism of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB), or open a window of sensitivity to new physics related to EWSB and preferentially coupled to it. To determine whether this is the case, precision measurements of top quark properties are necessary. The high statistics samples being collected by the Tevatron experiments during Run II start to incisively probe the top quark sector. This report summarizes the experimental status of the top quark, focusing in particular on the recent measurements from the Tevatron.
Quark forces from hadronic spectroscopy.
Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos
2009-04-17
We consider the implications of the most general two-body quark-quark interaction Hamiltonian for the spin-flavor structure of the negative parity L = 1 excited baryons. Assuming the most general two-body quark interaction Hamiltonian, we derive two correlations among the masses and mixing angles of these states, which constrain the mixing angles, and can be used to test for the presence of three-body quark interactions. We find that the pure gluon-exchange model is disfavored by data, independently of any assumptions about hadronic wave functions.
Cold quark matter in compact stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Horvath, J. E. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 1226, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-03-25
We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.
Chirally symmetric but confined hadrons at finite density
Glozman, L Ya
2008-01-01
At a critical finite chemical potential and low temperature QCD undergoes the chiral restoration phase transition. The folklore tradition is that simultaneously hadrons are deconfined and there appears the quark matter. We demonstrate that it is possible to have confined but chirally symmetric hadrons at a finite chemical potential and hence beyond the chiral restoration point at a finite chemical potential and low temperature there could exist a chirally symmetric matter consisting of chirally symmetric but confined hadrons. If it does happen in QCD, then the QCD phase diagram should be reconsidered with obvious implications for heavy ion programs and astrophysics.
Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antonelli, Mario; /Frascati; Asner, David Mark; /Carleton U.; Bauer, Daniel Adams; /Imperial Coll., London; Becher, Thomas G.; /Fermilab; Beneke, M.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Bevan, Adrian John; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Blanke, Monika; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Bloise, C.; /Frascati; Bona, Marcella; /CERN; Bondar, Alexander E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bozzi, Concezio; /INFN, Ferrara; Brod, Joachim; /Karlsruhe U.; Buras, Andrzej J.; /Munich, Tech. U.; Cabibbo, N.; /INFN, Rome /Rome U.; Carbone, A.; /INFN, Bologna; Cavoto, Gianluca; /INFN, Rome; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; /Los Alamos; Ciuchini, Marco; /INFN, Rome; Coleman, Jonathon P.; /SLAC; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; /Minnesota U.; Dalseno, J.P.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Glasgow U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Freiburg U. /Charles U. /Pisa U. /Vienna, OAW /Imperial Coll., London /Bergen U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Munich, Tech. U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Southampton U. /INFN, Rome /Nara Women' s U. /Florida U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Edinburgh U. /Warwick U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /KEK, Tsukuba /Bern U. /CERN /Munich, Tech. U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /CERN /Frascati /Brookhaven /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Munich, Tech. U. /Siegen U. /Imperial Coll., London /Victoria U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Washington U., St. Louis /Frascati /Warwick U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Madras /Melbourne U. /Princeton U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Fermilab /SLAC /York U., Canada /Brookhaven /UC, Irvine /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Valencia U., IFIC /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona U. /Warwick U. /Tata Inst. /Frascati /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Vienna U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LPT /Frascati /Munich, Tech. U. /Brookhaven /Bern U. /CERN /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Valencia U., IFIC /CERN /Kentucky U. /Oxford U. /Iowa State U. /Bristol U. /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Glasgow U. /INFN, Padua /Queen Mary, U. of London /Texas U. /LPHE, Lausanne /Fermilab /UC, Santa Cruz /Vienna, OAW /Cincinnati U. /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Ohio State U. /Purdue U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Frascati /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Rome /Bern U. /Karlsruhe U. /Brookhaven /CERN /Paris U., VI-VII /Zurich, ETH /Pisa U. /Frascati /Oxford U. /Orsay, LAL /INFN, Rome2 /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Princeton U. /Fermilab /Queen' s U., Kingston /KEK, Tsukuba /Melbourne U. /Brookhaven /Indiana U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Pisa U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe U. /Oxford U. /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Edinburgh U. /CERN
2010-08-26
In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved, apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments, thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of the physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that is about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.
Confinement in Polyakov gauge and the QCD phase diagram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marhauser, Marc Florian
2009-10-14
We investigate Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the framework of the functional renormalisation group (fRG). Thereby describing the phase transition from the phase with confined quarks into the quark-gluon-plasma phase. We focus on a physical gauge in which the mechanism driving the phase transition is discernible. We find results compatible with lattice QCD data, as well as with functional methods applied in different gauges. The phase transition is of the expected order and we computed critical exponents. Extensions of the model are discussed. When investigating the QCD phase diagram, we compute the effects of dynamical quarks at finite density on the running of the gauge coupling. Additionally, we calculate how these affect the deconfinement phase transition, also, dynamical quarks allow for the inclusion of a finite chemical potential. Concluding the investigation of the phase diagram, we establish a relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, which is tied to the dynamical generation of hadron masses. In the investigations, we often encounter scale dependent fields. We investigate a footing on which these can be dealt with in a uniform way. (orig.)
Chirally symmetric but confining dense and cold matter
Glozman, L Ya
2007-01-01
The folklore tradition about the QCD phase diagram is that the chiral restoration and deconfinement transitions coincide. Very recently McLerran and Pisarski suggested, based on qualitative large $N_c$ arguments, that at moderate temperature and not very small chemical potential it is not the case. We address this question within the only known exactly solvable confining and chirally symmetric model. It is postulated within this model that there exists linear Coulomb-like confining interaction. The chiral symmetry breaking and the quark Green function are obtained from the Schwinger-Dyson equation while the color-singlet meson spectrum results from the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Single quarks cannot be observed because the single-quark Green function is infrared divergent. We solve this model at T=0 and finite chemical potential \\mu and obtain a clear chiral restoration phase transition at the critical value \\mu_{cr}. Below this value the quarks have a finite momentum-dependent dynamical mass and the spectrum i...
The Discovery of the Top Quark
Sinervo, P.K.
1995-12-01
The top quark and the Higgs boson are the heaviest elementary particles predicted by the standard model. The four lightest quark flavours, the up, down, strange and charm quarks, were well-established by the mid-1970's. The discovery in 1977 of the {Tau} resonances, a new family of massive hadrons, required the introduction of the fifth quark flavour. Experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that this quark also has a heavier partner, the top quark.
Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas
Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.
1993-01-01
The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.
Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas
Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.
1993-01-01
The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.
Inflating metastable quark-gluon plasma universe.
Jenkovszky, L.
The cosmic evolution of our universe before and after the assumed confinement phase transition is studied within the homogeneous, isotropic and spatially flat model. The Friedmann equation, describing its evolution is appended by an equation of state (EOS) of the quark-gluon plasma. A specifically interesting feature of this EOS, derived both in the content of the quark model (and quantum chromodynamics) and the S-matrix formulation of statistical mechanics is the presence of a local minimum in the pressure vs. temperature dependence, that may be the origin of the exponential expansion of our universe, called inflation. The conditions necessary for the deep supercooling, accompanied by nucleation in a first-order phase transition, have been investigated. The nucleation rate (and consequently the probability of the deep supercooling indispensable for the inflation) are shown to depend essentially on the surface tension of the created bubbles. The possibility of a "nuclear inflation" - the analogue of the above scenario in heavy ion collisions - is also discussed.
The Physics of a Sextet Quark Sector
White, Alan R
2005-01-01
Electroweak symmetry breaking can be a consequence of color sextet quark chiral symmetry breaking. If so, a special solution of QCD is involved, for which the high-energy S-Matrix can be constructed ``semi-perturbatively''. The spectrum is consistent with, but is more limited than is required by, confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. The pomeron is approximately a regge pole and the Critical Pomeron describes asymptotic cross-sections. The pomeron couples strongly to the electroweak sector and this coupling could produce large $x$ and $Q^2$ events at HERA, and vector boson pairs at Fermilab. Further evidence for the sextet sector would be a large $E_T$ jet excess and other phenomena related to top quark production by the $\\eta_6$. The sextet proton and neutron are the only new baryonic states. Sextet states will dominate high energy hadronic cross-sections and the sextet neutron, which is absolutely stable, could be responsible for dark matter in the universe and also ultra high energy cosmic rays. Other ...
Baryons in a chiral constituent quark model
Glozman, L Ya
1998-01-01
In the low-energy regime light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of constituent quarks with confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by Goldstone bosons as well as by vector and scalar mesons. The flavor-spin structure and sign of the short-range part of the spin-spin force reduces the $SU(6)_{FS}$ symmetry down to $SU(3)_F \\times SU(2)_S$, induces hyperfine splittings and provides correct ordering of the lowest states with positive and negative parity. There is a cancellation of the tensor force from pseudoscalar- and vector-exchanges in baryons. The spin-orbit interactions from $\\rho$-like and $\\omega$-like exchanges also cancel each other in baryons while they produce a big spin-orbit force in NN system. A unified description of light and strange baryon spectra calculated in a semirelativistic framework is presented. It is demonstrated that the same short-range part of spin-spin interaction between the constituent quarks induces a strong short-range repulsion in $NN...
Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector
Antonelli, Mario; Bauer, Daniel Adams; Becher, Thomas G.; Beneke, M.; Bevan, Adrian John; Blanke, Monika; Bloise, C.; Bona, Marcella; Bondar, Alexander E.; Bozzi, Concezio; Brod, Joachim; Buras, Andrzej J.; Cabibbo, N.; Carbone, A.; Cavoto, Gianluca; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ciuchini, Marco; Coleman, Jonathon P.; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dalseno, J.P.; Davies, C.H.; Di Lodovico, Francesca; Dingfelder, Jochen C.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donati, Simone; Dungel, W.; Egede, Ulrik; Eigen, Gerald; Faccini, Riccardo; Feldmann, Thorsten; Ferroni, Fernando; Flynn, Jonathan M.; Franco, Enrico; Fujikawa, M.; Furic, Ivan K.; Gambino, Paolo; Gardi, E.; Gershon, Timothy John; Giagu, Stefano; Golowich, Eugene; Goto, Toru; Greub, C.; Grojean, Christophe; Guadagnoli, Diego; Haisch, U.A.; Harr, Robert Francis; Hoang, Andre H.; Hurth, Tobias; Isidori, Gino; Jaffe, D.E.; Juttner, Andreas; Jager, Sebastian; Khodjamirian, Alexander; Koppenburg, Patrick Stefan; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Krokovny, P.; Kronfeld, Andreas Samuel; Laiho, J.; Lanfranchi, G.; Latham, Thomas Edward; Libby, James F.; Limosani, A.; Lopes Pegna, David; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lubicz, Vittorio; Lunghi, Enrico; Luth, Vera G.; Maltman, K.; Marciano, William Joseph; Martin, Emilie Claire Mutsumi; Martinelli, Guido; Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; Masiero, A.; Mateu, V.; Mescia, Federico; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Moulson, Matthew; Neubert, Matthias; Neufeld, Helmut; Nishida, Shohei; Offen, Nils; Palutan, M.; Paradisi, Paride; Parsa, Z.; Passemar, Emilie; Patel, M.; Pecjak, B.D.; Petrov, Alexey A.; Pich, Antonio; Pierini, Maurizio; Plaster, Brad; Powell, Brian Alfred; Prell, Soeren Andre; Rademaker, J.; Rescigno, Marco; Ricciardi, Stefania; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, E.; Rotondo, Marcello; Sacco, Roberto; Schilling, Christopher James; Schneider, Olivier; Scholz, Enno E.; Schumm, Bruce Andrew; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, Alan Jay; Sciascia, Barbara; Serrano, Justine; Shigemitsu, J.; Shipsey, Ian P.J.; Sibidanov, A.L.; Silvestrini, Luca; Simonetto, Franco; Simula, Silvano; Smith, Christopher; Soni, A.; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sordini, Viola; Sozzi, Marco S.; Spadaro, Tommaso; Spradlin, Patrick Michael; Stocchi, Achille; Tantalo, Nazario; Tarantino, Cecilia; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Tonelli, Diego; Towner, I.S.; Trabelsi, K.; Urquijo, Phillip; Van de Water, R.S.; Van Kooten, Richard J.; Virto, Javier; Volpi, Guido; Wanke, R.; Westhoff, Susanne; Wilkinson, G.; Wingate, Matthew Bowen; Xie, Y.; Zupan, Jure
2010-01-01
One of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor and measurements and theoretical interpretations of their results have advanced tremendously: apart from masses and quantum numbers of flavor particles, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. Till early 1990s observations of CP violation were confined to neutral $K$ mesons, but since then a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral $B$ mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of $K, D$, and $B$ mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near...
The Role of Bag Surface Tension in Color Confinement
Bugaev, K A
2011-01-01
We discuss here the novel view at the color confinement which, on the one hand, allows us to find out the surface tension coefficient of quark gluon bags and, under a plausible assumption, to determine the endpoint temperature of the QCD phase diagram, on the other hand. The present model considers the confining color tube as the cylindrical quark gluon bag with non-zero surface tension. A close inspection of the free energies of elongated cylindrical bag and the confining color tube that connects the static quark-antiquark pair allows us to find out the string tension in terms of the surface tension, thermal pressure and the bag radius. Using the derived relation it is possible to estimate the bag surface tension at zero temperature directly from the lattice QCD data and to estimate the (tri)critical endpoint temperature. In the present analysis the topological free energy of the cylindrical bag is accounted for the first time. The requirement of positive entropy density of such bags leads to negative values...
Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2016-07-22
We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative equation of state of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to O(g^{5}) in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated via a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft nonzero modes are resummed using the hard thermal loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.
Kurkela, Aleksi
2016-01-01
We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative Equation of State of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to order g^5 in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated using a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft non-zero modes are resummed using the Hard Thermal Loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.
Gauge cooling in complex Langevin for lattice QCD with heavy quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seiler, Erhard, E-mail: ehs@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), München (Germany); Sexty, Dénes, E-mail: d.sexty@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg (Germany); Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu, E-mail: I.O.Stamatescu@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg (Germany)
2013-06-10
We employ a new method, “gauge cooling”, to stabilize complex Langevin simulations of QCD with heavy quarks. The results are checked against results obtained with reweighting; we find agreement within the estimated errors, except for strong gauge coupling in the confinement region. The method allows us to go to previously unaccessible high densities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Déliot, Frédéric [IRFU, Saclay; Hadley, Nicholas [Maryland U., College Park; Parke, Stephen [Fermilab; Schwarz, Tom [Michigan U.
2014-10-01
The top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle, and it is often seen as a window to search for new physics processes in particle physics. A large program to study the top-quark properties has been performed both at the Tevatron and LHC colliders by the D0, CDF, ATLAS and CMS experiments. The most recent results are discussed in this article.
Heavy quark spectroscopy at LHCb
INSPIRE-00165164
2015-01-01
The analysis of $3.0 fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector has yielded a broad range of results in spectroscopy of conventional and exotic hadrons with heavy quark(s) inside. We review the LHCb results which have been obtained over the last year.
Broniowski, Wojciech; Rybczynski, Maciej
2016-01-01
We review the results of the wounded quark model, with a stress on eccentricity observables in small systems. A new element is a presentation of symmetric cumulants for the elliptic and triangular flow correlations, obtained in the wounded-quark approach.
From QCD to a dynamical quark model: construction and some meson spectroscopy
Dudal, D; Palhares, L F; Sorella, S P
2013-01-01
We introduce an effective quark model that is in principle dynamically derivable from the QCD action. An important feature is the incorporation of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in a renormalizable fashion. The quark propagator in the condensed vacuum exhibits complex conjugate poles, indicative of an unphysical spectral form, i.e. confined quarks. Moreover, the ensuing mass function can be fitted well to existing lattice data. To validate the physical nature of the new model, we identify not only a massless pseudoscalar (i.e. a pion) in the chiral limit, but we also present reasonable estimates for the rho meson mass and decay constant, employing a contact point interaction and a large N argument to simplify the diagrammatic spectral analysis. We stress that we do not use any experimental input to obtain our numbers, but only rely on our model and lattice quark data.
Electrofreezing of confined water
Zangi, R; Mark, AE
2004-01-01
We report results from molecular dynamics simulations of the freezing transition of TIP5P water molecules confined between two parallel plates under the influence of a homogeneous external electric field, with magnitude of 5 V/nm, along the lateral direction. For water confined to a thickness of a
Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report.
Delaplaine School District, AR.
The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…
Jan-e~Alam; Subhasis~Chattopadhyay; Tapan~Nayak
2008-10-01
Quark Matter 2008—the 20th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions was held in Jaipur, the Pink City of India, from 4-10 February, 2008. Organizing Quark Matter 2008 in India itself indicates the international recognition of the Indian contribution to the field of heavy-ion physics, which was initiated and nurtured by Bikash Sinha, Chair of the conference. The conference was inaugurated by the Honourable Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Smt. Vasundhara Raje followed by the key note address by Professor Carlo Rubbia. The scientific programme started with the theoretical overview, `SPS to RHIC and onwards to LHC' by Larry McLerran followed by several theoretical and experimental overview talks on the ongoing experiments at SPS and RHIC. The future experiments at the LHC, FAIR and J-PARC, along with the theoretical predictions, were discussed in great depth. Lattice QCD predictions on the nature of the phase transition and critical point were vigorously debated during several plenary and parallel session presentations. The conference was enriched by the presence of an unprecedented number of participants; about 600 participants representing 31 countries across the globe. This issue contains papers based on plenary talks and oral presentations presented at the conference. Besides invited and contributed talks, there were also a large number of poster presentations. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role in the selection of speakers, both for plenary and parallel session talks. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from helping to prepare the academic programme down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both the committees for making Quark Matter 2008 a very effective and interesting platform for scientific deliberations. Quark Matter 2008 was financially supported by: Air Liquide (New Delhi) Board of Research Nuclear Sciences (Mumbai) Bose
Dynamics of the QCD string with light and heavy quarks
Gubankova, E C
1994-01-01
Abstract: The generalization of the effective action [1] of the quark--antiquark system in the confining vacuum is performed for the case of arbitrary quark masses. The interaction of quarks is described by the averaged Wilson loop for which we use the minimal area law asymptotics. The system is quantized by the path integral method and the quantum Hamiltonian is obtained. It contains not only quark degrees of freedom but also the string energy density. As well as in the equal masses case [1] two dynamical regimes are found [2]: for large orbital excitations (l \\gg 1) the system is represented as rotating string, which leads to asymptotically linear Regge trajectories, while at small l one obtains a potential-like relativistic or nonrelativistic regime. In the limiting cases of light-light and heavy-light mesons a unified description is developed [2]. For the Regge trajectories one obtains nearly straight-line patterns with the slope very close to 1/2 \\pi \\sigma and 1/ \\pi\\sigma correspondingly. The upper bou...
Deconfinement of Quarks with TeV Attosecond Photon Beams
Stefan, V. Alexander
2010-02-01
Recently, I have proposed a novel heuristic method for the deconfinement of quarks.footnotetextM. Gell-Mann. The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex (New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1994) [cf. M. Gell-Mann, The Garden of Live Flowers in: V. Stefan (Editor), Physics and Society. Essays Honoring Victor Frederick Weisskopf (Springer, 1998), pp. 109-121]. It proceeds in two phases.footnotetextV. Alexander Stefan, On a Heuristic Point of View About Inertial Deconfinement of Quarks, American Physical Society, 2009 APS April Meeting, May 2-5, 2009, abstract #E1.038. Firstly, a frozen hydrogen pellet is inertially confined by the ultra-intense lasers up to a solid state density. Secondly, a solid state nano-pellet is ``punched'' by the photon beam created in the beat wave driven free electron laser (BW-FEL), leading to the ``rapture'' (in a ``karate chop'' model) of the ``MIT Bag''footnotetextJ. I. Friedman and H. Kendall, Viki, in: V. Stefan (Editor), Physics and Society. (Springer, 1998), pp. 103-108]. before the asymptotically free quarks move apart. Hereby, I propose TeV, a few 100s attosecond, photon beams in interaction with the nano-pellet. The threshold ``rapture force'' of the TeV attosecond photon is 10^7 N. )
Dynamics in geometrical confinement
Kremer, Friedrich
2014-01-01
This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...
Clustered Quark Matter Calculation for Strange Quark Matter
Na, Xuesen
2009-01-01
Motivated by the need for a solid state strange quark matter to better explain some observational phenomena, we discussed possibility of color singlet cluster formation in cold strange quark matter by a rough calculation following the excluded volume method proposed by Clark et al (1986) and adopted quark mass density dependent model with cubic scaling. It is found that 70% to 75% of volume and 80% to 90% of baryon number is in clusters at temperature from 10MeV to 50MeV and 1 to 10 times nuclear density.
$f N\\piN from quarks to the pion derivative coupling
Bicudo, P J A
1997-01-01
We study the N pi N coupling, in the framework of a QCD-inspired confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. A simple relativistic confining and instantaneous quark model is reviewed. The Salpeter equation for the nucleon and the boosted pion is solved. The f [n pi n] and f[n pi Delta] couplings are calculated and they turn out to be reasonably good. The sensibility of f[n pi n] and f[n pi Delta] to confinement, chiral symmetry breaking and Lorentz invariance is briefly discussed.
Derivation of a Closed Expression of the B-S Interaction Kernel for Quark-Antiquark Bound States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU Jun-Chen
2002-01-01
The interaction kernel in the Bethe-Salpeter (B-S) equation for quark-antiquark bound states is derivedfrom B-S equations satisfied by the quark-antiquark four-point Green's function. The latter equations are establishedbased on the equations of motion obeyed by the quark and antiquark propagators, the four-point Green's function andsome other kinds of Green's functions, which follow directly from the QCD generating functional. The derived B-Skernel is given by a closed and explicit expression which contains only a few types of Green's functions. This expressionis not only convenient for perturbative calculations, but also applicable for nonperturbative investigations. Since thekernel contains all the interactions taking place in the quark-antiquark bound states, it actually appears to be the mostsuitable starting point of studying the QCD nonperturbative effect and quark confinement.
Baryons in the unquenched quark model
Bijker, R; Lopez-Ruiz, M A; Santopinto, E
2016-01-01
In this contribution, we present the unquenched quark model as an extension of the constituent quark model that includes the effects of sea quarks via a $^{3}P_{0}$ quark-antiquark pair-creation mechanism. Particular attention is paid to the spin and flavor content of the proton, magnetic moments and $\\beta$ decays of octet baryons.
Evidence for production of single top quarks
Abazov, V.M.; et al., [Unknown; de Jong, S.J.; Demarteau, M.; Houben, P.; van den Berg, P.J.
2008-01-01
We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p (p) over bar collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-q
Top Quark Properties Measurements in CMS
Yazgan, Efe
Recent top quark properties measurements made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. The measurements summarized include spin correlation of top quark pairs, asymmetries, top quark mass, and the underlying event in top quark pair events. The results are compared to the standard model predictions and new physics models.
Top quark properties at ATLAS and CMS
Brock, Ian; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Recent results from ATLAS and CMS connected to the properties of the top quark are presented. The talk concentrates on asymmetries connected with top-quark production and the measurement of spin correlations between the top quark and antiquark. A search for CP violation in top-quark-antiquark production is also discussed.
Top quark properties measurements in CMS
Yazgan, E.; CMS Collaboration
2017-07-01
Recent top quark properties measurements made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. The measurements summarized include spin correlation of top quark pairs, asymmetries, top quark mass, and the underlying event in top quark pair events. The results are compared to the standard model predictions and new physics models.
Radiative leptonic Bc decay in the relativistic independent quark model
Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita
2008-12-01
The radiative leptonic decay Bc-→μ-ν¯μγ is analyzed in its leading order in a relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratio for this decay in the vanishing lepton mass limit is obtained as Br(Bc→μνμγ)=6.83×10-5, which includes the contributions of the internal bremsstrahlung and structure-dependent diagrams at the level of the quark constituents. The contributions of the bremsstrahlung and the structure-dependent diagrams, as well as their additive interference parts, are compared and found to be of the same order of magnitude. Finally, the predicted photon energy spectrum is observed here to be almost symmetrical about the peak value of the photon energy at Ẽγ≃(MBc)/(4), which may be quite accessible experimentally at LHC in near future.
Meson turbulence at quark deconfinement from AdS/CFT
Hashimoto, Koji; Murata, Keiju; Oka, Takashi
2014-01-01
Based on the QCD string picture at confining phase, we conjecture that the deconfinement transition always accompanies a condensation of higher meson resonances with a power-law behavior, "meson turbulence". We employ the AdS/CFT correspondence to calculate the meson turbulence for $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric QCD at large $N_c$ and at strong coupling limit, and find that the energy distribution to each meson level $n$ scales as $n^\\alpha$ with the universal scaling $\\alpha=-5$. The universality is checked for various ways to attain the quark deconfinement: a static electric field below/around the critical value, a time-dependent electric field quench, and a time-dependent quark mass quench, all result in the turbulent meson condensation with the universal power $\\alpha=-5$ around the deconfinement.
Quark Virtuality and QCD Vacuum Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing
2004-01-01
@@ Based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in the ‘rainbow' approximation, we investigate the quark virtuality in the vacuum state and quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum condensates. In particular, we calculate the local quark vacuum condensate and quark-gluon mixed condensates, and then the virtuality of quark. The calculated quark virtualities are λ2u,d = 0.7 GeV2 for u, d quarks, and 2s 1.6 GeV2 for s quark.Our theoretical predictions are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules, and also fit to lattice QCD predictions.
Top quark studies at hadron colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinervo, P.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
1997-01-01
The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menzione, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy)
1995-10-01
Most of the material presented in this report, comes from contributions to the parallel session PL20 of this conference. We summarise the experimental results of direct production of Top quarks, coming from the CDF and C0 Collaborations at Fermilab, and compare these results to what one expects within current theoretical understanding. Particular attention is given to new results such as all hadronic modes of t{bar t} decay. As far as the mass is concerned, a comparison is made with precision measurements of related quantities, coming from LEP and other experiments. An attempt is made to look at the medium-term future and understand which variables and with what accuracy one can measure them with increased integrated luminosity.
Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks
Rafelski, Johann
2015-01-01
In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. Finally in two appendices I present previously unpublished reports describing the early prediction of the different forms of hadron matter and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the initial prediction of strangeness and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP.
Melting hadrons, boiling quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafelski, Johann [CERN-PH/TH, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Arizona, Department of Physics, Tucson, Arizona (United States)
2015-09-15
In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. The material of this review is complemented by two early and unpublished reports containing the prediction of the different forms of hadron matter, and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the discussion of strangeness, and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP. (orig.)
Thorndike, Edward H.; Poling, Ronald A.
1988-01-01
Recent experimental results on the decay of b-flavored hadrons are reviewed. Substantial progress has been made in the study of exclusive and inclusive B-meson decays, as well as in the theoretical understanding of these processes. The two most prominent developments are the continuing failure to observe evidence of decays of the b quark to a u quark rather than a c quark, and the surprisingly high level of B 0- overlineB0 mi xing which has recently been reported by the ARGUS collaboration. Notwithstanding these results, we conclude that the health of the Standard Model is excellent.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.
2009-08-01
The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the
Holographic quark-gluon plasmas at finite quark density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bigazzi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Cotrone, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino (Italy); Mas, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tarrio, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Universiteit Utrecht, 3584 CE, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mayerson, D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2012-07-15
Gravity solutions holographically dual to strongly coupled quark-gluon plasmas with non-zero quark density are reviewed. They are motivated by the urgency of finding novel tools to explore the phase diagram of QCD-like theories at finite chemical potential. After presenting the solutions and their regime of validity, some of their physical properties are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Quark-anti-quark potential in N = 4 SYM
Gromov, Nikolay; Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor
2016-12-01
We construct a closed system of equations describing the quark-anti-quark potential at any coupling in planar N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It is based on the Quantum Spectral Curve method supplemented with a novel type of asymptotics. We present a high precision numerical solution reproducing the classical and one-loop string predictions very accurately. We also analytically compute the first 7 nontrivial orders of the weak coupling expansion.
Heavy quarks and CP: Moriond 1985
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjorken, J.D.
1985-03-01
The presentations at the Fifth Moriond Workshop on Heavy Quarks, Flavor Mixing, and CP Violation (La Plagne, France, January 13-19, 1985) are summarized. The following topics are reviewed. What's New (beyond the top, top quarks, bottom quarks, charm quarks, strange quarks, and others); why is all this being done (strong interactions and hadron structure, and electroweak properties); and what next (facilities and can one see CP violation in the B-anti B system). 64 refs., 10 figs.
Structure of Nonlocal Vacuum Condensate of Quarks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周丽娟; 马维兴
2003-01-01
The Dyson-Schwinger formalism is used to derive a fully dressed quark propagator. By use of the derived form of the quark propagator, the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate is studied, and the values of local quark vacuum condensate as well as quark gluon mixed condensate are calculated. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the empirical one used commonly in the literature.
The static confining potential for Q.C.D. in the Mandelstam model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botelho, Luiz C.L. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: botelho.luiz@ig.com.br
2008-07-01
We evaluate explicitly the quark-antiquark static potential on Quantum Chromodynamics Q.C.D. (SU(3)) by using the dimensional regularization scheme in the context of the Mandelstam approximation for the gluonic interaction. We obtain its charge confining behavior in opposition to the expected result of a screening charge dynamics. (author)
Kugo-Ojima confinement and QCD Green's functions in covariant gauges
Alkofer, R; Von Smekal, L; Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S.; Smekal, Lorenz von
2003-01-01
In Landau gauge QCD the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion and its relation to the infrared behaviour of the gluon and ghost propagators are reviewed. It is demonstrated that the realization of this confinement criterion (which is closely related to the Gribov-Zwanziger horizon condition) results from quite general properties of the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. The numerical solutions for the gluon and ghost propagators obtained from a truncated set of Dyson--Schwinger equations provide an explicit example for the anticipated infrared behaviour. The results are in good agreement, also quantitatively, with corresponding lattice data obtained recently. The resulting running coupling approaches a fixed point in the infrared, $\\alpha(0) = 8.915/N_c$. Solutions for the coupled system of Dyson--Schwinger equations for the quark, gluon and ghost propagators are presented. Dynamical generation of quark masses and thus spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry takes place. In the quenched approximation the quark propag...
Dumé, Belle
2003-01-01
"Physicists working at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the US say that they have come closer than ever before to creating a quark-gluon plasma" (0.5 page)
Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Álvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Chevalier, L.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S. R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Efimov, A. O.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Yu.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Franzini, P.; Fredriksen, S.; Fuess, S.; Galjaev, A. N.; Gallas, E.; Gao, C. S.; Gao, S.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glaubman, M.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gomez, B.; Goncharov, P. I.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hatcher, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnstad, H.; Jonckheere, A.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.; Kernan, A.; Kerth, L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B. I.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lanou, R. E.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, Y. K.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Mandrichenko, I. V.; Mangeot, Ph.; Mani, S.; Mansoulié, B.; Mao, H. S.; Margulies, S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; Melanson, H. L.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Milder, A.; Milner, C.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mohammadi-Baarmand, M.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mudan, M.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neis, E.; Nemethy, P.; NešiĆ, D.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pluquet, A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pušeljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rao, M. V.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Roldan, J. M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rusin, S.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schmid, D.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stocker, F.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Taketani, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, T. L.; Teiger, J.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Virador, P. R.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; von Goeler, E.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, J.; Wang, L. Z.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; Wenzel, W. A.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Wilcox, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Wolf, Z.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, Y. H.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Zylberstejn, A.
1995-04-01
The D0 Collaboration reports on a search for the standard model top quark in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron with an integrated luminosity of approximately 50 pb-1. We have searched for tt¯ production in the dilepton and single-lepton decay channels with and without tagging of b-quark jets. We observed 17 events with an expected background of 3.8+/-0.6 events. The probability for an upward fluctuation of the background to produce the observed signal is 2×10-6 (equivalent to 4.6 standard deviations). The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with top quark decay. We conclude that we have observed the top quark and measured its mass to be 199+19-21 (stat) +/-22 (syst) GeV/c2 and its production cross section to be 6.4+/-2.2 pb.
Solid Bare Strange Quark Stars
Xu, R X
2003-01-01
The reason, we need three terms of `strange', `bare', and `solid' before quark stars, is presented concisely though some fundamental issues are not certain. Observations favoring these stars are introduced.
Miller, David E
2016-01-01
We carry out numerical evaluations of the motion of classical particles in Minkowski Space $\\mathbb{M}^{4}$ which are confined to the inside of a bag. In particular, we analyze the structure of the paths evolving from the breaking of the dilatation symmetry, the conformal symmetry and the combination of both together. The confining forces arise directly from the corresponding nonconserved currents. We demonstrate in our evaluations that these particles under certain initial conditions move toward the interior of the bag.
Top Quark Physics: Future Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaros, John A
2003-05-09
We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.
Stability of Quark Star Models
Azam, M.; Mardan, S. A.; Rehman, M. A.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the stability of quark stars with four different types of inner matter configurations; isotropic, charged isotropic, anisotropic and charged anisotropic by using the concept of cracking. For this purpose, we have applied local density perturbations technique to the hydrostatic equilibrium equation as well as on physical parameters involved in the model. We conclude that quark stars become potentially unstable when inner matter configuration is changed and electromagnetic field is applied.
Pourquoi les quarks restent invisibles
Gross, David J
2005-01-01
At the beginning of the seventies, physicists discovered a new scale in the matter structure. Protons and neutrons, components of the atomic nucleus, seemed to be constituted by even more elementar particles: the quarks. But while they seemed to move freely inside the protons, it was impossible to isolate one of these quarks. The Nobel Prize for physics rewarded the explanation of this phenomenon (3 pages)
Heavy quark production and spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appel, J.A.
1993-11-01
This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.
The strange-quark distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barone, V. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica; Genovese, M. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Nikolaev, N.N. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Predazzi, E. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica; Zakharov, B.G. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1996-03-01
We discuss the latest CCFR determination of the strange sea density of the proton. We comment on the differences with a previous, leading-order, result and point out the relevance of quark mass effects and current non-conservation effects. By taking them into account it is possible to solve the residual discrepancy with another determination of the strange-quark distribution. Two important sources of uncertainties are also analysed. (orig.). With 4 figs.
Deconfinement and virtual quark loops
Çelik, T.; Engels, J.; Satz, H.
1983-12-01
We calculate paer Monte Carlo evaluation on an 83 × 3 lattice the energy density ɛG of the gluon sector of QCD, including virtual quark loops up to the fourth power in the hopping parameter expansion. For light quarks of one flavour, we observe at T/ΛL 95 +/- 10 a rapid variation of ɛG in T, accompanied by strong fluctuations from iteration to iteration. as clear signal of the deconfinement transition.
Unquenched QCD with Light Quarks
Duncan, A; Yoo, J
2003-01-01
We present recent results in unquenched lattice QCD with two degenerate light sea quarks using the truncated determinant approximation (TDA). In the TDA the infrared modes contributing to the quark determinant are computed exactly up to some cutoff in quark off-shellness (typically 2$\\Lambda_{QCD}$). This approach allows simulations to be performed at much lighter quark masses than possible with conventional hybrid MonteCarlo techniques. Results for the static energy and topological charge distributions are presented using a large ensemble generated on very coarse (6$^4$) but physically large lattices. Preliminary results are also reported for the static energy and meson spectrum on 10$^3$x20 lattices (lattice scale $a^{-1}$=1.15 GeV) at quark masses corresponding to pions of mass $\\leq$ 200 MeV. Using multiboson simulation to compute the ultraviolet part of the quark determinant the TDA approach becomes an exact with essentially no increase in computational effort. Some preliminary results using this fully u...
Polarization in heavy quark decays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alimujiang, K.
2006-07-01
In this thesis I concentrate on the angular correlations in top quark decays and their next.to.leading order (NLO) QCD corrections. I also discuss the leading.order (LO) angular correlations in unpolarized and polarized hyperon decays. In the first part of the thesis I calculate the angular correlation between the top quark spin and the momentum of decay products in the rest frame decay of a polarized top quark into a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark in Two-Higgs-Doublet-Models: t({up_arrow}) {yields} b + H{sup +}. I provide closed form formulae for the O({alpha}{sub s}) radiative corrections to the unpolarized and the polar correlation functions for m{sub b}{ne}0 and m{sub b}=0. In the second part I concentrate on the semileptonic rest frame decay of a polarized top quark into a bottom quark and a lepton pair: t({up_arrow}){yields}X{sub b}+l{sup +}+{nu}{sub l}. I present closed form expressions for the O({alpha}{sub s}) radiative corrections to the unpolarized part and the polar and azimuthal correlations for m{sub b}{ne}0 and m{sub b}=0. In the last part I turn to the angular distribution in semileptonic hyperon decays. Using the helicity method I derive complete formulas for the leading order joint angular decay distributions occurring in semileptonic hyperon decays including lepton mass and polarization effects. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, A. W. [Fermilab
2014-09-24
Recent measurements of top-quark properties at the LHC and the Tevatron are presented. Most recent measurements of the top quark mass have been carried out by CMS using $19.7/$fb of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data including the study of the dependence on event kinematics. ATLAS uses the full Run I data at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV for a "3D" measurement that significantly reduces systematic uncertainties. D0 employs the full Run II data using the matrix element method to measure the top quark mass with significantly reduced systematic uncertainties. Many different measurements of the top quark exist to date and the most precise ones per decay channel per experiment have been combined into the first world combination with a relative precision of 0.44%. Latest updates of measurements of production asymmetries include the measurement of the \\ttbar production asymmetry by D0 employing the full Run II data set, by CMS and ATLAS (including the polarization of the top quark) employing both the full data set at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. CMS uses the full $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data to measure the top quark polarization in single top production, the ratio ${\\cal R}$ of the branching fractions ${\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wb) / {\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wq)$ and to search for flavor changing neutral currents. The results from all these measurements agree well with their respective Standard Model expectation.
The three-quark potential and perfect Abelian dominance in SU(3) lattice QCD
Suganuma, Hideo
2015-01-01
We study the static three-quark (3Q) potential for more than 300 different patterns of 3Q systems with high statistics, i.e., 1000-2000 gauge configurations, in SU(3) lattice QCD at the quenched level. For all the distances, the 3Q potential is found to be well described by the Y-ansatz, i.e., one-gluon-exchange (OGE) Coulomb plus Y-type linear potential. Also, we investigate Abelian projection of quark confinement in the context of the dual superconductor picture proposed by Yoichiro~Nambu~{\\it et al.} in SU(3) lattice QCD. Remarkably, quark confinement forces in both Q$\\bar{\\rm Q}$ and 3Q systems can be described only with Abelian variables in the maximally Abelian gauge, i.e., $\\sigma_{\\rm Q \\bar Q} \\simeq \\sigma_{\\rm Q \\bar Q}^{\\rm Abel} \\simeq \\sigma_{\\rm 3Q} \\simeq \\sigma_{\\rm 3Q}^{\\rm Abel}$, which we call ``perfect Abelian dominance'' of quark confinement.
Measurement of top quark properties at CMS
Piedra Gomez, Jonatan
2015-01-01
Measurements of top quark properties in top quark decays are presented, using data collected by the CMS experiment during the years 2011 and 2012. The polarization of W bosons in top quark decays is measured. The W boson helicity fractions and angular asymmetries are extracted, and limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex are determined. Furthermore, searches for flavor changing neutral currents in top quark decays are presented. The flavor contents in top quark pair events are measured using the fraction of top quarks decaying into a W boson and a b quark relative to all top quark decays, $R=BR({\\rm t} \\to {\\rm Wb})/BR({\\rm t} \\to {\\rm Wq})$, and the result is used to determine the CKM matrix element $V_{\\rm tb}$ as well as the width of the top quark resonance.
The Kugo-Ojima Confinement Criterion from Dyson-Schwinger Equations
Alkofer, R; Watson, P; Alkofer, Reinhard; Smekal, Lorenz von; Watson, Peter
2001-01-01
Prerequisites of confinement in the covariant and local description of QCD are reviewed. In particular, the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion, the positivity violations of transverse gluon and quark states, and the conditions necessary to avoid the decomposition property for colored clusters are discussed. In Landau gauge QCD, the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion follows from the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation if the corresponding Green's functions can be expanded in an asymptotic series. Furthermore, the infrared behaviour of the propagators in Landau gauge QCD as extracted from solutions to truncated Dyson-Schwinger equations and lattice simulations is discussed in the light of these issues.
Radiative decay of mesons in an independent-quark potential model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N.; Dash, P.C. (Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004 (India)); Panda, A.R. (Department of Physics, Kendrapara College, Kendrapara, Orissa (India))
1992-11-01
We investigate in a potential model of independent quarks the {ital M}1 transitions among the low-lying vector ({ital V}) and pseudoscalar ({ital P}) mesons. We perform a static'' calculation of the partial decay widths of twelve possible {ital M}1 transitions such as {ital V}{r arrow}{ital P}{gamma} and {ital P}{r arrow}{ital V}{gamma} within the traditional picture of photon emission by a confined quark and/or antiquark. The model accounts well for the observed decay widths.
Building a non-perturbative quark-gluon vertex from a perturbative one
Bermudez, Rocio
2016-10-01
The quark-gluon vertex describes the electromagnetic and the strong interaction among these particles. The description of this interaction at high precision in both regimes, perturbative and non-perturbative, continues being a matter of interest in the context of QCD and Hadron Physics. There exist very helpful models in the literature that explain perturbative aspects of the theory but they fail describing non-perturbative phenomena, as confinement and dynamic chiral symmetry breaking. In this work we study the structure of the quark-gluon vertex in a non-perturbative regime examining QCD, checking results with QED, and working in the Schwinger-Dyson formalism.
Scalar quantum chromodynamics in two dimensions and parton model. [Scalar quarks, SU(N) groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shei, S.S.; Tsao, H.S.
1977-05-01
The SU(N) scalar quantum chromodynamics in two space-time dimensions in the large N limit are studied. This is the model of color gauge fields interacting with scalar quarks. It is found that the consensual properties of the four dimensional QCD, i.e., the infrared slavery, quark confinement, the charmonium picture etc. are all realized. Moreover, the current in this model mimics nicely the behaviors of current in the four dimensional QCD, in contrast to the original model of 't Hooft.
AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)655637
The measurement of prompt photon associated with a b jet in proton-proton interactions can provide us insight into the inner structure of proton. This is because precision of determination of parton distribution functions of b quark and gluon can be increased by such a measurement. The measurement of cross-section of prompt photon associated with a b jet (process $pp\\longrightarrow \\gamma + b + X$) at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector is presented. Full 8 TeV dataset collected by ATLAS during the year 2012 was used in this analysis. Corresponding integrated luminosity is 20.3 $fb^{-1}$. Fiducial differential cross-section as a function of photon transverse momentum at particle level was extracted from data and compared with the prediction of leading order event generator Pythia 8. Cross-section extracted from data is normalised independently on the Monte Carlo prediction. Values of data distribution lie above Monte Carlo values. The difference can be explained by presence of higher order effects not ...
Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects
Sandweiss, J.
2004-01-01
The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.
Selected top quark mass measurements at CMS
Bouvier, Elvire
2016-01-01
Selected measurements of the top quark mass are presented, obtained from CMS data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at center-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV. ``Standard'' techniques are employed in each decay channel of top quark pair events and their results are combined. The mass of the top quark is also measured using several ``alternative'' methods, including measurements from shapes of top quark decay distributions in single top quark and top quark pair events as well as pole mass measurements.
Simulations of Enhanced Confinement
Dorland, W.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Liu, Q. P.; Jones, C. S.; Beer, M. A.; Hammett, G. W.
1996-11-01
Most existing tokamaks routinely achieve enhanced confinement regimes. Designs for new, larger tokamaks therefore are typically predicated upon reliable enhanced confinement performance. However, most enhanced confinement regimes rely (to some degree) upon sheared E×B flows to stabilize the turbulence that otherwise limits the confinement. For example, the pedestal H-mode transport barrier is typically attributed to shear stabilization [Biglari, Diamond and Terry, Phys. Fl. B, 2 1 (1990)]. Unfortunately, it is easily shown that sheared E×B stabilization of microinstabilities such as the ITG mode does not scale favorably with machine size. Here, using nonlinear gyrofluid simulations in general geometry, we attempt to quantify the confinement enhancement that can be expected from velocity shear stabilization for conventional reactor plasmas. We also consider other microinstability stabilization mechanisms(See related presentations by Beer, Kotschenreuther, Manickam, and Ramos, this conference.) (strong density peaking, Shafranov shift stabilization, dots) and unconventional reactor configurations.^2 Experimental datasets from JET, DIII-D, C-Mod and TFTR are analyzed, and ITER operation is considered.
Traini, Marco Claudio
2016-01-01
Generalized Parton Distributions are investigated within an holographic approach where the string modes in the fifth dimension describe the nucleon in a bottom-up framework of the AdS/CFT duality. Conformal invariance and confinement are introduced by means of an Infra-Red improved dilaton and potential model. Higher Fock states are included describing the nucleon as a superposition of three valence quarks and quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. A method to solve general confining potentials is introduced and it makes use of an expansion on the complete set of the linear Soft Wall model solutions.
Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Shao, Hui; Sandvik, Anders W.; Ünsal, Mithat
2017-09-01
In a spontaneously dimerized quantum antiferromagnet, spin-1 /2 excitations (spinons) are confined in pairs by strings akin to those confining quarks in non-Abelian gauge theories. The system has multiple degenerate ground states (vacua) and domain walls between regions of different vacua. For two vacua, we demonstrate that spinons on a domain wall are liberated, in a mechanism strikingly similar to domain-wall deconfinement of quarks in variants of quantum chromodynamics. This observation not only establishes a novel phenomenon in quantum magnetism, but also provides a new direct link between particle physics and condensed-matter physics. The analogy opens doors to improving our understanding of particle confinement and deconfinement by computational and experimental studies in quantum magnetism.
Malgaretti, Paolo; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Rubi, J Miguel
2013-05-21
We analyze the dynamics of Brownian ratchets in a confined environment. The motion of the particles is described by a Fick-Jakobs kinetic equation in which the presence of boundaries is modeled by means of an entropic potential. The cases of a flashing ratchet, a two-state model, and a ratchet under the influence of a temperature gradient are analyzed in detail. We show the emergence of a strong cooperativity between the inherent rectification of the ratchet mechanism and the entropic bias of the fluctuations caused by spatial confinement. Net particle transport may take place in situations where none of those mechanisms leads to rectification when acting individually. The combined rectification mechanisms may lead to bidirectional transport and to new routes to segregation phenomena. Confined Brownian ratchets could be used to control transport in mesostructures and to engineer new and more efficient devices for transport at the nanoscale.
Biopolymer organization upon confinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marenduzzo, D [SUPA, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Micheletti, C [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, CNR-INFM Democritos and Italian Institute of Technology, SISSA Unit via Bonomea, 265, Trieste (Italy); Orlandini, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Sezione INFN Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131, Padova (Italy)
2010-07-21
Biopolymers in vivo are typically subject to spatial restraints, either as a result of molecular crowding in the cellular medium or of direct spatial confinement. DNA in living organisms provides a prototypical example of a confined biopolymer. Confinement prompts a number of biophysics questions. For instance, how can the high level of packing be compatible with the necessity to access and process the genomic material? What mechanisms can be adopted in vivo to avoid the excessive geometrical and topological entanglement of dense phases of biopolymers? These and other fundamental questions have been addressed in recent years by both experimental and theoretical means. A review of the results, particularly of those obtained by numerical studies, is presented here. The review is mostly devoted to DNA packaging inside bacteriophages, which is the best studied example both experimentally and theoretically. Recent selected biophysical studies of the bacterial genome organization and of chromosome segregation in eukaryotes are also covered. (topical review)
Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.
Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K
2014-12-12
We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.
The QCD string with quarks; 1, spinless quarks
Dubin, A Yu; Simonov, Yu A
1993-01-01
Starting from the QCD Lagrangian we derive the effective action for massive quark and antiquark at large distances, corresponding to the minimal area low of the Wilson loop. The path integral method is used to quantize the system and the spectrum is obtained with asymptotically linear Regge trajectories. Two dynamical regimes distinguished by the string energy--momentum distribution are found: at large orbital excitations ($l\\gg 1$) the system behaves as a string and yields the Regge slope of $\\frac{1}{2 \\pi \\sigma}$, while at small $l$ one obtains a potential-like regime for relativistic or nonrelativistic system . The problem of relative time is clarified. It is shown that in the valence quark approximation one can reduce the initial four-dimensional dynamics to the three-dimensional one. The limiting case of a pure string (without quark kinetic terms) is studied and the spectrum of the straight-line string is obtained.
2008-01-01
This book presents recent scientific achievements in the investigation of magnetization dynamics in confined magnetic systems. Introduced by Bloch as plane waves of magnetization in unconfined ferromagnets, spin waves currently play an important role in the description of very small magnetic systems ranging from microelements, which form the basis of magnetic sensors, to magnetic nano-contacts. The spin wave confinement effect was experimentally discovered in the 1990s in permalloy microstripes. The diversity of systems where this effect is observed has been steadily growing since then, and
Order, Disorder and Confinement
D'Elia, M; Pica, C
2006-01-01
Studying the order of the chiral transition for $N_f=2$ is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of color confinement. We present results of a numerical investigation on the order of the transition by use of a novel strategy in finite size scaling analysis. The specific heat and a number of susceptibilities are compared with the possible critical behaviours. A second order transition in the O(4) and O(2) universality classes are excluded. Substantial evidence emerges for a first order transition. Results are in agreement with those found by studying the scaling properties of a disorder parameter related to the dual superconductivity mechanism of color confinement.
Hyperon stars in a modified quark meson coupling model
Mishra, R. N.; Sahoo, H. S.; Panda, P. K.; Barik, N.; Frederico, T.
2016-09-01
We determine the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter with the inclusion of hyperons in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a baryon is represented by a phenomenological average potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The hadron-hadron interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ ,ω , and ρ mesons through mean-field approximations. The effect of a nonlinear ω -ρ term on the EOS is studied. The hyperon couplings are fixed from the optical potential values and the mass-radius curve is determined satisfying the maximum mass constraint of 2 M⊙ for neutron stars, as determined in recent measurements of the pulsar PSR J0348+0432. We also observe that there is no significant advantage of introducing the nonlinear ω -ρ term in the context of obtaining the star mass constraint in the present set of parametrizations.
Hyperon star in a modified quark meson coupling model
Mishra, R N; Panda, P K; Barik, N; Frederico, T
2016-01-01
We determine the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter with the inclusion of hyperons in a self-consistent manner by using a Modified Quark Meson Coupling Model (MQMC) where the confining interaction for quarks inside a baryon is represented by a phenomenological average potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The hadron-hadron interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to $\\sigma$, $\\omega$, and $\\rho$ mesons through mean-field approximations. The effect of a nonlinear $\\omega$-$\\rho$ term on the equation of state is studied. The hyperon couplings are fixed from the optical potential values and the mass-radius curve is determined satisfying the maximum mass constraint of $2$~M$_{\\odot}$ for neutron stars, as determined in recent measurements of the pulsar PSR J0348+0432. We also observe that there is no significant advantage of introducing the nonlinear $\\omega$-$\\rho$ term in the context of obtaining the star mass constraint in the present...
Duality between quark-quark and quark-antiquark pairing in 1+1 dimensional large N models
Thies, M
2003-01-01
We identify a canonical transformation which maps the chiral Gross-Neveu model onto a recently proposed Cooper pair model. Baryon number and axial charge are interchanged. The same physics can be described either as chiral symmetry breaking (quark-antiquark pairing) or as superconductivity (quark-quark pairing).
Explicit and Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Bresking in an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宗红石; 吴小华; 侯丰尧; 赵恩广
2004-01-01
A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator from an effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach both the explicit and dynamical chiral symmetry breakings are analysed. A comparison with the previous results is given.
NN Interaction in Chiral Constituent Quark Models
Valcarce, A; González, P
2003-01-01
We review the actual state in the description of the NN interaction by means of chiral constituent quark models. We present a series of relevant features that are nicely explained within the quark model framework.
Lorcé, Cédric
2014-01-01
The proton spin puzzle issue focused the attention on the parton spin and orbital angular momentum contributions to the proton spin. However, a complete characterization of the proton spin structure requires also the knowledge of the parton spin-orbit correlation. We showed that this quantity can be expressed in terms of moments of measurable parton distributions. Using the available phenomenological information about the valence quarks, we concluded that this correlation is negative, meaning that the valence quark spin and kinetic orbital angular momentum are, in average, opposite. The quark spin-orbit correlation can also be expressed more intuitively in terms of relativistic phase-space distributions, which can be seen as the mother distributions of the standard generalized and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. We present here for the first time some examples of the general multipole decomposition of these phase-space distributions.
Gluon propagator with dynamical quarks
Papavassiliou, Joannis
2014-01-01
We review recent work on the effects of quark loops on the gluon propagator in the Landau gauge, relying mainly on the Schwinger-Dyson equations that describe the two-point sector of QCD. Particularly important in this context is the detailed study of how the standard gluon mass generation mechanism, which is responsible for the infrared finiteness of the quenched gluon propagator, is affected by the inclusions of dynamical quarks. This issue is especially relevant and timely, given the qualitative picture that emerges from recent unquenched lattice simulations. Our results demonstrate clearly that the gluon mass generation persists, and that the corresponding saturation points of the unquenched gluon propagators are progressively suppressed, as the number of quark flavors increases.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kipnusu, Wycliffe K.; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kossack, Wilhelm
2015-01-01
Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy are employed to study the molecular dynamics and effective free volume of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in the bulk state and when confined in unidirectional nanopores with average diameters of 4, 6, and 8 nm. Enhanced α...
Fractional statistics and confinement
Gaete, P; Gaete, Patricio; Wotzasek, Clovis
2004-01-01
It is shown that a pointlike composite having charge and magnetic moment displays a confining potential for the static interaction while simultaneously obeying fractional statistics in a pure gauge theory in three dimensions, without a Chern-Simons term. This result is distinct from the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory that shows a screening nature for the potential.
Lenz, F; Thies, M
2003-01-01
It is shown that an effective theory with meron degrees of freedom produces confinement in SU(2) Yang Mills theory. This effective theory is compatible with center symmetry. When the scale is set by the string tension, the action density and topological susceptibility are similar to those arising in lattice QCD.
Energy Density in Quark-Gluon Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马忠彪; 苗洪; 高崇寿
2003-01-01
We study the energy density in quark-gluon plasma. At the very high temperature, the quark matter is a hot and dense matter in the colour deconfinement condition, and quarks can coalescent diquarks. Energy density of this system is worked out and compared with the energy density in the other two kinds of situations. Possible energy density is about eo ≈ 2.4 GeV/fm3 according to our estimation for quark matter including diquarks,
Xu, J L
2002-01-01
We assume that the u quarks and the d quarks constitute a body center cubic quark lattice in the vacuum. Using energy band theory, we deduce an excited quark spectrum (from the quark lattice). Using the accompanying excitation concept, we deduce a baryon spectrum (including S, C, b, I, Q, and mass) from the quark spectrum. With a phenomenological binding energy formula, we deduce a meson spectrum (including S, C, b, I, Q, and mass) from the quark spectrum. The baryon and meson spectra agree well with experimental results. The BCC Quark Model predicts many new quarks (u'(3), d'(6)), baryons ($\\Lambda^0(4280)$, $\\Lambda_{C}^{+}(6600)$, $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}(9960))$, and mesons (K(3597), D(5996), B(9504), $\\eta(5926)$, $\\Upsilon(17805)$, T(1603) with I=2). The quarks u'(3) and d'(6) and the meson T(1603) have already been discovered.
Equilibration in quark gluon plasma
Das, S. K.; Alam, J.; Mohanty, P.
2011-07-01
The hydrodynamic expansion rate of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is evaluated and compared with the scattering rate of quarks and gluons within the system. Partonic scattering rates evaluated within the ambit of perturbative Quantum Choromodynamics (pQCD) are found to be smaller than the expansion rate evaluated with ideal equation of state (EoS) for the QGP. This indicate that during the space-time evolution the system remains out of equilibrium. Enhancement of pQCD cross sections and a more realistic EoS keep the partons closer to the equilibrium.
Equilibration in Quark Gluon Plasma
Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e; Mohanty, Payal
2009-01-01
The hydrodynamic expansion rate of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is evaluated and compared with the scattering rate of quarks and gluons within the system. Partonic scattering rates evaluated within the ambit of perturbative Quantum Choromodynamics (pQCD) are found to be smaller than the expansion rate evaluated with ideal equation of state (EoS) for the QGP. This indicate that during the space-time evolution the system remains out of equilibrium. Enhancement of pQCD cross sections and a more real...
Equilibration in Quark Gluon Plasma
Das, Santosh K; Mohanty, Payal
2009-01-01
The hydrodynamic expansion rate of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is evaluated and compared with the scattering rate of quarks and gluons within the system. Partonic scattering rates evaluated within the ambit of perturbative Quantum Choromodynamics (pQCD) are found to be smaller than the expansion rate evaluated with ideal equation of state (EoS) for the QGP. This indicate that during the space-time evolution the system remains out of equilibrium. Enhancement of pQCD cross sections and a more realistic EoS keep the partons closer to the equilibrium.
2016-01-01
This is the fifth volume in the series on the subject of quark-gluon plasma, a unique phase created in heavy-ion collisions at high energy. It contains review articles by the world experts on various aspects of quark-gluon plasma taking into account the advances driven by the latest experimental data collected at both the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The articles are pedagogical and comprehensive which can be helpful for both new researchers entering the field as well as the experienced physicists working on the subject.
Searches for monopoles and quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matis, H.S.
1986-07-01
Within the last year, several sensitive searches for monopoles and quarks have been done. Recent experiments at the Tevatron and at the CERN p anti p collider have detected no evidence for free fractional charge. An experiment in a iron refinery, which searched for GUT monopoles trapped in iron ore with two SQUID detectors, found no monopole candidate. However, an experiment looking for monopoles in cosmic rays has measured an interesting event which could be interpreted as a monopole. Several detectors are being built to achieve significant improvements in sensitivity for detection of quarks and monopoles. 21 refs.
Why quarks cannot be fundamental particles
Kalman, C S
2005-01-01
Many reasons why quarks should be considered composite particles are found in the book Preons by D'Souza and Kalman. One reason not found in the book is that all the quarks except for the u quark decay. The electron and the electron neutrino do not decay. A model of fundamental particles based upon the weak charge is presented.
SPONTANEOUS CP VIOLATION AND QUARK MASS AMBIGUITIES.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CREUTZ,M.
2004-09-21
I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.
LATTICE QCD THERMODYNAMICS WITH WILSON QUARKS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
EJIRI,S.
2007-11-20
We review studies of QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with dynamical Wilson quarks. After explaining the basic properties of QCD with Wilson quarks at finite temperature including the phase structure and the scaling properties around the chiral phase transition, we discuss the critical temperature, the equation of state and heavy-quark free energies.
Greenlee, H B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baldin, B Yu; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystrický, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Ginther, G; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Abazov, V M; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Krzywdzinski, S; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lueking, L; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A S; Mendes, A; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N V; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pope, B G; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu-Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wang, L; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; Wermes, N; White, A; White, V; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S Y; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2005-01-01
In this talk I will present recent preliminary results from the D0 experiment from Tevatron Run II ($p\\bar p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV). The results presented in this talk include top quark pair production cross section, top quark mass, and upper limits on single top quark production.
Nuclear symmetry energy in a modified quark-meson coupling model
Mishra, R. N.; Sahoo, H. S.; Panda, P. K.; Barik, N.; Frederico, T.
2015-10-01
We study nuclear symmetry energy and the thermodynamic instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark-meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically averaged potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ ,ω , and ρ mesons through mean-field approximations. We find an analytic expression for the symmetry energy Esym as a function of its slope L . Our result establishes a linear correlation between L and Esym. We also analyze the constraint on neutron star radii in (p n ) matter with β equilibrium.
New results on CLEO`s heavy quarks - bottom and charm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menary, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1997-01-01
While the top quark is confined to virtual reality for CLEO, the increased luminosity of the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) and the improved photon detection capabilities of the CLEO`s {open_quotes}heavy{close_quotes} quarks - bottom and charm. I will describe new results in the B meson sector including the first observation of exclusive b {yields} ulv decays, upper limits on gluonic penguin decay rates, and precise measurements of semileptonic and hadronic b {yields} c branching fractions. The charmed hadron results that are discussed include the observation of isospin violation in D{sub s}*{sup +} decays, an update on measurements of the D{sub s}{sup +} decay constant, and the observation of a new excited {Xi}{sub c} charmed baryon. These measurements have had a large impact on our understanding of heavy quark physics.
Confinement in the q-state Potts field theory
Delfino, Gesualdo
2007-01-01
The q-state Potts field theory describes the universality class associated to the spontaneous breaking of the permutation symmetry of q colors. In two dimensions it is defined up to q=4 and exhibits duality and integrability away from critical temperature in absence of magnetic field. We show how, when a magnetic field is switched on, it provides the simplest model of confinement allowing for both mesons and baryons. Deconfined quarks (kinks) exist in a phase bounded by a first order transition on one side, and a second order transition on the other. The evolution of the mass spectrum with temperature and magnetic field is discussed.
The Width of the Confining String in Yang-Mills Theory
Gliozzi, F; Wiese, U -J
2010-01-01
We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)-d SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multi-level algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.
Heavy Quark Potential at Finite Temperature in a Dual Gravity Closer to Large N QCD
Patra, Binoy Krishna
2014-01-01
In gauge-gravity duality, heavy quark potential at finite temperature is usually calculated with the pure AdS background, which does not capture the renormalisation group (RG) running in the gauge theory part and the potential also does not contain any confining term in the deconfined phase. Following the developments in \\cite{KS}, a geometry was contructed recently in \\cite{ Mia:NPB2010, Mia:PRD2010}, which captures the RG flow similar to QCD and we employ their geometry to obtain the heavy quark potential by analytically continuing the string configurations into the complex plane. In addition to the attractive terms, the obtained potential has confining terms both at $T=0$ and $T \
Top quark physics with the CMS experiment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cuevas Javier
2014-04-01
Full Text Available An overview of recent top quark measurements in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 and 8 TeV in data collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC, using a data sample collected during the years 2011 and 2012 is presented. Measurements of top quark pair production cross sections in several top quark final states are reported, as well as electroweak production of single top quarks in both t-and tW-channels. The mass of the top quark is estimated by different methods.
Top-Quark Physics Results From LHC
INSPIRE-00214275
2012-01-01
The top-quark is a fundamental element of the physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We review the current status of the top-quark measurements performed by ATLAS and CMS experiments in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV with a focus on the recent results of the top-quark production rates and the measurements of the mass and other properties of the top-quark. We will also describe the recent searches for physics beyond the Standard Model in the top-quark sector.
Phenomenology with Lattice NRQCD b Quarks
Colquhoun, Brian; Dowdall, Rachel J; Koponen, Jonna; Lepage, G Peter; Lytle, Andrew T
2015-01-01
The HPQCD collaboration has used radiatively-improved NonRelativistic QCD (NRQCD) for $b$ quarks in bottomonium to determine the decay rate of $\\Upsilon$ and $\\Upsilon^\\prime$ mesons to leptons in lattice QCD. Using time-moments of vector bottomonium current-current correlators, we are also able to determine the $b$ quark mass in the $\\overline{\\mathrm{MS}}$ scheme. We use the same NRQCD $b$ quarks and Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) light quarks -- with masses down to their physical values -- to give a complete picture of heavy-light meson decay constants including those for vector mesons. We also study the semileptonic $B\\rightarrow\\pi\\ell\
Heavy quark colorimetry of QCD matter
Dokshitzer, Yu L; Dokshitzer, Yu.L.
2001-01-01
We consider propagation of heavy quarks in QCD matter. Because of large quark mass, the radiative quark energy loss appears to be qualitatively different from that of light quarks at all energies of practical importance. Finite quark mass effects lead to an in-medium enhancement of the heavy-to-light D/\\pi ratio at moderately large (5--10 GeV) transverse momenta. For hot QCD matter a large enhancement is expected, whose magnitude and shape are exponentially sensitive to the density of colour charges in the medium.
Triminimal parametrization of quark mixing matrix
He, Xiao-Gang; Li, Shi-Wen; Ma, Bo-Qiang
2008-12-01
Starting from a new zeroth order basis for quark mixing (CKM) matrix based on the quark-lepton complementarity and the tribimaximal pattern of lepton mixing, we derive a triminimal parametrization of a CKM matrix with three small angles and a CP-violating phase as its parameters. This new triminimal parametrization has the merits of fast convergence and simplicity in application. With the quark-lepton complementary relations, we derive relations between the two unified triminimal parametrizations for quark mixing obtained in this work and for lepton mixing obtained by Pakvasa-Rodejohann-Weiler. Parametrization deviating from quark-lepton complementarity is also discussed.
Young, Robert D.
1973-01-01
Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)
Kim, S. B.
1995-08-01
Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).
Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J.; Mishustin, Igor N.; Døssing, Thomas
2012-01-01
We present a simple model of a multi-quark droplet evolution based on the hydrodynamical description. This model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical...
Young, Robert D.
1973-01-01
Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barberis, Emanuela; /Northeastern U.
2006-05-01
A summary of the results on the measurement of the Top Quark mass and the study of the kinematics of the t{bar t} system at the Tevatron collider is presented here. Results from both the CDF and D0 collaborations are reported.
Lebed, Richard F; Swanson, Eric S
2016-01-01
This review presents an overview of the remarkable progress in the field of heavy-quark exotic hadrons over the past 15 years. It seeks to be pedagogical rather than exhaustive, summarizing both the progress and specific results of experimental discoveries, and the variety of theoretical approaches designed to explain these new states.
Heavy Quark Asymmetries at LEP
Halley, A W
1999-01-01
Measurements of b and c quark asymmetries using data collected at LEP 1 are described. The relative merits of each of the individual techniques used is emphasised as is the most profitable way of combining them. Effects of radiative corrections are discussed, together with the impact of these measurements on global electroweak fits used to estimate the expected mass of the Higgs boson.
Quark masses without Yukawa hierarchies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia-Canal, C. [Plata Univ. Nacional, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); Ponce, W.A. [Antioquia Univ., Instituto de Fisica, Colombia La (Argentina)
2005-12-15
A model based on the local gauge group SU(3){sub c}*SU(3){sub L}*U(1){sub X} without particles with exotic electric charges is shown to be able to provide the quark mass spectrum and their mixing, by means of universal see-saw mechanisms, avoiding a hierarchy in the Yukawa coupling constants. (authors)
Totally confined explosive welding
Bement, L. J. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.
Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian
2009-01-01
Part I. Introduction; 1. Pions to quarks: particle physics in the 1950s Laurie M Brown, Max Dresden and Lillian Hoddeson; 2. Particle physics in the early 1950s Chen Ning Yang; 3. An historian's interest in particle physics J. L. Heilbron; Part II. Particle discoveries in cosmic rays; 4. Cosmic-ray cloud-chamber contributions to the discovery of the strange particles in the decade 1947-1957 George D. Rochester; 5. Cosmic-ray work with emulsions in the 1940s and 1950s Donald H. Perkins; Part III. High-energy nuclear physics; Learning about nucleon resonances with pion photoproduction Robert L. Walker; 7. A personal view of nucleon structure as revealed by electron scattering Robert Hofstadter; 8. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon Robert G. Sachs and Kameshwar C. Wali; Part IV. The new laboratory; 9. The making of an accelerator physicist Matthew Sands; 10. Accelerator design and construction in the 1950s John P. Blewett; 11. Early history of the Cosmotron and AGS Ernest D. Courant; 12. Panel on accelerators and detectors in the 1950s Lawrence W. Jones, Luis W. Alvarez, Ugo Amaldi, Robert Hofstadter, Donald W. Kerst, Robert R. Wilson; 13. Accelerators and the Midwestern Universities Research Association in the 1950s Donald W. Kerst; 14. Bubbles, sparks and the postwar laboratory Peter Galison; 15. Development of the discharge (spark) chamber in Japan in the 1950s Shuji Fukui; 16. Early work at the Bevatron: a personal account Gerson Goldhaber; 17. The discovery of the antiproton Owen Chamberlain; 18. On the antiproton discovery Oreste Piccioni; Part V. The Strange Particles; 19. The hydrogen bubble chamber and the strange resonances Luis W. Alvarez; 20. A particular view of particle physics in the fifties Jack Steinberger; 21. Strange particles William Chinowsky; 22. Strange particles: production by Cosmotron beams as observed in diffusion cloud chambers William B. Fowler; 23. From the 1940s into the 1950s Abraham Pais; Part VI. Detection of the
A Confining Model for Charmonium and New Gauge Invariant Field Equations
Hsu, Jong-Ping
2014-01-01
We discuss a confining model for charmonium in which the attractive force are derived from a new type of gauge field equation with a generalized $SU_3$ gauge symmetry. The new gauge transformations involve non-integrable phase factors with vector gauge functions $\\om^a_{\\mu}(x)$. These transformations reduce to the usual $SU_3$ gauge transformations in the special case $\\om^a_\\mu(x) = \\p_\\mu \\xi^a(x)$. Such a generalized gauge symmetry leads to the fourth-order equations for new gauge fields and to the linear confining potentials. The fourth-order field equation implies that the corresponding massless gauge boson has non-definite energy. However, the new gauge boson is permanently confined in a quark system by the linear potential. We use the empirical potentials of the Cornell group for charmonium to obtain the coupling strength $f^2/(4\\pi) \\approx 0.19$ for the strong interaction. Such a confining model of quark dynamics could be compatible with perturbation. The model can be applied to other quark-antiquar...
Topological confinement and superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.
Lenz, F
2009-01-01
By superposition of regular gauge instantons or merons, ensembles of gauge fields are constructed which describe the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Various properties of the Wilson loops, the gluon condensate and the topological susceptibility are found to be in qualitative agreement with phenomenology or results of lattice calculations. Limitations in the application to the glueball spectrum and small size Wilson loops are discussed.
Instanton-dyon Ensemble with two Dynamical Quarks: the Chiral Symmetry Breaking
Larsen, Rasmus
2015-01-01
This is the second paper of the series aimed at understanding of the ensemble of the instanton-dyons, now with two flavors of light dynamical quarks. The partition function is appended by the fermionic factor, $(det T)^{N_f}$ and Dirac eigenvalue spectra at small values are derived from the numerical simulation of 64 dyons. Those spectra show clear chiral symmetry breaking pattern at high dyon density. Within current accuracy, the confinement and chiral transitions occur at very similar densities.
Irving, A C; Michael, C; Sharkey, K J; Wittig, H
2001-01-01
We report on determinations of the low-energy constants alpha5 and alpha8 in the effective chiral Lagrangian at O(p^4), using lattice simulations with N_f=2 flavours of dynamical quarks. Precise knowledge of these constants is required to test the hypothesis whether or not the up-quark is massless. Our results are obtained by studying the quark mass dependence of suitably defined ratios of pseudoscalar meson masses and matrix elements. Although comparisons with an earlier study in the quenched approximation reveal small qualitative differences in the quark mass behaviour, numerical estimates for alpha5 and alpha8 show only a weak dependence on the number of dynamical quark flavours. Our results disfavour the possibility of a massless up-quark, provided that the quark mass dependence in the physical three-flavour case is not fundamentally different from the two-flavour case studied here.
State of matter for quark stars
Lai, X Y
2009-01-01
It depends on the state of matter at supra-nuclear density to model pulsar's structure, which is unfortunately not certain due to the difficulties in physics. In cold quark matter at realistic baryon densities of compact stars (with an average value of $\\sim 2-3\\rho_0$), the interaction between quarks is so strong that they would condensate in position space to form quark-clusters. We argue that quarks in quark stars are grouped in clusters, then we apply two phenomenological models for quark stars, the polytropic model and Lennard-Jones model. Both of the two models have stiffer EoS, and larger maximum mass for quark stars (larger than 2 $M_\\odot$). The gravitational energy releases during the AIQ process could explain the observed energy of three supergiant flares from soft gamma-ray repeaters ($\\sim 10^{47}$ ergs).
Confining Dyon-Anti-Dyon Coulomb Liquid Model I
Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail
2015-01-01
We revisit the dyon-anti-dyon liquid model for the Yang-Mills confining vacuum discussed by Diakonov and Petrov, by retaining the effects of the classical interactions mediated by the streamline between the dyons and anti-dyons. In the SU(2) case the model describes a 4-component strongly interacting Coulomb liquid in the center symmetric phase. We show that in the linearized screening approximation the streamline interactions yield Debye-Huckel type corrections to the bulk parameters such as the pressure and densities, but do not alter significantly the large distance behavior of the correlation functions in leading order. The static scalar and charged structure factors are consistent with a plasma of a dyon-anti-dyon liquid with a Coulomb parameter $\\Gamma_{D\\bar D}\\approx 1$ in the dyon-anti-dyon channel. Heavy quarks are still linearly confined and the large spatial Wilson loops still exhibit area laws in leading order.
Confinement in a correlated Instanton-Dyon Ensemble
Lopez-Ruiz, Miguel Angel; Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng
2017-07-01
Confinement is a remarkable nonperturbative phenomena emerging from QCD and QCD-like theories. A theoretical understanding of these transitions and their interrelations is of fundamental importance. While it is widely perceived that their dynamics arises from nontrivial topological configurations in Yang-Mills theories, a concrete and sophisticated realization of such idea is an outstanding challenge. We report significant progress along this direction by the construction of a new framework based on correlated ensemble of instanton-dyons, namely the constituents of the finite-temperature instantons with non-trivial holonomy. We present a comprehensive numerical study of confinement properties in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature, obtaining important observables such as the effective holonomy potential, the static quark potentials from Polyakov loop correlators as well as spatial Wilson loops, among others.
The effect of dynamical quark mass on the calculation of a strange quark star's structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Babak Ziaei
2012-01-01
We discuss the dynamical behavior of strange quark matter components,in particular the effects of density dependent quark mass on the equation of state of strange quark matter.The dynamical masses of quarks are computed within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model,then we perform strange quark matter calculations employing the MIT bag model with these dynamical masses.For the sake of comparing dynamical mass interaction with QCD quark-quark interaction,we consider the one-gluon-exchange term as the effective interaction between quarks for the MIT bag model.Our dynamical approach illustrates an improvement in the obtained equation of state values.We also investigate the structure of the strange quark star using TolmanOppenheimer-Volkoff equations for all applied models.Our results show that dynamical mass interaction leads to lower values for gravitational mass.
Randall, Lisa
1994-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the use of heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons for testing the heavy quark effective theory through comparison of the measured fragmentation parameters of the c and b quarks. Our analysis is entirely model independent. We interpret the known perturbative evolution in a way useful for exploiting heavy quark symmetry at low energy. We first show consistency with perturbative QCD scaling for measurements done solely with c quarks. We then apply the perturbative analysis and the heavy quark expansion to relate measurements from ARGUS and LEP. We place bounds on a nonperturbative quark mass suppressed parameter, and compare the values for the b and c quarks. We find consistency with the heavy quark expansion but fairly sizable QCD uncertainties. We also suggest that one might reduce the systematic uncertainty in the result by not extrapolating to low z.
Solitons as baryons and qualitons as constituent quarks in two-dimensional QCD
Blas, H
2008-01-01
We study the soliton type solutions arising in two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics (QCD$_{2}$). The so-called generalized sine-Gordon model (GSG) arises as the low-energy effective action of bosonized QCD$_{2}$ for unequal quark mass parameters, and it has been shown that the relevant solitons describe the normal and exotic baryonic spectrum of QCD$_{2}$ [JHEP(03)(2007)(055)]. In the first part of this chapter we classify the soliton and kink type solutions of the sl(3) GSG model. Related to the GSG model we consider the sl(3) affine Toda model coupled to matter fields (Dirac spinors) (ATM). It has been shown the confinement of the spinors inside the solitons and kinks of the GSG model providing an extended hadron model for "quark" confinement [JHEP(01)(2007)(027)]. In the second part of this chapter we discuss the appearance of the constituent quarks in the context of bosonized QCD$_{2}$ and the relevance of the $sl(2)$ ATM model in order to describe the confinement of the color degrees of freedom. We hav...
Inclusive Single-Spin Asymmetries, Quark-Photon, and Quark-Quark Correlations
Burkardt, Matthias
2016-01-01
We consider quark-photon correlations that have been proposed as a source for single-spin asymmetries in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. A new sum rule for these correlators is derived and its phenomenological consequences are discussed. The results are interpreted within the context of an intuitive 'electrodynamic lensing' picture.
Alkofer, R; Von Smekal, L; Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S.; Smekal, Lorenz von
2003-01-01
The Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion and its relation to the infrared behaviour of the gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge QCD are reviewed. The realization of this confinement criterion (which in Landau gauge relates to Zwanziger's horizon condition) results from quite general properties of the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. The numerical solutions for the gluon and ghost propagators obtained from a truncated set of Dyson-Schwinger equations provide an explicit example for the anticipated infrared behaviour. These results are in good agreement, also quantitatively, with corresponding lattice data obtained recently. The resulting running coupling approaches a fixed point in the infrared, $\\alpha(0) = 8.9/N_c$. Solutions for the coupled system of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the quark, gluon and ghost propagators are presented. Dynamical generation of quark masses and thus spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is found. In the quenched approximation the quark propagator functions agree well with th...
Probing the hadron-quark mixed phase at high isospin and baryon density. Sensitive observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Toro, Massimo; Greco, Vincenzo [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Physics and Astronomy Dept., Catania (Italy); Colonna, Maria [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Shao, Guo-Yun [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an (China)
2016-08-15
We discuss the isospin effect on the possible phase transition from hadronic to quark matter at high baryon density and finite temperatures. The two-Equation of State (Two-EoS) model is adopted to describe the hadron-quark phase transition in dense matter formed in heavy-ion collisions. For the hadron sector we use Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) effective models, already tested on heavy-ion collision (HIC). For the quark phase we consider various effective models, the MIT-Bag static picture, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) approach with chiral dynamics and finally the NJL coupled to the Polyakov-loop field (PNJL), which includes both chiral and (de)confinement dynamics. The idea is to extract mixed phase properties which appear robust with respect to the model differences. In particular we focus on the phase transitions of isospin asymmetric matter, with two main results: (i) an earlier transition to a mixed hadron-quark phase, at lower baryon density/chemical potential with respect to symmetric matter; (ii) an ''Isospin Distillation'' to the quark component of the mixed phase, with predicted effects on the final hadron production. Possible observation signals are suggested to probe in heavy-ion collision experiments at intermediate energies, in the range of the NICA program. (orig.)
Radial oscillations of quark stars with strongly coupled QGP in the interior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramadas, Sineeba; Bannur, Vishnu.M. [University of Calicut, Department of Physics, Kerala (India)
2013-08-15
The radial oscillations of quark stars are analysed using the recently developed strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (SCQGP) equation of state. This EOS describes the intermediate to strongly coupled phase of deconfined cold quark matter wherein the chiral symmetry has not yet been restored. By integrating the Chandrasekhar eigenequation governing the radial modes we obtain the periods for the fundamental and first overtone, which are plotted for different values of the confining parameter - the bag constant (B) - pertaining to the equation of state. The eigenfunctions of some of the normal modes are also plotted and analysed. It is found that for lower mass quark stars the oscillation periods are typically of the order of one tenth of a millisecond and has negligible dependence on the bag parameter. For medium and higher mass stars a variation of pulsation period with change in the bag constant is seen - the period increases with increase in B. Comparing with strange stars composed of non-interacting quarks we see that the corresponding pulsation periods show considerable difference throughout the entire range of stellar masses with the difference increasing with decrease in B value (increasing stiffness) for the SCQGP equation of state. Finally we study the damping of small amplitude radial pulsations via non-equilibrium processes. We derive the corresponding neutrino emissivities in the SCQGP case and present the resulting temporal evolution of pulsation energies. (orig.)
Radial oscillations of quark stars with strongly coupled QGP in the interior
Ramadas, Sineeba; Bannur, Vishnu. M.
2013-08-01
The radial oscillations of quark stars are analysed using the recently developed strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (SCQGP) equation of state. This EOS describes the intermediate to strongly coupled phase of deconfined cold quark matter wherein the chiral symmetry has not yet been restored. By integrating the Chandrasekhar eigenequation governing the radial modes we obtain the periods for the fundamental and first overtone, which are plotted for different values of the confining parameter—the bag constant ( B)—pertaining to the equation of state. The eigenfunctions of some of the normal modes are also plotted and analysed. It is found that for lower mass quark stars the oscillation periods are typically of the order of one tenth of a millisecond and has negligible dependence on the bag parameter. For medium and higher mass stars a variation of pulsation period with change in the bag constant is seen—the period increases with increase in B. Comparing with strange stars composed of non-interacting quarks we see that the corresponding pulsation periods show considerable difference throughout the entire range of stellar masses with the difference increasing with decrease in B value (increasing stiffness) for the SCQGP equation of state. Finally we study the damping of small amplitude radial pulsations via non-equilibrium processes. We derive the corresponding neutrino emissivities in the SCQGP case and present the resulting temporal evolution of pulsation energies.
Results on top-quark physics and top-quark-like signatures by CMS
Chabert, Eric Christian
2017-01-01
This report reviews the results obtained by the CMS Collaboration on top quark physics, focusing on the latest ones based on p--p collisions provided by the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}$=13 TeV during Run II. It covers measurements of single-top, top quark pairs and associated productions as well as measurements of top quark properties.Finally several beyond the standard model searches involving top quark in the final states are presented such as searches for supersymmetry in the third generation, heavy resonances decaying into a top quark pair, or dark matter produced in association to a single-top or a top quark pair.
QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao
2014-08-22
We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV.
Discovery of single top quark production
Gillberg, Dag
2011-01-01
The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking—the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of singl...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murakami, M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Boody, F.; Boyd, D.; Bretz, N.; Bush, C.E.
1985-06-01
The paper describes the present (end of February 1985) status of the plasma confinement studies in the TFTR tokamak with emphasis on those with neutral beam injection (NBI). Recent improvements in the device capabilities have substantially extended operating parameters: B/sub T/ increased to 4.0 T, I/sub p/ to 2.0 MA, injection power (P/sub b/) to 5 MW with H/sup 0/ or D/sup 0/ beams anti n/sub e/ to 5 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/, and Z/sub eff/ reduced to 1.4. With ohmic heating (OH) alone, the previously established scaling for gross energy confinement time (tau/sub E/ = anti n/sub e/q) has been confirmed at higher I/sub p/ and B/sub T/, and the maximum tau/sub E/ of 0.4 sec has been achieved. With NBI at P/sub b/ substantially (by factor >2) higher than P/sub OH/, excellent power and particle accountability have been established. This suggests that the less-than-expected increase in stored energy with NBI is not due to problems of power delivery, but due to problems of confinement deterioration. tau/sub E/ is observed to scale approximately as I/sub p/ P/sub b//sup -0.5/ (independent of anti n/sub e/), consistent with previous L-mode scalings. With NBI we have achieved the maximum tau/sub E/ of 0.2 sec and the maximum T/sub i/(o) of 4.4 keV in the normal operating regime, and even higher T/sub i/(o) in the energetic-ion regime with low-n/sub e/ and low-I/sub p/ operation.
Malgaretti, Paolo; Rubi, J Miguel
2014-01-01
We analyze the performance of a Brownian ratchet in the presence of geometrical constraints. A two-state model that describes the kinetics of molecular motors is used to characterize the energetic cost when the motor proceeds under confinement, in the presence of an external force. We show that the presence of geometrical constraints has a strong effect on the performance of the motor. In particular, we show that it is possible to enhance the ratchet performance by a proper tuning of the parameters characterizing the environment. These results open the possibility of engineering entropically-optimized transport devices.
Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas
1999-08-01
A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.
Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; FENG Hong-Tao; SUN Wei-Min; DING Xiao-Ping; PING Jia-Lun
2004-01-01
A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson-Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.
Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONGHong-Shi; FENGHong-Tao; SUNWei-Min; DINGXiao-Ping; PINGJia-Lun
2004-01-01
A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.
Quark-lepton complementarity revisited
Zhang, Xinyi; Ma, Bo-Qiang
2012-01-01
We reexamine the quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) in nine angle-phase parametrizations with the latest result for a large lepton mixing angle $\\vartheta_{13}$ from the T2K, MINOS and Double Chooz experiments. We find that the original form of the QLC two relations only hold in the standard parametrization (P1) and only one of the relations holds in P2, P3, P4, P5, P6 and P9 parametrizations separately. We also work out the corresponding reparametrization-invariant form of the relations and examine the resulting expressions with the data. The results can be used as check of the validity of the QLC relations, as well as new perspective into the issue of seeking the connection between quarks and leptons.
Wang, X J; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Yan, Mu-Lin
1999-01-01
We study SU(3)$_L\\timesSU(3)_R$ chiral quark model of mesons up to next leading order of $1/N_c$ expansion. Composite vector and axial-vector mesons resonances are introduced via non-linear realization of chiral SU(3) and vector meson dominant. Effects of one-loop graphs of pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons is calculated systematically and the significant results are obtained. Correction of effective gluon interaction is studied too. The light quark masses are introduced via new mechanism which agree with phenomenology and the requirement of chiral symmetry. Up to powers four of derivatives, chiral effective lagrangian of mesons is derived and evaluated to next leading order of $1/N_c$. Low energy limit of the model is examined. Ten low energy coupling constants $L_i(i=1,2,...,10)$ in ChPT are obtained and agree with ChPT well.
Schwinger Effect and Entanglement Entropy in Confining Geometries
Ghodrati, Mahdis
2015-01-01
Using AdS/CFT, we study the critical electric field, the rate of Schwinger pair creation and the phase diagram of the total potential versus the distance between the quark and anti quark in four confining supergravity backgrounds which are the Witten QCD, the Maldacena-Nunez, the Klebanov-Tseytlin and the Klebanov-Strassler models. We find the three phases in each geometry and we show the differences and similarities of the phase diagram for these models. For comparing the results with the conformal case, we also study the Klebanov-Witten geometry. We then study the phase diagram of the entanglement entropy of a strip in these specific confining geometries and find the predicted butterfly shape in the diagram of the entanglement entropy. Then by using the imaginary part of the Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian, we study the rate of pair creation in the presence of a magnetic field. We show that in all of these geometries, increasing the parallel magnetic field would increase the pair creation rate and inc...
Flow equations in the light-front QCD mass gap and confinement
Gubankova, E
2000-01-01
The light-front QCD is studied using the method of flow equations. Solving the light-front gluon gap equation, the effective gluon mass is generated dynamically. The effective interaction between static quark and antiquark, generated through elimination of the quark-gluon minimal coupling by flow equations, has the Coulomb, $1/q^2$, and confining, $1/q^4$, singular behavior. Elimination of the quark-gluon coupling at small gluon momenta is governed by the cutoff dependent, dynamical gluon mass, which makes this elimination possible and provides such an enhancement at $q\\sim 0$. The cutoff, which regulates small light-front $x$ divergences, sets up a scale for the dynamical gluon mass and the string tension in the $q\\bar{q}$-potential. The mechanism of confimenemet in the light-front frame is suggested, based on the singular nature of the light-front gauge along the light-front $x$-axis.
Walsh, Karen McNulty
2011-03-28
Near-light-speed collisions of gold ions provide a recipe for in-depth explorations of matter and fundamental forces. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has produced the most massive antimatter nucleus ever discovered—and the first containing an anti-strange quark. The presence of strange antimatter makes this antinucleus the first to be entered below the plane of the classic Periodic Table of Elements, marking a new frontier in physics.
Search for strange quark matter
Hill, J C
2000-01-01
We present results of a search for charged and neutral strangelets produced on collisions of 11.6 A GeV/c Au beams with Pt or Pb targets. Yields of light nuclei and hypernuclei produced by coalescence were measured. Penalty factors were measured for the addition to a fragment of a nucleon or strange hadron. These are useful in planning future searches for strange quark matter.
Electrically Charged Strange Quark Stars
Negreiros, Rodrigo P; Malheiro, Manuel; Usov, Vladimir
2009-01-01
The possible existence of compact stars made of absolutely stable strange quark matter--referred to as strange stars--was pointed out by E. Witten almost a quarter of a century ago. One of the most amazing features of such objects concerns the possible existence of ultra-strong electric fields on their surfaces, which, for ordinary strange matter, is around $10^{18}$ V/cm. If strange matter forms a color superconductor, as expected for such matter, the strength of the electric field may increase to values that exceed $10^{19}$ V/cm. The energy density associated with such huge electric fields is on the same order of magnitude as the energy density of strange matter itself, which, as shown in this paper, alters the masses and radii of strange quark stars at the 15% and 5% level, respectively. Such mass increases facilitate the interpretation of massive compact stars, with masses of around $2 M_\\odot$, as strange quark stars.
Better Hadronic Top Quark Polarimetry
Tweedie, Brock
2014-01-01
Observables sensitive to top quark polarization are important for characterizing or even discovering new physics. The most powerful spin analyzer in top decay is the down-type fermion from the W, which in the case of leptonic decay allows for very clean measurements. However, in many applications it is useful to measure the polarization of hadronically decaying top quarks. Usually it is assumed that at most 50% of the spin analyzing power can be recovered in this case. This paper introduces a simple and truly optimal hadronic spin analyzer, with a power of 64% at leading-order. The improvement is demonstrated to be robust in a handful of simulated measurements, including the spins and spin correlations of boosted top quarks from multi-TeV top-antitop resonances, the spins of semi-boosted tops from chiral stop decays, and the potentially CP-violating spin correlations induced in continuum top pairs by color dipole operators. For the boosted studies, we explore jet substructure techniques that exhibit improved ...
Lattice Landau gauge quark propagator and the quark-gluon vertex
Oliveira, Orlando; Silva, Paulo J; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Sternbeck, Andre; Williams, Anthony G
2016-01-01
We report preliminary results of our ongoing lattice computation of the Landau gauge quark propagator and the soft gluon limit of the quark-gluon vertex with 2 flavors of dynamical O(a) improved Wilson fermions.
Vector Susceptibility of QCD Vacuum from an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; QI Shi; CHEN Wei; WU Xiao-Hua
2003-01-01
.A new approach for calculating vacuum susceptibilities from an effective quark-quark interaction model is derived. As a special case, the vector vacuum susceptibility is calculated. A comparison with the results of the previous approaches is given.
Vector Susceptibility of QCD Vacuum from an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONGHong-Shi; QIShi; CHENWei; WUXiao-Hua
2003-01-01
A new approach for calculating vacuum susceptibilities from an effective quark-quark interaction model is derived. As a special case, the vector vacuum susceptibility is calculated. A comparison with the results of the previous approaches is given.
Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Dressed Gluon and Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Feng-Yao; GU Jian-Zhong; ZONG Hong-Shi; L(U)Xiao-Fu
2004-01-01
Based on the Dyson-Schwinger approach, a method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed gluon and quark propagator is developed. A comparison with the results of the previous approach is given.
QQqq Four-Quark Bound States in Chiral SU(3) Quark Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ming; ZHANG Hai-Xia; ZHANG Zong-Ye
2008-01-01
The possibility of QQqq heavy-light four-quark bound states has been analyzed by means of the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q is the light quark (u, d, or s). We obtain a bound state for the bbnn configuration with quantum number JP=1+, I=0 and for the ccnn (JP=1+, I=0) configuration, which is not bound but slightly above the D*D* threshold (n is u or d quark). Meanwhile, we also conclude that a weakly bound state in bbnn system can also be found without considering the chiral quark interactions between the two light quarks, yet its binding energy is weaker than that with the chiral quark interactions.
Generalized parton distributions: confining potential effects within AdS/QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Traini, Marco [Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, Institut de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Universita degli Studi di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trento (Italy); INFN-TIFPA, Trento (Italy)
2017-04-15
Generalized parton distributions are investigated within a holographic approach where the string modes in the fifth dimension describe the nucleon in a bottom-up or AdS/QCD framework. The aim is to bring the AdS/QCD results in the realm of phenomenology in order to extract consequences and previsions. Two main aspects are studied: (i) the role of the confining potential needed for breaking conformal invariance and introducing confinement (both: classic soft-wall and recent infra-red potentials are investigated); (ii) the extension of the predicted GPDs to the entire range of off-forward kinematics by means of double distributions. Higher Fock states are included describing the nucleon as a superposition of three valence quarks and quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. (orig.)
A transport theory of relativistic nucleon-nucleon collisions with confinement
Vetter, T; Mosel, U
1994-01-01
A transport theory is developed on the quark level to describe nucleon--nucleon collisions. We treat the strong interaction effectively by the Friedberg-Lee model both in its original and in its modified confining version. First we study the stability of the static three-dimensional semiclassical configuration, then we present results of the time evolution given by a Vlasov equation for the quarks coupled to a Klein-Gordon equation for the mean field. We find at higher energies that the nucleons are almost transparent, whereas at lower energies we observe a substantial interaction. At very low energies we see a fusion of our bags, which is due to the purely attractive nature of the mean field and hence is an artifact of our model. We test the confinement mechanism and find that at higher energies the nucleons are restored shortly after the collision.
Dynamic gluon confinement in high energy processes within effective QCD field theory
Kinder-Geiger, Klaus
1994-01-01
An effective Lagrangian approach to describe the dynamics of confinement and symmetry breaking in the process of quark-gluon to hadron conversion is proposed. The deconfined quark and gluon degrees of freedom of the perturbative QCD vacuum are coupled to color neutral condensate fields representing the non-perturbative vacuum with broken scale and chiral symmetry. As a first application the evolution of gluons emitted by a fragmenting high energy q\\bar q pair from the perturbative to the non-perturbative regime with confinement is studied. For reasonable parameter choice the solution of the equations of motion leads to flux tube configurations with a string tension t \\simeq 1 GeV/fm.
A New Model for Quark Mass Matrix
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Zhi-Wei
2011-01-01
We study the status of S3, I.e. A slightly broken symmetry of quarks and propose a new model in which the S3 symmetry among the three generation up-quarks is slightly broken into the C2 symmetry while the S3 symmetry of the down-quarks is completely broken in a different way.%@@ We study the status of Sa, i.e.a slightly broken symmetry of quarks and propose a new model in which the Sa symmetry among the three generation up-quarks is slightly broken into the C symmetry while the S symmetry of the down-quarks is completely broken in a different way.
Physics of the nucleon sea quark distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogt, R.
2000-03-10
Sea quark distributions in the nucleon have naively been expected to be generated perturbatively by gluon splitting. In this case, there is no reason for the light quark and anti-quark sea distributions to be different. No asymmetries in the strange or heavy quark sea distributions are predicted in the improved parton model. However,recent experiments have called these naive expectations into question. A violation of the Gottfried sum rule has been measured in several experiments, suggesting that (bar u) < (bar d) in the proton. Additionally, other measurements, while not definitive, show that there may be an asymmetry in the strange and anti-strange quark sea distributions. These effects may require nonperturbative explanations. In this review we first discuss the perturbative aspects of the sea quark distributions. We then describe the experiments that could point to nonperturbative contributions to the nucleon sea. Current phenomenological models that could explain some of these effects are reviewed.
Single top quark production with CMS
Mitra, Soureek
2016-01-01
Measurements of single top quark production are presented, performed using CMS data collected in 2011, 2012 and 2015 at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV respectively. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. In the t-channel the ratio of top and anti-top production cross sections is determined and compared with predictions from different parton density distribution functions. In the same channel, the inclusive cross-section in the fiducial volume is also measured. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production such as the top-quark polarisation, W-helicity in top quark decay and searches for anomalous couplings to gluons, photons are also presented,. A search for the s-channel is also performed.
Experimental Studies of Top Quark Production
Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine
2016-01-01
In this review article three promising aspects of top quark production are discussed: the charge asymmetry in top quark pair production, the search for resonant top quark pair production, and electroweak single top quark production. First, an overview of the theoretical predictions of top quark pair and single top quark production is given. Then, for each topic the general analysis strategy and improvements are exemplarily explained using selected analyses and are put into the context of the global status at the beginning of LHC Run II and progress in this field. The example analyses discussed in more detail in this article use data from the LHC experiment CMS and for the charge asymmetry studies also data from the Tevatron experiment CDF have been used.
Tevatron Top-Quark Combinations and World Top-Quark Mass Combination
Peters, Reinhild Yvonne; ATLAS, on behalf of the; CDF; CMS; collaborations, D0
2014-01-01
Almost 20 years after its discovery, the top quark is still an interesting particle, undergoing precise investigation of its properties. For many years, the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab was the only place to study top quarks in detail, while with the recent start of the LHC proton proton collider a top quark factory has opened. An important ingredient for the full understanding of the top quark is the combination of measurements from the individual experiments. In particula...
Radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model
Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi
2016-10-01
We propose a radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model in the first and second generation with extra U (1) gauge symmetry and vector-like fermions. Then we analyze the allowed regions which simultaneously satisfy the FCNCs for the quark sector, LFVs including μ- e conversion, the quark mass and mixing, and the lepton mass and mixing. Also we estimate the typical value for the (g - 2) μ in our model.
Top quark mass measurements at CDF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maki, Tuula; /Helsinki U. /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.
2007-10-01
The top quark mass is interesting both as a fundamental parameter of the standard model as well as an important input to precision electroweak tests. The CDF Collaboration has measured the top quark mass with high precision in all decay channels with complementary methods. A combination of the results from CDF gives a top quark mass of 170.5{+-}1.3(stat.){+-}1.8(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.
On quark number susceptibilities at high temperatures
Bazavov, A; Hegde, P; Karsch, F; Miao, C; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Schmidt, C; Velytsky, A
2013-01-01
We calculated second and fourth order quark number susceptibilities for 2+1 flavor QCD in the high temperature region using two improved staggered fermion formulations. The calculations are performed at several lattice spacing and we show that in the continuum limit the two formulations give consistent results. We compare our continuum extrapolated results on quark number susceptibilities with recent weak coupling calculations, and find that these cannot simultaneously explain the lattice results for second and fourth order quark number susceptibilities.
Overview of top quark physics at ATLAS
Finelli, Kevin Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Analyses of top quark pair production, single top production, and measurements of top quark properties are presented, showing the scope of recent ATLAS activities in the field. Many of these measurements test the predictions of the standard model in regimes and modes that have not previously been explored. Several top quark measurements are also being used to set limits on theories of new physics beyond the standard model, for example using an effective field theory framework.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N.; Das, M. (Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics)
1983-01-13
Several properties of octet baryons such as (i) the magnetic moment, (ii) (Gsub(A)/Gsub(v))sub(n) for neutron ..beta..-decay and (iii) the charge radius of the proton have been calculated in a simple independent-quark model under the assumption that the individual constituent quarks are confined, in first approximation, by a relativistic power-law potential Vsub(q)(r)=(1+..beta..) (asup(..nu..+1)rsup(..nu..)+V/sub 0/) with a, ..nu..>0. In view of the simplicity of the model, the results obtained are quite encouraging.
Quark Physics without Quarks: A Review of Recent Developments in S-Matrix Theory.
Capra, Fritjof
1979-01-01
Reviews the developments in S-matrix theory over the past five years which have made it possible to derive results characteristic of quark models without any need to postulate the existence of physical quarks. In the new approach, the quark patterns emerge as a consequence of combining the general S-matrix principles with the concept of order.…
The quark revolution and the ZGS - new quarks physics since the ZGS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipkin, H.J. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)]|[Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)
1994-12-31
Overwhelming experimental evidence for quarks as real physical constituents of hadrons along with the QCD analogs of the Balmer Formula, Bohr Atom and Schroedinger Equation already existed in 1966 but was dismissed as heresy. ZGS experiments played an important role in the quark revolution. This role is briefly reviewed and subsequent progress in quark physics is described.
Quark Physics without Quarks: A Review of Recent Developments in S-Matrix Theory.
Capra, Fritjof
1979-01-01
Reviews the developments in S-matrix theory over the past five years which have made it possible to derive results characteristic of quark models without any need to postulate the existence of physical quarks. In the new approach, the quark patterns emerge as a consequence of combining the general S-matrix principles with the concept of order.…
Transversity of quarks in a nucleon
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K Bora; D K Choudhury
2003-11-01
The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon’s properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (inﬁnite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd twist-two distribution function – gluons do not couple to it. Quarks in a nucleon/hadron are relativistically bound and transversity is a measure of the relativistic nature of bound quarks in a nucleon. In this work, we review some important aspects of this less familiar distribution function which has not been measured experimentally so far.
Quark masses in two-flavor QCD
Creutz, Michael
2011-01-01
Considered as a function of the quark mases, two-flavor QCD depends on three parameters, including one that is CP violating. As the masses vary to unphysical values, regions of both first- and second-order phase transitions are expected. For non-degenerate quarks, non-perturbative effects leave individual quark mass ratios with a renormalization scheme dependence. This complicates matching lattice results with perturbative schemes and clarifies the tautology with attacking the strong CP problem via a vanishing up quark mass.
Top quark measurements in the CMS experiment
Lista, Luca
2017-01-01
Experimental results on top-quark physics obtained at the CMS experiment are reported based on the data recorded at centre-of-mass energy up to 13 TeV. Inclusive and differential cross sections for both top-quark pair and single top-quark production are presented, as well as measurements of top-quark properties in production and decay, and searches for anomalous couplings. The presented measurements test theoretical predictions, including recent perturbative QCD calculations, provide constraints of fundamental standard model parameters, and set limits on physics beyond the standard model.
Is Heavy Quark Axion Necessarily Hadronic Axion?
Chang, Sanghyeon; Kim, Jihn E.
1993-01-01
We show that heavy quark axion is not necessarily a hadronic axion, which manifests in the quark and lepton seesaw mechanism. We introduce a heavy $SU(2)$ singlet fermion for each known fermion in order to unify the axion scale and the seesaw scale. The light quarks and leptons gain their masses by the seesaw mechanism. Even though our axion model gives a kind of heavy quark axion, the axion has tree level lepton--axion coupling suppressed by $F_a$, contrary to a widely known belief that heav...
CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geng, Weigang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
2012-01-01
We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb^{-1} of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.
Measurements and searches with top quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peters, Reinhild Yvonne [Univ. of Wuppertal (Germany)
2008-08-01
In 1995 the last missing member of the known families of quarks, the top quark, was discovered by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab near Chicago. Until today, the Tevatron is the only place where top quarks can be produced. The determination of top quark production and properties is crucial to understand the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. The most striking property of the top quark is its mass--of the order of the mass of a gold atom and close to the electroweak scale--making the top quark not only interesting in itself but also as a window to new physics. Due to the high mass, much higher than of any other known fermion, it is expected that the top quark plays an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking, which is the most prominent candidate to explain the mass of particles. In the Standard Model, electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by one Higgs field, producing one additional physical particle, the Higgs boson. Although various searches have been performed, for example at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP), no evidence for the Higgs boson could yet be found in any experiment. At the Tevatron, multiple searches for the last missing particle of the Standard Model are ongoing with ever higher statistics and improved analysis techniques. The exclusion or verification of the Higgs boson can only be achieved by combining many techniques and many final states and production mechanisms. As part of this thesis, the search for Higgs bosons produced in association with a top quark pair (t$\\bar{t}$H) has been performed. This channel is especially interesting for the understanding of the coupling between Higgs and the top quark. Even though the Standard Model Higgs boson is an attractive candidate, there is no reason to believe that the electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by only one Higgs field. In many models more than one Higgs boson are expected to exist, opening even more
Thermal Recombination: Beyond the Valence Quark Approximation
Müller, B; Bass, S A
2005-01-01
Quark counting rules derived from recombination models agree well with data on hadron production at intermediate transverse momenta in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. They convey a simple picture of hadrons consisting only of valence quarks. We discuss the inclusion of higher Fock states that add sea quarks and gluons to the hadron structure. We show that, when recombination occurs from a thermal medium, hadron spectra remain unaffected by the inclusion of higher Fock states. However, the quark number scaling for elliptic flow is somewhat affected. We discuss the implications for our understanding of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
Top Quark Mass Measurements at the Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peters, Reinhild Yvonne [DESY
2014-01-01
Since the discovery of the top quark in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron proton antiproton collider, precise measurements of its mass are ongoing. Using data recorded by the D0 and CDF experiment, corresponding to up to the full Tevatron data sample, top quark mass measurements performed in different final states using various extraction techniques are presented in this article. The recent Tevatron top quark mass combination yields m_t=173.20 +-0.87 GeV. Furthermore, measurements of the top antitop quark mass difference from the Tevatron are discussed.
Hydrodynamics of anisotropic quark and gluon fluids
Florkowski, Wojciech; Maj, Radoslaw; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2013-03-01
The recently developed framework of anisotropic hydrodynamics is generalized to describe the dynamics of coupled quark and gluon fluids. The quark and gluon components of the fluids are characterized by different dynamical anisotropy parameters. The dynamical equations describing such mixtures are derived from kinetic theory, with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation-time approximation, allowing for different relaxation times for quarks and gluons. Baryon number conservation is enforced in the quark and antiquark components of the fluid, but overall parton number nonconservation is allowed in the system. The resulting equations are solved numerically in the (0+1)-dimensional boost-invariant case at zero and finite baryon density.
Hydrodynamics of anisotropic quark and gluon fluids
Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2012-01-01
The recently developed framework of anisotropic hydrodynamics is generalized to describe the dynamics of coupled quark and gluon fluids. The quark and gluon components of the fluids are characterized by different dynamical anisotropy parameters. The dynamical equations describing such mixtures are derived from kinetic theory with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation-time approximation. Baryon number conservation is enforced in the quark and anti-quark components of the fluid, but overall parton number non-conservation is allowed in the system. The resulting equations are solved numerically in the (0+1)-dimensional boost-invariant case at zero and finite baryon density.
Pseudoscalar meson physics with four dynamical quarks
Bazavov, A; Bouchard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Foley, J; Freeland, E D; Gamiz, E; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Kim, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Lightman, M; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M; Simone, J N; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R
2012-01-01
We present preliminary results for light, strange and charmed pseudoscalar meson physics from simulations using four flavors of dynamical quarks with the highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) action. These simulations include lattice spacings ranging from 0.15 to 0.06 fm, and sea-quark masses both above and at their physical value. The major results are charm meson decay constants f_D, f_{D_s} and f_{D_s}/f_D and ratios of quark masses. This talk will focus on our procedures for finding the decay constants on each ensemble, the continuum extrapolation, and estimates of systematic error.
The Body Center Cubic Quark Lattice Model
Lin Xu, Jiao
2004-01-01
The Standard Model while successful in many ways is incomplete; many questions remain. The origin of quark masses and hadronization of quarks are awaiting an answer. From the Dirac sea concept, we infer that two kinds of elementary quarks (u(0) and d(0)) constitute a body center cubic (BCC) quark lattice with a lattice constant a < $10^{-18}$m in the vacuum. Using energy band theory and the BCC quark lattice, we can deduce the rest masses and the intrinsic quantum numbers (I, S, C, b and Q) of quarks. With the quark spectrum, we deduce a baryon spectrum. The theoretical spectrum is in agreement well with the experimental results. Not only will this paper provide a physical basis for the Quark Model, but also it will open a door to study the more fundamental nature at distance scales <$10^{-18}$m. This paper predicts some new quarks $u_{c}$(6490) and d$_{b}$(9950), and new baryons $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$(6500), $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}$(9960).
Relativistic quark model and pentaquark spectroscopy
Gerasyuta, S M
2002-01-01
The relativistic five-quark equations are found in the framework of the dispersion relation technique. The solutions of these equations using the method based on the extraction of leading singularities of the amplitudes are obtained. The five-quark amplitudes for the low-lying pentaquarks are calculated under the condition that flavor SU(3) symmetry holds. The poles of five-quark amplitudes determine the masses of the lowest pentaquarks. The mass spectra of pentaquarks which contain only light quarks are calculated. The calculation of pentaquark amplitudes estimates the contributions of three subamplitudes. The main contributions to the pentaquark amplitude are determined by the subamplitudes, which include the meson states.
Nuclear Structure Functions from Constituent Quark Model
Arash, F; Arash, Firooz; Atashbar-Tehrani, Shahin
1999-01-01
We have used the notion of the constituent quark model of nucleon, where a constituent quark carries its own internal structure, and applied it to determine nuclear structure functions ratios. It is found that the description of experimental data require the inclusion of strong shadowing effect for $x<0.01$. Using the idea of vector meson dominance model and other ingredients this effect is calculated in the context of the constituent quark model. It is rather striking that the constituent quark model, used here, gives a good account of the data for a wide range of atomic mass number from A=4 to A=204.
Single top quark production with CMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piccolo Davide
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Measurements of single top quark production performed using the CMS experiment [1] data collected in 2011 at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and in 2012 at 8 TeV, are presented. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production are also presented. The results include the measurement of the charge ratio in the single top t-channel.
Amoeboid motion in confined geometry
Wu, Hao; Hu, Wei-Fan; Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Lai, Ming-Chih; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi
2015-01-01
Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as...
Review of meson spectroscopy: quark states and glueballs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chanowitz, M.S.
1981-11-01
A group of three lectures on hadron spectroscopy are presented. Topics covered include: light L = 0 mesons, light L = 1 mesons, antiquark antiquark quark quark exotics, a catalogue of higher quark antiquark excitations, heavy quarkonium, and glueballs. (GHT)
Complete Monopole Dominance of the Static Quark Potential
Cundy, Nigel
2016-01-01
In earlier work, we used a gauge independent Abelian Decomposition to show that Abelian degrees of freedom are wholly responsible for the static quark potential. The restricted Abelian field can be split into two terms, a Maxwell term and a $\\theta$ (Dirac) term. The $\\theta$ term's contribution to the string tension can be analysed theoretically and numerically, and arises because of the existence of a certain type of monopole. While the Abelian field can be constructed without gauge fixing, its two component parts are gauge-dependent, with a gauge transformation moving the topological features from one part to another. This allows us to isolate and identify the topological objects responsible for confinement by constructing a gauge where the $\\theta$ term wholly accounts for the string tension. We confirm the presence of these monopoles in lattice simulations of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.
Highlights of top quark properties measurements at ATLAS
Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks. This talk will focus on a few recent precision measurements of top quark properties in production and decay by the ATLAS Collaboration. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.
Highlights of top quark properties measurements at ATLAS
Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks. This talk focuses on a few recent precision measurements of top quark properties in production and decay by the ATLAS Collaboration. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.
Effect of extrinsic curvature on quark--hadron phase transition
Heydari-Fard, Malihe
2009-01-01
The last phase transition predicted by the standard model of particle physics took place at the QCD scale $T\\sim200$ MeV when the universe was about $t\\sim10^{-5}$ seconds old and the Hubble radius was around 10 Km. In this paper, we consider the quark--hadron phase transition in the context of brane-world cosmology where our universe is a 3-brane embedded in a $m$-dimensional bulk and localization of matter on the brane is achieved by means of a confining potential. We study the behavior of the physical quantities relevant to the description of the early universe like the energy density, temperature and scale factor, before, during, and after the phase transition and investigate the effects of extrinsic curvature on the cosmological phase transition. We show that the brane-world effects reduce the effective temperature of the quark--gluon plasma and of the hadronic fluid. Finally, we discuss the case where the universe evolved through a mixed phase with a small initial supercooling and monotonically growing ...
Nucleation rate of the quark-gluon plasma droplet at ﬁnite quark chemical potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D S Gosain; S Somorendro Singh; Agam K Jha
2012-05-01
The nucleation rate of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) droplet is computed at ﬁnite quark chemical potential. In the course of computing the nucleation rate, the ﬁnite size effects of the QGP droplet are taken into account. We consider the phenomenological ﬂow parameter of quarks and gluons, which is dependent on quark chemical potential and we calculate the nucleation rate of the QGP droplet with this parameter. While calculating the nucleation rate, we ﬁnd that for low values of quark phenomenological parameter $ q$, nucleation rate is negligible and when increases, nucleation rate increases signiﬁcantly.
Quark distribution functions in the chiral quark-soliton model cancellation of quantum anomalies
Göke, K; Polyakov, M V; Schweitzer, P; Urbano, D
2001-01-01
In the framework of the chiral quark-soliton model of the nucleon we investigate the properties of the polarized quark distribution. In particular we analyse the so called anomalous difference between the representations of the quark distribution functions in terms of occupied and non-occupied quark states. By an explicit analytical calculation it is shown that this anomaly is absent in the polarized isoscalar distribution \\Delta u + \\Delta d, which is ultaviolet finite. In the case of the polarized isovector quark distribution which is also needed for the regularization of the ultraviolet divergence.
Dvornikov, Maxim
2016-12-01
We study the generation of strong large scale magnetic fields in dense quark matter. The magnetic field growth is owing to the magnetic field instability driven by the electroweak interaction of quarks. We discuss the situation when the chiral symmetry is unbroken in the degenerate quark matter. In this case we predict the amplification of the seed magnetic field 1012G to the strengths (1014 -1015)G. In our analysis we use the typical parameters of the quark matter in the core of a hybrid star or in a quark star. We also discuss the application of the obtained results to describe the magnetic fields generation in magnetars.
PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference Quark Matter 2006 Conference
Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan
2007-07-01
The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14-20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The
Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheffler, David
2015-07-20
The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking
Relationship between quark-antiquark potential and quark-antiquark free energy in hadronic matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Zhen-Yu; XU Xiao-Ming
2015-01-01
In high-temperature quark-gluon plasma and its subsequent hadronic matter created in a high-energy nucleus-nucleus collision,the quark-antiquark potential depends on the temperature.The temperature-dependent potential is expected to be derived from the free energy obtained in lattice gauge theory calculations.This requires one to study the relationship between the quark-antiquark potential and the quark-antiquark free energy.When the system's temperature is above the critical temperature,the potential of a heavy quark and a heavy antiquark almost equals the free energy,but the potential of a light quark and a light antiquark,of a heavy quark and a light antiquark and of a light quark and a heavy antiquark is substantially larger than the free energy.When the system's temperature is below the critical temperature,the quark-antiquark free energy can be taken as the quark-antiquark potential.This allows one to apply the quark-antiquark free energy to study hadron properties and hadron-hadron reactions in hadronic matter.
Hamieh, Salah; Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann
2000-01-01
Lattice-QCD results provide an opportunity to model, and extrapolate to finite baryon density, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data, the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. We show that the physical properties of the dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERN-SPS are well described by the QGP-EoS we presented. We also estimate the...
Charm physics with HISQ quarks
Davies, C T H; Kendall, I; McNeile, C; Lepage, G P; Allison, I; Woloshyn, R; Dalgic, E; Trottier, H; Follana, E; Horgan, R; Hornbostel, K; Shigemitsu, J
2008-01-01
We present an update of results from the HPQCD collaboration on charm physics using the Highly Improved Staggered Quark action. This includes a precise determination of m_c using moments of current-current correlators combined with high-order continuum QCD perturbation theory. We also include an update on the determination of alpha_s from lattice QCD, preliminary results on the determination of m_b and a summary plot of the status of the gold-plated meson spectrum. There is an appendix on tackling systematic errors in fitting using the Bayesian approach.
Color Screening and Quark-Quark Interactions in Finite Temperature QCD
Döring, M; Kaczmarek, O; Karsch, F
2007-01-01
We analyze the screening of static diquark sources in 2-flavor QCD and compare results with the screening of static quark-antiquark pairs. We show that a two quark system in a fixed color representations is screened at short distances like a single quark source in the same color representation whereas at large distances the two quarks are screened independently. At high temperatures we observe that the relative strength of the interaction in diquark and quark-antiquark systems, respectively, obeys Casimir scaling. We use this result to examine the possible existence of heavy quark-quark bound states in the high temperature phase of QCD. We find support for the existence of $bb$ states up to about $2T_c$ while $cc$ states are unlikely to be formed above $T_c$.
Tevatron Top-Quark Combinations and World Top-Quark Mass Combination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peters, Reinhild Yvonne [DESY
2014-11-04
Almost 20 years after its discovery, the top quark is still an interesting particle, undergoing precise investigation of its properties. For many years, the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab was the only place to study top quarks in detail, while with the recent start of the LHC proton proton collider a top quark factory has opened. An important ingredient for the full understanding of the top quark is the combination of measurements from the individual experiments. In particular, the Tevaton combinations of single top-quark cross sections, the ttbar production cross section, the W helicity in top-quark decays as well as the Tevatron and the world combination of the top-quark mass are discussed.
The Top Quark, QCD, And New Physics.
Dawson, S.
2002-06-01
The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup+}e{sup -}+ t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup+}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.
Dissociation coloured quarks and inclusive scattering
Bartelski, J
1974-01-01
A simple parton model of the nucleon built up of three-triplet quarks dissociated into the Gell-Mann-Zweig quarks and 'coloured' gluons is considered. It is shown that the model is consistent with SLAC-MIT and CERN data for inclusive scattering. (21 refs).
Top quark property measurements in single top
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00386283; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
A review of the recent results on measurements of top quark properties in single top quark processes, performed at the LHC by ATLAS and CMS is presented. The measurements are in good agreement with predictions and no deviations from Standard Model expectations have been observed.
Quark Model in the Quantum Mechanics Curriculum.
Hussar, P. E.; And Others
1980-01-01
This article discusses in detail the totally symmetric three-quark karyonic wave functions. The two-body mesonic states are also discussed. A brief review of the experimental efforts to identify the quark model multiplets is given. (Author/SK)
Quark Model in the Quantum Mechanics Curriculum.
Hussar, P. E.; And Others
1980-01-01
This article discusses in detail the totally symmetric three-quark karyonic wave functions. The two-body mesonic states are also discussed. A brief review of the experimental efforts to identify the quark model multiplets is given. (Author/SK)
Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mukherjee Asmita
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs. We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.
Free quarks and antiquarks versus hadronic matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Xiao-Ming; PENG Ru
2009-01-01
Meson-meson reactions A(q1q1) + B(q2q2) → q1+q1+ q2+q2 in high-temperature hadronic matter are found to produce an appreciable amount of quarks and antiquarks freely moving in hadronic matter and to establish a new mechanism for deconfinement of quarks and antiquarks in hadronic matter.
Baryon Ratios in Quark-Gluon Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Zhong-Biao; MIAO Hong; GAO Chong-Shou
2003-01-01
A way to calculate ratios of baryon produced from quark gluon plasma in relativistic heavyion collisionsis presented. It is assumed that at the beginning of the hadronization there are diquarks and anti-diquarks in the quarkmatter. The number of three-quark states is distributed between the corresponding multiplets, and hadronic decays aretaken into account. The results are shown at last.
A note on Quarks and numbers theory
Hage-Hassan, Mehdi
2013-01-01
We express the basis vectors of Cartan fundamental representations of unitary groups by binary numbers. We determine the expression of Gel'fand basis of SU (3) based on the usual subatomic quarks notations and we represent it by binary numbers. By analogy with the mesons and quarks we find a new property of prime numbers.
Dressed Quarks and PROTON’S Spin
Yang, Xin-Hua; Wong, Chun Wa; Chu, Keh-Cheng
The effect on the proton spin of mixing gluon and sea quark configurations is studied in a perturbative treatment based on the MIT bag model. As little as 29% of the proton spin is found to remain as the intrinsic spin of quarks when they are “dressed” by gluons.
Heavy quark production in pp collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGaughey, P.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Quack, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruuskanen, P.V. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)]|[Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)] [and others
1995-07-01
A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.
Evidence for production of single top quarks
Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; sman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, AA; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Dliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, e H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gel, D; Gerber, eC E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gmez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, o H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, e R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Krop, D; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kura, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, cD; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Lévêque, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, e V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vetterli, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2008-01-01
We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron ppbar collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top quark partner that is always produced from strong coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top quark production has been searched for in ever larger datasets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb-1 dataset that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and ttbar events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix element...
Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons
Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas
2015-11-01
We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.
Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faller, Sven, E-mail: faller@physik.uni-siegen.de; Mannel, Thomas, E-mail: mannel@physik.uni-siegen.de
2015-11-12
We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.
Light-Quark Decays in Heavy Hadrons
Faller, Sven
2015-01-01
We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. Theses decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays are interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.
The heavy quark expansion of QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falk, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
1997-06-01
These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.
An Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Zong-Ye; YU You-Wen; WANG Ping; DAI Lian-Rong
2003-01-01
The chiral SU(3) quark model is extended by including the vector meson exchanges to describe the short range interactions. The phase shifts of NN scattering are studied in this model. Compared with the results of the chiral SU(3) quark model in which only the pseudo-scalar and scalar chiralfields are considered, the phase shifts of 1 So wave are obviously improved.
Review of Top Quark Physics Results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kehoe, R.; Narain, M.; Kumar, A.
2007-12-01
As the heaviest known fundamental particle, the top quark has taken a central role in the study of fundamental interactions. Production of top quarks in pairs provides an important probe of strong interactions. The top quark mass is a key fundamental parameter which places a valuable constraint on the Higgs boson mass and electroweak symmetry breaking. Observations of the relative rates and kinematics of top quark final states constrain potential new physics. In many cases, the tests available with study of the top quark are both critical and unique. Large increases in data samples from the Fermilab Tevatron have been coupled with major improvements in experimental techniques to produce many new precision measurements of the top quark. The first direct evidence for electroweak production of top quarks has been obtained, with a resulting direct determination of V{sub tb}. Several of the properties of the top quark have been measured. Progress has also been made in obtaining improved limits on potential anomalous production and decay mechanisms. This review presents an overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments in this field. We also provide a brief discussion of the implications for further efforts.
Recent advances in heavy quark theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wise, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)
1997-01-01
Some recent developments in heavy quark theory are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing a b quark. The isospin violating hadronic decay D{sub s}* {yields} D{sub s}{sup pi}{sup 0} is also discussed.
Confined helium on Lagrange meshes
Baye, Daniel
2015-01-01
The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than $10^{-10}$. For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to $10^{-3}$, still improving the best literature results.
Quark and pion effective couplings from polarization effects
Braghin, Fabio L
2016-01-01
A flavor SU(2) effective model for pions and quarks is derived by considering polarization effects departing from the usual quark-quark effective interaction induced by dressed gluon exchange, i.e. a global color model for QCD. For that, the quark field is decomposed into a component that yields light mesons and the quark-antiquark condensate, being integrated out by means of the auxiliary field method, and another component which yields constituent quarks. Within a longwavelength and weak quark field expansion (or large quark effective mass expansion) of a quark determinant, the leading terms are found up to the second order in a zero order derivative expansion, by neglecting vector mesons that are considerably heavier than the pion. Pions are considered in the structureless limit and, besides the chiral invariant pion self interaction terms that reproduce previously derived expressions, symmetry breaking terms are also presented. The leading chiral quark-quark effective couplings are also found correspondin...
A Lattice Determination of Light Quark Masses
Göckeler, M; Oelrich, H; Petters, D; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Stephenson, P
2000-01-01
A fully non-perturbative lattice determination of the up/down and strange quark masses is given for quenched QCD using both, $O(a)$ improved Wilson fermions and ordinary Wilson fermions. For the strange quark mass with $O(a)$ improved fermions we obtain $m^{\\msbar}_s(\\mu=2 {GeV}) = 105(4) {MeV}$, using the interquark force scale $r_0$. Due to quenching problems fits are only possible for quark masses larger than the strange quark mass. If we extrapolate our fits to the up/down quark mass we find for the average mass $m^{\\msbar}_l(\\mu=2 {GeV}) = 4.4(2) {MeV}$.
The QCD spectrum with three quark flavors
Bernard, C; DeGrand, T A; Datta, S; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Orginos, K; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Bernard, Claude; Burch, Tom; Grand, Thomas A. De; Datta, Saumen; Tar, Carleton De; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Orginos, Kostas; Sugar, Robert; Toussaint, Doug
2001-01-01
We present results from a lattice hadron spectrum calculation using three flavors of dynamical quarks - two light and one strange, and quenched simulations for comparison. These simulations were done using a one-loop Symanzik improved gauge action and an improved Kogut-Susskind quark action. The lattice spacings, and hence also the physical volumes, were tuned to be the same in all the runs to better expose differences due to flavor number. Lattice spacings were tuned using the static quark potential, so as a byproduct we obtain updated results for the effect of sea quarks on the static quark potential. We find indications that the full QCD meson spectrum is in better agreement with experiment than the quenched spectrum. For the 0++ (a0) meson we see a coupling to two pseudoscalar mesons, or a meson decay on the lattice.
Transverse Force on Quarks in DIS
Burkardt, Matthias
2015-01-01
Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact paarmeter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. %The strength of that force can be related to twist-3 PDFs. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to a transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.
Top quark production at the LHC
Ferreira da Silva, Pedro
2016-01-01
Twenty years past its discovery, the top quark continues attracting great interest as experiments keep unveiling its properties. An overview of the latest measurements in the domain of top quark production, performed by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN LHC, is given. The latest measurements of top quark production rates via strong and electroweak processes are reported and compared to different perturbative QCD predictions. Fundamental properties, such as the mass or the couplings of the top quark, as well as re-interpretations seeking for beyond the standard model contributions in the top quark sector, are extracted from these measurements. In each case an attempt to highlight the first results and main prospects for the on-going Run 2 of the LHC is made.
Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter
Das, S. K.; Scardina, F.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.
2017-01-01
Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow v 2 is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible for addressing a large part of such a puzzle along with the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quarks in the medium. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which induces a sizable heavy quark directed flow, v 1(y), that can be measurable at LHC.
Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter
Das, Santosh K; Plumari, Salvatore; Greco, Vincenzo
2016-01-01
Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ and the elliptic flow $v_2$ is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible to address a large part of such a puzzle along with the the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quark. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which develops a sizable heavy quark directed flow, $v_1(y)$, can be measurable at LHC.
Search for new resonances with top quark
Kim, Min Suk
2015-01-01
Many models of physics beyond the Standard Model predict new gauge bosons that decay to a top quark pair or a top quark and a bottom quark. The most recent results from new resonance searches for $\\rm{Z'} \\rightarrow \\rm{t\\bar{t}} \\rightarrow \\rm{W^{+}bW^{-}\\bar{b}}$ and $\\rm{W'} \\rightarrow \\rm{tb} \\rightarrow \\rm{Wbb}$ are presented using the proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The searches are performed with the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC using an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$, respectively. The analyses are done in the leptonic and hadronic decay modes of the top quark. No evidence for new resonances with top quark is observed and 95\\% confidence level (CL) limits on the production rate are determined for massive states in theories beyond the Standard Model.
Strange quark matter in explosive astrophysical systems
Sagert, I; Hempel, M; Pagliara, G; Schaffner-Bielich, J; Thielemann, F -K; Liebendörfer, M
2010-01-01
Explosive astrophysical systems, such as supernovae or compact star binary mergers, provide conditions where strange quark matter can appear. The high degree of isospin asymmetry and temperatures of several MeV in such systems may cause a transition to the quark phase already around saturation density. Observable signals from the appearance of quark matter can be predicted and studied in astrophysical simulations. As input in such simulations, an equation of state with an integrated quark matter phase transition for a large temperature, density and proton fraction range is required. Additionally, restrictions from heavy ion data and pulsar observation must be considered. In this work we present such an approach. We implement a quark matter phase transition in a hadronic equation of state widely used for astrophysical simulations and discuss its compatibility with heavy ion collisions and pulsar data. Furthermore, we review the recently studied implications of the QCD phase transition during the early post-bou...
Algebra of optical quarks: an experiment
Egorov, Yuriy; Konovalenko, Viktor; Zinovev, Alexey; Nesterova, Mariya; Glumova, Marina
2013-12-01
We have considered a new type of singular beams called as optical quarks. They have fractional topological charges being equal to half an integer and they possess rather unique properties. There are four types of optical quarks, even and odd ones, which reveal the opposite signs of topological charges. The sums or differences of the even and odd quarks form standard vortex or non-vortex beams with the topological charges of integer order. All the quarks in the same beam annihilate and the beam vanishes. We conducted an analysis of all possible combinations of even and odd optical quarks with different charges. What provided an opportunity to explore what interactions correspond to their "sum" and "difference."
Confinement versus asymptotic freedom
Dubin, A Yu
2002-01-01
I put forward the low-energy confining asymptote of the solution $$ (valid for large macroscopic contours C of the size $>>1/\\Lambda_{QCD}$) to the large N Loop equation in the D=4 U(N) Yang-Mills theory with the asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet domain. Adapting the multiscale decomposition characteristic of the Wilsonean renormgroup, the proposed Ansatz for the loop-average is composed in order to sew, along the lines of the bootstrap approach, the large N weak-coupling series for high-momentum modes with the $N\\to{\\infty}$ limit of the recently suggested stringy representation of the 1/N strong-coupling expansion Dub4 applied to low-momentum excitations. The resulting low-energy stringy theory can be described through such superrenormalizable deformation of the noncritical Liouville string that, being devoid of ultraviolet divergences, does not possess propagating degrees of freedom at short-distance scales $<<1/{\\sqrt{\\sigma_{ph}}}$, where $\\sigma_{ph}\\sim{(\\Lambda_{QCD})^{2}}$ is the physical s...
Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos
Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.
2017-09-01
Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.
Production and decay of heavy top quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kauffman, R.P.
1989-08-01
Experimental evidence indicates that the top quark exists and has a mass between 50 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}. The decays of a top quark with a mass in this range are studied with emphasis placed on the mass region near the threshold for production of real W bosons. Topics discussed are: (1) possible enhancement of strange quark production when M{sub W} + m{sub s} < m{sub t} < M{sub W} + m{sub b}; (2) exclusive decays of T mesons to B and B{asterisk} mesons using the non-relativistic quark model; (3) polarization of intermediate W's in top quark decay as a source of information on the top quark mass. The production of heavy top quarks in an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider with a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV is studied. The effective-boson approximation for photons, Z{sup 0}'s and W's is reviewed and an analogous approximation for interfaces between photons and Z{sup 0}'s is developed. The cross sections for top quark pair production from photon-photon, photon-Z{sup 0}, Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0}, and W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} fusion are calculated using the effective-boson approximation. Production of top quarks along with anti-bottom quarks via {gamma}W{sup +} and Z{sup 0}W{sup +} fusion is studied. An exact calculation of {gamma}e{sup +} {yields} {bar {nu}}t{bar b} is made and compared with the effective-W approximation. 31 refs., 46 figs.
PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference
Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan
2007-07-01
The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The
Complete Monopole Dominance of the Yang-Mills Confining Potential
Cundy, Nigel; Lee, Weonjong
2016-01-01
We continue our investigation of quark confinement using a particular variant of the Cho-Duan-Ge gauge independent Abelian decomposition. The decomposition splits the gauge field into a restricted Abelian part and a coloured part in a way that preserves gauge covariance. The restricted part of the gauge field can be divided into a Maxwell term and a topological term. Previously, we showed that by a particular choice of this decomposition we could fully describe the confining potential using only the restricted gauge field. We proposed that various topological objects (a form of magnetic monopole) could arise in the restricted field which would drive confinement. Our mechanism does not explicitly refer to a dual Meissner effect, nor does it use centre vortices. We did not need to gauge fix or introduce any new dynamical fields. We show that if we do gauge fix as well as performing the Abelian decomposition then it is possible to ensure that the topological part of the restricted field fully accounts for the co...
Light-Front Holographic QCD and Color Confinement
Brodsky, Stanley J; Dosch, Hans Günter
2014-01-01
One of the most fundamental problems in Quantum Chromodynamics is to understand the origin of the mass scale which controls the range of color confinement and the hadronic spectrum. We show that a mass gap and a fundamental color confinement scale arise when one extends the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan to frame-independent light-front Hamiltonian theory. Remarkably, the resulting light-front potential has a unique form of a harmonic oscillator in the light-front invariant impact variable if one requires that the action remains conformally invariant. The result is a single-variable relativistic equation of motion for $q \\bar q$ bound states, a "Light-Front Shr\\"odinger Equation", analogous to the nonrelativistic radial Schr\\"odinger equation, which incorporates color confinement and other essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics, including a massless pion for zero quark mass and linear Regge trajectories with the same slope in the radial quantum number and orbital angular m...
The Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction in a Chiral Constituent Quark Model
Stancu, F; Glozman, L Ya; Stancu, Fl.
1997-01-01
We study the short-range nucleon-nucleon interaction in a chiral constituent quark model by diagonalizing a Hamiltonian comprising a linear confinement and a Goldstone boson exchange interaction between quarks. The six-quark harmonic oscillator basis contains up to two excitation quanta. We show that the highly dominant configuration is $\\mid s^4p^2[42]_O [51]_{FS}>$ due to its specific flavour-spin symmetry. Using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation we find a strong effective repulsion at zero separation between nucleons in both $^3S_1$ and $^1S_0$ channels. The symmetry structure of the highly dominant configuration implies the existence of a node in the S-wave relative motion wave function at short distances. The amplitude of the oscillation of the wave function at short range will be however strongly suppressed. We discuss the mechanism leading to the effective short-range repulsion within the chiral constituent quark model as compared to that related with the one-gluon exchange interaction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javad Khazaei
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.
Spatial confinement of muonium atoms
Khaw, K. S.; Antognini, A.; Prokscha, T.; Kirch, K.; Liszkay, L.; Salman, Z.; Crivelli, P.
2016-08-01
We report the achievement of spatial confinement of muonium atoms (the bound state of a positive muon and an electron). Muonium emitted into a vacuum from mesoporous silica reflects between two SiO2 confining surfaces separated by 1 mm. From the data, one can extract that the reflection probability on the confining surfaces kept at 100 K is about 90% and the reflection process is well described by a cosine law. This technique enables new experiments with this exotic atomic system and is a very important step towards a measurement of the 1 S -2 S transition frequency using continuous-wave laser spectroscopy.
Spatial confinement of muonium atoms
Khaw, K S; Prokscha, T; Kirch, K; Liszkay, L; Salman, Z; Crivelli, P
2016-01-01
We report the achievement of spatial confinement of muonium atoms (the bound state of a positive muon and an electron). Muonium emitted into vacuum from mesoporous silica is forced to bounce back and forth between two SiO$_2$ confining surfaces separated by 1 mm. From the data, one can extract that the reflection on the confining surfaces is well described by a cosine law. This technique opens up a way to perform new experiments with this exotic atomic system and is a very important step towards a measurement of the 1S-2S transition frequency using continuous wave laser spectroscopy.
Erzberger, A.
2003-12-01
QuarkNet is a long-term high school education project, supported by NSF and DOE and carried out by a collaboration of university and laboratory research groups. These research groups are part of major international particle physics experiments, including those at CERN in Switzerland, Fermilab in Illinois, and SLAC in California. Goals and Objectives: A major goal is to engage students and teachers in authentic scientific research; they gain a first-hand understanding of research and its application in the inquiry method of learning. Teachers enhance their content knowledge, increase their abilities to solve science-related problems, engage students in scientific inquiry, and develop responsibility for their own professional development. Students learn fundamental physics and are motivated by current research questions as they analyze real data. A second goal is to engage particle physicists with current issues in science education, including their understanding of the National Science Education Standards and local science education needs and what constitutes age-appropriate content. Project Design: Working with physicists nationwide, we have established a project framework with three program areas-teacher research experience, teacher development programs, and online resources and inquiry-based activities. Eight-week research appointments allow teachers to experience scientific research first-hand. In teacher institutes the next summer these teachers and scientists lead a group of teachers through a short research scenario lasting two to three weeks and assist them in creating similar scenarios for their students. When fully implemented QuarkNet will support centers associated with 60 particle physics research groups at universities and laboratories in the U. S. The QuarkNet website provides: - Experimental data for use in inquiry-based activities. - Opportunities for communication and collaboration among physicists, teachers and students. - A place for students to
HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.
2005-04-11
The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear
Latest ATLAS measurements on top quark properties
Derue, Frederic; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented using 8 TeV and 13 TeV data, excluding results from single top production. Measurements of top quark spin observables in top-antitop events, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix, are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. New results on the measurment of color flow effects in $t{\\bar t}$ events are presented. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are reported. The cross-section measurement of photons produced in association with top-quark pairs is a...
Calculation of the Isgur-Wise function from a light-front constituent quark model
Simula, S
1996-01-01
The space-like elastic form factor of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons is investigated within a light-front constituent quark model in order to evaluate the Isgur-Wise form factor. The relativistic composition of the constituent quark spins is properly taken into account using the Melosh rotations, and various heavy-meson wave function are considered, including the eigenfunctions of an effective light-front mass operator reproducing meson mass spectra. It is shown that in a wide range of values of the recoil the Isgur-Wise form factor exhibits a moderate dependence upon the choice of the heavy-meson wave function and is mainly governed by the effects of the confinement scale.
Soft Gluon Radiation off Heavy Quarks beyond Eikonal Approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trambak Bhattacharyya
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We calculate the soft gluon radiation spectrum off heavy quarks (HQs interacting with light quarks (LQs beyond small angle scattering (eikonality approximation and thus generalize the dead-cone formula of heavy quarks extensively used in the literatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP phenomenology to the large scattering angle regime which may be important in the energy loss of energetic heavy quarks in the deconfined Quark-Gluon Plasma medium. In the proper limits, we reproduce all the relevant existing formulae for the gluon radiation distribution off energetic quarks, heavy or light, used in the QGP phenomenology.
Senju, H.
1991-07-01
Inspired by unique features of the preon-subpreon model, we propose a new scheme for quark mixing. In our scheme, the mass relations m_{d} << m_{s} << m_{b} and m_{u} << m_{c} << m_{t} are naturally understood. The resultant CKM matrix has very nice properties. The fact that |V_{us}| and |V_{cd}| are remarkably large compared with other off-diagonal elements is naturally understood. |V_{cb}| =~ |V_{ts}| is predicted and their small values are explained. |V_{ub}| and |V_{td}| are predicted to be much smaller than |V_{cb}|. The parametrization invariant measure of CP violation, J, is predicted to be |V_{ud}| |V_{ub}| |V_{td}| sin phi. The mass relations and mixings of q', q'', l_{s} and leptons are also discussed.
Hamieh, Salah; Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann
2000-12-01
Lattice quantum chromodynamics results provide an opportunity to model, and extrapolate to finite baryon density, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data, the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. We show that the physical properties of the dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERN-SPS are well described by the QGP-EoS we presented. We also estimate the properties of the fireball formed in early stages of nuclear collision, and argue that QGP formation must be expected down to 40A GeV in central Pb-Pb interactions.
The FLIC Overlap Quark Propagator
Kamleh, W; Leinweber, D B; Williams, A G; Zhang, J; Kamleh, Waseem; Bowman, Patrick O.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; Zhang, Jianbo
2004-01-01
FLIC overlap fermions are a variant of the standard (Wilson) overlap action, with the FLIC (Fat Link Irrelevant Clover) action as the overlap kernel rather than the Wilson action. The structure of the FLIC overlap fermion propagator in momentum space is studied, and a comparison against previous studies of the Wilson overlap propagator in quenched QCD is performed. To explore the scaling properties of the propagator for the two actions, numerical calculations are performed in Landau Gauge across three lattices with different lattice spacing $a$ and similar physical volumes. We find that at light quark masses the acti ons agree in both the infrared and the ultraviolet, but at heavier masses some disagreement in the ultraviolet appears. This is attributed to the two action s having different discretisation errors with the FLIC overlap providing superior performance in this regime. Both actions scale reasonably, but some scaling violations are observed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Messner, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1997-01-01
This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.
Flavour symmetry breaking and tuning the strange quark mass for 2+1 quark flavours
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)
2010-12-15
QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the updown quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, which enables highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. (orig.)
Measurement of top quark polarisation in $t$-channel single top quark production
Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Awad, Adel; El Sawy, Mai; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; 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Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova PANEVA, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel
2016-01-01
A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in $t$-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. A high-purity sample of $t$-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. A differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a $p$-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.
Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production
Tiko, Andres
2016-01-01
A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in $t$-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$. A high-purity sample of $t$-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. A differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of $0.26 \\pm 0.03 \\textrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.10 \\textrm{(syst)}$, which is compatible with a p-value of $4.6\\%$ with the standard model prediction of 0.44.
Collisional Energy Loss of a Heavy Quark in an Anisotropic Quark-Gluon Plasma
Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael
2004-01-01
We compute the leading-order collisional energy loss of a heavy quark propagating through a quark-gluon plasma in which the quark and gluon distributions are anisotropic in momentum space. Following the calculation outlined for QED in an earlier work we indicate the differences encountered in QCD and their effect on the collisional energy loss results. For a 20 GeV bottom quark we show that momentum space anisotropies can result in the collisional heavy quark energy loss varying with the angle of propagation by up to 50%. For low velocity quarks we show that anisotropies result in energy gain instead of energy loss with the energy gain focused in such a way as to accelerate particles along the anisotropy direction thereby reducing the momentum-space anisotropy. The origin of this negative energy loss is explicitly identified as being related to the presence of plasma instabilities in the system.
Top-Quark Properties at the LHC
Beernaert, Kelly Simone
2016-01-01
A review of recent measurements of top-quark properties is presented. Inclusive and differential top-quark pair charge asymmetry measurements using the full Run I dataset are found to be in agreement with the standard model (SM) predictions. Results of spin correlation in top-quark pairs are presented and interpreted in terms of the SM predicted values and new physics models. Limits are set on flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNC), in particular with a Higgs boson in the final state.
Top quark physics at hadron colliders
Margaroli, F
2015-01-01
The top quark is the heaviest fundamental particle known so far. As such, it is expected to play a crucial role in the study of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism and the generation of mass, as well as to serve as an ideal window into new physics. The discovery of a Higgs boson provides us additional experimental opportunities to test our current understanding of top quarks physics. In this contribution I will discuss the status of top quark physics as of 2014, and present a few recent highlights.
Four Preon Composite Quarks and Leptons
Rajpoot, S.; Samuel, Mark A.
A model is presented in which quarks and leptons are composites of three spin-(1)/(2) preons and a scalar preon. The model is an extension of the rishon model and consists of two spin-(1)/(2) preons T, V and a scalar preon S as the fundamental building blocks of matter. Assuming distinguishability of states due to the order assigned to the preons in forming the quark and lepton states, the concepts of flavour, colour and generation number acquire meaning only at the level of compositeness. The model predicts four generations of conventional quarks and leptons.
Top-quark physics: Status and prospects
Husemann, Ulrich
2017-07-01
After the discovery of the top quark more than 20 years ago, its properties have been studied in great detail both in production and in decay. Increasingly sophisticated experimental results from the Fermilab Tevatron and from Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC at CERN are complemented by very precise theoretical predictions in the framework of the standard model of particle physics and beyond. In this article the current status of top-quark physics is reviewed, focusing on experimental results, and a perspective of top-quark physics at the LHC and at future colliders is given.
Top quark mass: past, present and future
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutierrez, Gaston; /Fermilab
2007-07-01
The top quark is the most massive elementary particle discovered thus far. Its large mass may help explain the mechanism by which fundamental particles gain mass - the Standard Model's greatest standing mystery. Today the top quark mass, together with the W boson mass, plays an important role in constraining the Higgs boson mass. The current status of the top quark mass measurement and a brief outline of the expectation at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider will be covered.
Electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bikash Sinha
2000-04-01
Successive equilibration of quark degrees of freedom and its effects on electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma are discussed. The effects of the variation of vector meson masses and decay widths on photon production from hot strongly interacting matter formed after Pb + Pb and S + Au collisions at CERN SPS energies are considered. It has been shown that the present photon spectra measured by WA80 and WA98 Collaborations can not distinguish between the formation of quark matter and hadronic matter in the initial state.
Quantifying zig-zag motion of quarks
Antonov, D
2010-01-01
Quark condensate is calculated in terms of the effective string tension and the constituent quark mass. For 3 colors and 2 light flavors, the constituent mass is bounded from below by the value of 460 MeV. This value is only accessible when the string tension decreases linearly with the Schwinger proper time. For this reason, the Hausdorff dimension of a light-quark trajectory is equal to 4, indicating that these trajectories are similar to branched polymers, which can describe a weak first-order deconfinement phase transition in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. Using this indication, we develop a gluon-chain model based on such trajectories.
Single quark entropy and the Polyakov loop
Weber, Johannes Heinrich
2016-01-01
We study Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with 2+1 flavors with almost physical quark masses using the highly improved staggered quark action (HISQ). We calculate the Polyakov loop in a wide temperature range, obtain the free energy and the entropy of a single static quark and discuss the QCD crossover region in detail. We show that the entropy has a peak close to the chiral crossover and consider the consequences for the deconfinement aspects of the crossover phenomena. We study the renormalized Polyakov loop susceptibilities and place them into the context of the crossover. We also obtain a quantitative result for the onset of weak coupling behavior at high temperatures.
Signatures for quark clustering in nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlson, C.E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lassila, K.E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
1994-04-01
As a signature for the presence of quark clusters in nuclei, the authors suggest studying backward protons produced by electron scattering off deuterons and suggest a ratio that cancels out much of the detailed properties of deuterons or 6-quark clusters. The test may be viewed as a test that the short range part of the deuteron is still a 2-nucleon system. They make estimates to show how it fails in characteristic and significant ways if the two nucleons at short range coalesce into a kneaded 6-quark cluster.
Discovery of single top quark production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillberg, Dag [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)
2009-04-01
The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb^{-1} of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74_{-0.74}^{+0.95} pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element V_{tb}, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f_{1}^{L}| = 1.05 -_{0.12}^{+0.13}, where f_{1}^{L} is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5
Alternative approaches to plasma confinement
Roth, J. R.
1978-01-01
The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.
Confining Strings with Topological Term
Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo Andrea
1997-01-01
We consider several aspects of `confining strings', recently proposed to describe the confining phase of gauge field theories. We perform the exact duality transformation that leads to the confining string action and show that it reduces to the Polyakov action in the semiclassical approximation. In 4D we introduce a `$\\theta$-term' and compute the low-energy effective action for the confining string in a derivative expansion. We find that the coefficient of the extrinsic curvature (stiffness) is negative, confirming previous proposals. In the absence of a $\\theta$-term, the effective string action is only a cut-off theory for finite values of the coupling e, whereas for generic values of $\\theta$, the action can be renormalized and to leading order we obtain the Nambu-Goto action plus a topological `spin' term that could stabilize the system.
Magnetic freezing of confined water.
Zhang, Guangyu; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Huijuan
2010-10-07
We report results from molecular dynamic simulations of the freezing transition of liquid water in the nanoscale hydrophobic confinement under the influence of a homogeneous external magnetic field of 10 T along the direction perpendicular to the parallel plates. A new phase of bilayer crystalline ice is obtained at an anomalously high freezing temperature of 340 K. The water-to-ice translation is found to be first order. The bilayer ice is built from alternating rows of hexagonal rings and rhombic rings parallel to the confining plates, with a large distortion of the hydrogen bonds. We also investigate the temperature shifts of the freezing transition due to the magnetic field. The freezing temperature, below which the freezing of confined water occurs, shifts to a higher value as the magnetic field enhances. Furthermore, the temperature of the freezing transition of confined water is proportional to the denary logarithm of the external magnetic field.
Tetraquarks Production in Quark-Gluon Plasma with Diquarks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Zhong-Biao; GAO Chong-Shou
2006-01-01
@@ We present a way to calculate tetraquarks ratios for quark-gluon plasma with diquarks. The ratios of tetraquarks over baryons produced from quark matter are high than hadronic gas model limits. It is a better way to search for four-quark states in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It may become a criterion to judge whether quark-gluon plasma has formed to search for four-quark states in relativistic heavy ion collisions.
Quenched hadron spectroscopy with improved staggered quark action
Bernard, C W; DeGrand, T A; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; McNeile, C; Rummukainen, K; Sugar, B; Toussaint, D; Bernard, Claude; Blum, Tom; Grand, Thomas A. De; Tar, Carleton De; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Hetrick, James; Neile, Craig Mc; Sugar, Bob; Toussaint, Doug
1998-01-01
We investigate light hadron spectroscopy with an improved quenched staggered quark action. We compare the results obtained with an improved gauge plus an improved quark action, an improved gauge plus standard quark action, and the standard gauge plus standard quark action. Most of the improvement in the spectroscopy results is due to the improved gauge sector. However, the improved quark action substantially reduces violations of Lorentz invariance, as evidenced by the meson dispersion relations.
Confinement and deconfinement for any gauge group from dyons viewpoint
Diakonov, Dmitri
2010-01-01
Basing on a semiclassical picture of dyons, we present a nonperturbative model of a pure Yang--Mills theory at any temperatures, for an arbitrary simple gauge group. We argue that at low temperatures dyons drive the Yang--Mills system for all groups to a phase where the `eigenphases' of the Polyakov line are, as a vector, proportional to the Weyl vector being the half sum of positive roots. For most gauge groups it means confinement, in particular for `quarks' in any N-ality nonzero representation of the SU(N) gauge group. At a critical temperature there is a 1st order phase transition for all groups (except SU(2) where the transition is 2nd order), characterized by a jump of Polyakov lines, irrespectively of whether the gauge group has a nontrivial center, or not.
Strong-coupling effects in a plasma of confining gluons
Florkowski, Wojciech; Su, Nan; Tywoniuk, Konrad
2015-01-01
The plasma consisting of confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory is studied using non-equilibrium fluid dynamical framework. Exploiting the Bjorken symmetry and using linear response theory a general analytic expressions for the bulk and shear viscosity coefficients are derived. It is found that the considered system exhibits a number of properties similar to the strongly-coupled theories, where the conformality is explicitly broken. In particular, it is shown that, in the large temperature limit, bulk to shear viscosity ratio, scales linearly with the difference $1/3 - c_s^2$, where $c_s$ is the speed of sound. Results obtained from the analysis are in line with the interpretation of the quark-gluon plasma as an almost perfect fluid.
A phenomenological study of bottom-quark fragmentation in top-quark decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corcella, Gennaro [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Rome (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Mescia, Federico [Universitat de Barcelona, Departamento d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia (ECM) and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Barcelona (Spain)
2010-01-15
Top-quark physics is one of the main fields of investigation at the Tevatron accelerator and, ultimately, at the LHC. We perform a phenomenological analysis of t anti t events at hadron colliders, with a focus on observables relying on bottom-quark fragmentation in top-quark decay. In particular, we investigate the B-lepton invariant-mass distribution in the dilepton channel and give an estimate of the contribution of bottom fragmentation to the Monte Carlo uncertainty on the top-quark mass reconstruction. (orig.)
Effect of current quark masses on quark phase transitions in supernovae
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LAI Xiang-Jun; LUO Zhi-Quan; LIU Hong-Lin
2008-01-01
The current quark mass model is adopted to study the phase transition of two-flavor quark matter to more stable three-flavor quark matter in the whole core of a supernova. It shows that the timescale of the process is shorter than 10-8 seconds, thatthe u- and d-quark masses can be neglected completely in this model, and that the temperature and the total neutrino energies in the core after the conversion increase nearly by 40% and 20% on the average compared with former results, respectively. The last result can further enhance the probability of success for a supernova explosion significantly.
Scattering of Quark-Quasiparticles in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mannarelli, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rapp, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3366 (United States)
2006-08-07
Employing a Brueckner-type many-body approach, based on a driving potential extracted from lattice QCD, we study light quark properties in a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) at moderate temperatures, T{approx}1-2T{sub c}. The quark-antiquark T-matrix is calculated self-consistently with pertinent quark self-energies. While the repulsive octet channel induces quasiparticle masses of up to 150 MeV, the attractive color-singlet part exhibits resonance structures which lead to quasiparticle widths of {approx}200MeV.
Meson cloud effects on the pion quark distribution function in the chiral constituent quark model
Watanabe, Akira; Suzuki, Katsuhiko
2016-01-01
We investigate the valence quark distribution function of the pion $v^{\\pi}(x,Q^2)$ in the framework of the chiral constituent quark model and evaluate the meson cloud effects on $v^{\\pi}(x,Q^2)$. We explicitly demonstrate how the meson cloud effects affect $v^{\\pi}(x,Q^2)$ in detail. We find that the meson cloud correction causes an overall 32\\% reduction of the valence quark distribution and an enhancement at the small Bjorken $x$ regime. Besides, we also find that the dressing effect of the meson cloud will make the valence quark distribution to be softer in the large $x$ region.
Heavy-Quark Diffusion Dynamics in Quark-Gluon Plasma under Strong Magnetic Fields
Hattori, Koichi; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yin, Yi
2016-01-01
We discuss heavy-quark dynamics in the quark-gluon plasma under a strong magnetic field induced by colliding nuclei. By the use of the diagrammatic resummation techniques for Hard Thermal Loop and the external magnetic field, we show analytic results of heavy-quark diffusion coefficient and drag force which become anisotropic due to the preferred spatial orientation in the magnetic field. We argue that the anisotropic diffusion coefficient gives rise to an enhancement/suppression of the heavy-quark elliptic flow depending on the transverse momentum.
Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walsiara Estanislau Maffei
2009-07-01
Full Text Available A reatividade é definida como a reação do animal quando contido num ambiente de contenção móvel. Ela é quantificada por meio do teste de reatividade animal em ambiente de contenção móvel - REATEST®. Este teste consiste num dispositivo eletrônico acoplado à balança e num software específico. O dispositivo capta a movimentação que o animal provoca na balança, durante 20 segundos e a envia para o software que a processa determinando a reatividade do animal numa escala contínua de pontos. Pontuações maiores são de animais mais reativos (mais agressivo. A reatividade foi criada com os objetivos de solucionar os problemas até então existentes na seleção para temperamento e de permitir estimação de parâmetros genéticos mais confiáveis. Ela é uma característica objetiva que tem grande variabilidade fenotípica e é de quantificação rápida, fácil e segura, além de poder ser quantificada em qualquer tipo de balança, o que permite maior aplicabilidade. Ela não interfere nas práticas de manejo das fazendas porque é quantificada no momento da pesagem dos animais. Sua herdabilidade na raça Nelore é de 0,39 ao ano e 0,23 ao sobreano e suas correlações genéticas com ganho de peso diário são de -0,28 do nascimento até desmama e de -0,49 do desmame até ano. Já suas correlações genéticas com desenvolvimento do perímetro escrotal do ano ao sobreano variam de -0,25 e -0,41.The confinement reactivity (CR has been used as a measure of temperament in Brazil and it is defined as the animal reaction when contained in the scale. It is quantified through the animal reactivity test - REATEST®. This test consists of an electronic device coupled to the scale and of specific software. The device captures the movement that the animal provokes in the scale, during 20 seconds and sends it for the software that processes this movement and determines the animal CR in a continuous scale of points. Higher punctuations belong to
Deep-inelastic production of heavy quarks
Laenen, Eric; Harris, B W; Matiounine, Y; Migneron, R; Riemersma, S; Smith, J; van Neerven, W L
1996-01-01
Deep-inelastic production of heavy quarks at HERA, especially charm, is an excellent signal to measure the gluon distribution in the proton at small $x$ values. By measuring various differential distributions of the heavy quarks this reaction permits additional more incisive QCD analyses due to the many scales present. Furthermore, the relatively small mass of the charm quark, compared to the typical momentum transfer $Q$, allows one to study whether and when to treat this quark as a parton. This reaction therefore sheds light on some of the most fundamental aspects of perturbative QCD. We discuss the above issues and review the feasibility of their experimental investigation in the light of a large integrated luminosity.
Top Quark Physics at the Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Andreas W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). Particle Physics Division
2015-05-21
An overview of recent top quark measurements using the full Run II data set of CDF or D0 at the Tevatron is presented. Results are complementary to the ones at the LHC. Recent measurements of the production cross section of top quarks in strong and electroweak production and of top quark production asymmetries are presented. The latter includes the measurement of the tt-bar production asymmetry by D0 in the dilepton decay channel. Within their uncertainties the results from all these measurements agree with their respective Standard Model expectation. Finally latest updates on measurements of the top quark mass are discussed, which at the time of the conference are the most precise determinations.
Quark Forces Attract Nobel Prize in Physics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jenny Hogan; 滕晓燕
2004-01-01
@@ The force that holds together the tiniest particles① of matter has pulled in the Nobel Prize in Physics for the three US physicists who unraveled② its workings. David Gross, David Politzer and Frank Wilczek have each been awarded a third of the 2004 prize for explaining how quarks-sub-atomic③particles which make up the protons④ and neutrons⑤ in the nuclei⑥ of atomsstick together. Protons and neutrons consist of three quarks each, and there are six different types of quarks, such as "up" and "down" quarks. The trio⑦ of scientists were awarded the $1.3 million prize for work explaining the so-called "strong" or "color" force prevalent⑧ in the atomic nucleus. The strong force is one of the fundamental forces of nature, and their breakthrough "brought physics one step closer to fulfilling a grand dream... A theory for everything" according to the Royal Swedish.
Heavy quark threshold dynamics in higher order
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piclum, J.H.
2007-05-15
In this work we discuss an important building block for the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order corrections to the pair production of top quarks at threshold. Specifically, we explain the calculation of the third order strong corrections to the matching coefficient of the vector current in non-relativistic Quantum Chromodynamics and provide the result for the fermionic part, containing at least one loop of massless quarks. As a byproduct, we obtain the matching coefficients of the axial-vector, pseudo-scalar and scalar current at the same order. Furthermore, we calculate the three-loop corrections to the quark renormalisation constants in the on-shell scheme in the framework of dimensional regularisation and dimensional reduction. Finally, we compute the third order strong corrections to the chromomagnetic interaction in Heavy Quark Effective Theory. The calculational methods are discussed in detail and results for the master integrals are given. (orig.)
Perturbative static four-quark potentials
Lang, J; Green, A M
1995-01-01
A first attempt to understand hadron dynamics at low energies in terms of the fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom incorporates the effects of the gluonic field into a potential depending only on the spatial positions of the quarks, which are considered in the infinite mass limit. A suitable framework for calculating such potentials between static quarks, i.e.\\ a generalization of the Wilson loop will be discussed. Making a connection with recent Monte Carlo lattice simulations for the lowest two energies of a system of two quarks and two antiquarks, the static qq\\bar{q}\\bar{q}-potential will be calculated in perturbation theory to fourth order. The result will be shown to be exactly equal to the prediction of a straightforward two-body approach, which in Monte Carlo lattice simulations has been found to be a reasonable approximation for very small interquark distances.
Equation of State for physical quark masses
Cheng, M; Hegde, P; Karsch, F; Kaczmarek, O; Laermann, E; Mawhinney, R D; Miao, C; Mukherjee, S; Petreczky, P; Schmidt, C; Soeldner, W
2009-01-01
We calculate the QCD equation of state for temperatures corresponding to the transition region with physical mass values for two degenerate light quark flavors and a strange quark using an improved staggered fermion action (p4-action) on lattices with temporal extent N_tau=8. We compare our results with previous calculations performed at twice larger values of the light quark masses as well as with results obtained from a resonance gas model calculation. We also discuss the deconfining and chiral aspects of the QCD transition in terms of renormalized Polyakov loop, strangeness fluctuations and subtracted chiral condensate. We show that compared to the calculations performed at twice larger value of the light quark mass the transition region shifts by about 5 MeV toward smaller temperatures
Heavy quark interactions and quarkonium binding
Satz, Helmut
2009-06-01
We consider heavy quark interactions in quenched and unquenched lattice QCD. In a region just above the deconfinement point, non-Abelian gluon polarization leads to a strong increase in the binding. Comparing quark-antiquark and quark-quark interaction, the dependence of the binding on the separation distance r is found to be the same for the colorless singlet Q{\\skew3\\bar{Q}} and the colored anti-triplet QQ state. In a potential model description of in-medium J/ψ behavior, this enhancement of the binding leads to a survival up to temperatures of 1.5 Tc or higher; it could also result in J/ψ flow. Based on joint work with O Kaczmarek and F Karsch.
Commissioning ATLAS and CMS with top quarks
Acharya, B S; Corcella, G; Di Sipio, R; Petrucciani, G
2008-01-01
The large ttbar production cross-section at the LHC suggests the use of top quark decays to calibrate several critical parts of the detectors, such as the trigger system, the jet energy scale and b-tagging.
HEAVY QUARK POTENTIALS AND QUARKONIA BINDING.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
PETRECZKY,P.
2004-11-04
The author reviews recent progress in studying in-medium modification of inter-quark forces at finite temperature in lattice QCD. Some applications to the problem of quarkonium binding in potential models is also discussed.
Strangeness suppression in the unquenched quark model
Bijker, Roelof; Santopinto, Elena
2016-01-01
In this contribution, we discuss the strangeness suppression in the proton in the framework of the unquenched quark model. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the values extracted from CERN and JLab experiments.
Top-quark properties at hadron colliders
Fernandez Menendez, Javier
2016-01-01
Recent results on top quark properties and interactions are presented, obtained using data collected with the LHC ATLAS and CMS experiments during the years 2011 and 2012 at 7 and 8 TeV $pp$ center-of-mass energy, and with the Tevatron's CDF and D0 experiments at 1.96 TeV $p\\bar{p}$ center-of-mass energies. The mass of the top quark is extracted using several methods, including indirect constraints from the measured cross section. Further results include measurements of top quark properties, such as the top pair charge asymmetry, spin correlation and polarization, as well as the search for anomalous couplings and charge-parity violations in top-quark pair production. No deviations were found with respect to the predictions of the Standard Model.
Cooling and Heating Solid Quark Stars
Yu, Meng
2009-01-01
We present here a phenomenological solid quark star pulsar model to interpret the observed thermal X-ray emission of isolated pulsars. The heat capacity for solid quark stars was found to be quite small, so that the residual internal stellar heat gained at the birth of the star could be dissipated in an extremely short timescale. However, the bombardment induced by backflowing plasma at the poles of solid quark stars would get the stars be reheated, so that long term soft X-ray emission can be sustained. Such a scenario could be used for those X-ray pulsars with significant magnetospheric activities, and their cooling processes would thus be established. Dim X-ray isolated neutron stars (XDINs) as well as compact central objects (CCOs) have been observed with dominant soft X-ray radiation combined with little magnetospheric manifestations. Such sources could be solid quark stars accreting in the propeller regime.
Observational constraints on quarks in neutron stars
Nana, P; Nana, Pan; Xiaoping, Zheng
2006-01-01
We estimate the constraints of observational mass and redshift on the properties of equations of state for quarks in the compact stars. We discuss two scenarios: strange stars and hybrid stars. We construct the equations of state utilizing MIT bag model taking medium effect into account for quark matter and relativistic mean field theory for hadron matter. We find that quark may exist in strange stars and the interior of neutron stars, and only these quark matters with stiff equations of state could be consistent with both constraints. The bag constant is main one parameter that affects the mass strongly for strange stars and only the intermediate coupling constant may be the best choice for compatibility with observational constraints in hybrid stars.
The Perfect Quark-Gluon Vertex Function
Orginos, K; Brower, Richard C; Chandrasekharan, S; Wiese, U J
1998-01-01
We evaluate a perfect quark-gluon vertex function for QCD in coordinate space and truncate it to a short range. We present preliminary results for the charmonium spectrum using this quasi-perfect action.
Current Algebra Quarks and What Else?
Fritzsch, Harald; Fritzsch, Harald; Gell-Mann, Murray
1972-01-01
After receiving many requests for reprints of this article, describing the original ideas on the quark gluon gauge theory, which we later named QCD, we decided to place the article in the e-Print archive.
Prompt quark production by exploding sphalerons
Shuryak, Edward; Zahed, Ismail
2003-01-01
Following recent works on the production and subsequent explosive decay of QCD sphaleronlike clusters, we discuss the mechanism of quark pair production in this process. We first show how the gauge field explosive solution of Luscher and Schechter can be achieved by noncentral conformal mapping from the O(4)-symmetric solution. Our main result is a new solution to the Dirac equation in real time in this configuration, obtained by the same inversion of the fermion O(4) zero mode. It explicitly shows how the quark acceleration occurs, starting from the spherically O(3)-symmetric zero energy chiral quark state to the final spectrum of nonzero energies. The sphaleronlike clusters with any Chern-Simons number always produce NFL¯R quarks, and the antisphaleron-like clusters the opposite chirality. The result are relevant for hadron-hadron and nucleus-nucleus collisions at large (s), wherein such clusters can be produced.
Measuring the running top-quark mass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langenfeld, U.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2009-06-15
We present the first direct determination of the running top-quark mass based on the total cross section of top-quark pair-production as measured at the Tevatron. Our theory prediction for the cross section includes various next-to-next-to-leading order QCD contributions, in particular all logarithmically enhanced terms near threshold, the Coulomb corrections at two loops and all explicitly scale dependent terms at NNLO accuracy. The result allows for an exact and independent variation of the renormalization and factorization scales. For Tevatron and LHC we study its dependence on all scales, on the parton luminosity and on the top-quark mass using both the conventional pole mass definition as well as the running mass in the MS scheme. We extract for the top-quark an MS mass of m({mu}=m) =160.0{sup +3.3}{sub -3.2} GeV. (orig.)
Systematics of quark/gluon tagging
Gras, Philippe; Höche, Stefan; Kar, Deepak; Larkoski, Andrew; Lönnblad, Leif; Plätzer, Simon; Siódmok, Andrzej; Skands, Peter; Soyez, Gregory; Thaler, Jesse
2017-07-01
By measuring the substructure of a jet, one can assign it a "quark" or "gluon" tag. In the eikonal (double-logarithmic) limit, quark/gluon discrimination is determined solely by the color factor of the initiating parton ( C F versus C A ). In this paper, we confront the challenges faced when going beyond this leading-order understanding, using both parton-shower generators and first-principles calculations to assess the impact of higher-order perturbative and nonperturbative physics. Working in the idealized context of electron-positron collisions, where one can define a proxy for quark and gluon jets based on the Lorentz structure of the production vertex, we find a fascinating interplay between perturbative shower effects and nonperturbative hadronization effects. Turning to proton-proton collisions, we highlight a core set of measurements that would constrain current uncertainties in quark/gluon tagging and improve the overall modeling of jets at the Large Hadron Collider.
Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna
2004-01-01
In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... potential mu or increasing M_s, there is a quantum phase transition from the CFL phase to a new ``gapless CFL phase'' in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap. The transition occurs where M_s^2/mu is approximately equal to 2*Delta, with Delta the gap parameter. Gapless CFL, like CFL, leaves unbroken...... different from those of the CFL phase, even though its U(1) symmetries are the same. Both gapless quasiparticles have quadratic dispersion relations at the quantum critical point. For values of M_s^2/mu above the quantum critical point, one branch has conventional linear dispersion relations while the other...
Evidence for production of single top quarks
Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L. S.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Anzelc, M. S.; Aoki, M.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Arthaud, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A.-F.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Biscarat, C.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Christoudias, T.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de, K.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Gelé, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, F.; Guo, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. M.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaushik, V.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, M.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Korablev, V. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Krop, D.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lacroix, F.; Lam, D.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lellouch, J.; Leveque, J.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martin, B.; McCarthy, R.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendoza, L.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Millet, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Molina, J.; Mommsen, R. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulders, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Mundal, O.; Mundim, L.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Naumann, N. A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nilsen, H.; Nogima, H.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; O'Dell, V.; O'Neil, D. C.; Obrant, G.; Ochando, C.; Onoprienko, D.; Oshima, N.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Otec, R.; Otero Y Garzón, G. J.; Owen, M.; Padley, P.; Pangilinan, M.; Parashar, N.; Park, S.-J.; Park, S. K.; Parsons, J.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Pawloski, G.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, K.; Peters, Y.; Pétroff, P.; Petteni, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piper, J.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pogorelov, Y.; Pol, M.-E.; Polozov, P.; Pope, B. G.; Popov, A. V.; Potter, C.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rakitine, A.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Renkel, P.; Reucroft, S.; Rich, P.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robinson, S.; Rodrigues, R. F.; Rominsky, M.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santoro, A.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schliephake, T.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Siccardi, V.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sopczak, A.; Sosebee, M.; Soustruznik, K.; Spurlock, B.; Stark, J.; Steele, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strang, M. A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.; Stutte, L.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Svoisky, P.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tanasijczuk, A.; Taylor, W.; Temple, J.; Tiller, B.; Tissandier, F.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Toole, T.; Torchiani, I.; Trefzger, T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Tuts, P. M.; Unalan, R.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Vachon, B.; van den Berg, P. J.; van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vaupel, M.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vetterli, M.; Villeneuve-Seguier, F.; Vint, P.; Vokac, P.; von Toerne, E.; Voutilainen, M.; Wagner, R.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, L.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Wenger, A.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; White, A.; Wicke, D.; Wilson, G. W.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, R.; Yan, M.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yip, K.; Yoo, H. D.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zhao, T.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zivkovic, L.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.
2008-07-01
We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p pmacr collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-quark partner that is always produced from strong-coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top-quark production has been searched for in ever larger data sets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9fb-1 data set that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top-quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and t tmacr events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix-element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top-quark production of σ(p pmacr →tb+X,tqb+X)=4.7±1.3pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top-quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |Vtbf1L|=1.31-0.21+0.25, where f1L is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68<|Vtb|≤1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.
Evidence for production of single top quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Simon Fraser U.; Ahn, S.H.; /Korea U., KODEL; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP /Michigan U.
2008-03-01
We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top quark partner that is always produced from strong coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top quark production has been searched for in ever larger datasets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb{sup -1} dataset that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and t{bar t} events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top quark production of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.7 {+-} 1.3 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |V{sub tb}f{sub 1}{sup L}| = 1.31{sub -0.21}{sup +0.25}, where f{sub 1}{sup L} is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.
Properties of Magnetized Quark-Hybrid Stars
Orsaria, M; Vucetich, H; Weber, F
2011-01-01
The structure of a magnetized quark-hybrid stars (QHS) is modeled using a standard relativistic mean-field equation of state (EoS) for the description of hadronic matter. For quark matter we consider a bag model EoS which is modified perturbatively to account for the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The mass-radius (M-R) relationship, gravitational redshift and rotational Kepler periods of such stars are compared with those of standard neutron stars (NS).
Measuring top quark production asymmetries at LHCb
Gauld, Rhorry
2013-01-01
Simulated data is studied to assess the potential sensitivity of LHCb to measure top quark production asymmetries, via the single particle pseudorapidity asymmetry in muonic decays of top quarks, with current integrated luminosities of 1, 2 fb$^{−1}$ at 7, 8 TeV LHC centre of mass energies respectively. This includes estimates of reconstruction effects as well as theoretical errors present in signal modelling at the next-to-leading order.
On the Dirac equation for a quark
Pestov, I B
2003-01-01
It is argued from geometrical, group-theoretical and physical points of view that in the framework of QCD it is not only necessary but also possible to modify the Dirac equation so that correspondence principle holds valid. The Dirac wave equation for a quark is proposed and some consequences are considered. In particular, it is shown that interquark potential expresses the Coulomb law for the quarks and, in fact, coincides with the known Cornell potential.
Revisiting Uraltsev's BPS limit for Heavy Quarks
Heinonen, Johannes
2016-01-01
Motivated by the recent experimental data of the values of the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters, in particular the spin-orbit and Darwin terms, we argue that nature actually may be close to a limit of QCD which has been suggested by Uraltsev more than ten years ago. Assuming that this limit is not accidental, we derive the relations among the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters that occur up to the order 1/mb^5.