Haroche, Serge
2013-01-01
Mr Administrator,Dear colleagues,Ladies and gentlemen, “I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics”. This statement, made by physicist Richard Feynman, expresses a paradoxical truth about the scientific theory that revolutionised our understanding of Nature and made an extraordinary contribution to our means of acting on and gaining information about the world. In this lecture, I will discuss quantum physics with you by attempting to resolve this paradox. And if I don’...
Quantum Physics for Beginners.
Strand, J.
1981-01-01
Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)
Quantum Physics for Beginners.
Strand, J.
1981-01-01
Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)
Ficek, Zbigniew
2016-01-01
The textbook introduces students to the main ideas of quantum physics and the basic mathematical methods and techniques used in the fields of advanced quantum physics, atomic physics, laser physics, nanotechnology, quantum chemistry, and theoretical mathematics. The textbook explains how microscopic objects (particles) behave in unusual ways, giving rise to what's called quantum effects. It contains a wide range of tutorial problems from simple confidence-builders to fairly challenging exercises that provide adequate understanding of the basic concepts of quantum physics.
Holzner, Steve
2013-01-01
Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition helps make quantum physics understandable and accessible. From what quantum physics can do for the world to understanding hydrogen atoms, readers will get complete coverage of the subject, along with numerous examples to help them tackle the tough equations. Compatible with classroom text books and courses, Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition lets students study at their own paces and helps them prepare for graduate or professional exams. Coverage includes: The Schrodinger Equation and its Applications The Foundations of Quantum Physics Vector Notation Spin Scattering Theory, Angular Momentum, and more From the Back Cover Your plain-English guide to understanding and working with the micro world Quantum physics -- also called quantum mechanics or quantum field theory -- can be daunting for even the most dedicated student or enthusiast of science, math, or physics. This friendly, concise guide makes this challenging subject understandable and accessible, fr...
Quantum Physics Without Quantum Philosophy
Dürr, Detlef; Zanghì, Nino
2013-01-01
It has often been claimed that without drastic conceptual innovations a genuine explanation of quantum interference effects and quantum randomness is impossible. This book concerns Bohmian mechanics, a simple particle theory that is a counterexample to such claims. The gentle introduction and other contributions collected here show how the phenomena of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to non-commuting observables, emerge from the Bohmian motion of particles, the natural particle motion associated with Schrödinger's equation. This book will be of value to all students and researchers in physics with an interest in the meaning of quantum theory as well as to philosophers of science.
Quantum physics without quantum philosophy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duerr, Detlef [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Mathematisches Inst.; Goldstein, Sheldon [Rutgers State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Zanghi, Nino [Genova Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Genova (Italy)
2013-02-01
Integrates and comments on the authors' seminal papers in the field. Emphasizes the natural way in which quantum phenomena emerge from the Bohmian picture. Helps to answer many of the objections raised to Bohmian quantum mechanics. Useful overview and summary for newcomers and students. It has often been claimed that without drastic conceptual innovations a genuine explanation of quantum interference effects and quantum randomness is impossible. This book concerns Bohmian mechanics, a simple particle theory that is a counterexample to such claims. The gentle introduction and other contributions collected here show how the phenomena of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to non-commuting observables, emerge from the Bohmian motion of particles, the natural particle motion associated with Schroedinger's equation. This book will be of value to all students and researchers in physics with an interest in the meaning of quantum theory as well as to philosophers of science.
Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons
Kröger, H.
2003-01-01
We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons
Kröger, H.
2003-01-01
We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
Fomin, Vladimir M
2013-01-01
This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is po
Quantum physics meets biology.
Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko
2009-12-01
Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fomin, Vladimir M. (ed.) [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)
2014-07-01
Presents the new class of materials of quantum rings. Provides an elemental basis for low-cost high-performance devices promising for electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics and quantum information processing. Explains the physical properties of quantum rings to cover a gap in scientific literature. Presents the application of most advanced nanoengineering and nanocharacterization techniques. This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is possible on the basis of modern characterization methods of nanostructures, such as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. A high level of complexity is demonstrated to be needed for a dedicated theoretical model to adequately represent the specific features of quantum rings. The findings presented in this book contribute to develop low-cost high-performance electronic, spintronic, optoelectronic and information processing devices based on quantum rings.
Arndt, Markus; Vedral, Vlatko
2009-01-01
Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolat...
Ogborn, Jon
1974-01-01
Describes the way in which quantum ideas are incorporated into the Nuffield advanced physics course. Quantum theory is presented as an enormous intellectual leap to be excited by, puzzled over and thought about, not as a set of results and equations to be packed away in the mind. (Author/MLH)
Measurement in quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danos, M. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Kieu, T.D. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics]|[Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-06-01
The conceptual problems in quantum mechanics - including the collapse of the wave functions, the particle-wave duality, the meaning of measurement-arise from the need to ascribe particle character to the wave function, which describes only the wave aspects. It is demonstrated that all these problems can be resolved when working instead with quantum fields, which have both wave and particle character. The predictions of quantum physics, including Bell`s inequalities, remain unchanged from the standard treatments of quantum mechanics. 16 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheck, Florian [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik, Theoretische Elementarteilchenphysik
2013-11-01
New edition with added sections on nonlinear quantum mechanics and path integral methods in field theory. Contains an encyclopedic coverage from uncertainty relation to many-body systems, from symmetries to electroweak interation. Includes problems, partly with solutions, partly with hints towards solutions. Starting with basic principles and providing the framework all vital elements of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics are explained, even an introduction to quantum electrodynamics is included. Scheck's Quantum Physics presents a comprehensive introductory treatment, ideally suited for a two-semester course. Part One covers the basic principles and prime applications of quantum mechanics, from the uncertainty relations to many-body systems. Part Two introduces to relativistic quantum field theory and ranges from symmetries in quantum physics to electroweak interactions. Numerous worked-out examples as well as exercises, with solutions or hints, enables the book's use as an accompanying text for courses, and also for independent study. For both parts, the necessary mathematical framework is treated in adequate form and detail. The book ends with appendices covering mathematical fundamentals and enrichment topics, plus selected biographical notes on pioneers of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The new edition was thoroughly revised and now includes new sections on quantization using the path integral method and on deriving generalized path integrals for bosonic and fermionic fields.
Quantum optics. Gravity meets quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, Bernhard W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2015-02-27
Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity is a classical formulation but a quantum mechanical description of gravitational forces is needed, not only to investigate the coupling of classical and quantum systems but simply to give a more complete description of our physical surroundings. In this issue of Nature Photonics, Wen-Te Liao and Sven Ahrens reveal a link between quantum and gravitational physics. They propose that in the quantum-optical effect of superradiance, the world line of electromagnetic radiation is changed by the presence of a gravitational field.
Increasing complexity with quantum physics.
Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline
2011-09-01
We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.
d'Espagnat, Bernard
2011-01-01
Contrary to classical physics, which was strongly objective i.e. could be interpreted as a description of mind-independent reality, standard quantum mechanics (SQM) is only weakly objective, that is to say, its statements, though intersubjectively valid, still merely refer to operations of the mind. Essentially, in fact, they are predictive of observations. On the view that SQM is universal conventional realism is thereby refuted. It is shown however that this does not rule out a broader form of realism, called here 'open realism', restoring the notion of mind-independent reality.
Hidden worlds in quantum physics
Gouesbet, Gérard
2014-01-01
The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...
Quantum physics workbook for dummies
Holzner, Steven
2010-01-01
Hands-on practice in solving quantum physics problems Quantum Physics is the study of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and even smaller microscopic levels. Like the other titles in our For Dummies Workbook series, Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies allows you to hone your skills at solving the difficult and often confusing equations you encounter in this subject. Explains equations in easy-to-understand terms Harmonic Oscillator Operations, Angular Momentum, Spin, Scattering Theory Using a proven practice-and-review approach, Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies is all you need to get up to speed in problem solving!
Quantum computing classical physics.
Meyer, David A
2002-03-15
In the past decade, quantum algorithms have been found which outperform the best classical solutions known for certain classical problems as well as the best classical methods known for simulation of certain quantum systems. This suggests that they may also speed up the simulation of some classical systems. I describe one class of discrete quantum algorithms which do so--quantum lattice-gas automata--and show how to implement them efficiently on standard quantum computers.
The Physics of Quantum Computation
Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette
2015-10-01
Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of down-scaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.
Stochastic processes - quantum physics
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Streit, L. (Bielefeld Univ. (Germany, F.R.))
1984-01-01
The author presents an elementary introduction to stochastic processes. He starts from simple quantum mechanics and considers problems in probability, finally presenting quantum dynamics in terms of stochastic processes.
Particle physics: Quantum simulation of fundamental physics
Zohar, Erez
2016-06-01
Gauge theories underpin the standard model of particle physics, but are difficult to study using conventional computational methods. An experimental quantum system opens up fresh avenues of investigation. See Letter p.516
Quantum chaos in nuclear physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bunakov, V. E., E-mail: bunakov@VB13190.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2016-07-15
A definition of classical and quantum chaos on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem is proposed. According to this definition, a chaotic quantum system that has N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) that are determined by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian for the system being considered. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos are established. In the classical limit, they go over to the Lyapunov exponent or the classical stability parameter. The use of quantum-chaos parameters in nuclear physics is demonstrated.
Quantum enigma physics encounters consciousness
Rosenblum, Bruce
2006-01-01
1. Presenting the Enigma2. Einstein Called it ""Spooky""--and I Wish I Had Known3. The Visit to Neg Ahne Poc: A Quantum Parable4. Our Newtonian Worldview: A Universal Law of Motion5. All the Rest of Classical PhysicsHello Quantum Mechanics6. How the Quantum Was Forced on Physics7. Schrodinger's Equation: The New Universal Law of Motion8. One-Third of Our Economy9. Our Skeleton in the Closet10. Wonderful, Wonderful Copenhagen11. Schrodinger's Controversial Cat12. Seeking a Real World: EPR13. Spooky Interactions: Bell's Theorem14. What's Going On?: Interpreting the Quantum Enigma15. The Mystery
Lawrence, I.
1996-01-01
Discusses a teaching strategy for introducing quantum ideas into the school classroom using modern devices. Develops the concepts of quantization, wave-particle duality, nonlocality, and tunneling. (JRH)
Physical foundations of quantum electronics
Klyshko, David; Kulik, Sergey
2011-01-01
This concise textbook introduces a graduate student to the various fields of physics related to the interaction between radiation and matter. The scope of the book is very broad, ranging from nonlinear to quantum optics and from quantum transitions in atoms to the dispersion of polaritons in continuous media. The author, Professor David Klyshko (1929-2000), is one of the founders of modern quantum optics, renowned for his theory of Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion (SPDC) and its applications in quantum metrology and the optics of nonclassical light. Most parts of the book contain the lec
Physical implementation of quantum walks
Manouchehri, Kia
2013-01-01
Given the extensive application of random walks in virtually every science related discipline, we may be at the threshold of yet another problem solving paradigm with the advent of quantum walks. Over the past decade, quantum walks have been explored for their non-intuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to radically new quantum algorithms. This growing interest has been paralleled by a flurry of research into how one can implement quantum walks in laboratories. This book presents numerous proposals as well as actual experiments for such a physical realization, underpinned by a wide range of
Quantum physics a beginner's guide
Rae, Alastair I M
2005-01-01
As Alastair Rae points out in his introduction, ""quantum physics is not rocket science"". It may have gained a reputation as the theory that no one really understands, but its practical applications are all around us in everyday life. If it were not for quantum physics, computers would not function, metals would not conduct electricity, and the power stations that heat our homes would not produce energy. Assuming no prior scientific or mathematical knowledge, this clear and concise introduction provides a step-by-step guide to quantum theory, right from the very basic principles to the most c
Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics
Nagourney, Warren
2010-01-01
Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques
From classical to quantum physics
Stehle, Philip
2017-01-01
Suitable for lay readers as well as students, this absorbing survey explores the twentieth-century transition from classical to quantum physics. Author Philip Stehle traces the shift in the scientific worldview from the work of Galileo, Newton, and Darwin to the modern-day achievements of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, and others of their generation. His insightful overview examines not only the history of quantum physics but also the ways that progress in the discipline changed our understanding of the physical world and forces of nature. This chronicle of the second revolution in the physical sciences conveys the excitement and suspense that new developments produced in the scientific community. The narrative ranges from the classical physics of the seventeenth-century to the emergence of quantum mechanics with the entrance of the electron, the rise of relativity theory, the development of atomic theory, and the recognition of wave-particle duality. Relevant mathematical details...
Quantum Physics Illusion or Reality?
Rae, Alastair I M
2004-01-01
Quantum physics is believed to be the fundamental theory underlying our understanding of the physical universe. However, it is based on concepts and principles that have always been difficult to understand and controversial in their interpretation. This book aims to explain these issues using a minimum of technical language and mathematics. After a brief introduction to the ideas of quantum physics, the problems of interpretation are identified and explained. The rest of the book surveys, describes and criticises a range of suggestions that have been made with the aim of resolving these proble
The physics of quantum mechanics
Binney, James
2014-01-01
The Physics of Quantum Mechanics aims to give students a good understanding of how quantum mechanics describes the material world. It shows that the theory follows naturally from the use of probability amplitudes to derive probabilities. It stresses that stationary states are unphysical mathematical abstractions that enable us to solve the theory's governing equation, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Every opportunity is taken to illustrate the emergence of the familiarclassical, dynamical world through the quantum interference of stationary states. The text stresses the continuity be
Uncommon paths in quantum physics
Kazakov, Konstantin V
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the most fascinating, and at the same time most controversial, branches of contemporary science. Disputes have accompanied this science since its birth and have not ceased to this day. Uncommon Paths in Quantum Physics allows the reader to contemplate deeply some ideas and methods that are seldom met in the contemporary literature. Instead of widespread recipes of mathematical physics, based on the solutions of integro-differential equations, the book follows logical and partly intuitional derivations of non-commutative algebra. Readers can directly penetrate the
Quantum Simulations of Physics Problems
Somma, R D; Knill, E; Gubernatis, J; Somma, Rolando; Ortiz, Gerardo; Knill, Emanuel; Gubernatis, James
2003-01-01
If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical "questions" more efficiently. The existence of one-to-one mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g., a bosonic system by a spin-1/2 system). We explain how these mappings can be performed showing quantum networks useful for the efficient evaluation of some physical properties, such as correlation functions and energy spectra.
Path Integrals in Quantum Physics
2012-01-01
These lectures aim at giving graduate students an introduction to and a working knowledge of path integral methods in a wide variety of fields in physics. Consequently, the lecture notes are organized in three main parts dealing with non-relativistic quantum mechanics, many-body physics and field theory. In the first part the basic concepts of path integrals are developed in the usual heuristic, non-mathematical way followed by standard examples and special applications including numerical ev...
Classical and Quantum Thermal Physics
Prasad, R.
2016-11-01
List of figures; List of tables; Preface; Acknowledgement; Dedication; 1. The kinetic theory of gases; 2. Ideal to real gas, viscosity, conductivity and diffusion; 3. Thermodynamics: definitions and Zeroth law; 4. First Law of Thermodynamics and some of its applications; 5. Second Law of Thermodynamics and some of its applications; 6. TdS equations and their applications; 7. Thermodynamic functions, potentials, Maxwell equations, the Third Law and equilibrium; 8. Some applications of thermodynamics to problems of physics and engineering; 9. Application of thermodynamics to chemical reactions; 10. Quantum thermodynamics; 11. Some applications of quantum thermodynamics; 12. Introduction to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; Index.
The quantum physics of photosynthesis.
Ritz, Thorsten; Damjanović, Ana; Schulten, Klaus
2002-03-12
Biological cells contain nanoscale machineries that exhibit a unique combination of high efficiency, high adaptability to changing environmental conditions, and high reliability. Recent progress in obtaining atomically resolved structures provide an opportunity for an atomic-level explanation of the biological function of cellular machineries and the underlying physical mechanisms. A prime example in this regard is the apparatus with which purple bacteria harvest the light of the sun. Its highly symmetrical architecture and close interplay of biological functionality with quantum physical processes allow an illuminating demonstration of the fact that properties of living beings ultimately rely on and are determined by the laws of physics.
On foundations of quantum physics
Solov'ev, E A
2010-01-01
Some aspects of the interpretation of quantum theory are discussed. It is emphasized that quantum theory is formulated in the Cartesian coordinate system; in other coordinates the result obtained with the help of the Hamiltonian formalism and commutator relations between 'canonically conjugated' coordinate and momentum operators leads to a wrong version of quantum mechanics. The origin of time is analyzed in detail by the example of atomic collision theory. It is shown that for a closed system like the three-body (two nuclei + electron), time-dependent Schroedinger equation has no physical meaning since in the high impact energy limit it transforms into an equation with two independent time-like variables; the time appears in the stationary Schroedinger equation as a result of extraction of a classical subsystem (two nuclei) from a closed three-body system. Following the Einstein-Rozen-Podolsky experiment and Bell's inequality the wave function is interpreted as an actual field of information in the elementar...
Quantum information and physics: Some future directions
Preskill, John
2000-01-01
I consider some promising future directions for quantum information theory that could influence the development of 21st century physics. Advances in the theory of the distinguishability of superoperators may lead to new strategies for improving the precision of quantum-limited measurements. A better grasp of the properties of multi-partite quantum entanglement may lead to deeper understanding of strongly-coupled dynamics in quantum many-body systems, quantum field theory, and quantum gravity.
Path Integrals in Quantum Physics
Rosenfelder, R
2012-01-01
These lectures aim at giving graduate students an introduction to and a working knowledge of path integral methods in a wide variety of fields in physics. Consequently, the lecture notes are organized in three main parts dealing with non-relativistic quantum mechanics, many-body physics and field theory. In the first part the basic concepts of path integrals are developed in the usual heuristic, non-mathematical way followed by standard examples and special applications including numerical evaluation of (euclidean) path integrals by Monte-Carlo methods with a program for the anharmonic oscillator. The second part deals with the application of path integrals in statistical mechanics and many-body problems treating the polaron problem, dissipative quantum systems, path integrals over ordinary and Grassmannian coherent states and perturbation theory for both bosons and fermions. Again a simple Fortran program is included for illustrating the use of strong-coupling methods. Finally, in the third part path integra...
Some Aspects of Quantum Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Newton C. A. da Costa
2007-06-01
Full Text Available I discuss some questions of quantum physics, for instance the validity and limitations of the basic language of set theory to deal with problems related to elementary particles. I also present a sketch of a formalization of a “metaphysics of structures”, which might be useful for a kind of “ontic structural realism”, and briefly review the concept of quasi-truth, which underlies my way of understanding scientific theories and the scientific activity.
Quantum physics in one dimension
Giamarchi, Thierry
2004-01-01
This book presents in a pedagogical yet complete way correlated systems in one dimension. Recent progress in nanotechnology and material research have made one dimensional systems a crucial part of today's physics. After an introduction to the basic concepts of correlated systems, the book gives a step by step description of the techniques needed to treat one dimension, and discusses the resulting physics. Then specific experimental realizations of one dimensional systems such asspin chains, quantum wires, nanotubes, organic superconductors etc. are examined. Given its progressive and pedagogi
Algorithmic approach to quantum physics
Ozhigov, Y
2004-01-01
Algorithmic approach is based on the assumption that any quantum evolution of many particle system can be simulated on a classical computer with the polynomial time and memory cost. Algorithms play the central role here but not the analysis, and a simulation gives a "film" which visualizes many particle quantum dynamics and is demonstrated to a user of the model. Restrictions following from the algorithm theory are considered on a level of fundamental physical laws. Born rule for the calculation of quantum probability as well as the decoherence is derived from the existence of a nonzero minimal value of amplitude module - a grain of amplitude. The limitation on the classical computational resources gives the unified description of quantum dynamics that is not divided to the unitary dynamics and measurements and does not depend on the existence of observer. It is proposed the description of states based on the nesting of particles in each other that permits to account the effects of all levels in the same mode...
Quantum Measurement, Complexity and Discrete Physics
Leckey, Martin
2003-01-01
This paper presents a new modified quantum mechanics, Critical Complexity Quantum Mechanics, which includes a new account of wavefunction collapse. This modified quantum mechanics is shown to arise naturally from a fully discrete physics, where all physical quantities are discrete rather than continuous. I compare this theory with the spontaneous collapse theories of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle and discuss some implications of the theory for a realist view of the quantum realm.
Quantum mechanics for applied physics and engineering
Fromhold, Albert T
2011-01-01
This excellent text, directed to upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in engineering and applied physics, introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics, emphasizing those aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum statistics essential to an understanding of solid-state theory. A heavy background in mathematics and physics is not required beyond basic courses in calculus, differential equations, and calculus-based elementary physics.The first three chapters introduce quantum mechanics (using the Schrödinger equations), quantum statistics, and the free-electron theory of metals. Ch
Coherent states in quantum physics
Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2009-01-01
This self-contained introduction discusses the evolution of the notion of coherent states, from the early works of Schrödinger to the most recent advances, including signal analysis. An integrated and modern approach to the utility of coherent states in many different branches of physics, it strikes a balance between mathematical and physical descriptions.Split into two parts, the first introduces readers to the most familiar coherent states, their origin, their construction, and their application and relevance to various selected domains of physics. Part II, mostly based on recent original results, is devoted to the question of quantization of various sets through coherent states, and shows the link to procedures in signal analysis. Title: Coherent States in Quantum Physics Print ISBN: 9783527407095 Author(s): Gazeau, Jean-Pierre eISBN: 9783527628292 Publisher: Wiley-VCH Dewey: 530.12 Publication Date: 23 Sep, 2009 Pages: 360 Category: Science, Science: Physics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:
Problems and solutions in quantum physics
Ficek, Zbigniew
2016-01-01
This book contains tutorial problems with solutions for the textbook Quantum Physics for Beginners. The reader studying the abstract field of quantum physics needs to solve plenty of practical, especially quantitative, problems. This book places emphasis on basic problems of quantum physics together with some instructive, simulating, and useful applications. A considerable range of complexity is presented by these problems, and not too many of them can be solved using formulas alone.
Quantum Manybody Physics with Rydberg Polaritons
2016-06-22
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0033 Quantum Manybody Physics with Rydberg Polaritons Jonathan Simon UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THE 5801 S ELLIS AVE CHICAGO, IL...abstract is to be limited. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. Title: Quantum Manybody Physics with Rydberg Polaritons AFOSR AWARD...developed. In conjunction with synthetic magnetic fields generated through non-planar cavities, we are now poised to explore fractional quantum hall physics
Quantum Gravity: physics from supergeometries
Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio
2013-01-01
We show that the metric (line element) is the first geometrical object to be associated to a discrete (quantum) structure of the spacetime without necessity of black hole-entropy-area arguments, in sharp contrast with other attempts in the literature. To this end, an emergent metric solution obtained previously in [Physics Letters B 661, 186-191 (2008)] from a particular non-degenerate Riemmanian superspace is introduced. This emergent metric is described by a physical coherent state belonging to the metaplectic group Mp (n) with a Poissonian distribution at lower n (number basis) restoring the classical thermal continuum behaviour at large n (n ! 1), or leading to non-classical radiation states, as is conjectured in a quite general basis by mean the Bekenstein- Mukhanov effect. Group-dependent conditions that control the behavior of the macroscopic regime spectrum (thermal or not), as the relationship with the problem of area / entropy of the black hole are presented and discussed.
Physical synthesis of quantum circuits using templates
Mirkhani, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Naser
2016-10-01
Similar to traditional CMOS circuits, quantum circuit design flow is divided into two main processes: logic synthesis and physical design. Addressing the limitations imposed on optimization of the quantum circuit metrics because of no information sharing between logic synthesis and physical design processes, the concept of " physical synthesis" was introduced for quantum circuit flow, and a few techniques were proposed for it. Following that concept, in this paper a new approach for physical synthesis inspired by template matching idea in quantum logic synthesis is proposed to improve the latency of quantum circuits. Experiments show that by using template matching as a physical synthesis approach, the latency of quantum circuits can be improved by more than 23.55 % on average.
Introduction to quantum physics and information processing
Vathsan, Radhika
2016-01-01
An Elementary Guide to the State of the Art in the Quantum Information FieldIntroduction to Quantum Physics and Information Processing guides beginners in understanding the current state of research in the novel, interdisciplinary area of quantum information. Suitable for undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics, mathematics, or engineering, the book goes deep into issues of quantum theory without raising the technical level too much.The text begins with the basics of quantum mechanics required to understand how two-level systems are used as qubits. It goes on to show how quant
An Introduction to a Realistic Quantum Physics
Preparata, Giuliano
2003-01-01
This book is a remarkable synthesis, a clear and simple introduction to Quantum Physics with a sort of Galilean dialogue on the supreme systems of contemporary Physics. The author, whose research interests and work extended from quarks to liquid systems and from crystals to stars, introduces the common conceptual and mathematical framework of all quantum theories, realistic enough to successfully confront Nature: Quantum Field Theory applied to the study of both dilute and condensed matter. In the dilute limit, quantum mechanics is shown to be a good approximation to Quantum Field Theory. Howe
Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research
Kierk, I. K.
2002-01-01
This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.
Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research
Kierk, I. K.
2002-01-01
This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.
Boundary Effects in Quantum Physics
Asorey, M
2013-01-01
We analyze the role of boundaries in the infrared behavior of quantum field theories. By means of a novel method we calculate the vacuum energy for a massless scalar field confined between two homogeneous parallel plates with the most general type of boundary properties. This allows the discrimination between boundary conditions which generate attractive or repulsive Casimir forces between the plates. In the interface between both regimes we find a very interesting family of boundary conditions which do not induce any type of Casimir force. We analyze the effect of the renormalization group flow on these boundary conditions. Even if the Casimirless conformal invariant conditions are physically unstable under renormalization group flow they emerge as a new set of conformally invariant boundary conditions which are anomaly free.
[Quantum physics, medicine and insurance].
Lambeck, M
2007-12-01
Medicine based on natural sciences explains the action of remedies by the chemical bonding of the molecules of the remedy and of the body. This bonding takes place at distances of about 10(-10) m. Several insurance companies pay all medical treatments listed in the Hufeland catalogue of special therapeutical methods. Many of these methods contradict the mechanism mentioned above: Homoeopathy and anthroposophical medicine use substances in which the remedy is not present as matter. Bioenergetic methods like electroacupuncture according to Voll (EAV) and bioresonance use the remedies not inside the body but outside of it. They claim to substitute the chemical bonding of matter waves with the information of electromagnetic waves. The explanation given in the Hufeland catalogue by means of quantum physics is discussed and further investigations are proposed.
Quantum Physics in One Dimension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Logan, David [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
2004-05-14
To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted peculiarities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic - spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assuming little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a
A quantum physics poetry competition
Susanna Wong
2014-01-01
What do you think happened when six world-renowned poets from six European countries met eight famous CERN scientists to talk about the Universe and the Higgs boson? Six poems about new quantum physics discoveries were born from this exciting collision of literature and science in an intimate and spontaneous setting! Express yourself through poetry: this is the call from POPScience, a European Researchers' Night 2014-15 project supported by CERN. The general public can discover the mysteries of particle physics using a series of texts and thematic videos as well as clips of the meetings of the poets and CERN scientists available on the POPScience website. The Big Bang, an expanding Universe, dark energy, matter, antimatter and supersymmetry: what are they and do they exist? The general public is welcome to give an answer in a poem by signing up to the competition. Poems can be submitted in English, French, Italian, Danish and Spanish; the selected entries will be translated ...
Entangled Systems New Directions in Quantum Physics
Audretsch, Jürgen
2007-01-01
An introductory textbook for advanced students of physics, chemistry and computer science, covering an area of physics that has lately witnessed rapid expansion. The topics treated here include quantum information, quantum communication, quantum computing, teleportation and hidden parameters, thus imparting not only a well-founded understanding of quantum theory as such, but also a solid basis of knowledge from which readers can follow the rapid development of the topic or delve deeper into a more specialized branch of research. Commented recommendations for further reading as well as end-of-chapter problems help the reader to quickly access the theoretical basics of future key technologies
Quantum coding theory with realistic physical constraints
Yoshida, Beni
2010-01-01
The following open problems, which concern a fundamental limit on coding properties of quantum codes with realistic physical constraints, are analyzed and partially answered here: (a) the upper bound on code distances of quantum error-correcting codes with geometrically local generators, (b) the feasibility of a self-correcting quantum memory. To investigate these problems, we study stabilizer codes supported by local interaction terms with translation and scale symmetries on a $D$-dimensional lattice. Our analysis uses the notion of topology emerging in geometric shapes of logical operators, which sheds a surprising new light on theory of quantum codes with physical constraints.
Development of quantum perspectives in modern physics
Charles Baily; Noah D. Finkelstein
2009-01-01
Introductory undergraduate courses in classical physics stress a perspective that can be characterized as realist; from this perspective, all physical properties of a classical system can be simultaneously specified and thus determined at all future times. Such a perspective can be problematic for introductory quantum physics students, who must develop new perspectives in order to properly interpret what it means to have knowledge of quantum systems. We document this evolution in student thin...
The emerging quantum the physics behind quantum mechanics
Pena, Luis de la; Valdes-Hernandez, Andrea
2014-01-01
This monograph presents the latest findings from a long-term research project intended to identify the physics behind Quantum Mechanics. A fundamental theory for quantum mechanics is constructed from first physical principles, revealing quantization as an emergent phenomenon arising from a deeper stochastic process. As such, it offers the vibrant community working on the foundations of quantum mechanics an alternative contribution open to discussion. The book starts with a critical summary of the main conceptual problems that still beset quantum mechanics. The basic consideration is then introduced that any material system is an open system in permanent contact with the random zero-point radiation field, with which it may reach a state of equilibrium. Working from this basis, a comprehensive and self-consistent theoretical framework is then developed. The pillars of the quantum-mechanical formalism are derived, as well as the radiative corrections of nonrelativistic QED, while revealing the underlying physi...
Lesovik, G B; Lebedev, A V; Sadovskyy, I A; Suslov, M V; Vinokur, V M
2016-09-12
Remarkable progress of quantum information theory (QIT) allowed to formulate mathematical theorems for conditions that data-transmitting or data-processing occurs with a non-negative entropy gain. However, relation of these results formulated in terms of entropy gain in quantum channels to temporal evolution of real physical systems is not thoroughly understood. Here we build on the mathematical formalism provided by QIT to formulate the quantum H-theorem in terms of physical observables. We discuss the manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics in quantum physics and uncover special situations where the second law can be violated. We further demonstrate that the typical evolution of energy-isolated quantum systems occurs with non-diminishing entropy.
Lesovik, G. B.; Lebedev, A. V.; Sadovskyy, I. A.; Suslov, M. V.; Vinokur, V. M.
2016-09-01
Remarkable progress of quantum information theory (QIT) allowed to formulate mathematical theorems for conditions that data-transmitting or data-processing occurs with a non-negative entropy gain. However, relation of these results formulated in terms of entropy gain in quantum channels to temporal evolution of real physical systems is not thoroughly understood. Here we build on the mathematical formalism provided by QIT to formulate the quantum H-theorem in terms of physical observables. We discuss the manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics in quantum physics and uncover special situations where the second law can be violated. We further demonstrate that the typical evolution of energy-isolated quantum systems occurs with non-diminishing entropy.
Quantum optics and frontiers of physics: the third quantum revolution
Celi, Alessio; Sanpera, Anna; Ahufinger, Veronica; Lewenstein, Maciej
2017-01-01
The year 2015 was the International Year of Light. However, it also marked, the 20th anniversary of the first observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic vapors by Eric Cornell, Carl Wieman and Wolfgang Ketterle. This discovery could be considered as one of the greatest achievements of quantum optics that has triggered an avalanche of further seminal discoveries and achievements. For this reason we devote this essay for the focus issue on ‘Quantum Optics in the International Year of Light’ to the recent revolutionary developments in quantum optics at the frontiers of all physics: atomic physics, molecular physics, condensed matter physics, high energy physics and quantum information science. We follow here the lines of the introduction to our book ‘Ultracold atoms in optical lattices: Simulating quantum many-body systems’ (Lewenstein et al 2012 Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices: Simulating Quantum Many-body Systems (Oxford: University Press)), and to a lesser extent the review article M Lewenstein et al (2007 Adv. Phys. 56 243). The book, however, was published in 2012, and many things has happened since then—the present essay is therefore upgraded to include the latest developments.
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Simulating Physical Phenomena by Quantum Networks
Somma, R D; Gubernatis, J E; Knill, E H; Laflamme, R
2002-01-01
Physical systems, characterized by an ensemble of interacting elementary constituents, can be represented and studied by different algebras of observables or operators. For example, a fully polarized electronic system can be investigated by means of the algebra generated by the usual fermionic creation and annihilation operators, or by using the algebra of Pauli (spin-1/2) operators. The correspondence between the two algebras is given by the Jordan-Wigner isomorphism. As we previously noted similar one-to-one mappings enable one to represent any physical system in a quantum computer. In this paper we evolve and exploit this fundamental concept in quantum information processing to simulate generic physical phenomena by quantum networks. We give quantum circuits useful for the efficient evaluation of the physical properties (e.g, spectrum of observables or relevant correlation functions) of an arbitrary system with Hamiltonian $H$.
Quantum Gravity: The View From Particle Physics
Nicolai, Hermann
This lecture reviews aspects of and prospects for progress towards a theory of quantum gravity from a particle physics perspective, also paying attention to recent findings of the LHC experiments at CERN.
Philosophy and logic of quantum physics
Dapprich, Jan Philipp
2015-01-01
The book investigates the ontology and logic of quantum physics. The first part discusses the relationship of theory and observation and different views on the ontological status of scientific theories. It introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and some of its interpretations and their compatibility with various ontological positions. In the second part, implications of quantum mechanics on classical logic, especially on the distributive law and bivalence, as discussed by Garrett Birkhoff & John von Neumann (1936) and Hilary Putnam (1968), and their counterarguments are reconstructed and discussed. It is concluded that classical logic is sufficient for dealing with quantum mechanical propositions.
Quantum Physics in a different ontology
de Silva, Nalin
2010-01-01
It is shown that neither the wave picture nor the ordinary particle picture offers a satisfactory explanation of the double-slit experiment. The Physicists who have been successful in formulating theories in the Newtonian Paradigm with its corresponding ontology find it difficult to interpret Quantum Physics which deals with particles that are not sensory perceptible. A different interpretation of Quantum Physics based in a different ontology is presented in what follows. According to the new interpretation Quantum particles have different properties from those of Classical Newtonian particles. The interference patterns are explained in terms of particles each of which passes through both slits.
Quantum circuit physical design methodology with emphasis on physical synthesis
Mohammadzadeh, Naser; Saheb Zamani, Morteza; Sedighi, Mehdi
2013-11-01
In our previous works, we have introduced the concept of "physical synthesis" as a method to consider the mutual effects of quantum circuit synthesis and physical design. While physical synthesis can involve various techniques to improve the characteristics of the resulting quantum circuit, we have proposed two techniques (namely gate exchanging and auxiliary qubit selection) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the physical synthesis. However, the previous contributions focused mainly on the physical synthesis concept, and the techniques were proposed only as a proof of concept. In this paper, we propose a methodological framework for physical synthesis that involves all previously proposed techniques along with a newly introduced one (called auxiliary qubit insertion). We will show that the entire flow can be seen as one monolithic methodology. The proposed methodology is analyzed using a large set of benchmarks. Experimental results show that the proposed methodology decreases the average latency of quantum circuits by about 36.81 % for the attempted benchmarks.
Holism, Physical Theories and Quantum Mechanics
Seevinck, M P
2004-01-01
Motivated by the question what it is that makes quantum mechanics a holistic theory (if so), I try to define for general physical theories what we mean by `holism'. I propose an operational criterion to decide whether or not a physical theory is holistic, namely: a physical theory is holistic if and only if some determination (measurement) of the global properties in the theory which can be determined by global measurements, can not be implemented by local operations and classical communication. This approach is contrasted with the well known approaches to holism in terms of supervenience. I will argue that the latter have a limited scope and need to be extended using the criterion for holism proposed here in order to satisfactory address the issue for physical theories. I formalize this criterion for classical particle physics and Bohmian mechanics as represented on a Cartesian phase and configuration space, and for quantum mechanics (in the orthodox interpretation) using the formalism of general quantum ope...
Classical approach in quantum physics
Solov'ev, Evgeni A
2010-01-01
The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the help of Poincar$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$ section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treating as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semicla...
Quantum physics what everyone needs to know
Raymer, Michael G
2017-01-01
Around 1900, physicists started to discover particles like electrons, protons, and neutrons, and with these discoveries believed they could predict the internal behavior of the atom. However, once their predictions were compared to the results of experiments in the real world, it became clear that the principles of classical physics and mechanics were far from capable of explaining phenomena on the atomic scale. With this realization came the advent of quantum physics, one of the most important intellectual movements in human history. Today, quantum physics is everywhere: it explains how our computers work, how lasers transmit information across the Internet, and allows scientists to predict accurately the behavior of nearly every particle in nature. Its application continues to be fundamental in the investigation of the most expansive questions related to our world and the universe. However, while the field and principles of quantum physics are known to have nearly limitless applications, the fundamental rea...
Quantum enigma physics encounters consciousness
Rosenblum, Bruce
2012-01-01
Everyone knows that sub-atomic particles have some very strange qualities. Light sometimes behaves like a particle, sometimes like a wave. Objects separated by vast distances interact faster than the speed of light what Einstein called spooky action at a distance'. Most strangely, the behaviour of objects somehow seems to be determined in retrospect, depending on what the observer is looking for. In this ground-breaking work the authors show how these quantum properties are being observed in larger and larger objects. They set out carefully and cautiously exactly what quantum theory
The quantum world philosophical debates on quantum physics
Zwirn, Hervé
2017-01-01
In this largely nontechnical book, eminent physicists and philosophers address the philosophical impact of recent advances in quantum physics. These are shown to shed new light on profound questions about realism, determinism, causality or locality. The participants contribute in the spirit of an open and honest discussion, reminiscent of the time when science and philosophy were inseparable. After the editors’ introduction, the next chapter reveals the strangeness of quantum mechanics and the subsequent discussions examine our notion of reality. The spotlight is then turned to the topic of decoherence. Bohm’s theory is critically examined in two chapters, and the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics is likewise described and discussed. The penultimate chapter presents a proposal for resolving the measurement problem, and finally the topic of loop quantum gravity is presented by one of its founding fathers, Carlo Rovelli. The original presentations and discussions on which this volume is based t...
Quantum Entropy and Its Applications to Quantum Communication and Statistical Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masanori Ohya
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Quantum entropy is a fundamental concept for quantum information recently developed in various directions. We will review the mathematical aspects of quantum entropy (entropies and discuss some applications to quantum communication, statistical physics. All topics taken here are somehow related to the quantum entropy that the present authors have been studied. Many other fields recently developed in quantum information theory, such as quantum algorithm, quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, etc., are totally discussed in the book (reference number 60.
Teaching Quantum Physics without Paradoxes
Hobson, Art
2007-01-01
Although the resolution to the wave-particle paradox has been known for 80 years, it is seldom presented. Briefly, the resolution is that material particles and photons are the quanta of extended spatially continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory and is not usually spelled out in…
Teaching Quantum Physics without Paradoxes
Hobson, Art
2007-01-01
Although the resolution to the wave-particle paradox has been known for 80 years, it is seldom presented. Briefly, the resolution is that material particles and photons are the quanta of extended spatially continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory and is not usually spelled out in…
Beyond relativity and quantum mechanics: space physics
Lindner, Henry H.
2011-09-01
Albert Einstein imposed an observer-based epistemology upon physics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics limit physics to describing and modeling the observer's sensations and measurements. Their "underlying reality" consists only of ideas that serve to model the observer's experience. These positivistic models cannot be used to form physical theories of Cosmic phenomena. To do this, we must again remove the observer from the center of physics. When we relate motion to Cosmic space instead of to observers and we attempt to explain the causes of Cosmic phenomena, we are forced to admit that Cosmic space is a substance. We need a new physics of space. We can begin by replacing Relativity with a modified Lorentzian-Newtonian model of spatial flow, and Quantum Mechanics with a wave-based theory of light and electrons. Space physics will require the reinterpretation of all known phenomena, concepts, and mathematical models.
Cosmic Censorship: the Role of Quantum Physics
Hod, Shahar
1999-01-01
The cosmic censorship hypothesis introduced by Penrose thirty years ago is still one of the most important open questions in {\\it classical} general relativity. The main goal of this paper is to put forward the idea that cosmic censorship is intrinsically a {\\it quantum} phenomena. We construct a gedanken experiment which seems to violate the cosmic censorship principle within the purely {\\it classical} framework of general relativity. We prove, however, that {\\it quantum} physics restores th...
Physical models of semiconductor quantum devices
Fu, Ying
2013-01-01
The science and technology relating to nanostructures continues to receive significant attention for its applications to various fields including microelectronics, nanophotonics, and biotechnology. This book describes the basic quantum mechanical principles underlining this fast developing field. From the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics to nanomaterial properties, from device physics to research and development of new systems, this title is aimed at undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, and researchers.
Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.
Mashhadi, Azam
This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…
Was Einstein Wrong on Quantum Physics?
Bhaumik, Mani
2015-01-01
Einstein is considered by many as the father of quantum physics in some sense. Yet there is an unshakable view that he was wrong on quantum physics. Although it may be a subject of considerable debate, the core of his allegedly wrong demurral was the insistence on finding an objective reality underlying the manifestly bizarre behavior of quantum objects. The uncanny wave-particle duality of a quantum particle is a prime example. In view of the latest developments, particularly in quantum field theory, objections of Einstein are substantially corroborated. Careful investigation suggests that a travelling quantum particle is a holistic wave packet consisting of an assemblage of irregular disturbances in quantum fields. It acts as a particle because only the totality of all the disturbances in the wave packet yields the energy momentum with the mass of a particle, along with its other conserved quantities such as charge and spin. Thus the wave function representing a particle is not just a fictitious mathematica...
Toward a physical theory of quantum cognition.
Takahashi, Taiki
2014-01-01
Recently, mathematical models based on quantum formalism have been developed in cognitive science. The target articles in this special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science clearly illustrate how quantum theoretical formalism can account for various aspects of human judgment and decision making in a quantitatively and mathematically rigorous manner. In this commentary, we show how future studies in quantum cognition and decision making should be developed to establish theoretical foundations based on physical theory, by introducing Taketani's three-stage theory of the development of science. Also, implications for neuroeconomics (another rapidly evolving approach to human judgment and decision making) are discussed.
Development of quantum perspectives in modern physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Baily
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Introductory undergraduate courses in classical physics stress a perspective that can be characterized as realist; from this perspective, all physical properties of a classical system can be simultaneously specified and thus determined at all future times. Such a perspective can be problematic for introductory quantum physics students, who must develop new perspectives in order to properly interpret what it means to have knowledge of quantum systems. We document this evolution in student thinking in part through pre- and post-instruction evaluations using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey. We further characterize variations in student epistemic and ontological commitments by examining responses to two essay questions, coupled with responses to supplemental quantum attitude statements. We find that, after instruction in modern physics, many students are still exhibiting a realist perspective in contexts where a quantum-mechanical perspective is needed. We further find that this effect can be significantly influenced by instruction, where we observe variations for courses with differing learning goals. We also note that students generally do not employ either a realist or a quantum perspective in a consistent manner.
Workshop on quantum stochastic differential equations for the quantum simulation of physical systems
2016-09-22
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This is a report on the “Workshop on quantum stochastic differential equations for the quantum simulation of physical ...mathematical tools to the quantum simulation of physical systems of interest to the Army. There were participants from US Government agencies, industry, and... quantum stochastic differential equations for the quantum simulation of physical systems Report Title This is a report on the “Workshop on quantum
Certified randomness in quantum physics.
Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis
2016-12-07
The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.
Certified randomness in quantum physics
Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis
2016-12-01
The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.
Nuclear Physics from Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics
Savage, Martin J
2015-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics and Quantum Electrodynamics, both renormalizable quantum field theories with a small number of precisely constrained input parameters, dominate the dynamics of the quarks and gluons - the underlying building blocks of protons, neutrons, and nuclei. While the analytic techniques of quantum field theory have played a key role in understanding the dynamics of matter in high energy processes, they encounter difficulties when applied to low-energy nuclear structure and reactions, and dense systems. Expected increases in computational resources into the exascale during the next decade will provide the ability to determine a range of important strong interaction processes directly from QCD using the numerical technique of Lattice QCD. This will complement the nuclear physics experimental program, and in partnership with new thrusts in nuclear many-body theory, will enable unprecedented understanding and refinement of nuclear forces and, more generally, the visible matter in our universe. In th...
Quantum photonic network and physical layer security.
Sasaki, Masahide; Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Toyoshima, Morio
2017-08-06
Quantum communication and quantum cryptography are expected to enhance the transmission rate and the security (confidentiality of data transmission), respectively. We study a new scheme which can potentially bridge an intermediate region covered by these two schemes, which is referred to as quantum photonic network. The basic framework is information theoretically secure communications in a free space optical (FSO) wiretap channel, in which an eavesdropper has physically limited access to the main channel between the legitimate sender and receiver. We first review a theoretical framework to quantify the optimal balance of the transmission efficiency and the security level under power constraint and at finite code length. We then present experimental results on channel characterization based on 10 MHz on-off keying transmission in a 7.8 km terrestrial FSO wiretap channel.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Quantum photonic network and physical layer security
Sasaki, Masahide; Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Toyoshima, Morio
2017-06-01
Quantum communication and quantum cryptography are expected to enhance the transmission rate and the security (confidentiality of data transmission), respectively. We study a new scheme which can potentially bridge an intermediate region covered by these two schemes, which is referred to as quantum photonic network. The basic framework is information theoretically secure communications in a free space optical (FSO) wiretap channel, in which an eavesdropper has physically limited access to the main channel between the legitimate sender and receiver. We first review a theoretical framework to quantify the optimal balance of the transmission efficiency and the security level under power constraint and at finite code length. We then present experimental results on channel characterization based on 10 MHz on-off keying transmission in a 7.8 km terrestrial FSO wiretap channel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.
Embedded random matrix ensembles in quantum physics
Kota, V K B
2014-01-01
Although used with increasing frequency in many branches of physics, random matrix ensembles are not always sufficiently specific to account for important features of the physical system at hand. One refinement which retains the basic stochastic approach but allows for such features consists in the use of embedded ensembles. The present text is an exhaustive introduction to and survey of this important field. Starting with an easy-to-read introduction to general random matrix theory, the text then develops the necessary concepts from the beginning, accompanying the reader to the frontiers of present-day research. With some notable exceptions, to date these ensembles have primarily been applied in nuclear spectroscopy. A characteristic example is the use of a random two-body interaction in the framework of the nuclear shell model. Yet, topics in atomic physics, mesoscopic physics, quantum information science and statistical mechanics of isolated finite quantum systems can also be addressed using these ensemb...
Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Physics and Applications
Schneider, Harald
2007-01-01
Addressed to both students as a learning text and scientists/engineers as a reference, this book discusses the physics and applications of quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). It is assumed that the reader has a basic background in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, and semiconductor devices. To make this book as widely accessible as possible, the treatment and presentation of the materials is simple and straightforward. The topics for the book were chosen by the following criteria: they must be well-established and understood; and they should have been, or potentially will be, used in practical applications. The monograph discusses most aspects relevant for the field but omits, at the same time, detailed discussions of specialized topics such as the valence-band quantum wells.
The mathematical representation of physical objects and relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Romay, Enrique Ordaz
2004-01-01
The mathematical representation of the physical objects determines which mathematical branch will be applied during the physical analysis in the systems studied. The difference among non-quantum physics, like classic or relativistic physics, and quantum physics, especially in quantum field theory, is nothing else than the difference between the mathematics that is used on both branches of the physics. A common physical and mathematical origin for the analysis of the different systems brings b...
Parables of Physics and a Quantum Romance
Machacek, A. C.
2014-01-01
Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).
Parables of physics and a quantum romance
Machacek, A. C.
2014-01-01
Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).
Parables of Physics and a Quantum Romance
Machacek, A. C.
2014-01-01
Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).
Holism, physical theories and quantum mechanics
Seevinck, M. P.
Motivated by the question what it is that makes quantum mechanics a holistic theory (if so), I try to define for general physical theories what we mean by `holism'. For this purpose I propose an epistemological criterion to decide whether or not a physical theory is holistic, namely: a physical theory is holistic if and only if it is impossible in principle to infer the global properties, as assigned in the theory, by local resources available to an agent. I propose that these resources include at least all local operations and classical communication. This approach is contrasted with the well-known approaches to holism in terms of supervenience. The criterion for holism proposed here involves a shift in emphasis from ontology to epistemology. I apply this epistemological criterion to classical physics and Bohmian mechanics as represented on a phase and configuration space respectively, and for quantum mechanics (in the orthodox interpretation) using the formalism of general quantum operations as completely positive trace non-increasing maps. Furthermore, I provide an interesting example from which one can conclude that quantum mechanics is holistic in the above mentioned sense, although, perhaps surprisingly, no entanglement is needed.
Mathematics of classical and quantum physics
Byron, Frederick W
Well-organized text designed to complement graduate-level physics texts in classical mechanics, electricity, magnetism, and quantum mechanics. Topics include theory of vector spaces, analytic function theory, Green's function method of solving differential and partial differential equations, theory of groups, more. Many problems, suggestions for further reading.
Summer Workshop on Physics, Mathematics, and All That Quantum Jazz
Bando, Masamitsu; Güngördü, Utkan; Physics, Mathematics, and All That Quantum Jazz
2014-01-01
This book is a collection of contributions from a Summer Workshop on Physics, Mathematics, and All That Quantum Jazz . Subjects of the symposium include quantum information theory, quantum annealing, Bose gases, and thermodynamics from a viewpoint of quantum physics. Contributions to this book are prepared in a self-contained manner so that readers with a modest background may understand the subjects.
Quantum physics reimagined for the general public
Bobroff, Julien
2015-03-01
Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined
Physics of strained quantum well lasers
Loehr, John P
1998-01-01
When this publisher offered me the opportunity to \\\\Tite a book, some six years ago, I did not hesitate to say yes. I had just spent the last four years of graduate school struggling to understand the physics of strained quantum well lasers, and it seemed to me the whole experience was much more difficult that it should have been. For although many of the results I needed were easy to locate, the underlying physical premises and intervening steps were not. If only I had a book providing the derivations, I could have absorbed them and gone on my way. Such a book lies before you. It provides a unified and self-contained descrip tion of the essential physics of strained quantum well lasers, starting from first principles whenever feasible. The presentation I have chosen requires only the standard introductory background in quantum mechanics, solid state physics, and electromagnetics expected of entering graduate students in physics or elec trical engineering. A single undergraduate course in each of these su...
Theoretical physics 6 quantum mechanics : basics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to the basics of quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the physical understanding further on to quantized states. The first part of the book introduces wave equations while exploring the Schrödinger equation and the hydrogen atom. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the Dirac formulism of quantum mechanics. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this...
The physical principles of the quantum theory
Heisenberg, Werner
1949-01-01
The contributions of few contemporary scientists have been as far reaching in their effects as those of Nobel Laureate Werner Heisenberg. His matrix theory is one of the bases of modern quantum mechanics, while his ""uncertainty principle"" has altered our whole philosophy of science.In this classic, based on lectures delivered at the University of Chicago, Heisenberg presents a complete physical picture of quantum theory. He covers not only his own contributions, but also those of Bohr, Dirac, Bose, de Broglie, Fermi, Einstein, Pauli, Schrodinger, Somerfield, Rupp, ·Wilson, Germer, and others
Quantum electronics for atomic physics and telecommunication
Nagourney, Warren G
2014-01-01
Nagourney provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics and other related areas (including telecommunications). The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, optical cavities, lasers, non-linear optics, modulation techniques and fibre optics, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics, such as the enhancement of non-linear processes in a build-up cavity or periodically poled waveguide, impedance matching into a cavity and astigmatism in ring cavities.
Confinement Physics in Quantum Chromodynamics
Suganuma, H; Amemiya, K; Tanaka, A; Suganuma, Hideo; Ichie, Hiroko; Amemiya, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Atsunori
1998-01-01
We study the confinement physics in QCD in the maximally abelian (MA) gauge using the SU(2) lattice QCD, based on the dual-superconductor picture. In the MA gauge, off-diagonal gluon components are forced to be small, and the off-diagonal angle variable $\\chi_\\mu(s)$ tends to be random. Within the random-variable approximation for $\\chi_\\mu(s)$, we analytically prove the perimeter law of the off-diagonal gluon contribution to the Wilson loop in the MA gauge, which leads to abelian dominance on the string tension. To clarify the origin of abelian dominance for the long-range physics, we study the charged-gluon propagator in the MA gauge using the lattice QCD, and find that the effective mass $m_{ch} \\simeq 0.9 {\\rm GeV}$ of the charged gluon is induced by the MA gauge fixing. In the MA gauge, there appears the macroscopic network of the monopole world-line covering the whole system, which would be identified as monopole condensation at a large scale. To prove monopole condensation in the field-theoretical mann...
Nonrelativistic quantum X-ray physics
Hau-Riege, Stefan P
2015-01-01
Providing a solid theoretical background in photon-matter interaction, Nonrelativistic Quantum X-Ray Physics enables readers to understand experiments performed at XFEL-facilities and x-ray synchrotrons. As a result, after reading this book, scientists and students will be able to outline and perform calculations of some important x-ray-matter interaction processes. Key features of the contents are that the scope reaches beyond the dipole approximation when necessary and that it includes short-pulse interactions. To aid the reader in this transition, some relevant examples are discussed in detail, while non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics help readers to obtain an in-depth understanding of the formalisms and processes. The text presupposes a basic (undergraduate-level) understanding of mechanics, electrodynamics, and quantum mechanics. However, more specialized concepts in these fields are introduced and the reader is directed to appropriate references. While primarily benefiting users of x-ray light-sou...
Hilbert Space Operators in Quantum Physics
Blank, Jiří; Havlíček, Miloslav
2008-01-01
The second edition of this course-tested book provides a detailed and in-depth discussion of the foundations of quantum theory as well as its applications to various systems. The exposition is self-contained; in the first part the reader finds the mathematical background in chapters about functional analysis, operators on Hilbert spaces and their spectral theory, as well as operator sets and algebras. This material is used in the second part to a systematic explanation of the foundations, in particular, states and observables, properties of canonical variables, time evolution, symmetries and various axiomatic approaches. In the third part, specific physical systems and situations are discussed. Two chapters analyze Schrödinger operators and scattering, two others added in the second edition are devoted to new important topics, quantum waveguides and quantum graphs. Some praise for the previous edition: "I really enjoyed reading this work. It is very well written, by three real experts in the field. It stands...
Quantum algorithms for computational nuclear physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Višňák Jakub
2015-01-01
Full Text Available While quantum algorithms have been studied as an efficient tool for the stationary state energy determination in the case of molecular quantum systems, no similar study for analogical problems in computational nuclear physics (computation of energy levels of nuclei from empirical nucleon-nucleon or quark-quark potentials have been realized yet. Although the difference between the above mentioned studies might seem negligible, it will be examined. First steps towards a particular simulation (on classical computer of the Iterative Phase Estimation Algorithm for deuterium and tritium nuclei energy level computation will be carried out with the aim to prove algorithm feasibility (and extensibility to heavier nuclei for its possible practical realization on a real quantum computer.
Discovery Mondays: Quantum physics - incredible but true
2006-01-01
Physicists use two main theories to describe the world around us - the general theory of relativity to describe the infinitely large and quantum theory to describe the infinitesimally small, at the scale of the atom and its constituent parts. Quantum physics is as fascinating as it is bewildering. And yet it's used in many practical applications - medical imaging, lasers and computers, to name but a few. Over the course of the evening, you'll become acquainted with strange phenomena such as super-fluidity, teleportation and quantum cryptography. And through some amazing sleights-of-hand and experiments, you'll be taken on a journey into the mysteries of the infinitesimally small... The event will be conducted in French. Come to Microcosm, (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 3 July from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance is free http://www.cern.ch/LundisDecouverte/
Towards testing quantum physics in deep space
Kaltenbaek, Rainer
2016-07-01
MAQRO is a proposal for a medium-sized space mission to use the unique environment of deep space in combination with novel developments in space technology and quantum technology to test the foundations of physics. The goal is to perform matter-wave interferometry with dielectric particles of up to 10^{11} atomic mass units and testing for deviations from the predictions of quantum theory. Novel techniques from quantum optomechanics with optically trapped particles are to be used for preparing the test particles for these experiments. The core elements of the instrument are placed outside the spacecraft and insulated from the hot spacecraft via multiple thermal shields allowing to achieve cryogenic temperatures via passive cooling and ultra-high vacuum levels by venting to deep space. In combination with low force-noise microthrusters and inertial sensors, this allows realizing an environment well suited for long coherence times of macroscopic quantum superpositions and long integration times. Since the original proposal in 2010, significant progress has been made in terms of technology development and in refining the instrument design. Based on these new developments, we submitted/will submit updated versions of the MAQRO proposal in 2015 and 2016 in response to Cosmic-Vision calls of ESA for a medium-sized mission. A central goal has been to address and overcome potentially critical issues regarding the readiness of core technologies and to provide realistic concepts for further technology development. We present the progress on the road towards realizing this ground-breaking mission harnessing deep space in novel ways for testing the foundations of physics, a technology pathfinder for macroscopic quantum technology and quantum optomechanics in space.
Let's call it Nonlocal Quantum Physics
Requardt, M
2000-01-01
In the following we undertake to derive quantum theory as a stochastic low-energy and coarse-grained theory from a more primordial discrete and basically geometric theory living on the Planck scale and which (as we argue) possibly underlies also \\tit{string theory}. We isolate the so-called \\tit{ideal elements} which represent at the same time the cornerstones of the framework of ordinary quantum theory and show how and why they encode the \\tit{non-local} aspects, being ubiquituous in the quantum realm, in a, on the surface, local way. We show that the quantum non-locality emerges in our approach as a natural consequence of the underlying \\tit{two-storey} nature of space-time or the physical vacuum, that is, quantum theory turns out to be a residual effect of the geometric depth structure of space-time on the Planck scale. We indicate how the \\tit{measurement problem} and the emergence of the \\tit{macroscopic sub-regime} can be understood in this framework.
Qigong meets quantum physics experiencing cosmic oneness
Bock-Möbius, Imke
2012-01-01
Quantum physicists have reached a point commonly only attained by mystics: they understand something with amazing clarity yet can only talk about it in parables and metaphors. In this context, qigong with its Daoist background is a powerful way to integrate these apparently opposing ways of apperception and understanding. It allows us to realise cosmic oneness in the activities of daily life. This book succeeds in presenting both an easily accessible outline of quantum physics and also an appreciation of mysticism beyond vagueness and obscurity. From here it describes the physical and mental movements of qigong as a way of integrating body and mind, head and heart, detailing specific exercises and outlining their rationale and effects.
Relativity and quantum physics for beginners
Manly, Steven L
2009-01-01
As we humans have expanded our horizons to see things vastly smaller, faster, larger, and farther than ever before, we have been forced to confront preconceptions born of the human experience and create wholly new ways of looking at the world around us. The theories of relativity and quantum physics were developed out of this need and have provided us with phenomenal, mind-twisting insights into the strange and exciting reality show of our universe.Relativity and Quantum Physics For Beginners is an entertaining and accessible introduction to the bizarre concepts that fueled the scientific revolution of the 20th century and led to amazing advances in our understanding of the universe.
EPR Paradox, Quantum Nonlocality and Physical Reality
Kupczynski, Marian
2016-01-01
Eighty years ago Einstein demonstrated that a particular interpretation of the reduction of wave function led to a paradox and that this paradox disappeared if statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics was adopted. According to the statistical interpretation a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. Searching for an intuitive explanation of long range correlations between outcomes of distant measurements, performed on pairs of physical systems prepared in a spin singlet state, John Bell analysed local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of quantum mechanics. Several different local models were constructed, various inequalities proven and shown to be violated by experimental data. Some physicists concluded that Nature is definitely not local. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we critically analyze some influential finite sample proo...
Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics
Charles Baily; Noah D. Finkelstein
2011-01-01
The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of physics concepts, and to inform how we might teach traditional content. Our previous investigations of student perspectives on quantum physics have indica...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U. V. S. Seshavatharam
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to emphasize the major shortcomings of standard cosmology. It can be suggested that, the current cosmological changes can be understood by studying the atom and the atomic nucleus through ground based experiments. If light is coming from the atoms of the gigantic galaxy, then redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic ‘light emission mechanism’. In no way it seems to be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. With ‘cosmological increasing (emitted photon energy’, observed cosmic redshift can be considered as a measure of the age difference between our galaxy and any observed galaxy. If it is possible to show that, (from the observer older galaxy’s distance increases with its ‘age’, then ‘galaxy receding’ and ‘accelerating universe’ concepts can be put for a revision at fundamental level. At any given cosmic time, the product of ‘critical density’ and ‘Hubble volume’ gives a characteristic cosmic mass and it can be called as the ‘Hubble mass’. Interesting thing is that, Schwarzschild radius of the ‘Hubble mass’ again matches with the ‘Hubble length’. Most of the cosmologists believe that this is merely a coincidence. At any given cosmic time,’Hubble length’ can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. If one is willing to think in this direction, by increasing the number of applications of Hubble mass and Hubble volume in other areas of fundamental physics like quantum physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics and particle physics - slowly and gradually - in a progressive way, concepts of ‘Black hole Cosmology’ can be strengthened and can also be confirmed.
Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices
Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.
2005-01-01
There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of three-dimensional arrays of zero-dimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Two-dimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of one-dimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce III-V, II-VI, and even chalcopyrite-based nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.
Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:
Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, Jean-Loup; Chabot, Hugues
2015-01-01
One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction…
Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:
Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, Jean-Loup; Chabot, Hugues
2015-01-01
One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction…
Geometrical Lorentz Violation and Quantum Mechanical Physics
Mignani, R; Cardone, F
2013-01-01
On the basis of the results of some experiments dealing with the violation of Local Lorentz Invariance (LLI) and on the formalism of the Deformed Special Relativity (DSR), we examine the connections between the local geometrical structure of space-time and the foundation of Quantum Mechanics. We show that Quantum Mechanics, beside being an axiomatic theory, can be considered also a deductive physical theory, deducted from the primary physical principle of Relativistic Correlation. This principle is synonym of LLI and of a rigid and at minkowskian space-time. The results of the experiments mentioned above show the breakdown of LLI and hence the violation of the principle of Relativistic Correlation. The formalism of DSR allows to highlight the deep meaning of LLI breakdown in terms of the geometrical structure of local space-time which, far from being rigid and at, is deformed by the energy of the physical phenomena that take place and in this sense it has an active part in the dynamics of the whole physical p...
Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator.
Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; DelRe, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio
2015-11-02
More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n = 0 and n = 2 discrete states and Γ0 and Γ2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shock-waves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, white-light and X-ray generation.
Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator
Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; Delre, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio
2015-11-01
More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n = 0 and n = 2 discrete states and Γ0 and Γ2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shock-waves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, white-light and X-ray generation.
Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry
Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.
2005-01-01
An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.
Measurement theory in local quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okamura, Kazuya, E-mail: okamura@math.cm.is.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ozawa, Masanao, E-mail: ozawa@is.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)
2016-01-15
In this paper, we aim to establish foundations of measurement theory in local quantum physics. For this purpose, we discuss a representation theory of completely positive (CP) instruments on arbitrary von Neumann algebras. We introduce a condition called the normal extension property (NEP) and establish a one-to-one correspondence between CP instruments with the NEP and statistical equivalence classes of measuring processes. We show that every CP instrument on an atomic von Neumann algebra has the NEP, extending the well-known result for type I factors. Moreover, we show that every CP instrument on an injective von Neumann algebra is approximated by CP instruments with the NEP. The concept of posterior states is also discussed to show that the NEP is equivalent to the existence of a strongly measurable family of posterior states for every normal state. Two examples of CP instruments without the NEP are obtained from this result. It is thus concluded that in local quantum physics not every CP instrument represents a measuring process, but in most of physically relevant cases every CP instrument can be realized by a measuring process within arbitrary error limits, as every approximately finite dimensional von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is injective. To conclude the paper, the concept of local measurement in algebraic quantum field theory is examined in our framework. In the setting of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts and Doplicher-Roberts theory describing local excitations, we show that an instrument on a local algebra can be extended to a local instrument on the global algebra if and only if it is a CP instrument with the NEP, provided that the split property holds for the net of local algebras.
The Physics of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
Choi, K K
1999-01-01
In the past, infrared imaging has been used exclusively for military applications. In fact, it can also be useful in a wide range of scientific and commercial applications. However, its wide spread use was impeded by the scarcity of the imaging systems and its high cost. Recently, there is an emerging infrared technology based on quantum well intersubband transition in III-V compound semiconductors. With the new technology, these impedances can be eliminated and a new era of infrared imaging is in sight. This book is designed to give a systematic description on the underlying physics of the ne
The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2016-01-01
Using the simplest possible quantum system--the qubit--the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous "TPT" article and in a…
The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2016-01-01
Using the simplest possible quantum system--the qubit--the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous "TPT" article and in a…
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
2015-01-01
Most introductory quantum physics instructors would agree that transitioning students from classical to quantum thinking is an important learning goal, but may disagree on whether or how this can be accomplished. Although (and perhaps because) physicists have long debated the physical interpretation of quantum theory, many instructors choose to…
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
2015-01-01
Most introductory quantum physics instructors would agree that transitioning students from classical to quantum thinking is an important learning goal, but may disagree on whether or how this can be accomplished. Although (and perhaps because) physicists have long debated the physical interpretation of quantum theory, many instructors choose to…
BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension
Logan, David
2004-05-01
To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly
Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
2010-01-01
The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of…
Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics
Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.
2012-01-01
This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…
Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics
Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.
2012-01-01
This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…
Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
2010-01-01
The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of…
Teaching and understanding of quantum interpretations in modern physics courses
Noah D. Finkelstein; Charles Baily
2010-01-01
Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics courses recently taught at the University of Colorado, and examine associated impacts on student perspectives regarding quantum physics. We find studen...
Photonic dark matter portal and quantum physics
Alavi, S A
2016-01-01
To identify the nature and properties of dark matter is one of the most serious open problems in modern physics. We study a model of dark matter in which the hidden sector interacts with ordinary matter (standard model particles) via photonic portal(hidden photonic portal). We search for the effects of this new interaction in quantum physics, therefore we study its effects on hydrogen atom because it is a simple and a well-studied quantum system so it can be considered as an outstanding test for dark matter signatures. Using the accuracy of the measurement of energy, we obtain an upper bound for the coupling constant of the model. We also calculate the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of muon due to the hidden photonic portal. At the moment there is a deviation between the standard model prediction for muon anomalous magnetic moment and its experimental value so the anomalous magnetic moment of muon can provide an important test of the standard model and the theories beyond it.
Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing
Bartlett, Stephen D.
2016-08-01
Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63
The Knight of the Quantum: On the Contribution of D.I. Blokhintsev to Quantum Physics
Kuzemsky, A. L.
2008-01-01
A concise survey of the contribution of D.I. Blokhintsev to the quantum physics, including solid state physics, physics of metals, surface physics, statistical physics and optics is given. These achievements have been considered in the context of modern development of these fields of physics.
Non-selfadjoint operators in quantum physics mathematical aspects
Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Szafraniec, Franciszek Hugon; Znojil, Miloslav
2015-01-01
A unique discussion of mathematical methods with applications to quantum mechanics Non-Selfadjoint Operators in Quantum Physics: Mathematical Aspects presents various mathematical constructions influenced by quantum mechanics and emphasizes the spectral theory of non-adjoint operators. Featuring coverage of functional analysis and algebraic methods in contemporary quantum physics, the book discusses recent emergence of the unboundedness of metric operators, which is a serious issue in the study of parity-time-symmetric quantum mechanics. The book also answers mathematical questions that are currently the subject of rigorous analysis, with potentially significant physical consequences. In addition to prompting a discussion of the role of mathematical methods in the contemporary development of quantum physics, the book features: * Chapter contributions written by well-known mathematical physicists who clarify numerous misunderstandings and misnomers while shedding light on new approaches in this growing area *...
Exceptional quantum geometry and particle physics
Dubois-Violette, Michel
2016-11-01
Based on an interpretation of the quark-lepton symmetry in terms of the unimodularity of the color group SU (3) and on the existence of 3 generations, we develop an argumentation suggesting that the "finite quantum space" corresponding to the exceptional real Jordan algebra of dimension 27 (the Euclidean Albert algebra) is relevant for the description of internal spaces in the theory of particles. In particular, the triality which corresponds to the 3 off-diagonal octonionic elements of the exceptional algebra is associated to the 3 generations of the Standard Model while the representation of the octonions as a complex 4-dimensional space C ⊕C3 is associated to the quark-lepton symmetry (one complex for the lepton and 3 for the corresponding quark). More generally it is suggested that the replacement of the algebra of real functions on spacetime by the algebra of functions on spacetime with values in a finite-dimensional Euclidean Jordan algebra which plays the role of "the algebra of real functions" on the corresponding almost classical quantum spacetime is relevant in particle physics. This leads us to study the theory of Jordan modules and to develop the differential calculus over Jordan algebras (i.e. to introduce the appropriate notion of differential forms). We formulate the corresponding definition of connections on Jordan modules.
Exceptional quantum geometry and particle physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Dubois-Violette
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Based on an interpretation of the quark–lepton symmetry in terms of the unimodularity of the color group SU(3 and on the existence of 3 generations, we develop an argumentation suggesting that the “finite quantum space” corresponding to the exceptional real Jordan algebra of dimension 27 (the Euclidean Albert algebra is relevant for the description of internal spaces in the theory of particles. In particular, the triality which corresponds to the 3 off-diagonal octonionic elements of the exceptional algebra is associated to the 3 generations of the Standard Model while the representation of the octonions as a complex 4-dimensional space C⊕C3 is associated to the quark–lepton symmetry (one complex for the lepton and 3 for the corresponding quark. More generally it is suggested that the replacement of the algebra of real functions on spacetime by the algebra of functions on spacetime with values in a finite-dimensional Euclidean Jordan algebra which plays the role of “the algebra of real functions” on the corresponding almost classical quantum spacetime is relevant in particle physics. This leads us to study the theory of Jordan modules and to develop the differential calculus over Jordan algebras (i.e. to introduce the appropriate notion of differential forms. We formulate the corresponding definition of connections on Jordan modules.
Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin; Yavas, Pervin Ünlü
2017-01-01
The aim of this study is to identify the opinions of pre-service physics teachers about the difficulties in introductory quantum physics topics. In this study conducted with twenty-five pre-service physics teachers, the case study method was used. The participants were interviewed about introductory quantum physics topics. The interviews were…
Quantum dynamics as a physical resource
Nielsen, M A; Dodd, J L; Gilchrist, A; Mortimer, D; Osborne, T J; Bremner, M J; Harrow, A W; Hines, A; Nielsen, Michael A.; Dawson, Christopher M.; Dodd, Jennifer L.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Mortimer, Duncan; Osborne, Tobias J.; Bremner, Michael J.; Harrow, Aram W.; Hines, Andrew
2003-01-01
How useful is a quantum dynamical operation for quantum information processing? Motivated by this question we investigate several strength measures quantifying the resources intrinsic to a quantum operation. We develop a general theory of such strength measures, based on axiomatic considerations independent of state-based resources. The power of this theory is demonstrated with applications to quantum communication complexity, quantum computational complexity, and entanglement generation by unitary operations.
Cognitive Mapping of Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.
Mashhadi, Azam; Woolnough, Brian
This paper presents findings from a study that investigated students' understanding of quantum phenomena and focused on how students incorporate the ideas of quantum physics into their overall cognitive framework. The heuristic metaphor of the map is used to construct graphic representations of students' understanding of quantum physics. The…
Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation
Bae, Joonwoo
2017-10-01
In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.
Quantum Chaos in Physical Systems: from Super Conductors to Quarks
Bittner, Elmar; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer
2001-01-01
This article is the written version of a talk delivered at the Bexbach Colloquium of Science 2000 and starts with an introduction into quantum chaos and its relationship to classical chaos. The Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture is formulated and evaluated within random-matrix theory. Several examples of physical systems exhibiting quantum chaos ranging from nuclear to solid state physics are presented. The presentation concludes with recent research work on quantum chromodynamics and the qua...
Process Physics From Quantum Foam to General Relativity
Cahill, R T
2002-01-01
Progress in the new information-theoretic process physics is reported in which the link to the phenomenology of general relativity is made. In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic (or internal or relational) information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Previous progress in process physics included the demonstration that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergen...
Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2013-05-20
We propose an efficient protocol for optimizing the physical implementation of three-qubit quantum error correction with spatially separated quantum dot spins via virtual-photon-induced process. In the protocol, each quantum dot is trapped in an individual cavity and each two cavities are connected by an optical fiber. We propose the optimal quantum circuits and describe the physical implementation for correcting both the bit flip and phase flip errors by applying a series of one-bit unitary rotation gates and two-bit quantum iSWAP gates that are produced by the long-range interaction between two distributed quantum dot spins mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity. The protocol opens promising perspectives for long distance quantum communication and distributed quantum computation networks.
Exploring quantum physics through hands-on projects
Prutchi, David
2012-01-01
Build an intuitive understanding of the principles behind quantum mechanics through practical construction and replication of original experiments With easy-to-acquire, low-cost materials and basic knowledge of algebra and trigonometry, Exploring Quantum Physics through Hands-on Projects takes readers step by step through the process of re-creating scientific experiments that played an essential role in the creation and development of quantum mechanics. From simple measurements of Planck's constant to testing violations of Bell's inequalities using entangled photons, Exploring Quantum Physics through Hands-on Projects not only immerses readers in the process of quantum mechanics, it provides insight into the history of the field--how the theories and discoveries apply to our world not only today, but also tomorrow. By immersing readers in groundbreaking experiments that can be performed at home, school, or in the lab, this first-ever, hands-on book successfully demystifies the world of quantum physics for...
Hermann Weyl's Phenomenological Contribution to Quantum Physics
Mastrobisi, Giorgio J.
On examining carefully Weyl's writings one realizes that the great mathematician from Göttingen in his researches follows the programmatic scheme of the binomial of "wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis" (scientific Knowledge) and "philosophische Besinnung" (philosophical Reflection). In 1954 in a retrospective writing he affirmed: «The formulation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Laws of Gravitation, valid in this context and corroborated by experimental proofs turning to experience, constitute a method which combines "Wesenanalyse" with "mathematische Konstruktion" of convincing and excellent exemplarity». This conviction has conducted him to a close collaboration with A. Einstein (documented by punctual correspondence) for the decisive formulation of the "General Theory of Relativity", but also of the Theory of unified Field of Gravitation and Electromagnetism and therefore the following formulation of some fundamental principles of Quantum Physics. So Weyl's theoretical formation was marked by the devotion toward a mathematical formalization ("mathematische Konstruktion") of physical phenomena, reporting each of them to the causal structure of the "mathematical thinking" and geometry, contemporarely to a strong inclination toward the phenomenological "Analysis of essence". He brings really a notable quantity of considerations in that 1954 essay by the point of view of the decisive role that the "pure Phenomenology" of Edmund Husserl developed in the determination of his scientific activity.
Links between quantum physics and thought.
Robson, Barry
2009-01-01
Quantum mechanics (QM) provides a variety of ideas that can assist in developing Artificial Intelligence for healthcare, and opens the possibility of developing a unified system of Best Practice for inference that will embrace both QM and classical inference. Of particular interest is inference in the hyperbolic-complex plane, the counterpart of the normal i-complex plane of basic QM. There are two reasons. First, QM appears to rotate from i-complex Hilbert space to hyperbolic-complex descriptions when observations are made on wave functions as particles, yielding classical results, and classical laws of probability manipulation (e.g. the law of composition of probabilities) then hold, whereas in the i-complex plane they do not. Second, i-complex Hilbert space is not the whole story in physics. Hyperbolic complex planes arise in extension from the Dirac-Clifford calculus to particle physics, in relativistic correction thereby, and in regard to spinors and twisters. Generalization of these forms resemble grammatical constructions and promote the idea that probability-weighted algebraic elements can be used to hold dimensions of syntactic and semantic meaning. It is also starting to look as though when a solution is reached by an inference system in the hyperbolic-complex, the hyperbolic-imaginary values disappear, while conversely hyperbolic-imaginary values are associated with the un-queried state of a system and goal seeking behavior.
Quantum entanglement in random physical states
Hamma, Alioscia; Zanardi, Paolo
2011-01-01
Most states in the Hilbert space are maximally entangled. This fact has proven useful to investigate - among other things - the foundations of statistical mechanics. Unfortunately, most states in the Hilbert space of a quantum many body system are not physically accessible. We define physical ensembles of states by acting on random factorized states by a circuit of length k of random and independent unitaries with local support. This simulates an evolution for finite time k generated by a local (time-dependent) Hamiltonian. We apply group theoretic methods to study these statistical ensemble. In particular, we study the typicality of entanglement by means of the purity of the reduced state. We find that for a time k=O(1) the typical purity obeys the area law, while for a time k \\sim O(L) the purity obeys a volume law, with L the linear size of the system. Moreover, we show that for large values of k the reduced state becomes very close to the completely mixed state.
Santos, Emilio
2012-01-01
It is stressed the advantage of a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics providing a physical model of the quantum world. After some critical comments on the most popular interpretations, the difficulties for a model are pointed out and possible solutions proposed. In particular the existence of discrete states, the quantum jumps, the alleged lack of objective properties, measurement theory, the probabilistic character of quantum physics, the wave-particle duality and the Bell inequalities are commented. It is conjectured that an intuitive picture of the quantum world could be obtained compatible with the quantum predictions for actual experiments, although maybe incompatible with alleged predictions for ideal, unrealizable, experiments.
Design of Quantum Algorithms Using Physics Tools
2014-06-02
spin chains, the development of a novel quantum money scheme, a study of quantum interactive proof systems , research on Hamiltonians on graphs...in the Hamiltonians . The states of a quantum spin chain are naturally represented in the Matrix Product States (MPS) framework. Using imaginary time...worked on a wide range of topics with some common themes related by the study of quantum Hamiltonians . Ground state properties of Hamiltonians and the
Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics
Baily, Charles
2011-01-01
The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of physics concepts, and to inform how we might teach traditional content. Our previous investigations of student perspectives on quantum physics have indicated they can be highly nuanced, and may vary both within and across contexts. In order to better understand the contextual and often seemingly contradictory stances of students on matters of interpretation, we interviewed 19 students from four introductory modern physics courses taught at the University of Colorado. We find that students have attitudes and opinions that often parallel the stances of expert physicists when arguing for their favored interpretations of quantum mechanics, allowing for more nuanced characteriz...
Scattering and structures essentials and analogies in quantum physics
Povh, Bogdan
2017-01-01
Quantum physics may appear complicated, especially if one forgets the "big picture" and gets lost in the details. However, it can become clearer and less tangled if one applies a few fundamental concepts so that simplified approaches can emerge and estimated orders of magnitude become clear. Povh and Rosina’s Scattering and Structures presents the properties of quantum systems (elementary particles, nucleons, atoms, molecules, quantum gases, quantum liquids, stars, and early universe) with the help of elementary concepts and analogies between these seemingly different systems. In this new edition, sections on quantum gases and an up to date overview of elementary particles have been added.
Recovering the quantum formalism from physically realist axioms.
Auffèves, Alexia; Grangier, Philippe
2017-03-03
We present a heuristic derivation of Born's rule and unitary transforms in Quantum Mechanics, from a simple set of axioms built upon a physical phenomenology of quantization. This approach naturally leads to the usual quantum formalism, within a new realistic conceptual framework that is discussed in details. Physically, the structure of Quantum Mechanics appears as a result of the interplay between the quantized number of "modalities" accessible to a quantum system, and the continuum of "contexts" that are required to define these modalities. Mathematically, the Hilbert space structure appears as a consequence of a specific "extra-contextuality" of modalities, closely related to the hypothesis of Gleason's theorem, and consistent with its conclusions.
Quantum monadology: a consistent world model for consciousness and physics.
Nakagomi, Teruaki
2003-04-01
The NL world model presented in the previous paper is embodied by use of relativistic quantum mechanics, which reveals the significance of the reduction of quantum states and the relativity principle, and locates consciousness and the concept of flowing time consistently in physics. This model provides a consistent framework to solve apparent incompatibilities between consciousness (as our interior experience) and matter (as described by quantum mechanics and relativity theory). Does matter have an inside? What is the flowing time now? Does physics allow the indeterminism by volition? The problem of quantum measurement is also resolved in this model.
Open quantum physics and environmental heat conversion into usable energy
Stefanescu, Eliade
2014-01-01
A Quantum system can be viewed as a larger closed system comprising of two components: an open quantum system and its surrounding environment. These two components interact with each other, and in the realm of theoretical physics, this interaction cannot be neglected. This eBook A Quantum system can be viewed as a larger closed system comprising of two components: an open quantum system and its surrounding environment. These two components interact with each other, and in the realm of theoretical physics, this interaction cannot be neglected. This eBook explains mathematical and statistical co
Meixner, Uwe
2014-01-01
Quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a non-physicalistic metaphysics. Whereas physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, quantum physics is compatible with non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics.
Interpretive Themes in Quantum Physics: Curriculum Development and Outcomes
Baily, Charles
2011-01-01
A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our prior work has shown that student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics can be characterized, and are differentially influenced by the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. We report how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) has positively impacted student perspectives on quantum physics, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of the course, but also by making the beliefs of students (and not just those of scientists) an explicit topic of discussion.
Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics
Almasy, Andrea A
2009-01-01
The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, als...
Are quantum-mechanical-like models possible, or necessary, outside quantum physics?
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2014-12-01
This article examines some experimental conditions that invite and possibly require recourse to quantum-mechanical-like mathematical models (QMLMs), models based on the key mathematical features of quantum mechanics, in scientific fields outside physics, such as biology, cognitive psychology, or economics. In particular, I consider whether the following two correlative features of quantum phenomena that were decisive for establishing the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics play similarly important roles in QMLMs elsewhere. The first is the individuality and discreteness of quantum phenomena, and the second is the irreducibly probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning them, coupled to the particular character of the probabilities involved, as different from the character of probabilities found in classical physics. I also argue that these features could be interpreted in terms of a particular form of epistemology that suspends and even precludes a causal and, in the first place, realist description of quantum objects and processes. This epistemology limits the descriptive capacity of quantum theory to the description, classical in nature, of the observed quantum phenomena manifested in measuring instruments. Quantum mechanics itself only provides descriptions, probabilistic in nature, concerning numerical data pertaining to such phenomena, without offering a physical description of quantum objects and processes. While QMLMs share their use of the quantum-mechanical or analogous mathematical formalism, they may differ by the roles, if any, the two features in question play in them and by different ways of interpreting the phenomena they considered and this formalism itself. This article will address those differences as well.
Simulating Zeno physics by a quantum quench with superconducting circuits
Tong, Qing-Jun; An, Jun-Hong; Kwek, L. C.; Luo, Hong-Gang; Oh, C. H.
2014-06-01
Studying out-of-equilibrium physics in quantum systems under quantum quench is of vast experimental and theoretical interest. Using periodic quantum quenches, we present an experimentally accessible scheme to simulate the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in an open quantum system of a single superconducting qubit interacting with an array of transmission line resonators. The scheme is based on the following two observations: First, compared with conventional systems, the short-time nonexponential decay in our superconducting circuit system is readily observed; and second, a quench-off process mimics an ideal projective measurement when its time duration is sufficiently long. Our results show the active role of quantum quench in quantum simulation and control.
Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures
Huang, Xiaofei
2013-01-01
This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem
Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures
Huang, Xiaofei
2015-01-01
This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem
International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics
Xie, Shengwu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan
2000-01-01
Since the advent of the laser about 40 years ago, the field of laser physics and quantum optics have evolved into a major discipline. The early studies included the optical coherence theory and the semiclassical and quantum mechanical theories of the laser. More recently many new and interesting effects have been predicted. These include the role of coherent atomic effects in lasing without inversion and electromagnetically induced transparency, atom optics, laser cooling and trapping, teleportation, the single-atom micromaser and its role in quantum measurement theory, to name a few. The International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics was held in Shanghai from August 25 to August 28, 1999, to discuss these and many other exciting developments in laser physics and quantum optics. The international character of the conference was manifested by the fact that scientists from over 13 countries participated and lectured at the conference. There were four keynote lectures delivered by Nobel laureate Wi...
Compendium of quantum physics concepts, experiments, history and philosophy
Hentschel, Klaus; Weinert, Friedel
2009-01-01
With contributions by many of today's leading quantum physicists, philosophers and historians, including three Nobel laureates, this comprehensive A to Z of quantum physics provides a lucid understanding of the key concepts of quantum theory and experiment. It covers technical and interpretational aspects alike, and includes both traditional topics and newer areas such as quantum information and its relatives. The central concepts that have shaped contemporary understanding of the quantum world are clearly defined, with illustrations where helpful, and discussed at a level suitable for undergraduate and graduate students of physics, history of science, and philosophy of physics. All articles share three main aims: (1) to provide a clear definition and understanding of the term concerned; (2) where possible, to trace the historical origins of the concept; and (3) to provide a small but optimal selection of references to the most relevant literature, including pertinent historical studies. Also discussed are th...
Quantum-like behavior without quantum physics I : Kinematics of neural-like systems.
Selesnick, S A; Rawling, J P; Piccinini, Gualtiero
2017-07-13
Recently there has been much interest in the possible quantum-like behavior of the human brain in such functions as cognition, the mental lexicon, memory, etc., producing a vast literature. These studies are both empirical and theoretical, the tenets of the theory in question being mainly, and apparently inevitably, those of quantum physics itself, for lack of other arenas in which quantum-like properties are presumed to obtain. However, attempts to explain this behavior on the basis of actual quantum physics going on at the atomic or molecular level within some element of brain or neuronal anatomy (other than the ordinary quantum physics that underlies everything), do not seem to survive much scrutiny. Moreover, it has been found empirically that the usual physics-like Hilbert space model seems not to apply in detail to human cognition in the large. In this paper we lay the groundwork for a theory that might explain the provenance of quantum-like behavior in complex systems whose internal structure is essentially hidden or inaccessible. The approach is via the logic obeyed by these systems which is similar to, but not identical with, the logic obeyed by actual quantum systems. The results reveal certain effects in such systems which, though quantum-like, are not identical to the kinds of quantum effects found in physics. These effects increase with the size of the system.
Quantum simulations with photons and polaritons merging quantum optics with condensed matter physics
2017-01-01
This book reviews progress towards quantum simulators based on photonic and hybrid light-matter systems, covering theoretical proposals and recent experimental work. Quantum simulators are specially designed quantum computers. Their main aim is to simulate and understand complex and inaccessible quantum many-body phenomena found or predicted in condensed matter physics, materials science and exotic quantum field theories. Applications will include the engineering of smart materials, robust optical or electronic circuits, deciphering quantum chemistry and even the design of drugs. Technological developments in the fields of interfacing light and matter, especially in many-body quantum optics, have motivated recent proposals for quantum simulators based on strongly correlated photons and polaritons generated in hybrid light-matter systems. The latter have complementary strengths to cold atom and ion based simulators and they can probe for example out of equilibrium phenomena in a natural driven-dissipative sett...
The Second Law and Quantum Physics
Bennett, Charles H.
2008-08-01
In this talk, I discuss the mystery of the second law and its relation to quantum information. There are many explanations of the second law, mostly satisfactory and not mutually exclusive. Here, I advocate quantum mechanics and quantum information as something that, through entanglement, helps resolve the paradox or the puzzle of the origin of the second law. I will discuss the interpretation called quantum Darwinism and how it helps explain why our world seems so classical, and what it has to say about the permanence or transience of information. And I will discuss a simple model illustrating why systems away from thermal equilibrium tend to be more complicated.
Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
2010-01-01
Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…
How to teach quantum physics to your dog
Orzel, Chad
2010-01-01
In this international bestseller, Orzel explains the key theories of quantum physics, taking his dog Emmy's anarchic behaviour as a starting point. Could she use quantum tunnelling to get through the neighbour's fence? How about diffracting round a tree to chase squirrels? From quarks and gluons to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, this is a uniquely entertaining way to unlock the secrets of the universe.
Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
2010-01-01
Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…
From Dualism to Unity in Quantum Physics
Landé, Alfred
2016-02-01
Preface; Introduction; 1. Causality, chance, continuity; 2. States, observables, probabilities; 3. The metric law of probabilities; 4. Quantum dynamics; 5. Quantum fact and fiction; Retrospect. From dualism to unity, from positivism to realism; Appendix 1. Survey of elementary postulates; Appendix 2. Two problems of uniqueness; References; Index.
Quantum physics: Photons paired with phonons
Blencowe, Miles
2016-02-01
The force exerted by light on an object has been used to pair photons with quantum units of mechanical vibration. This paves the way for mechanical oscillators to act as interfaces between photons and other quantum systems. See Letter p.313
Quantum Physics A First Encounter Interference, Entanglement, and Reality
Scarani, Valerio
2006-01-01
The essential features of quantum physics, largely debated since its discovery, are presented in this book, through the description (without mathematics) of recent experiments. Putting the accent on physical phenomena, this book clarifies the historical issues (delocalisation, interferences) and reaches out to modern topics (quantum cryptography, non-locality and teleportation); the debate on interpretations is serenely reviewed. - ;Quantum physics is often perceived as a weird and abstract theory, which physicists must use in order to make correct predictions. But many recent experiments have shown that the weirdness of the theory simply mirrors the weirdness of phenomena: it is Nature itself, and not only our description of it, that behaves in an astonishing way. This book selects those, among these typical quantum phenomena, whose rigorous description requires neither the formalism, nor an important. background in physics. The first part of the book deals with the phenomenon of single-particle interference...
Quantum potential physics, geometry and algebra
Licata, Ignazio
2014-01-01
Recently the interest in Bohm realist interpretation of quantum mechanics has grown. The important advantage of this approach lies in the possibility to introduce non-locality ab initio, and not as an “unexpected host”. In this book the authors give a detailed analysis of quantum potential, the non-locality term and its role in quantum cosmology and information. The different approaches to the quantum potential are analysed, starting from the original attempt to introduce a realism of particles trajectories (influenced by de Broglie’s pilot wave) to the recent dynamic interpretation provided by Goldstein, Durr, Tumulka and Zanghì, and the geometrodynamic picture, with suggestion about quantum gravity. Finally we focus on the algebraic reading of Hiley and Birkbeck school, that analyse the meaning of the non-local structure of the world, bringing important consequences for the space, time and information concepts.
International Conference on Quantum Mathematical Physics : a Bridge between Mathematics and Physics
Kleiner, Johannes; Röken, Christian; Tolksdorf, Jürgen
2016-01-01
Quantum physics has been highly successful for more than 90 years. Nevertheless, a rigorous construction of interacting quantum field theory is still missing. Moreover, it is still unclear how to combine quantum physics and general relativity in a unified physical theory. Attacking these challenging problems of contemporary physics requires highly advanced mathematical methods as well as radically new physical concepts. This book presents different physical ideas and mathematical approaches in this direction. It contains a carefully selected cross-section of lectures which took place in autumn 2014 at the sixth conference ``Quantum Mathematical Physics - A Bridge between Mathematics and Physics'' in Regensburg, Germany. In the tradition of the other proceedings covering this series of conferences, a special feature of this book is the exposition of a wide variety of approaches, with the intention to facilitate a comparison. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in fu...
Beyond Quantum Theory: A Realist Psychobiological Interpretation of Physical Reality
Conrad, Michael; Josephson, Brian
2016-01-01
Stapp and others have proposed that reality involves a fundamental life process, or creative process. It is shown how this process description may be unified with the description that derives from quantum physics. The methods of the quantum physicist and of the biological sciences are seen to be two alternative approaches to the understanding of nature, involving two distinct modes of description which can usefully supplement each other, and neither on its own contains the full story. The unified view explains the major features of quantum mechanics and suggests that biological systems may function more effectively than would be expected on the basis of quantum mechanics alone.
Computational physics simulation of classical and quantum systems
Scherer, Philipp O J
2017-01-01
This textbook presents basic numerical methods and applies them to a large variety of physical models in multiple computer experiments. Classical algorithms and more recent methods are explained. Partial differential equations are treated generally comparing important methods, and equations of motion are solved by a large number of simple as well as more sophisticated methods. Several modern algorithms for quantum wavepacket motion are compared. The first part of the book discusses the basic numerical methods, while the second part simulates classical and quantum systems. Simple but non-trivial examples from a broad range of physical topics offer readers insights into the numerical treatment but also the simulated problems. Rotational motion is studied in detail, as are simple quantum systems. A two-level system in an external field demonstrates elementary principles from quantum optics and simulation of a quantum bit. Principles of molecular dynamics are shown. Modern bounda ry element methods are presented ...
Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits.
You, J Q; Nori, Franco
2011-06-29
Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence and can behave like artificial atoms. Recent technological advances have made it possible to implement atomic-physics and quantum-optics experiments on a chip using these artificial atoms. This Review presents a brief overview of the progress achieved so far in this rapidly advancing field. We not only discuss phenomena analogous to those in atomic physics and quantum optics with natural atoms, but also highlight those not occurring in natural atoms. In addition, we summarize several prospective directions in this emerging interdisciplinary field.
Quantum Chaos in Physical Systems from Super Conductors to Quarks
Bittner, E; Pullirsch, R; Bittner, Elmar; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer
2001-01-01
This article is the written version of a talk delivered at the Bexbach Colloquium of Science 2000 and starts with an introduction into quantum chaos and its relationship to classical chaos. The Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture is formulated and evaluated within random-matrix theory. Several examples of physical systems exhibiting quantum chaos ranging from nuclear to solid state physics are presented. The presentation concludes with recent research work on quantum chromodynamics and the quark-gluon plasma. In the case of a chemical potential the eigenvalue spectrum becomes complex and one has to deal with non-Hermitian random-matrix theory.
Transnational Quantum: Quantum Physics in India through the Lens of Satyendranath Bose
Banerjee, Somaditya
2016-08-01
This paper traces the social and cultural dimensions of quantum physics in colonial India where Satyendranath Bose worked. By focusing on Bose's approach towards the quantum and his collaboration with Albert Einstein, I argue that his physics displayed both the localities of doing science in early twentieth century India as well as a cosmopolitan dimension. He transformed the fundamental new concept of the light quantum developed by Einstein in 1905 within the social and political context of colonial India. This cross-pollination of the local with the global is termed here as the locally rooted cosmopolitan nature of Bose's science. The production of new knowledge through quantum statistics by Bose show the co-constructed nature of physics and the transnational nature of the quantum.
Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge
Nazarov, Yuli V.
2016-08-01
Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a long-standing theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58
Attention, Intention and Will in Quantum Physics
Stapp, Henry P
1999-01-01
The need for a self-observing quantum system to pose questions leads to a tripartite quantum process involving a Schroedinger process that is local deterministic, a Heisenberg process that poses the question, and a Dirac process that picks the answer. In the classical limit where Planck's constant is set to zero these three processes reduce to one single deterministic classical process: the fine structure wherein lies the effect of mind upon matter is obliterated.
Refined characterization of student perspectives on quantum physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Baily
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of physics concepts, and to inform how we might teach traditional content. Our previous investigations of student perspectives on quantum physics have indicated they can be highly nuanced, and may vary both within and across contexts. In order to better understand the contextual and often seemingly contradictory stances of students on matters of interpretation, we interviewed 19 students from four introductory modern physics courses taught at the University of Colorado. We find that students have attitudes and opinions that often parallel the stances of expert physicists when arguing for their favored interpretations of quantum mechanics, allowing for more nuanced characterizations of student perspectives in terms of three key interpretive themes. We present a framework for characterizing student perspectives on quantum mechanics, and demonstrate its utility in interpreting the sometimes contradictory nature of student responses to previous surveys. We further find that students most often vacillate in their responses when what makes intuitive sense to them is not in agreement with what they consider to be a correct response, underscoring the need to distinguish between the personal and the public perspectives of introductory modern physics students.
Physical quantities and dimensional analysis: from mechanics to quantum gravity
Trancanelli, Diego
2015-01-01
Physical quantities and physical dimensions are among the first concepts encountered by students in their undergraduate career. In this pedagogical review, I will start from these concepts and, using the powerful tool of dimensional analysis, I will embark in a journey through various branches of physics, from basic mechanics to quantum gravity. I will also discuss a little bit about the fundamental constants of Nature, the so-called "cube of Physics", and the natural system of units.
Inverse problems in classical and quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almasy, A.A.
2007-06-29
The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. Despite a concentrated effort by physicists extending over many years, an understanding of QCD from first principles continues to be elusive. Fortunately, data continues to appear which provide a rather direct probe of the inner workings of the strong interactions. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. EIT is a technology developed to image the electrical conductivity distribution of a conductive medium. The technique works by performing simultaneous measurements of direct or alternating electric currents and voltages on the boundary of an object. These are the data used by an image reconstruction algorithm to determine the electrical conductivity distribution within the object. In this thesis, two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A
Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics
Dutt, Amit
2011-01-01
This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…
Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Comprehension of Quantum Mechanical Concepts
Didis, Nilufer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoc, Sakir
2010-01-01
When quantum theory caused a paradigm shift in physics, it introduced difficulties in both learning and teaching of physics. Because of its abstract, counter-intuitive and mathematical structure, students have difficulty in learning this theory, and instructors have difficulty in teaching the concepts of the theory. This case study investigates…
Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Comprehension of Quantum Mechanical Concepts
Didis, Nilufer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoc, Sakir
2010-01-01
When quantum theory caused a paradigm shift in physics, it introduced difficulties in both learning and teaching of physics. Because of its abstract, counter-intuitive and mathematical structure, students have difficulty in learning this theory, and instructors have difficulty in teaching the concepts of the theory. This case study investigates…
Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics
Dutt, Amit
2011-01-01
This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…
50 quantum physics ideas you really need to know
Baker, Joanne
2013-01-01
Following on from the highly successful 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know, author Joanne Baker consolidates the foundation concepts of physics and moves on to present clear explanations of the most cutting-edge area of science: quantum physics. With 50 concise chapters covering complex theories and their advanced applications - from string theory to black holes, and quarks to quantum computing - alongside informative two-colour illustrations, this book presents key ideas in straightforward, bite-sized chunks. Ideal for the layperson, this book will challenge the way you understand the world. The ideas explored include: Theory of relativity; Schrodinger's cat; Nuclear forces: fission and fusion; Antimatter; Superconductivity.
One hundred years of quantum physics.
Kleppner, D; Jackiw, R
2000-08-11
This year marks the 100th anniversary of Max Planck's creation of the quantum concept, an idea so revolutionary that it took nearly 30 years for scientists to develop it into the theory that has transformed the way scientists view reality. In this month's essay, Daniel Kleppner and Roman Jackiw recount how quantum theory, which they rate as "the most precisely tested and most successful theory in the history of science," came to be, how it changed the world, and how it might continue to evolve to make the dream of ultimate understanding of the universe come true.
On some links between quantum physics and gravitation
Ilyin, Aleksey V
2016-01-01
It is widely believed that quantum gravity effects are negligible in a conventional laboratory experiment because quantum gravity should play its role only at a distance of about Planck's length ($\\sim10^{-33}$ cm). Sometimes that is not the case as shown in this article. We discuss two new ideas about quantum physics connections with gravity. First, the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect relation to quantum gravity is examined. Second, it is shown that the very existence of gravitons is an inevitable consequence of quantum statistics. Moreover, since the Bose-Einstein statistics is a special case of Compound Poisson Distribution, it predicts the existence of an infinite family of high-spin massless particles that should be involved in gravitational interaction.
The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics.
Briggs, G A D; Butterfield, J N; Zeilinger, A
2013-09-08
The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics-relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment.
Recovering the quantum formalism from physically realist axioms
Auffèves, Alexia; Grangier, Philippe
2017-01-01
We present a heuristic derivation of Born’s rule and unitary transforms in Quantum Mechanics, from a simple set of axioms built upon a physical phenomenology of quantization. This approach naturally leads to the usual quantum formalism, within a new realistic conceptual framework that is discussed in details. Physically, the structure of Quantum Mechanics appears as a result of the interplay between the quantized number of “modalities” accessible to a quantum system, and the continuum of “contexts” that are required to define these modalities. Mathematically, the Hilbert space structure appears as a consequence of a specific “extra-contextuality” of modalities, closely related to the hypothesis of Gleason’s theorem, and consistent with its conclusions. PMID:28256539
Scattering and Structures Essentials and Analogies in Quantum Physics
Povh, Bogdan
2005-01-01
Quantum physics may appear complicated, especially if one forgets the "big picture" and gets lost in the details. However, it can become clearer and less tangled if one applies a few fundamental concepts so that simplified approaches can emerge and estimated orders of magnitude become clear. Povh and Rosina’s "Scattering and Structures" presents the properties of quantum systems (elementary particles, nucleons, atoms, molecules, quantum gases, quantum liquids, stars, and early universe) with the help of elementary concepts and analogies between these seemingly different systems. The original German-language edition of this book was written for students preparing for their final oral examination in physics. By and large, the scope of the book in English has been essentially enlarged and thus will also be of interest for physicists in general.
Baily, Charles
2014-01-01
Most introductory quantum physics instructors would agree that transitioning students from classical to quantum thinking is an important learning goal, but may disagree on whether or how this can be accomplished. Although (and perhaps because) physicists have long debated the interpretation of quantum theory, many instructors choose to avoid emphasizing interpretive themes; or they discuss the views of scientists but do not adequately attend to student interpretations. This paper provides evidence-based arguments for an instructional approach that explicitly integrates the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics into introductory modern physics courses. In this synthesis and extension of prior work, we demonstrate: (1) instructors vary in their approaches to teaching interpretive themes; (2) specific instructional approaches can have significant impacts on student thinking; (3) when student interpretations go unattended, they often develop their own (sometimes scientifically undesirable) views; and (4) e...
Quantum physics and linguistics a compositional, diagrammatic discourse
Grefenstette, Edward; Heunen, Chris
2013-01-01
New scientific paradigms typically consist of an expansion of the conceptual language with which we describe the world. Over the past decade, theoretical physics and quantum information theory have turned to category theory to model and reason about quantum protocols. This new use of categorical and algebraic tools allows a more conceptual and insightful expression of elementary events such as measurements, teleportation and entanglement operations, that were obscured in previous formalisms.
Non-Commutative Geometry, Categories and Quantum Physics
Bertozzini, Paolo; Lewkeeratiyutkul, Wicharn
2008-01-01
After an introduction to some basic issues in non-commutative geometry (Gel'fand duality, spectral triples), we present a "panoramic view" of the status of our current research program on the use of categorical methods in the setting of A.Connes' non-commutative geometry: morphisms/categories of spectral triples, categorification of Gel'fand duality. We conclude with a summary of the expected applications of "categorical non-commutative geometry" to structural questions in relativistic quantum physics: (hyper)covariance, quantum space-time, (algebraic) quantum gravity.
On the Physical Explanation for Quantum Computational Speedup
Cuffaro, Michael E
2013-01-01
The aim of this dissertation is to clarify the debate over the explanation of quantum speedup and to submit a tentative resolution to it. In particular, I argue that the physical explanation for quantum speedup is precisely the fact that the phenomenon of quantum entanglement enables a quantum computer to fully exploit the representational capacity of Hilbert space. This is impossible for classical systems, joint states of which must always be representable as product states. Chapter 2 begins with a discussion of the most popular of the candidate physical explanations for quantum speedup: the many worlds explanation. I argue that unlike the neo-Everettian interpretation of quantum mechanics it does not have the conceptual resources required to overcome the `preferred basis objection'. I further argue that the many worlds explanation, at best, can serve as a good description of the physical process which takes place in so-called network-based computation, but that it is incompatible with other models of comput...
Understanding quantum physics; Verstehen in der Quantenphysik
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spillner, Vera
2011-07-01
This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)
Classical and quantum physics of hydrogen clusters.
Mezzacapo, Fabio; Boninsegni, Massimo
2009-04-22
We present results of a comprehensive theoretical investigation of the low temperature (T) properties of clusters of para-hydrogen (p-H(2)), both pristine as well as doped with isotopic impurities (i.e., ortho-deuterium, o-D(2)). We study clusters comprising up to N = 40 molecules, by means of quantum simulations based on the continuous-space Worm algorithm. Pristine p-H(2) clusters are liquid-like and superfluid in the [Formula: see text] limit. The superfluid signal is uniform throughout these clusters; it is underlain by long cycles of permutation of molecules. Clusters with more than 22 molecules display solid-like, essentially classical behavior at temperatures down to T∼1 K; some of them are seen to turn liquid-like at sufficiently low T (quantum melting).
Decision theory and information propagation in quantum physics
Forrester, Alan
In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule p k =| ψ k | 2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decision-theoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 3129-3137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415-438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts circularity. Deutsch and Wallace assume that the many worlds theory is true and that decoherence gives rise to a preferred basis. However, decoherence arguments use the reduced density matrix, which relies upon the partial trace and hence upon the Born rule for its validity. Using the Heisenberg picture and quantum Darwinism-the notion that classical information is quantum information that can proliferate in the environment pioneered in Ollivier et al. [(2004). Objective properties from subjective quantum states: Environment as a witness. Physical Review Letters, 93, 220401 and (2005). Environment as a witness: Selective proliferation of information and emergence of objectivity in a quantum universe. Physical Review A, 72, 042113]-I show that measurement interactions between two systems only create correlations between a specific set of commuting observables of system 1 and a specific set of commuting observables of system 2. This argument picks out a unique basis in which information flows in the correlations between those sets of commuting observables. I then derive the Born rule for both pure and mixed states and answer some other criticisms of the decision theoretic approach to quantum probability.
Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students
Schneider, Mark B.
2010-01-01
The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For…
The role of quantum measurements in physical processes and protocols
Cruikshank, Benjamin; Jacobs, Kurt
2017-09-01
In this mainly pedagogical article, we discuss under what circumstances measurements play a special role in quantum processes. In particular, we discuss the following facts that appear to be a common area of confusion. (i) From a fundamental point of view, measurements play no special role whatsoever: all dynamics that can be generated by measurements can be generated by unitary processes (for which post-selection is no exception). (ii) From a purely physical point of view, measurements are not ‘outside’ of quantum mechanics. (iii) The only difference between the abilities of measurement-based protocols and unitary circuits for quantum computing comes from practical (technology dependent) constraints. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between differences that are (i) fundamental but without physical import; (ii) fundamental and possess physical import; and (iii) are not fundamental but have practical import. We also emphasise the importance of separating theoretical and experimental elements of measurement, primarily projection and amplification, which are physically very different. Note that since we are concerned with facts regarding physical processes, this article has little if anything to do with interpretations of quantum mechanics.
The geometric phase in quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bohm, A.
1993-03-01
After an explanatory introduction, a quantum system in a classical time-dependent environment is discussed; an example is a magnetic moment in a classical magnetic field. At first, the general abelian case is discussed in the adiabatic approximation. Then the geometric phase for nonadiabatic change of the environment (Anandan--Aharonov phase) is introduced, and after that general cyclic (nonadiabatic) evolution is discussed. The mathematics of fiber bundles is introduced, and some of its results are used to describe the relation between the adiabatic Berry phase and the geometric phase for general cyclic evolution of a pure state. The discussion is restricted to the abelian, U(1) phase.
Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.
Dudziak, Martin Joseph
Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain
The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics
Briggs, G. A. D.; Butterfield, J. N.; Zeilinger, A.
2013-01-01
The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics—relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626
Hamiltonian and physical Hilbert space in polymer quantum mechanics
Corichi, A; Zapata, R J A; Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose A.
2006-01-01
In this paper, a version of polymer quantum mechanics, which is inspired by loop quantum gravity, is considered and shown to be equivalent, in a precise sense, to the standard, experimentally tested, Schroedinger quantum mechanics. The kinematical cornerstone of our framework is the so called polymer representation of the Heisenberg-Weyl (H-W) algebra, which is the starting point of the construction. The dynamics is constructed as a continuum limit of effective theories characterized by a scale, and requires a renormalization of the inner product. The result is a physical Hilbert space in which the continuum Hamiltonian can be represented and that is unitarily equivalent to the Schroedinger representation of quantum mechanics. As a concrete implementation of our formalism, the simple harmonic oscillator is fully developed.
Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing
Université de Genève
2011-01-01
Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...
Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics
Jun, Ni
2014-01-01
This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...
Relational time in quantum physics; Relationale Zeit in der Quantenphysik
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoge, Marc Oliver
2008-12-15
In this diploma thesis a relational and intrinsic description of the external time parameter in non-relativistic quantum mechanics is given using two separate methods. Firstly, the dynamics of a system is expressed in terms of a collection of physical observables, so called ''clock'' variables, which are themselves part of the system. In particular it is studied how the position of one particle can be used as a ''clock'' for parameterising the motion of another particle. Secondly, a formal generalisation is developed which implements time as a physical observable into quantum mechanics. This leads to a formalism which is more general than the ''clock'' variable approach. Using this formalism a novel analysis of a particular problem in quantum cosmology is carried out. (orig.)
The infamous boundary seven decades of controversy in quantum physics
Wick, David
1995-01-01
reprinted in the British trade journal Physics World in 1990, three separate and 5 lengthy replies from establishment physicists were printed in subsequent issues. For outsiders, especially scientists who rely on physicist's theories in their own fields, this situation is disquieting. Moreover, many recall their introduction to quantum mechanics as a startling, if not shocking, experience. A molecular biologist related how he had started in theoretical physics but, after hearing the ideology of quantum mechanics, marched straight to the Reg istrar's office and switched fields. A colleague recalled how her undergraduate chemistry professor religiously entertained queries from the class - until one day he began with the words: "No questions will be permitted on today's lecture." The topic, of course, was quantum mechanics. My father, an organic chemist at a Midwestern university, also had to give that dreaded annual lecture. Around age 16, I picked up a little book he used to prepare and was perplexed by the ...
Theoretical physics 7 quantum mechanics : methods and applications
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to methods and applications in quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the understanding of quantized states further on. The first part of the book introduces the quantum theory of angular momentum and approximation methods. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes multiple particle systems and scattering theory. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in the basics of quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this seri...
Presenting particle physics and quantum mechanics to the general public
Strauss, J
2015-01-01
The job of a physicist is to describe Nature. General features, hypotheses and theories help to describe physics phenomena at a more abstract, fundamental level, and are sometimes tacitly assigned some sort of real existence; doing so appears to be of little harm in most of classical physics. However, missing any tangible connection to everyday experience, one better always bears in mind the descriptive nature of any efforts to grasp the quantum. And elementary particles interact in the quantum world, of course. When communicating the world of elementary particles to the general public, the Bayesian approach of an ever ongoing updating of the depiction of reality turns out to be virtually indispensable. The human experience of providing a series of increasingly better descriptions generates plenty of personal pleasures, for researchers as well as for amateurs. A suggestive analogy for improving our understanding of the world, even the seemingly paradoxical quantum world, may be found in recent insight into ho...
Time Symmetric Quantum Mechanics and Causal Classical Physics ?
Bopp, Fritz W.
2017-02-01
A two boundary quantum mechanics without time ordered causal structure is advocated as consistent theory. The apparent causal structure of usual "near future" macroscopic phenomena is attributed to a cosmological asymmetry and to rules governing the transition between microscopic to macroscopic observations. Our interest is a heuristic understanding of the resulting macroscopic physics.
Quantum Physics and Mental Health Counseling: The Time Is...!
Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bennett, Matt
1999-01-01
Introduces a new framework of mental health counseling based on quantum physics. The framework stresses systemic thinking and intervention, interdependence, and the importance of adopting a novel perspective about time, space, reality, and change. This framework has the potential of modifying mental health counseling practice and training. Offers…
A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes
Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas
2016-01-01
A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…
Electron-hole quantum physics in ZnO
Versteegh, M.A.M.
2011-01-01
This dissertation describes several new aspects of the quantum physics of electrons and holes in zinc oxide (ZnO), including a few possible applications. Zinc oxide is a II-VI semiconductor with a direct band gap in the ultraviolet. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed, both on b
Electron-hole quantum physics in ZnO
Versteegh, M.A.M.
2011-01-01
This dissertation describes several new aspects of the quantum physics of electrons and holes in zinc oxide (ZnO), including a few possible applications. Zinc oxide is a II-VI semiconductor with a direct band gap in the ultraviolet. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed, both on b
Time Symmetric Quantum Mechanics and Causal Classical Physics
Bopp, Fritz W
2016-01-01
A two boundary quantum mechanics without time ordered causal structure is advocated as consistent theory. The apparent causal structure of usual "near future" macroscopic phenomena is attributed to a cosmological asymmetry and to rules governing the transition between microscopic to macroscopic observations. Our interest is a heuristic understanding of the resulting macroscopic physics.
A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes
Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas
2016-01-01
A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…
Exceptional quantum geometry and particle physics
Dubois-Violette, Michel
2016-01-01
Based on an interpretation of the quark-lepton symmetry in terms of the unimodularity of the color group $SU(3)$ and on the existence of 3 generations, we develop an argumentation suggesting that the "finite quantum space" corresponding to the exceptional real Jordan algebra of dimension 27 (the Euclidean Albert algebra) is relevant for the description of internal spaces in the theory of particles. In particular, the triality which corresponds to the 3 off-diagonal octonionic elements of the exceptional algebra is associated to the 3 generations of the Standard Model while the representation of the octonions as a complex 4-dimensional space $\\mathbb C\\oplus\\mathbb C^3$ is associated to the quark-lepton symmetry, (one complex for the lepton and 3 for the corresponding quark). More generally it is is suggested that the replacement of the algebra of real functions on spacetime by the algebra of functions on spacetime with values in a finite-dimensional Euclidean Jordan algebra which plays the role of "the algebr...
The pivotal role of causality in local quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroer, Bert [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
1999-04-01
In this article an attempt is made to present very recent conceptual and computational developments in QFT as new manifestation of old well established physical principles. The vehicle for converting the quantum-algebraic aspects of local quantum physics into more classical geometric structures is the modular theory of Tomita. As the above named laureate together with his collaborator showed for the first time, in sufficient generality, its use in physics goes through Einstein causality. This line of research recently gained momentum when it was realized that it is not only of great structural and conceptual innovative power (see section 4), but also promises a new computational road into nonperturbative QFT (section 5) which, picturesquely speaking, enters the subject on the extreme opposite (noncommutative) side relative to (Lagrangian) quantization. (author)
Bao, Lei; Redish, Edward F.
2002-01-01
Explains the critical role of probability in making sense of quantum physics and addresses the difficulties science and engineering undergraduates experience in helping students build a model of how to think about probability in physical systems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)
Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics
Adams, P. J.
1983-01-01
In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.
Thirty years that shook physics the story of quantum theory
Gamow, George A
1966-01-01
""Dr. Gamow, physicist and gifted writer, has sketched an intriguing portrait of the scientists and clashing ideas that made the quantum revolution."" - Christian Science MonitorIn 1900, German physicist Max Planck postulated that light, or radiant energy, can exist only in the form of discrete packages or quanta. This profound insight, along with Einstein's equally momentous theories of relativity, completely revolutionized man's view of matter, energy, and the nature of physics itself.In this lucid layman's introduction to quantum theory, an eminent physicist and noted popularizer of scien
Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics
Adams, P. J.
1983-01-01
In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.
Photon physics: from wave mechanics to quantum electrodynamics
Keller, Ole
2009-05-01
When rewritten in an appropriate manner, the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations appear as a wave-mechanical theory for photons, and their quantum physical interaction with matter. A natural extension leads from photon wave mechanics to quantum electrodynamics (QED). In its modern formulation photon wave mechanics has given us valuable new insight in subjects such as spatial photon localization, near-field photon dynamics, transverse photon mass, photon eikonal theory, photon tunneling, and rim-zone electrodynamics. The present review is based on my plenary lecture at the SPIE-Europe 2009 Optics and Optoelectronics International Symposium in Prague.
Thirty years that shook physics the story of quantum theory
Gamow, George
1985-01-01
""Dr. Gamow, physicist and gifted writer, has sketched an intriguing portrait of the scientists and clashing ideas that made the quantum revolution."" - Christian Science MonitorIn 1900, German physicist Max Planck postulated that light, or radiant energy, can exist only in the form of discrete packages or quanta. This profound insight, along with Einstein's equally momentous theories of relativity, completely revolutionized man's view of matter, energy, and the nature of physics itself.In this lucid layman's introduction to quantum theory, an eminent physicist and noted popularizer of scien
Foundations of quantum mechanics an exploration of the physical meaning of quantum theory
Norsen, Travis
2017-01-01
Authored by an acclaimed teacher of quantum physics and philosophy, this textbook pays special attention to the aspects that many courses sweep under the carpet. Traditional courses in quantum mechanics teach students how to use the quantum formalism to make calculations. But even the best students - indeed, especially the best students - emerge rather confused about what, exactly, the theory says is going on, physically, in microscopic systems. This supplementary textbook is designed to help such students understand that they are not alone in their confusions (luminaries such as Albert Einstein, Erwin Schroedinger, and John Stewart Bell having shared them), to sharpen their understanding of the most important difficulties associated with interpreting quantum theory in a realistic manner, and to introduce them to the most promising attempts to formulate the theory in a way that is physically clear and coherent. The text is acces sible to students with at least one semester of prior exposure to quantum (or...
Edge physics of the quantum spin Hall insulator from a quantum dot excited by optical absorption.
Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E
2014-04-11
The gapless edge modes of the quantum spin Hall insulator form a helical liquid in which the direction of motion along the edge is determined by the spin orientation of the electrons. In order to probe the Luttinger liquid physics of these edge states and their interaction with a magnetic (Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot that is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a power-law singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the quantum spin Hall edge.
Quantum Information in Non-physics Departments at Liberal Arts Colleges
Westmoreland, Michael
2012-02-01
Quantum information and quantum computing have changed our thinking about the basic concepts of quantum physics. These fields have also introduced exciting new applications of quantum mechanics such as quantum cryptography and non-interactive measurement. It is standard to teach such topics only to advanced physics majors who have completed coursework in quantum mechanics. Recent encounters with teaching quantum cryptography to non-majors and a bout of textbook-writing suggest strategies for teaching this interesting material to those without the standard quantum mechanics background. This talk will share some of those strategies.
Space-based research in fundamental physics and quantum technologies
Turyshev, S G; Shao, M; Yu, N; Kusenko, A; Wright, E L; Everitt, C W F; Kasevich, M A; Lipa, J A; Mester, J C; Reasenberg, R D; Walsworth, R L; Ashby, N; Gould, H; Paik, H -J
2007-01-01
Space-based experiments today can uniquely address important questions related to the fundamental laws of Nature. In particular, high-accuracy physics experiments in space can test relativistic gravity and probe the physics beyond the Standard Model; they can perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for precision investigations in cosmology and astroparticle physics. In addition, atomic physics has recently shown substantial progress in the development of optical clocks and atom interferometers. If placed in space, these instruments could turn into powerful high-resolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current status of space-based research in fundamental physics, its discovery potential, and its importance for modern science. We offer a set of recommendations to be considered by the upcoming National Academy of Sciences' Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics. In our opinion, the Decadal Survey should include space-based research ...
Cybernetical Physics From Control of Chaos to Quantum Control
Fradkov, Alexander L
2007-01-01
The control of complex systems is one of the most important aspects in dealing with systems exhibiting nonlinear behaviour or similar features that defy traditional control techniques. This specific subject is gradually becoming known as cybernetical physics, borrowing methods from both theoretical physics and control engineering. This book is, perhaps, the first attempt to present a unified exposition of the subject and methodology of cybernetical physics as well as solutions to some of its problems. Emphasis of the book is on the examination of fundamental limits on energy transformation by means of control procedures in both conservative and dissipative systems. A survey of application in physics includes the control of chaos, synchronisation of coupled oscillators, pendulum chains, reactions in physical chemistry and of quantum systems such as the dissociation of diatomic molecules. This book has been written having researchers from various backgrounds in physics, mathematics and engineering in mind and i...
Na\\"ive Physics and Quantum Mechanics: The Cognitive Bias of Everett's Many-Worlds Interpretation
Lang, Andrew Sid
2016-01-01
We discuss the role that intuitive theories of physics play in the interpretation of quantum mechanics. We compare and contrast na\\"ive physics with quantum mechanics and argue that quantum mechanics is not just hard to understand but that it is difficult to believe, often appearing magical in nature. Quantum mechanics is often discussed in the context of "quantum weirdness" and quantum entanglement is known as "spooky action at a distance." This spookiness is more than just because quantum mechanics doesn't match everyday experience; it ruffles the feathers of our na\\"ive physics cognitive module. In Everett's many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, we preserve a form of deterministic thinking that can alleviate some of the perceived weirdness inherent in other interpretations of quantum mechanics, at the cost of having the universe split into parallel worlds at every quantum measurement. By examining the role cognitive modules play in interpreting quantum mechanics, we conclude that the many-worlds...
Beyond quantum probability: another formalism shared by quantum physics and psychology.
Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V
2013-06-01
There is another meeting place for quantum physics and psychology, both within and outside of cognitive modeling. In physics it is known as the issue of classical (probabilistic) determinism, and in psychology it is known as the issue of selective influences. The formalisms independently developed in the two areas for dealing with these issues turn out to be identical, opening ways for mutually beneficial interactions.
Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers - Physics and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther
2004-01-01
This thesis describes the physics and applications of quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers based on numerical simulations. These devices possess a number of unique properties compared with other types of semiconductor amplifiers, which should allow enhanced performance of semiconductor...... devices in communication systems in the future. The basic properties of quantum dot devices are investigated, especially regarding the potential of realizing amplification and signal processing without introducing pattern dependence. Also the gain recovery of a single short pulse is modeled...... and an explanation for the fast gain recovery observed experimentally is given. The properties of quantum dot amplifiers operating in the linear regime are investigated. The devices are predicted to show high device gain, high saturated output power, and low noise figure, resulting in a performance, that in some...
Barnes, Marianne B.; Garner, James; Reid, David
2004-01-01
In this article we use the pendulum as the vehicle for discussing the transition from classical to quantum physics. Since student knowledge of the classical pendulum can be generalized to all harmonic oscillators, we propose that a quantum analysis of the pendulum can lead students into the unanticipated consequences of quantum phenomena at the…
Barnes, Marianne B.; Garner, James; Reid, David
2004-01-01
In this article we use the pendulum as the vehicle for discussing the transition from classical to quantum physics. Since student knowledge of the classical pendulum can be generalized to all harmonic oscillators, we propose that a quantum analysis of the pendulum can lead students into the unanticipated consequences of quantum phenomena at the…
Semiotic aspects of quantum physics; Semiotische Aspekte der Quantenphysik
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Januschke, Eugen
2010-07-01
By means of semiotics it is studied, how it succeeds in quantum physics to make formulas plausible, the basic physical facts of which are not accessible for a common understanding respectively an understanding in the sense of classical physics. Thereby it deals with a generally acknowledged kind of making understandable of certain physical formulas beyond the individual marking distinctly of abilities of explaining and understanding of social phenomena and historical developments, whereby to these formulas each a certain experiment is put on side. The experiment is thereby such chosen that the physical phenomenon, which is described in the formula, is studied in the experiment, so that the formula then results as evaluation of the experiment.
Tales of the quantum understanding physics' most fundamental theory
Hobson, Art
2017-01-01
Everybody has heard that we live in a world made of atoms. But far more fundamentally, we live in a universe made of quanta. Many things are not made of atoms: light, radio waves, electric current, magnetic fields, Earth's gravitational field, not to mention exotica such a neutron stars, black holes, dark energy, and dark matter. But everything, including atoms, is made of highly unified or "coherent" bundles of energy called "quanta" that (like everything else) obey certain rules. In the case of the quantum, these rules are called "quantum physics." This is a book about quanta and their unexpected, some would say peculiar, behavior--tales, if you will, of the quantum. The quantum has developed the reputation of being capricious, bewildering, even impossible to understand. The peculiar habits of quanta are certainly not what we would have expected to find at the foundation of physical reality, but these habits are not necessarily bewildering and not at all impossible or paradoxical. This book explains those h...
Baily, Charles
2011-01-01
A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wav...
Randomness in Quantum Mechanics: Philosophy, Physics and Technology
Bera, Manabendra Nath; Kuś, Marek; Mitchell, Morgan; Lewenstein, Maciej
2016-01-01
This progress report covers recent developments in the area of quantum randomness, which is an extraordinarily interdisciplinary area that belongs not only to physics, but also to philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and technology. For this reason the article contains three parts that will be essentially devoted to different aspects of quantum randomness, and even directed, although not restricted, to various audiences: a philosophical part, a physical part, and a technological part. For these reasons the article is written on an elementary level, combining very elementary and non-technical descriptions with a concise review of more advanced results. In this way readers of various provenances will be able to gain while reading the article.
Wess, J; Physics Enrico Fermi : Quantum Groups and their Applications in Physics
1996-01-01
This book focuses on quantum groups, i.e., continuous deformations of Lie groups, and their applications in physics. These algebraic structures have been studied in the last decade by a growing number of mathematicians and physicists, and are found to underlie many physical systems of interest. They do provide, in fact, a sort of common algebraic ground for seemingly very different physical problems. As it has happened for supersymmetry, the q-group symmetries are bound to play a vital role in physics, even in fundamental theories like gauge theory or gravity. In fact q-symmetry can be considered itself as a generalization of supersymmetry, evident in the q-commutator formulation. The hope that field theories on q-groups are naturally reguralized begins to appear founded, and opens new perspectives for quantum gravity. The topics covered in this book include: conformal field theories and quantum groups, gauge theories of quantum groups, anyons, differential calculus on quantum groups and non-commutative geome...
A proposed physical analog for a quantum probability amplitude
Boyd, Jeffrey
What is the physical analog of a probability amplitude? All quantum mathematics, including quantum information, is built on amplitudes. Every other science uses probabilities; QM alone uses their square root. Why? This question has been asked for a century, but no one previously has proposed an answer. We will present cylindrical helices moving toward a particle source, which particles follow backwards. Consider Feynman's book QED. He speaks of amplitudes moving through space like the hand of a spinning clock. His hand is a complex vector. It traces a cylindrical helix in Cartesian space. The Theory of Elementary Waves changes direction so Feynman's clock faces move toward the particle source. Particles follow amplitudes (quantum waves) backwards. This contradicts wave particle duality. We will present empirical evidence that wave particle duality is wrong about the direction of particles versus waves. This involves a paradigm shift; which are always controversial. We believe that our model is the ONLY proposal ever made for the physical foundations of probability amplitudes. We will show that our ``probability amplitudes'' in physical nature form a Hilbert vector space with adjoints, an inner product and support both linear algebra and Dirac notation.
Ensembles of physical states and random quantum circuits on graphs
Hamma, Alioscia; Zanardi, Paolo
2012-01-01
In this paper we continue and extend the investigations of the ensembles of random physical states introduced in A. Hamma et al arXiv:1109.4391. These ensembles are constructed by finite-length random quantum circuits (RQC) acting on (hyper)edges of an underlying (hyper)graph structure. The latter encodes for the locality structure associated with finite-time quantum evolutions generated by physical i.e., local, Hamiltonians. Our goal is to analyze physical properties of typical states in these ensembles, in particular here we focus on proxies of quantum entanglement as purity and $\\alpha$-Renyi entropies. The problem is formulated in terms of matrix elements of superoperators which depend on the graph structure, choice of probability measure over the local unitaries and circuit length. In the $\\alpha=2$ case these superoperators act on a restricted multi-qubit space generated by permutation operators associated to the subsets of vertices of the graph. For permutationally invariant interactions the dynamics c...
Quantum generations: a history of physics in the twentieth century
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rechenberg, H
2000-11-01
Full text: The author attempts to handle the most important physics development of the twentieth century, namely that of quantum theory, in one, not too bulky, volume. This heroic task is split into 29 chapters, each treating a topic that forms a well defined subpart of the big theme embracing quantum theory itself (and also some of its companions), and the experimental discoveries, technology, sociology and science politics connected with it. The contents of Part One cover roughly the first twenty years of the century. There are also chapters on the introduction of the quantum of action and atomic constitution, on discharge in gases, low-temperature research and the interaction of science with industrial and military affairs in World War I. Part Two, leading up to the Hiroshima bomb, includes, beyond such central chapters as the rise of nuclear physics, quantum field theory and the physical and philosophical interpretation of quantum mechanics, further accounts of the Eddington-Milne cosmology, physics in the dictatorial regimes of National Socialism, Fascism and Stalinism, and the intellectual immigration during the 1930s into the USA. Part Three brings the story up to the end of the century, embracing great topics like nuclear energy, Big Science (i.e. physics in military and civil projects), fundamental particle theories up to speculations about 'grand unification', quantum electronics, or the increasingly hostile attitude toward science in the past 30 years. The short Part Four contains two chapters on a century in retrospect, which was really the century of physics. An enormous amount of material has been addressed in this book, and one wonders how one person can say anything reasonable about all these topics. The overall organization and the selection of chapters appears to be well planned and carried out quite successfully. In this reviewer's opinion, some chapters, e.g. on Dirac's theoretical work or cosmology (on which the author has
Franceschetti, Donald R; Gire, Elizabeth
2013-06-01
Quantum probability theory offers a viable alternative to classical probability, although there are some ambiguities inherent in transferring the quantum formalism to a less determined realm. A number of physicists are now looking at the applicability of quantum ideas to the assessment of physics learning, an area particularly suited to quantum probability ideas.
Fundamentals of physics II electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics
Shankar, R
2016-01-01
R. Shankar, a well-known physicist and contagiously enthusiastic educator, was among the first to offer a course through the innovative Open Yale Course program. His popular online video lectures on introductory physics have been viewed over a million times. In this second book based on his online Yale course, Shankar explains essential concepts, including electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. The book begins at the simplest level, develops the basics, and reinforces fundamentals, ensuring a solid foundation in the principles and methods of physics. It provides an ideal introduction for college-level students of physics, chemistry, and engineering; for motivated AP Physics students; and for general readers interested in advances in the sciences.
Physics on all scales. Scalar-tensor theories of quantum gravity in particle physics and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henz, Tobias
2016-05-10
In this thesis, we investigate dilaton quantum gravity using a functional renormalization group approach. We derive and discuss flow equations both in the background field approximation and using a vertex expansion as well as solve the fixed point equations globally to show how realistic gravity, connecting ultraviolet and infrared physics, can be realized on a pure fixed point trajectory by virtue of spontaneous breaking of scale invariance. The emerging physical system features a dynamically generated moving Planck scale resembling the Newton coupling as well as slow roll inflation with an exponentially decreasing effective cosmological constant that vanishes completely in the infrared. The moving Planck scale might make quantum gravity experimentally accessible at a different energy scale than previously believed. We therefore not only provide further evidence for the existence of a consistent quantum theory of gravity based on general relativity, but also offer potential solutions towards the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems, thereby opening up exciting opportunities for further research.
Becchi, Carlo Maria
2016-01-01
This is the third edition of a well-received textbook on modern physics theory. This book provides an elementary but rigorous and self-contained presentation of the simplest theoretical framework that will meet the needs of undergraduate students. In addition, a number of examples of relevant applications and an appropriate list of solved problems are provided.Apart from a substantial extension of the proposed problems, the new edition provides more detailed discussion on Lorentz transformations and their group properties, a deeper treatment of quantum mechanics in a central potential, and a closer comparison of statistical mechanics in classical and in quantum physics. The first part of the book is devoted to special relativity, with a particular focus on space-time relativity and relativistic kinematics. The second part deals with Schrödinger's formulation of quantum mechanics. The presentation concerns mainly one-dimensional problems, but some three-dimensional examples are discussed in detail. The third...
On the fundamental role of dynamics in quantum physics
Hofmann, Holger F.
2016-05-01
Quantum theory expresses the observable relations between physical properties in terms of probabilities that depend on the specific context described by the "state" of a system. However, the laws of physics that emerge at the macroscopic level are fully deterministic. Here, it is shown that the relation between quantum statistics and deterministic dynamics can be explained in terms of ergodic averages over complex valued probabilities, where the fundamental causality of motion is expressed by an action that appears as the phase of the complex probability multiplied with the fundamental constant ħ. Importantly, classical physics emerges as an approximation of this more fundamental theory of motion, indicating that the assumption of a classical reality described by differential geometry is merely an artefact of an extrapolation from the observation of macroscopic dynamics to a fictitious level of precision that does not exist within our actual experience of the world around us. It is therefore possible to completely replace the classical concepts of trajectories with the more fundamental concept of action phase probabilities as a universally valid description of the deterministic causality of motion that is observed in the physical world.
Space-Based Research in Fundamental Physics and Quantum Technologies
Turyshev, Slava G.; Israelsson, Ulf E.; Shao, Michael; Yu, Nan; Kusenko, Alexander; Wright, Edward L.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Kasevich, Mark; Lipa, John A.; Mester, John C.; Reasenberg, Robert D.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Ashby, Neil; Gould, Harvey; Paik, Ho Jung
Space offers unique experimental conditions and a wide range of opportunities to explore the foundations of modern physics with an accuracy far beyond that of ground-based experiments. Space-based experiments today can uniquely address important questions related to the fundamental laws of Nature. In particular, high-accuracy physics experiments in space can test relativistic gravity and probe the physics beyond the Standard Model; they can perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for investigations in precision cosmology and astroparticle physics. In addition, atomic physics has recently shown substantial progress in the development of optical clocks and atom interferometers. If placed in space, these instruments could turn into powerful high-resolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current status of space-based research in fundamental physics, its discovery potential, and its importance for modern science. We offer a set of recommendations to be considered by the upcoming National Academy of Sciences' Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics. In our opinion, the Decadal Survey should include space-based research in fundamental physics as one of its focus areas. We recommend establishing an Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee's interagency "Fundamental Physics Task Force" to assess the status of both ground- and space-based efforts in the field, to identify the most important objectives, and to suggest the best ways to organize the work of several federal agencies involved. We also recommend establishing a new NASA-led interagency program in fundamental physics that will consolidate new technologies, prepare key instruments for future space missions, and build a strong scientific and engineering community. Our goal is to expand NASA's science objectives in space by including "laboratory research in fundamental physics" as an element in the agency's ongoing space research efforts.
Computational physics simulation of classical and quantum systems
Scherer, Philipp O J
2013-01-01
This textbook presents basic and advanced computational physics in a very didactic style. It contains very-well-presented and simple mathematical descriptions of many of the most important algorithms used in computational physics. Many clear mathematical descriptions of important techniques in computational physics are given. The first part of the book discusses the basic numerical methods. A large number of exercises and computer experiments allows to study the properties of these methods. The second part concentrates on simulation of classical and quantum systems. It uses a rather general concept for the equation of motion which can be applied to ordinary and partial differential equations. Several classes of integration methods are discussed including not only the standard Euler and Runge Kutta method but also multistep methods and the class of Verlet methods which is introduced by studying the motion in Liouville space. Besides the classical methods, inverse interpolation is discussed, together with the p...
The physical underpinning of security proofs for quantum key distribution
Boileau, Jean Christian
The dawn of quantum technology unveils a plethora of new possibilities and challenges in the world of information technology, one of which is the quest for secure information transmission. A breakthrough in classical algorithm or the development of a quantum computer could threaten the security of messages encoded using public key cryptosystems based on one-way function such as RSA. Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers an unconditionally secure alternative to such schemes, even in the advent of a quantum computer, as it does not rely on mathematical or technological assumptions, but rather on the universality of the laws of quantum mechanics. Physical concepts associated with quantum mechanics, like the uncertainty principle or entanglement, paved the way to the first successful security proof for QKD. Ever since, further development in security proofs for QKD has been remarkable. But the connection between entanglement distillation and the uncertainty principle has remained hidden under a pile of mathematical burden. Our main goal is to dig the physics out of the new advances in security proofs for QKD. By introducing an alternative definition of private state, which elaborates the ideas of Mayers and Koashi, we explain how the security of all QKD protocols follows from an entropic uncertainty principle. We show explicitly how privacy amplification protocol can be reduced to a private state distillation protocol constructed from our observations about the uncertainty principle. We also derive a generic security proof for one-way permutation-invariant QKD protocols. Considering collective attack, we achieve the same secret key generation rate as the Devetak-Winter's bound. Generalizing an observation from Kraus, Branciard and Renner, we have provided an improved version of the secret key generation rates by considering a different symmetrization. In certain situations, we argue that Azuma's inequality can simplify the security proof considerably, and we explain
Blanchard, Philippe
2015-01-01
The second edition of this textbook presents the basic mathematical knowledge and skills that are needed for courses on modern theoretical physics, such as those on quantum mechanics, classical and quantum field theory, and related areas. The authors stress that learning mathematical physics is not a passive process and include numerous detailed proofs, examples, and over 200 exercises, as well as hints linking mathematical concepts and results to the relevant physical concepts and theories. All of the material from the first edition has been updated, and five new chapters have been added on such topics as distributions, Hilbert space operators, and variational methods. The text is divided into three main parts. Part I is a brief introduction to distribution theory, in which elements from the theories of ultradistributions and hyperfunctions are considered in addition to some deeper results for Schwartz distributions, thus providing a comprehensive introduction to the theory of generalized functions. P...
Causal ubiquity in quantum physics a superluminal and local-causal physical ontology
Neelamkavil, Raphael
2014-01-01
A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly non-causal processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the non-causal. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That
The cosmic code quantum physics as the language of nature
Pagels, Heinz R
2012-01-01
""The Cosmic Code can be read by anyone. I heartily recommend it!"" - The New York Times Book Review""A reliable guide for the nonmathematical reader across the highest ridges of physical theory. Pagels is unfailingly lighthearted and confident."" - Scientific American""A sound, clear, vital work that deserves the attention of anyone who takes an interest in the relationship between material reality and the human mind."" - Science 82This is one of the most important books on quantum mechanics ever written for general readers. Heinz Pagels, an eminent physicist and science writer, discusses and
Tomonaga-Luttinger physics in electronic quantum circuits.
Jezouin, S; Albert, M; Parmentier, F D; Anthore, A; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Safi, I; Pierre, F
2013-01-01
In one-dimensional conductors, interactions result in correlated electronic systems. At low energy, a hallmark signature of the so-called Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids is the universal conductance curve predicted in presence of an impurity. A seemingly different topic is the quantum laws of electricity, when distinct quantum conductors are assembled in a circuit. In particular, the conductances are suppressed at low energy, a phenomenon called dynamical Coulomb blockade. Here we investigate the conductance of mesoscopic circuits constituted by a short single-channel quantum conductor in series with a resistance, and demonstrate a proposed link to Tomonaga-Luttinger physics. We reformulate and establish experimentally a recently derived phenomenological expression for the conductance using a wide range of circuits, including carbon nanotube data obtained elsewhere. By confronting both conductance data and phenomenological expression with the universal Tomonaga-Luttinger conductance curve, we demonstrate experimentally the predicted mapping between dynamical Coulomb blockade and the transport across a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with an impurity.
15th International Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics
Passante, Roberto; Trapani, Camillo
2016-01-01
This book presents the Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics, held in Palermo, Italy, from 18 to 23 May 2015. Non-Hermitian operators, and non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in particular, have recently received considerable attention from both the mathematics and physics communities. There has been a growing interest in non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in quantum physics since the discovery that PT-symmetric Hamiltonians can have a real spectrum and thus a physical relevance. The main subjects considered in this book include: PT-symmetry in quantum physics, PT-optics, Spectral singularities and spectral techniques, Indefinite-metric theories, Open quantum systems, Krein space methods, and Biorthogonal systems and applications. The book also provides a summary of recent advances in pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians and PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, as well as their applications in quantum physics and in the theory of open quantum systems.
A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics
Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.
2007-01-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…
A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics
Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.
2007-01-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…
Quantum physics for dummies. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Quantenphysik fuer Dummies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holzner, Steven
2012-07-01
Quantum physics is a central and fascinating, albeit unpopular by many students theme of physics. Steven Holzner explains understandably and alively, what must be known about quantum physics. He explains the foundations of angular momentum and spin, gives tips how complex equations can be solved. Thereby he works with examples, which he explains extensively.
Dislocations in the Spacetime Continuum: Framework for Quantum Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Millette P. A.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a framework for the physical description of physical processes at the quantum level based on dislocations in the spacetime continuum within STCED (Spacetime Continuum Elastodynamics. In this framework, photon and particle self- energies and interactions are mediated by the strain energy density of the dislocations, replacing the role played by virtual particles in QED. We postulate that the spacetime continuum has a granularity characterized by a length b 0 corresponding to the smallest STC elementary Burgers dislocation-displacement vector. Screw dislocations corre- sponding to transverse displacements are identified with photons, and edge dislocations corresponding to longitudinal displacements are identified with particles. Mixed dislo- cations give rise to wave-particle duality. The strain energy density of the dislocations are calculated and proposed to explain the QED problem of mass renormalization.
Quantum physics in the nanoworld Schrödinger's cat and the dwarfs
Lüth, Hans
2015-01-01
The second edition deals with all essential aspects of non-relativistic quantum physics up to the quantisation of fields. In contrast to common textbooks of quantum mechanics, modern experiments are described both for the purpose of foundation of the theory and in relation to recent applications. Links are made to important research fields and applications such as elementary particle physics, solid state physics and nuclear magnetic resonance in medicine, biology and material science. Special emphasis is paid to quantum physics in nanoelectronics such as resonant tunnelling, Coulomb blockade and the realisation of quantum bits. This second edition also considers quantum transport through quantum point contacts and its application as charge detectors in nanoelectronic circuits. Also the realization and the study of electronic properties of an artificial quantum dot molecule are presented. Because of its recent interest a brief discussion of Bose-Einstein condensation has been included, as well as the rece...
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics
Halpern, Paul
2012-09-01
From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.
Emergence of string-like physics from Lorentz invariance in loop quantum gravity
Gambini, Rodolfo
2014-01-01
We consider a quantum field theory on a spherically symmetric quantum space time described by loop quantum gravity. The spin network description of space time in such a theory leads to equations for the quantum field that are discrete. We show that to avoid significant violations of Lorentz invariance one needs to consider specific non-local interactions in the quantum field theory similar to those that appear in string theory. This is the first sign that loop quantum gravity places restrictions on the type of matter considered, and points to a connection with string theory physics.
Lab-Tutorials for teaching quantum physics (Lab-Tutorials fuer den Quantenphysik Unterricht)
Wittmann, M C
2006-01-01
English abstract: In the "Intuitive Quantum Physics" course, we use graphical interpretations of mathematical equations and qualitative reasoning to develop and teach a simplified model of quantum physics. Our course contains three units: Wave physics, Development of a conceptual toolbox, and quantum physics. It also contains three key themes: wave-particle duality, the Schroedinger equation, and tunneling of quantum particles. Students learn most new material in lab-tutorials in which students work in small groups (3 to 3 people) on specially designed worksheets. Lecture reinforces the lab-tutorial content and focuses more on issues about the nature of science. Data show that students are able to learn some of the most difficult concepts in the course, and also that students learn to believe that there is a conceptually accessible structure to the physics in the course. German abstract: Im Kurs "Intuitive Quantum Physics" werden graphische Interpretationen mathematischer Gleichungen und qualitatives Denken d...
Quantum simulations and many-body physics with light.
Noh, Changsuk; Angelakis, Dimitris G
2017-01-01
In this review we discuss the works in the area of quantum simulation and many-body physics with light, from the early proposals on equilibrium models to the more recent works in driven dissipative platforms. We start by describing the founding works on Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model and the corresponding photon-blockade induced Mott transitions and continue by discussing the proposals to simulate effective spin models and fractional quantum Hall states in coupled resonator arrays (CRAs). We also analyse the recent efforts to study out-of-equilibrium many-body effects using driven CRAs, including the predictions for photon fermionisation and crystallisation in driven rings of CRAs as well as other dynamical and transient phenomena. We try to summarise some of the relatively recent results predicting exotic phases such as super-solidity and Majorana like modes and then shift our attention to developments involving 1D nonlinear slow light setups. There the simulation of strongly correlated phases characterising Tonks-Girardeau gases, Luttinger liquids, and interacting relativistic fermionic models is described. We review the major theory results and also briefly outline recent developments in ongoing experimental efforts involving different platforms in circuit QED, photonic crystals and nanophotonic fibres interfaced with cold atoms.
Quantum simulations and many-body physics with light
Noh, Changsuk; Angelakis, Dimitris G.
2017-01-01
In this review we discuss the works in the area of quantum simulation and many-body physics with light, from the early proposals on equilibrium models to the more recent works in driven dissipative platforms. We start by describing the founding works on Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model and the corresponding photon-blockade induced Mott transitions and continue by discussing the proposals to simulate effective spin models and fractional quantum Hall states in coupled resonator arrays (CRAs). We also analyse the recent efforts to study out-of-equilibrium many-body effects using driven CRAs, including the predictions for photon fermionisation and crystallisation in driven rings of CRAs as well as other dynamical and transient phenomena. We try to summarise some of the relatively recent results predicting exotic phases such as super-solidity and Majorana like modes and then shift our attention to developments involving 1D nonlinear slow light setups. There the simulation of strongly correlated phases characterising Tonks-Girardeau gases, Luttinger liquids, and interacting relativistic fermionic models is described. We review the major theory results and also briefly outline recent developments in ongoing experimental efforts involving different platforms in circuit QED, photonic crystals and nanophotonic fibres interfaced with cold atoms.
QUANTUM PHYSICS and HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – DEFINING THE FIELD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andronicus TORP
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper argues that it is possible, based on the universal principles revealed by Quantum Physics, to construct an energetic profile of a human being, using the ElectroPhotonic Imaging/Gas Discharge Visualisation-camera, where different frequency domains are connected with different clusters of skills, competences, and qualities, and that the amplitude of the energy within these domains indicates how much the specific person manifests these skills, competences, and qualities. Furthermore, this measurement also indicates the persons stress and energy level. In this way it is possible to compare two or more people objectively and quantitatively, which may find use for example in a Recruitment and Selection situation.
Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics
Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato
2016-06-01
We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.
QUANTUM PHYSICS and HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – DEFINING THE FIELD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andronicus TORP
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper argues that it is possible, based on the universal principles revealed by Quantum Physics, to construct an energetic profile of a human being, using the ElectroPhotonic Imaging/Gas Discharge Visualisation-camera, where different frequency domains are connected with different clusters of skills, competences, and qualities, and that the amplitude of the energy within these domains indicates how much the specific person manifests these skills, competences, and qualities. Furthermore, this measurement also indicates the persons stress and energy level. In this way it is possible to compare two or more people objectively and quantitatively, which may find use for example in a Recruitment and Selection situation.
Probing University Students' Pre-Knowledge in Quantum Physics with QPCS Survey
Asikainen, Mervi A.
2017-01-01
The study investigated the use of Quantum Physics Conceptual Survey (QPCS) in probing student understanding of quantum physics. Altogether 103 Finnish university students responded to QPCS. The mean scores of the student responses were calculated and the test was evaluated using common five indices: Item difficulty index, Item discrimination…
Theorems on Estimating Perturbative Coefficients in Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samuel, Mark
2003-06-25
The authors present rigorous proofs for several theorems on using Pade approximants to estimate coefficients in Perturbative Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Physics. As a result, they find new trigonometric and other identities where the estimates based on this approach are exact. They discuss hypergeometric functions, as well as series from both Perturbative Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Physics.
Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neelamkavil, Raphael
2014-07-01
A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.
``Who Thinks Abstractly?'': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2011-03-01
Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, vis-à-vis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantum-mechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of "physical fact" and of the concept of "physical concept," in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features—1) their multi-component multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.
The quantum beat the physical principles of atomic clocks
Major, F G
1998-01-01
One of the indicators of the level of technological development of a society has been, throughout history, the precision of clocks it was able to build. This book examines the physical principles underlying the workings of clocks--from the earliest mechanical clocks to the present-day sophisticated clocks based on the properties of individual atoms. Intended for non-specialists with some knowledge of physics or engineering,the book treats the material in a broad intuitive manner, with a minimum of mathematical formalism. The presentation covers a broad range of salient topics relevant to the measurement of frequency and time intervals. The main focus is on electronic time-keeping: clocks based on quartz crystal oscillators and, at greater length, atomic clocks based on quantum resonance in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen atoms, and, more recently, mercury ions. The book treats the revolutionary changes that the optical laser has wrought on atomic standards through laser cooling and optical pumping, and it disc...
The physical Church-Turing thesis and the principles of quantum theory
Arrighi, Pablo
2011-01-01
Notoriously, quantum computation shatters complexity theory, but is innocuous to computability theory. Yet several works have shown how quantum theory as it stands could breach the physical Church-Turing thesis. We draw a clear line as to when this is the case, in a way that is inspired by Gandy. Gandy formulates postulates about physics, such as homogeneity of space and time, bounded density and velocity of information --- and proves that the physical Church-Turing thesis is a consequence of these postulates. We provide a quantum version of the theorem. Thus this approach exhibits a formal non-trivial interplay between theoretical physics symmetries and computability assumptions.
Quantum theory and the schism in physics from the postscript to the logic of scientific discovery
Popper, Karl Raimund
1982-01-01
Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper's Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The Postscript is the culmination of Popper's work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science.Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is the third volume of the Postscript. It may be read independently, but it also forms part of Popper's interconnected argument in the Postscript. It presents Popper's classic statement on quantum physics a
Condensed-matter physics: Quantum mechanics in a spin
Balents, Leon
2016-12-01
Quantum spin liquids are exotic states of matter first predicted more than 40 years ago. An inorganic material has properties consistent with these predictions, revealing details about the nature of quantum matter. See Letter p.559
Chemical physics: Quantum control of light-induced reactions
Chandler, David W.
2016-07-01
An investigation of how ultracold molecules are broken apart by light reveals surprising, previously unobserved quantum effects. The work opens up avenues of research in quantum optics. See Letter p.122
Quantum physics: Squeezed ions in two places at once
Northup, Tracy
2015-05-01
Experiments on a trapped calcium ion have again exposed the strange nature of quantum phenomena, and could pave the way for sensitive techniques to explore the boundary between the quantum and classical worlds. See Letter p.336
Yes-no experiments and ordered structures in quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garola, C.; Solombrino, L. (Lecce Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)
1983-09-11
We consider the set E of all the yes-no experiments that can be performed on a given physical system and the related posets (E,<=) of the ''effects'' and (L,<=) of the ''propositions'', illustrate by means of examples the relations <= and <= and give counter examples for properties that one might suspect to hold in (E,<=); in particular, we show that Mackey's axiom V does not usually hold either in (E,<=) or in its greatest subposet (E/sub 0/,<=) which can be orthocomplemented with standard methods in quantum logic. Following on the suggestions arising from the examples, we associate with every observable T, by means of the concept of ''efficiency'', a family Esub(T) of yes-no experiments, hence a family Esub(T) of effects parameterized by the Borel fuzzy sets on the real line, and show that the description of the effects by means of operators, which is usual in some axiomatic approaches, can be recovered in standard Hilbert-space quantum theory as an immediate consequence of simple, ''intuitive'' assumptions on E. This description is used in order to explicitly display (possibly in the presence of superselection rules) some properties of the representations of (E,<=) and (L,<=), and the links between some different axiomatic approaches (in particular, Mackey and Piron). Finally, we point out some mathematical properties of the lattice of the operators that describe Esub(T).
Yes-no experiments and ordered structures in quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garola, C.; Solombrino, L. (Lecce Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)
1983-09-11
The set E of all the yes-no experiments that can be performed on a given physical system and the related posets (E, <=) of the 'effects' and (L, '<=') of the propositions are considered. The relations <= and '<=' are illustrated by means of examples, and counterexamples for properties that one might suspect to hold in (E, '<=') are given. In particular it is shown that Mackey's axiom V does not usually hold either in (E, <=) or in its greatest subposet (E/sub 0/, <=) which can be orthocomplemented with standard methods in quantum logic. Following on the suggestions arising from the examples, it is associated with every observable T, by means of the concept of 'efficiency', a family Esub(T) of yes-no experiments, hence a family Esub(T) of effects parametrized by the Borel fuzzy sets on the real line, and it is shown that the description of the effects by means of operators, which is usual in some axiomatic approaches, can be recovered in standard Hilbert-space quantum theory as an immediate consequence of simple, 'intuitive' assumptions on E. This description is used in order to explicitly display (possibly in the presence of superselection rules) some properties of the representations of (E, <=) and (L, '<='), and the links between some different axiomatic approaches (in particular, Mackey and Piron). Finally, some mathematical properties of the lattice of the operators that describe Esub(T) are pointed out.
ReleQuant – Improving teaching and learning in quantum physics through educational design research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berit Bungum
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Quantum physics and relativity are demanding for teachers and students, but have the potential for students to experience physics as fascinating and meaningful. Project ReleQuant engaged in educational design research to improve teaching and learning in these topics in Norwegian upper secondary schools. The paper focuses on the first cycle of development of a teaching module on quantum physics and how design principles were developed. We construct the design principles by reviewing relevant research literature and conducting three pilot studies. The process resulted in the following principles for designing the quantum physics teaching module: 1 clarify how quantum physics breaks with classical physics; 2 use simulations of phenomena that cannot be experienced directly; 3 provide students to use written and oral language; 4 address and discuss wave-particle duality and the uncertainty
A Complete Physical Germanium-on-Silicon Quantum Dot Self-Assembly Process
Alkhatib, Amro; Nayfeh, Ammar
2013-06-01
Achieving quantum dot self-assembly at precise pre-defined locations is of vital interest. In this work, a novel physical method for producing germanium quantum dots on silicon using nanoindentation to pre-define nucleation sites is described. Self-assembly of ordered ~10 nm height germanium quantum dot arrays on silicon substrates is achieved. Due to the inherent simplicity and elegance of the proposed method, the results describe an attractive technique to manufacture semiconductor quantum dot structures for future quantum electronic and photonic applications.
Michelsen, Eric L
2014-01-01
Quirky Quantum Concepts explains the more important and more difficult concepts in theoretical quantum mechanics, especially those which are consistently neglected or confusing in many common expositions. The emphasis is on physical understanding, which is necessary for the development of new, cutting edge science. In particular, this book explains the basis for many standard quantum methods, which are too often presented without sufficient motivation or interpretation. The book is not a simplification or popularization: it is real science for real scientists. Physics includes math, and this book does not shy away from it, but neither does it hide behind it. Without conceptual understanding, math is gibberish. The discussions here provide the experimental and theoretical reasoning behind some of the great discoveries, so the reader may see how discoveries arise from a rational process of thinking, a process which Quirky Quantum Concepts makes accessible to its readers. Quirky Quantum Concepts is therefore a s...
Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.
Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán
2016-06-24
A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed.
Quantum physics in the nanoworld Schrödinger's cat and the dwarfs
Lüth, Hans
2013-01-01
The book deals with all essential aspects of non-relativistic quantum physics up to the quantization of fields. In contrast to common textbooks of quantum mechanics, modern experiments are described both for the purpose of foundation of the theory and in relation to recent applications. In this respect applications to nano-electronics as well as the realization of quantum-bits are presented and discussed. Furthermore, links are made to other important research fields and applications, such as elementary particle physics, solid state physics and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography in medicine. Even though the representation of the topics is largely performed in terms of Dirac´s bra-ket notation and by use of commutator algebra, the concrete description of the physical basis and the corresponding theoretical concepts are emphasized. Because of little requirement of complex mathematics, the book is suitable as an introduction into quantum physics, not only for physicists but also for chemists, biologists, eng...
Quantum rules how the laws of physics explain love, success, and everyday life
Das, Kunal K
2015-01-01
Learn how quantum physics affects your daily life and learn practical ways to put that knowledge to good use! Ever feel guilty that you always seem to seek the easiest and shortest way to accomplish something? And why is it so satisfying to drive along a road hitting every green light as if by magic? The Quantum Rules applies the laws of physics to explain everything from relationships and human nature to the effects of globalization. It achieves the impossible task of making quantum physics deeply relevant to all readerseven those with no interest in science.With a lively
``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Harter, William; Reimer, Tyle
2015-05-01
A ``simplest molecule'' consisting of CW- laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity from poster board - I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and antimatter. Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: ``All colors go c.''
"simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.
2014-06-01
A "simplest molecule" consisting of CW-laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity in Talk I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and anti-matter. *Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: "All colors go c."
Physics of quantum measurement and its interdisciplinary applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morikawa Masahiro
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Quantum dynamics of the collective mode and individual particles on a ring is studied as the simplest model of projective quantum measurement. In this model, the collective mode measures an individual single quantum system. The heart of the model is the wide separation of time scales which yields the distinction of classical and quantum degrees of freedom beyond the standard Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In some restricted cases we derive the Born probability rule. This model is the quantum mechanics version of the effective action method in quantum field theory, which describes the origin of the primordial density fluctuation as classical variables. It turns out that the classical version of this same model successfully describes the dynamics of geomagnetic variation including the polarity flips over 160 million years. The essence of this description is again the coexistence of the wide separated time scales.
Physical Meaning of the Optimum Measurement Process in Quantum Detection Theory
Osaki, Masao; Kozuka, Haruhisa; Hirota, Osamu
1996-01-01
The optimum measurement processes are represented as the optimum detection operators in the quantum detection theory. The error probability by the optimum detection operators goes beyond the standard quantum limit automatically. However the optimum detection operators are given by pure mathematical descriptions. In order to realize a communication system overcoming the standard quantum limit, we try to give the physical meaning of the optimum detection operators.
Many-Body Quantum Electrodynamics Networks: Non-Equilibrium Condensed Matter Physics with Light
Hur, Karyn Le; Henriet, Loïc; Petrescu, Alexandru; Plekhanov, Kirill; Roux, Guillaume; Schiró, Marco
2015-01-01
We review recent developments concerning non-equilibrium quantum dynamics and many-body physics with light, in superconducting circuits and Josephson analogues. We start with quantum impurity models summarizing the effect of dissipation and of driving the system. We mention theoretical and experimental efforts to characterize these non-equilibrium quantum systems. We show how Josephson junction systems can implement the equivalent of the Kondo effect with microwave photons. The Kondo effect i...
Problems and solutions in quantum chemistry and physics
Johnson, Charles S
1988-01-01
Unusually varied problems, with detailed solutions, cover quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, angular momentum, molecular spectroscopy, scattering theory, more. 280 problems, plus 139 supplementary exercises.
Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed. Here we present…
Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed. Here we present…
Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis
2015-01-01
Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…
PREFACE: International Symposium "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics 2011" (nanoPHYS'11)
Saito, Susumu; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaaki
2011-07-01
Quantum physics has developed modern views of nature for more than a century. In addition to this traditional role, quantum physics has acquired new significance in the 21st century as the field responsible for driving and supporting nanoscience research, which will have even greater importance in the future because nanoscience will be the academic foundation for new technologies. The Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, are now conducting a "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics" project (Physics G-COE project) supported by the Global Center of Excellence Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT) in order to promote research and education in these important academic fields. The International Symposium on Nanoscience and Quantum Physics, held in Tokyo, Japan, 26-28 January 2011 (nanoPHYS'11) was organized by the Physics G-COE project of the Tokyo Institute of Technology to provide an international forum for the open exchange of topical information and for stimulating discussion on novel concepts and future prospects of nanoscience and quantum physics. There were a total of 118 papers including 34 invited papers. This nanoPHYS'11 is the fourth symposium of this kind organized by the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Topics focused on in the symposium included: Category 1: Novel nanostructure (Nanowires, Nanotubes, Spin-related structure, etc) Category 2: Novel transport and electronic properties (Graphene, Topological insulators, Coherent control, etc) Category 3: Electronic and optical properties of nanostructure Category 4: Fundamental physics and new concept in quantum physics Category 5: Quantum Physics - Quantum information Category 6: Quantum Physics - Nuclear and Hadron Physics Category 7: Quantum Physics - Astrophysics, etc All the papers submitted to this issue have been reviewed under a stringent refereeing process, according to the normal rules of this Journal. The editors are grateful to all the
Quantum physics in the nanoworld. Schroedinger's cat and the dwarfs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lueth, Hans [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). PGI-9 Semiconductor Nanoelectronics and Juelich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA)
2013-07-01
Gives a step-by-step derivation of the physical basis of quantum mechanics without using complex mathematics. Provides a close linking of experiment and theory. Describes most modern experiments related to nanoscience and to the foundation of quantum theory. Provides appendices describing the preparation of nanostructures and the importance of interface physics for nanoscience. Contains more than 40 problems to deepen the understanding. English language version of a successful German textbook. The book deals with all essential aspects of non-relativistic quantum physics up to the quantization of fields. In contrast to common textbooks of quantum mechanics, modern experiments are described both for the purpose of foundation of the theory and in relation to recent applications. In this respect applications to nano-electronics as well as the realization of quantum-bits are presented and discussed. Furthermore, links are made to other important research fields and applications, such as elementary particle physics, solid state physics and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography in medicine. Even though the representation of the topics is largely performed in terms of Dirac's bra-ket notation and by use of commutator algebra, the concrete description of the physical basis and the corresponding theoretical concepts are emphasized. Because of little requirement of complex mathematics, the book is suitable as an introduction into quantum physics, not only for physicists but also for chemists, biologists, engineers, computer scientists and even for philosophers as far as they are interested in natural philosophy and epistomology.
Understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum hall effect state.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Wei; Crawford, Matthew; Tallakulam, Madhu; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III
2010-10-01
We wish to present in this report experimental results from a one-year Senior Council Tier-1 LDRD project that focused on understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall effect state. We first give a general introduction to the quantum Hall effect, and then present the experimental results on the edge-state transport in a special fractional quantum Hall effect state at Landau level filling {nu} = 5/2 - a possible non-Abelian quantum Hall state. This state has been at the center of current basic research due to its potential applications in fault-resistant topological quantum computation. We will also describe the semiconductor 'Hall-bar' devices we used in this project. Electron physics in low dimensional systems has been one of the most exciting fields in condensed matter physics for many years. This is especially true of quantum Hall effect (QHE) physics, which has seen its intellectual wealth applied in and has influenced many seemingly unrelated fields, such as the black hole physics, where a fractional QHE-like phase has been identified. Two Nobel prizes have been awarded for discoveries of quantum Hall effects: in 1985 to von Klitzing for the discovery of integer QHE, and in 1998 to Tsui, Stormer, and Laughlin for the discovery of fractional QHE. Today, QH physics remains one of the most vibrant research fields, and many unexpected novel quantum states continue to be discovered and to surprise us, such as utilizing an exotic, non-Abelian FQHE state at {nu} = 5/2 for fault resistant topological computation. Below we give a briefly introduction of the quantum Hall physics.
Pykacz, Jarosław
2015-01-01
This Brief presents steps towards elaborating a new interpretation of quantum mechanics based on a specific version of Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic. It begins with a short survey of main interpretations of quantum mechanics already proposed, as well as various models of many-valued logics and previous attempts to apply them for the description of quantum phenomena. The prospective many-valued interpretation of quantum mechanics is soundly based on a theorem concerning the isomorphic representation of Birkhoff-von Neumann quantum logic in the form of a special Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic endowed with partially defined conjunctions and disjunctions.
Tales of the quantum understanding physics' most fundamental theory
Hobson, Art
2016-01-01
This is a book about the quanta that make up our universe--the highly unified bundles of energy of which everything is made. It explains wave-particle duality, randomness, quantum states, non-locality, Schrodinger's cat, quantum jumps, and more, in everyday language for non-scientists and scientists who wish to fathom science's most fundamental theory.
The quantum physics bible the definitive guide to 200 years of subatomic science
Clegg, Brian
2017-01-01
An easy-to-understand guide to the complex subject of quantum physics. Quantum physics is how scientists describe the world of the very small. For other people, however, the rules of quantum physics seem to violate all logic: How can a particle be in more than one place at the same time? How can it tunnel through an impenetrable barrier? How can a cat in a box be both alive and dead? This book explains the complexities of quantum physics in bite-sized "lessons" that make it clear and accessible to all readers. The sections and chapters are: 1. Atoms -- quantum; quantum physics in everyday life; the periodic table; atoms and nuclei; isotopes; hydrogen atom (energy levels and spectra) 2. Photons -- photoelectric effect; thermal emission and the Planck distribution; wave particle duality (Young's slit experiment) 3. Quantum devices -- superconductors; transistor, diode; light-emitting diode; laser 4. Spin -- spin; fermions; exclusion principle; Fermi Dirac distribution; Bose-Einstein statistics 5. Wave Mechan...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, B.
1993-05-15
This report discusses research in the following topics: Hadron structure physics; relativistic heavy ion collisions; finite- temperature QCD; real-time lattice gauge theory; and studies in quantum field theory.
Exponential Sensitivity and its Cost in Quantum Physics.
Gilyén, András; Kiss, Tamás; Jex, Igor
2016-02-10
State selective protocols, like entanglement purification, lead to an essentially non-linear quantum evolution, unusual in naturally occurring quantum processes. Sensitivity to initial states in quantum systems, stemming from such non-linear dynamics, is a promising perspective for applications. Here we demonstrate that chaotic behaviour is a rather generic feature in state selective protocols: exponential sensitivity can exist for all initial states in an experimentally realisable optical scheme. Moreover, any complex rational polynomial map, including the example of the Mandelbrot set, can be directly realised. In state selective protocols, one needs an ensemble of initial states, the size of which decreases with each iteration. We prove that exponential sensitivity to initial states in any quantum system has to be related to downsizing the initial ensemble also exponentially. Our results show that magnifying initial differences of quantum states (a Schrödinger microscope) is possible; however, there is a strict bound on the number of copies needed.
Cognitive Issues in Learning Advanced Physics: An Example from Quantum Mechanics
Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
We are investigating cognitive issues in learning quantum mechanics in order to develop effective teaching and learning tools. The analysis of cognitive issues is particularly important for bridging the gap between the quantitative and conceptual aspects of quantum mechanics and for ensuring that the learning tools help students build a robust knowledge structure. We discuss the cognitive aspects of quantum mechanics that are similar or different from those of introductory physics and their implications for developing strategies to help students develop a good grasp of quantum mechanics.
Margaritondo, G
2003-01-01
Quantum physics is the backbone of modern science: therefore, a correct first step is essential for students' success in many different disciplines. Unfortunately, many didactic approaches are still complicated, potentially confusing and often historically wrong. An alternate, simple, stimulating and historically correct approach is outlined here.
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Margaritondo, G [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2003-01-01
Quantum physics is the backbone of modern science: therefore, a correct first step is essential for students' success in many different disciplines. Unfortunately, many didactic approaches are still complicated, potentially confusing and often historically wrong. An alternate, simple, stimulating and historically correct approach is outlined here.
Marshman, Emily; Sayer, Ryan; Henderson, Charles; Singh, Chandralekha
2017-06-01
At large research universities, physics graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are often responsible for grading in courses at all levels. However, few studies have focused on TAs' grading practices in introductory and advanced physics courses. This study was designed to investigate whether physics graduate TAs grade students in introductory physics and quantum mechanics using different criteria and if so, why they may be inclined to do so. To investigate possible discrepancies in TAs' grading approaches in courses at different levels, we implemented a sequence of instructional activities in a TA professional development course that asked TAs to grade student solutions of introductory physics and upper-level quantum mechanics problems and explain why, if at all, their grading approaches were different or similar in the two contexts. We analyzed the differences in TAs' grading approaches in the two contexts and discuss the reasons they provided for the differences in their grading approaches in introductory physics and quantum mechanics in individual interviews, class discussions, and written responses. We find that a majority of the TAs graded solutions to quantum mechanics problems differently than solutions to introductory physics problems. In quantum mechanics, the TAs focused more on physics concepts and reasoning and penalized students for not showing evidence of understanding. The findings of the study have implications for TA professional development programs, e.g., the importance of helping TAs think about the difficulty of a problem from an introductory students' perspective and reflecting on the benefits of formative assessment.
A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics
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Diosi, L. [KFKI Research Institute for Partical and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary)
2007-07-01
This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. (orig.)
Report and recommendations on multimedia materials for teaching and learning quantum physics
Mason, B.; Dębowska, E.; Arpornthip, T.; Girwidz, R.; Greczyło, T.; Kohnle, A.; Melder, T.; Michelini, M.; Santi, L.; Silva, J.
2016-05-01
An international collaboration of physicists, affiliated with Multimedia Physics for Teaching and Learning (MPTL) and MERLOT, performed a survey and review of multimedia-based learning materials for quantum physics and quantum mechanics. The review process was based on more than a decade of experience with similar topical learning material reviews. A total of approximately 250 items were considered for review and eight were recommended by the reviewers. These are described in this report. Observations about quantum learning resources and multimedia tools are included.
Héraud, Jean-Loup; Lautesse, Philippe; Ferlin, Fabrice; Chabot, Hugues
2017-01-01
Our work extends a previous study of epistemological presuppositions in teaching quantum physics in upper scientific secondary school in France. Here, the problematic reference of quantum theory's concepts is treated at the ontological level (the counterintuitive nature of quantum objects). We consider the approach of using narratives describing…
Quantum Mechanics at the Crossroads New Perspectives from History, Philosophy and Physics
Evans, James
2007-01-01
Quantum mechanics is a beautiful, strange and successful theory that originated in the 1920s. The theory, which Niels Bohr regarded as finished and complete, has in the last few decades rapidly developed in unexpected directions. An intense new focus on the stranger aspects of the theory, including entanglement and nonlocality, has resulted in new perceptions of the foundations of quantum mechanics, as well as surprising new exploitations of quantum phenomena. Historians and philosophers of science have also renewed their attention to quantum mechanics, opening up its human dimensions and asking searching questions about its meaning. This volume brings together new insights from different vantage points: Historians of physics, such as J. L. Heilbron; philosophers of science, such as Abner Shimony and Michel Bitbol; and quantum physicists, such as Wolfgang Ketterle and Roland Omnès, join forces to tackle essential questions in quantum mechanics and its interpretation. All the authors have written for a broad ...
Quantum simulations in phase-space: from quantum optics to ultra-cold physics
Drummond, Peter D.; Chaturvedi, Subhash
2016-07-01
As a contribution to the international year of light, we give a brief history of quantum optics in phase-space, with new directions including quantum simulations of multipartite Bell violations, opto-mechanics, ultra-cold atomic systems, matter-wave Bell violations, coherent transport and quantum fluctuations in the early Universe. We mostly focus on exact methods using the positive-P representation, and semiclassical truncated Wigner approximations.
Esfeld, Michael
2014-01-01
The paper has two aims: (1) it sets out to show that it is well motivated to seek for an account of quantum non-locality in the framework of ontic structural realism (OSR), which integrates the notions of holism and non-separability that have been employed since the 1980s to achieve such an account. However, recent research shows that OSR on its own cannot provide such an account. Against this background, the paper argues that by applying OSR to the primitive ontology theories of quantum physics, one can accomplish that task. In particular, Bohmian mechanics offers the best prospect for doing so. (2) In general, the paper seeks to bring OSR and the primitive ontology theories of quantum physics together: on the one hand, in order to be applicable to quantum mechanics, OSR has to consider what the quantum ontology of matter distributed in space-time is. On the other hand, as regards the primitive ontology theories, OSR provides the conceptual tools for these theories to answer the question of what the ontologi...
Quantum field theory, statistical physics, and information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toyoda, Tadashi [Tokai Univ., Kanagawa (Japan)
2001-05-01
It is shown that the one-particle Matsubara temperature Green's function can be regarded as a Fisher information matrix on the basis of the quantum generalization of relative entropy due to Watanabe and Neumann.
Interpretations of quantum theory and conceptions of physics majors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Luiz Montenegro
2002-05-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the “private” interpretations that students of quantum mechanics develop concerning this theory. By means of questionaires, we analyze their conceptions with respect to the double slit experiment, uncertainty principle, quantum state, retrodiction, and projection postulate. Correlating the students’ answers, we observe that different private interpretations are frequently employed for analyzing different problems. Other conclusions about the cognitive processes of the students are also obtained.
Fractional Quantum Hall Physics in Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard Lattices
Hayward, Andrew L. C.; Martin, Andrew M.; Greentree, Andrew D.
2012-01-01
Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard arrays provide unique opportunities for quantum emulation as they exhibit convenient state preparation and measurement, and in-situ tuning of parameters. We show how to realise strongly correlated states of light in Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard arrays under the introduction of an effective magnetic field. The effective field is realised by dynamic tuning of the cavity resonances. We demonstrate the existence of Fractional Quantum Hall states by com- puting topological invar...
A quantum physical design flow using ILP and graph drawing
Yazdani, Maryam; Saheb Zamani, Morteza; Sedighi, Mehdi
2013-10-01
Implementing large-scale quantum circuits is one of the challenges of quantum computing. One of the central challenges of accurately modeling the architecture of these circuits is to schedule a quantum application and generate the layout while taking into account the cost of communications and classical resources as well as the maximum exploitable parallelism. In this paper, we present and evaluate a design flow for arbitrary quantum circuits in ion trap technology. Our design flow consists of two parts. First, a scheduler takes a description of a circuit and finds the best order for the execution of its quantum gates using integer linear programming regarding the classical resources (qubits) and instruction dependencies. Then a layout generator receives the schedule produced by the scheduler and generates a layout for this circuit using a graph-drawing algorithm. Our experimental results show that the proposed flow decreases the average latency of quantum circuits by about 11 % for a set of attempted benchmarks and by about 9 % for another set of benchmarks compared with the best in literature.
A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics. 2. ed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diosi, Lajos [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (RMKI), Budapest (Hungary). MTA Budapest
2011-07-01
This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition: ''The best things about this book are its brevity and clarity. In around 100 pages it provides a tutorial introduction to quantum information theory, including problems and solutions.. it's worth a look if you want to quickly get up to speed with the language and central concepts of quantum information theory, including the background classical information theory.'' (Craig Savage, Australian Physics, Vol. 44 (2), 2007). (orig.)
"Shut up and calculate": the available discursive positions in quantum physics courses
Johansson, Anders; Andersson, Staffan; Salminen-Karlsson, Minna; Elmgren, Maja
2016-08-01
Educating new generations of physicists is often seen as a matter of attracting good students, teaching them physics and making sure that they stay at the university. Sometimes, questions are also raised about what could be done to increase diversity in recruitment. Using a discursive perspective, in this study of three introductory quantum physics courses at two Swedish universities, we instead ask what it means to become a physicist, and whether certain ways of becoming a physicist and doing physics is privileged in this process. Asking the question of what discursive positions are made accessible to students, we use observations of lectures and problem solving sessions together with interviews with students to characterize the discourse in the courses. Many students seem to have high expectations for the quantum physics course and generally express that they appreciate the course more than other courses. Nevertheless, our analysis shows that the ways of being a "good quantum physics student" are limited by the dominating focus on calculating quantum physics in the courses. We argue that this could have negative consequences both for the education of future physicists and the discipline of physics itself, in that it may reproduce an instrumental "shut up and calculate"-culture of physics, as well as an elitist physics education. Additionally, many students who take the courses are not future physicists, and the limitation of discursive positions may also affect these students significantly.
Localization and Pattern Formation in Quantum Physics. II. Waveletons in Quantum Ensembles
Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.
2005-01-01
In this second part we present a set of methods, analytical and numerical, which can describe behaviour in (non) equilibrium ensembles, both classical and quantum, especially in the complex systems, where the standard approaches cannot be applied. The key points demonstrating advantages of this approach are: (i) effects of localization of possible quantum states; (ii) effects of non-perturbative multiscales which cannot be calculated by means of perturbation approaches; (iii) effects of formation of complex/collective quantum patterns from localized modes and classification and possible control of the full zoo of quantum states, including (meta) stable localized patterns (waveletons). We demonstrate the appearance of nontrivial localized (meta) stable states/patterns in a number of collective models covered by the (quantum)/(master) hierarchy of Wigner-von Neumann-Moyal-Lindblad equations, which are the result of ``wignerization'' procedure (Weyl-Wigner-Moyal quantization) of classical BBGKY kinetic hierarchy...
Experimental quantum simulations of many-body physics with trapped ions.
Schneider, Ch; Porras, Diego; Schaetz, Tobias
2012-02-01
Direct experimental access to some of the most intriguing quantum phenomena is not granted due to the lack of precise control of the relevant parameters in their naturally intricate environment. Their simulation on conventional computers is impossible, since quantum behaviour arising with superposition states or entanglement is not efficiently translatable into the classical language. However, one could gain deeper insight into complex quantum dynamics by experimentally simulating the quantum behaviour of interest in another quantum system, where the relevant parameters and interactions can be controlled and robust effects detected sufficiently well. Systems of trapped ions provide unique control of both the internal (electronic) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. The mutual Coulomb interaction between the ions allows for large interaction strengths at comparatively large mutual ion distances enabling individual control and readout. Systems of trapped ions therefore exhibit a prominent system in several physical disciplines, for example, quantum information processing or metrology. Here, we will give an overview of different trapping techniques of ions as well as implementations for coherent manipulation of their quantum states and discuss the related theoretical basics. We then report on the experimental and theoretical progress in simulating quantum many-body physics with trapped ions and present current approaches for scaling up to more ions and more-dimensional systems.
Fundamentals of quantum physics. Textbook for students of science and engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereyra Padilla, Pedro [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico City (Mexico). Fisica Teorica y Materia Condensada
2012-07-01
A clearly written basic textbook with a good balance between basic explanations and applications. Supplies new views on eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in quantum mechanics. Gives background needed to understand quantum cryptography, teleportation and computation. Provides a clear and consistent understanding of quantum concepts and quantum phenomenology. This book presents a comprehensive course of quantum mechanics for undergraduate and graduate students. After a brief outline of the innovative ideas that lead up to the quantum theory, the book reviews properties of the Schroedinger equation, the quantization phenomena and the physical meaning of wave functions. The book discusses, in a direct and intelligible style, topics of the standard quantum formalism like the dynamical operators and their expected values, the Heisenberg and matrix representation, the approximate methods, the Dirac notation, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum and hydrogen atom, the spin-field and spin-orbit interactions, identical particles and Bose-Einstein condensation etc. Special emphasis is devoted to study the tunneling phenomena, transmission coefficients, phase coherence, energy levels splitting and related phenomena, of interest for quantum devices and heterostructures. The discussion of these problems and the WKB approximation is done using the transfer matrix method, introduced at a tutorial level. This book is a textbook for upper undergraduate physics and electronic engineering students.
Bohmian mechanics. The physics and mathematics of quantum theory
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Duerr, Detlef [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet Mathematik; Teufel, Stefan [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Mathematisches Inst.
2009-07-01
Bohmian Mechanics was formulated in 1952 by David Bohm as a complete theory of quantum phenomena based on a particle picture. It was promoted some decades later by John S. Bell, who, intrigued by the manifestly nonlocal structure of the theory, was led to his famous Bell's inequalities. Experimental tests of the inequalities verified that nature is indeed nonlocal. Bohmian mechanics has since then prospered as the straightforward completion of quantum mechanics. This book provides a systematic introduction to Bohmian mechanics and to the mathematical abstractions of quantum mechanics, which range from the self-adjointness of the Schroedinger operator to scattering theory. It explains how the quantum formalism emerges when Boltzmann's ideas about statistical mechanics are applied to Bohmian mechanics. The book is self-contained, mathematically rigorous and an ideal starting point for a fundamental approach to quantum mechanics. It will appeal to students and newcomers to the field, as well as to established scientists seeking a clear exposition of the theory. (orig.)
Singh, Chandralekha
2015-01-01
Very little is known about how the nature of expertise in introductory and advanced courses compares in knowledge-rich domains such as physics. We develop a framework to compare the similarities and differences between learning and patterns of student difficulties in introductory physics and quantum mechanics. Based upon our framework, we argue that the qualitative patterns of student reasoning difficulties in introductory physics bear a striking resemblance to those found for upper-level quantum mechanics. The framework can guide the design of teaching and learning tools.
An Economic Research Inspired by the Fundamental Principles of the Quantum Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iurie BADAR
2015-12-01
Full Text Available At the beginning of the XX-th century, after a glorious history of about two centuries, the Newton’s classical physics enters into a great conceptual crisis, marked by the famous findings, which have subsequently represented the fundamentals of the quantum theory. They have thrown out the visions of the classical physics on the main laws of Universe development, the role of the human being and of knowledge in its functioning. Therefore, the quantum theory, confusing the traditional picture of its origin and evolution, gave birth to multiple conceptual issues related not only to physics, but disposing of obvious philosophical, ontological, cognitive and, more recently, economic aspects...
Looking into DNA breathing dynamics via quantum physics.
Wu, Lian-Ao; Wu, Stephen S; Segal, Dvira
2009-06-01
We study generic aspects of bubble dynamics in DNA under time-dependent perturbations, for example, temperature change, by mapping the associated Fokker-Planck equation to a quantum time-dependent Schrödinger equation with imaginary time. In the static case we show that the eigenequation is exactly the same as that of the beta-deformed nuclear liquid drop model, without the issue of noninteger angular momentum. A universal breathing dynamics is demonstrated by using an approximate method in quantum mechanics. The calculated bubble autocorrelation function qualitatively agrees with experimental data. Under time-dependent modulations, utilizing the adiabatic approximation, bubble properties reveal memory effects.
Lecture notes on "Quantum chromodynamics and statistical physics"
Munier, Stephane
2014-01-01
The concepts and methods used for the study of disordered systems have proven useful in the analysis of the evolution equations of quantum chromodynamics in the high-energy regime: Indeed, parton branching in the semi-classical approximation relevant at high energies is a peculiar branching-diffusion process, and parton branching supplemented by saturation effects (such as gluon recombination) is a reaction-diffusion process. In these lectures, we first introduce the basic concepts in the context of simple toy models, we study the properties of the latter, and show how the results obtained for the simple models may be taken over to quantum chromodynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grawert, G. (Marburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 13 - Physik)
1989-01-01
The aim of the textbook now present in fifth edition is the representation of the fundamental physical concepts of the theory of quantum mechanics. It is confined to the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics; however also themes are treated which are in an extended form important just for quantum field theory up to the modern development. (orig.) With 22 figs.
Physics colloquium: Electron counting in quantum dots in and out of equilibrium
Geneva University
2011-01-01
GENEVA UNIVERSITY Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92olé Lundi 31 octobre 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM « Electron counting in quantum dots in and out of equilibrium » Prof. Klaus Ensslin Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland Electron transport through quantum dots is governed by Coulomb blockade. Using a nearby quantum point contact the time-dependent charge flow through quantum dots can be monitored on the basis of single electrons. This way electron transport has been investigated in equilibrium as well as out of equilibrium. Recently it has become possible to experimentally verify the fluctuation theorem. The talk will also address electron counting experiments in grapheme. Une verrée ...
Quantum chromodynamics effects in electroweak and Higgs physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Frank Petriello
2012-10-01
Several examples of the often intricate effects of higher-order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) corrections on predictions for hadron-collider observables, are discussed, using the production of electroweak gauge boson and the Standard Model Higgs boson as examples. Particular attention is given to the interplay of QCD effects and experimental cuts, and to the use of scale variations as estimates of theoretical uncertainties.
Geometric Langlands Program and Dualities in Quantum Physics
2009-04-30
systems, such as the KdV hier- archy, to an affine analogue of the Langlands duality. We have conjectured that common eigenvalues of the mutually...the spectra of the quantum KdV Hamiltonians. (5) In the joint papers [2, 3] with B. Feigin and L. Rybnikov, we have studied the spectra of the
Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.
2005-11-07
The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.
Does Quantum Physics Refute Realism, Materialism and Determinism?
Bunge, Mario
2012-01-01
It is argued that the correct answer to the three questions in the title is "no": that the theses being denied derive from traditional philosophy, not from the way the quantum theories are used. For example, the calculation of the energy spectrum of an atom assumes the autonomous existence of the atom, rather than its dependence upon the observer.…
Does Quantum Physics Refute Realism, Materialism and Determinism?
Bunge, Mario
2012-01-01
It is argued that the correct answer to the three questions in the title is "no": that the theses being denied derive from traditional philosophy, not from the way the quantum theories are used. For example, the calculation of the energy spectrum of an atom assumes the autonomous existence of the atom, rather than its dependence upon the observer.…
Quantum Algorithms for Computational Physics: Volume 3 of Lattice Gas Dynamics
2007-01-03
function collapse. To quote Richard Feynman at a lecture he gave the American Physical Society in 1959, so long as there is sufficient “room at the bottom...our inefficient physical implementations of logical gates can continually be improved upon [ Feynman , 1960]. We quantify the rate of improvement by...New York. [ Feynman , 1948] Feynman , R. P. (1948). Space-time approach to non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Reviews of Modern Physics , 20(2):367–387
Functional Basis for Efficient Physical Layer Classical Control in Quantum Processors
Ball, Harrison; Nguyen, Trung; Leong, Philip H. W.; Biercuk, Michael J.
2016-12-01
The rapid progress seen in the development of quantum-coherent devices for information processing has motivated serious consideration of quantum computer architecture and organization. One topic which remains open for investigation and optimization relates to the design of the classical-quantum interface, where control operations on individual qubits are applied according to higher-level algorithms; accommodating competing demands on performance and scalability remains a major outstanding challenge. In this work, we present a resource-efficient, scalable framework for the implementation of embedded physical layer classical controllers for quantum-information systems. Design drivers and key functionalities are introduced, leading to the selection of Walsh functions as an effective functional basis for both programing and controller hardware implementation. This approach leverages the simplicity of real-time Walsh-function generation in classical digital hardware, and the fact that a wide variety of physical layer controls, such as dynamic error suppression, are known to fall within the Walsh family. We experimentally implement a real-time field-programmable-gate-array-based Walsh controller producing Walsh timing signals and Walsh-synthesized analog waveforms appropriate for critical tasks in error-resistant quantum control and noise characterization. These demonstrations represent the first step towards a unified framework for the realization of physical layer controls compatible with large-scale quantum-information processing.
One-dimensional chain of quantum molecule motors as a mathematical physics model for muscle fibers
Si, Tie-Yan
2015-12-01
A quantum chain model of multiple molecule motors is proposed as a mathematical physics theory for the microscopic modeling of classical force-velocity relation and tension transients in muscle fibers. The proposed model was a quantum many-particle Hamiltonian to predict the force-velocity relation for the slow release of muscle fibers, which has not yet been empirically defined and was much more complicated than the hyperbolic relationships. Using the same Hamiltonian model, a mathematical force-velocity relationship was proposed to explain the tension observed when the muscle was stimulated with an alternative electric current. The discrepancy between input electric frequency and the muscle oscillation frequency could be explained physically by the Doppler effect in this quantum chain model. Further more, quantum physics phenomena were applied to explore the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. Most of the experimental tension transient curves were found to correspond to the theoretical output of quantum two- and three-level models. Mathematical modeling electric stimulus as photons exciting a quantum three-level particle reproduced most of the tension transient curves of water bug Lethocerus maximus. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Foundation for the Central Universities of China.
Baladrón, Carlos; Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-12-01
The similarities between biological and physical systems as respectively defined in quantum information biology (QIB) and in a Darwinian approach to quantum mechanics (DAQM) have been analysed. In both theories the processing of information is a central feature characterising the systems. The analysis highlights a mutual support on the thesis contended by each theory. On the one hand, DAQM provides a physical basis that might explain the key role played by quantum information at the macroscopic level for bio-systems in QIB. On the other hand, QIB offers the possibility, acting as a macroscopic testing ground, to analyse the emergence of quantumness from classicality in the terms held by DAQM. As an added result of the comparison, a tentative definition of quantum information in terms of classical information flows has been proposed. The quantum formalism would appear from this comparative analysis between QIB and DAQM as an optimal information scheme that would maximise the stability of biological and physical systems at any scale.
Quantum Physics Principles and Communication in the Acute Healthcare Setting: A Pilot Study.
Helgeson, Heidi L; Peyerl, Colleen Kraft; Solheim-Witt, Marit
This pilot study explores whether clinician awareness of quantum physics principles could facilitate open communication between patients and providers. In the spirit of action research, this study was conceptualized with a holistic view of human health, using a mixed method design of grounded theory as an emergent method. Instrumentation includes surveys and a focus group discussion with twelve registered nurses working in an acute care hospital setting. Findings document that the preliminary core phenomenon, energy as information, influences communication in the healthcare environment. Key emergent themes include awareness, language, validation, open communication, strategies, coherence, incoherence and power. Research participants indicate that quantum physics principles provide a language and conceptual framework for improving their awareness of communication and interactions in the healthcare environment. Implications of this pilot study support the feasibility of future research and education on awareness of quantum physics principles in other clinical settings. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quantum physics: lectures and practicing; Physique quantique: cours et exercices corriges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngo, Ch. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Ngo, H. [Faculte des Sciences, 91 - Orsay (France)
2005-07-01
The author presents the basic principles and the mathematical framework of quantum physics. This book has been written for intermediate level students in physics. The concepts that are introduced are applied to one-dimensional models which eases the understanding of properties like electrical conductivity or laser beam emission. The concepts of angular momentum and spin are described in a detailed manner. The presentation of the harmonic oscillator enables the reader to handle quantum operators in a more practical way. Since exact solutions are out of reach in most quantum issues, approximation methods like the perturbation theory and the variational method are proposed. The last chapter is dedicated to atomic and molecular physics issues like the Zeeman and Stark effects and molecular spectroscopy. (A.C.)
The standard model of quantum physics in Clifford algebra
Daviau, Claude
2016-01-01
We extend to gravitation our previous study of a quantum wave for all particles and antiparticles of each generation (electron + neutrino + u and d quarks for instance). This wave equation is form invariant under Cl3*, then relativistic invariant. It is gauge invariant under the gauge group of the standard model, with a mass term: this was impossible before, and the consequence was an impossibility to link gauge interactions and gravitation.
Quantum physics, fields and closed timelike curves: The D-CTC condition in quantum field theory
Tolksdorf, Juergen
2016-01-01
The D-CTC condition is a condition originally proposed by David Deutsch as a condition on states of a quantum communication network that contains "backward time-steps" in some of its branches. It has been argued that this is an analogue for quantum processes in the presence of closed timelike curves (CTCs). The unusual properties of states of quantum communication networks that fulfill the D-CTC condition have been discussed extensively in recent literature. In this work, the D-CTC condition is investigated in the framework of quantum field theory in the local, operator-algebraic approach due to Haag and Kastler. It is shown that the D-CTC condition cannot be fulfilled in states which are analytic for the energy, or satisfy the Reeh-Schlieder property, for a certain class of processes and initial conditions. On the other hand, if a quantum field theory admits sufficiently many uncorrelated states across acausally related spacetime regions (as implied by the split property), then the D-CTC condition can always...
Baily, Charles Raymond
2011-01-01
A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively "realist" perspectives of introductory…
Baily, Charles Raymond
2011-01-01
A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively "realist" perspectives of introductory students, and…
Baily, Charles Raymond
2011-01-01
A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively "realist" perspectives of introductory…
The quantum measurement problem and physical reality: a computation theoretic perspective
Srikanth, R
2006-01-01
Is the universe computable? If yes, is it computationally a polynomial place? In standard quantum mechanics, which permits infinite parallelism and the infinitely precise specification of states, a negative answer to both questions is not ruled out. On the other hand, computational problems for which no efficient algorithm is known do not seem to be efficiently solvable by any physical means; likewise, problems known to be algorithmically uncomputable do not seem to be computable by any physical means. We suggest that this close correspondence between the efficiency and power of abstract algorithms on the one hand, and physical computers on the other, can be explained by assuming that the universe is algorithmic; that is, that physical reality is the product of discrete sub-physical information processing equivalent to the actions of probabilistic Turing machines. Support for this viewpoint comes from a recently proposed model of quantum measurement, according to which classicality arises from a finite upper ...
Rudolf Haag's legacy of Local Quantum Physics and reminiscences about a cherished teacher and friend
Schroer, Bert
2016-01-01
After some personal recollectioms about Rudolf Haag and his thoughts which led him to "Local Quantum Physics", the present work recalls his ideas about scattering theory, the relation between local observables and localized fields and his contributions to the physical aspects of modular operator theory which paved the way for an intrisic understanding of quantum causal localization in which fields "coordinatize" the local algebras. The paper ends with the presentation of string-local fields whose construction and use in a new renormalization theory for higher spin fields is part of an ongoing reformulation of gauge theory in the conceptual setting of Haag's LQP.
Quanta, quarks, and families: implications of quantum physics for family research.
Doherty, W J
1986-06-01
This paper offers recommendations for family research in light of the scientific paradigm ushered in by quantum physics in the early twentieth century. After summarizing the basic discoveries of quantum physics, the author discusses philosophical implications of these discoveries, and then presents implications for conducting scientific research about families within a post-Newtonian paradigm that emphasizes relations, process, and dynamic causation. The author argues for using complementary research models, including linear and systemic, because no one theory or methodology can illuminate fully the inscrutable nature of family processes.
The Physics of Life and Quantum Complex Matter: A Case of Cross-Fertilization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicola Poccia
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Progress in the science of complexity, from the Big Bang to the coming of humankind, from chemistry and biology to geosciences and medicine, and from materials engineering to energy sciences, is leading to a shift of paradigm in the physical sciences. The focus is on the understanding of the non-equilibrium process in fine tuned systems. Quantum complex materials such as high temperature superconductors and living matter are both non-equilibrium and fine tuned systems. These topics have been subbjects of scientific discussion in the Rome Symposium on the “Quantum Physics of Living Matter”.
Quantum non-locality and relativity metaphysical intimations of modern physics
Maudlin, Tim
2011-01-01
The third edition of Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity has been carefully updated to reflect significant developments, including a new chapter covering important recent work in the foundations of physics. A new edition of the premier philosophical study of Bell's Theorem and its implication for the relativistic account of space and timeDiscusses Roderich Tumiulka's explicit, relativistic theory that can reproduce the quantum mechanical violation of Bell's inequality. Discusses the "Free Will Theorem" of John Conway and Simon KochenIntroduces philosophers to the relevant physics and demonstra
Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.
PEET: a Matlab tool for estimating physical gate errors in quantum information processing systems
Hocker, David; Kosut, Robert; Rabitz, Herschel
2016-09-01
A Physical Error Estimation Tool (PEET) is introduced in Matlab for predicting physical gate errors of quantum information processing (QIP) operations by constructing and then simulating gate sequences for a wide variety of user-defined, Hamiltonian-based physical systems. PEET is designed to accommodate the interdisciplinary needs of quantum computing design by assessing gate performance for users familiar with the underlying physics of QIP, as well as those interested in higher-level computing operations. The structure of PEET separates the bulk of the physical details of a system into Gate objects, while the construction of quantum computing gate operations are contained in GateSequence objects. Gate errors are estimated by Monte Carlo sampling of noisy gate operations. The main utility of PEET, though, is the implementation of QuantumControl methods that act to generate and then test gate sequence and pulse-shaping techniques for QIP performance. This work details the structure of PEET and gives instructive examples for its operation.
Transport Studies of Quantum Magnetism: Physics and Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Minhyea [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2017-03-30
The main goal of this project was to understand novel ground states of spin systems probed by thermal and electrical transport measurements. They are well-suited to characterize the nature of low-energy excitations as unique property of the ground state. More specifically, it was aimed to study the transverse electrical conductivity in the presence of non-collinear and non-coplanar spin ordering and the effects of gauge field as well as novel spin excitations as a coherent heat transport channel in insulating quantum magnets. Most of works done during the grant period focused on these topics. As a natural extension of the project's initial goals, the scope was broadened to include transport studies on the spin systems with strong spin-orbit coupling. One particular focus was an exploration of systems with strong magnetic anisotropy combined with non-trivial spin configuration. Magnetic anisotropy is directly related to implement the non-collinear spin ordering to the existing common geometry of planar devices and thus poses a significant potential. Work in this direction includes the comparison of the topological Hall signal under hydrostatic pressure and chemical doping, as well as the angular dependence dependence of the non-collinear spin ordered phase and their evolution up on temperature and field strength. Another focus was centered around the experimental identification of spin-originated heat carrying excitation in quasi two dimensional honeycomb lattice, where Kitaev type of quantum spin liquid phase is expected to emerge. In fact, when its long range magnetic order is destroyed by the applied field, we discovered anomalously large enhancement of thermal conductivity, for which proximate Kitaev excitations in field-induced spin liquid state are responsible for. This work, combined with further investigations in materials in the similar class may help establish the experimental characterization of new quantum spin liquid and their unique low energy
Some Aspects of Mathematical and Physical Approaches for Topological Quantum Computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Kantser
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A paradigm to build a quantum computer, based on topological invariants is highlighted. The identities in the ensemble of knots, links and braids originally discovered in relation to topological quantum field theory are shown: how they define Artin braid group -- the mathematical basis of topological quantum computation (TQC. Vector spaces of TQC correspond to associated strings of particle interactions, and TQC operates its calculations on braided strings of special physical quasiparticles -- anyons -- with non-Abelian statistics. The physical platform of TQC is to use the topological quantum numbers of such small groups of anyons as qubits and to perform operations on these qubits by exchanging the anyons, both within the groups that form the qubits and, for multi-qubit gates, between groups. By braiding two or more anyons, they acquire up a topological phase or Berry phase similar to that found in the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Topological matter such as fractional quantum Hall systems and novel discovered topological insulators open the way to form system of anyons -- Majorana fermions -- with the unique property of encoding and processing quantum information in a naturally fault-tolerant way. In the topological insulators, due to its fundamental attribute of topological surface state occurrence of the bound, Majorana fermions are generated at its heterocontact with superconductors. One of the key operations of TQC -- braiding of non-Abelian anyons: it is illustrated how it can be implemented in one-dimensional topological isolator wire networks.
Fundamentals of Quantum Physics Textbook for Students of Science and Engineering
Pereyra, Pedro
2012-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive course of quantum mechanics for undergraduate and graduate students. After a brief outline of the innovative ideas that lead up to the quantum theory, the book reviews properties of the Schrödinger equation, the quantization phenomena and the physical meaning of wave functions. The book discusses, in a direct and intelligible style, topics of the standard quantum formalism like the dynamical operators and their expected values, the Heisenberg and matrix representation, the approximate methods, the Dirac notation, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum and hydrogen atom, the spin-field and spin-orbit interactions, identical particles and Bose-Einstein condensation etc. Special emphasis is devoted to study the tunneling phenomena, transmission coefficients, phase coherence, energy levels splitting and related phenomena, of interest for quantum devices and heterostructures. The discussion of these problems and the WKB approximation is done using the transfer matrix method, intr...
de Ronde, Christian
2016-01-01
In this paper we intend to discuss the importance of providing a physical representation of quantum superpositions which goes beyond the mere reference to mathematical structures and measurement outcomes. This proposal goes in the opposite direction of the orthodox project which attempts to "bridge the gap" between the quantum formalism and common sense "classical reality" --precluding, right from the start, the possibility of interpreting quantum superpositions through non-classical notions. We will argue that in order to restate the problem of interpretation of quantum mechanics in truly ontological terms we require a radical revision of the problems and definitions addressed within the orthodox literature. On the one hand, we will discuss the need of providing a formal redefinition of superpositions which captures their contextual character. On the other hand, we attempt to replace the focus on the measurement problem, which concentrates on the justification of measurement outcomes from "weird" superposed ...
International Workshop on "Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells : Physics and Applications"
Su, Yan-Kuin
1998-01-01
The International Workshop on "Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells:: Physics and Applications," was held at National Cheng Kung University, in Tainan, Taiwan, December 15-18, 1997. The objective of the Workshop is to facilitate the presentation and discussion of the recent results in theoretical, experimental, and applied aspects of intersubband transitions in quantum wells and dots. The program followed the tradition initiated at the 1991 conference in Cargese-France, the 1993 conference in Whistler, B. C. Canada, and the 1995 conference in Kibbutz Ginosar, Israel. Intersubband transitions in quantum wells and quantum dots have attracted considerable attention in recent years, mainly due to the promise of various applications in the mid- and far-infrared regions (2-30 J. lm). Over 40 invited and contributed papers were presented in this four-day workshop, with topics covered most aspects of the intersubband transition phenomena including: the basic intersubband transition processes, multiquantum well i...
Methods of quantum field theory in statistical physics
Abrikosov, A A; Gorkov, L P; Silverman, Richard A
1975-01-01
This comprehensive introduction to the many-body theory was written by three renowned physicists and acclaimed by American Scientist as ""a classic text on field theoretic methods in statistical physics."
Device physics vis-à-vis fundamental physics in Cold War America: the case of quantum optics.
Bromberg, Joan Lisa
2006-06-01
Historians have convincingly shown the close ties U.S. physicists had with the military during the Cold War and have raised the question of whether this alliance affected the content of physics. Some have asserted that it distorted physics, shifting attention from fundamental problems to devices. Yet the papers of physicists in quantum electronics and quantum optics, fields that have been exemplary for those who hold the distortion thesis, show that the same scientists who worked on military devices simultaneously pursued fundamental and foundational topics. This essay examines one such physicist, Marlan O. Scully, with attention to both his extensive foundational studies and the way in which his applied and basic researches played off each other.
Physics and engineering of compact quantum dot-based lasers for biophotonics
Rafailov, Edik U
2013-01-01
Written by a team of European experts in the field, this book addresses the physics, the principles, the engineering methods, and the latest developments of efficient and compact ultrafast lasers based on novel quantum-dot structures and devices, as well as their applications in biophotonics. Recommended reading for physicists, engineers, students and lecturers in the fields of photonics, optics, laser physics, optoelectronics, and biophotonics.
Many-body quantum electrodynamics networks: Non-equilibrium condensed matter physics with light
Le Hur, Karyn; Henriet, Loïc; Petrescu, Alexandru; Plekhanov, Kirill; Roux, Guillaume; Schiró, Marco
2016-10-01
We review recent developments regarding the quantum dynamics and many-body physics with light, in superconducting circuits and Josephson analogues, by analogy with atomic physics. We start with quantum impurity models addressing dissipative and driven systems. Both theorists and experimentalists are making efforts towards the characterization of these non-equilibrium quantum systems. We show how Josephson junction systems can implement the equivalent of the Kondo effect with microwave photons. The Kondo effect can be characterized by a renormalized light frequency and a peak in the Rayleigh elastic transmission of a photon. We also address the physics of hybrid systems comprising mesoscopic quantum dot devices coupled with an electromagnetic resonator. Then, we discuss extensions to Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) Networks allowing one to engineer the Jaynes-Cummings lattice and Rabi lattice models through the presence of superconducting qubits in the cavities. This opens the door to novel many-body physics with light out of equilibrium, in relation with the Mott-superfluid transition observed with ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices. Then, we summarize recent theoretical predictions for realizing topological phases with light. Synthetic gauge fields and spin-orbit couplings have been successfully implemented in quantum materials and with ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices - using time-dependent Floquet perturbations periodic in time, for example - as well as in photonic lattice systems. Finally, we discuss the Josephson effect related to Bose-Hubbard models in ladder and two-dimensional geometries, producing phase coherence and Meissner currents. The Bose-Hubbard model is related to the Jaynes-Cummings lattice model in the large detuning limit between light and matter (the superconducting qubits). In the presence of synthetic gauge fields, we show that Meissner currents subsist in an insulating Mott phase. xml:lang="fr"
Henriksen, Ellen K.; Bungum, Berit; Angell, Carl; Tellefsen, Catherine W.; Frågåt, Thomas; Bøe, Maria Vetleseter
2014-01-01
In this article, we discuss how quantum physics and relativity can be taught in upper secondary school, in ways that promote conceptual understanding and philosophical reflections. We present the ReleQuant project, in which web-based teaching modules have been developed. The modules address competence aims in the Norwegian national curriculum for…
Henriksen, Ellen K.; Bungum, Berit; Angell, Carl; Tellefsen, Catherine W.; Frågåt, Thomas; Bøe, Maria Vetleseter
2014-01-01
In this article, we discuss how quantum physics and relativity can be taught in upper secondary school, in ways that promote conceptual understanding and philosophical reflections. We present the ReleQuant project, in which web-based teaching modules have been developed. The modules address competence aims in the Norwegian national curriculum for…
A Topos Foundation for Theories of Physics: II. Daseinisation and the Liberation of Quantum Theory
Doering, A
2007-01-01
This paper is the second in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics arises when the topos is the category of sets. Other types of theory employ a different topos. In this paper, we study in depth the topos representation of the propositional language, PL(S), for the case of quantum theory. In doing so, we make a direct link with, and clarify, the earlier work on applying topos theory to quantum physics. The key step is a process we term `daseinisation' by which a projection operator is mapped to a sub-object of the spectral presheaf--the topos quantum analogue of a classical state space. In the second part of the paper we change gear w...
A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.
Rose, Laura Hall
1988-01-01
Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…
Learning Introductory Quantum Physics: Sensori-Motor Experiences and Mental Models
Ke, Jiun-Liang; Monk, Martin; Duschl, Richard
2005-01-01
This paper reports a cross-sectional study of Taiwanese physics students' understanding of subatomic phenomena that are explained by quantum mechanics. The study uses students' explanations of their answers to items in a questionnaire as a proxy for students' thinking. The variation in students' explanations is discussed as is the development in…
Geometry, topology and quantum field theory (fundamental theories of physics)
Bandyopadhyay, P.
2013-01-01
This monograph deals with the geometrical and topological aspects related to quantum field theory with special reference to the electroweak theory and skyrmions. This book is unique in its emphasis on the topological aspects of a fermion manifested through chiral anomaly which is responsible for the generation of mass. This has its relevance in electroweak theory where it is observed that weak interaction gauge bosons attain mass topologically. These geometrical and topological features help us to consider a massive fermion as a skyrmion and for a composite state we can realise the internal symmetry of hadrons from reflection group. Also, an overview of noncommutative geometry has been presented and it is observed that the manifold M 4 x Z2 has its relevance in the description of a massive fermion as skyrmion when the discrete space is considered as the internal space and the symmetry breaking gives rise to chiral anomaly leading to topological features.
Escalada, Lawrence Todd
Quantum physics is not traditionally introduced in high school physics courses because of the level of abstraction and mathematical formalism associated with the subject. As part of the Visual Quantum Mechanics project, activity-based instructional units have been developed that introduce quantum principles to students who have limited backgrounds in physics and mathematics. This study investigates the applicability of one unit, Solids & Light, that introduces quantum principles within the context of learning about light emitting diodes. An observation protocol, attitude surveys, and questionnaires were used to examine the implementation of materials and student-teacher interactions in various secondary physics classrooms. Aspects of Solids & Light including the use of hands-on activities, interactive computer programs, inexpensive materials, and the focus on conceptual understanding were very applicable in the various physics classrooms observed. Both teachers and students gave these instructional strategies favorable ratings in motivating students to make observations and to learn. These ratings were not significantly affected by gender or students, attitudes towards physics or computers. Solid's & Light was applicable in terms of content and teaching style for some teachers. However, a mismatch of teaching styles between some instructors and the unit posed some problems in determining applicability. Observations indicated that some instructors were not able to utilize the exploratory instructional strategy of Solid's & Light. Thus, Solids & Light must include additional support necessary to make the instructor comfortable with the subject matter and pedagogical style. With these revisions, Solids & Light, will have all the key components to make its implementation in a high school physics classroom a successful one.
Schuch, Dieter
2014-04-01
Theoretical physics seems to be in a kind of schizophrenic state. Many phenomena in the observable macroscopic world obey nonlinear evolution equations, whereas the microscopic world is governed by quantum mechanics, a fundamental theory that is supposedly linear. In order to combine these two worlds in a common formalism, at least one of them must sacrifice one of its dogmas. I claim that linearity in quantum mechanics is not as essential as it apparently seems since quantum mechanics can be reformulated in terms of nonlinear Riccati equations. In a first step, it will be shown where complex Riccati equations appear in time-dependent quantum mechanics and how they can be treated and compared with similar space-dependent Riccati equations in supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the time-independent Schrödinger equation can also be rewritten as a complex Riccati equation. Finally, it will be shown that (real and complex) Riccati equations also appear in many other fields of physics, like statistical thermodynamics and cosmology.
Time-dependent fractional dynamics with memory in quantum and economic physics
Tarasov, Vasily E.; Tarasova, Valentina V.
2017-08-01
Fractional dynamics of open quantum systems and sectors of national economies, where the parameters depend on time, are discussed. We show that the quantum and economic processes can demonstrate the same dynamic behavior caused by effects of power-law fading memory. In this paper, we propose generalizations of time-ordered exponential (T-exponential) and time-ordered product (T-product) for processes with power-lawmemory. The expressions of time-ordered exponential with memory and corresponding generalization time-ordered product are derived by using matrix fractional differential equations. In quantum physics, we consider equations of N-level open quantum system with memory, quantum oscillator with friction and memory. In economic physics (econophysics), we use equations of dynamic intersectoral model with power-law memory, where the matrix of direct material costs and the matrix of incremental capital intensity of production depend on time. The solutions of these equations with derivatives of non-integer orders are suggested.
What is Quantum? Unifying Its Micro-Physical and Structural Appearance
Aerts, Diederik
2014-01-01
We can recognize two modes in which 'quantum appears' in macro domains: (i) a 'micro-physical appearance', where quantum laws are assumed to be universal and they are transferred from the micro to the macro level if suitable 'quantum coherence' conditions (e.g., very low temperatures) are realized, (ii) a 'structural appearance', where no hypothesis is made on the validity of quantum laws at a micro level, while genuine quantum aspects are detected at a structural-modeling level. In this paper, we inquire into the connections between the two appearances. We put forward the explanatory hypothesis that, 'the appearance of quantum in both cases' is due to 'the existence of a specific form of organisation, which has the capacity to cope with random perturbations that would destroy this organisation when not coped with'. We analyse how 'organisation of matter', 'organisation of life', and 'organisation of culture', play this role each in their specific domain of application, point out the importance of evolution i...
De Zela, F.
2016-10-01
Born's quantum probability rule is traditionally included among the quantum postulates as being given by the squared amplitude projection of a measured state over a prepared state, or else as a trace formula for density operators. Both Gleason's theorem and Busch's theorem derive the quantum probability rule starting from very general assumptions about probability measures. Remarkably, Gleason's theorem holds only under the physically unsound restriction that the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space {H} must be larger than two. Busch's theorem lifted this restriction, thereby including qubits in its domain of validity. However, while Gleason assumed that observables are given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors, Busch made the mathematically stronger assumption that observables are given by positive operator-valued measures. The theorem we present here applies, similarly to the quantum postulate, without restricting the dimension of {H} and for observables given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors. We also show that the Born rule applies beyond the quantum domain, thereby exhibiting the common root shared by some quantum and classical phenomena.
Nonperturbative Quantum Physics from Low-Order Perturbation Theory.
Mera, Héctor; Pedersen, Thomas G; Nikolić, Branislav K
2015-10-02
The Stark effect in hydrogen and the cubic anharmonic oscillator furnish examples of quantum systems where the perturbation results in a certain ionization probability by tunneling processes. Accordingly, the perturbed ground-state energy is shifted and broadened, thus acquiring an imaginary part which is considered to be a paradigm of nonperturbative behavior. Here we demonstrate how the low order coefficients of a divergent perturbation series can be used to obtain excellent approximations to both real and imaginary parts of the perturbed ground state eigenenergy. The key is to use analytic continuation functions with a built-in singularity structure within the complex plane of the coupling constant, which is tailored by means of Bender-Wu dispersion relations. In the examples discussed the analytic continuation functions are Gauss hypergeometric functions, which take as input fourth order perturbation theory and return excellent approximations to the complex perturbed eigenvalue. These functions are Borel consistent and dramatically outperform widely used Padé and Borel-Padé approaches, even for rather large values of the coupling constant.
Predicting the valley physics of silicon quantum dots directly from a device layout
Gamble, John King; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Bacewski, Andrew D.; Nielsen, Erik; Montaño, Inès; Rudolph, Martin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Muller, Richard P.
Qubits made from electrostatically-defined quantum dots in Si-based systems are excellent candidates for quantum information processing applications. However, the multi-valley structure of silicon's band structure provides additional challenges for the few-electron physics critical to qubit manipulation. Here, we present a theory for valley physics that is predictive, in that we take as input the real physical device geometry and experimental voltage operation schedule, and with minimal approximation compute the resulting valley physics. We present both effective mass theory and atomistic tight-binding calculations for two distinct metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dot systems, directly comparing them to experimental measurements of the valley splitting. We conclude by assessing these detailed simulations' utility for engineering desired valley physics in future devices. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship Program, which is funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program.
Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.
Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei
2015-07-06
Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.
Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities
Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei
2015-01-01
Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration. PMID:26145177
Baumann, Gerd
2005-01-01
Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, and Fractals This second edition of Baumann's Mathematica® in Theoretical Physics shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Each example and calculation can be evaluated by the reader, and the reader can change the example calculations and adopt the given code to related or similar problems. The second edition has been completely revised and expanded into two volumes: The first volume covers classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. Both topics are the basis of a regular mechanics course. The second volume covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, and fractals and fractional calculus. New examples have been added and the representation has been reworked to provide a more interactive problem-solving presentation. This book can be used as a textbook or as a reference work, by student...
Connections between quantum chromodynamics and condensed matter physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shailesh Chandrasekharan
2003-11-01
Features of QCD can be seen qualitatively in certain condensed matter systems. Recently some of the analyses that originated in condensed matter physics have found applications in QCD. Using examples we discuss some of the connections between the two ﬁelds and show how progress can be made by exploiting this connection. Some of the challenges that remain in the two ﬁelds are quite similar. We argue that recent algorithmic developments call for optimism in both ﬁelds.
Research and pedagogy a history of quantum physics through its textbooks
Navarro, Jaume
2013-01-01
Historians of quantum physics and early quantum mechanics have seldom paid attention to the ways the new theory was integrated in physics textbooks, perhaps taking for granted that novelties in science can only be taught once they are fully understood and generally accepted. The essays in this volume challenge this view by studying some of the early books and textbooks in which quantum theory was first introduced. By so doing, the authors show the many ways books and textbooks embody pedagogical and research practices in certain local environments (geographical, disciplinary, in terms of expertise, etc.), as well as the circular feedback between research and pedagogy. Textbooks can become the subject of a history of early quantum physics since the very process of writing a textbook, (i.e., of trying to organise a new doctrine to the newcomer in an accessible way), together with its life as an object that is issued, used, changed, and abandoned, incorporates many of the tensions between research and pedagogy....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeidler, Eberhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Leipzig (Germany)
2009-07-01
This is the first volume of a modern introduction to quantum field theory which addresses both mathematicians and physicists, at levels ranging from advanced undergraduate students to professional scientists. The book bridges the acknowledged gap between the different languages used by mathematicians and physicists. For students of mathematics the author shows that detailed knowledge of the physical background helps to motivate the mathematical subjects and to discover interesting interrelationships between quite different mathematical topics. For students of physics, fairly advanced mathematics is presented, which goes beyond the usual curriculum in physics. (orig.)
Nakamura, Satoshi; Goto, Hayato; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ichimura, Kouichi
2016-12-01
We propose a scheme for frequency-domain quantum computation (FDQC) in which the errors due to crosstalk are suppressed using extra physical systems coupled to a cavity. FDQC is a promising method to realize large-scale quantum computation, but crosstalk is a major problem. When physical systems employed as qubits satisfy specific resonance conditions, gate errors due to crosstalk increase. In our scheme, the errors are suppressed by controlling the resonance conditions using extra physical systems.
Electron spin resonance and spin-valley physics in a silicon double quantum dot.
Hao, Xiaojie; Ruskov, Rusko; Xiao, Ming; Tahan, Charles; Jiang, HongWen
2014-05-14
Silicon quantum dots are a leading approach for solid-state quantum bits. However, developing this technology is complicated by the multi-valley nature of silicon. Here we observe transport of individual electrons in a silicon CMOS-based double quantum dot under electron spin resonance. An anticrossing of the driven dot energy levels is observed when the Zeeman and valley splittings coincide. A detected anticrossing splitting of 60 MHz is interpreted as a direct measure of spin and valley mixing, facilitated by spin-orbit interaction in the presence of non-ideal interfaces. A lower bound of spin dephasing time of 63 ns is extracted. We also describe a possible experimental evidence of an unconventional spin-valley blockade, despite the assumption of non-ideal interfaces. This understanding of silicon spin-valley physics should enable better control and read-out techniques for the spin qubits in an all CMOS silicon approach.
Quantum electronic stress: density-functional-theory formulation and physical manifestation.
Hu, Hao; Liu, Miao; Wang, Z F; Zhu, Junyi; Wu, Dangxin; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng
2012-08-01
The concept of quantum electronic stress (QES) is introduced and formulated within density functional theory to elucidate extrinsic electronic effects on the stress state of solids and thin films in the absence of lattice strain. A formal expression of QES (σ(QE)) is derived in relation to deformation potential of electronic states (Ξ) and variation of electron density (Δn), σ(QE) = ΞΔn as a quantum analog of classical Hooke's law. Two distinct QES manifestations are demonstrated quantitatively by density functional theory calculations: (1) in the form of bulk stress induced by charge carriers and (2) in the form of surface stress induced by quantum confinement. Implications of QES in some physical phenomena are discussed to underlie its importance.
Physical implementation of a Majorana fermion surface code for fault-tolerant quantum computation
Vijay, Sagar; Fu, Liang
2016-12-01
We propose a physical realization of a commuting Hamiltonian of interacting Majorana fermions realizing Z 2 topological order, using an array of Josephson-coupled topological superconductor islands. The required multi-body interaction Hamiltonian is naturally generated by a combination of charging energy induced quantum phase-slips on the superconducting islands and electron tunneling between islands. Our setup improves on a recent proposal for implementing a Majorana fermion surface code (Vijay et al 2015 Phys. Rev. X 5 041038), a ‘hybrid’ approach to fault-tolerant quantum computation that combines (1) the engineering of a stabilizer Hamiltonian with a topologically ordered ground state with (2) projective stabilizer measurements to implement error correction and a universal set of logical gates. Our hybrid strategy has advantages over the traditional surface code architecture in error suppression and single-step stabilizer measurements, and is widely applicable to implementing stabilizer codes for quantum computation.
24th Solvay Conference on Physics on Quantum Theory of Condensed Matter
Sevrin, Alexander
2010-01-01
Ever since 1911, the Solvay Conferences have shaped modern physics. The 24th edition chaired by Bertrand Halperin did not break the tradition. Held in October 2008, it gathered in Brussels most of the leading figures working on the quantum theory of condensed matter, addressing some of the most profound open problems in the field. The proceedings contain the rapporteur talks giving a broad overview with unique insights by distinguished renowned scientists. These lectures cover the five sessions treating: mesoscopic and disordered systems; exotic phases and quantum phase transitions in model systems; experimentally realized correlated-electron materials; quantum Hall systems, and one-dimensional systems; and, systems of ultra-cold atoms, and advanced computational methods. In the Solvay tradition, the proceedings include also the prepared comments to the rapporteur talks. The discussions among the participants - some of which are quite lively and involving dramatically divergent points of view - have been care...
Quantum Electronic Stress: Density-Functional-Theory Formulation and Physical Manifestation
Hu, Hao; Liu, Miao; Wang, Z. F.; Zhu, Junyi; Wu, Dangxin; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng
2012-08-01
The concept of quantum electronic stress (QES) is introduced and formulated within density functional theory to elucidate extrinsic electronic effects on the stress state of solids and thin films in the absence of lattice strain. A formal expression of QES (σQE) is derived in relation to deformation potential of electronic states (Ξ) and variation of electron density (Δn), σQE=ΞΔn as a quantum analog of classical Hooke’s law. Two distinct QES manifestations are demonstrated quantitatively by density functional theory calculations: (1) in the form of bulk stress induced by charge carriers and (2) in the form of surface stress induced by quantum confinement. Implications of QES in some physical phenomena are discussed to underlie its importance.
Nori, Franco
2012-02-01
This talk will present an overview of some of our recent results on atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits. Particular emphasis will be given to photons interacting with qubits, interferometry, the Dynamical Casimir effect, and also studying Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits.[4pt] References available online at our web site:[0pt] J.Q. You, Z.D. Wang, W. Zhang, F. Nori, Manipulating and probing Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits, (2011). Arxiv. J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting coplanar waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147003 (2009). [0pt] J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting microwave circuits, Phys. Rev. A 82, 052509 (2010). [0pt] C.M. Wilson, G. Johansson, A. Pourkabirian, J.R. Johansson, T. Duty, F. Nori, P. Delsing, Observation of the Dynamical Casimir Effect in a superconducting circuit. Nature, in press (Nov. 2011). P.D. Nation, J.R. Johansson, M.P. Blencowe, F. Nori, Stimulating uncertainty: Amplifying the quantum vacuum with superconducting circuits, Rev. Mod. Phys., in press (2011). [0pt] J.Q. You, F. Nori, Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits, Nature 474, 589 (2011). [0pt] S.N. Shevchenko, S. Ashhab, F. Nori, Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg interferometry, Phys. Reports 492, 1 (2010). [0pt] I. Buluta, S. Ashhab, F. Nori. Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation, Reports on Progress in Physics 74, 104401 (2011). [0pt] I.Buluta, F. Nori, Quantum Simulators, Science 326, 108 (2009). [0pt] L.F. Wei, K. Maruyama, X.B. Wang, J.Q. You, F. Nori, Testing quantum contextuality with macroscopic superconducting circuits, Phys. Rev. B 81, 174513 (2010). [0pt] J.Q. You, X.-F. Shi, X. Hu, F. Nori, Quantum emulation of a spin system with topologically protected ground states using superconducting quantum circuit, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063823 (2010).
Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha
2017-03-01
A solid grasp of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables is central to connecting the quantum formalism to measurements. However, students often struggle with the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for an observable and have difficulty expressing this concept in different representations. Here we first describe the difficulties that upper-level undergraduate and PhD students have with the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics. We then discuss how student difficulties found in written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for physical observables. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the probability distributions for the measurement of physical observables in Dirac notation and in the position representation and be able to convert from Dirac notation to position representation and vice versa. We describe the development and evaluation of the QuILT and findings about the effectiveness of the QuILT from in-class evaluations.
Hydrodynamics of the Physical Vacuum: I. Scalar Quantum Sector
Sbitnev, Valeriy I.
2016-05-01
Physical vacuum is a special superfluid medium. Its motion is described by the Navier-Stokes equation having two slightly modified terms that relate to internal forces. They are the pressure gradient and the dissipation force because of viscosity. The modifications are as follows: (a) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the pressure multiplied by the entropy gradient; (b) time-averaged viscosity is zero, but its variance is not zero. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schrödinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum, which looks like a superfluid medium populated by enormous amount of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs.
Continuous-variable quantum authentication of physical unclonable keys
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Diamanti, Eleni
2017-01-01
We propose a scheme for authentication of physical keys that are materialized by optical multiple-scattering media. The authentication relies on the optical response of the key when probed by randomly selected coherent states of light, and the use of standard wavefront-shaping techniques that direct the scattered photons coherently to a specific target mode at the output. The quadratures of the electromagnetic field of the scattered light at the target mode are analysed using a homodyne detection scheme, and the acceptance or rejection of the key is decided upon the outcomes of the measurements. The proposed scheme can be implemented with current technology and offers collision resistance and robustness against key cloning. PMID:28393853
Sanghera, Paul
2011-01-01
Presenting quantum physics for the non-physicists, Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists is a self-contained, cohesive, concise, yet comprehensive, story of quantum physics from the fields of science and technology, including computer science, biology, chemistry, and nanotechnology. The authors explain the concepts and phenomena in a practical fashion with only a minimum amount of math. Examples from, and references to, computer science, biology, chemistry, and nanotechnology throughout the book make the material accessible to biologists, chemists, computer scientists, and non-techn
Robbin, J. M.
2007-07-01
he hallmark of a good book of problems is that it allows you to become acquainted with an unfamiliar topic quickly and efficiently. The Quantum Mechanics Solver fits this description admirably. The book contains 27 problems based mainly on recent experimental developments, including neutrino oscillations, tests of Bell's inequality, Bose Einstein condensates, and laser cooling and trapping of atoms, to name a few. Unlike many collections, in which problems are designed around a particular mathematical method, here each problem is devoted to a small group of phenomena or experiments. Most problems contain experimental data from the literature, and readers are asked to estimate parameters from the data, or compare theory to experiment, or both. Standard techniques (e.g., degenerate perturbation theory, addition of angular momentum, asymptotics of special functions) are introduced only as they are needed. The style is closer to a non-specialist seminar rather than an undergraduate lecture. The physical models are kept simple; the emphasis is on cultivating conceptual and qualitative understanding (although in many of the problems, the simple models fit the data quite well). Some less familiar theoretical techniques are introduced, e.g. a variational method for lower (not upper) bounds on ground-state energies for many-body systems with two-body interactions, which is then used to derive a surprisingly accurate relation between baryon and meson masses. The exposition is succinct but clear; the solutions can be read as worked examples if you don't want to do the problems yourself. Many problems have additional discussion on limitations and extensions of the theory, or further applications outside physics (e.g., the accuracy of GPS positioning in connection with atomic clocks; proton and ion tumor therapies in connection with the Bethe Bloch formula for charged particles in solids). The problems use mainly non-relativistic quantum mechanics and are organised into three
Henriksen, Ellen K.; Bungum, Berit; Angell, Carl; Tellefsen, Cathrine W.; Frågåt, Thomas; Vetleseter Bøe, Maria
2014-11-01
In this article, we discuss how quantum physics and relativity can be taught in upper secondary school, in ways that promote conceptual understanding and philosophical reflections. We present the ReleQuant project, in which web-based teaching modules have been developed. The modules address competence aims in the Norwegian national curriculum for physics (final year of upper secondary education), which is unique in that it includes general relativity, entangled photons and the epistemological consequences of modern physics. These topics, with their high demands on students’ understanding of abstract and counter-intuitive concepts and principles, are challenging for teachers to teach and for students to learn. However, they also provide opportunities to present modern physics in innovative ways that students may find motivating and relevant both in terms of modern technological applications and in terms of contributions to students’ intellectual development. Beginning with these challenges and opportunities, we briefly present previous research and theoretical perspectives with relevance to student learning and motivation in modern physics. Based on this, we outline the ReleQuant teaching approach, where students use written and oral language and a collaborative exploration of animations and simulations as part of their learning process. Finally, we present some of the first experiences from classroom tests of the quantum physics modules.
Effects of the quantum vacuum in particle physics and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnov, Juri
2014-11-26
In this work we investigate numerous effects of virtual particles on processes relevant for particle physics and cosmology. A central question is, whether radiative spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking can be combined with neutrino mass generation, we find that the answer is affirmative. We discuss the implication of the RSSB on the neutrino mass phenomenology and low-energy observables. Furthermore, by comparing the models to experimental data we find that several anomalies in the present observations favour particular scenarios over the pure Standard Model hypothesis. We are able to show, that the presence of sterile neutrinos with active-sterile mixing of order 10{sup -3} and masses in the TeV range leads to a reduced invisible decay width of the Z-boson and can bring the NuTeV observations in agreement with theoretical expectations. The models we discuss naturally incorporate long lived particles which can serve as dark matter candidates and we investigate this phenomenologically. We find that the combination of the requirements leads to interesting constraints on the model and parameter space. We find that loop induced electromagnetic moments for the neutral dark matter candidates, lead to interactions with charged particles. We use this and derive new constraints from existing XENON100 and LUX data. In addition we study how vacuum effects can backreact on a given geometry in electromagnetism and semiclassical gravity. We find that in the case of gravity the conformal set up plays a special role and indicate several ideas for further investigation of this topic.
Shestakova, T P
2008-01-01
In "extended phase space" approach to quantum geometrodynamics numerical solutions to Schrodinger equation corresponding to various choice of gauge conditions are obtained for the simplest isotropic model. The "extended phase space" approach belongs to those appeared in the last decade in which, as a result of fixing a reference frame, the Wheeler - DeWitt static picture of the world is replaced by evolutionary quantum geometrodynamics. Some aspects of this approach were discussed at two previous PIRT meetings. We are interested in the part of the wave function depending on physical degrees of freedom. Three gauge conditions having a clear physical meaning are considered. They are the conformal time gauge, the gauge producing the appearance of Lambda-term in the Einstein equations, and the one covering the two previous cases as asymptotic limits. The interpretation and discussion of the obtained solutions is given.
Quantum computation and the physical computation level of biological information processing
Castagnoli, Giuseppe
2009-01-01
On the basis of introspective analysis, we establish a crucial requirement for the physical computation basis of consciousness: it should allow processing a significant amount of information together at the same time. Classical computation does not satisfy the requirement. At the fundamental physical level, it is a network of two body interactions, each the input-output transformation of a universal Boolean gate. Thus, it cannot process together at the same time more than the three bit input of this gate - many such gates in parallel do not count since the information is not processed together. Quantum computation satisfies the requirement. At the light of our recent explanation of the speed up, quantum measurement of the solution of the problem is analogous to a many body interaction between the parts of a perfect classical machine, whose mechanical constraints represent the problem to be solved. The many body interaction satisfies all the constraints together at the same time, producing the solution in one ...
From Physical Chemistry to Quantum Chemistry: How Chemists Dealt with Mathematics
Kostas Gavroglu; Ana Simões
2012-01-01
Discussing the relationship of mathematics to chemistry is closely related to the emergence of physical chemistry and of quantum chemistry. We argue that, perhaps, the most significant issue that the 'mathematization of chemistry' has historically raised is not so much methodological, as it is philosophical: the discussion over the ontological status of theoretical entities which were introduced in the process. A systematic study of such an approach to the mathematization of chemistry may, pe...
PT symmetry in quantum physics: From a mathematical curiosity to optical experiments
Bender, Carl M.
2016-04-01
Space-time reflection symmetry, or PT symmetry, first proposed in quantum mechanics by Bender and Boettcher in 1998 [1], has become an active research area in fundamental physics. More than two thousand papers have been published on the subject and papers have appeared in two dozen categories of the arXiv. Over two dozen international conferences and symposia specifically devoted to PT symmetry have been held and many PhD theses have been written.
Quantum physics with multimode light, electronic waveguides and driven oscillators at IFISC
Galve, Fernando; Giorgi, Gian Luca; López, Rosa; Sánchez, David; Serra, Llorenç; Zambrini, Roberta
2011-01-01
[EN] We present here a brief overview of the main topics studied in the Institute for Cross Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems (IFISC) in the line of quantum optics and information, and nanoscience. Our work ranges from the properties of light, such as the formation of optical patterns in nonlinear media and the uncertainty properties of angular momentum vs. angle, to the properties of electronic waveguides where propagation and interference effects can be investigated with great detail...
Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter
2010-12-01
Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands
Lamers, J
2015-01-01
These are lecture notes of an introduction to quantum integrability given at the Tenth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics, 2014, aimed at PhD candidates and junior researchers in theoretical physics. We introduce spin chains and discuss the coordinate Bethe Ansatz (CBA) for a representative example: the Heisenberg XXZ model. The focus lies on the structure of the CBA and on its main results, deferring a detailed treatment of the CBA for the general $M$-particle sector of the XXZ model to an appendix. Subsequently the transfer-matrix method is discussed for the six-vertex model, uncovering a relation between that model and the XXZ spin chain. Equipped with this background the quantum inverse-scattering method (QISM) and algebraic Bethe Ansatz (ABA) are treated. We emphasize the use of graphical notation for algebraic quantities as well as computations. Finally we turn to quantum integrability in the context of theoretical high-energy physics. We discuss factorized scattering in two-dimensional QFT, a...
Bender, Carl
2017-01-01
The theory of complex variables is extremely useful because it helps to explain the mathematical behavior of functions of a real variable. Complex variable theory also provides insight into the nature of physical theories. For example, it provides a simple and beautiful picture of quantization and it explains the underlying reason for the divergence of perturbation theory. By using complex-variable methods one can generalize conventional Hermitian quantum theories into the complex domain. The result is a new class of parity-time-symmetric (PT-symmetric) theories whose remarkable physical properties have been studied and verified in many recent laboratory experiments.
Whiffen, D H
2013-01-01
Expression of Results in Quantum Chemistry recommends the appropriate insertion of physical constants in the output information of a theoretical paper in order to make the numerical end results of theoretical work easily transformed to SI units by the reader. The acceptance of this recommendation would circumvent the need for a set of atomic units each with its own symbol and name. It is the traditional use of the phrase """"atomic units"""" in this area which has obscured the real problem. The four SI dimensions of length, mass, time, and current require four physical constants to be permitte
Atoms, molecules and photons An introduction to atomic-, molecular- and quantum-physics
Demtröder, Wolfgang
2006-01-01
This introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our present model of atoms and molecules has been developed over the last two centuries both by many experimental discoveries and, from the theoretical side, by the introduction of quantum physics to the adequate description of micro-particles. It illustrates the wave model of particles by many examples and shows the limits of classical description. The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its potential for spectroscopy is outlined in more detail and in particular lasers as modern spectroscopic tools are discussed more thoroughly. Many examples and problems with solutions are offered to encourage readers to actively engage in experimentation.
Böhm, Arno; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Niu, Qian; Zwanziger, Joseph
2003-01-01
Aimed at graduate physics and chemistry students, this is the first comprehensive monograph covering the concept of the geometric phase in quantum physics from its mathematical foundations to its physical applications and experimental manifestations It contains all the premises of the adiabatic Berry phase as well as the exact Anandan-Aharonov phase It discusses quantum systems in a classical time-independent environment (time dependent Hamiltonians) and quantum systems in a changing environment (gauge theory of molecular physics) The mathematical methods used are a combination of differential geometry and the theory of linear operators in Hilbert Space As a result, the monograph demonstrates how non-trivial gauge theories naturally arise and how the consequences can be experimentally observed Readers benefit by gaining a deep understanding of the long-ignored gauge theoretic effects of quantum mechanics and how to measure them
Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad
2016-07-01
Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.
Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad
2016-07-15
Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.
Physics and necessity rationalist pursuits from the Cartesian past to the quantum present
Darrigol, Olivier
2014-01-01
Can we prove the necessity of our best physical theories by rational means, without appeal to experience? This book recounts a few ingenious attempts to derive physical theories by reason only, beginning with Descartes' geometric construction of the world, and finishing with recent derivations of quantum mechanics from natural axioms. Deductions based on theological, metaphysical, or transcendental arguments are worth remembering for the ways they motivated and structured physical theory, even though we would now criticize their excessive confidence in the power of the mind. Other deductions more modestly relied on criteria for the comprehensibility of nature, including forms of measurability, causality, homogeneity, and correspondence. The central thesis of this book is that such criteria, when properly applied to idealized systems, effectively determine some of our most important theories as well as the mathematical character of the laws of physics. The relevant arguments are not purely rational, because on...
A Mathematicians' View of Geometrical Unification of General Relativity and Quantum Physics
Vaugon, Michel
2015-01-01
This document contains a description of physics entirely based on a geometric presentation: all of the theory is described giving only a pseudo-riemannian manifold (M, g) of dimension n > 5 for which the g tensor is, in studied domains, almost everywhere of signature (-, -, +, ..., +). No object is added to this space-time, no general principle is supposed. The properties we impose to some domains of (M, g) are only simple geometric constraints, essentially based on the concept of "curvature". These geometric properties allow to define, depending on considered cases, some objects (frequently depicted by tensors) that are similar to the classical physics ones, they are however built here only from the g tensor. The links between these objects, coming from their natural definitions, give, applying standard theorems from the pseudo-riemannian geometry, all equations governing physical phenomena usually described by classical theories, including general relativity and quantum physics. The purely geometric approac...
On an entanglement measure in quantum physics: geometric aspects of density matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franco, D.H.T.; Cima, O.M.D.; Silva, S.L.L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa - UFV, MG (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: The study of entanglement would be justified simply by its theoretical interest, given that this phenomenon since its inception, casts important questions on the basis of a fundamental character of the building that is quantum mechanics. Moreover,the entanglement has been an indispensable ingredient in the field of quantum computing (processing and transmission of information) and also in condensed matter physics (in the understanding of quantum phase transitions). In this work we present and discuss some ways to characterize both quantitatively and qualitatively entanglement. In particular, we aim to introduce and apply the method developed by Dahl et al. [1]. This method determines the distance from the nearest separable state of the state of interest, since this distance may be used to measure the degree of entanglement of the system of interest. We consider a separable state by state with only classical correlations, i.e a non-entangled, non-separable states which are said entangled. Quantum entanglement has been shown, also, a very useful tool in the study of superconductivity. We aim to study the relationship between the phase transition of superconductivity and the spin entanglement of the Cooper pairs. [1] G. Dahl, J. M. Leinaas, J. Myrheim, and E. Ovrum. Linear Algebra and its application, 420:711-725, 2007 (author)
Transport signatures of Kondo physics and quantum criticality in graphene with magnetic impurities
Ruiz-Tijerina, David A.; Dias da Silva, Luis G. G. V.
2017-03-01
Localized magnetic moments have been predicted to develop in graphene samples with vacancies or adsorbates. The interplay between such magnetic impurities and graphene's Dirac quasiparticles leads to remarkable many-body phenomena, which have, so far, proved elusive to experimental efforts. In this article we study the thermodynamic, spectral, and transport signatures of quantum criticality and Kondo physics of a dilute ensemble of atomic impurities in graphene. We consider vacancies and adatoms that either break or preserve graphene's C3 v and inversion symmetries. In a neutral graphene sample, all cases display symmetry-dependent quantum criticality, leading to enhanced impurity scattering for asymmetric impurities, in a manner analogous to bound-state formation by nonmagnetic resonant scatterers. Kondo correlations emerge only in the presence of a back gate, with estimated Kondo temperatures well within the experimentally accessible domain for all impurity types. For symmetry-breaking impurities at charge neutrality, quantum criticality is signaled by T-2 resistivity scaling, leading to full insulating behavior at low temperatures, while low-temperature resistivity plateaus appear both in the noncritical and Kondo regimes. By contrast, the resistivity contribution from symmetric vacancies and hollow-site adsorbates vanishes at charge neutrality and for arbitrary back-gate voltages, respectively. This implies that local probing methods are required for the detection of both Kondo and quantum critical signatures in these symmetry-preserving cases.
Ran, Ying; Jiang, Shenghan
Phases of matter are sharply defined in the thermodynamic limit. One major challenge of accurately simulating quantum phase diagrams of interacting quantum systems is due to the fact that numerical simulations usually deal with the energy density, a local property of quantum wavefunctions, while identifying different quantum phases generally rely on long-range physics. In this paper we construct generic fully symmetric quantum wavefunctions under certain assumptions using a type of tensor networks: projected entangled pair states, and provide practical simulation algorithms based on them. We find that quantum phases can be organized into crude classes distinguished by short-range physics, which is related to the fractionalization of both on-site symmetries and space-group symmetries. Consequently, our simulation algorithms, which are useful to study long-range physics as well, are expected to be able to sharply determine crude classes in interacting quantum systems efficiently. Examples of these crude classes are demonstrated in half-integer quantum spin systems on the kagome lattice. Limitations and generalizations of our results are discussed. The Alfred P. Sloan fellowship and National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1151440.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lambrecht, Juergen
2013-07-01
Since their beginnings at the begin of the 20th century quantum physics in the ontological and epistemological interpretation of their results is facing persistent difficulties, which could not be satisfactorily solved to this day. Some quantum phenomena are beyond of both our everyday understanding of the world and the classical-physical picture of the world, which is essentially based on the mechanics of Isaac Newton. They exceed our imagination and seem at least partly contradict logical and space-time laws. Transcendence-philosophical thinking, which exhibits a close structural relation to the logics of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and to the philosophical systems analysis, provides a set of methodological instruments, which can help to avoid some problems of quantum-theoretical interpretation, which are in striking contrast to the mathematically consistent formulation of quantum theory. This is paradigmatically shown by selected main themes of the quantum-theoretical discussion.
Human Perception of Physical Experiments and the Simplex Interpretation of Quantum Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isaeva E. A.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that knowledge dividing the usual, unusual, transient and transcendental depends on human perception of the world (macro or micro and depends too on the inclusion of human consciousness in the system. For the analysis of this problem the idea of "Schrodinger’s cat" is employed. Transient and transcendental knowledge of the state of Schrodinger’s cat corresponds to the case when the observer’s consciousness is included in the system. Here it is possible to speak about the latent parameters of the sub quantum world of which Einstein was convinced. Knowledge of the unusual state of Schrodinger’s cat, simultaneously alive and dead, corresponds to a case of the open micro world. The usual knowledge of the state of Schrodinger’s cat (alive or dead corresponds to a case of the open macrocosm. Each world separately divides the objective and illusory.
Snyder, D
2002-01-01
A straightforward explanation of fundamental tenets of quantum mechanics concerning the wave function results in the thesis that the quantum mechanical wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world. The reticence on the part of physicists to adopt this thesis is discussed. A comparison is made to the behaviorists' consideration of mind, and the historical roots of how the problem concerning the quantum mechanical wave function arose are discussed. The basis for an empirical demonstration that the wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world is provided through developing an experiment using methodology from psychology and physics. Based on research in psychology and physics that relied on this methodology, it is likely that Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's theoretical result that mutually exclusive wave functions can simultaneously apply to the same concrete physical circumstances can be implemented on an empirical level.
Wang, Hefeng
2014-08-14
We present a quantum algorithm that provides a general approach for obtaining the energy spectrum of a physical system without making a guess on its eigenstates. In this algorithm, a probe qubit is coupled to a quantum register R which consists of one ancilla qubit and an n-qubit register that represents the system. R is prepared in a general reference state, and a general excitation operator that acts on R is constructed. The probe exhibits a dynamical response only when it is resonant with a transition from the reference state to an excited state of R which contains the eigenstates of the system. By varying the probe's frequency, the energy spectrum and the eigenstates of the system can be obtained.
Crossover physics in the nonequilibrium dynamics of quenched quantum impurity systems.
Vasseur, Romain; Trinh, Kien; Haas, Stephan; Saleur, Hubert
2013-06-14
A general framework is proposed to tackle analytically local quantum quenches in integrable impurity systems, combining a mapping onto a boundary problem with the form factor approach to boundary-condition-changing operators introduced by Lesage and Saleur [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4370 (1998)]. We discuss how to compute exactly the following two central quantities of interest: the Loschmidt echo and the distribution of the work done during the quantum quench. Our results display an interesting crossover physics characterized by the energy scale T(b) of the impurity corresponding to the Kondo temperature. We discuss in detail the noninteracting case as a paradigm and benchmark for more complicated integrable impurity models and check our results using numerical methods.
Tapia, O
2012-01-01
Femtosecond torsional relaxation processes experimentally detected and recently reported by Clark et al. (Nature Phys. 8,225 (2012)) are theoretically dissected with a Hilbert/Fock quantum physical (QP) framework incorporating entanglement of photon/matter base states overcoming standard semi-classic vibrational descriptions. The quantum analysis of a generic Z/E (cis/trans) isomerization in abstract QP terms shed light to fundamental roles played by photonic spin and excited electronic singlet coupled to triplet states. It is shown that one photon activation cannot elicit femtosecond phenomenon, while a two-photon pulse would do. Estimated time scales for the two-photon case indicate the process to lie between a slower than electronic Franck-Condon-like transition yet faster than (semi-classic) vibration relaxation ones.
Bohm Quantum Trajectories of Scalar Field in Trans-Planckian Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung-Jeng Huang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In lattice Schrödinger picture, we investigate the possible effects of trans-Planckian physics on the quantum trajectories of scalar field in de Sitter space within the framework of the pilot-wave theory of de Broglie and Bohm. For the massless minimally coupled scalar field and the Corley-Jacobson type dispersion relation with sextic correction to the standard-squared linear relation, we obtain the time evolution of vacuum state of the scalar field during slow-roll inflation. We find that there exists a transition in the evolution of the quantum trajectory from well before horizon exit to well after horizon exit, which provides a possible mechanism to solve the riddle of the smallness of the cosmological constant.
Glimpses of the Octonions and Quaternions History and Todays Applications in Quantum Physics
Kwasniewski, A K
2008-01-01
Before we dive into the accessibility stream of nowadays indicatory applications of octonions to computer and other sciences and to quantum physics let us focus for a while on the crucially relevant events for todays revival on interest to nonassociativity. Our reflections keep wandering back to the $Brahmagupta$ $Fibonacc$ two square identity and then via the $Euler$ four square identity up to the $Degen$ $Ggraves$ $Cayley$ eight square identity. These glimpses of history incline and invite us to retell the story on how about one month after quaternions have been carved on the $Broughamian$ bridge octonions were discovered by $John$ $Thomas$ $Ggraves$, jurist and mathematician, a friend of $William$ $Rowan$ $Hamilton$. As for today we just mention en passant quaternionic and octonionic quantum mechanics, generalization of $Cauchy$ $Riemann$ equations for octonions and triality principle and $G_2$ group in spinor language in a descriptive way in order not to daunt non specialists. Relation to finite geometrie...
Atoms, Molecules and Photons An Introduction to Atomic-, Molecular- and Quantum Physics
Demtröder, Wolfgang
2010-01-01
This introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our present model of atoms and molecules has been developed over the last two centuries both by many experimental discoveries and, from the theoretical side, by the introduction of quantum physics to the adequate description of micro-particles. It illustrates the wave model of particles by many examples and shows the limits of classical description. The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its potential for spectroscopy is outlined in more detail and in particular lasers as modern spectroscopic tools are discussed more thoroughly. Many examples and problems with solutions are offered to encourage readers to actively engage in applying and adapting the fundamental physics presented in this textbook to specific situations. Completely revised new edition with new sections covering all actual developments, like x-ray optics, ion-cyclotron-resonance spectrometer, attosecond lasers, ultraprecission frequency measurement ...
PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics
Fring, Andreas; Jones, Hugh; Znojil, Miloslav
2008-06-01
Attempts to understand the quantum mechanics of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems can be traced back to the early days, one example being Heisenberg's endeavour to formulate a consistent model involving an indefinite metric. Over the years non-Hermitian Hamiltonians whose spectra were believed to be real have appeared from time to time in the literature, for instance in the study of strong interactions at high energies via Regge models, in condensed matter physics in the context of the XXZ-spin chain, in interacting boson models in nuclear physics, in integrable quantum field theories as Toda field theories with complex coupling constants, and also very recently in a field theoretical scenario in the quantization procedure of strings on an AdS5 x S5 background. Concrete experimental realizations of these types of systems in the form of optical lattices have been proposed in 2007. In the area of mathematical physics similar non-systematic results appeared sporadically over the years. However, intensive and more systematic investigation of these types of non- Hermitian Hamiltonians with real eigenvalue spectra only began about ten years ago, when the surprising discovery was made that a large class of one-particle systems perturbed by a simple non-Hermitian potential term possesses a real energy spectrum. Since then regular international workshops devoted to this theme have taken place. This special issue is centred around the 6th International Workshop on Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics held in July 2007 at City University London. All the contributions contain significant new results or alternatively provide a survey of the state of the art of the subject or a critical assessment of the present understanding of the topic and a discussion of open problems. Original contributions from non-participants were also invited. Meanwhile many interesting results have been obtained and consensus has been reached on various central conceptual issues in the
The limits of predictability: Indeterminism and undecidability in classical and quantum physics
Korolev, Alexandre V.
This thesis is a collection of three case studies, investigating various sources of indeterminism and undecidability as they bear upon in principle unpredictability of the behaviour of mechanistic systems in both classical and quantum physics. I begin by examining the sources of indeterminism and acausality in classical physics. Here I discuss the physical significance of an often overlooked and yet important Lipschitz condition, the violation of which underlies the existence of anomalous non-trivial solutions in the Norton-type indeterministic systems. I argue that the singularity arising from the violation of the Lipschitz condition in the systems considered appears to be so fragile as to be easily destroyed by slightly relaxing certain (infinite) idealizations required by these models. In particular, I show that the idealization of an absolutely nondeformable, or infinitely rigid, dome appears to be an essential assumption for anomalous motion to begin; any slightest elastic deformations of the dome due to finite rigidity of the dome destroy the shape of the dome required for indeterminism to obtain. I also consider several modifications of the original Norton's example and show that indeterminism in these cases, too, critically depends on the nature of certain idealizations pertaining to elastic properties of the bodies in these models. As a result, I argue that indeterminism of the Norton-type Lipschitz-indeterministic systems should rather be viewed as an artefact of certain (infinite) idealizations essential for the models, depriving the examples of much of their intended metaphysical import, as, for example, in Norton's antifundamentalist programme. Second, I examine the predictive computational limitations of a classical Laplace's demon. I demonstrate that in situations of self-fulfilling prognoses the class of undecidable propositions about certain future events, in general, is not empty; any Laplace's demon having all the information about the world now
A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.
Rotter, I; Bird, J P
2015-11-01
This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q + P = 1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In
A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment
Rotter, I.; Bird, J. P.
2015-11-01
This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q + P = 1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In
Human Perception of Physical Experiments and the Simplex Interpretation of Quantum Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isaeva E. A.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that knowledge dividing the usual, unusual, transient and transcendental depends on human perception of the world (macro or micro and depends too on the inclusion of human consciousness in the system. For the analysis of this problem the idea of “Schrödinger’s cat” is employed. Transient and transcendental knowledge of the state of Schrödinger’s cat corresponds to the case when the observer’s consciousness is included in the system. Here it is possible to speak about the latent parameters of the sub quantum world of which Einstein was convinced. Knowledge of the unusual state of Schrödinger’s cat, simultaneously alive and dead, corresponds to a case of the open micro world. The usual knowledge of the state of Schrödinger’s cat (alive or dead corresponds to a case of the open macrocosm. Each world separately divides the objective and illusory.
A study on pre-service physics teachers' conceptualization on elementary quantum mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glauco Cohen Ferreira Pantoja
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this work, we present the results of a research in which we aimed to evidence obstacles and advances in pre-service teachers’ conceptualization on a subject involving elementary Quantum Mechanics. We based our analysis on the theories due to David Ausubel and Gèrard Vergnaud to study Meaningful Learning patterns, both in predicative and operatory form of knowledge, of six students involved in a didactical intervention composed of six classes, in which we emphasized both similarities and differences between Classical and Quantum Physics. With this intervention, we intended to teach the concepts of Physical System, Dynamical Variables, State of a Physical System and Time Evolution. We guided our data analysis by the methodology of content analysis (Bardin, 2008 and it turned possible to map Meaningful Learning patterns involving the four concepts to which were associated a set of essential features (in the predicative stage and a set of theorems-in-action (in the operatory stage relating the aim-concepts in problem-solving or conceptual mapping.
Bays, Harold
2005-05-01
Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics.
Eid, Khalid; Yarrison-Rice, Jan; Jaeger, Herbert
2013-03-01
We remodeled our sophomore curriculum extensively both in the laboratories and the lectures. Our Experimental Contemporary Physics laboratory (PHY293) was almost completely re-built both in curriculum and pedagogy. Among the new experiments that we introduced are Nanoparticle plasmon resonance, Saturated absorption and fluorescence in iodine molecules, Quantized conductance in atomic-scale constrictions, and Water droplets behavior and manipulation on metal surfaces. This presentation will focus on the last two experiments. Quantized conductance in a constriction in a gold wire being pulled slowly is a unique direct application of the one-dimensional potential wells. Unlike most experiments on quantum mechanics that use optics, this experiment is transport-based, conceptually simple, and robust in addition to being low-cost. The transport properties of the wire span multiple transport regimes while being pulled. It is quite valuable for students (a significant fraction of whom are biological physics and engineering physics majors) to understand the behavior of water droplets on different surfaces. Water is the medium in which biological activities occur and is important in many other applications like air conditioning and refrigeration. We design simple gradients in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of metal surfaces in order to move water droplets in a controlled way, even against gravity. Students explore the effects of surface tension and metal roughness on droplets.
The XXth International Workshop High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory
The Workshop continues a series of workshops started by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in 1985 and conceived with the purpose of presenting topics of current interest and providing a stimulating environment for scientific discussion on new developments in theoretical and experimental high energy physics and physical programs for future colliders. Traditionally the list of workshop attendees includes a great number of active young scientists and students from Russia and other countries. This year Workshop is organized jointly by the SINP MSU and the Southern Federal University (SFedU) and will take place in the holiday hotel "Luchezarniy" (Effulgent) situated on the Black Sea shore in a picturesque natural park in the suburb of the largest Russian resort city Sochi - the host city of the XXII Olympic Winter Games to be held in 2014. The main topics to be covered are: Experimental results from the LHC. Tevatron summary: the status of the Standard Model and the boundaries on BSM physics. Future physics at Linear Colliders and super B-factories. Extensions of the Standard Model and their phenomenological consequences at the LHC and Linear Colliders: SUSY extensions of the Standard Model; particle interactions in space-time with extra dimensions; strings, quantum groups and new ideas from modern algebra and geometry. Higher order corrections and resummations for collider phenomenology. Automatic calculations of Feynman diagrams and Monte Carlo simulations. LHC/LC and astroparticle/cosmology connections. Modern nuclear physics and relativistic nucleous-nucleous collisions.
Héraud, Jean-Loup; Lautesse, Philippe; Ferlin, Fabrice; Chabot, Hugues
2017-05-01
Our work extends a previous study of epistemological presuppositions in teaching quantum physics in upper scientific secondary school in France. Here, the problematic reference of quantum theory's concepts is treated at the ontological level (the counterintuitive nature of quantum objects). We consider the approach of using narratives describing possible alternative worlds to address the issue. These possible worlds are based on the counterfactual logic developed in the work of D. Lewis. We will show that the narratives written by G. Gamow describe such possible worlds. Some parts of these narratives are found in textbooks in France. These worlds are governed by laws similar to but importantly different from those in our real world. They allow us to materialize properties inaccessible to everyday experience. In this sense, these fiction stories make ontological propositions concerning the nature and structure of the fundamental elements of our physical universe.
Information and Entanglement Measures in Quantum Systems With Applications to Atomic Physics
Manzano, Daniel
2011-01-01
This thesis is a multidisciplinary contribution to the information theory of single-particle Coulomb systems in their relativistic and not relativistic description, to the theory of special functions of mathematical physics with the proposal and analysis of a new set of measures of spreading for orthogonal polynomials, to quantum computation and learning devices and to the analysis of entanglement in systems of identical fermions, in this field we propose a separability criteria for pure states of N identical fermions and the entanglement of two-electron atoms is studied, a new separability criteria for continuous variable systems is also analyzed. The notions of information, complexity and entanglement play a central role.
Light-front quantum chromodynamics: A framework for the analysis of hadron physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakker, B. L.G.; Bassetto, A.; Brodsky, S. J.; Broniowski, W.; Dalley, S.; Frederico, T.; Glazek, S. D.; Hiller, J. R.; Ji, C. -R.; Karmanov, V.; Kulshreshtha, D.; Mathiot, J. -F.; Melnitchouk, W.; Miller, G. A.; Papavassiliou, J.; Polyzou, W. N.; Stefanis, N.; Vary, J. P.; Ilderton, A.; Heinzl, T.
2014-06-01
An outstanding goal of physics is to find solutions that describe hadrons in the theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). For this goal, the light-front Hamiltonian formulation of QCD (LFQCD) is a complementary approach to the well-established lattice gauge method. LFQCD offers access to the hadrons nonperturbative quark and gluon amplitudes, which are directly testable in experiments at forefront facilities. We present an overview of the promises and challenges of LFQCD in the context of unsolved issues in QCD that require broadened and accelerated investigation. We identify specific goals of this approach and address its quantifiable uncertainties.
Mathematical physics of quantum mechanics. Selected and refereed lectures from QMath9
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asch, J. [Universite du Sud Toulon Var, 83 - La Garde (France). Dept. de Mathematiques; Joye, A. (eds.) [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France). Inst. Fourier
2006-07-01
QMath9 is a meeting for young scientists to learn about the state of the art in the Mathematical Physics of Quantum Systems. This selection of outstanding articles written in pedagogical style has six sections that cover new techniques and recent results on spectral theory, statistical mechanics, Bose-Einstein condensation, random operators, magnetic Schroedinger operators and much more. For postgraduate students this book can be used as a useful introduction to the research literature. For more expert researcher this book will be a concise and modern source of reference. (orig.)
Heating the coffee by looking at it. Or why quantum measurements are physical processes
Echenique-Robba, Pablo
2014-01-01
Using a very simple Gedankenexperiment, I remind the reader that (contrary to what happens in classical mechanics) the energy of a quantum system is inevitably increased just by performing (some) textbook measurements on it. As a direct conclusion, this means that some measurements require the expenditure of a finite amount of energy to be carried out. I also argue that this makes it very difficult to regard measurements as disembodied, immaterial, informational operations, and it forces us to look at them as physical processes just like any other one.
Light-Front Quantum Chromodynamics: A framework for the analysis of hadron physics
Bakker, B L G; Brodsky, S J; Broniowski, W; Dalley, S; Frederico, T; Glazek, S D; Hiller, J R; Ji, C -R; Karmanov, V; Kulshreshtha, D; Mathiot, J -F; Melnitchouk, W; Miller, G A; Papavassiliou, J; Polyzou, W N; Stefanis, N G; Vary, J P; Ilderton, A; Heinzl, T
2013-01-01
An outstanding goal of physics is to find solutions that describe hadrons in the theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). For this goal, the light-front Hamiltonian formulation of QCD (LFQCD) is a complementary approach to the well-established lattice gauge method. LFQCD offers access to the hadrons' nonperturbative quark and gluon amplitudes, which are directly testable in experiments at existing and future facilities. We present an overview of the promises and challenges of LFQCD in the context of unsolved issues in QCD that require broadened and accelerated investigation. We identify specific goals of this approach and address its quantifiable uncertainties.
Marshman, Emily Megan
Many physics graduate students face the unique challenge of being both students and teachers concurrently. To succeed in these roles, they must develop both physics content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. My research focuses on improving both the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of first year graduate students. To improve their content knowledge, I have focused on improving graduate students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics covered in upper-level undergraduate courses since our earlier investigations suggest that many graduate students struggle in developing a conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. Learning tools, such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials (QuILTs) that I have developed, have been successful in helping graduate students improve their understanding of Dirac notation and single photon behavior in the context of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. In addition, I have been involved in enhancing our semester long course professional development course for teaching assistants (TAs) by including research-based activities. In particular, I have been researching the implications of graduate TAs' reflections on the connections between their grading practices and student learning, i.e., the development of introductory physics students' content knowledge and problem-solving, reasoning, and metacognitive skills. This research involves having graduate students grade sample student solutions to introductory physics problems. Afterward, the graduate TAs discuss with each other the pros and cons of different grading rubrics on student learning and formulate a joint grading rubric to grade the problem. The graduate TAs are individually asked to reformulate a rubric and grade problems using the rubric several months after the group activity to assess the impact of the intervention on graduate TAs. In addition to the intervention focusing on grading sample student solutions, graduate TAs are also asked to answer
Sayer, Ryan Thomas
Upper-level undergraduate students entering a quantum mechanics (QM) course are in many ways similar to students entering an introductory physics course. Numerous studies have investigated the difficulties that novices face in introductory physics as well as the pedagogical approaches that are effective in helping them overcome those difficulties. My research focuses on replicating effective approaches and instructional strategies used in introductory physics courses to help advanced students in an upper-level QM course. I have investigated the use of Just-in-time Teaching (JiTT) and peer discussion involving clicker questions in an upper-level quantum mechanics course. The JiTT approach including peer discussions was effective in helping students overcome their difficulties and improve their understanding of QM concepts. Learning tools, such as a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) based on the Doubleslit Experiment (DSE) which I helped develop, have been successful in helping upper-level undergraduate students improve their understanding of QM. Many students have also demonstrated the ability to transfer knowledge from a QuILT based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer while working on the DSE QuILT. In addition, I have been involved in implementing research-based activities during our semester-long professional development course for teaching assistants (TAs). In one intervention, TAs were asked to grade student solutions to introductory physics problems first using their choice of method, then again using a rubric designed to promote effective problem-solving approaches, then once more at the end of the semester using their choice of method. This intervention found that many TAs have ingrained beliefs about the purposes of grading which include placing the burden of proof on the instructor as well as a belief that grading cannot serve as a formative assessment. I also compared TAs grading practices and considerations when grading student solutions to QM
Retrocausation in quantum mechanics and the effects of minds on the creation of physical reality
Stapp, Henry P.
2017-05-01
The classical physical theories that prevailed in science from the time of Isaac Newton until the dawn of the twentieth century were empirically based on human experience and made predictions about our mental experiences, yet excluded from the dynamics all mental properties. But how can one rationally get mental things out if no mental elements are put in? The key step in the creation of quantum mechanics during 1925 by Heisenberg and his colleagues was to recognize and emphasize the essential dynamical role of mental properties in the creation of our mental empirical findings. This basic feature of quantum mechanics was cast into rigorous mathematical form by John von Neumann, and was made a central feature of contemporary relativistic quantum field theory by the work of Tomonaga and Schwinger. That theory is causally strictly forward in time. But it is explained here how it can nevertheless accommodate the seeming backward-in-time causal effects reported by D.J. Bem, and many others, by means of a slight biasing of the famous Born Rule. The purpose of this communication is to explain how those reported retrocausal findings can be explained by a strictly forward-in-time and nearly orthodox causal dynamics that, however, permits the Born Rule to be slightly biased under certain conditions. A feasible experiment is proposed that, if it gives the outcomes predicted by the proposed theory, will provide evidence in favor of this causally forward-in-time and nearly orthodox explanation of the reported retrocausal effects.
Searching for new physics at the frontiers with lattice quantum chromodynamics.
Van de Water, Ruth S
2012-07-01
Numerical lattice-quantum chromodynamics (QCD) simulations, when combined with experimental measurements, allow the determination of fundamental parameters of the particle-physics Standard Model and enable searches for physics beyond-the-Standard Model. We present the current status of lattice-QCD weak matrix element calculations needed to obtain the elements and phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix and to test the Standard Model in the quark-flavor sector. We then discuss evidence that may hint at the presence of new physics beyond the Standard Model CKM framework. Finally, we discuss two opportunities where we expect lattice QCD to play a pivotal role in searching for, and possibly discovery of, new physics at upcoming high-intensity experiments: rare decays and the muon anomalous magnetic moment. The next several years may witness the discovery of new elementary particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The interplay between lattice QCD, high-energy experiments at the LHC, and high-intensity experiments will be needed to determine the underlying structure of whatever physics beyond-the-Standard Model is realized in nature.
Chandrasekhar limit: an elementary approach based on classical physics and quantum theory
Pinochet, Jorge; Van Sint Jan, Michael
2016-05-01
In a brief article published in 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar made public an important astronomical discovery. In his article, the then young Indian astrophysicist introduced what is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit. This limit establishes the maximum mass of a stellar remnant beyond which the repulsion force between electrons due to the exclusion principle can no longer stop the gravitational collapse. In the present article, we create an elemental approximation to the Chandrasekhar limit, accessible to non-graduate science and engineering students. The article focuses especially on clarifying the origins of Chandrasekhar’s discovery and the underlying physical concepts. Throughout the article, only basic algebra is used as well as some general notions of classical physics and quantum theory.
Feshbach Prize: New Phenomena and New Physics from Strongly-Correlated Quantum Matter
Carlson, Joseph A.
2017-01-01
Strongly correlated quantum matter is ubiquitous in physics from cold atoms to nuclei to the cold dense matter found in neutron stars. Experiments from table-top to the extremely large scale experiments including FRIB and LIGO will help determine the properties of matter across an incredible scale of distances and energies. Questions to be addressed include the existence of exotic states of matter in cold atoms and nuclei, the response of this correlated matter to external probes, and the behavior of matter in extreme astrophysical environments. A more complete understanding is required, both to understand these diverse phenomena and to employ this understanding to probe for new underlying physics in experiments including neutrinoless double beta decay and accelerator neutrino experiments. I will summarize some aspects of our present understanding and highlight several important prospects for the future.
Three dimensional loop quantum gravity: physical scalar product and spin foam models
Noui, K; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro
2004-01-01
In this paper, we address the problem of the dynamics in three dimensional loop quantum gravity with zero cosmological constant. We construct a rigorous definition of Rovelli's generalized projection operator from the kinematical Hilbert space--corresponding to the quantization of the infinite dimensional kinematical configuration space of the theory--to the physical Hilbert space. In particular, we provide the definition of the physical scalar product which can be represented in terms of a sum over (finite) spin-foam amplitudes. Therefore, we establish a clear-cut connection between the canonical quantization of three dimensional gravity and spin-foam models. We emphasize two main properties of the result: first that no cut-off in the kinematical degrees of freedom of the theory is introduced (in contrast to standard `lattice' methods), and second that no ill-defined sum over spins (`bubble' divergences) are present in the spin foam representation.
Three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: physical scalar product and spin-foam models
Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro
2005-05-01
In this paper, we address the problem of the dynamics in three-dimensional loop quantum gravity with zero cosmological constant. We construct a rigorous definition of Rovelli's generalized projection operator from the kinematical Hilbert space—corresponding to the quantization of the infinite-dimensional kinematical configuration space of the theory—to the physical Hilbert space. In particular, we provide the definition of the physical scalar product which can be represented in terms of a sum over (finite) spin-foam amplitudes. Therefore, we establish a clear-cut connection between the canonical quantization of three-dimensional gravity and spin-foam models. We emphasize two main properties of the result: first that no cut-off in the kinematical degrees of freedom of the theory is introduced (in contrast to standard 'lattice' methods), and second that no ill-defined sum over spins ('bubble' divergences) are present in the spin-foam representation.
Classical solutions in quantum field theory solitons and instantons in high energy physics
Weinberg, Erick J
2012-01-01
Classical solutions play an important role in quantum field theory, high energy physics and cosmology. Real-time soliton solutions give rise to particles, such as magnetic monopoles, and extended structures, such as domain walls and cosmic strings, that have implications for early universe cosmology. Imaginary-time Euclidean instantons are responsible for important nonperturbative effects, while Euclidean bounce solutions govern transitions between metastable states. Written for advanced graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics, cosmology and related fields, this book brings the reader up to the level of current research in the field. The first half of the book discusses the most important classes of solitons: kinks, vortices and magnetic monopoles. The cosmological and observational constraints on these are covered, as are more formal aspects, including BPS solitons and their connection with supersymmetry. The second half is devoted to Euclidean solutions, with particular emphasis on ...
Physical microscopic free-choice model in the framework of a Darwinian approach to quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baladron, Carlos [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011, Valladolid (Spain)
2017-06-15
A compatibilistic model of free choice for a fundamental particle is built within a general framework that explores the possibility that quantum mechanics be the emergent result of generalised Darwinian evolution acting on the abstract landscape of possible physical theories. The central element in this approach is a probabilistic classical Turing machine -basically an information processor plus a randomiser- methodologically associated with every fundamental particle. In this scheme every system acts not under a general law, but as a consequence of the command of a particular, evolved algorithm. This evolved programme enables the particle to algorithmically anticipate possible future world configurations in information space, and as a consequence, without altering the natural forward causal order in physical space, to incorporate elements to the decision making procedure that are neither purely random nor strictly in the past, but in a possible future. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Bell, John Stewart; Gottfried, Kurt; Veltman, Martinus J G
1994-01-01
The scientific career of John Stewart Bell was distinguished by its breadth and its quality. He made several very important contributions to scientific fields as diverse as accelerator physics, high energy physics and the foundations of quantum mechanics. This book contains a large part of J S Bell's publications, including those that are recognized as his most important achievements, as well as others that are for no good reason less well known. The selection was made by Mary Bell, Martinus Veltman and Kurt Gottfried, all of whom were involved with John Bell both personally and professionally throughout a large part of his life. An introductory chapter has been written to help place the selected papers in a historical context and to review their significance. This book comprises an impressive collection of outstanding scientific work of one of the greatest scientists of the recent past, and it will remain important and influential for a long time to come.
12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics: Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory
LL2014
2014-01-01
The bi-annual international conference “Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory” has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the ...
BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century
Brown, Neil
2000-03-01
Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and
Rechberger, Elke Ruth
1999-11-01
Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.
Complexity in quantum field theory and physics beyond the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldfain, Ervin [OptiSolve Consulting, 4422 Cleveland Road, Syracuse, NY 13215 (United States)]. E-mail: ervingoldfain@hotmail.com
2006-05-15
Complex quantum field theory (abbreviated c-QFT) is introduced in this paper as an alternative framework for the description of physics beyond the energy range of the standard model. The mathematics of c-QFT is based on fractal differential operators that generalize the momentum operators of conventional quantum field theory (QFT). The underlying premise of our approach is that c-QFT contains the right analytical tools for dealing with the asymptotic regime of QFT. Canonical quantization of c-QFT leads to the following findings: (i) the Fock space of c-QFT includes fractional numbers of particles and antiparticles per state (ii) c-QFT represents a generalization of topological field theory and (iii) classical limit of c-QFT is equivalent to field theory in curved space-time. The first finding provides a field-theoretic motivation for the transfinite discretization approach of El-Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity}}{sup )} theory. The second and third findings suggest the dynamic unification of boson and fermion fields as particles with fractional spin, as well as the close connection between spin and space-time topology beyond the conventional physics of the standard model.
Bryce, Richard A
2011-04-01
The ability to accurately predict the interaction of a ligand with its receptor is a key limitation in computer-aided drug design approaches such as virtual screening and de novo design. In this article, we examine current strategies for a physics-based approach to scoring of protein-ligand affinity, as well as outlining recent developments in force fields and quantum chemical techniques. We also consider advances in the development and application of simulation-based free energy methods to study protein-ligand interactions. Fuelled by recent advances in computational algorithms and hardware, there is the opportunity for increased integration of physics-based scoring approaches at earlier stages in computationally guided drug discovery. Specifically, we envisage increased use of implicit solvent models and simulation-based scoring methods as tools for computing the affinities of large virtual ligand libraries. Approaches based on end point simulations and reference potentials allow the application of more advanced potential energy functions to prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities. Comprehensive evaluation of polarizable force fields and quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical and QM methods in scoring of protein-ligand interactions is required, particularly in their ability to address challenging targets such as metalloproteins and other proteins that make highly polar interactions. Finally, we anticipate increasingly quantitative free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods that are practical for optimization of hits obtained from screened ligand libraries.
A course in mathematical physics 3 quantum mechanics of atoms and molecules
Thirring, Walter
1981-01-01
In this third volume of A Course in Mathematical Physics I have attempted not simply to introduce axioms and derive quantum mechanics from them, but also to progress to relevant applications. Reading the axiomatic litera ture often gives one the impression that it largely consists of making refined axioms, thereby freeing physics from any trace of down-to-earth residue and cutting it off from simpler ways of thinking. The goal pursued here, however, is to come up with concrete results that can be compared with experimental facts. Everything else should be regarded only as a side issue, and has been chosen for pragmatic reasons. It is precisely with this in mind that I feel it appropriate to draw upon the most modern mathematical methods. Only by their means can the logical fabric of quantum theory be woven with a smooth structure; in their absence, rough spots would . inevitably appear, especially in the theory of unbounded operators, where the details are too intricate to be comprehended easily. Great care...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dattoli, Giuseppe; Torre, Amalia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Ottaviani, Pier Luigi [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy); Vasquez, Luis [Madris, Univ. Complutense (Spain). Dept. de Matemateca Aplicado
1997-10-01
The finite-difference based integration method for evolution-line equations is discussed in detail and framed within the general context of the evolution operator picture. Exact analytical methods are described to solve evolution-like equations in a quite general physical context. The numerical technique based on the factorization formulae of exponential operator is then illustrated and applied to the evolution-operator in both classical and quantum framework. Finally, the general view to the finite differencing schemes is provided, displaying the wide range of applications from the classical Newton equation of motion to the quantum field theory.
Steane, A M
1998-01-01
The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarise not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, the review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the EPR experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from classical information theory, and, arguably, quantum from classical physics. Basic quantum information ideas are described, including key distribution, teleportation, data compression, quantum error correction, the universal quantum computer and qua...
Recent Progress in the Physics of Open Quantum Systems: Theory and Experiment
Rotter, I
2015-01-01
This Report explores recent advances in our understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs) which consist of some localized region that is coupled to an external environment. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics including mesoscopic physics that provides the main focus of this review. We provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of OQSs in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region ($Q$), embedded into a well-defined environment ($P$) of scattering wavefunctions (with $Q+P=1$). The $Q$ subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of $Q$; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamica...
Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!
Zeps, Dainis
2009-01-01
10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...
Heusler, Stefan
2006-12-01
The main focus of the second, enlarged edition of the book Mathematica for Theoretical Physics is on computational examples using the computer program Mathematica in various areas in physics. It is a notebook rather than a textbook. Indeed, the book is just a printout of the Mathematica notebooks included on the CD. The second edition is divided into two volumes, the first covering classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, the second dealing with examples in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, general relativity and fractal geometry. The second volume is not suited for newcomers because basic and simple physical ideas which lead to complex formulas are not explained in detail. Instead, the computer technology makes it possible to write down and manipulate formulas of practically any length. For researchers with experience in computing, the book contains a lot of interesting and non-trivial examples. Most of the examples discussed are standard textbook problems, but the power of Mathematica opens the path to more sophisticated solutions. For example, the exact solution for the perihelion shift of Mercury within general relativity is worked out in detail using elliptic functions. The virial equation of state for molecules' interaction with Lennard-Jones-like potentials is discussed, including both classical and quantum corrections to the second virial coefficient. Interestingly, closed solutions become available using sophisticated computing methods within Mathematica. In my opinion, the textbook should not show formulas in detail which cover three or more pages—these technical data should just be contained on the CD. Instead, the textbook should focus on more detailed explanation of the physical concepts behind the technicalities. The discussion of the virial equation would benefit much from replacing 15 pages of Mathematica output with 15 pages of further explanation and motivation. In this combination, the power of computing merged with physical intuition
Base units of the SI, fundamental constants and modern quantum physics.
Bordé, Christian J
2005-09-15
Over the past 40 years, a number of discoveries in quantum physics have completely transformed our vision of fundamental metrology. This revolution starts with the frequency stabilization of lasers using saturation spectroscopy and the redefinition of the metre by fixing the velocity of light c. Today, the trend is to redefine all SI base units from fundamental constants and we discuss strategies to achieve this goal. We first consider a kinematical frame, in which fundamental constants with a dimension, such as the speed of light c, the Planck constant h, the Boltzmann constant k(B) or the electron mass m(e) can be used to connect and redefine base units. The various interaction forces of nature are then introduced in a dynamical frame, where they are completely characterized by dimensionless coupling constants such as the fine structure constant alpha or its gravitational analogue alpha(G). This point is discussed by rewriting the Maxwell and Dirac equations with new force fields and these coupling constants. We describe and stress the importance of various quantum effects leading to the advent of this new quantum metrology. In the second part of the paper, we present the status of the seven base units and the prospects of their possible redefinitions from fundamental constants in an experimental perspective. The two parts can be read independently and they point to these same conclusions concerning the redefinitions of base units. The concept of rest mass is directly related to the Compton frequency of a body, which is precisely what is measured by the watt balance. The conversion factor between mass and frequency is the Planck constant, which could therefore be fixed in a realistic and consistent new definition of the kilogram based on its Compton frequency. We discuss also how the Boltzmann constant could be better determined and fixed to replace the present definition of the kelvin.
Analog quantum computing (AQC) and the need for time-symmetric physics
Werbos, Paul J.; Dolmatova, Ludmilla
2016-03-01
This paper discusses what will be necessary to achieve the full potential capabilities of analog quantum computing (AQC), which is defined here as the enrichment of continuous-variable computing to include stochastic, nonunitary circuit elements such as dissipative spin gates and address the wider range of tasks emerging from new trends in engineering, such as approximation of stochastic maps, ghost imaging and new forms of neural networks and intelligent control. This paper focuses especially on what is needed in terms of new experiments to validate remarkable new results in the modeling of triple entanglement, and in creating a pathway which links fundamental theoretical work with hard core experimental work, on a pathway to AQC similar to the pathway to digital quantum computing already blazed by Zeilinger's group. It discusses the most recent experiments and reviews two families of alternative models based on the traditional eigenvector projection model of polarizers and on a new family of local realistic models based on Markov Random Fields across space-time adhering to the rules of time-symmetric physics. For both families, it reviews lumped parameter versions, continuous time extension and possibilities for extension to continuous space and time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krause, Décio
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Nobel laureate Hans Dehmelt trapped a positron for three months, which was named “Priscilla”. Dehmelt said that we could not doubt the identity of Priscilla. This poses us a philosophical problem, for we have learnt from quantum physics (in most of its interpretations that quantum objects shouldn’t have individuality. In this paper, we address on the questions of naming quanta and the issue of individuation. We conclude by saying that, although Dehmelt has named something, this something is not an individual.
El Premio Nobel Hans Dehmelt aprisionó un positron, que fue llamado “Priscilla”. Dehmelt dijo que no podemos dudar de la identidad de Priscilla. Eso nos coloca un problema filosófico, puesto que aprendimos con la mecánica cuántica (en sus principales interpretaciones que los objetos cuánticos no deberían tener individualidad. En este artículo, discutimos las cuestiones de nombrar los quanta y las cuestiones de la individuación. Conclúyenos que, a pesar de que Dehmelt nombró algo, ese algo no es un individuo.
Godfrey, David Wayne
Many are beginning to see the promise that the quantum world has offered those who manage and lead organizations (Wheatley, 1992; Zohar, 1997). The Newtonian world is one in which all "things" are reduced to their smallest parts, separated, divided, and analyzed with predictability, with complete control being the ultimate goal. The quantum world is one of infinite possibilities, infinite fields of influence, and infinite relationships. The hallmark characteristics found in a manager who has been schooled in the quantum sciences are flexibility, responsiveness, synchronicity, serendipity, creativity, innovation, participation, and motivation. In a quantum organization there is the constant awareness of the whole system, but there is also diversity (wave or particle), which allows for self-organization that is based on the environment and its requirements. In the quantum world many paths lead from A to Z, and depending on the path chosen, numerous realities wait to unfold. It was the goal of this research to explore the changing of leader behaviors through exposure to the models and theories found in quantum physics. From a quantum perspective this behavior change is possible; the only question is the readiness, willingness, and ability of the leaders to allow their behaviors to be surfaced and challenged. These are indeed the greatest challenges for all people as they proceed through life and work---readiness for change, willingness to change, and ability to surface key areas where change is needed.
Few-Qubit Magnetic Resonance Quantum Information Processors: Simulating Chemistry and Physics
Criger, Ben; Baugh, Jonathan
2012-01-01
We review recent progress made in quantum information processing (QIP) which can be applied in the simulation of quantum systems and chemical phenomena. The review is focused on quantum algorithms which are useful for quantum simulation of chemistry and advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) QIP. Discussions also include a number of recent experiments demonstrating the current capabilities of the NMR QIP for quantum simulation and prospects for spin-based implementations of QIP.
Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilya D. Feranchuk
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron and it allows one to solve the following problems: i to express the ''primary'' charge $e_0$ and the mass $m_0$ of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of $e$ and $m$ of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii to consider $mu$-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio $m_mu/m$; iii to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass $m$; iv to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge $e ll 1$ corresponds to the strong coupling expansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge $e^{-1}_0 sim e$ when the interaction between the ''physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.
The Innermost Kernel Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with C.G Jung
Gieser, Suzanne
2005-01-01
"The Innermost Kernel" recounts the physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli and his interest in Jungian psychology, philosophy and western world-view. It is also an exploration of the intellectual setting and context of Pauli's thinking, which has its starting point in the cultural and intellectual climate of fin-de-siècle Europe. As a contribution to the general history of quantum physics this study has a special focus on the psychological and philosophical issues discussed by physicists belonging to the Copenhagen school. The work is mainly based on the correspondence of the principle characters and explores some of the central issues discussed there, as for instance the subject-object relation, complementarity, the relation of conscious and unconscious, the process underlying concept-formation, the psychology of scientific discovery, the symbolic world of alchemy, the theories of archetypes and of synchronicity. Ultimately this book is about a remarkable scientist searching for a new understanding of ...
New insights in the standard model of quantum physics in Clifford algebra
Daviau, Claude
2013-01-01
Why Clifford algebra is the true mathematical frame of the standard model of quantum physics. Why the time is everywhere oriented and why the left side shall never become the right side. Why positrons have also a positive proper energy. Why there is a Planck constant. Why a mass is not a charge. Why a system of particles implies the existence of the inverse of the individual wave function. Why a fourth neutrino should be a good candidate for black matter. Why concepts as “parity” and “reverse” are essential. Why the electron of a H atom is in only one bound state. Plus 2 very remarkable identities, and the invariant wave equations that they imply. Plus 3 generations and 4 neutrinos. Plus 5 dimensions in the space and 6 dimensions in space-time…
Quantum physics of light and matter photons, atoms, and strongly correlated systems
Salasnich, Luca
2017-01-01
This compact but exhaustive textbook, now in its significantly revised and expanded second edition, provides an essential introduction to the field quantization of light and matter with applications to atomic physics and strongly correlated systems. Following an initial review of the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics, individual chapters are devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field and the consequences of light field quantization for the description of electromagnetic transitions. The spin of the electron is then analyzed, with particular attention to its derivation from the Dirac equation. Subsequent topics include the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra and the properties of systems composed of many interacting identical particles. The book also provides a detailed explanation of the second quantization of the non-relativistic matter field, i.e., the Schrödinger field, which offers a powerful tool for the investigation of many-body...
Physics colloquium: Single-electron counting in quantum metrology and in statistical mechanics
Geneva University
2011-01-01
GENEVA UNIVERSITY Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92olé Lundi 17 octobre 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM « Single-electron counting in quantum metrology and in statistical mechanics » Prof. Jukka Pekola Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University Helsinki, Finland First I discuss the basics of single-electron tunneling and its potential applications in metrology. My main focus is in developing an accurate source of single-electron current for the realization of the unit ampere. I discuss the principle and the present status of the so-called single- electron turnstile. Investigation of errors in transporting electrons one by one has revealed a wealth of observations on fundamental phenomena in mesoscopic superconductivity, including individual Andreev...
Noether Symmetries and Covariant Conservation Laws in Classical, Relativistic and Quantum Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Fatibene
2010-04-01
Full Text Available We review the Lagrangian formulation of (generalised Noether symmetries in the framework of Calculus of Variations in Jet Bundles, with a special attention to so-called “Natural Theories” and “Gauge-Natural Theories” that include all relevant Field Theories and physical applications (from Mechanics to General Relativity, to Gauge Theories, Supersymmetric Theories, Spinors, etc.. It is discussed how the use of Poincar´e–Cartan forms and decompositions of natural (or gauge-natural variational operators give rise to notions such as “generators of Noether symmetries”, energy and reduced energy flow, Bianchi identities, weak and strong conservation laws, covariant conservation laws, Hamiltonian-like conservation laws (such as, e.g., so-calledADMlaws in General Relativity with emphasis on the physical interpretation of the quantities calculated in specific cases (energy, angular momentum, entropy, etc.. A few substantially new and very recent applications/examples are presented to better show the power of the methods introduced: one in Classical Mechanics (definition of strong conservation laws in a frame-independent setting and a discussion on the way in which conserved quantities depend on the choice of an observer; one in Classical Field Theories (energy and entropy in General Relativity, in its standard formulation, in its spin-frame formulation, in its first order formulation “à la Palatini” and in its extensions to Non-Linear Gravity Theories; one in Quantum Field Theories (applications to conservation laws in Loop Quantum Gravity via spin connections and Barbero–Immirzi connections.
Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna
2017-01-01
In this paper we present the results of a research-based teaching-learning sequence on introductory quantum physics based on Feynman's sum over paths approach in the Italian high school. Our study focuses on students' understanding of two founding ideas of quantum physics, wave particle duality and the uncertainty principle. In view of recent…
Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna
2017-01-01
In this paper we present the results of a research-based teaching-learning sequence on introductory quantum physics based on Feynman's sum over paths approach in the Italian high school. Our study focuses on students' understanding of two founding ideas of quantum physics, wave particle duality and the uncertainty principle. In view of recent…
Chin, Cheng
2011-05-01
Recent cold atom researches are reaching out far beyond the realm that was conventionally viewed as atomic physics. Many long standing issues in other physics disciplines or in Gedanken-experiments are nowadays common targets of cold atom physicists. Two prominent examples will be discussed in this talk: BEC-BCS crossover and Efimov physics. Here, cold atoms are employed to emulate electrons in superconductors, and nucleons in nuclear reactions, respectively. The ability to emulate exotic or thought systems using cold atoms stems from the precisely determined, simple, and tunable interaction properties of cold atoms. New experimental tools have also been devised toward an ultimate goal: a complete control and a complete characterization of a few- or many-body quantum system. We are tantalizingly close to this major milestone, and will soon open new venues to explore new quantum phenomena that may (or may not!) exist in scientists' dreams.
Adegoke, Benson Adesina
2012-01-01
In this study, the author examines the extent to which an interactive engagement approach can reduce the gender gap in senior secondary school (SSS) (age 16-18 years) students' learning outcomes in quantum physics. One hundred and twenty one (male = 65; female = 56) SSS 3 students participated in this study. They were randomly selected from two…
Adegoke, Benson Adesina
2012-01-01
In this study, the author examines the extent to which an interactive engagement approach can reduce the gender gap in senior secondary school (SSS) (age 16-18 years) students' learning outcomes in quantum physics. One hundred and twenty one (male = 65; female = 56) SSS 3 students participated in this study. They were randomly selected from two…
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.
1982-01-01
Describes a graduate-level course in physical-organic chemistry in which students learn to solve problems using computer programs available through the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange. Includes condensed syllabus and time line showing where various computational programs are introduced. (Author/JN)
Spinorial space-time and the origin of Quantum Mechanics. The dynamical role of the physical vacuum
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2016-11-01
Is Quantum Mechanics really and ultimate principle of Physics described by a set of intrinsic exact laws? Are standard particles the ultimate constituents of matter? The two questions appear to be closely related, as a preonic structure of the physical vacuum would have an influence on the properties of quantum particles. Although the first preon models were just « quark-like » and assumed preons to be direct constituents of the conventional « elementary » particles, we suggested in 1995 that preons could instead be constituents of the physical vacuum (the superbradyon hypothesis). Standard particles would then be excitations of the preonic vacuum and have substantially different properties from those of preons themselves (critical speed…). The standard laws of Particle Physics would be approximate expressions generated from basic preon dynamics. In parallel, the mathematical properties of space-time structures such as the spinoral space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can have strong implications for Quantum Mechanics and even be its real origin. We complete here our recent discussion of the subject by pointing out that: i) Quantum Mechanics corresponds to a natural set of properties of vacuum excitations in the presence of a SST geometry ; ii) the recently observed entanglement at long distances would be a logical property if preons are superluminal (superbradyons), so that superluminal signals and correlations can propagate in vacuum ; iii) in a specific description, the function of space-time associated to the extended internal structure of a spin-1/2 particle at very small distances may be incompatible with a continuous motion at space and time scales where the internal structure of vacuum can be felt. In the dynamics associated to iii), and using the SST approach to space-time, a contradiction can appear between macroscopic and microscopic space-times due to an overlap in the time variable directly related to the fact that a spinorial function takes
Many-body physics and the capacity of quantum channels with memory
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Plenio, M B; Virmani, S [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.virmani@imperial.ac.uk
2008-04-15
In most studies of the capacity of quantum channels, it is assumed that the errors in the use of each channel are independent. However, recent work has begun to investigate the effects of memory or correlations in the error, and has led to suggestions that there can be interesting non-analytic behaviour in the capacity of such channels. In a previous paper, we pursued this issue by connecting the study of channel capacities under correlated error to the study of critical behaviour in many-body physics. This connection enables the use of techniques from many-body physics to either completely solve or understand qualitatively a number of interesting models of correlated error with analogous behaviour to associated many-body systems. However, in order for this approach to work rigorously, there are a number of technical properties that need to be established for the lattice systems being considered. In this paper, we discuss these properties in detail, and establish them for some classes of many-body system.
Sohn, IlKwon; Tarucha, Seigo; Choi, Byung-Soo
2017-01-01
The implementation of a scalable quantum computer requires quantum error correction (QEC). An important step toward this goal is to demonstrate the effectiveness of QEC where the fidelity of an encoded qubit is higher than that of the physical qubits. Therefore, it is important to know the conditions under which QEC code is effective. In this study, we analyze the simple three-qubit and nine-qubit QEC codes for quantum-dot and superconductor qubit implementations. First, we carefully analyze QEC codes and find the specific range of memory time to show the effectiveness of QEC and the best QEC cycle time. Second, we run a detailed error simulation of the chosen error-correction codes in the amplitude damping channel and confirm that the simulation data agreed well with the theoretically predicted accuracy and minimum QEC cycle time. We also realize that since the swap gate worked rapidly on the quantum-dot qubit, it did not affect the performance in terms of the spatial layout.
Scarani, Valerio; Iblisdir, Sofyan; Gisin, Nicolas; Acin, Antonio
2005-01-01
The impossibility of perfectly copying (or cloning) an arbitrary quantum state is one of the basic rules governing the physics of quantum systems. The processes that perform the optimal approximate cloning have been found in many cases. These "quantum cloning machines" are important tools for studying a wide variety of tasks, e.g. state estimation and eavesdropping on quantum cryptography. This paper provides a comprehensive review of quantum cloning machines (both for discrete-dimensional an...
McCarthy, Kimberly Ann
1990-01-01
Divisions in definitions of creativity have centered primarily on the working definition of discontinuity and the inclusion of intrinsic features such as unconscious processing and intrinsic motivation and reinforcement. These differences generally result from Cohen's two world views underlying theories of creativity: Organismic, oriented toward holism; or mechanistic, oriented toward cause-effect reductionism. The quantum world view is proposed which theoretically and empirically unifies organismic and mechanistic elements of creativity. Based on Goswami's Idealistic Interpretation of quantum physics, the quantum view postulates the mind -brain as consisting of both classical and quantum structures and functions. The quantum domain accesses the transcendent order through coherent superpositions (a state of potentialities), while the classical domain performs the function of measuring apparatus through amplifying and recording the result of the collapse of the pure mental state. A theoretical experiment, based on the 1980 Marcel study of conscious and unconscious word-sense disambiguation, is conducted which compares the predictions of the quantum model with those of the 1975 Posner and Snyder Facilitation and Inhibition model. Each model agrees that while conscious access to information is limited, unconscious access is unlimited. However, each model differently defines the connection between these states: The Posner model postulates a central processing mechanism while the quantum model postulates a self-referential consciousness. Consequently, the two models predict differently. The strength of the quantum model lies in its ability to distinguish between classical and quantum definitions of discontinuity, as well as clarifying the function of consciousness, without added assumptions or ad-hoc analysis: Consciousness is an essential, valid feature of quantum mechanisms independent of the field of cognitive psychology. According to the quantum model, through a
Quantum physics of light and matter a modern introduction to photons, atoms and many-body systems
Salasnich, Luca
2014-01-01
The book gives an introduction to the field quantization (second quantization) of light and matter with applications to atomic physics. The first chapter briefly reviews the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics and the basic notions of quantum information theory and quantum statistical mechanics. The second chapter is devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, while the third chapter shows the consequences of the light field quantization in the description of electromagnetic transitions.In the fourth chapter it is analyzed the spin of the electron, and in particular its derivation from the Dirac equation, while the fifth chapter investigates the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra (Stark and Zeeman effects). The sixth chapter describes the properties of systems composed by many interacting identical particles by introducing the Hartree-Fock variational method, the density functional theory, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Finally,...
Lanzagorta, Marco
2011-01-01
This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w
Wall, Michael
2014-03-01
Experimental progress in generating and manipulating synthetic quantum systems, such as ultracold atoms and molecules in optical lattices, has revolutionized our understanding of quantum many-body phenomena and posed new challenges for modern numerical techniques. Ultracold molecules, in particular, feature long-range dipole-dipole interactions and a complex and selectively accessible internal structure of rotational and hyperfine states, leading to many-body models with long range interactions and many internal degrees of freedom. Additionally, the many-body physics of ultracold molecules is often probed far from equilibrium, and so algorithms which simulate quantum many-body dynamics are essential. Numerical methods which are to have significant impact in the design and understanding of such synthetic quantum materials must be able to adapt to a variety of different interactions, physical degrees of freedom, and out-of-equilibrium dynamical protocols. Matrix product state (MPS)-based methods, such as the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG), have become the de facto standard for strongly interacting low-dimensional systems. Moreover, the flexibility of MPS-based methods makes them ideally suited both to generic, open source implementation as well as to studies of the quantum many-body dynamics of ultracold molecules. After introducing MPSs and variational algorithms using MPSs generally, I will discuss my own research using MPSs for many-body dynamics of long-range interacting systems. In addition, I will describe two open source implementations of MPS-based algorithms in which I was involved, as well as educational materials designed to help undergraduates and graduates perform research in computational quantum many-body physics using a variety of numerical methods including exact diagonalization and static and dynamic variational MPS methods. Finally, I will mention present research on ultracold molecules in optical lattices, such as the exploration of
Gauge/gravity duality. From quantum phase transitions towards out-of-equilibrium physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngo Thanh, Hai
2011-05-02
In this dissertation we use gauge/gravity duality to investigate various phenomena of strongly coupled field theories. Of special interest are quantum phase transitions, quantum critical points, transport phenomena of charges and the thermalization process of strongly coupled medium. The systems studied in this thesis might be used as models for describing condensed matter physics in a superfluid phase near the quantum critical point and the physics of quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a deconfinement phase of QCD, which has been recently created at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Moreover, we follow the line of considering different gravity setups whose dual field descriptions show interesting phenomena of systems in thermal equilibrium, slightly out-of-equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium. We first focus on systems in equilibrium and construct holographic superfluids at finite baryon and isospin charge densities. For that we use two different approaches, the bottom-up with an U(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with back-reaction and the top-down approach with a D3/D7 brane setup with two coincident D7-brane probes. In both cases we observe phase transitions from a normal to a superfluid phase at finite and also at zero temperature. In our setup, the gravity duals of superfluids are Anti-de Sitter black holes which develop vector-hair. Studying the order of phase transitions at zero temperature, in the D3/D7 brane setup we always find a second order phase transition, while in the Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, depending on the strength of the back-reaction, we obtain a continuous or first order transition. We then move to systems which are slightly out-of-equilibrium. Using the D3/D7 brane setup with N{sub c} coincident D3-branes and N{sub f} coincident D7-brane probes, we compute transport coefficients associated with massive N=2 supersymmetric hypermultiplet fields propagating through an N=4 SU(N{sub c}) super Yang-Mills plasma in the limit of N{sub f}<
Probing bulk physics in the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect using the Corbino geometry
Schmidt, Benjamin; Bennaceur, Keyan; Bilodeau, Simon; Gaucher, Samuel; Lilly, Michael; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Reulet, Bertrand; Gervais, Guillaume
We present two- and four-point Corbino geometry transport measurements in the second Landau level in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. By avoiding edge transport, we are able to directly probe the physics of the bulk quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states including 5/2. Our highest-quality sample shows stripe and bubble phases in high Landau levels, and most importantly well-resolved FQH minima in the second Landau level. We report Arrhenius-type fits to the activated conductance, and find that σ0 agrees well with theory and existing Hall geometry data in the first Landau level, but not in the second Landau level. We will discuss the advantages the Corbino geometry could bring to various experiments designed to detect the non-Abelian entropy at 5/2, and our progress towards realizing those schemes. The results of these experiments could complement interferometry and other edge-based measurements by providing direct evidence for non-Abelian behaviour of the bulk quasiparticles. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.