WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantum non-demolition measurements

  1. Certified quantum non-demolition measurement of material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. W.; Koschorreck, M.; Kubasik, M.; Napolitano, M.; Sewell, R. J.

    2012-08-01

    An extensive debate on quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement, reviewed in Grangier et al (1998 Nature 396 537), finds that true QND measurements must have both non-classical state-preparation capability and non-classical information-damage tradeoff. Existing figures of merit for these non-classicality criteria require direct measurement of the signal variable and are thus difficult to apply to optically-probed material systems. Here we describe a method to demonstrate both criteria without need for to direct signal measurements. Using a covariance matrix formalism and a general noise model, we compute meter observables for QND measurement triples, which suffice to compute all QND figures of merit. The result will allow certified QND measurement of atomic spin ensembles using existing techniques.

  2. Certified quantum non-demolition measurement of material systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Morgan W; Kubasik, Marcin; Napolitano, Mario; Sewell, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    An extensive debate on quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement, reviewed in Grangier et al. [Nature, {\\bf 396}, 537 (1998)], finds that true QND measurements must have both non-classical state-preparation capability and non-classical information-damage tradeoff. Existing figures of merit for these non-classicality criteria require direct measurement of the signal variable and are thus difficult to apply to optically-probed material systems. Here we describe a method to demonstrate both criteria without need for to direct signal measurements. Using a covariance matrix formalism and a general noise model, we compute meter observables for QND measurement triples, which suffice to compute all QND figures of merit. The result will allow certified QND measurement of atomic spin ensembles using existing techniques.

  3. Quantum non-demolition measurement of photon number using weak nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerry, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)], E-mail: christopher.gerry@lehman.cuny.edu; Bui, Trung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)

    2008-12-08

    We propose an alternative method for the quantum non-demolition measurement of photon numbers wherein weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities are to be used. The usual approach to quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum number involves encoding the photon number, through a cross-Kerr interaction, into a phase shift of a probe coherent state which is then detected through balanced homodyning. Weak nonlinearities produce small phase shifts which are difficult to detect and distinguish. In the method we propose, unbalanced homodyning acts as a displacement operator on the probe beam coherent state such that the cross-Kerr interaction encodes the photon number into the amplitude of a new coherent state. The value of the photon number can be determined by inefficient photon counting on the new coherent state. Our proposed method requires fewer resources than does the usual approach.

  4. Quantum non-demolition measurement of photon-arrival using an atom-cavity system

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, K; Kojima, Kunihiro; Tomita, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    A simple and efficient quantum non-demolition measurement (QND) scheme is proposed in which the arrival of a signal photon is detected without affecting the qubit state. The proposed QND scheme functions even if the ancillary photon is replaced with weak light composed of vacuum and one-photon states. Although the detection scheme is designed for entanglement sharing applications, it is also suitable for general purification of a single photon state.

  5. Tracking photon jumps with repeated quantum non-demolition parity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Petrenko, A; Leghtas, Z; Vlastakis, B; Kirchmair, G; Sliwa, K M; Narla, A; Hatridge, M; Shankar, S; Blumoff, J; Frunzio, L; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

    2014-07-24

    Quantum error correction is required for a practical quantum computer because of the fragile nature of quantum information. In quantum error correction, information is redundantly stored in a large quantum state space and one or more observables must be monitored to reveal the occurrence of an error, without disturbing the information encoded in an unknown quantum state. Such observables, typically multi-quantum-bit parities, must correspond to a special symmetry property inherent in the encoding scheme. Measurements of these observables, or error syndromes, must also be performed in a quantum non-demolition way (projecting without further perturbing the state) and more quickly than errors occur. Previously, quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum jumps between states of well-defined energy have been performed in systems such as trapped ions, electrons, cavity quantum electrodynamics, nitrogen-vacancy centres and superconducting quantum bits. So far, however, no fast and repeated monitoring of an error syndrome has been achieved. Here we track the quantum jumps of a possible error syndrome, namely the photon number parity of a microwave cavity, by mapping this property onto an ancilla quantum bit, whose only role is to facilitate quantum state manipulation and measurement. This quantity is just the error syndrome required in a recently proposed scheme for a hardware-efficient protected quantum memory using Schrödinger cat states (quantum superpositions of different coherent states of light) in a harmonic oscillator. We demonstrate the projective nature of this measurement onto a region of state space with well-defined parity by observing the collapse of a coherent state onto even or odd cat states. The measurement is fast compared with the cavity lifetime, has a high single-shot fidelity and has a 99.8 per cent probability per single measurement of leaving the parity unchanged. In combination with the deterministic encoding of quantum information in cat

  6. Improving Sensitivity and Bandwidth of an Atomic Magnetometer using Quantum Non-Demolition Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishal; Vasilakis, Georgios; Romalis, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The fundamental sensitivity of an atomic magnetometer is limited by spin projection noise. In the case of uniform spin relaxation, it is well understood that it is not possible to improve the sensitivity using spin squeezing induced by quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement for measurement time scales longer than spin relaxation time [1, 2]. It is however possible to increase the bandwidth of the magnetometer using QND measurement. Here we experimentally demonstrate, in excellent agreement with the theory, an improvement in the bandwidth of our scalar alkali vapor atomic magnetometer using continuous QND measurement. We also investigate the possibility of improving sensitivity of our magnetometer in the special case in which the spin relaxation is time dependent. The case of time dependent spin relaxation naturally arises in high polarization regime in an alkali-alkali spin-exchange relaxation dominated atomic sample. [1] S. F. Huelga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3865 -- 3868, 1997. [2] M. Auzinsh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173002, 2004.

  7. Entanglement Concentration with Quantum Non Demolition Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Tatham, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We devise and examine two procrustean entanglement concentration schemes using Quantum Non- Demolition (QND) interaction Hamiltonians in the continuous variable regime, applicable for light, for atomic ensembles or in a hybrid setting. We thus expand the standard entanglement distillation toolbox to the use of a much more general, versatile and experimentally feasible interaction class. The first protocol uses Gaussian ancillary modes and a non-Gaussian post-measurement, the second a non-Gaussian ancillary mode and a Gaussian post-measurement. We explicitly calculate the density matrix elements of the non-Gaussian mixed states resulting from these protocols using an elegant Wigner-function based method in a numerically efficient manner. We then quantify the entanglement increase calculating the Logarithmic Negativity of the output state and discuss and compare the performance of the protocols.

  8. All-optical non-demolition measurement of single-hole spin in a quantum-dot molecule

    OpenAIRE

    F. Troiani; Wilson-Rae, I.; Tejedor, C.

    2006-01-01

    We propose an all-optical scheme to perform a non-demolition measurement of a single hole spin localized in a quantum-dot molecule. The latter is embedded in a microcavity and driven by two lasers. This allows to induce Raman transitions which entangle the spin state with the polarization of the emitted photons. We find that the measurement can be completed with high fidelity on a timescale of 100 ps, shorter than the typical T2. Furthermore, we show that the scheme can be used to induce and ...

  9. Feedback stabilization of discrete-time quantum systems subject to non-demolition measurements with imperfections and delays

    CERN Document Server

    Amini, Hadis; Dotsenko, Igor; Sayrin, Clement; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Rouchon, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical methods underlying a recent quantum feedback experiment stabilizing photon-number states is developed. It considers a controlled system whose quantum state, a finite dimensional density operator, is governed by a discrete-time nonlinear Markov process. In open-loop, the measurements are assumed to be quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements. This Markov process admits a set of stationary pure states associated to an orthonormal basis. These stationary states provide martingales crucial to prove the open-loop stability: under simple assumptions, almost all trajectories converge to one of these stationary states; the probability to converge to a stationary state is given by its overlap with the initial quantum state. From these open-loop martingales, we construct a supermartingale whose parameters are given by inverting a Metzler matrix characterizing the impact of the control input on the Kraus operators defining the Markov process. This supermartingale measures the "distance" between the cur...

  10. Single photon quantum non-demolition in the presence of inhomogeneous broadening

    OpenAIRE

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Munro, W. J.; Nemoto, Kae; Prawer, S.; Spiller, T. P.

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has been often proposed for generating nonlinear optical effects at the single photon level; in particular, as a means to effect a quantum non-demolition measurement of a single photon field. Previous treatments have usually considered homogeneously broadened samples, but realisations in any medium will have to contend with inhomogeneous broadening. Here we reappraise an earlier scheme [Munro \\textit{et al.} Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{71}, 033819 (2005...

  11. Toward Quantum Non-demolition of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Jonathan; Jiang, Liang; Maze, Jeronimo; Lukin, Mikhail

    2009-05-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy color center (NVC) in diamond, which possesses a long-lived electronic spin (S=1) ground state with optical addressability, is a promising platform for quantum networks, single-photon sources, and nanoscale magnetometers. Here, we make use of a nuclear spin based quantum memory to demonstrate quantum non-demolition measurement of a solid-state spin qubit. By entangling the electron spin with a polarized carbon-13 spin (I=1/2) in the lattice, we have repeated optical measurement of the electron spin for the polarization lifetime of the nuclear spin. We show relative improvements in signal-to-noise of greater than 300%. These techniques can be used to improve the sensitivity of NVC magnetometers.

  12. Non-Demolition Dispersive Measurement of a Superconducting Qubit with a Microstrip SQUID Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, G P; Kinion, D; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the possibility of a single-shot non-demolition measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microstrip SQUID amplifier (MSA). The Johnson noise generated by all resistors in the MSA is taken into consideration. We show that a single-shot non-demolition measurement is possible with six photons in the measurement resonator. For a phase qubit inductively coupled to a measurement resonator we have obtained the expression for the mutual inductance required for measurement of the qubit state.

  13. Universal Three-Qubit Entanglement Generation Based on Linear Optical Elements and Quantum Non-Demolition Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Chang

    2016-12-01

    Recently, entanglement plays an important role in quantum information science. Here we propose an efficient and applicable method which transforms arbitrary three-qubit unknown state to a maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and the proposed method could be further generalized to multi-qubit case. The proposed setup exploits only linear optical elements and quantum non-demolition detectors using cross-Kerr media. As the quantum non-demolition detection could reveal us the output state of the photons without destroying them. This property may make our proposed setup flexible and can be widely used in current quantum information science and technology.

  14. Universal Three-Qubit Entanglement Generation Based on Linear Optical Elements and Quantum Non-Demolition Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Chang

    2017-02-01

    Recently, entanglement plays an important role in quantum information science. Here we propose an efficient and applicable method which transforms arbitrary three-qubit unknown state to a maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and the proposed method could be further generalized to multi-qubit case. The proposed setup exploits only linear optical elements and quantum non-demolition detectors using cross-Kerr media. As the quantum non-demolition detection could reveal us the output state of the photons without destroying them. This property may make our proposed setup flexible and can be widely used in current quantum information science and technology.

  15. Control of a velocity-sensitive audio-band quantum non-demolition interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Leavey, S S; Gläfke, A; Barr, B W; Bell, A S; Gräf, C; Hennig, J -S; Houston, E A; Huttner, S H; Lück, H; Pascucci, D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Spencer, A; Steinlechner, S; Strain, K A; Wright, J; Zhang, T; Hild, S

    2016-01-01

    The Sagnac speed meter interferometer topology can potentially provide enhanced sensitivity to gravitational waves in the audio-band compared to equivalent Michelson interferometers. A challenge with the Sagnac speed meter interferometer arises from the intrinsic lack of sensitivity at low frequencies where the velocity-proportional signal is smaller than the noise associated with the sensing of the signal. Using as an example the on-going proof-of-concept Sagnac speed meter experiment in Glasgow, we quantify the problem and present a solution involving the extraction of a small displacement-proportional signal. This displacement signal can be combined with the existing velocity signal to enhance low frequency sensitivity, and we derive optimal filters to accomplish this for different signal strengths. We show that the extraction of the displacement signal for low frequency control purposes can be performed without reducing significantly the quantum non-demolition character of this type of interferometer.

  16. Bibliographic guide to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2000-01-01

    This is a collection of references (papers, books, preprints, book reviews, Ph. D. thesis, patents, etc.), sorted alphabetically and (some of them) classified by subject, on foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. Specifically, it covers hidden variables (``no-go'' theorems, experiments), interpretations of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum effects (quantum Zeno effect, quantum erasure, ``interaction-free'' measurements, quantum ``non-demolition'' measurements), quantum information (cryptography, cloning, dense coding, teleportation), and quantum computation.

  17. Quantum Diffusion, Measurement and Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Belavkin, V P

    1993-01-01

    A brief presentation of the basic concepts in quantum probability theory is given in comparison to the classical one. The notion of quantum white noise, its explicit representation in Fock space, and necessary results of noncommutative stochastic analysis and integration are outlined. Algebraic differential equations that unify the quantum non Markovian diffusion with continuous non demolition observation are derived. A stochastic equation of quantum diffusion filtering generalising the classical Markov filtering equation to the quantum flows over arbitrary *-algebra is obtained. A Gaussian quantum diffusion with one dimensional continuous observation is considered.The a posteriori quantum state difusion in this case is reduced to a linear quantum stochastic filter equation of Kalman-Bucy type and to the operator Riccati equation for quantum correlations. An example of continuous nondemolition observation of the coordinate of a free quantum particle is considered, describing a continuous collase to the statio...

  18. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  19. Practical quantum all-or-nothing oblivious transfer protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a practical quantum all-or-nothing oblivious transfer protocol. Its security is based on technological limitations on non-demolition measurements and long-term quantum memory, and it has the capabilities of loss-tolerance and error-correction.

  20. Rydberg blockade, F\\"orster resonances, and quantum state measurements with different atomic species

    CERN Document Server

    Beterov, I I

    2015-01-01

    We calculate interspecies Rydberg-Rydberg interaction strengths for the heavy alkalis Rb and Cs. The presence of strong F\\"orster resonances makes interspecies coupling a promising approach for long range entanglement generation. We also provide an overview of the strongest F\\"orster resonances for Rb-Rb and Cs-Cs using different principal quantum numbers for the two atoms. We show how interspecies coupling can be used for high fidelity quantum non demolition state measurements with low crosstalk in qubit arrays.

  1. Feedback control in quantum optics: an overview of experimental breakthroughs and areas of application

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    We present a broad summary of research involving the application of quantum feedback control techniques to optical set-ups, from the early enhancement of optical amplitude squeezing to the recent stabilisation of photon number states in a microwave cavity, dwelling mostly on the latest experimental advances. Feedback control of quantum optical continuous variables, quantum non-demolition memories, feedback cooling, quantum state control, adaptive quantum measurements and coherent feedback strategies will all be touched upon in our discussion.

  2. Feedback control in quantum optics: an overview of experimental breakthroughs and areas of application

    OpenAIRE

    Alessio Serafini

    2012-01-01

    We present a broad summary of research involving the application of quantum feedback control techniques to optical set-ups, from the early enhancement of optical amplitude squeezing to the recent stabilisation of photon number states in a microwave cavity, dwelling mostly on the latest experimental advances. Feedback control of quantum optical continuous variables, quantum non-demolition memories, feedback cooling, quantum state control, adaptive quantum measurements and coherent feedback str...

  3. Nonlinearities in the quantum measurement process of superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serban, Ioana

    2008-05-15

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the investigation of decoherence and measurement backaction, on the theoretical description of measurement schemes and their improvement. The study presented here is centered around quantum computing implementations using superconducting devices and most important, the Josephson effect. The measured system is invariantly a qubit, i. e. a two-level system. The objective is to study detectors with increasing nonlinearity, e. g. coupling of the qubit to the frequency a driven oscillator, or to the bifurcation amplifier, to determine the performance and backaction of the detector on the measured system and to investigate the importance of a strong qubit-detector coupling for the achievement of a quantum non-demolition type of detection. The first part gives a very basic introduction to quantum information, briefly reviews some of the most promising physical implementations of a quantum computer before focusing on the superconducting devices. The second part presents a series of studies of different qubit measurements, describing the backaction of the measurement onto the measured system and the internal dynamics of the detector. Methodology adapted from quantum optics and chemical physics (master equations, phase-space analysis etc.) combined with the representation of a complex environment yielded a tool capable of describing a nonlinear, non-Markovian environment, which couples arbitrarily strongly to the measured system. This is described in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the backaction on the qubit and presents novel insights into the qubit dephasing in the strong coupling regime. Chapter 5 uses basically the same system and technical tools to explore the potential of a fast, strong, indirect measurement, and determine how close such a detection would ideally come to the quantum non-demolition regime. Chapter 6 focuses on the internal dynamics of a strongly driven Josephson junction. The analytical results are based on

  4. Quantum dynamics of simultaneously measured non-commuting observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacohen-Gourgy, Shay; Martin, Leigh S.; Flurin, Emmanuel; Ramasesh, Vinay V.; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2016-10-01

    In quantum mechanics, measurements cause wavefunction collapse that yields precise outcomes, whereas for non-commuting observables such as position and momentum Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle limits the intrinsic precision of a state. Although theoretical work has demonstrated that it should be possible to perform simultaneous non-commuting measurements and has revealed the limits on measurement outcomes, only recently has the dynamics of the quantum state been discussed. To realize this unexplored regime, we simultaneously apply two continuous quantum non-demolition probes of non-commuting observables to a superconducting qubit. We implement multiple readout channels by coupling the qubit to multiple modes of a cavity. To control the measurement observables, we implement a ‘single quadrature’ measurement by driving the qubit and applying cavity sidebands with a relative phase that sets the observable. Here, we use this approach to show that the uncertainty principle governs the dynamics of the wavefunction by enforcing a lower bound on the measurement-induced disturbance. Consequently, as we transition from measuring identical to measuring non-commuting observables, the dynamics make a smooth transition from standard wavefunction collapse to localized persistent diffusion and then to isotropic persistent diffusion. Although the evolution of the state differs markedly from that of a conventional measurement, information about both non-commuting observables is extracted by keeping track of the time ordering of the measurement record, enabling quantum state tomography without alternating measurements. Our work creates novel capabilities for quantum control, including rapid state purification, adaptive measurement, measurement-based state steering and continuous quantum error correction. As physical systems often interact continuously with their environment via non-commuting degrees of freedom, our work offers a way to study how notions of contemporary

  5. What quantum measurements measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2017-09-01

    A solution to the second measurement problem, determining what prior microscopic properties can be inferred from measurement outcomes ("pointer positions"), is worked out for projective and generalized (POVM) measurements, using consistent histories. The result supports the idea that equipment properly designed and calibrated reveals the properties it was designed to measure. Applications include Einstein's hemisphere and Wheeler's delayed choice paradoxes, and a method for analyzing weak measurements without recourse to weak values. Quantum measurements are noncontextual in the original sense employed by Bell and Mermin: if [A ,B ]=[A ,C ]=0 ,[B ,C ]≠0 , the outcome of an A measurement does not depend on whether it is measured with B or with C . An application to Bohm's model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation suggests that a faulty understanding of quantum measurements is at the root of this paradox.

  6. Efficient and robust generation of maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Lisi, A D; Illuminati, F; Vitali, D; Lisi, Antonio Di; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David

    2004-01-01

    We introduce an efficient and robust scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum non-demolition measurements of total atomic populations and on quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for photo-detection with ideal efficiency as well as in the presence of losses.

  7. Quantum correlations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, Jan

    2015-07-16

    The present thesis is a state of the art report on the characterization techniques and measurement strategies to verify quantum correlations. I mainly focus on research which has been performed in the theoretical quantum optics group at the University of Rostock during the last few years. The results include theoretical findings and analysis of experimental studies of radiation fields. We investigate the verification of quantum properties, the quantification of these quantum effects, and the characterization of quantum optical detector systems.

  8. Undoing a quantum measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Philipp; Monz, Thomas; Nigg, Daniel; Barreiro, Julio T; Martinez, Esteban A; Brandl, Matthias F; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer

    2013-02-15

    In general, a quantum measurement yields an undetermined answer and alters the system to be consistent with the measurement result. This process maps multiple initial states into a single state and thus cannot be reversed. This has important implications in quantum information processing, where errors can be interpreted as measurements. Therefore, it seems that it is impossible to correct errors in a quantum information processor, but protocols exist that are capable of eliminating them if they affect only part of the system. In this work we present the deterministic reversal of a fully projective measurement on a single particle, enabled by a quantum error-correction protocol in a trapped ion quantum information processor. We further introduce an in-sequence, single-species recooling procedure to counteract the motional heating of the ion string due to the measurement.

  9. Measurement in quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danos, M. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Kieu, T.D. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics]|[Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    The conceptual problems in quantum mechanics - including the collapse of the wave functions, the particle-wave duality, the meaning of measurement-arise from the need to ascribe particle character to the wave function, which describes only the wave aspects. It is demonstrated that all these problems can be resolved when working instead with quantum fields, which have both wave and particle character. The predictions of quantum physics, including Bell`s inequalities, remain unchanged from the standard treatments of quantum mechanics. 16 refs.

  10. Relativistic Quantum Noninvasive Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bednorz, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Quantum weak, noninvasive measurements are defined in the framework of relativity. Invariance with respect to reference frame transformations of the results in different models is discussed. Surprisingly, the bare results of noninvasive measurements are invariant for certain class of models, but not the detection error. Consequently, any stationary quantum realism based on noninvasive measurements will break, at least spontaneously, relativistic invariance and correspondence principle at zero temperature.

  11. Consistent quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  12. Uncertainty under quantum measures and quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2017-04-01

    The uncertainty principle restricts potential information one gains about physical properties of the measured particle. However, if the particle is prepared in entanglement with a quantum memory, the corresponding entropic uncertainty relation will vary. Based on the knowledge of correlations between the measured particle and quantum memory, we have investigated the entropic uncertainty relations for two and multiple measurements and generalized the lower bounds on the sum of Shannon entropies without quantum side information to those that allow quantum memory. In particular, we have obtained generalization of Kaniewski-Tomamichel-Wehner's bound for effective measures and majorization bounds for noneffective measures to allow quantum side information. Furthermore, we have derived several strong bounds for the entropic uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory for two and multiple measurements. Finally, potential applications of our results to entanglement witnesses are discussed via the entropic uncertainty relation in the absence of quantum memory.

  13. Quantum search by measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, A M; Farhi, E; Goldstone, J; Gutmann, S; Landahl, A J; Childs, Andrew M.; Deotto, Enrico; Farhi, Edward; Goldstone, Jeffrey; Gutmann, Sam; Landahl, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a quantum algorithm for solving combinatorial search problems that uses only a sequence of measurements. The algorithm is similar in spirit to quantum computation by adiabatic evolution, in that the goal is to remain in the ground state of a time-varying Hamiltonian. Indeed, we show that the running times of the two algorithms are closely related. We also show how to achieve the quadratic speedup for Grover's unstructured search problem with only two measurements. Finally, we discuss some similarities and differences between the adiabatic and measurement algorithms.

  14. Quantum optics including noise reduction, trapped ions, quantum trajectories, and decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Orszag, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This new edition gives a unique and broad coverage of basic laser-related phenomena that allow graduate students, scientists and engineers to carry out research in quantum optics and laser physics. It covers quantization of the electromagnetic field, quantum theory of coherence, atom-field interaction models, resonance fluorescence, quantum theory of damping, laser theory using both the master equation and the Langevin theory, the correlated emission laser, input-output theory with applications to non-linear optics, quantum trajectories, quantum non-demolition measurements and generation of non-classical vibrational states of ions in a Paul trap. In this third edition, there is an enlarged chapter on trapped ions, as well as new sections on quantum computing and quantum bits with applications. There is also additional material included for quantum processing and entanglement. These topics are presented in a unified and didactic manner, each chapter is accompanied by specific problems and hints to solutions to...

  15. Quantum Optics Including Noise Reduction, Trapped Ions, Quantum Trajectories, and Decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Orszag, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Quantum Optics gives a very broad coverage of basic laser-related phenomena that allow scientist and engineers to carry out research in quantum optics and laser physics. It covers quantization of the electromagnetic field, quantum theory of coherence, atom-field interaction models, resonance fluorescence, quantum theory of damping, laser theory using both the master equation and the Langevin theory, the correlated emission laser, input-output theory with applications to non-linear optics, quantum trajectories, quantum non-demolition measurements and generation of non-classical vibrational states of ions in a Paul trap. In this second edition, there is an enlarged chapter on decoherence, as well as additional material dealing with elements of quantum computation, entanglement of pure and mixed states as well as a chapter on quantum copying and processors. These topics are presented in a unified and didactic manner. The presentation of the book is clear and pedagogical; it balances the theoretical aspect of qua...

  16. Thermodynamics of quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Erez, Noam

    2010-01-01

    Quantum measurement of a system can change its mean energy, as well as entropy. A selective measurement (classical or quantum) can be used as a "Maxwell's demon" to power a single-temperature heat engine, by decreasing the entropy. Quantum mechanically, so can a non-selective measurement, despite increasing the entropy of a thermal state. The maximal amount of work extractable following the measurement is given by the change in free energy: $W_{max}^{(non-)sel.}=\\Delta E_{meas}-T_{Bath}\\Delta S_{meas}^{(non-)sel.}$. This follows from the "generalized 2nd law for nonequilibrium initial state" [Hasegawa et. al, PLA (2010)], of which an elementary reduction to the standard law is given here. It is shown that $W_{max}^{sel.}-W_{max}^{non-sel.}$ equals the work required to reset the memory of the measuring device, and that no such resetting is needed in the non-selective case. Consequently, a single-bath engine powered by either kind of measurement works at a net loss of $T_{Bath}\\Delta S_{meas}^{non-sel}$ per cyc...

  17. Students' Difficulties with Quantum Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    We describe some common difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to quantum measurement. We administered written tests to students enrolled in quantum mechanics courses and interviewed a subset of them to probe the difficulties in-depth and analyze their possible origins. Results from this research can be applied to develop learning tools to improve students' understanding of quantum measurement.

  18. Work measurement as a generalized quantum measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaglia, Augusto J; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2014-12-19

    We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P(w). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P(w). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.

  19. The Logic of Quantum Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    We apply our previously developed formalism of contexts of histories, suitable to deal with quantum properties at different times, to the measurement process. We explore the logical implications which are allowed by the quantum theory, about the realization of properties of the microscopic measured system, before and after the measurement process with a given pointer value.

  20. Measuring quantumness via anticommutators

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, Rosario; Pascazio, Saverio; Vedral, Vlatko; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a method to witness the quantumness of a system. The method relies on the fact that the anticommutator of two classical states is always positive. We show that there is always a nonpositive anticommutator due to any two quantum states. We notice that interference depends on the trace of the anticommutator of two states and it is therefore more natural to detect quantumness by looking at anticommutators of states rather than their commutators.

  1. The quantum theory of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Mittelstaedt, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The amazing accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory. In this book the authors give within the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics a systematic exposition of the quantum theory of measurement. Their approach includes the concepts of unsharp objectification and of nonunitary transformations needed for a unifying description of various detailed investigations. The book addresses advanced students and researchers in physics and philosophy of science. In this second edition Chaps. II-IV have been substantially rewritten. In particular, an insolubility theorem for the objectification problem has been formulated in full generality, which includes unsharp object observables and unsharp pointers.

  2. Measurement-induced macroscopic superposition states in cavity optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoff, Ulrich B; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel proposal for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the readily achievable bad-cavity limit. The scheme is based on a pulsed cavity optomechanical quantum non-demolition (QND) interaction, driven by displaced non-Gaussian states, and measurement-induced feedback, avoiding the need for strong single-photon optomechanical coupling. Furthermore, we show that single-quadrature cooling of the mechanical oscillator is sufficient for efficient state preparation, and we outline a three-pulse protocol comprising a sequence of QND interactions for squeezing-enhanced cooling, state preparation, and tomography.

  3. BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2010-12-01

    In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate

  4. Quantum mechanical irreversibility and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Grigolini, P

    1993-01-01

    This book is intended as a tutorial approach to some of the techniques used to deal with quantum dissipation and irreversibility, with special focus on their applications to the theory of measurements. The main purpose is to provide readers without a deep expertise in quantum statistical mechanics with the basic tools to develop a critical judgement on whether the major achievements in this field have to be considered a satisfactory solution of quantum paradox, or rather this ambitious achievement has to be postponed to when a new physics, more general than quantum and classical physics, will

  5. The quantum measurement of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Scott R.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, in non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, time is considered to be a parameter, rather than an observable quantity like space. In relativistic Quantum Field Theory, space and time are treated equally by reducing space to also be a parameter. Herein, after a brief review of other measurements, we describe a third possibility, which is to treat time as a directly observable quantity.

  6. Minimum-cost quantum measurements for quantum information

    OpenAIRE

    Wallden, Petros; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Knowing about optimal quantum measurements is important for many applications in quantum information and quantum communication. However, deriving optimal quantum measurements is often difficult. We present a collection of results for minimum-cost quantum measurements, and give examples of how they can be used. Among other results, we show that a minimum-cost measurement for a set of given pure states is formally equivalent to a minimum-error measurement for certain mixed states of those same ...

  7. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  8. Analysis of optical parity gates of generating Bell state for quantum information and secure quantum communication via weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity under decoherence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jino; Hong, Chang-Ho; Yang, Hyung-Jin; Hong, Jong-Phil; Choi, Seong-Gon

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the advantages of an optical parity gate using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs), quantum bus (qubus) beams, and photon number resolving (PNR) measurement through our analysis, utilizing a master equation under the decoherence effect (occurred the dephasing and photon loss). To generate Bell states, parity gates based on quantum non-demolition measurement using XKNL are extensively employed in quantum information processing. When designing a parity gate via XKNL, the parity gate can be diversely constructed according to the measurement strategies. In practice, the interactions of XKNLs in optical fiber are inevitable under the decoherence effect. Thus, by our analysis of the decoherence effect, we show that the designed parity gate employing homodyne measurement would not be expected to provide reliable quantum operation. Furthermore, compared with a parity gate using a displacement operator and PNR measurement, we conclude there is experimental benefit from implementation of a parity gate via qubus beams and PNR measurement under the decoherence effect.

  9. Quantum teleportation with continuous measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greplova, Eliska; Mølmer, Klaus; Andersen, Christian Kraglund

    2016-10-01

    We propose a scheme for quantum teleportation between two qubits, coupled sequentially to a cavity field. An implementation of the scheme is analyzed with superconducting qubits and a transmission line resonator, where measurements are restricted to continuous probing of the field leaking from the resonator rather than instantaneous projective Bell state measurement. We show that the past quantum state formalism S. Gammelmark, B. Julsgaard, and K. Mølmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 160401 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.160401 can be successfully applied to estimate what would have been the most likely Bell measurement outcome conditioned on our continuous signal record. This information determines which local operation on the target qubit yields the optimal teleportation fidelity. Our results emphasize the significance of applying a detailed analysis of quantum measurements in feedforward protocols in nonideal leaky quantum systems.

  10. Quantum measurement occurrence is undecidable

    CERN Document Server

    Eisert, J; Gogolin, C

    2011-01-01

    A famous result by Alan Turing dating back to 1936 is that a general algorithm solving the halting problem on a Turing machine for all possible inputs and programs cannot exist - the halting problem is undecidable. Formally, an undecidable problem is a decision problem for which one cannot construct a single algorithm that will always provide a correct answer in finite time. In this work, we show that surprisingly, very natural, apparently simple problems in quantum measurement theory can be undecidable even if their classical analogues are decidable. Undecidability appears as a genuine quantum property. The problem we consider is to determine whether sequentially used identical Stern-Gerlach-type measurement devices, giving rise to a tree of possible outcomes, have outcomes that never occur. Finally, we point out implications for measurement-based quantum computing and studies of quantum many-body models and suggest that a plethora of problems may indeed be undecidable.

  11. Ultra-sensitive atomic spin measurements with a nonlinear interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Sewell, R J; Behbood, N; Colangelo, G; Ciurana, F Martin; Mitchell, M W

    2013-01-01

    Quantum metrology studies and improves quantum-limited ultra-sensitive measurements. Both linear interferometers, e.g. gravitational wave observatories, and nonlinear interferometers, e.g. optical magnetometers, have been enhanced by quantum metrology. The sensitivities of nonlinear interferometers scale better with system size than even quantum-enhanced linear interferometers, so-called `super-Heisenberg scaling', but it is actively debated whether this scaling can lead to better absolute sensitivity. Here we demonstrate a nonlinear measurement that surpasses, through super-Heisenberg scaling, the best possible linear measurement of the same quantity. We use alignment-to-orientation conversion, a practical magnetometry technique, to make a quantum non-demolition measurement of the spin alignment of a sample of $^{87}$Rb atoms. We observe absolute sensitivity 9 dB beyond the best comparable linear measurement and measurement-induced spin squeezing. The results provide insight into ultra-sensitive magnetometer...

  12. Quantum Incompatibility in Collective Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carmeli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the compatibility (or joint measurability of quantum observables in a setting where the experimenter has access to multiple copies of a given quantum system, rather than performing the experiments on each individual copy separately. We introduce the index of incompatibility as a quantifier of incompatibility in this multi-copy setting, as well as the notion of the compatibility stack representing various compatibility relations present in a given set of observables. We then prove a general structure theorem for multi-copy joint observables and use it to prove that all abstract compatibility stacks with three vertices have realizations in terms of quantum observables.

  13. Quantum memory, entanglement and sensing with room temperature atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K; Wasilewski, W; Krauter, H; Fernholz, T; Nielsen, B M; Petersen, J M; Renema, J J; Balabas, M V; Wolf, M M; Mueller, J H; Polzik, E S [Niels Bohr Institute, Danish Quantum Optics Center QUANTOP, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Owari, M; Plenio, M B [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Serafini, A [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Muschik, C A; Cirac, J I, E-mail: polzik@nbi.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-01-10

    Room temperature atomic ensembles in a spin-protected environment are useful systems both for quantum information science and metrology. Here we utilize a setup consisting of two atomic ensembles as a memory for quantum information initially encoded in the polarization state of two entangled light modes. We also use the ensembles as a radio frequency entanglement-assisted magnetometer with projection noise limited sensitivity below femtoTesla/{radical}Hz. The performance of the quantum memory as well as the magnetometer was improved by spin-squeezed or entangled atomic states generated by quantum non demolition measurements. Finally, we present preliminary results of long lived entangled atomic states generated by dissipation. With the method presented, one should be able to generate an entangled steady state.

  14. Generation of Exotic Quantum States of a Cold Atomic Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Lund

    . Furthermore, the nonclassical properties of the created state is inferred through the use of atomic quadrature quasi-probability distributions. The second generated state is a collective-single-excitation state — the atomic equivalent of a single photon. This state is created by the detection of a heralding......Over the last decades quantum effects have become more and more controllable, leading to the implementations of various quantum information protocols. These protocols are all based on utilizing quantum correlation. In this thesis we consider how states of an atomic ensemble with such correlations...... can be created and characterized. First we consider a spin-squeezed state. This state is generated by performing quantum non-demolition measurements of the atomic population difference. We show a spectroscopically relevant noise reduction of -1.7dB, the ensemble is in a many-body entangled state...

  15. Quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Modi, Kavan; Cable, Hugo; Paterek, Tomasz; Vedral, Vlatko

    2011-01-01

    One of the best signatures of nonclassicality in a quantum system is the existence of correlations that have no classical counterpart. Different methods for quantifying the quantum and classical parts of the correlations are amongst the most actively-studied topics of quantum information theory in the past decade. Entanglement is the most prominent of these correlations, but in many cases unentangled states exhibit nonclassical behavior. Thus distinguishing quantum correlation other than entanglement provides a better division between the quantum and classical worlds, especially when considering mixed states. Here we review different notions of classical and quantum correlations quantified by quantum discord and other related measures. In the first half we review the mathematical properties of the measures of quantum correlation, relate them to each other, and discuss the classical-quantum division that is common among them. In the second half, we show that the measures quantum correlation identify and quanti...

  16. Nonlocal Measurements via Quantum Erasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodutch, Aharon; Cohen, Eliahu

    2016-02-19

    Nonlocal observables play an important role in quantum theory, from Bell inequalities and various postselection paradoxes to quantum error correction codes. Instantaneous measurement of these observables is known to be a difficult problem, especially when the measurements are projective. The standard von Neumann Hamiltonian used to model projective measurements cannot be implemented directly in a nonlocal scenario and can, in some cases, violate causality. We present a scheme for effectively generating the von Neumann Hamiltonian for nonlocal observables without the need to communicate and adapt. The protocol can be used to perform weak and strong (projective) measurements, as well as measurements at any intermediate strength. It can also be used in practical situations beyond nonlocal measurements. We show how the protocol can be used to probe a version of Hardy's paradox with both weak and strong measurements. The outcomes of these measurements provide a nonintuitive picture of the pre- and postselected system. Our results shed new light on the interplay between quantum measurements, uncertainty, nonlocality, causality, and determinism.

  17. Local, nonlocal quantumness and information theoretic measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Sazim, Sk; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Pati, Arun K.

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that there may exist quantum correlations that go beyond entanglement. The existence of such correlations can be revealed by information theoretic quantities such as quantum discord, but not by the conventional measures of entanglement. We argue that a state displays quantumness, that can be of local and nonlocal origin. Information theoretic measures not only characterize the nonlocal quantumness, but also the local quantumness, such as the “local superposition”. This can be a reason, why such measures are nonzero, when there is no entanglement. We consider a generalized version of the Werner state to demonstrate the interplay of local quantumness, nonlocal quantumness and classical mixedness of a state.

  18. Optimal control of quantum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Daniel; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Pulses to steer the time evolution of quantum systems can be designed with optimal control theory. In most cases it is the coherent processes that can be controlled and one optimizes the time evolution towards a target unitary process, sometimes also in the presence of non-controllable incoherent processes. Here we show how to extend the GRAPE algorithm in the case where the incoherent processes are controllable and the target time evolution is a non-unitary quantum channel. We perform a gradient search on a fidelity measure based on Choi matrices. We illustrate our algorithm by optimizing a measurement pulse for superconducting phase qubits. We show how this technique can lead to large measurement contrast close to 99%. We also show, within the validity of our model, that this algorithm can produce short 1.4 ns pulses with 98.2% contrast.

  19. Detecting bit-flip errors in a logical qubit using stabilizer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristè, D; Poletto, S; Huang, M-Z; Bruno, A; Vesterinen, V; Saira, O-P; DiCarlo, L

    2015-04-29

    Quantum data are susceptible to decoherence induced by the environment and to errors in the hardware processing it. A future fault-tolerant quantum computer will use quantum error correction to actively protect against both. In the smallest error correction codes, the information in one logical qubit is encoded in a two-dimensional subspace of a larger Hilbert space of multiple physical qubits. For each code, a set of non-demolition multi-qubit measurements, termed stabilizers, can discretize and signal physical qubit errors without collapsing the encoded information. Here using a five-qubit superconducting processor, we realize the two parity measurements comprising the stabilizers of the three-qubit repetition code protecting one logical qubit from physical bit-flip errors. While increased physical qubit coherence times and shorter quantum error correction blocks are required to actively safeguard the quantum information, this demonstration is a critical step towards larger codes based on multiple parity measurements.

  20. Experimental quantum measurement with a few photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Lee Arthur

    This thesis presents the results of a series of four photonic experiments on the topic of quantum measurement. The first two experiments relate to quantum metrology, and the use of quantum states to increase the precision of measurements beyond what is possible with classical systems; first to detect and characterize decoherence, and then in the context of quantum imaging. The third experiment studies a fundamental question in quantum mechanics: "How much must a quantum system be disturbed by a measurement?". We use weak measurement to confirm a recent theoretical result, showing that if a particle's state is already sufficiently uncertain we can perform a measurement with very little disturbance -- contrary to common explanations of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The fourth experiment falls in the category of quantum computation. In quantum mechanics having multiple copies of an identical system allows us to extract more information than we can extract from a single copy (since quantum mechanics allows each system to be measured only once before collapsing). We present and experimentally implement a quantum algorithm to compress all of the "extractable information" present in an ensemble of identical copies of quantum bits into exponentially fewer quantum bits. The research presented here samples from a variety of topics in quantum information, showing in several contexts how fascinating quantum effects can be exploited to gain a "quantum enhancement". To enable these experiments two sources of entangled photons were built, and "hybrid" quantum systems (encoding information in multiple degrees of freedom of a photon) were used to implement quantum circuits. This thesis will present the details of one of these sources (a novel and practical source of entangled N00N states), which was used in a four-photon quantum metrology experiment. The other, more standard, source of polarization-entangled photon pairs will only briefly be reviewed to leave room for the

  1. Barycentric measure of quantum entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Ganczarek, Wojciech; Życzkowski, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Majorana representation of quantum states by a constellation of n 'stars' (points on the sphere) can be used to describe any pure state of a simple system of dimension n+1 or a permutation symmetric pure state of a composite system consisting of n qubits. We analyze the variance of the distribution of the stars, which can serve as a measure of the degree of non-coherence for simple systems, or an entanglement measure for composed systems. Dynamics of the Majorana points induced by a unitary dynamics of the pure state is investigated.

  2. How much a quantum measurement is informative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Arno, Michele [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Sacchi, Massimiliano F. [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (INF-CNR), P.zza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-04

    The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power.

  3. Unification of quantum and classical correlations and quantumness measures

    CERN Document Server

    Modi, Kavan

    2011-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to quantum discord. We the discuss the problem of separation of total correlations in a given quantum state into entanglement, dissonance, and classical correlations using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations. This allows us to put all correlations on an equal footing. Entanglement and dissonance, whose definition is introduced here, jointly belong to what is known as quantum discord. Our methods are completely applicable for multipartite systems of arbitrary dimensions. We finally show, using relative entropy, how different notions of quantum correlations are related to each other. This gives a single theory that incorporates all correlations, quantum, classical, etc.

  4. Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan

    2015-01-01

    1. Protective measurements: an introduction Shan Gao; Part I. Fundamentals and Applications: 2. Protective measurements of the wave function of a single system Lev Vaidman; 3. Protective measurement, postselection and the Heisenberg representation Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; 4. Protective and state measurement: a review Gennaro Auletta; 5. Determination of the stationary basis from protective measurement on a single system Lajos Diósi; 6. Weak measurements, the energy-momentum tensor and the Bohm approach Robert Flack and Basil J. Hiley; Part II. Meanings and Implications: 7. Measurement and metaphysics Peter J. Lewis; 8. Protective measurements and the explanatory gambit Michael Dickson; 9. Realism and instrumentalism about the wave function: how should we choose? Mauro Dorato and Frederico Laudisa; 10. Protective measurements and the PBR theorem Guy Hetzroni and Daniel Rohrlich; 11. The roads not taken: empty waves, waveform collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory Peter Holland; 12. Implications of protective measurements on de Broglie-Bohm trajectories Aurelien Drezet; 13. Entanglement, scaling, and the meaning of the wave function in protective measurement Maximilian Schlosshauer and Tangereen V. B. Claringbold; 14. Protective measurements and the nature of the wave function within the primitive ontology approach Vincent Lam; 15. Reality and meaning of the wave function Shan Gao; Index.

  5. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

  6. Quantum measurements of atoms using cavity QED

    CERN Document Server

    Dada, Adetunmise C; Jones, Martin L; Kendon, Vivien M; Everitt, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Generalized quantum measurements are an important extension of projective or von Neumann measurements, in that they can be used to describe any measurement that can be implemented on a quantum system. We describe how to realize two non-standard quantum measurements using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). The first measurement optimally and unabmiguously distinguishes between two non-orthogonal quantum states. The second example is a measurement that demonstrates superadditive quantum coding gain. The experimental tools used are single-atom unitary operations effected by Ramsey pulses and two-atom Tavis-Cummings interactions. We show how the superadditive quantum coding gain is affected by errors in the field-ionisation detection of atoms, and that even with rather high levels of experimental imperfections, a reasonable amount of superadditivity can still be seen. To date, these types of measurement have only been realized on photons. It would be of great interest to have realizations using other physical ...

  7. Spin dynamics of heavy-holes in (InGa)As quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahbashi, Ramin; Wiegand, Julia; Huebner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael [Insitute for Solid State Physics, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstr. 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Marie, Xavier [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, CNRS, LPCNO, 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans Werner [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The spin dynamics of heavy-holes confined in (InGa)As quantum dots (QDs) are of particular interest for future applications in solid state quantum information processing. We employ spin noise spectroscopy as a quantum non-demolition experiment to get access to the intrinsic spin dynamics. The spin noise method is transferred from ensembles of QDs to single dot heavy-hole measurements. Numerical simulations show an extremely long spin dephasing time if light absorption is negligible. The investigated QDs are characterized by polarization resolved photoluminescence measurements and via a Hanbury Brown-Twiss setup. The discharging of the QDs via Auger recombination due to residual light absorption is deactivated by co-pumping the dots with low intensity light.

  8. Characterization of Unruh Channel in the context of Open Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Subhashish; Omkar, S; Srikanth, R

    2016-01-01

    We show through the Choi matrix approach that the effect of Unruh acceleration on a qubit is similar to the interaction of the qubit with a vacuum bath, despite the finiteness of the Unruh temperature. Thus, rather counterintuitvely, from the perspective of decoherence in this framework, the particle experiences a vacuum bath with a temperature-modified interaction strength, rather than a thermal bath. We investigate how this "relativistic decoherence" is modified by the presence of environmentally induced decoherence, by studying the degradation of quantum information, as quantified by parameters such as nonlocality, teleportation fidelity, entanglement, coherence and quantum measurement-induced disturbance (a discord-like measure). Also studied are the performance parameters such as gate and channel fidelity. We highlight the distinction between dephasing and dissipative environmental interactions, by considering the actions of quantum non-demolition and squeezed generalized amplitude damping channels, resp...

  9. Inconclusive quantum measurements and decisions under uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2016-01-01

    We give a mathematical definition for the notion of inconclusive quantum measurements. In physics, such measurements occur at intermediate stages of a complex measurement procedure, with the final measurement result being operationally testable. Since the mathematical structure of Quantum Decision Theory has been developed in analogy with the theory of quantum measurements, the inconclusive quantum measurements correspond, in Quantum Decision Theory, to intermediate stages of decision making in the process of taking decisions under uncertainty. The general form of the quantum probability for a composite event is the sum of a utility factor, describing a rational evaluation of the considered prospect, and of an attraction factor, characterizing irrational, subconscious attitudes of the decision maker. Despite the involved irrationality, the probability of prospects can be evaluated. This is equivalent to the possibility of calculating quantum probabilities without specifying hidden variables. We formulate a ge...

  10. How to Measure the Quantum Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Frauca, Álvaro Mozota

    2016-01-01

    The histories-based framework of Quantum Measure Theory assigns a generalized probability or measure $\\mu(E)$ to every (suitably regular) set $E$ of histories. Even though $\\mu(E)$ cannot in general be interpreted as the expectation value of a selfadjoint operator (or POVM), we describe an arrangement which makes it possible to determine $\\mu(E)$ experimentally for any desired $E$. Taking, for simplicity, the system in question to be a particle passing through a series of Stern-Gerlach devices or beam-splitters, we show how to couple a set of ancillas to it, and then to perform on them a suitable unitary transformation followed by a final measurement, such that the probability of a final outcome of "yes" is related to $\\mu(E)$ by a known factor of proportionality. Finally, we discuss in what sense a positive outcome of the final measurement should count as a minimally disturbing verification that the microscopic event $E$ actually happened.

  11. Quantum Sensors: Improved Optical Measurement via Specialized Quantum States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Simon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical measurement strategies in many areas are approaching their maximum resolution and sensitivity levels, but these levels often still fall far short of the ultimate limits allowed by the laws of physics. To go further, strategies must be adopted that take into account the quantum nature of the probe particles and that optimize their quantum states for the desired application. Here, we review some of these approaches, in which quantum entanglement, the orbital angular momentum of single photons, and quantum interferometry are used to produce optical measurements beyond the classical limit.

  12. Quantum Measurement and Initial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2016-03-01

    Quantum measurement finds the observed system in a collapsed state, rather than in the state predicted by the Schrödinger equation. Yet there is a relatively spread opinion that the wavefunction collapse can be explained by unitary evolution (for instance in the decoherence approach, if we take into account the environment). In this article it is proven a mathematical result which severely restricts the initial conditions for which measurements have definite outcomes, if pure unitary evolution is assumed. This no-go theorem remains true even if we take the environment into account. The result does not forbid a unitary description of the measurement process, it only shows that such a description is possible only for very restricted initial conditions. The existence of such restrictions of the initial conditions can be understood in the four-dimensional block universe perspective, as a requirement of global self-consistency of the solutions of the Schrödinger equation.

  13. Quantum measurements with prescribed symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzda, Wojciech; Goyeneche, Dardo; Życzkowski, Karol

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a method to determine whether a given generalized quantum measurement is isolated or if it belongs to a family of measurements having the same prescribed symmetry. The technique proposed reduces to solving a linear system of equations in some relevant cases. As a consequence, we provide a simple derivation of the maximal family of symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measure SIC-POVM in dimension 3. Furthermore, we show that the following remarkable geometrical structures are isolated, so that free parameters cannot be introduced: (a) maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases in prime power dimensions from 4 to 16, (b) SIC-POVM in dimensions from 4 to 16, and (c) contextual Kochen-Specker sets in dimension 3, 4, and 6, composed of 13, 18, and 21 vectors, respectively.

  14. Quantum Measurement and the Real World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Aephraim M. (University of Toronto)

    2012-04-18

    While quantum measurement remains the central philosophical conundrum of quantum mechanics, it has recently grown into a respectable (read: experimental!) discipline as well. New perspectives on measurement have grown out of new technological possibilities, but also out of attempts to design systems for quantum information processing. I will present several examples of how our current ideas on quantum measurement go far beyond the usual textbook treatments, using examples from our entangled-photon and ultracold-atoms laboratories in Toronto. Topics will be drawn from weak measurement, 'interaction-free' measurement, Hardy's Paradox, measurement-induced quantum logic, and techniques for controlling and characterizing the coherence of quantum systems. The moral of the story will be that there are many different kinds of measurement strategies, with their own advantages and disadvantages; and that some things we have been taught not to even think about can actually be measured in a certain sense.

  15. Measures and applications of quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, Gerardo; Cianciaruso, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information theory is built upon the realisation that quantum resources like coherence and entanglement can be exploited for novel or enhanced ways of transmitting and manipulating information, such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, and quantum computing. We now know that there is potentially much more than entanglement behind the power of quantum information processing. There exist more general forms of non-classical correlations, stemming from fundamental principles such as the necessary disturbance induced by a local measurement, or the persistence of quantum coherence in all possible local bases. These signatures can be identified and are resilient in almost all quantum states, and have been linked to the enhanced performance of certain quantum protocols over classical ones in noisy conditions. Their presence represents, among other things, one of the most essential manifestations of quantumness in cooperative systems, from the subatomic to the macroscopic domain. In this work we give an ove...

  16. Quantum probability measures and tomographic probability densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amosov, GG; Man'ko, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Using a simple relation of the Dirac delta-function to generalized the theta-function, the relationship between the tomographic probability approach and the quantum probability measure approach with the description of quantum states is discussed. The quantum state tomogram expressed in terms of the

  17. Quantum Learning by Measurement and Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren

    We investigate an approach to quantum computing in which quantum gate strengths are parametrized by quantum degrees of freedom. The capability of the quantum computer to perform desired tasks is monitored by measurements of the output and gradually improved by successive feedback modifications of...... of the coupling strength parameters. Our proposal only uses information available in an experimental implementation, and is demonstrated with simulations on search and factoring algorithms....

  18. Quantum learning by measurement and feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We investigate an approach to quantum computing in which quantum gate strengths are parametrized by quantum degrees of freedom. The capability of the quantum computer to perform desired tasks is monitored by measurements of the output and gradually improved by successive feedback modifications of...... of the coupling strength parameters. Our proposal only uses information available in an experimental implementation, and is demonstrated with simulations on search and factoring algorithms....

  19. Quantum entanglement from random measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh Cong; Dakić, Borivoje; Arnault, François; Laskowski, Wiesław; Paterek, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    We show that the expectation value of squared correlations measured along random local directions is an identifier of quantum entanglement in pure states, which can be directly experimentally assessed if two copies of the state are available. Entanglement can therefore be detected by parties who do not share a common reference frame and whose local reference frames, such as polarizers or Stern-Gerlach magnets, remain unknown. Furthermore, we also show that in every experimental run, access to only one qubit from the macroscopic reference is sufficient to identify entanglement, violate a Bell inequality, and, in fact, observe all phenomena observable with macroscopic references. Finally, we provide a state-independent entanglement witness solely in terms of random correlations and emphasize how data gathered for a single random measurement setting per party reliably detects entanglement. This is only possible due to utilized randomness and should find practical applications in experimental confirmation of multiphoton entanglement or space experiments.

  20. Measurement Analysis and Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, Mark; Reginatto, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    We consider the question of whether consistency arguments based on measurement theory show that the gravitational field must be quantized. Motivated by the argument of Eppley and Hannah, we apply a DeWitt-type measurement analysis to a coupled system that consists of a gravitational wave interacting with a mass cube. We also review the arguments of Eppley and Hannah and of DeWitt, and investigate a second model in which a gravitational wave interacts with a quantized scalar field. We argue that one cannot conclude from the existing gedanken experiments that gravity has to be quantized. Despite the many physical arguments which speak in favor of a quantum theory of gravity, it appears that the justification for such a theory must be based on empirical tests and does not follow from logical arguments alone.

  1. Quantum evolution by discrete measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, L [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Guevara, M L Ladron de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Delgado, A [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Olivares-RenterIa, G [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In this article we review two ways of driving a quantum system to a known pure state via a sequence discrete of von Neumann measurements. The first of them assumes that the initial state of the system is unknown, and the evolution is attained only with the help of two non-commuting observables. For this method, the overall success probability is maximized when the eigentstates of the involved observables constitute mutually unbiased bases. The second method assumes the initial state is known and it uses N observables which are consecutively measured to make the state of the system approach the target state. The probability of success of this procedure converges to 1 as the number of observables increases.

  2. Subcycle quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, C; Sulzer, P; Seeger, M; Moskalenko, A S; Burkard, G; Seletskiy, D V; Leitenstorfer, A

    2017-01-18

    Squeezed states of electromagnetic radiation have quantum fluctuations below those of the vacuum field. They offer a unique resource for quantum information systems and precision metrology, including gravitational wave detectors, which require unprecedented sensitivity. Since the first experiments on this non-classical form of light, quantum analysis has been based on homodyning techniques and photon correlation measurements. These methods currently function in the visible to near-infrared and microwave spectral ranges. They require a well-defined carrier frequency, and photons contained in a quantum state need to be absorbed or amplified. Quantum non-demolition experiments may be performed to avoid the influence of a measurement in one quadrature, but this procedure comes at the expense of increased uncertainty in another quadrature. Here we generate mid-infrared time-locked patterns of squeezed vacuum noise. After propagation through free space, the quantum fluctuations of the electric field are studied in the time domain using electro-optic sampling with few-femtosecond laser pulses. We directly compare the local noise amplitude to that of bare (that is, unperturbed) vacuum. Our nonlinear approach operates off resonance and, unlike homodyning or photon correlation techniques, without absorption or amplification of the field that is investigated. We find subcycle intervals with noise levels that are substantially less than the amplitude of the vacuum field. As a consequence, there are enhanced fluctuations in adjacent time intervals, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which indicate generation of highly correlated quantum radiation. Together with efforts in the far infrared, this work enables the study of elementary quantum dynamics of light and matter in an energy range at the boundary between vacuum and thermal background conditions.

  3. Measures and applications of quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Bromley, Thomas R.; Cianciaruso, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Quantum information theory is built upon the realisation that quantum resources like coherence and entanglement can be exploited for novel or enhanced ways of transmitting and manipulating information, such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, and quantum computing. We now know that there is potentially much more than entanglement behind the power of quantum information processing. There exist more general forms of non-classical correlations, stemming from fundamental principles such as the necessary disturbance induced by a local measurement, or the persistence of quantum coherence in all possible local bases. These signatures can be identified and are resilient in almost all quantum states, and have been linked to the enhanced performance of certain quantum protocols over classical ones in noisy conditions. Their presence represents, among other things, one of the most essential manifestations of quantumness in cooperative systems, from the subatomic to the macroscopic domain. In this work we give an overview of the current quest for a proper understanding and characterisation of the frontier between classical and quantum correlations (QCs) in composite states. We focus on various approaches to define and quantify general QCs, based on different yet interlinked physical perspectives, and comment on the operational significance of the ensuing measures for quantum technology tasks such as information encoding, distribution, discrimination and metrology. We then provide a broader outlook of a few applications in which quantumness beyond entanglement looks fit to play a key role.

  4. Quantum Measurements, Information and Entropy Production

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Y N; Widom, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to understand the Landau-Lifshitz conjecture on the relationship between quantum measurements and the thermodynamic second law, we discuss the notion of ``diabatic'' and ``adiabatic'' forces exerted by the quantum object on the classical measurement apparatus. The notion of heat and work in measurements is made manifest in this approach, and the relationship between information entropy and thermodynamic entropy is explored.

  5. Quantum Measurements, Information and Entropy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Y. N.; Vitiello, G; Widom, A.

    1998-01-01

    In order to understand the Landau-Lifshitz conjecture on the relationship between quantum measurements and the thermodynamic second law, we discuss the notion of ``diabatic'' and ``adiabatic'' forces exerted by the quantum object on the classical measurement apparatus. The notion of heat and work in measurements is made manifest in this approach, and the relationship between information entropy and thermodynamic entropy is explored.

  6. Criteria for measures of quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Brodutch, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement does not describe all quantum correlations and several authors have shown the need to go beyond entanglement when dealing with mixed states. Several different measures have sprung up in the literature, for a variety of reasons, To describe quantum correlations; some are known under the collective name quantum discord. Yet, in the same sprit as the criteria for entanglement measures, there is no general mechanism that determines whether a measure of quantum and classical correlations is a proper measure of correlations. This is partially due to the fact that the answer is a bit muddy. In this article we attempt tackle this muddy topic by writing down several criteria for a "good" measure of correlations. We breakup our list into necessary, reasonable, and debatable conditions. We then proceed to prove several of these conditions for generalized measures of quantum correlations. However, not all conditions are met by all measures; we show this via several examples. The reasonable conditions are rel...

  7. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-12-01

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  8. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    CERN Document Server

    Lupo, C; De Pasquale, A; Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S

    2012-01-01

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom -- the symplectic eigenvalues -- which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest or applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  9. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  10. Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this work,a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system.As two special cases,two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail.An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity.Therefore,the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.

  11. Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Quan; LI JiuHui

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system. As two special cases, two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail. An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity. Therefore, the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.

  12. From quantum measurement to biology via retrocausality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Koichiro

    2017-06-21

    A reaction cycle in general or a metabolic cycle in particular owes its evolutionary emergence to the covering reaction environment acting as a measurement apparatus of a natural origin. The quantum measurement of the environmental origin underlying the molecular processes observed in the biological realm is operative cohesively between the measuring and the measured. The measuring part comes to pull in a quantum as an indivisible lump available from an arbitrary material body to be measured. The inevitable difference between the impinging quantum upon the receiving end on the part of the environment and the actual quantum pulled into the receiving end comes to effectively be nullified through the retrocausative propagation of the corresponding wave function proceeding backwards in time. The retrocausal regulation applied to the interface between the measuring and the measured is to function as the organizational agency supporting biology, and is sought in the act for the present in the immediate future within the realm of quantum phenomena. Molecular dynamics in biology owes both the evolutionary buildup and maintenance of its organization to the retrocausal operation of the unitary transformation applied to quantum phenomena proceeding backwards in time. Quantum measurement provides the cohesive agency that is pivotal for implementing the retrocausal regulation. In particular, the physical origin of Darwinian natural selection can be seen in the retrocausal regulation applied to the unitary transformation of a quantum origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lectures on dynamical models for quantum measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; Perarnau-llobet, M.; Balian, R.

    2014-01-01

    In textbooks, ideal quantum measurements are described in terms of the tested system only by the collapse postulate and Born's rule. This level of description offers a rather flexible position for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Here we analyse an ideal measurement as a process of interacti

  14. Lectures on dynamical models for quantum measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; Perarnau-llobet, M.; Balian, R.

    2014-01-01

    In textbooks, ideal quantum measurements are described in terms of the tested system only by the collapse postulate and Born's rule. This level of description offers a rather flexible position for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Here we analyse an ideal measurement as a process of

  15. Entropy and Energy in Quantum Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas E. Schlatter

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the classical axioms of non relativistic quantum mechanics, we develop a model for the interplay between energy and entropy in the process of quantum measurement and shed light on the scope of some of the axioms with regard to the measurement problem.

  16. Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.

  17. The Locality Problem in Quantum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Slavnov, D A

    2010-01-01

    The locality problem of quantum measurements is considered in the framework of the algebraic approach. It is shown that contrary to the currently widespread opinion one can reconcile the mathematical formalism of the quantum theory with the assumption of the existence of a local physical reality determining the results of local measurements. The key quantum experiments: double-slit experiment on electron scattering, Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and quantum teleportation are discussed from the locality-problem point of view. A clear physical interpretation for these experiments, which does not contradict the classical ideas, is given.

  18. Generation of Exotic Quantum States of a Cold Atomic Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Lund

    Over the last decades quantum effects have become more and more controllable, leading to the implementations of various quantum information protocols. These protocols are all based on utilizing quantum correlation. In this thesis we consider how states of an atomic ensemble with such correlations...... — a nanofiber based light-atom interface. Using a dual-frequency probing method we measure and prepare an ensemble with a sub-Poissonian atom number distribution. This is a first step towards the implementation of more exotic quantum states.......Over the last decades quantum effects have become more and more controllable, leading to the implementations of various quantum information protocols. These protocols are all based on utilizing quantum correlation. In this thesis we consider how states of an atomic ensemble with such correlations...... can be created and characterized. First we consider a spin-squeezed state. This state is generated by performing quantum non-demolition measurements of the atomic population difference. We show a spectroscopically relevant noise reduction of -1.7dB, the ensemble is in a many-body entangled state...

  19. Non-Boolean probabilities and quantum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2001-08-03

    A non-Boolean extension of the classical probability model is proposed. The non-Boolean probabilities reproduce typical quantum phenomena. The proposed model is more general and more abstract, but easier to interpret, than the quantum mechanical Hilbert space formalism and exhibits a particular phenomenon (state-independent conditional probabilities) which may provide new opportunities for an understanding of the quantum measurement process. Examples of the proposed model are provided, using Jordan operator algebras. (author)

  20. Distributed measurement-based quantum computation

    CERN Document Server

    Danos, V; Kashefi, E; Panangaden, P; Danos, Vincent; Hondt, Ellie D'; Kashefi, Elham; Panangaden, Prakash

    2005-01-01

    We develop a formal model for distributed measurement-based quantum computations, adopting an agent-based view, such that computations are described locally where possible. Because the network quantum state is in general entangled, we need to model it as a global structure, reminiscent of global memory in classical agent systems. Local quantum computations are described as measurement patterns. Since measurement-based quantum computation is inherently distributed, this allows us to extend naturally several concepts of the measurement calculus, a formal model for such computations. Our goal is to define an assembly language, i.e. we assume that computations are well-defined and we do not concern ourselves with verification techniques. The operational semantics for systems of agents is given by a probabilistic transition system, and we define operational equivalence in a way that it corresponds to the notion of bisimilarity. With this in place, we prove that teleportation is bisimilar to a direct quantum channe...

  1. Fundamental tests in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    At the dawn of quantum physics, Einstein and Bohr had the dream to confine a photon in a box and to use this contraption in order to illustrate the strange laws of the quantum world. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics has now made this dream real, allowing us to actually achieve in the laboratory variants of the thought experiments of the founding fathers of quantum theory. In our work at Ecole Normale Supérieure, we use a beam of Rydberg atoms to manipulate and probe non-destructively microwave photons trapped in a very high Q superconducting cavity. We realize ideal quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements of photon numbers, observe the radiation quantum jumps due to cavity relaxation and prepare non-classical fields such as Fock and Schrödinger cat states. Combining QND photon counting with a homodyne mixing method, we reconstruct the Wigner functions of these non-classical states and, by taking snapshots of these functions at increasing times, obtain movies of the decoherence process. These experiments ope...

  2. Quantum metrology. Optically measuring force near the standard quantum limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppler, Sydney; Spethmann, Nicolas; Brahms, Nathan; Botter, Thierry; Barrios, Maryrose; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2014-06-27

    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle sets a lower bound on the noise in a force measurement based on continuously detecting a mechanical oscillator's position. This bound, the standard quantum limit, can be reached when the oscillator subjected to the force is unperturbed by its environment and when measurement imprecision from photon shot noise is balanced against disturbance from measurement back-action. We applied an external force to the center-of-mass motion of an ultracold atom cloud in a high-finesse optical cavity and measured the resulting motion optically. When the driving force is resonant with the cloud's oscillation frequency, we achieve a sensitivity that is a factor of 4 above the standard quantum limit and consistent with theoretical predictions given the atoms' residual thermal disturbance and the photodetection quantum efficiency.

  3. Simulating open quantum systems: from many-body interactions to stabilizer pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, M; Zhou, Y L; Roos, C F; Zoller, P

    2011-01-01

    In a recent experiment, Barreiro et al. demonstrated the fundamental building blocks of an open-system quantum simulator with trapped ions [Nature 470, 486 (2011)]. Using up to five ions, single- and multi-qubit entangling gate operations were combined with optical pumping in stroboscopic sequences. This enabled the implementation of both coherent many-body dynamics as well as dissipative processes by controlling the coupling of the system to an artificial, suitably tailored environment. This engineering was illustrated by the dissipative preparation of entangled two- and four-qubit states, the simulation of coherent four-body spin interactions and the quantum non-demolition measurement of a multi-qubit stabilizer operator. In the present paper, we present the theoretical framework of this gate-based ("digital") simulation approach for open-system dynamics with trapped ions. In addition, we discuss how within this simulation approach minimal instances of spin models of interest in the context of topological q...

  4. Suppression of Classical and Quantum Radiation Pressure Noise via Electro-Optic Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Buchler, B C; Shaddock, D A; Ralph, T C; McClelland, D E; Buchler, Ben C.; Gray, Malcolm B.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Ralph, Timothy C.; Clelland, David E. Mc

    1998-01-01

    We present theoretical results that demonstrate a new technique to be used to improve the sensitivity of thermal noise measurements: intra-cavity intensity stabilisation. It is demonstrated that electro-optic feedback can be used to reduce intra-cavity intensity fluctuations, and the consequent radiation pressure fluctuations, by a factor of two below the quantum noise limit. We show that this is achievable in the presence of large classical intensity fluctuations on the incident laser beam. The benefits of this scheme are a consequence of the sub-Poissonian intensity statistics of the field inside a feedback loop, and the quantum non-demolition nature of radiation pressure noise as a readout system for the intra-cavity intensity fluctuations.

  5. Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. V. Quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

    2010-02-01

    The FEYNMAN program has been developed during the last years to support case studies on the dynamics and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers. Apart from basic transformations and (gate) operations, it currently supports a good number of separability criteria and entanglement measures, quantum channels as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects in quantum information theory, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions. With the present update of the FEYNMAN program, we provide a simple access to (the simulation of) quantum measurements. This includes not only the widely-applied projective measurements upon the eigenspaces of some given operator but also single-qubit measurements in various pre- and user-defined bases as well as the support for two-qubit Bell measurements. In addition, we help perform generalized and POVM measurements. Knowing the importance of measurements for many quantum information protocols, e.g., one-way computing, we hope that this update makes the FEYNMAN code an attractive and versatile tool for both, research and education. New version program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 210 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 960 471 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 12 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; the program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux Classification: 4.15 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWE_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun

  6. Inconclusive quantum measurements and decisions under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav I. Yukalov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a mathematical definition for the notion of inconclusive quantum measurements.In physics, such measurements occur at intermediate stages of a complex measurement procedure, with the final measurement result being operationally testable. Since the mathematical structure of Quantum Decision Theory has been developed in analogy withthe theory of quantum measurements, the inconclusive quantum measurements correspond,in Quantum Decision Theory, to intermediate stages of decision making in the process of taking decisions under uncertainty. The general form of the quantum probability for a composite event is the sum of a utility factor, describing a rational evaluationof the considered prospect, and of an attraction factor, characterizing irrational,subconscious attitudes of the decision maker. Despite the involved irrationality, the probability of prospects can be evaluated. This is equivalent to the possibility of calculating quantum probabilities without specifying hidden variables. We formulate a general way of evaluation, based on the use of non-informative priors. As an example,we suggest the explanation of the decoy effect. Our quantitative predictions are in very good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Inconclusive quantum measurements and decisions under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav; Sornette, Didier

    2016-04-01

    We give a mathematical definition for the notion of inconclusive quantum measurements. In physics, such measurements occur at intermediate stages of a complex measurement procedure, with the final measurement result being operationally testable. Since the mathematical structure of Quantum Decision Theory has been developed in analogy with the theory of quantum measurements, the inconclusive quantum measurements correspond, in Quantum Decision Theory, to intermediate stages of decision making in the process of taking decisions under uncertainty. The general form of the quantum probability for a composite event is the sum of a utility factor, describing a rational evaluation of the considered prospect, and of an attraction factor, characterizing irrational, subconscious attitudes of the decision maker. Despite the involved irrationality, the probability of prospects can be evaluated. This is equivalent to the possibility of calculating quantum probabilities without specifying hidden variables. We formulate a general way of evaluation, based on the use of non-informative priors. As an example, we suggest the explanation of the decoy effect. Our quantitative predictions are in very good agreement with experimental data.

  8. Measuring the scrambling of quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Swingle, Brian; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Hayden, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We provide a protocol to measure out-of-time-order correlation functions. These correlation functions are of theoretical interest for diagnosing the scrambling of quantum information in black holes and strongly interacting quantum systems generally. Measuring them requires an echo-type sequence in which the sign of a many-body Hamiltonian is reversed. We detail an implementation employing cold atoms and cavity quantum electrodynamics to realize the chaotic kicked top model, and we analyze effects of dissipation to verify its feasibility with current technology. Finally, we propose in broad strokes a number of other experimental platforms where similar out-of-time-order correlation functions can be measured.

  9. A quantum measure of the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ``watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.

  10. A quantum measure of the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the "watcher"). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.

  11. A quantum measure of the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ''watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.

  12. Entropy of phase measurement quantum phase via quadrature measurement

    CERN Document Server

    My, R; My, Robert; Uni, Palacky

    1995-01-01

    The content of phase information of an arbitrary phase--sensitive measurement is evaluated using the maximum likelihood estimation. The phase distribution is characterized by the relative entropy--a nonlinear functional of input quantum state. As an explicit example the multiple measurement of quadrature operator is interpreted as quantum phase detection achieving the ultimate resolution predicted by the Fisher information.

  13. On the measurability of quantum correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio.fisica@gmail.com; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre

    2015-05-15

    The concept of correlation function is widely used in classical statistical mechanics to characterize how two or more variables depend on each other. In quantum mechanics, on the other hand, there are observables that cannot be measured at the same time; the so-called incompatible observables. This prospect imposes a limitation on the definition of a quantum analog for the correlation function in terms of a sequence of measurements. Here, based on the notion of sequential weak measurements, we circumvent this limitation by introducing a framework to measure general quantum correlation functions, in principle, independently of the state of the system and the operators involved. To illustrate, we propose an experimental configuration to obtain explicitly the quantum correlation function between two Pauli operators, in which the input state is an arbitrary mixed qubit state encoded on the polarization of photons.

  14. Tuning quantum measurements to control chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jessica K.; Hope, Joseph J.; Carvalho, André R. R.

    2017-01-01

    Environment-induced decoherence has long been recognised as being of crucial importance in the study of chaos in quantum systems. In particular, the exact form and strength of the system-environment interaction play a major role in the quantum-to-classical transition of chaotic systems. In this work we focus on the effect of varying monitoring strategies, i.e. for a given decoherence model and a fixed environmental coupling, there is still freedom on how to monitor a quantum system. We show here that there is a region between the deep quantum regime and the classical limit where the choice of the monitoring parameter allows one to control the complex behaviour of the system, leading to either the emergence or suppression of chaos. Our work shows that this is a result from the interplay between quantum interference effects induced by the nonlinear dynamics and the effectiveness of the decoherence for different measurement schemes. PMID:28317933

  15. Quantum Measurement and Extended Feynman Path Integral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文伟; 白彦魁

    2012-01-01

    Quantum measurement problem has existed many years and inspired a large of literature in both physics and philosophy, but there is still no conclusion and consensus on it. We show it can be subsumed into the quantum theory if we extend the Feynman path integral by considering the relativistic effect of Feynman paths. According to this extended theory, we deduce not only the Klein-Gordon equation, but also the wave-function-collapse equation. It is shown that the stochastic and instantaneous collapse of the quantum measurement is due to the "potential noise" of the apparatus or environment and "inner correlation" of wave function respectively. Therefore, the definite-status of the macroscopic matter is due to itself and this does not disobey the quantum mechanics. This work will give a new recognition for the measurement problem.

  16. The quantum measurement approach to particle oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Anastopoulos, C

    2010-01-01

    The LSND and MiniBoone seeming anomalies in neutrino oscillations are usually attributed to physics beyond the Standard model. It is, however, possible that they may be an artefact of the theoretical treatment of particle oscillations that ignores fine points of quantum measurement theory relevant to the experiments. In this paper, we construct a rigorous measurement-theoretic framework for the description of particle oscillations, employing no assumptions extrinsic to quantum theory. The formalism leads to a non-standard oscillation formula; at low energy it predicts an `anomalous' oscillation wavelength, while at high energy it differs from the standard expression by a factor of 2. The key novelties in the formalism are the treatment of a particle's time of arrival at the detector as a genuine quantum observable, the theoretical precision in the definition of quantum probabilities, and the detailed modeling of the measurement process. The article also contains an extensive critical review of existing theore...

  17. Emerging interpretations of quantum mechanics and recent progress in quantum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to provide a brief discussion on the quantum measurement process, by reviewing select examples highlighting recent progress towards its understanding. The areas explored include an outline of the measurement problem, the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, quantum to classical transition, types of measurement (including weak and projective measurements) and newly emerging interpretations of quantum mechanics (decoherence theory, objective reality, quantum Darwinism and quantum Bayesianism).

  18. On the theory of quantum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Hermann A.; Kaertner, Franz X.

    1994-01-01

    Many so called paradoxes of quantum mechanics are clarified when the measurement equipment is treated as a quantized system. Every measurement involves nonlinear processes. Self consistent formulations of nonlinear quantum optics are relatively simple. Hence optical measurements, such as the quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of photon number, are particularly well suited for such a treatment. It shows that the so called 'collapse of the wave function' is not needed for the interpretation of the measurement process. Coherence of the density matrix of the signal is progressively reduced with increasing accuracy of the photon number determination. If the QND measurement is incorporated into the double slit experiment, the contrast ratio of the fringes is found to decrease with increasing information on the photon number in one of the two paths.

  19. Uniqueness of measures in loop quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanusch, Maximilian, E-mail: hanuschm@fau.edu [Mathematics Department, University of Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    In Ashtekar and Campiglia [Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 242001 (2012)], residual diffeomorphisms have been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We show that, in the homogeneous isotropic case, unitarity of the translations with respect to the extended ℝ-action (exponentiated reduced fluxes in the standard approach) singles out the Bohr measure on both the standard quantum configuration space ℝ{sub Bohr} as well as on the Fleischhack one (ℝ⊔ℝ{sub Bohr}). Thus, in both situations, the same condition singles out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of LQC.

  20. Gravitational self-localization in quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Geszti, T

    2004-01-01

    Within Newton-Schr\\"odinger quantum mechanics which allows gravitational self-interaction, it is shown that a no-split no-collapse measurement scenario is possible. A macroscopic pointer moves at low acceleration, controlled by the Ehrenfest-averaged force acting on it. That makes classicality self-sustaining, resolves Everett's paradox, and outlines a way to spontaneous emergence of quantum randomness. Numerical estimates indicate that enhanced short-range gravitational forces are needed for the scenario to work. The scheme fails to explain quantum nonlocality, including two-detector anticorrelations, which points towards the need of a nonlocal modification of the Newton-Schr\\"odinger coupling scheme.

  1. Unified entropic measures of quantum correlations induced by local measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Bellomo, G.; Zozor, S.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce quantum correlation measures based on the minimal change in unified entropies induced by local rank-one projective measurements, divided by a factor that depends on the generalized purity of the system in the case of nonadditive entropies. In this way, we overcome the issue of the artificial increasing of the value of quantum correlation measures based on nonadditive entropies when an uncorrelated ancilla is appended to the system, without changing the computability of our entropic correlation measures with respect to the previous ones. Moreover, we recover as limiting cases the quantum correlation measures based on von Neumann and Rényi entropies (i.e., additive entropies), for which the adjustment factor becomes trivial. In addition, we distinguish between total and semiquantum correlations and obtain some inequalities between them. Finally, we obtain analytical expressions of the entropic correlation measures for typical quantum bipartite systems.

  2. Measurements and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavnov, D. A.

    2007-03-01

    A scheme for constructing quantum mechanics is given that does not have Hilbert space and linear operators as its basic elements. Instead, a version of algebraic approach is considered. Elements of a noncommutative algebra (observables) and functionals on this algebra (elementary states) associated with results of single measurements are used as primary components of the scheme. On the one hand, it is possible to use within the scheme the formalism of the standard (Kolmogorov) probability theory, and, on the other hand, it is possible to reproduce the mathematical formalism of standard quantum mechanics, and to study the limits of its applicability. A short outline is given of the necessary material from the theory of algebras and probability theory. It is described how the mathematical scheme of the paper agrees with the theory of quantum measurements, and avoids quantum paradoxes.

  3. Irreversibility, Information and Randomness in Quantum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Mayburov, S N

    2012-01-01

    Irreversibility in quantum measurements is considered from the point of quantum information theory. For that purpose the information transfer between the measured object S and measuring system O is analyzed. It's found that due to the principal constraints of quantum-mechanical origin, the information about the purity of S state isn't transferred to O during the measurement of arbitraryS observable V. Consequently O can't discriminate the pure and mixed S ensembles with the same . As the result, the random outcomes should be detected by O in V measurement for S pure ensemble of V eigenstate superposition. It's shown that the outcome probabilties obey to Born rule. The influence of O decoherence by its environment is studied, however the account of its effects doesn't change these results principally.

  4. Operational meaning of quantum measures of recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Tom; Hirche, Christoph; Morgan, Ciara; Olson, Jonathan P.; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Watrous, John; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-08-01

    Several information measures have recently been defined that capture the notion of recoverability. In particular, the fidelity of recovery quantifies how well one can recover a system A of a tripartite quantum state, defined on systems A B C , by acting on system C alone. The relative entropy of recovery is an associated measure in which the fidelity is replaced by relative entropy. In this paper we provide concrete operational interpretations of the aforementioned recovery measures in terms of a computational decision problem and a hypothesis testing scenario. Specifically, we show that the fidelity of recovery is equal to the maximum probability with which a computationally unbounded quantum prover can convince a computationally bounded quantum verifier that a given quantum state is recoverable. The quantum interactive proof system giving this operational meaning requires four messages exchanged between the prover and verifier, but by forcing the prover to perform actions in superposition, we construct a different proof system that requires only two messages. The result is that the associated decision problem is in QIP(2) and another argument establishes it as hard for QSZK (both classes contain problems believed to be difficult to solve for a quantum computer). We finally prove that the regularized relative entropy of recovery is equal to the optimal type II error exponent when trying to distinguish many copies of a tripartite state from a recovered version of this state, such that the type I error is constrained to be no larger than a constant.

  5. Geometric measure of quantum discord under decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Ming, Lu; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of a geometric measure of the quantum discord (GMQD) under decoherence is investigated. We show that the GMQD of a two-qubit state can be alternatively obtained through the singular values of a 3\\times4 matrix whose elements are the expectation values of Pauli matrices of the two qubits. By using Heisenberg picture, the analytic results of the GMQD is obtained for three typical kinds of the quantum decoherence channels. We compare the dynamics of the GMQD with that of the quantum discord and of entanglement and show that a sudden change in the decay rate of the GMQD does not always imply the sudden change in the decay rate of the quantum discord.

  6. Quantum measurement act as a "speech act"

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, J

    2005-01-01

    I show that the quantum measurement problem can be understood if the measurement is seen as a ``speech act'' in the sense of modern language theory. The reduction of the state vector is in this perspective an intersubjectice -- or better a-subjective -- symbolic process. I then give some perspectives on applications to the ``Mind-Body problem''.

  7. Relating quantum coherence and correlations with entropy-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan

    2017-09-21

    Quantum coherence and quantum correlations are important quantum resources for quantum computation and quantum information. In this paper, using entropy-based measures, we investigate the relationships between quantum correlated coherence, which is the coherence between subsystems, and two main kinds of quantum correlations as defined by quantum discord as well as quantum entanglement. In particular, we show that quantum discord and quantum entanglement can be well characterized by quantum correlated coherence. Moreover, we prove that the entanglement measure formulated by quantum correlated coherence is lower and upper bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement and the entanglement of formation, respectively, and equal to the relative entropy of entanglement for all the maximally correlated states.

  8. Direct Measurement of the Quantum Wavefunction

    CERN Document Server

    Lundeen, Jeff S; Patel, Aabid; Stewart, Corey; Bamber, Charles; 10.1038/nature10120

    2011-01-01

    Central to quantum theory, the wavefunction is the complex distribution used to completely describe a quantum system. Despite its fundamental role, it is typically introduced as an abstract element of the theory with no explicit definition. Rather, physicists come to a working understanding of the wavefunction through its use to calculate measurement outcome probabilities via the Born Rule. Presently, scientists determine the wavefunction through tomographic methods, which estimate the wavefunction that is most consistent with a diverse collection of measurements. The indirectness of these methods compounds the problem of defining the wavefunction. Here we show that the wavefunction can be measured directly by the sequential measurement of two complementary variables of the system. The crux of our method is that the first measurement is performed in a gentle way (i.e. weak measurement) so as not to invalidate the second. The result is that the real and imaginary components of the wavefunction appear directly ...

  9. Reversible Projective Measurement in Quantum Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Khitrin, Anatoly; Lee, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    We present experimental NMR demonstration of a scheme of reversible projective measurement, which allows extracting information on outcomes and probabilities of a projective measurement in a non-destructive way, with a minimal net effect on the quantum state of an ensemble. The scheme uses reversible dynamics and weak measurement of the intermediate state. The experimental system is an ensemble of 133Cs (S = 7/2) nuclei in a liquid-crystalline matrix.

  10. Measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; Amiri, Ryan; Wallden, Petros; Curty, Marcos; Andersson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Digital signatures play an important role in software distribution, modern communication, and financial transactions, where it is important to detect forgery and tampering. Signatures are a cryptographic technique for validating the authenticity and integrity of messages, software, or digital documents. The security of currently used classical schemes relies on computational assumptions. Quantum digital signatures (QDS), on the other hand, provide information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum physics. Recent work on QDS Amiri et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032325 Yin, Fu, and Zeng-Bing, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032316 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032316 shows that such schemes do not require trusted quantum channels and are unconditionally secure against general coherent attacks. However, in practical QDS, just as in quantum key distribution (QKD), the detectors can be subjected to side-channel attacks, which can make the actual implementations insecure. Motivated by the idea of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), we present a measurement-device-independent QDS (MDI-QDS) scheme, which is secure against all detector side-channel attacks. Based on the rapid development of practical MDI-QKD, our MDI-QDS protocol could also be experimentally implemented, since it requires a similar experimental setup.

  11. Generalized quantum measurements. Part II: Partially-destructive quantum measurements in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Grishanin, B A; Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.

    2005-01-01

    A concept of the generalized quantum measurement is introduced as the transformation, which establishes a correspondence between the initial states of the object system and final states of the object--measuring device (meter) system with the help of a classical informational index, unambiguously linked to the classically compatible set of states of the object--meter system. It is shown that the generalized measurement covers all the key known quantum measurement concepts--standard projective, entangling, fuzzy and the generalized measurement with the partial or complete destruction of the initial information contained in the object. A special class of partially-destructive measurements that map the continual set of the states in finite-dimensional quantum systems to that one of the infinite-dimensional quantum systems is considered. Their informational essence and some information characteristics are discussed in detail.

  12. Squeezing more from a quantum nondemolition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchler, B.C.; Lam, P.K.; Bachor, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    We use a stable, 5 dB, amplitude squeezed source for a quantum nondomolition (QND) experiment. The performance of our QND system is enhanced by an electro-optic feedforward loop which improve,, the signal transfer efficiency. At best, we measure a total signal transfer of 1.81 and conditional var...

  13. Quantum Hamiltonian Identification from Measurement Time Traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan

    2014-08-01

    Precise identification of parameters governing quantum processes is a critical task for quantum information and communication technologies. In this Letter, we consider a setting where system evolution is determined by a parametrized Hamiltonian, and the task is to estimate these parameters from temporal records of a restricted set of system observables (time traces). Based on the notion of system realization from linear systems theory, we develop a constructive algorithm that provides estimates of the unknown parameters directly from these time traces. We illustrate the algorithm and its robustness to measurement noise by applying it to a one-dimensional spin chain model with variable couplings.

  14. Quantum measurement and entanglement of spin quantum bits in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfaff, W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a set of experiments that explore the possible realisation of a macroscopic quantum network based on solid-state quantum bits. Such a quantum network would allow for studying quantum mechanics on large scales (meters, or even kilometers), and can open new possibilities for

  15. Quantum measurement and entanglement of spin quantum bits in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfaff, W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a set of experiments that explore the possible realisation of a macroscopic quantum network based on solid-state quantum bits. Such a quantum network would allow for studying quantum mechanics on large scales (meters, or even kilometers), and can open new possibilities for appli

  16. Quantum metrology foundation of units and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Ernst O

    2015-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is the world's most widely used system of measurement, used every day in commerce and science, and is the modern form of the metric system. It currently comprises the meter (m), the kilogram (kg), the second (s), the ampere (A), the kelvin (K), the candela (cd) and the mole (mol)). The system is changing though, units and unit definitions are modified through international agreements as the technology of measurement progresses, and as the precision of measurements improves. The SI is now being redefined based on constants of nature and their realization by quantum standards. Therefore, the underlying physics and technologies will receive increasing interest, and not only in the metrology community but in all fields of science. This book introduces and explains the applications of modern physics concepts to metrology, the science and the applications of measurements. A special focus is made on the use of quantum standards for the realization of the forthcoming new SI (the...

  17. Informationally complete quantum measurements & entanglement bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammia, Steven Thomas

    2007-12-01

    We define a class of measurements which we call pure-state informationally complete (PSI-complete) POVMs. These are measurements which can be used to reconstruct the pure state of a d-dimensional quantum system, but not necessarily a mixed state. We show that 2d measurement outcomes is necessary and sufficient for PSI-completeness. This demonstrates that the measurement complexity (as measured by the number of measurement outcomes) can achieve quadratic improvements when the system is confidently believed to be in a pure state. Next, we consider symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC-POVMs). SIC-POVMs are relevant for mixed state quantum tomography, but are not well understood. We prove a theorem related to the conjectured existence of SIC-POVMs showing the uniqueness (up to certain symmetries) of SIC-POVMs of a particular group-covariant type when the dimension of the Hilbert space is a prime number. In the second part of the dissertation, we consider a computational model that has access to only one pure qubit, along with n qubits in the totally mixed state. This model is thought to be capable of performing sonic computational tasks exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. We show that circuits of this type generally lead to entangled states, but where the entanglement (as measured by the negativity) is bounded by a constant, independent of n, for all bipartite divisions. This suggests that the global nature of entanglement is a more important resource than the magnitude of the entanglement. We then consider multiply constrained bounds on entanglement measures based on convex constraint functions. We outline the general procedure, and then explicitly implement the program for the case of 4 x N quantum systems by bounding the entanglement of formation, the concurrence, and the tangle. Finally, we develop generalized bounds for quantum single-parameter estimation problems for which the coupling to the parameter is described by intrinsic multi

  18. Enhancing robustness of multiparty quantum correlations using weak measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in [Quantum Information and Computation Group, Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Mishra, Utkarsh, E-mail: utkarsh@hri.res.in [Quantum Information and Computation Group, Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Dhar, Himadri Shekhar, E-mail: dhar.himadri@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Multipartite quantum correlations are important resources for the development of quantum information and computation protocols. However, the resourcefulness of multipartite quantum correlations in practical settings is limited by its fragility under decoherence due to environmental interactions. Though there exist protocols to protect bipartite entanglement under decoherence, the implementation of such protocols for multipartite quantum correlations has not been sufficiently explored. Here, we study the effect of local amplitude damping channel on the generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state, and use a protocol of optimal reversal quantum weak measurement to protect the multipartite quantum correlations. We observe that the weak measurement reversal protocol enhances the robustness of multipartite quantum correlations. Further it increases the critical damping value that corresponds to entanglement sudden death. To emphasize the efficacy of the technique in protection of multipartite quantum correlation, we investigate two proximately related quantum communication tasks, namely, quantum teleportation in a one sender, many receivers setting and multiparty quantum information splitting, through a local amplitude damping channel. We observe an increase in the average fidelity of both the quantum communication tasks under the weak measurement reversal protocol. The method may prove beneficial, for combating external interactions, in other quantum information tasks using multipartite resources. - Highlights: • Extension of weak measurement reversal scheme to protect multiparty quantum correlations. • Protection of multiparty quantum correlation under local amplitude damping noise. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum teleportation in one sender and many receivers setting. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum information splitting protocol.

  19. Grounding the randomness of quantum measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2016-05-28

    Julian Schwinger provided to physics a mathematical reconstruction of quantum mechanics on the basis of the characteristics of sequences of measurements occurring at the atomic level of physical structure. The central component of this reconstruction is an algebra of symbols corresponding to quantum measurements, conceived of as discrete processes, which serve to relate experience to theory; collections of outcomes of identically circumscribed such measurements are attributed expectation values, which constitute the predictive content of the theory. The outcomes correspond to certain phase parameters appearing in the corresponding symbols, which are complex numbers, the algebra of which he finds by a process he refers to as 'induction'. Schwinger assumed these (individually unpredictable) phase parameters to take random, uniformly distributed definite values within a natural range. I have previously suggested that the 'principle of plenitude' may serve as a basis in principle for the occurrence of the definite measured values that are those members of the collections of measurement outcomes from which the corresponding observed statistics derive (Jaeger 2015Found. Phys.45, 806-819. (doi:10.1007/s10701-015-9893-6)). Here, I evaluate Schwinger's assumption in the context of recent critiques of the notion of randomness and explicitly relate the randomness of these phases with the principle of plenitude and, in this way, provide a fundamental grounding for the objective, physically irreducible probabilities, conceived of as graded possibilities, that are attributed to measurement outcomes by quantum mechanics.

  20. Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Friis, Nicolai; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory (QFT). QFT properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in QFT including proper times and acce...

  1. Quantum measure theory and its interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Sorkin, R D

    1997-01-01

    The paper proposes a realistic, spacetime interpretation of quantum theory in which reality constitutes a *single* history obeying a "law of motion" which makes definite, but incomplete, predictions about its behavior. We associate a "quantum measure" |S| to the set S of histories, and point out that |S| ful- fills a sum rule generalizing that of classical probability theory. We inter- pret |S| as a "propensity", making this precise by stating a criterion for |S|=0 to imply "preclusion" (meaning that the true history will not lie in S). The criterion involves triads of correlated events, and in application to electron-electron scattering, for example, it yields definite predictions about the electron trajectories themselves, independently of any measuring devices which might or might not be present. (So we can give an objective account of measurements.) Two unfinished aspects of the interpretation involve conditonal preclusion (which apparently requires coarse-graining for its formulation) and the need to "lo...

  2. Conditional Probabilities and Collapse in Quantum Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Roberto; Vanni, Leonardo

    2008-09-01

    We show that including both the system and the apparatus in the quantum description of the measurement process, and using the concept of conditional probabilities, it is possible to deduce the statistical operator of the system after a measurement with a given result, which gives the probability distribution for all possible consecutive measurements on the system. This statistical operator, representing the state of the system after the first measurement, is in general not the same that would be obtained using the postulate of collapse.

  3. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-22

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  4. Geometric measure of quantum discord for an arbitrary state of a bipartite quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Ali Saif M; Joag, Pramod S

    2010-01-01

    Quantum discord, as introduced by Olliver and Zurek [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{88}, 017901 (2001)], is a measure of the discrepancy between quantum versions of two classically equivalent expressions for mutual information. Dakic, Vedral, and Brukner [arXiv:1004.0190 (2010)] introduced a geometric measure of quantum discord and derived an explicit formula for any two-qubit state. Luo and Fu [Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{82}, 034302 (2010)] introduced another form for geometric measure of quantum discord. We find an exact formula for the geometric measure of quantum discord for an arbitrary state of a $m\\times n$ bipartite quantum system.

  5. Boolean approach to dichotomic quantum measurement theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, K.; Nakamura, T.; Batle, J.; Abdalla, S.; Farouk, A.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, a new measurement theory based on truth values was proposed by Nagata and Nakamura [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 3616 (2016)], that is, a theory where the results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The standard measurement theory accepts a hidden variable model for a single Pauli observable. Hence, we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this particular case. Additionally, we discuss in the present contribution the fact that projective measurement theories (the results of which are either +1 or -1) imply the Bell, Kochen, and Specker (BKS) paradox for a single Pauli observable. To justify our assertion, we present the BKS theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states by using a projective measurement theory. As an example, we present the BKS theorem in two-dimensions with white noise. Our discussion provides new insight into the quantum measurement problem by using this measurement theory based on the truth values.

  6. Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2000-01-01

    Entanglement swapping between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs can be used to generate the same sequence of random bits in two remote places. A quantum key distribution protocol based on this idea is described. The scheme exhibits the following features. (a) It does not require that Alice and Bob choose between alternative measurements, therefore improving the rate of generated bits by transmitted qubit. (b) It allows Alice and Bob to generate a key of arbitrary length using a single quantum system (three EPR pairs), instead of a long sequence of them. (c) Detecting Eve requires the comparison of fewer bits. (d) Entanglement is an essential ingredient. The scheme assumes reliable measurements of the Bell operator. (20 refs).

  7. Quantum Zeno effects with "pulsed" and "continuous" measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Facchi, P.; Pascazio, S.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of a quantum system undergoing measurements is investigated. Depending on the features of the interaction Hamiltonian, the decay can be slowed (quantum Zeno effect) or accelerated (inverse quantum Zeno effect), by changing the time interval between successive (pulsed) measurements or, alternatively, by varying the "strength" of the (continuous) measurement.

  8. Quantum Zeno effect by general measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Koshino, K

    2004-01-01

    It was predicted that frequently repeated measurements on an unstable state may alter the decay rate of the state. This is called the quantum Zeno effect (QZE) or the anti-Zeno effect (AZE), depending on whether the decay is suppressed or enhanced. In conventional theories of the QZE and AZE, effects of measurements are simply described by the projection postulate, assuming that each measurement is an instantaneous and ideal one. However, real measurements are not instantaneous and ideal. For the QZE and AZE by such general measurements, interesting and surprising features have recently been revealed, which we review in this article. The results are based on the quantum measurement theory, which is also reviewed briefly. As a typical model, we consider a continuous measurement of the decay of an excited atom by a photodetector that detects a photon emitted from the atom upon decay. This measurement is an indirect negative-result one, for which the curiosity of the QZE and AZE is emphasized. It is shown that t...

  9. Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Lin; Cai, Xin-Dong; Su, Zu-En; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Quantum teleportation provides a `disembodied' way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons and superconducting circuits. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom--internal and external--and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies.

  10. Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Matthew; Preiss, Philipp; Tai, Eric; Lukin, Alex; Schittko, Robert; Kaufman, Adam; Ma, Ruichao; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The presence of large-scale entanglement is a defining characteristic of exotic quantum phases of matter. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially true in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. We demonstrate a novel approach to the measurement of entanglement entropy of any bosonic system, using a quantum gas microscope with tailored potential landscapes. This protocol enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. In general, these experiments exemplify a method enabling the measurement and characterization of quantum phase transitions and in particular would be apt for studying systems such as magnetic ordering within the quantum Ising model.

  11. The computer-based model of quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastianov, L. A.; Zorin, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum theory of measurements is an extremely important part of quantum mechanics. Currently perturbations by quantum measurements of observable quantities of atomic systems are rarely taken into account in computing algorithms and calculations. In the previous studies of the authors, constructive model of quantum measurements has been developed and implemented in the form of symbolic and numerical calculations for the hydrogen-like atoms. This work describes a generalization of these results to the alkali metal atoms.

  12. Measurements of sub photon cavity fields by atom interferometry; Mesures de champs au niveau du photon par interferometrie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussenzveig, P

    1994-07-15

    Two neighbouring levels of a Rydberg atom coupled to a high quality-factor microwave cavity are an excellent tool for the study of matter-wave interactions at the most basic level. The system is so simple (a two-level atom coupled to a single mode of the field) that most phenomena can be described analytically. In this work we study dispersive effects of the non-resonant atom-cavity interaction. We have measured the linear dependence of the atomic energy level-shifts on the average photon number in the cavity. Light shifts induced by an average microwave field intensity weaker than a single photon have been observed. It has also been possible to measure the residual shift of one of the two levels of the atomic transition in the absence of an injected field: a Lamb shift due to a single mode of the field. A sensitive measurement of these energy shifts is performed by an interferometric method: the Ramsey separated oscillatory fields technique. Future experiments, in a situation of very weak field relaxation, are proposed. The quantum behavior of the field will then be dominant and it shall be possible to perform a Quantum Non-Demolition measurement of the photon number: since the interaction is non-resonant, the atoms can neither absorb nor emit photons in the cavity. The performed experiments demonstrate the sensitivity of the apparatus and set the stage for future non-demolition measurements and for the study of 'mesoscopic' Schroedinger cat states of the field, on the boundary between classical and quantum worlds. (author)

  13. Measurement theory in local quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Kazuya, E-mail: okamura@math.cm.is.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ozawa, Masanao, E-mail: ozawa@is.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we aim to establish foundations of measurement theory in local quantum physics. For this purpose, we discuss a representation theory of completely positive (CP) instruments on arbitrary von Neumann algebras. We introduce a condition called the normal extension property (NEP) and establish a one-to-one correspondence between CP instruments with the NEP and statistical equivalence classes of measuring processes. We show that every CP instrument on an atomic von Neumann algebra has the NEP, extending the well-known result for type I factors. Moreover, we show that every CP instrument on an injective von Neumann algebra is approximated by CP instruments with the NEP. The concept of posterior states is also discussed to show that the NEP is equivalent to the existence of a strongly measurable family of posterior states for every normal state. Two examples of CP instruments without the NEP are obtained from this result. It is thus concluded that in local quantum physics not every CP instrument represents a measuring process, but in most of physically relevant cases every CP instrument can be realized by a measuring process within arbitrary error limits, as every approximately finite dimensional von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is injective. To conclude the paper, the concept of local measurement in algebraic quantum field theory is examined in our framework. In the setting of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts and Doplicher-Roberts theory describing local excitations, we show that an instrument on a local algebra can be extended to a local instrument on the global algebra if and only if it is a CP instrument with the NEP, provided that the split property holds for the net of local algebras.

  14. Measurement-Based and Universal Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Kashefi, Elham

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a novel approach to quantum computation where the notion of measurement is the main driving force of computation. This is in contrast with the more traditional circuit model which is based on unitary operation. We review here the mathematical model underlying MBQC and the first quantum cryptographic protocol designed using the unique features of MBQC.

  15. Improving students’ understanding of quantum measurement. I. Investigation of difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangtian Zhu1,2

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement within the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. We explore the possible origins of these difficulties by analyzing student responses to questions from both surveys and interviews. Results from this research are applied to develop research-based learning tutorials to improve students’ understanding of quantum measurement.

  16. Nonlocal Measurements in the Time-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Vaidman, L; Vaidman, Lev; Nevo, Izhar

    2005-01-01

    Although nondemolition, reliable, and instantaneous quantum measurements of some nonlocal variables are impossible, demolition reliable instantaneous measurements are possible for all variables. It is shown that this is correct also in the framework of the time-symmetric quantum formalism, i.e. nonlocal variables of composite quantum systems with quantum states evolving both forward and backward in time are measurable in a demolition way. The result follows from the possibility to reverse with certainty the time direction of a backward evolving quantum state. Demolition measurements of nonlocal backward evolving quantum states require remarkably small resources. This is so because the combined operation of time reversal and teleportation of a local backward evolving quantum state requires only a single quantum channel and no transmission of classical information.

  17. Constraining the Correlation Distance in Quantum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Standard Quantum Physics states that the outcome of measurements for some distant entangled subsystems are instantaneously statistically correlated, whatever their mutual distance. This correlation presents itself as if there were a correlation at a distance with infinite speed. It is expressed by the Bell Theorem. It has been experimentally verified over distances up to 18 km with a time resolution of a few picosecond, which can be translated into an apparent effective correlation speed larger than 10^7 c. The purpose of the present White Paper is to discuss the scientific interest and the feasibility to extend the correlation distance up to the Earth-Moon distance, i.e. 2 10^4 times larger than in present experiments. We are thus led to propose to install on the Moon a polarimter and a high performance photon detector with a high temporal resolution. Such an exploratory experiment would provide new tests of Quantum Physics and could perhaps discriminate between standard Quantum Physics and for instance the ...

  18. Weak measurements and supraluminal communication

    CERN Document Server

    Belinsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    There is suggested a version of the experiment with a correlated pair of particles in the entangled state. The experiment demonstrates that, in the case of weak and/or non-demolition measurements of one of the particles, it is possible to transmit information with a speed not limited by velocity of light.

  19. Inflation and the quantum measurement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephon; Jyoti, Dhrubo; Magueijo, João

    2016-08-01

    We propose a solution to the quantum measurement problem in inflation. Our model treats Fourier modes of cosmological perturbations as analogous to particles in a weakly interacting Bose gas. We generalize the idea of a macroscopic wave function to cosmological fields, and construct a self-interaction Hamiltonian that focuses that wave function. By appropriately setting the coupling between modes, we obtain the standard adiabatic, scale-invariant power spectrum. Because of central limit theorem, we recover a Gaussian random field, consistent with observations.

  20. A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    1992-01-01

    We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.

  1. Quantum dissipation theory and applications to quantum transport and quantum measurement in mesoscopic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping

    The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ≡ trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO

  2. Quantum metrology in coarsened measurement reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of coarsened measurement reference, which originates from the coarsened reference time and basis, in quantum metrology. When the measurement is based on one common reference basis, the disadvantage of coarsened measurement can be removed by symmetry. Owing to the coarsened reference basis, the entangled state cannot perform better than the product state for a large number of probe particles in estimating the phase. Given a finite uncertainty of the coarsened reference basis, the optimal number of probe particles is obtained. Finally, we prove that the maximally entangled state always achieves better frequency precision in the case of non-Markovian dephasing than that in the case of Markovian dephasing. The product state is more resistant to the interference of the coarsened reference time than the entangled state.

  3. Second Quantization of Cini Model for High Order Quantum Decoherence in Quantum Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, D L; Sun, C P

    2001-01-01

    By making the second quantization for the Cini Model of quantum measurement without wave function collapse [M. Cini, Nuovo Cimento, B73 27(1983)], the second order quantum decoherence (SOQD) is studied with a two mode boson system interacting with an idealized apparatus composed by two quantum oscillators. In the classical limit that the apparatus is prepared in a Fock state with a very large quantum number, or in a coherent state with average quantum numbers large enough, the SOQD phenomenon appears similar to the first order case of quantum decoherence.

  4. Entanglement Measure and Quantum Violation of Bell-Type Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong; He, Ying-Qiu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-10-01

    By calculating entanglement measures and quantum violation of Bell-type inequality, we reveal the relationship between entanglement measure and the amount of quantum violation for a family of four-qubit entangled states. It has been demonstrated that the Bell-type inequality is completely violated by these four-qubit entangled states. The plot of entanglement measure as a function of the expectation value of Bell operator shows that entanglement measure first decreases and then increases smoothly with increasing quantum violation.

  5. Radio-frequency measurement in semiconductor quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, TianYi; Chen, MingBo; Cao, Gang; Li, HaiOu; Xiao, Ming; Guo, GuoPing

    2017-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted wide interest for the potential realization of quantum computation. To realize efficient quantum computation, fast manipulation and the corresponding readout are necessary. In the past few decades, considerable progress of quantum manipulation has been achieved experimentally. To meet the requirements of high-speed readout, radio-frequency (RF) measurement has been developed in recent years, such as RF-QPC (radio-frequency quantum point contact) and RF-DGS (radio-frequency dispersive gate sensor). Here we specifically demonstrate the principle of the radio-frequency reflectometry, then review the development and applications of RF measurement, which provides a feasible way to achieve high-bandwidth readout in quantum coherent control and also enriches the methods to study these artificial mesoscopic quantum systems. Finally, we prospect the future usage of radio-frequency reflectometry in scaling-up of the quantum computing models.

  6. Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems.

  7. Measurement-only verifiable blind quantum computing with quantum input verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2016-10-01

    Verifiable blind quantum computing is a secure delegated quantum computing where a client with a limited quantum technology delegates her quantum computing to a server who has a universal quantum computer. The client's privacy is protected (blindness), and the correctness of the computation is verifiable by the client despite her limited quantum technology (verifiability). There are mainly two types of protocols for verifiable blind quantum computing: the protocol where the client has only to generate single-qubit states and the protocol where the client needs only the ability of single-qubit measurements. The latter is called the measurement-only verifiable blind quantum computing. If the input of the client's quantum computing is a quantum state, whose classical efficient description is not known to the client, there was no way for the measurement-only client to verify the correctness of the input. Here we introduce a protocol of measurement-only verifiable blind quantum computing where the correctness of the quantum input is also verifiable.

  8. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 xzp. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  9. Quantum Measurement, Complexity and Discrete Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Leckey, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new modified quantum mechanics, Critical Complexity Quantum Mechanics, which includes a new account of wavefunction collapse. This modified quantum mechanics is shown to arise naturally from a fully discrete physics, where all physical quantities are discrete rather than continuous. I compare this theory with the spontaneous collapse theories of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle and discuss some implications of the theory for a realist view of the quantum realm.

  10. Effect of Quantum Point Contact Measurement on Electron Spin State in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Fei-Yun; TU Tao; HAO Xiao-Jie; GUO Guang-Can; GUO Guo-Ping

    2009-01-01

    We study the time evolution of two electron spin states in a double quantum-dot system, which includes a nearby quantum point contact (QPC) as a measurement device. We find that the QPC measurement induced decoherence is in the microsecond timescale. We also find that the enhanced QPC measurement will trap the system in its initial spin states, which is consistent with the quantum Zeno effect.

  11. Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-02-19

    The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions.

  12. Measurement Uncertainty for Finite Quantum Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schwonnek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement uncertainty relations are lower bounds on the errors of any approximate joint measurement of two or more quantum observables. The aim of this paper is to provide methods to compute optimal bounds of this type. The basic method is semidefinite programming, which we apply to arbitrary finite collections of projective observables on a finite dimensional Hilbert space. The quantification of errors is based on an arbitrary cost function, which assigns a penalty to getting result x rather than y, for any pair ( x , y . This induces a notion of optimal transport cost for a pair of probability distributions, and we include an Appendix with a short summary of optimal transport theory as needed in our context. There are then different ways to form an overall figure of merit from the comparison of distributions. We consider three, which are related to different physical testing scenarios. The most thorough test compares the transport distances between the marginals of a joint measurement and the reference observables for every input state. Less demanding is a test just on the states for which a “true value” is known in the sense that the reference observable yields a definite outcome. Finally, we can measure a deviation as a single expectation value by comparing the two observables on the two parts of a maximally-entangled state. All three error quantities have the property that they vanish if and only if the tested observable is equal to the reference. The theory is illustrated with some characteristic examples.

  13. Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, P.; Anders, J.

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed.

  14. Multipartite entanglement accumulation in quantum states: Localizable generalized geometric measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Pal, Amit Kumar; Rakshit, Debraj; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2017-02-01

    Multiparty quantum states are useful for a variety of quantum information and computation protocols. We define a multiparty entanglement measure based on local measurements on a multiparty quantum state and an entanglement measure averaged on the postmeasurement ensemble. Using the generalized geometric measure as the measure of multipartite entanglement for the ensemble, we demonstrate, in the case of several well-known classes of multipartite pure states, that the localized multipartite entanglement can exceed the entanglement present in the original state. We also show that measurement over multiple parties may be beneficial in enhancing localizable multipartite entanglement. We point out that localizable generalized geometric measure faithfully signals quantum critical phenomena in well-known quantum spin models even when considerable finite-size effect is present in the system.

  15. Extracting Work from Quantum Measurement in Maxwell's Demon Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouard, Cyril; Herrera-Martí, David; Huard, Benjamin; Auffèves, Alexia

    2017-06-01

    The essence of both classical and quantum engines is to extract useful energy (work) from stochastic energy sources, e.g., thermal baths. In Maxwell's demon engines, work extraction is assisted by a feedback control based on measurements performed by a demon, whose memory is erased at some nonzero energy cost. Here we propose a new type of quantum Maxwell's demon engine where work is directly extracted from the measurement channel, such that no heat bath is required. We show that in the Zeno regime of frequent measurements, memory erasure costs eventually vanish. Our findings provide a new paradigm to analyze quantum heat engines and work extraction in the quantum world.

  16. Extracting Work from Quantum Measurement in Maxwell's Demon Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouard, Cyril; Herrera-Martí, David; Huard, Benjamin; Auffèves, Alexia

    2017-06-30

    The essence of both classical and quantum engines is to extract useful energy (work) from stochastic energy sources, e.g., thermal baths. In Maxwell's demon engines, work extraction is assisted by a feedback control based on measurements performed by a demon, whose memory is erased at some nonzero energy cost. Here we propose a new type of quantum Maxwell's demon engine where work is directly extracted from the measurement channel, such that no heat bath is required. We show that in the Zeno regime of frequent measurements, memory erasure costs eventually vanish. Our findings provide a new paradigm to analyze quantum heat engines and work extraction in the quantum world.

  17. Living Systems are Dynamically Stable by Computing Themselves at the Quantum Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U. Igamberdiev

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The smallest details of living systems are molecular devices that operate between the classical and quantum levels, i.e. between the potential dimension (microscale and the actual three-dimensional space (macroscale. They realize non-demolition quantum measurements in which time appears as a mesoscale dimension separating contradictory statements in the course of actualization. These smaller devices form larger devices (macromolecular complexes, up to living body. The quantum device possesses its own potential internal quantum state (IQS, which is maintained for prolonged time via error-correction being a reflection over this state. Decoherence-free IQS can exhibit itself by a creative generation of iteration limits in the real world. To avoid a collapse of the quantum information in the process of correcting errors, it is possible to make a partial measurement that extracts only the error-information and leaves the encoded state untouched. In natural quantum computers, which are living systems, the error-correction is internal. It is a result of reflection, given as a sort of a subjective process allotting optimal limits of iteration. The IQS resembles the properties of a quasi-particle, which interacts with the surround, applying decoherence commands to it. In this framework, enzymes are molecular automata of the extremal quantum computer, the set of which maintains stable highly ordered coherent state, and genome represents a concatenation of error-correcting codes into a single reflective set. Biological systems, being autopoietic in physical space, control quantum measurements in the physical universe. The biological evolution is really a functional evolution of measurement constraints in which limits of iteration are established possessing criteria of perfection and having selective values.

  18. Measurement-only topological quantum computation without forced measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaixiu; Dua, Arpit; Jiang, Liang

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the measurement-only topological quantum computation (MOTQC) approach proposed by Bonderson et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 010501) where the braiding operation is shown to be equivalent to a series of topological charge ‘forced measurements’ of anyons. In a forced measurement, the charge measurement is forced to yield the desired outcome (e.g. charge 0) via repeatedly measuring charges in different bases. This is a probabilistic process with a certain success probability for each trial. In practice, the number of measurements needed will vary from run to run. We show that such an uncertainty associated with forced measurements can be removed by simulating the braiding operation using a fixed number of three measurements supplemented by a correction operator. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in practice we can avoid applying the correction operator in hardware by implementing it in software. Our findings greatly simplify the MOTQC proposal and only require the capability of performing charge measurements to implement topologically protected transformations generated by braiding exchanges without physically moving anyons.

  19. Absolute measurement of detector quantum efficiency using parametric downconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarity, J G; Ridley, K D; Tapster, P R

    1987-11-01

    We show that a parametric downconversion crystal emitting angle resolved coincident photon pairs can be used to measure the absolute quantum efficiency of a photon counting detection system. We have measured the quantum efficiency of a silicon avalanche photodiode, operated in Geiger mode, as a function of operating voltage and compare this to results obtained using a conventional method.

  20. Some methods for solution of quantum detection and measurement problems

    OpenAIRE

    Grishanin, Boris A.

    2003-01-01

    Representation of the quantum measurement with the help of non-orthogonal decomposition of unit is presented in the paper for the first time. Methods for solution of the quantum detection and measurement problems based on the suggested representation are proposed, as well.

  1. Bohmian mechanics, open quantum systems and continuous measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Nassar, Antonio B

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how Bohmian mechanics overcomes the need for a measurement postulate involving wave function collapse. The measuring process plays a very important role in quantum mechanics. It has been widely analyzed within the Copenhagen approach through the Born and von Neumann postulates, with later extension due to Lüders. In contrast, much less effort has been invested in the measurement theory within the Bohmian mechanics framework. The continuous measurement (sharp and fuzzy, or strong and weak) problem is considered here in this framework. The authors begin by generalizing the so-called Mensky approach, which is based on restricted path integral through quantum corridors. The measuring system is then considered to be an open quantum system following a stochastic Schrödinger equation. Quantum stochastic trajectories (in the Bohmian sense) and their role in basic quantum processes are discussed in detail. The decoherence process is thereby described in terms of classical trajectories issuing from th...

  2. Properties and relative measure for quantifying quantum synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlin; Zhang, Wenzhao; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2017-07-01

    Although quantum synchronization phenomena and corresponding measures have been widely discussed recently, it is still an open question how to characterize directly the influence of nonlocal correlation, which is the key distinction for identifying classical and quantum synchronizations. In this paper, we present basic postulates for quantifying quantum synchronization based on the related theory in Mari's work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 103605 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.103605], and we give a general formula of a quantum synchronization measure with clear physical interpretations. By introducing Pearson's parameter, we show that the obvious characteristics of our measure are the relativity and monotonicity. As an example, the measure is applied to describe synchronization among quantum optomechanical systems under a Markovian bath. We also show the potential by quantifying generalized synchronization and discrete variable synchronization with this measure.

  3. Physics of quantum measurement and its interdisciplinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morikawa Masahiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dynamics of the collective mode and individual particles on a ring is studied as the simplest model of projective quantum measurement. In this model, the collective mode measures an individual single quantum system. The heart of the model is the wide separation of time scales which yields the distinction of classical and quantum degrees of freedom beyond the standard Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In some restricted cases we derive the Born probability rule. This model is the quantum mechanics version of the effective action method in quantum field theory, which describes the origin of the primordial density fluctuation as classical variables. It turns out that the classical version of this same model successfully describes the dynamics of geomagnetic variation including the polarity flips over 160 million years. The essence of this description is again the coexistence of the wide separated time scales.

  4. Nearly deterministic Bell measurement using quantum communication bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Meng-zheng; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-03-01

    We present a scheme to implement Bell states measurement for an arbitrary number of photons by using robust continuous variable coherent modes, called as quantum communication bus (qubus) and weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. Remarkably, the success probability of our scheme is close to unity, and our scheme does not require any ancillary resource entanglement. Our scheme is likely to yield versatile applications for quantum computation and quantum teleportation.

  5. Measurement-based method for verifying quantum discord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Caves, Carlton M.; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a measurement-based method for verifying quantum discord of any bipartite quantum system. We show that by performing an informationally complete positive operator valued measurement (IC-POVM) on one subsystem and checking the commutativity of the conditional states of the other subsystem, quantum discord from the second subsystem to the first can be verified. This is an improvement upon previous methods, which enables us to efficiently apply our method to continuous-variable systems, as IC-POVM's are readily available from homodyne or heterodyne measurements. We show that quantum discord for Gaussian states can be verified by checking whether the peaks of the conditional Wigner functions corresponding to two different outcomes of heterodyne measurement coincide at the same point in the phase space. Using this method, we also prove that the only Gaussian states with zero discord are product states; hence, Gaussian states with Gaussian discord have nonzero quantum discord.

  6. Measurement Based Quantum Computation on Fractal Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hajdušek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we extend on work which establishes an analology between one-way quantum computation and thermodynamics to see how the former can be performed on fractal lattices. We find fractals lattices of arbitrary dimension greater than one which do all act as good resources for one-way quantum computation, and sets of fractal lattices with dimension greater than one all of which do not. The difference is put down to other topological factors such as ramification and connectivity. This work adds confidence to the analogy and highlights new features to what we require for universal resources for one-way quantum computation.

  7. Exact quantum Bayesian rule for qubit measurements in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Liang, Pengfei; Qin, Lupei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2016-02-01

    Developing efficient framework for quantum measurements is of essential importance to quantum science and technology. In this work, for the important superconducting circuit-QED setup, we present a rigorous and analytic solution for the effective quantum trajectory equation (QTE) after polaron transformation and converted to the form of Stratonovich calculus. We find that the solution is a generalization of the elegant quantum Bayesian approach developed in arXiv:1111.4016 by Korotokov and currently applied to circuit-QED measurements. The new result improves both the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the qubit density matrix, via amending the distribution probabilities of the output currents and several important phase factors. Compared to numerical integration of the QTE, the resultant quantum Bayesian rule promises higher efficiency to update the measured state, and allows more efficient and analytical studies for some interesting problems such as quantum weak values, past quantum state, and quantum state smoothing. The method of this work opens also a new way to obtain quantum Bayesian formulas for other systems and in more complicated cases.

  8. Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Imamoglu, Atac

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.

  9. "Evaluations" of Observables Versus Measurements in Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, Giuseppe; Sestito, Angela

    2016-03-01

    In Quantum Physics there are circumstances where the direct measurement of a given observable encounters difficulties; in some of these cases, however, its value can be "evaluated", i.e. it can be inferred by measuring another observable characterized by perfect correlation with the observable of interest. Though an evaluation is often interpreted as a measurement of the evaluated observable, we prove that the two concepts cannot be identified in Quantum Physics, because the identification yields contradictions. Then, we establish the conceptual status of evaluations in Quantum Theory and how they are related to measurements.

  10. Coupled Ito equations of continuous quantum state measurement, and estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Diósi, L; Konrad, T; Scherer, A; Audretsch, Juergen; Diosi, Lajos; Konrad, Thomas; Scherer, Artur

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a non-linear stochastic master equation that governs the time-evolution of the estimated quantum state. Its differential evolution corresponds to the infinitesimal updates that depend on the time-continuous measurement of the true quantum state. The new stochastic master equation couples to the two standard stochastic differential equations of time-continuous quantum measurement. For the first time, we can prove that the calculated estimate almost always converges to the true state, also at low-efficiency measurements. We show that our single-state theory can be adapted to weak continuous ensemble measurements as well.

  11. Measurement of Quantum Geometry Using Laser Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    New quantum degrees of freedom of space-time, originating at the Planck scale, could create a coherent indeterminacy and noise in the transverse position of massive bodies on macroscopic scales. An experiment is under development at Fermilab designed to detect or rule out a transverse position noise with Planck spectral density, using correlated signals from an adjacent pair of Michelson interferometers. A detection would open an experimental window on quantum space-time.

  12. Quantum Dense Coding in Multiparticle Entangled States via Local Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建兰; 匡乐满

    2004-01-01

    We study quantum dense coding between two arbitrarily fixed particles in a (N + 2)-particle maximally-entangled states through introducing an auxiliary qubit and carrying out local measurements. It is shown that the transmitted classical information amount through such an entangled quantum channel is usually less than two classical bits. However, the information amount may reach two classical bits of information, and the classical information capacity is independent of the number of the entangled particles under certain conditions. The results offer deeper insight into quantum dense coding via quantum channels of multi-particle entangled states.

  13. On the Dynamical Solution of Quantum Measurement Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Belavkin, V P

    2005-01-01

    The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, only indicated a possibility for resolution of the interpretational crisis of quantum mechanics. We do this by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and the algebra of the actual observables, or beables. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the past beables with the potential future. This rule, together with the self-compatibility of the measurements insuring the consistency of the histories, is called the nondemolition, or causality principle in modern quantum theory. The application of this rule in the form of the dynamical commutation relations leads in particular to the derivation of the von Neumann projection postulate. This gives a quantum stochastic solution, in the form of the dynamical filtering equations, of the notorious measurement problem which was tackled unsuccessfully by many famous physicists starting with Schroe...

  14. DLTS measurements on GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegner, Annika; Nowozin, Tobias; Marent, Andreas; Bimberg, Dieter [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Berlin (Germany); Tseng, Chi-Che [Institute of Photonics Technologies, NTHU (China); Lin, Shih-Yen [Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, NTOU (China)

    2010-07-01

    Memory devices based on hole storage in self-organized quantum dots offer significant advantages with respect to storage time and scalability. Recently, we demonstrated a first prototype based on InAs/GaAs quantum dots at low temperatures. To enable feasible storage times at room temperature the localisation energy of the quantum dots has to be increased by using other material systems. A first step in this direction is the use of GaSb quantum dots within a GaAs matrix. We have characterized self-organized GaSb/GaAs quantum dots embedded into a n{sup +}p-diode structure. DLTS measurements on hole emission were conducted and yield a strong peak from which a mean emission energy of about 400 meV can be extracted. The reference sample without the quantum dots (containing only the wetting layer) shows no such peak.

  15. Quantum mechanics and elements of reality inferred from joint measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Adan; Garcia-Alcaine, Guillermo

    1997-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument on quantum mechanics incompleteness is formulated in terms of elements of reality inferred from joint (as opposed to alternative) measurements, in two examples involving entangled states of three spin-1/2 particles. The same states allow us to obtain proofs of the incompatibility between quantum mechanics and elements of reality.

  16. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C. P.

    2016-08-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.

  17. Kalman filtering and Standard Quantum Limits for broadband measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mabuchi, H

    1998-01-01

    I utilize the Caves-Milburn model for continuous position measurements to formulate a broadband version of the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) for monitoring the position of a free mass, and illustrate the use of Kalman filtering to recover the SQL for estimating a weak classical force that acts on a quantum-mechanical test particle under continuous observation.

  18. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P

    2016-08-25

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.

  19. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance. PMID:27558009

  20. Could quantum decoherence and measurement be deterministic phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparenberg Jean-Marc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The apparent random outcome of a quantum measurement is conjectured to be fundamentally determined by the microscopic state of the macroscopic measurement apparatus. The apparatus state thus plays the role of a hidden variable which, in contrast with variables characterizing the measured microscopic system, is shown to lead to a violation of Bell’s inequalities and to agree with standard quantum mechanics. An explicit realization of this interpretation is explored (for details, see [1] for a primitive model of cloud chamber inspired by Mott [2]. Being highly non local, this interpretation of quantum mechanics is argued to open the way to faster-than-light information transfer.

  1. On the Capability of Measurement-Based Quantum Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Bo; Guo, Lei

    2010-01-01

    As a key method in dealing with uncertainties, feedback has been understood fairly well in classical control theory. But for quantum control systems, the capability of measurement-based feedback control (MFC) has not been investigated systematically. In contrast to the control of classical systems where the measurement effect is negligible, the quantum measurement will cause a quantum state to collapse, which will inevitably introduce additional uncertainties besides the system initial uncertainty. Therefore, there is a complicated tradeoff between the uncertainty introduced and the information gained by the measurement, and thus a theoretical investigation of the capability of MFC is of fundamental importance. In this paper, inspired by both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for quantum systems and the investigation of the feedback capability for classical systems, we try to answer the following three basic questions: (i) How to choose the measurement channel appropriately? (ii) Is the MFC still superior ...

  2. Quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations under weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Qing-Wen; Shen, Shu-Qian; Li, Ming

    2017-08-01

    We investigate quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (EURs) based on weak measurements. It is shown that the lower bound of EUR revealed by weak measurements is always larger than that revealed by the corresponding projective measurements. A series of lower bounds of EUR under both weak measurements and projective measurements are presented. Interestingly, the quantum-memory-assisted EUR based on weak measurements is a monotonically decreasing function of the strength parameter. Furthermore, some information-theoretic inequalities associated with weak measurements are also derived.

  3. Deterministic quantum teleportation with feed-forward in a solid state system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, L; Salathe, Y; Oppliger, M; Kurpiers, P; Baur, M; Lang, C; Eichler, C; Puebla-Hellmann, G; Fedorov, A; Wallraff, A

    2013-08-15

    Engineered macroscopic quantum systems based on superconducting electronic circuits are attractive for experimentally exploring diverse questions in quantum information science. At the current state of the art, quantum bits (qubits) are fabricated, initialized, controlled, read out and coupled to each other in simple circuits. This enables the realization of basic logic gates, the creation of complex entangled states and the demonstration of algorithms or error correction. Using different variants of low-noise parametric amplifiers, dispersive quantum non-demolition single-shot readout of single-qubit states with high fidelity has enabled continuous and discrete feedback control of single qubits. Here we realize full deterministic quantum teleportation with feed-forward in a chip-based superconducting circuit architecture. We use a set of two parametric amplifiers for both joint two-qubit and individual qubit single-shot readout, combined with flexible real-time digital electronics. Our device uses a crossed quantum bus technology that allows us to create complex networks with arbitrary connecting topology in a planar architecture. The deterministic teleportation process succeeds with order unit probability for any input state, as we prepare maximally entangled two-qubit states as a resource and distinguish all Bell states in a single two-qubit measurement with high efficiency and high fidelity. We teleport quantum states between two macroscopic systems separated by 6 mm at a rate of 10(4) s(-1), exceeding other reported implementations. The low transmission loss of superconducting waveguides is likely to enable the range of this and other schemes to be extended to significantly larger distances, enabling tests of non-locality and the realization of elements for quantum communication at microwave frequencies. The demonstrated feed-forward may also find application in error correction schemes.

  4. Optically Measuring Force near the Standard Quantum Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Schreppler, Sydney; Brahms, Nathan; Botter, Thierry; Barrios, Maryrose; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle sets a lower bound on the sensitivity of continuous optical measurements of force. This bound, the standard quantum limit, can only be reached when a mechanical oscillator subjected to the force is unperturbed by its environment, and when measurement imprecision from photon shot-noise is balanced against disturbance from measurement backaction. We apply an external force to the center-of-mass motion of an ultracold atom cloud in a high-finesse optical cavity. The optomechanically transduced response clearly demonstrates the trade-off between measurement imprecision and back-action noise. We achieve a sensitivity that is consistent with theoretical predictions for the quantum limit given the atoms' slight residual thermal disturbance and the photodetection quantum efficiency, and is a factor of 4 above the absolute standard quantum limit.

  5. Measure of the Quantum Speedup in Closed and Open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen-Yu

    We construct a general measure for detecting the quantum speedup in both closed and open systems. This speed measure is based on the changing rate of the position of quantum states on a manifold with appropriate monotone Riemannian metrics. Any increase in speed is a clear signature of real dynamical speedup. To clarify the mechanisms of quantum speedup, we first introduce the concept of longitudinal and transverse types of speedup, and then apply the proposed measure to several typical closed and open quantum systems, illustrating that entanglement and the memory effect of the environment together can become resources for longitudinally or transversely accelerating dynamical evolution under certain conditions. Remarkably, a direct measurement of such speedup is feasible without the need for a tomographic reconstruction of the density matrix, which greatly enhances the feasibility of practical experimental tests. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11204196).

  6. The problem of time and the problem of quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Tejinder P

    2012-01-01

    Quantum theory depends on an external classical time, and there ought to exist an equivalent reformulation of the theory which does not depend on such a time. The demand for the existence of such a reformulation suggests that quantum theory is an approximation to a stochastic non-linear theory. The stochastic non-linearity provides a dynamical explanation for the collapse of the wave-function during a quantum measurement. Hence the problem of time and the measurement problem are related to each other: the search for a solution for the former problem naturally implies a solution for the latter problem.

  7. Stability of continuous-time quantum filters with measurement imperfections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, H.; Pellegrini, C.; Rouchon, P.

    2014-07-01

    The fidelity between the state of a continuously observed quantum system and the state of its associated quantum filter, is shown to be always a submartingale. The observed system is assumed to be governed by a continuous-time Stochastic Master Equation (SME), driven simultaneously by Wiener and Poisson processes and that takes into account incompleteness and errors in measurements. This stability result is the continuous-time counterpart of a similar stability result already established for discrete-time quantum systems and where the measurement imperfections are modelled by a left stochastic matrix.

  8. Workshop on Quantum Measurement : Beyond Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Hellman, G; Quantum Measurement : Beyond Paradox

    1998-01-01

    With relativity theory, quantum mechanics stands as the conceptual foundation of modern physics. Editors Richard A. Healey and Geoffrey Hellman marshal the resources of leading physicists and philosophers of science, skillfully joining their insights and ingenuity to yield some of the most innovative and altogether promising thought to date on this enigmatic issue.

  9. Direct scheme for measuring the geometric quantum discord

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Jia-sen; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to directly measure the exact value of geometric quantum discord of an arbitrary two-qubit state. We only need to perform the projective measurement in the all anti-symmetric subspace and our scheme is parametrically efficient in contrast to the widely adopted quantum state tomography scheme in the sense of less parameter estimations and projectors. Moreover, the present scheme can be easily realized with the current experimental techniques.

  10. Optical Telecom Networks as Weak Quantum Measurements with Postselection

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Nicolas; Acin, Antonio; Collins, Daniel Geoffrey; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2003-01-01

    We show that weak measurements with post-selection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the post-selection is done in the most natural way: one post-selects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formali...

  11. A Fast Measurement based fixed-point Quantum Search Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Mani, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Generic quantum search algorithm searches for target entity in an unsorted database by repeatedly applying canonical Grover's quantum rotation transform to reach near the vicinity of the target entity represented by a basis state in the Hilbert space associated with the qubits. Thus, when qubits are measured, there is a high probability of finding the target entity. However, the number of times quantum rotation transform is to be applied for reaching near the vicinity of the target is a function of the number of target entities present in the unsorted database, which is generally unknown. A wrong estimate of the number of target entities can lead to overshooting or undershooting the targets, thus reducing the success probability. Some proposals have been made to overcome this limitation. These proposals either employ quantum counting to estimate the number of solutions or fixed point schemes. This paper proposes a new scheme for stopping the application of quantum rotation transformation on reaching near the ...

  12. Proliferation of observables and measurement in quantum-classical hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Following a review of quantum-classical hybrid dynamics, we discuss the ensuing proliferation of observables and relate it to measurements of (would-be) quantum mechanical degrees of freedom performed by (would-be) classical ones (if they were separable). -- Hybrids consist in coupled classical ("CL") and quantum mechanical ("QM") objects. Numerous consistency requirements for their description have been discussed and are fulfilled here. We summarize a representation of quantum mechanics in terms of classical analytical mechanics which is naturally extended to QM-CL hybrids. This framework allows for superposition, separable, and entangled states originating in the QM sector, admits experimenter's "Free Will", and is local and non-signalling. -- Presently, we study the set of hybrid observables, which is larger than the Cartesian product of QM and CL observables of its components; yet it is smaller than a corresponding product of all-classical observables. Thus, quantumness and classicality infect each other.

  13. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan L. Danilishin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

  14. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilishin, Stefan L; Khalili, Farid Ya

    2012-01-01

    The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

  15. Five Measurement Bases Determine Pure Quantum States on Any Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyeneche, D; Cañas, G; Etcheverry, S; Gómez, E S; Xavier, G B; Lima, G; Delgado, A

    2015-08-28

    A long-standing problem in quantum mechanics is the minimum number of observables required for the characterization of unknown pure quantum states. The solution to this problem is especially important for the developing field of high-dimensional quantum information processing. In this work we demonstrate that any pure d-dimensional state is unambiguously reconstructed by measuring five observables, that is, via projective measurements onto the states of five orthonormal bases. Thus, in our method the total number of different measurement outcomes (5d) scales linearly with d. The state reconstruction is robust against experimental errors and requires simple postprocessing, regardless of d. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme through the reconstruction of eight-dimensional quantum states, encoded in the momentum of single photons.

  16. Quantum homomorphic signature based on Bell-state measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiao-yu; Fang, Jun-bin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel quantum homomorphic signature scheme based solely on Bell-state measurement is proposed. It allows an aggregator to merge two signature nodes' signatures of their classical messages into one signature, which is an effective approach to identity authentication for multiple streams to enhance the security of quantum networks. And it is easy to generalize this scheme to multiple nodes. Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in many experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution schemes, which makes us believe that our scheme can be realized in the near future. It is shown that our scheme is a quantum group homomorphic signature scheme and is secure by the scheme analysis.

  17. Quantum homomorphic signature based on Bell-state measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiao-yu; Fang, Jun-bin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel quantum homomorphic signature scheme based solely on Bell-state measurement is proposed. It allows an aggregator to merge two signature nodes' signatures of their classical messages into one signature, which is an effective approach to identity authentication for multiple streams to enhance the security of quantum networks. And it is easy to generalize this scheme to multiple nodes. Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in many experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution schemes, which makes us believe that our scheme can be realized in the near future. It is shown that our scheme is a quantum group homomorphic signature scheme and is secure by the scheme analysis.

  18. Time-symmetric electrodynamics and quantum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, D. T.

    The application of the Wheeler-Feynman theory of time-symmetric electrodynamics to obtain definite answers to questions concerning the objective existence of quantum states in an optical EPR type of experiment is discussed. This theory allows the influence of the detector on the system being studied to be taken into account. The result is an entirely fresh understanding of experiments of the Kocher-Commins type.

  19. Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...

  20. General quantum constraints on detector noise in continuous linear measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haixing

    2017-01-01

    In quantum sensing and metrology, an important class of measurement is the continuous linear measurement, in which the detector is coupled to the system of interest linearly and continuously in time. One key aspect involved is the quantum noise of the detector, arising from quantum fluctuations in the detector input and output. It determines how fast we acquire information about the system and also influences the system evolution in terms of measurement backaction. We therefore often categorize it as the so-called imprecision noise and quantum backaction noise. There is a general Heisenberg-like uncertainty relation that constrains the magnitude of and the correlation between these two types of quantum noise. The main result of this paper is to show that, when the detector becomes ideal, i.e., at the quantum limit with minimum uncertainty, not only does the uncertainty relation takes the equal sign as expected, but also there are two new equalities. This general result is illustrated by using the typical cavity QED setup with the system being either a qubit or a mechanical oscillator. Particularly, the dispersive readout of a qubit state, and the measurement of mechanical motional sideband asymmetry are considered.

  1. Quantum and concept combination, entangled measurements, and prototype theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the meaning of the violation of the marginal probability law for situations of correlation measurements where entanglement is identified. We show that for quantum theory applied to the cognitive realm such a violation does not lead to the type of problems commonly believed to occur in situations of quantum theory applied to the physical realm. We briefly situate our quantum approach for modeling concepts and their combinations with respect to the notions of "extension" and "intension" in theories of meaning, and in existing concept theories.

  2. Josephson directional amplifier for quantum measurement of superconducting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Sliwa, Katrina; Shankar, S; Hatridge, Michael; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert; Devoret, Michel

    2014-04-25

    We realize a microwave quantum-limited amplifier that is directional and can therefore function without the front circulator needed in many quantum measurements. The amplification takes place in only one direction between the input and output ports. Directionality is achieved by multipump parametric amplification combined with wave interference. We have verified the device noise performances by using it to read out a superconducting qubit and observed quantum jumps. With an improved version of this device, the qubit and preamplifer could be integrated on the same chip.

  3. Measuring the effective phonon density of states of a quantum dot in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Kreiner-Møller, Asger

    2013-01-01

    We employ detuning-dependent decay-rate measurements of a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity to study the influence of phonon dephasing in a solid-state quantum-electrodynamics experiment. The experimental data agree with a microscopic non-Markovian model accounting for dephasing from...... longitudinal acoustic phonons, and the analysis explains the difference between nonresonant cavity feeding in different nanocavities. From the comparison between experiment and theory we extract the effective phonon density of states experienced by the quantum dot in the nanocavity. This quantity determines...

  4. Cosmological Constant, Quantum Measurement, and the Problem of Time

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shreya; Singh, Tejinder P

    2015-01-01

    Three of the big puzzles of theoretical physics are the following: (i) There is apparently no time evolution in the dynamics of quantum general relativity, because the allowed quantum states must obey the Hamiltonian constraint. (ii) During a quantum measurement, the state of the quantum system randomly collapses from being in a linear superposition of the eigenstates of the measured observable, to just one of the eigenstates, in apparent violation of the predictions of the deterministic, linear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. (iii) The observed value of the cosmological constant is exceedingly small, compared to its natural value, creating a serious fine-tuning problem. In this essay we propose a novel idea to show how the three problems help solve each other.

  5. Quantum Standard Teleportation Based on the Generic Measurement Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO San-Ru; HOU Bo-Yu; XI Xiao-Qiang; YUE Rui-Hong

    2003-01-01

    We study the quantum standard teleportation based on the generic measurement bases. It is shown that the quantum standard teleportation does not depend on the explicit expression of the measurement bases. We have giventhe correspondence relation between the measurement performed by Alice and the unitary transformation performed byBob. We also prove that the single particle unknown states and the two-particle unknown cat-like states can be exactlytransmitted by means of the generic measurement bases and the correspondence unitary transformations.

  6. Quantum Standard Teleportation Based on the Generic Measurement Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOSan-Ru; HOUBo-Yu; XIXiao-Qiang; YUERui-Hong

    2003-01-01

    We study the quantum standard teleportation based on the generic measurement bases. It is shown that the quantum standard teleportation does not depend on the explicit expression of the measurement bases. We have given the correspondence relation between the measurement performed by Alice and the unitary transformation performed by Bob. We also prove that the single particle unknown states and the two-particle unknown cat-like states can be exactly transmitted by means of the generic measurement bases and the correspondence unitary transformations.

  7. Quantum mechanics as a measurement theory on biconformal space

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, L B; Anderson, Lara B.; Wheeler, James T.

    2004-01-01

    Biconformal spaces contain the essential elements of quantum mechanics, making the independent imposition of quantization unnecessary. Based on three postulates characterizing motion and measurement in biconformal geometry, we derive standard quantum mechanics, and show how the need for probability amplitudes arises from the use of a standard of measurement. Additionally, we show that a postulate for unique, classical motion yields Hamiltonian dynamics with no measurable size changes, while a postulate for probabilistic evolution leads to physical dilatations manifested as measurable phase changes. Our results lead to the Feynman path integral formulation, from which follows the Schroedinger equation. We discuss the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and fundamental canonical commutation relations.

  8. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  9. Randomized benchmarking in measurement-based quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rafael N.; Turner, Peter S.; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2016-09-01

    Randomized benchmarking is routinely used as an efficient method for characterizing the performance of sets of elementary logic gates in small quantum devices. In the measurement-based model of quantum computation, logic gates are implemented via single-site measurements on a fixed universal resource state. Here we adapt the randomized benchmarking protocol for a single qubit to a linear cluster state computation, which provides partial, yet efficient characterization of the noise associated with the target gate set. Applying randomized benchmarking to measurement-based quantum computation exhibits an interesting interplay between the inherent randomness associated with logic gates in the measurement-based model and the random gate sequences used in benchmarking. We consider two different approaches: the first makes use of the standard single-qubit Clifford group, while the second uses recently introduced (non-Clifford) measurement-based 2-designs, which harness inherent randomness to implement gate sequences.

  10. Measuring orbital interaction using quantum information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissler, Joerg [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, AG Vielteilchentheorie, Renthof 6, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: rissler@staff.uni-marburg.de; Noack, Reinhard M. [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, AG Vielteilchentheorie, Renthof 6, D-35032 Marburg (Germany); White, Steven R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)

    2006-04-21

    Quantum information theory gives rise to a straightforward definition of the interaction of electrons I {sub p,q} in two orbitals p,q for a given many-body wave function. A convenient way to calculate the von Neumann entropies needed is presented in this work, and the orbital interaction I {sub p,q} is successfully tested for different types of chemical bonds. As an example of an application of I {sub p,q} beyond the interpretation of wave functions, I {sub p,q} is then used to investigate the ordering problem in the density-matrix renormalization group.

  11. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Danilishin, Stefan L

    2012-01-01

    The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave (GW) detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point, when quantum behaviour of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time, when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is round the corner, and finding the ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned int...

  12. Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

  13. Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

  14. Measures of quantum state purity and classical degree of polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Gamel, Omar

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-known mathematical similarity between two-dimensional classical polarization optics and two-level quantum systems, where the Poincare and Bloch spheres are identical mathematical structures. This analogy implies that the classical degree of polarization and quantum purity are in fact the same quantity. We make extensive use of this analogy to analyze various measures of polarization for higher dimensions proposed in the literature, in particular the N = 3 case, illustrating interesting relationships that emerge as well as the advantages of each measure. We also propose a different class of measures of entanglement based on the purity of subsystems.

  15. Measurements, disturbances and the quantum three box paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2017-05-01

    A quantum pre- and post-selection paradox involves making measurements at two separate times on a quantum system, and making inferences about the state of the system at an intermediate time, conditional upon the observed outcomes. The inferences lead to predictions about the results of measurements performed at the intermediate time, which have been well confirmed experimentally, but which nevertheless seem paradoxical when inferences about different intermediate measurements are combined. The three box paradox is the paradigm example of such an effect, where a ball is placed in one of three boxes and is shuffled between the boxes in between two measurements of its location. By conditionalising on the outcomes of those measurements, it is inferred that between the two measurements the ball would have been found with certainty in Box 1 and with certainty in Box 2, if either box been opened on their own. Despite experimental confirmation of the predictions, and much discussion, it has remained unclear what exactly is supposed to be paradoxical or what specifically is supposed to be quantum, about these effects. In this paper I identify precisely the conditions under which the quantum three box paradox occurs, and show that these conditions are the same as arise in the derivation of the Leggett-Garg Inequality, which is supposed to demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum theory with macroscopic realism. I will argue that, as in Leggett-Garg Inequality violations, the source of the effect actually lies in the disturbance introduced by the intermediate measurement, and that the quantum nature of the effect is that no classical model of measurement disturbance can reproduce the paradox.

  16. Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.

  17. Nonlinear quantum mechanics, the superposition principle, and the quantum measurement problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kinjalk Lochan; T P Singh

    2011-01-01

    There are four reasons why our present knowledge and understanding of quantum mechanics can be regarded as incomplete. (1) The principle of linear superposition has not been experimentally tested for position eigenstates of objects having more than about a thousand atoms. (2) There is no universally agreed upon explanation for the process of quantum measurement. (3) There is no universally agreed upon explanation for the observed fact that macroscopic objects are not found in superposition of position eigenstates. (4) Most importantly, the concept of time is classical and hence external to quantum mechanics: there should exist an equivalent reformulation of the theory which does not refer to an external classical time. In this paper we argue that such a reformulation is the limiting case of a nonlinear quantum theory, with the nonlinearity becoming important at the Planck mass scale. Such a nonlinearity can provide insights into the aforesaid problems. We use a physically motivated model for a nonlinear Schr ¨odinger equation to show that nonlinearity can help in understanding quantum measurement. We also show that while the principle of linear superposition holds to a very high accuracy for atomic systems, the lifetime of a quantum superposition becomes progressively smaller, as one goes from microscopic to macroscopic objects. This can explain the observed absence of position superpositions in macroscopic objects (lifetime is too small). It also suggests that ongoing laboratory experiments may be able to detect the finite superposition lifetime for mesoscopic objects in the near future.

  18. Electrical derivative measurement of quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dingkai; Cheng, Liwei; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen; Fan, Jenyu; Worchesky, Terry

    2011-02-01

    The electrical derivative characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are investigated to test the QCL threshold, leakage current, and possibly explore carrier transport. QCL thresholds can be identified by searching for the slope peak of the first derivative of the I-V curves and can be further confirmed with its alignment to the peak of the second derivative of the I-V curves. Leakage current in QCLs with oxide-blocked ridge waveguides and buried heterostructure (BH) waveguides are studied and compared. The oxide-blocking structures provide the lowest leakage current although the capped-mesa-BH (CMBH) QCLs provide the toughest durability under highly stressful operations. The leakage current of CMBH QCLs are also compared at different temperatures.

  19. Correlations in local measurements on a quantum state, and complementarity as an explanation of nonclassicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We consider the classical correlations that two observers can extract by measurements on a bipartite quantum state and we discuss how they are related to the quantum mutual information of the state. We show with several examples how complementarity gives rise to a gap between the quantum and the ...... in the deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit....

  20. Quantum measurement and real-time feedback with a spin-register in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Gaining precise control over quantum systems is crucial for applications in quantum information processing and quantum sensing and to perform experimental tests of quantum mechanics. The experiments presented in this thesis implement quantum measurements and real-time feedback protocols that can

  1. Quantum measurement and real-time feedback with a spin-register in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Gaining precise control over quantum systems is crucial for applications in quantum information processing and quantum sensing and to perform experimental tests of quantum mechanics. The experiments presented in this thesis implement quantum measurements and real-time feedback protocols that can hel

  2. Algebraic and algorithmic frameworks for optimized quantum measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    von Neumann projections are the main operations by which information can be extracted from the quantum to the classical realm. They are, however, static processes that do not adapt to the states they measure. Advances in the field of adaptive measurement have shown that this limitation can...... for designing optimized measurements. Our approach is twofold: The first is algebraic and formulates the problem of measurement as a simple matrix diagonalization problem. The second is algorithmic and models the optimal interaction between measurement outcomes and measurement settings as a cascaded network...... of conditional probabilities. Finally, we demonstrate that several figures of merit, such as Bell factors, can be improved by optimized measurements. This leads us to the promising observation that measurement detectors which - taken individually - have a low quantum efficiency can be arranged into circuits...

  3. Direct Measurement of the Density Matrix of a Quantum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkadath, G. S.; Giner, L.; Chalich, Y.; Horton, M. J.; Banker, J.; Lundeen, J. S.

    2016-09-01

    One drawback of conventional quantum state tomography is that it does not readily provide access to single density matrix elements since it requires a global reconstruction. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a scheme that can be used to directly measure individual density matrix elements of general quantum states. The scheme relies on measuring a sequence of three observables, each complementary to the last. The first two measurements are made weak to minimize the disturbance they cause to the state, while the final measurement is strong. We perform this joint measurement on polarized photons in pure and mixed states to directly measure their density matrix. The weak measurements are achieved using two walk-off crystals, each inducing a polarization-dependent spatial shift that couples the spatial and polarization degrees of freedom of the photons. This direct measurement method provides an operational meaning to the density matrix and promises to be especially useful for large dimensional states.

  4. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  5. Optical telecom networks as weak quantum measurements with post- selection

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, N; Collins, D; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, V; Acin, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2003-01-01

    We show that weak measurements with post-selection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the post-selection is done in the most natural way: one post-selects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formalism is shown to simplify the calculation of optical networks in the telecom limit of weak PMD.

  6. Optical telecom networks as weak quantum measurements with postselection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Acín, Antonio; Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2003-10-31

    We show that weak measurements with postselection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the postselection is done in the most natural way: one postselects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formalism is shown to simplify the calculation of optical networks in the telecom limit of weak PMD.

  7. Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by quantum measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

    Quantum systems, ranging from atomic systems to field modes and mechanical devices are useful precision probes for a variety of physical properties and phenomena. Measurements by which we extract information about the evolution of single quantum systems yield random results and cause a back action...... strategies, we address the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound. We investigate monitoring by photon counting, homodyne detection and frequent projective measurements respectively, and exemplify by Rabi frequency estimation in a driven two-level system....

  8. Quantum Control nd Measurement of Spins in Cold Atomic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Spins are natural carriers of quantum information given their long coherence time and our ability to precisely control and measure them with magneto-optical fields. Spins in cold atomic gases provide a pristine environment for such quantum control and measurement, and thus this system can act as a test-bed for the development of quantum simulators. I will discuss the progress my group has made in collaboration with Prof. Jessen, University of Arizona, to develop the toolbox for this test-bed. Through its interactions with rf and microwave magnetic fields, whose waveforms are designed through optimal control techniques, we can implement arbitrary unitary control on the internal hyperfine spins of cesium atoms, a 16 dimensional Hilbert space (isomorphic to 4 qubits). Control of the collective spin of the ensemble of many atoms is performed via the mutual coupling of the atomic ensemble to a mode of the electromagnetic field that acts as a quantum data bus for entangling atoms with one another. Internal spin control can be used to enhance the entangling power of the atom-photon interface. Finally, both projective and weak-continuous measurements can be performed to tomograhically reconstruct quantum states and processes.

  9. Measurable signatures of quantum mechanics in a classical spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Bassam; Luo, Jun; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Shao, Cheng-gang; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; McClelland, David E.; Chen, Yanbei

    2017-08-01

    We propose an optomechanics experiment that can search for signatures of a fundamentally classical theory of gravity and in particular of the many-body Schrödinger-Newton (SN) equation, which governs the evolution of a crystal under a self-gravitational field. The SN equation predicts that the dynamics of a macroscopic mechanical oscillator's center-of-mass wave function differ from the predictions of standard quantum mechanics [H. Yang, H. Miao, D.-S. Lee, B. Helou, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170401 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.170401]. This difference is largest for low-frequency oscillators, and for materials, such as tungsten or osmium, with small quantum fluctuations of the constituent atoms around their lattice equilibrium sites. Light probes the motion of these oscillators and is eventually measured in order to extract valuable information on the pendulum's dynamics. Due to the nonlinearity contained in the SN equation, we analyze the fluctuations of measurement results differently than standard quantum mechanics. We revisit how to model a thermal bath, and the wave-function collapse postulate, resulting in two prescriptions for analyzing the quantum measurement of the light. We demonstrate that both predict features, in the outgoing light's phase fluctuations' spectrum, which are separate from classical thermal fluctuations and quantum shot noise, and which can be clearly resolved with state of the art technology.

  10. Compressive direct measurement of the quantum wavefunction

    CERN Document Server

    Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Boyd, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    The direct measurement of a complex wavefunction has been recently realized by using weak-values. In this paper, we introduce a method that exploits sparsity for compressive measurement of the transverse spatial wavefunction of single photons. The procedure involves a weak measurement in random projection operators in the spatial domain followed by a post-selection in the momentum basis.

  11. Measuring DQC1 Quantum Discord using DQC1

    CERN Document Server

    Passante, G; Laflamme, R

    2012-01-01

    We describe an efficient DQC1-algorithm to quantify the amount of Geometric Quantum Discord present in the output state of a DQC1 computation. DQC1 is a model of computation that utilizes separable states to solve a problem with no known efficient classical algorithm and is known to contain quantum correlations as measured by the discord. For the general case of a (1+n)-qubit DQC1-state we provide an analytical expression for the Geometric Quantum Discord and find that its typical (and maximum) value decreases exponentially with n. This is in contrast to the standard Quantum Discord whose value for typical DQC1-states is known to be independent of n. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed algorithm on a four-qubit liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. In the special case of a two-qubit DQC1 model, we also provide an expression for the Quantum Discord that only requires the outcome of the DQC1 algorithm.

  12. The role of quantum measurements in physical processes and protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Benjamin; Jacobs, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    In this mainly pedagogical article, we discuss under what circumstances measurements play a special role in quantum processes. In particular, we discuss the following facts that appear to be a common area of confusion. (i) From a fundamental point of view, measurements play no special role whatsoever: all dynamics that can be generated by measurements can be generated by unitary processes (for which post-selection is no exception). (ii) From a purely physical point of view, measurements are not ‘outside’ of quantum mechanics. (iii) The only difference between the abilities of measurement-based protocols and unitary circuits for quantum computing comes from practical (technology dependent) constraints. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between differences that are (i) fundamental but without physical import; (ii) fundamental and possess physical import; and (iii) are not fundamental but have practical import. We also emphasise the importance of separating theoretical and experimental elements of measurement, primarily projection and amplification, which are physically very different. Note that since we are concerned with facts regarding physical processes, this article has little if anything to do with interpretations of quantum mechanics.

  13. Measuring nonadiabaticity of molecular quantum dynamics with quantum fidelity and with its efficient semiclassical approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    We propose to measure nonadiabaticity of molecular quantum dynamics rigorously with the quantum fidelity between the Born-Oppenheimer and fully nonadiabatic dynamics. It is shown that this measure of nonadiabaticity applies in situations where other criteria, such as the energy gap criterion or the extent of population transfer, fail. We further propose to estimate this quantum fidelity efficiently with a generalization of the dephasing representation to multiple surfaces. Two variants of the multiple-surface dephasing representation (MSDR) are introduced, in which the nuclei are propagated either with the fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) or with the locally mean field dynamics (LMFD). The LMFD can be interpreted as the Ehrenfest dynamics of an ensemble of nuclear trajectories, and has been used previously in the nonadiabatic semiclassical initial value representation. In addition to propagating an ensemble of classical trajectories, the MSDR requires evaluating nonadiabatic couplings and solving the Sc...

  14. Free-Space Quantum Signatures Using Heterodyne Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croal, Callum; Peuntinger, Christian; Heim, Bettina; Khan, Imran; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Wallden, Petros; Andersson, Erika; Korolkova, Natalia

    2016-09-01

    Digital signatures guarantee the authorship of electronic communications. Currently used "classical" signature schemes rely on unproven computational assumptions for security, while quantum signatures rely only on the laws of quantum mechanics to sign a classical message. Previous quantum signature schemes have used unambiguous quantum measurements. Such measurements, however, sometimes give no result, reducing the efficiency of the protocol. Here, we instead use heterodyne detection, which always gives a result, although there is always some uncertainty. We experimentally demonstrate feasibility in a real environment by distributing signature states through a noisy 1.6 km free-space channel. Our results show that continuous-variable heterodyne detection improves the signature rate for this type of scheme and therefore represents an interesting direction in the search for practical quantum signature schemes. For transmission values ranging from 100% to 10%, but otherwise assuming an ideal implementation with no other imperfections, the signature length is shorter by a factor of 2 to 10. As compared with previous relevant experimental realizations, the signature length in this implementation is several orders of magnitude shorter.

  15. Free-Space Quantum Signatures Using Heterodyne Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croal, Callum; Peuntinger, Christian; Heim, Bettina; Khan, Imran; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Wallden, Petros; Andersson, Erika; Korolkova, Natalia

    2016-09-02

    Digital signatures guarantee the authorship of electronic communications. Currently used "classical" signature schemes rely on unproven computational assumptions for security, while quantum signatures rely only on the laws of quantum mechanics to sign a classical message. Previous quantum signature schemes have used unambiguous quantum measurements. Such measurements, however, sometimes give no result, reducing the efficiency of the protocol. Here, we instead use heterodyne detection, which always gives a result, although there is always some uncertainty. We experimentally demonstrate feasibility in a real environment by distributing signature states through a noisy 1.6 km free-space channel. Our results show that continuous-variable heterodyne detection improves the signature rate for this type of scheme and therefore represents an interesting direction in the search for practical quantum signature schemes. For transmission values ranging from 100% to 10%, but otherwise assuming an ideal implementation with no other imperfections, the signature length is shorter by a factor of 2 to 10. As compared with previous relevant experimental realizations, the signature length in this implementation is several orders of magnitude shorter.

  16. Single-shot adaptive measurement for quantum-enhanced metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palittpongarnpim, Pantita; Wittek, Peter; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum-enhanced metrology aims to estimate an unknown parameter such that the precision scales better than the shot-noise bound. Single-shot adaptive quantum-enhanced metrology (AQEM) is a promising approach that uses feedback to tweak the quantum process according to previous measurement outcomes. Techniques and formalism for the adaptive case are quite different from the usual non-adaptive quantum metrology approach due to the causal relationship between measurements and outcomes. We construct a formal framework for AQEM by modeling the procedure as a decision-making process, and we derive the imprecision and the Craḿer- Rao lower bound with explicit dependence on the feedback policy. We also explain the reinforcement learning approach for generating quantum control policies, which is adopted due to the optimal policy being non-trivial to devise. Applying a learning algorithm based on differential evolution enables us to attain imprecision for adaptive interferometric phase estimation, which turns out to be SQL when non-entangled particles are used in the scheme.

  17. Information capacities of quantum measurement channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2013-03-01

    We study the relation between the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities C and Cea of entanglement-breaking channels. We argue that the gain of entanglement assistance Cea/C > 1 generically for measurement channels with unsharp observables; in particular for the measurements with pure posterior states the information loss in the entanglement-assisted protocol is zero, resulting in an arbitrarily large gain for very noisy or weak signal channels. This is illustrated by examples of continuous observables corresponding to state tomography in finite dimensions and heterodyne measurement. In contrast, state preparations are characterized by the property of having no gain of entanglement assistance, Cea/C = 1.

  18. On the Interpretation of Measurement Within the Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Leon N.; Van Vechten, Deborah

    1969-01-01

    In interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. (RR)

  19. Directly Measuring the Degree of Quantum Coherence using Interference Fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wei, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shang; Ke, Zhi-Jin; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    Quantum coherence is the most distinguished feature of quantum mechanics. It lies at the heart of the quantum-information technologies as the fundamental resource and is also related to other quantum resources, including entanglement. It plays a critical role in various fields, even in biology. Nevertheless, the rigorous and systematic resource-theoretic framework of coherence has just been developed recently, and several coherence measures are proposed. Experimentally, the usual method to measure coherence is to perform state tomography and use mathematical expressions. Here, we alternatively develop a method to measure coherence directly using its most essential behavior—the interference fringes. The ancilla states are mixed into the target state with various ratios, and the minimal ratio that makes the interference fringes of the "mixed state" vanish is taken as the quantity of coherence. We also use the witness observable to witness coherence, and the optimal witness constitutes another direct method to measure coherence. For comparison, we perform tomography and calculate l1 norm of coherence, which coincides with the results of the other two methods in our situation. Our methods are explicit and robust, providing a nice alternative to the tomographic technique.

  20. Quantum CPF gates between rare earth ions through measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun-Feng; Han, Zheng-Fu; Yang, Yong; Guo, Guang-Can

    2004-09-01

    We propose a method to realize quantum controlled phase flip (CPF) through interaction between a single-photon pulse and two microsphere cavities with a single three-level ion respectively and final photonic measurement. Our CPF gates are scalable with extremely high fidelity and low error rate, and are more applicable based on current laboratory cavity-QED technology.

  1. Quantum CPF gates between rare earth ions through measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Yunfeng [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: yfxiao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Han Zhengfu [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: zfhan@ustc.edu.cn; Yang Yong [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China); Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: gcguo@ustc.edu.cn

    2004-09-20

    We propose a method to realize quantum controlled phase flip (CPF) through interaction between a single-photon pulse and two microsphere cavities with a single three-level ion respectively and final photonic measurement. Our CPF gates are scalable with extremely high fidelity and low error rate, and are more applicable based on current laboratory cavity-QED technology.

  2. Estimation of quantum states by weak and projective measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debmalya; Arvind

    2014-06-01

    We explore the possibility of using "weak" measurements to carry out quantum state tomography via numerical simulations. Given a fixed number of copies of identically prepared states of a qubit, we perform state tomography using weak as well as projective measurements. Due to the collapse of the state after measurement, we cannot reuse the state after a projective measurement. If the coupling strength between the quantum system and the measurement device is made weaker, the disturbance caused to the state can be lowered. This then allows us to reuse the same member of the ensemble for further measurements and thus extract more information from the system. However, this happens at the cost of getting imprecise information from the first measurement. We implement this scheme for a single qubit and show that under certain circumstances, it can outperform the projective measurement-based tomography scheme. This opens up the possibility of new ways of extracting information from quantum ensembles. We study the efficacy of this scheme for different coupling strengths and different ensemble sizes.

  3. A Representation of Quantum Measurement in Order-Unit Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    A certain generalization of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics beyond operator algebras is considered. The approach is based on the concept of conditional probability and the interpretation of the Lueders - von Neumann quantum measurement as a probability conditionalization rule. A major result shows that the operator algebras must be replaced by order-unit spaces with some specific properties in the generalized approach, and it is analyzed under which conditions these order-unit spaces become Jordan algebras. An application of this result provides a characterization of the projection lattices in operator algebras.

  4. Observing quantum chaos with noisy measurements and highly mixed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Jason F.; Jacobs, Kurt; Everitt, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for the emergence of classical behavior from an underlying quantum description is that certain observed quantum systems make a transition to chaotic dynamics as their action is increased relative to ℏ . While experiments have demonstrated some aspects of this transition, the emergence of quantum trajectories with a positive Lyapunov exponent has never been observed directly. Here, we remove a major obstacle to achieving this goal by showing that, for the Duffing oscillator, the transition to a positive Lyapunov exponent can be resolved clearly from observed trajectories even with measurement efficiencies as low as 20%. We also find that the positive Lyapunov exponent is robust to highly mixed, low-purity states and to variations in the parameters of the system.

  5. Quantum entangle photon and applications in communication and measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasak Chiangga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a single photon entangled state to secure the transmission data via a wireless communication link and a biological tissue study where the encrypted data/qubit is prepared and formed by using a simple optical system. The encrypted data can transmit securely i.e. without cloning to theintended recipient via a public wireless link. We have shown that the result of the entangled states has good visibility for the use of data quantum encryption. The generated entangled photon for up-link via wireless communication is proposed and the problem of quantum cloning described. The biological tissue characterizations using such a short pulse can be realize by using a simple optical arrangement and components. Such an implemented system has the advantage of that the ultra-short pulse of a single photon with its quantum state identification can be used to provide the required measured data.

  6. The message of quantum science. Attempts towards a synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, Philippe [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Froehlich, Juerg (ed.) [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2015-07-01

    This collection of essays is above all intended to pay tribute to the fact that while QM today is a refined and incredibly successful instrument, many issues concerning the internal consistency and the interpretation of this theory are still not nearly as well understood as they ought to be. In addition, whenever possible these essays take the opportunity to link foundational issues to the many exciting developments that are often linked to major experimental and technological breakthroughs in exploiting the electromagnetic field and in particular, its quantum properties and its interactions with matter, as well as to advances in solid state physics (such as new quantum Hall liquids, topological insulators and graphene). The present volume also focuses on various areas, including new interference experiments with very large molecules passing through double-slits, which test the validity of the Kochen-Specker theorem; new tests of the violation of Bell's inequalities and the consequences of entanglement; new non-demolition measurements and tests of ''wave-function collapse'' to name but a few. These experimental developments have raised many challenging questions for theorists, leading to a new surge of interest in the foundations of QM, which have puzzled physicists ever since this theory was pioneered almost ninety years ago. The outcome of a seminar program of the same name on foundational issues in quantum physics (QM), organized by the editors of this book and addressing newcomers to the field and more seasoned specialists alike, this volume provides a pedagogically inspired snapshot view of many of the unresolved issues in the field of foundational QM.

  7. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum random-number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, You-Qi; Guan, Jian-Yu; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The randomness from a quantum random-number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.

  8. Exciton lifetime measurements on single silicon quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangghaleh, Fatemeh; Bruhn, Benjamin; Schmidt, Torsten; Linnros, Jan

    2013-06-01

    We measured the exciton lifetime of single silicon quantum dots, fabricated by electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching and oxidation. The observed photoluminescence decays are of mono-exponential character with a large variation (5-45 μs) from dot to dot, even for the same emission energy. We show that this lifetime variation may be the origin of the heavily debated non-exponential (stretched) decays typically observed for ensemble measurements.

  9. A sub-ensemble theory of ideal quantum measurement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Balian, Roger; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to elucidate the properties currently attributed to ideal measurements, one must explain how the concept of an individual event with a well-defined outcome may emerge from quantum theory which deals with statistical ensembles, and how different runs issued from the same initial state may end up with different final states. This so-called "measurement problem" is tackled with two guidelines. On the one hand, the dynamics of the macroscopic apparatus A coupled to the tested system S is described mathematically within a standard quantum formalism, where " q-probabilities" remain devoid of interpretation. On the other hand, interpretative principles, aimed to be minimal, are introduced to account for the expected features of ideal measurements. Most of the five principles stated here, which relate the quantum formalism to physical reality, are straightforward and refer to macroscopic variables. The process can be identified with a relaxation of S + A to thermodynamic equilibrium, not only for a large ensemble E of runs but even for its sub-ensembles. The different mechanisms of quantum statistical dynamics that ensure these types of relaxation are exhibited, and the required properties of the Hamiltonian of S + A are indicated. The additional theoretical information provided by the study of sub-ensembles remove Schrödinger's quantum ambiguity of the final density operator for E which hinders its direct interpretation, and bring out a commutative behaviour of the pointer observable at the final time. The latter property supports the introduction of a last interpretative principle, needed to switch from the statistical ensembles and sub-ensembles described by quantum theory to individual experimental events. It amounts to identify some formal " q-probabilities" with ordinary frequencies, but only those which refer to the final indications of the pointer. The desired properties of ideal measurements, in particular the uniqueness of the result for each individual

  10. Open Quantum System Dynamics from a Measurement Perspective: Applications to Coherent Particle Transport and to Quantum~Brownian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleitner, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    We employ the theoretical framework of positive operator valued measures, to study Markovian open quantum systems. In particular, we discuss how a quantum system influences its environment. Using the theory of indirect measurements, we then draw conclusions about the information we could hypothetically obtain about the system by observing the environment. Although the environment is not actually observed, we can use these results to describe the change of the quantum system due to its interaction with the environment. We apply this technique to two different problems. In the first part, we study the coherently driven dynamics of a particle on a rail of quantum dots. This tunnelling between adjacent quantum dots can be controlled externally. We employ an adiabatic scheme similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, to transfer the particle between different quantum dots. We compare two fundamentally different sources of decoherence. In the second part, we study the dynamics of a free quantum particle, which ...

  11. Complex Squeezing and Force Measurement Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, L F; Schreppler, S; Kohler, J; Spethmann, N; Stamper-Kurn, D M

    2016-07-15

    A continuous quantum field, such as a propagating beam of light, may be characterized by a squeezing spectrum that is inhomogeneous in frequency. We point out that homodyne detectors, which are commonly employed to detect quantum squeezing, are blind to squeezing spectra in which the correlation between amplitude and phase fluctuations is complex. We find theoretically that such complex squeezing is a component of ponderomotive squeezing of light through cavity optomechanics. We propose a detection scheme called synodyne detection, which reveals complex squeezing and allows the accounting of measurement backaction. Even with the optomechanical system subject to continuous measurement, such detection allows the measurement of one component of an external force with sensitivity only limited by the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation.

  12. Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Whittaker, Rebecca; Joshi, Siddarth K; Birchall, Patrick; McMillan, Alex; Rarity, John G; Matthews, Jonathan C F

    2016-01-01

    Engineering apparatus that harness quantum theory offers practical advantages over current technology. A fundamentally more powerful prospect is the long-standing prediction that such quantum technologies could out-perform any future iteration of their classical counterparts, no matter how well the attributes of those classical strategies can be improved. Here, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of \\textit{absolute} advantage per photon probe in the precision of optical direct absorption measurement. We use correlated intensity measurements of spontaneous parametric downconversion using a commercially available air-cooled CCD, a new estimator for data analysis and a high heralding efficiency photon-pair source. We show this enables improvement in the precision of measurement, per photon probe, beyond what is achievable with an ideal coherent state (a perfect laser) detected with $100\\%$ efficient and noiseless detection. We see this absolute improvement for up to $50\\%$ absorption, with a maximum ...

  13. A Quantum Logic Gate Representation of Quantum Measurement Reversing and Unifying the Two Steps of von Neumann's Model

    CERN Document Server

    Castagnoli, G C

    1999-01-01

    In former work, quantum computation has been shown to be a problem solving process essentially affected by both the reversible dynamics leading to the state before measurement, and the logical-mathematical constraints introduced by quantum measurement (in particular, the constraint that there is only one measurement outcome). This dual influence, originated by independent initial and final conditions, justifies the quantum computation speed-up and is not representable inside dynamics, namely as a one-way propagation. In this work, we reformulate von Neumann's model of quantum measurement at the light of above findings. We embed it in a broader representation based on the quantum logic gate formalism and capable of describing the interplay between dynamical and non-dynamical constraints. The two steps of the original model, namely (1) dynamically reaching a complete entanglement between pointer and quantum object and (2) enforcing the one-outcome-constraint, are unified and reversed. By representing step (2) r...

  14. Classical stochastic measurement trajectories: Bosonic atomic gases in an optical cavity and quantum measurement backaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark D.; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2014-08-01

    We formulate computationally efficient classical stochastic measurement trajectories for a multimode quantum system under continuous observation. Specifically, we consider the nonlinear dynamics of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate contained within an optical cavity subject to continuous monitoring of the light leaking out of the cavity. The classical trajectories encode within a classical phase-space representation a continuous quantum measurement process conditioned on a given detection record. We derive a Fokker-Planck equation for the quasiprobability distribution of the combined condensate-cavity system. We unravel the dynamics into stochastic classical trajectories that are conditioned on the quantum measurement process of the continuously monitored system. Since the dynamics of a continuously measured observable in a many-atom system can be closely approximated by classical dynamics, the method provides a numerically efficient and accurate approach to calculate the measurement record of a large multimode quantum system. Numerical simulations of the continuously monitored dynamics of a large atom cloud reveal considerably fluctuating phase profiles between different measurement trajectories, while ensemble averages exhibit local spatially varying phase decoherence. Individual measurement trajectories lead to spatial pattern formation and optomechanical motion that solely result from the measurement backaction. The backaction of the continuous quantum measurement process, conditioned on the detection record of the photons, spontaneously breaks the symmetry of the spatial profile of the condensate and can be tailored to selectively excite collective modes.

  15. Super quantum measures on effect algebras with the Riesz decomposition properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yongjian, E-mail: yjxie@snnu.edu.cn; Ren, Fang [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Yang, Aili [College of Science, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054 (China)

    2015-10-15

    We give one basis of the space of super quantum measures on finite effect algebras with the Riesz decomposition properties (RDP for short). Then we prove that the super quantum measures and quantum interference functions on finite effect algebras with the RDP are determined each other. At last, we investigate the relationships between the super quantum measures and the diagonally positive signed measures on finite effect algebras with the RDP in detail.

  16. Information Tradeoff Relations for Finite-Strength Quantum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, C; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Jacobs, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we give a new way to quantify the folklore notion that quantum measurements bring a disturbance to the system being measured. We consider two observers who initially assign identical mixed-state density operators to a two-state quantum system. The question we address is to what extent one observer can, by measurement, increase the purity of his density operator without affecting the purity of the other observer's. If there were no restrictions on the first observer's measurements, then he could carry this out trivially by measuring the initial density operator's eigenbasis. If, however, the allowed measurements are those of finite strength---i.e., those measurements strictly within the interior of the convex set of all measurements---then the issue becomes significantly more complex. We find that for a large class of such measurements the first observer's purity increases the most precisely when there is some loss of purity for the second observer. More generally the tradeoff between the two pur...

  17. Entanglement entropy after selective measurements in quantum chains

    CERN Document Server

    Najafi, Khadijeh

    2016-01-01

    We study bipartite post measurement entanglement entropy after selective measurements in quantum chains. We first study the quantity for the critical systems that can be described by conformal field theories. We find a connection between post measurement entanglement entropy and the Casimir energy of floating objects. Then we provide formulas for the post measurement entanglement entropy for open and finite temperature systems. We also comment on the Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy in the context of the post measurement entanglement entropy. Finally, we also provide some formulas regarding modular hamiltonians and entanglement spectrum in the after measurement systems. After through discussion regarding CFT systems we also provide some predictions regarding massive field theories. We then discuss a generic method to calculate the post measurement entanglement entropy in the free fermion systems. Using the method we study the post measurement entanglement entropy in the XY spin chain. We check numerically the ...

  18. Induced measures in the space of mixed quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyczkowski, Karol [Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw, Poland and Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Crakow (Poland)). E-mail: karol@cft.edu.pl; Sommers, Hans-Juergen [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Essen, Essen (Germany)). E-mail: sommers@next30.theo-phys.uni-essen.de

    2001-09-07

    We analyse several product measures in the space of mixed quantum states. In particular, we study measures induced by the operation of partial tracing. The natural, rotationally invariant measure on the set of all pure states of a NxK composite system, induces a unique measure in the space of NxN mixed states (or in the space of KxK mixed states, if the reduction takes place with respect to the first subsystem). For K=N the induced measure is equal to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, which is shown to coincide with the measure induced by singular values of non-Hermitian random Gaussian matrices pertaining to the Ginibre ensemble. We compute several averages with respect to this measure and show that the mean entanglement of NxN pure states behaves as lnN-1/2. (author)

  19. Induced measures in the space of mixed quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Sommers, Hans-Juergen

    2001-01-01

    We analyze several product measures in the space of mixed quantum states. In particular we study measures induced by the operation of partial tracing. The natural, rotationally invariant measure on the set of all pure states of a N x K composite system, induces a unique measure in the space of N x N mixed states (or in the space of K x K mixed states, if the reduction takes place with respect to the first subsystem). For K=N the induced measure is equal to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, which is shown to coincide with the measure induced by singular values of non-Hermitian random Gaussian matrices pertaining to the Ginibre ensemble. We compute several averages with respect to this measure and show that the mean entanglement of $N \\times N$ pure states behaves as lnN-1/2.

  20. Reply to "Comment on 'Quantum Kaniadakis entropy under projective measurement' ".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourabah, Kamel; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2016-08-01

    We rely on our proof of the nondecreasing character of quantum Kaniadakis entropy under projective measurement [Phys. Rev. E 92, 032114 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.032114], and we put it into perspective with the results of Bosyk et al. [Quantum Inf Process 15, 3393 (2016)10.1007/s11128-016-1329-5]. Our method, adopted for the proof that Kaniadakis entropy does not decrease under a projective measurement, is based on Jensen's inequalities, while the method proposed by the authors of the Comment represents another alternative and clearly correct method to prove the same thing. Furthermore, we clarify that our interest in Kaniadakis entropy is due to the fact that this entropy has a transparent physical significance, emerging within the special relativity.

  1. Nonparametric estimation of quantum states, processes and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougovski, Pavel; Bennink, Ryan

    Quantum state, process, and measurement estimation methods traditionally use parametric models, in which the number and role of relevant parameters is assumed to be known. When such an assumption cannot be justified, a common approach in many disciplines is to fit the experimental data to multiple models with different sets of parameters and utilize an information criterion to select the best fitting model. However, it is not always possible to assume a model with a finite (countable) number of parameters. This typically happens when there are unobserved variables that stem from hidden correlations that can only be unveiled after collecting experimental data. How does one perform quantum characterization in this situation? We present a novel nonparametric method of experimental quantum system characterization based on the Dirichlet Process (DP) that addresses this problem. Using DP as a prior in conjunction with Bayesian estimation methods allows us to increase model complexity (number of parameters) adaptively as the number of experimental observations grows. We illustrate our approach for the one-qubit case and show how a probability density function for an unknown quantum process can be estimated.

  2. Measuring out-of-time-order correlations and multiple quantum spectra in a trapped ion quantum magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Wall, Michael L; Bollinger, John J; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Highly controllable arrays of ions and ultra-cold atoms are providing exciting opportunities for realizing quantum simulators of complex many-body phenomena that can provide insights into unsolved problems in modern science. A fundamental step towards this goal is the development of protocols that can quantify how a quantum simulator builds up quantum correlations and stores quantum information starting from easily prepared uncorrelated states. Out-of-time-order correlation functions have been recently suggested as ideal probes to accomplish this task, because they can quantify the spreading, or "scrambling", of quantum information and set speed limits for thermalization. They might also enable experimental tests of the holographic duality between quantum and gravitational systems. Here we report experimental measurements of dynamics of out-of-time-order correlations in a quantum simulator of more than 100 ions in a Penning trap by using the many-body echo sequence developed in the context of nuclear magnetic...

  3. Conservative error measures for classical and quantum metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Mankei

    2016-01-01

    The classical and quantum Cram\\'er-Rao bounds have become standard measures of parameter-estimation uncertainty for a variety of sensing and imaging applications in recent years, but their assumption of unbiased estimators potentially undermines their significance as fundamental limits. In this note we advocate a Bayesian approach with Van Trees inequalities and worst-case priors to overcome the problem. Applications to superlocalization and gravitational-wave parameter estimation are discussed.

  4. The measurement problem in quantum mechanics: A phenomenological investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Joel Brooks

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is a phenomenological investigation of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. The primary subject matter for description and analysis is scientific instruments and their use in experiments which elicit the measurement problem. A methodological critique is mounted against the ontological commitments taken for granted in the canonical interpretations of quantum theory and the scientific activity of measurement as the necessary interface between theoretical interest and perceptual results. I argue that an aesthetic dimension of reality functions as aproto-scientific establishment of sense-making that constantly operates to set integratively all other cognitively neat determinations, including scientifically rendered objects that are intrinsically non-visualizable. The way in which data "key in" to the original and originative register of the sensible in observation is clarified by examining prostheses, measuring apparatuses and instruments that are sense-conveying and -integrative with the human sensorium. Experiments, technology and instrumentation are examined in order to understand how knowing and that which is known is bonded by praxis-aisthesis. Quantum measurement is a praxic-dynamie activity and homologically structured and structur ing functional engagement in terms of instantiation, quantifiability, and spatiotemporal differentiation. The distinctions between a beauty-aesthetic and praxis-aisthesis are delineated. It is argued that a beauty-aesthetic is a construal of the economic dimension of scientific objects and work, and is not the primary manner in which the aesthetic dimension is disclosed. The economic dimension of abstractions reduces to an austere aesthetic of calculative economy. Nature itself, however, is not stingy; it is intrinsically capacious, extravagant, full of surprise, nuance, ambiguity and allusiveness. The capaciousness of Nature and the way in which we are integratively set within Nature in a materiality

  5. Protecting entanglement from correlated amplitude damping channel using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xing; Yao, Yao; Xie, Ying-Mao; Wang, Xing-Hua; Li, Yan-Ling

    2016-09-01

    Based on the quantum technique of weak measurement, we propose a scheme to protect the entanglement from correlated amplitude damping decoherence. In contrast to the results of memoryless amplitude damping channel, we show that the memory effects play a significant role in the suppression of entanglement sudden death and protection of entanglement under severe decoherence. Moreover, we find that the initial entanglement could be drastically amplified by the combination of weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal even under the correlated amplitude damping channel. The underlying mechanism can be attributed to the probabilistic nature of weak measurements.

  6. Measuring peptide mass spectrum correlation using the quantum Grover algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Keng Wah

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the use of the quantum Grover algorithm in the mass-spectrometry-based protein identification process. The approach coded the mass spectra on a quantum register and uses the Grover search algorithm for searching multiple solutions to find matches from a database. Measurement of the fidelity between the input and final states was used to quantify the similarity between the experimental and theoretical spectra. The optimal number of iteration is proven to be pi/4sqrt[N/k] , where k refers to the number of marked states. We found that one iteration is sufficient for the search if we let more that 62% of the N states be marked states. By measuring the fidelity after only one iteration of Grover search, we discovered that it resembles that of the correlation-based measurement used in the existing protein identification software. We concluded that the quantum Grover algorithm can be adapted for a correlation-based mass spectra database search, provided that decoherence can be kept to a minimum.

  7. Invariant Set Theory and the Symbolism of Quantum Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, T N

    2015-01-01

    Elements of a novel theory of quantum physics are developed, synthesising the role of symbolism in describing quantum measurement and in the topological representation of fractal invariant sets in nonlinear dynamical systems theory. In this synthesis, the universe $U$ is treated as an isolated deterministic dynamical system evolving precisely on a measure-zero fractal invariant subset $I_U$ of its state space. A non-classical approach to the physics of $U$ is developed by treating the geometry of $I_U$ as more primitive than dynamical evolution equations on $I_U$. A specific symbolic representation of $I_U$ is constructed which encodes quaternionic multiplication and from which the statistical properties of complex Hilbert Space vectors are emergent. The Hilbert Space itself arises as the singular limit of Invariant Set Theory as a fractal parameter $N \\rightarrow \\infty$. Although the Hilbert Space of quantum theory is counterfactually complete, the measure-zero set $I_U$ is counterfactually incomplete, no m...

  8. Understanding quantum measurement from the solution of dynamical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E. [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique et Systèmes Complexes, ISMANS, 44 Av. Bartholdi, 72000 Le Mans (France); Balian, Roger [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M., E-mail: T.M.Nieuwenhuizen@uva.nl [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The quantum measurement problem, to wit, understanding why a unique outcome is obtained in each individual experiment, is currently tackled by solving models. After an introduction we review the many dynamical models proposed over the years for elucidating quantum measurements. The approaches range from standard quantum theory, relying for instance on quantum statistical mechanics or on decoherence, to quantum–classical methods, to consistent histories and to modifications of the theory. Next, a flexible and rather realistic quantum model is introduced, describing the measurement of the z-component of a spin through interaction with a magnetic memory simulated by a Curie–Weiss magnet, including N≫1 spins weakly coupled to a phonon bath. Initially prepared in a metastable paramagnetic state, it may transit to its up or down ferromagnetic state, triggered by its coupling with the tested spin, so that its magnetization acts as a pointer. A detailed solution of the dynamical equations is worked out, exhibiting several time scales. Conditions on the parameters of the model are found, which ensure that the process satisfies all the features of ideal measurements. Various imperfections of the measurement are discussed, as well as attempts of incompatible measurements. The first steps consist in the solution of the Hamiltonian dynamics for the spin-apparatus density matrix D{sup -hat} (t). Its off-diagonal blocks in a basis selected by the spin–pointer coupling, rapidly decay owing to the many degrees of freedom of the pointer. Recurrences are ruled out either by some randomness of that coupling, or by the interaction with the bath. On a longer time scale, the trend towards equilibrium of the magnet produces a final state D{sup -hat} (t{sub f}) that involves correlations between the system and the indications of the pointer, thus ensuring registration. Although D{sup -hat} (t{sub f}) has the form expected for ideal measurements, it only describes a large set of

  9. Quantum Bayesian rule for weak measurements of qubits in superconducting circuit QED

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peiyue; Qin, Lupei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Compared with the quantum trajectory equation, the quantum Bayesian approach has the advantage of being more efficient to infer quantum state under monitoring, based on the integrated output of measurement. For weak measurement of qubits in circuit quantum electrodynamics(cQED), properly accounting for the measurement backaction effects within the Bayesian framework is an important problem of current interest.Elegant work towards this task was carried out by Korotkov in "bad-cavity" and weak-...

  10. HiFi-MBQC High Fidelitiy Measurement-Based Quantum Computing using Superconducting Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement - based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0006 HiFi-MBQC High Fidelitiy Measurement - Based Quantum Computing using Superconducting Detectors Philip Walther UNIVERSITT...HiFi-MBQC High Fidelitiy Measurement - Based Quantum Computing using Superconducting Detectors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-11-1-3004 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  11. A Bell Inequality Analog in Quantum Measure Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, D; Henson, J; Major, S; Rideout, D; Sorkin, R D; Craig, David; Dowker, Fay; Henson, Joe; Major, Seth; Rideout, David; Sorkin, Rafael D.

    2006-01-01

    One obtains Bell's inequalities if one posits a hypothetical joint probability distribution, or measure, whose marginals yield the probabilities produced by the spin measurements in question. The existence of a joint measure is in turn equivalent to a certain local causality condition known as ``screening off''. We show that if one assumes, more generally, a joint ``quantal measure'', or ``decoherence functional'', one obtains instead an analogous inequality weaker by a factor of sqrt(2). The proof of this ``Tsirel'son inequality'' is geometrical and rests on the possibility of associating a Hilbert space to any strongly positive quantal measure. These results lead both to a question: ``Does a joint measure follow from some quantal analog of `screening off'?'', and to the observation that non-contextual hidden variables are viable in histories-based quantum mechanics, even if they are excluded classically.

  12. Breaking Quantum and Thermal Limits on Precision Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James K.

    2016-05-01

    I will give an overview of our efforts to use correlations and entanglement between many atoms to overcome quantum and thermal limits on precision measurements. In the first portion of my talk, I will present a path toward a 10000 times reduced sensitivity to the thermal mirror motion that limits the linewidth of today's best lasers. By utilizing narrow atomic transitions, the laser's phase information is primarily stored in the atomic gain medium rather than in the vibration-sensitive cavity field. To this end, I will present the first observation of lasing based on the mHz linewidth optical-clock transition in a laser-cooled ensemble of strontium atoms. In the second portion of my talk, I will describe how we use collective measurements to surpass the standard quantum limit on phase estimation 1 /√{ N} for N unentangled atoms. We achieve a directly observed reduction in phase variance relative to the standard quantum limit of as much as 17.7(6) dB. Supported by DARPA QuASAR, NIST, ARO, and NSF PFC. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1125844 Physics Frontier Center.

  13. Measuring Charge Carrier Diffusion in Coupled Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2013-06-25

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for inexpensive, room-temperature-, and solution-processed optoelectronic devices. A high carrier diffusion length is desirable for many CQD device applications. In this work we develop two new experimental methods to investigate charge carrier diffusion in coupled CQD solids under charge-neutral, i.e., undepleted, conditions. The methods take advantage of the quantum-size-effect tunability of our materials, utilizing a smaller-bandgap population of quantum dots as a reporter system. We develop analytical models of diffusion in 1D and 3D structures that allow direct extraction of diffusion length from convenient parametric plots and purely optical measurements. We measure several CQD solids fabricated using a number of distinct methods and having significantly different doping and surface ligand treatments. We find that CQD materials recently reported to achieve a certified power conversion efficiency of 7% with hybrid organic-inorganic passivation have a diffusion length of 80 ± 10 nm. The model further allows us to extract the lifetime, trap density, mobility, and diffusion coefficient independently in each material system. This work will facilitate further progress in extending the diffusion length, ultimately leading to high-quality CQD solid semiconducting materials and improved CQD optoelectronic devices, including CQD solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Measurement of many-body chaos using a quantum clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanyu; Hafezi, Mohammad; Grover, Tarun

    2016-12-01

    There has been recent progress in understanding chaotic features in many-body quantum systems. Motivated by the scrambling of information in black holes, it has been suggested that the time dependence of out-of-time-ordered (OTO) correlation functions such as is a faithful measure of quantum chaos. Experimentally, these correlators are challenging to access since they apparently require access to both forward and backward time evolution with the system Hamiltonian. Here we propose a protocol to measure such OTO correlators using an ancilla that controls the direction of time. Specifically, by coupling the state of the ancilla to the system Hamiltonian of interest, we can emulate the forward and backward time propagation, where the ancilla plays the role of a quantum clock. Within this scheme, the continuous evolution of the entire system (the system of interest and the ancilla) is governed by a time-independent Hamiltonian. We discuss the implementation of our protocol with current circuit-QED technology for a class of interacting Hamiltonians. Our protocol is immune to errors that could occur when the direction of time evolution is externally controlled by a classical switch.

  15. Quantum analysis of the direct measurement of light waves

    CERN Document Server

    Saldanha, Pablo L

    2014-01-01

    In a beautiful experiment performed about a decade ago, Goulielmakis et al. made a direct measurement of the electric field of light waves [E. Goulielmakis et al., Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004)]. However, they used a laser source to produce the light field, whose quantum state has a null expectation value for the electric field operator, so how was it possible to measure this electric field? Here we present a quantum treatment for the f:2f interferometer used to calibrate the carrier-envelope phase of the light pulses in the experiment. We show how the special nonlinear features of the f:2f interferometer can change the quantum state of the electromagnetic field inside the laser cavity to a state with a definite oscillating electric field, explaining how the "classical" electromagnetic field emerges in the experiment. We discuss that this experiment was, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of an absolute coherent superposition of different photon number states in the optical regime.

  16. On a measure of distance for quantum strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutoski, Gus

    2012-03-01

    The present paper studies an operator norm that captures the distinguishability of quantum strategies in the same sense that the trace norm captures the distinguishability of quantum states or the diamond norm captures the distinguishability of quantum channels. Characterizations of its unit ball and dual norm are established via strong duality of a semidefinite optimization problem. A full, formal proof of strong duality is presented for the semidefinite optimization problem in question. This norm and its properties are employed to generalize a state discrimination result of Gutoski and Watrous [In Proceedings of the 22nd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS'05), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3404 (Springer, 2005), pp. 605-616. The generalized result states that for any two convex sets S0, S1 of strategies there exists a fixed interactive measurement scheme that successfully distinguishes any choice of S0 ∈ S0 from any choice of S1 ∈ S1 with bias proportional to the minimal distance between the sets S0 and S1 as measured by this norm. A similar discrimination result for channels then follows as a special case.

  17. Measurement of many-body chaos using a quantum clock

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guanyu; Grover, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    There has been recent progress in understanding chaotic features in many-body quantum systems. Motivated by the scrambling of information in black holes, it has been suggested that the time dependence of out-of-time-ordered (OTO) correlation functions such as $\\langle O_2(t) O_1(0) O_2(t) O_1(0) \\rangle $ is a faithful measure of quantum chaos. Experimentally, these correlators are challenging to access since they apparently require access to both forward and backward time evolution with the system Hamiltonian. Here, we propose a protocol to measure such OTO correlators using an ancilla which controls the direction of time. Specifically, by coupling the state of ancilla to the system Hamiltonian of interest, we can emulate the forward and backward time propagation, where the ancilla plays the role of a 'quantum clock'. Within this scheme, the continuous evolution of the entire system (the system of interest and the ancilla) is governed by a time-independent Hamiltonian. Our protocol is immune to errors that c...

  18. Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Abhay; Stafford, Charles A.

    2016-10-01

    We show that a local measurement of temperature and voltage for a quantum system in steady state, arbitrarily far from equilibrium, with arbitrary interactions within the system, is unique when it exists. This is interpreted as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. We further derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution. In this regard, we find that a positive temperature solution exists whenever there is no net population inversion. However, when there is a net population inversion, we may characterize the system with a unique negative temperature. Voltage and temperature measurements are treated on an equal footing: They are simultaneously measured in a noninvasive manner, via a weakly coupled thermoelectric probe, defined by requiring vanishing charge and heat dissipation into the probe. Our results strongly suggest that a local temperature measurement without a simultaneous local voltage measurement, or vice versa, is a misleading characterization of the state of a nonequilibrium quantum electron system. These results provide a firm mathematical foundation for voltage and temperature measurements far from equilibrium.

  19. Efficient measurement of quantum gate error by interleaved randomized benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesan, Easwar; Gambetta, Jay M; Johnson, B R; Ryan, Colm A; Chow, Jerry M; Merkel, Seth T; da Silva, Marcus P; Keefe, George A; Rothwell, Mary B; Ohki, Thomas A; Ketchen, Mark B; Steffen, M

    2012-08-24

    We describe a scalable experimental protocol for estimating the average error of individual quantum computational gates. This protocol consists of interleaving random Clifford gates between the gate of interest and provides an estimate as well as theoretical bounds for the average error of the gate under test, so long as the average noise variation over all Clifford gates is small. This technique takes into account both state preparation and measurement errors and is scalable in the number of qubits. We apply this protocol to a superconducting qubit system and find a bounded average error of 0.003 [0,0.016] for the single-qubit gates X(π/2) and Y(π/2). These bounded values provide better estimates of the average error than those extracted via quantum process tomography.

  20. A measure theoretical approach to quantum stochastic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldenfels, Wilhelm von

    2014-04-01

    Authored by a leading researcher in the field. Self-contained presentation of the subject matter. Examines a number of worked examples in detail. This monograph takes as starting point that abstract quantum stochastic processes can be understood as a quantum field theory in one space and in one time coordinate. As a result it is appropriate to represent operators as power series of creation and annihilation operators in normal-ordered form, which can be achieved using classical measure theory. Considering in detail four basic examples (e.g. a two-level atom coupled to a heat bath of oscillators), in each case the Hamiltonian of the associated one-parameter strongly continuous group is determined and the spectral decomposition is explicitly calculated in the form of generalized eigen-vectors. Advanced topics include the theory of the Hudson-Parthasarathy equation and the amplified oscillator problem. To that end, a chapter on white noise calculus has also been included.

  1. Delayed choice experiments, the arrow of time, and quantum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, L. S.

    2011-11-01

    By a radical modification of statistical mechanics the measurement process of quantum mechanics can be described in terms of pure, unitary time evolution, with no wave function collapse or many-world ideas. The key notion is "special states," rare microscopic states of a complex system. Recovering the standard probabilities requires of this theory the appearance of Cauchy-distributed noise in some measurement processes. This article treats experimental situations where such noise might be detected and correlated with the need or absence of need for special states. Included in this possibility are "delayed choice" experiments, in which the correlation contravenes conventional ideas on causality. Background material on all topics is provided.

  2. Absolute Measurement of Quantum-Limited Interferometric Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    Thiel, Valérian; Treps, Nicolas; Roslund, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A methodology is introduced that enables an absolute, quantum-limited measurement of sub-wavelength interferometric displacements. The technique utilizes a high-frequency optical path modulation within an interferometer operated in a homodyne configuration. All of the information necessary to fully characterize the resultant path displacement is contained within the relative strengths of the various harmonics of the phase modulation. The method, which is straightforward and readily implementable, allows a direct measurement of the theoretical Cram\\'er-Rao limit of detection without any assumptions on the nature of the light source.

  3. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Quantum Squeezed State Beyond the 3 dB Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C. U.; Weinstein, A. J.; Suh, J.; Wollman, E. E.; Kronwald, A.; Marquardt, F.; Clerk, A. A.; Schwab, K. C.

    2016-09-01

    We use a reservoir engineering technique based on two-tone driving to generate and stabilize a quantum squeezed state of a micron-scale mechanical oscillator in a microwave optomechanical system. Using an independent backaction-evading measurement to directly quantify the squeezing, we observe 4.7 ±0.9 dB of squeezing below the zero-point level surpassing the 3 dB limit of standard parametric squeezing techniques. Our measurements also reveal evidence for an additional mechanical parametric effect. The interplay between this effect and the optomechanical interaction enhances the amount of squeezing obtained in the experiment.

  4. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement Part 2: Development of Research-based Learning Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials (QuILTs) and peer instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

  5. Improving students’ understanding of quantum measurement. II. Development of research-based learning tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangtian Zhu1,2

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students’ common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students’ understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

  6. Information-theoretic approach to quantum error correction and reversible measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, M A; Schumacher, B; Barnum, H N; Caves, Carlton M.; Schumacher, Benjamin; Barnum, Howard

    1997-01-01

    Quantum operations provide a general description of the state changes allowed by quantum mechanics. The reversal of quantum operations is important for quantum error-correcting codes, teleportation, and reversing quantum measurements. We derive information-theoretic conditions and equivalent algebraic conditions that are necessary and sufficient for a general quantum operation to be reversible. We analyze the thermodynamic cost of error correction and show that error correction can be regarded as a kind of ``Maxwell demon,'' for which there is an entropy cost associated with information obtained from measurements performed during error correction. A prescription for thermodynamically efficient error correction is given.

  7. Partially Ordered Sets of Quantum Measurements and the Dirac Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-02-01

    Events can be ordered according to whether one event influences another. This results in a partially ordered set (poset) of events often referred to as a causal set. In this framework, an observer can be represented by a chain of events. Quantification of events and pairs of events, referred to as intervals, can be performed by projecting them onto an observer chain, or even a pair of observer chains, which in specific situations leads to a Minkowski metric replete with Lorentz transformations (Bahreyni & Knuth, 2011. APS B21.00007). In this work, we unify this picture with the Process Calculus, which coincides with the Feynman rules of quantum mechanics (Goyal, Knuth, Skilling, 2010, arXiv:0907.0909; Goyal & Knuth, Symmetry 2011, 3(2), 171), by considering quantum measurements to be events. This is performed by quantifying pairs of events, which represent transitions, with a pair of numbers, or a quantum amplitude. In the 1+1D case this results in the Feynman checkerboard model of the Dirac equation (Feynman & Hibbs, 1965). We further demonstrate that in the case of 3+1 dimensions, we recover Bialnycki-Birula's (1994, Phys. Rev. D, 49(12), 6920) body-centered cubic cellular automata model of the Dirac equation studied more recently by Earle (2011, arXiv:1102.1200v1).

  8. Reconsideration of the Uncertainty Relations and Quantum Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on uncertainty relations (UR and quantum measurements (QMS persisted until nowadays in publications about quantum mechanics (QM. They originate mainly from the conventional interpretation of UR (CIUR. In the most of the QM literarure, it is underestimated the fact that, over the years, a lot of deficiencies regarding CIUR were signaled. As a rule the alluded deficiencies were remarked disparately and dis- cussed as punctual and non-essential questions. Here we approach an investigation of the mentioned deficiencies collected in a conclusive ensemble. Subsequently we expose a reconsideration of the major problems referring to UR and QMS. We reveal that all the basic presumption of CIUR are troubled by insurmountable deficiencies which require the indubitable failure of CIUR and its necessary abandonment. Therefore the UR must be deprived of their statute of crucial pieces for physics. So, the aboriginal versions of UR appear as being in postures of either (i thought-experimental fictions or (ii sim- ple QM formulae and, any other versions of them, have no connection with the QMS. Then the QMS must be viewed as an additional subject comparatively with the usual questions of QM. For a theoretical description of QMS we propose an information- transmission model, in which the quantum observables are considered as random vari- ables. Our approach directs to natural solutions and simplifications for many problems regarding UR and QMS.

  9. Incompatible multiple consistent sets of histories and measures of quantumness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    In the consistent histories approach to quantum theory probabilities are assigned to histories subject to a consistency condition of negligible interference. The approach has the feature that a given physical situation admits multiple sets of consistent histories that cannot in general be united into a single consistent set, leading to a number of counterintuitive or contrary properties if propositions from different consistent sets are combined indiscriminately. An alternative viewpoint is proposed in which multiple consistent sets are classified according to whether or not there exists any unifying probability for combinations of incompatible sets which replicates the consistent histories result when restricted to a single consistent set. A number of examples are exhibited in which this classification can be made, in some cases with the assistance of the Bell, Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt, or Leggett-Garg inequalities together with Fine's theorem. When a unifying probability exists logical deductions in different consistent sets can in fact be combined, an extension of the "single framework rule." It is argued that this classification coincides with intuitive notions of the boundary between classical and quantum regimes and in particular, the absence of a unifying probability for certain combinations of consistent sets is regarded as a measure of the "quantumness" of the system. The proposed approach and results are closely related to recent work on the classification of quasiprobabilities and this connection is discussed.

  10. Reconsideration of the Uncertainty Relations and Quantum Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on uncertainty relations (UR and quantum measurements (QMS persisted until nowadays in publications about quantum mechanics (QM. They originate mainly from the conventional interpretation of UR (CIUR. In the most of the QM literarure, it is underestimated the fact that, over the years, a lot of deficiencies regarding CIUR were signaled. As a rule the alluded deficiencies were remarked disparately and discussed as punctual and non-essential questions. Here we approach an investigation of the mentioned deficiencies collected in a conclusive ensemble. Subsequently we expose a reconsideration of the major problems referring to UR and QMS. We reveal that all the basic presumption of CIUR are troubled by insurmountable deficiencies which require the indubitable failure of CIUR and its necessary abandonment. Therefore the UR must be deprived of their statute of crucialpieces for physics. So, the aboriginal versions of UR appear as being in postures of either (i thought-experimental fictions or (ii simple QM formulae and, any other versions of them, have no connection with the QMS. Then the QMS must be viewed as an additional subject comparatively with the usual questions of QM. For a theoretical description of QMS we propose an information-transmission model, in which the quantum observables are considered as random variables. Our approach directs to natural solutions and simplifications for many problems regarding UR and QMS.

  11. Application of quantum algorithms to direct measurement of concurrence of a two-qubit pure state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong-Fu; Zhang Shou

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to measure directly the concurrence of an arbitrary two-qubit pure state based on a generalized Grover quantum iteration algorithm and a phase estimation algorithm. The concurrence can be calculated by applying quantum algorithms to two available copies of the bipartite system, and a final measurement on the auxiliary working qubits gives a better estimation of the concurrence. This method opens new prospects of entanglement measure by the application of quantum algorithms. The implementation of the protocol would be an important step toward quantum information processing and more complex entanglement measure of the finite-dimensional quantum system with an arbitrary number of qubits.

  12. Probability distributions of continuous measurement results for conditioned quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquet, A.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2017-02-01

    We address the statistics of continuous weak linear measurement on a few-state quantum system that is subject to a conditioned quantum evolution. For a conditioned evolution, both the initial and final states of the system are fixed: the latter is achieved by the postselection in the end of the evolution. The statistics may drastically differ from the nonconditioned case, and the interference between initial and final states can be observed in the probability distributions of measurement outcomes as well as in the average values exceeding the conventional range of nonconditioned averages. We develop a proper formalism to compute the distributions of measurement outcomes, and evaluate and discuss the distributions in experimentally relevant setups. We demonstrate the manifestations of the interference between initial and final states in various regimes. We consider analytically simple examples of nontrivial probability distributions. We reveal peaks (or dips) at half-quantized values of the measurement outputs. We discuss in detail the case of zero overlap between initial and final states demonstrating anomalously big average outputs and sudden jump in time-integrated output. We present and discuss the numerical evaluation of the probability distribution aiming at extending the analytical results and describing a realistic experimental situation of a qubit in the regime of resonant fluorescence.

  13. Exact Pointer Properties for Quantum System Projector Measurements with Application to Weak Measurements and Their Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Parks, A D

    2010-01-01

    Exact pointer states are obtained for projection operator measurements performed upon pre-selected (PS) and upon pre- and post-selected (PPS) quantum systems. These states are used to provide simple exact expressions for both the pointer spatial probability distribution profiles and the mean values of arbitrary pointer observables associated with PS and PPS projection operator measurements that are valid for any strength of the interaction which couples a measurement pointer to the quantum system. These profiles and mean values are compared in order to identify the effects of post-selection upon projector measurement pointers. As a special case, these mean value results are applied to the weak measurement regime - yielding PS and PPS mean value expressions which are valid for any operator (projector or non-projector). Measurement sensitivities which are useful for estimating weak measurement accuracies for PS and PPS systems are also obtained and discussed.

  14. The Measurement Process in the Generalized Contexts Formalism for Quantum Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    In the interpretations of quantum mechanics involving quantum histories there is no collapse postulate and the measurement is considered as a quantum interaction between the measured system and the measured instrument. For two consecutive non ideal measurements on the same system, we prove that both pointer indications at the end of each measurement are compatible properties in our generalized context formalism for quantum histories. Inmediately after the first measurement an effective state for the measured system is deduced from the formalism, generalizing the state that would be obtained by applying the state collapse postulate.

  15. Quantum algorithm for universal implementation of the projective measurement of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shojun; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio

    2015-05-15

    A projective measurement of energy (PME) on a quantum system is a quantum measurement determined by the Hamiltonian of the system. PME protocols exist when the Hamiltonian is given in advance. Unknown Hamiltonians can be identified by quantum tomography, but the time cost to achieve a given accuracy increases exponentially with the size of the quantum system. In this Letter, we improve the time cost by adapting quantum phase estimation, an algorithm designed for computational problems, to measurements on physical systems. We present a PME protocol without quantum tomography for Hamiltonians whose dimension and energy scale are given but which are otherwise unknown. Our protocol implements a PME to arbitrary accuracy without any dimension dependence on its time cost. We also show that another computational quantum algorithm may be used for efficient estimation of the energy scale. These algorithms show that computational quantum algorithms, with suitable modifications, have applications beyond their original context.

  16. Quantum key distribution based on phase encoding and polarization measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, H Q; Zhao, J L; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Wu, Ling-An; Zhao, Jian-Ling

    2007-01-01

    A one-way quantum key distribution scheme based on intrinsically stable Faraday-mirror type Michelson interferometers with four-port polarizing beampslitters has been demonstrated which can compensate for birefringence effects automatically. The encoding is performed with phase modulators, but decoding is accomplished through measurement of the polarization state of Bob's photons. An extinction ratio of about 30dB was maintained for several hours over 50km of fiber at 1310nm without any adjustment to the setup, which shows its good potential for practical systems

  17. Alternative schemes for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiongfeng

    2012-01-01

    A practical scheme for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution using phase and path/time encoding is presented. In addition to immunity to existing loopholes in detection systems, our setup employs simple encoding and decoding modules without relying on polarization maintenance or optical switches. Moreover, by handling, with a modified sifting technique, the dead time limitations in single-photon detectors, our scheme can be run with only two single-photon detectors. With a phase-post-selection technique, a decoy-state variant of our scheme is also proposed, whose secret key generation rate scales linearly with the channel transmittance.

  18. Reducing quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty by weak measurement and weak measurement reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Fang, Maofa; Kang, Guodong; Zhou, Qingping

    2015-08-01

    We have investigated the dynamic features of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (QMA EUR) in the amplitude damping (AD) channel. The initial state of qubit system and quantum memory system shared between Alice and Bob is assumed as extended by Werner-like (EWL) state. To reduce the amount of entropic uncertainty of Pauli observables in this noisy channel, we presented a reduction scheme by means of weak measurements (WMs) and weak measurement reversals (WMRs) before and after the entangled system subjecting to the noisy channel. It is shown that the prior WM and poster WMR can effectively reduce quantity of entropic uncertainty, but the poster WM operation cannot played a positive role on reduction of quantity of entropic uncertainty. We hope that our proposal could be verified experimentally and might possibly have future applications in quantum information processing.

  19. Continuous Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of the Transverse Component of a Qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vool, U; Shankar, S; Mundhada, S O; Ofek, N; Narla, A; Sliwa, K; Zalys-Geller, E; Liu, Y; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Girvin, S M; Devoret, M H

    2016-09-23

    Quantum jumps of a qubit are usually observed between its energy eigenstates, also known as its longitudinal pseudospin component. Is it possible, instead, to observe quantum jumps between the transverse superpositions of these eigenstates? We answer positively by presenting the first continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of the transverse component of an individual qubit. In a circuit QED system irradiated by two pump tones, we engineer an effective Hamiltonian whose eigenstates are the transverse qubit states, and a dispersive measurement of the corresponding operator. Such transverse component measurements are a useful tool in the driven-dissipative operation engineering toolbox, which is central to quantum simulation and quantum error correction.

  20. Continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of the transverse component of a qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Vool, U; Mundhada, S O; Ofek, N; Narla, A; Sliwa, K; Zalys-Geller, E; Liu, Y; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Girvin, S M; Devoret, M H

    2016-01-01

    Quantum jumps of a qubit are usually observed between its energy eigenstates, also known as its longitudinal pseudo-spin component. Is it possible, instead, to observe quantum jumps between the transverse superpositions of these eigenstates? We answer positively by presenting the first continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of the transverse component of an individual qubit. In a circuit QED system irradiated by two pump tones, we engineer an effective Hamiltonian whose eigenstates are the transverse qubit states, and a dispersive measurement of the corresponding operator. Such transverse component measurements are a useful tool in the driven-dissipative operation engineering toolbox, which is central to quantum simulation and quantum error correction.

  1. Quantum Nano-Automata (QNA) : Towards Microphysical Measurements with Quantum, Nanoscale 'Instruments'

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, IC

    2004-01-01

    Two important concepts for nanoscience and nanotechnology-- the quantum automaton and quantum computation--were introduced in the context of quantum genetics and complex genetic networks with nonlinear dynamics. In previous publications (Baianu,1971a, b) the formal definition of quantum automaton was initially presented in the Schrodinger representation of quantum mechanics, and several possible implications for genetic processes and metabolic activities in living cells and organisms were considered. This was followed by reports on quantum, as well as symbolic, abstract computations based on the theory of categories, functors and natural transformations (Baianu,1971b; 1977; 1987; 2004; Baianu et al, 2004). The notions of quantum topological semigroup, quantum automaton, and/or quantum computer, were then suggested with a view to their potential applications to the analogous simulation of biological systems, and especially genetic activities and nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks. A representation of inter...

  2. Effects of partial-collapse measurement on the parameter-estimation precision of noisy quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiang-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa; Zhou, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An efficient method is proposed to enhance the parameter-estimation precision for noisy quantum channels based on measurement reversal from partial-collapse measurement. It is shown that the quantum Fisher information can be distinctly improved for amplitude-damping channel, phase-damping channel and depolarizing channel with partial-collapse measurement. This also means that choosing the appropriate measurement strengths can lead to higher precision of estimation on noisy quantum channels.

  3. Entanglement entropy after selective measurements in quantum chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Khadijeh; Rajabpour, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    We study bipartite post measurement entanglement entropy after selective measurements in quantum chains. We first study the quantity for the critical systems that can be described by conformal field theories. We find a connection between post measurement entanglement entropy and the Casimir energy of floating objects. Then we provide formulas for the post measurement entanglement entropy for open and finite temperature systems. We also comment on the Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy in the context of the post measurement entanglement entropy. Finally, we also provide some formulas regarding modular hamiltonians and entanglement spectrum in the after measurement systems. After through discussion regarding CFT systems we also provide some predictions regarding massive field theories. We then discuss a generic method to calculate the post measurement entanglement entropy in the free fermion systems. Using the method we study the post measurement entanglement entropy in the XY spin chain. We check numerically the CFT and the massive field theory results in the transverse field Ising chain and the XX model. In particular, we study the post meaurement entanglement entropy in the infinite, periodic and open critical transverse field Ising chain and the critical XX model. The effect of the temperature and the gap is also discussed in these models.

  4. Can Weak Measurement Lend Empirical Support to Quantum Retrocausality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharonov Yakir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum weak measurement is presented as shedding new light on the retrocausality question. It is shown to leave a system almost unaffected while gathering information about it. Next, an EPR experiment is studied where each particle undergoes a few weak measurements along some pre-set spin orientations. These weak outcomes are individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes a strong measurement along a spin orientation freely chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final strong measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction thereby ensues: i Bell’s theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the spin-orientation to be measured; ii A weak measurement cannot determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and iii Indeed no disentanglement is inflicted by the weak measurements; yet iv The weak measurements’ outcomes agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values. The most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism, namely, that the experimenter’s choice has been encrypted within the weak measurement’s outcomes, even before the experimenter themselves knows what their choice will be. Causal loops are avoided by this anticipation remaining encrypted until the final outcomes enable to decipher it.

  5. Allowed region and optimal measurement for information versus disturbance in quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    We present graphs of information versus disturbance for general quantum measurements of completely unknown states. Each piece of information and disturbance is quantified by two measures: (i) the Shannon entropy and estimation fidelity for the information and (ii) the operation fidelity and physical reversibility for the disturbance. These measures are calculated for a single outcome based on the general formulas derived by the present author (Terashima in Phys Rev A 93:022104, 2016) and are plotted on four types of information-disturbance planes to show their allowed regions. In addition, we discuss the graphs of these metrics averaged over all possible outcomes and the optimal measurements when saturating the upper bounds on the information for a given disturbance. The results considerably broaden the perspective of trade-offs between information and disturbances in quantum measurements.

  6. Procedure for direct measurement of general quantum states using weak measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeen, Jeff S; Bamber, Charles

    2012-02-17

    Recent work by Lundeen et al. [Nature (London) 474, 188 (2011)] directly measured the wave function by weakly measuring a variable followed by a normal (i.e., "strong") measurement of the complementary variable. We generalize this method to mixed states by considering the weak measurement of various products of these observables, thereby providing the density matrix an operational definition in terms of a procedure for its direct measurement. The method only requires measurements in two bases and can be performed in situ, determining the quantum state without destroying it.

  7. Analytical examples, measurement models, and classical limit of quantum backflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, J. M.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hartshorn, R.; Whitby, A.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the backflow effect in elementary quantum mechanics—the phenomenon in which a state consisting entirely of positive momenta may have negative current and the probability flows in the opposite direction to the momentum. We compute the current and flux for states consisting of superpositions of Gaussian wave packets. These are experimentally realizable but the amount of backflow is small. Inspired by the numerical results of Penz [Penz, Grübl, Kreidl, and Wagner, J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/39/2/012 39, 423 (2006)], we find two nontrivial wave functions whose current at any time may be computed analytically and which have periods of significant backflow, in one case with a backward flux equal to about 70% of the maximum possible backflow, a dimensionless number cbm≈0.04, discovered by Bracken and Melloy [Bracken and Melloy, J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/27/6/040 27, 2197 (1994)]. This number has the unusual property of being independent of ℏ (and also of all other parameters of the model), despite corresponding to an obviously quantum-mechanical effect, and we shed some light on this surprising property by considering the classical limit of backflow. We discuss some specific measurement models in which backflow may be identified in certain measurable probabilities.

  8. Measurement of Quantum Phase-Slips in Josephson Junction Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Wiebke

    2011-03-01

    Quantum phase-slip dynamics in Josephson junction chains could provide the basis for the realization of a new type of topologically protected qubit or for the implementation of a new current standard. I will present measurements of the effect of quantum phase-slips on the ground state of a Josephson junction chain. We can tune in situ the strength of the phase-slips. These phase-slips are the result of fluctuations induced by the finite charging energy of each junction in the chain. Our measurements demonstrate that a Josephson junction chain under phase bias constraint behaves in a collective way. I will also show evidence of coherent phase-slip interference, the so called Aharonov-Casher effect. This phenomenon is the dual of the well known Aharonov-Bohm interference. In collaboration with I.M. Pop, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, France; I. Protopopov, L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygin str. 2, Moscow 119334, Russia and Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; and F. Lecocq, Z. Peng, B. Pannetier, O. Buisson, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier. European STREP MIDAS, ANR QUANTJO.

  9. Mapping coherence in measurement via full quantum tomography of a hybrid optical detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Jin, Xian-Min; Smith, Brian J; Plenio, Martin B; Walmsley, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    Quantum states and measurements exhibit wave-like --- continuous, or particle-like --- discrete, character. Hybrid discrete-continuous photonic systems are key to investigating fundamental quantum phenomena, generating superpositions of macroscopic states, and form essential resources for quantum-enhanced applications, e.g. entanglement distillation and quantum computation, as well as highly efficient optical telecommunications. Realizing the full potential of these hybrid systems requires quantum-optical measurements sensitive to complementary observables such as field quadrature amplitude and photon number. However, a thorough understanding of the practical performance of an optical detector interpolating between these two regions is absent. Here, we report the implementation of full quantum detector tomography, enabling the characterization of the simultaneous wave and photon-number sensitivities of quantum-optical detectors. This yields the largest parametrization to-date in quantum tomography experiments...

  10. Quantum Entanglement: Separability, Measure, Fidelity of Teleportation, and Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement plays crucial roles in quantum information processing. Quantum entangled states have become the key ingredient in the rapidly expanding field of quantum information science. Although the nonclassical nature of entanglement has been recognized for many years, considerable efforts have been taken to understand and characterize its properties recently. In this review, we introduce some recent results in the theory of quantum entanglement. In particular separability criteria based on the Bloch representation, covariance matrix, normal form and entanglement witness, lower bounds, subadditivity property of concurrence and tangle, fully entangled fraction related to the optimal fidelity of quantum teleportation, and entanglement distillation will be discussed in detail.

  11. Evolution of an Atom Impeded by Measurement The Quantum Zeno Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wunderlich, C; Toschek, P E; Wunderlich, Chr.; Balzer, Chr.

    2001-01-01

    A quantum system being observed evolves more slowly. This `'quantum Zeno effect'' is reviewed with respect to a previous attempt of demonstration, and to subsequent criticism of the significance of the findings. A recent experiment on an {\\it individual} cold trapped ion has been capable of revealing the micro-state of this quantum system, such that the effect of measurement is indeed discriminated from dephasing of the quantum state by either the meter or the environment.

  12. Admittance measurements in the quantum Hall effect regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, C., E-mail: carlos.hernandezr@unimilitar.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Carrera 11 # 101-80, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, A.A. 4976, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb L2C, Université Montpellier II, Pl. E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-11-15

    In this work we present an admittance study of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We have studied several Hall bars in different contacts configurations in the frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz. Our interpretation is based on the Landauer–Büttiker theory and takes into account both the capacitance and the topology of the coaxial cables which are connected to the sample holder. We show that we always observe losses through the capacitive impedance of the coaxial cables, except in the two contacts configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the 2DEG and show its dependence with the filling factor ν.

  13. A concise quantum efficiency measurement system for gaseous photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Toru [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Tokanai, Fuyuki, E-mail: tokanai@sci.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Okazaki, Keisuke; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Gunji, Shuichi [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kawabata, Hironobu; Sohtome, Takayuki [BUNKOUKEIKI Co., Ltd., Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0033 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Takayuki [Graduate School of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirioyuki; Okada, Teruyuki; Ohishi, Noboru [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka 438-0193 (Japan); Kishimoto, Syunji [Institute of Material Structure Science, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    We have been developing gaseous photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a bialkali photocathode combined with micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs). The sensitivity of a PMT is described in terms of its quantum efficiency (QE). The QE is very important in many experiments, particularly when dealing with low photon statistics. A concise QE measurement system has been developed to evaluate the characteristics of a sealed gaseous PMT with a bialkali photocathode. This QE measurement system consists of a Xe arc lamp source, reflective optics and filters, a monochromator, and a reference Si photodiode detector. Using the system, we evaluated the QE, gain, and long-term stability of the gaseous PMT. Here, we report the results of our evaluation.

  14. Measuring finite quantum geometries via quasi-coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, Lukas; Steinacker, Harold C.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a systematic approach to determine and measure numerically the geometry of generic quantum or ‘fuzzy’ geometries realized by a set of finite-dimensional Hermitian matrices. The method is designed to recover the semi-classical limit of quantized symplectic spaces embedded in {{{R}}}d including the well-known examples of fuzzy spaces, but it applies much more generally. The central tool is provided by quasi-coherent states, which are defined as ground states of Laplace- or Dirac operators corresponding to localized point branes in target space. The displacement energy of these quasi-coherent states is used to extract the local dimension and tangent space of the semi-classical geometry, and provides a measure for the quality and self-consistency of the semi-classical approximation. The method is discussed and tested with various examples, and implemented in an open-source Mathematica package.

  15. Measuring finite Quantum Geometries via Quasi-Coherent States

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderbauer, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    We develop a systematic approach to determine and measure numerically the geometry of generic quantum or "fuzzy" geometries realized by a set of finite-dimensional hermitian matrices. The method is designed to recover the semi-classical limit of quantized symplectic spaces embedded in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ including the well-known examples of fuzzy spaces, but it applies much more generally. The central tool is provided by quasi-coherent states, which are defined as ground states of Laplace- or Dirac operators corresponding to localized point branes in target space. The displacement energy of these quasi-coherent states is used to extract the local dimension and tangent space of the semi-classical geometry, and provides a measure for the quality and self-consistency of the semi-classical approximation. The method is discussed and tested with various examples, and implemented in an open-source Mathematica package.

  16. Measurement-based noiseless linear amplification for quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, H. M.; Walk, N.; Haw, J. Y.; Thearle, O.; Assad, S. M.; Janousek, J.; Hosseini, S.; Ralph, T. C.; Symul, T.; Lam, P. K.

    2014-11-01

    Entanglement distillation is an indispensable ingredient in extended quantum communication networks. Distillation protocols are necessarily non-deterministic and require non-trivial experimental techniques such as noiseless amplification. We show that noiseless amplification could be achieved by performing a post-selective filtering of measurement outcomes. We termed this protocol measurement-based noiseless linear amplification (MBNLA). We apply this protocol to entanglement that suffers transmission loss of up to the equivalent of 100km of optical fibre and show that it is capable of distilling entanglement to a level stronger than that achievable by transmitting a maximally entangled state through the same channel. We also provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of secret key extraction from an otherwise insecure regime via MBNLA. Compared to its physical counterpart, MBNLA not only is easier in term of implementation, but also allows one to achieve near optimal probability of success.

  17. Many Time Interpretation Of the Quantum Measurement Process

    CERN Document Server

    Dugic, M

    1998-01-01

    Many Time Interpretation (MTI) proposes that each stochastic "quantum jump" ("reduction") concerning each single object (of an ensemble) represents a consequence of a (stochastic) choice (change) of Time. Therefore, each single object experiences its own (local), stochastically chosen Time, which is as real for it, as the macroscopic Time is real in classical physics. Therefore, instead of the "indeterminism" with regard to the macroscopic Time, MTI proposes "determinism", but with regard to the set(s) of (stochastically chosen) local Times. Within an axiomatization, which includes the composite system "single object+apparatus+environment, MTI leads to : (i) Recognizing the amplification process as the fundamental "part" of the measurement process, (ii) Nonvalidity of the Schrodinger equation concerning the "whole", O+A+E, which makes the "state reduction process" unnecessary and unphysical, (iii) Natural deducibility of the macroscopic irreversibility, and (iv) Nonequivalence of MTI with any existing measure...

  18. Quantum-limited measurements of optical signals from a geostationary satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Günthner, Kevin; Elser, Dominique; Stiller, Birgit; Bayraktar, Ömer; Müller, Christian R; Saucke, Karen; Tröndle, Daniel; Heine, Frank; Seel, Stefan; Greulich, Peter; Zech, Herwig; Gütlich, Björn; Richter, Ines; Lutzer, Michael; Philipp-May, Sabine; Meyer, Rolf; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of quantum signals that traveled through long distances is of fundamental and technical interest. We present quantum-limited coherent measurements of optical signals, sent from a satellite in geostationary Earth orbit to an optical ground station. We bound the excess noise that the quantum states could have acquired after having propagated 38600 km through Earth's gravitational potential as well as its turbulent atmosphere. Our results indicate that quantum communication is feasible in principle in such a scenario, highlighting the possibility of a global quantum key distribution network for secure communication.

  19. High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Ottaviani, Carlo; Spedalieri, Gaetana

    2015-01-01

    Quantum cryptography achieves a formidable task - the remote distribution of secret keys by exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. Quantum cryptography is now headed towards solving the practical problem of constructing scalable and secure quantum networks. A significant step in this direction...... than those currently achieved. Our protocol could be employed to build high-rate quantum networks where devices securely connect to nearby access points or proxy servers....

  20. Entanglement, which-way measurements, and a quantum erasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Christian; Braunecker, Bernd

    2010-08-01

    We present a didactical approach to the which-way experiment and the counterintuitive effect of the quantum erasure for one-particle quantum interferences. The fundamental concept of entanglement plays a central role and highlights the complementarity between quantum interference and knowledge of which path is followed by the particle.

  1. Increasing the Efficiencies of Random-Choice-Based Quantum Communication Protocols with Delayed Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Fu-Guo; LONG Gui-Lu; WANG Yan; XIAO Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The security of quantum communications lies in the capability of the legitimate parties to detect eavesdropping.Here we propose to use delayed measurement to increase the efficiency of protocols of quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing that uses a random choice of measuring-basis. In addition to a higher efficiency,these measures also bring the benefit of much reduced amount of classical communications.

  2. Loss-tolerant measurement-device-independent quantum private queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang-Yuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Qian, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Quantum private queries (QPQ) is an important cryptography protocol aiming to protect both the user’s and database’s privacy when the database is queried privately. Recently, a variety of practical QPQ protocols based on quantum key distribution (QKD) have been proposed. However, for QKD-based QPQ the user’s imperfect detectors can be subjected to some detector- side-channel attacks launched by the dishonest owner of the database. Here, we present a simple example that shows how the detector-blinding attack can damage the security of QKD-based QPQ completely. To remove all the known and unknown detector side channels, we propose a solution of measurement-device-independent QPQ (MDI-QPQ) with single- photon sources. The security of the proposed protocol has been analyzed under some typical attacks. Moreover, we prove that its security is completely loss independent. The results show that practical QPQ will remain the same degree of privacy as before even with seriously uncharacterized detectors.

  3. Quantum Models for Psychological Measurements: An Unsolved Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina; Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a strong recent interest in applying quantum theory (QT) outside physics, including in cognitive science. We analyze the applicability of QT to two basic properties in opinion polling. The first property (response replicability) is that, for a large class of questions, a response to a given question is expected to be repeated if the question is posed again, irrespective of whether another question is asked and answered in between. The second property (question order effect) is that the response probabilities frequently depend on the order in which the questions are asked. Whenever these two properties occur together, it poses a problem for QT. The conventional QT with Hermitian operators can handle response replicability, but only in the way incompatible with the question order effect. In the generalization of QT known as theory of positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs), in order to account for response replicability, the POVMs involved must be conventional operators. Although these problems are not unique to QT and also challenge conventional cognitive theories, they stand out as important unresolved problems for the application of QT to cognition. Either some new principles are needed to determine the bounds of applicability of QT to cognition, or quantum formalisms more general than POVMs are needed. PMID:25343581

  4. A New Quantum Sensor for Measuring Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.; Thomas, T.; Heinicke, D.; Peterson, R.; Morgan, P.; McDermitt, D. K.; Burba, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    A quantum sensor measures photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, in μmol of photons m-2 s-1) in the 400 nm to 700 nm waveband. Plants utilize this radiation to drive photosynthesis, though individual plant responses to incident radiation may vary within this range. The new quantum sensor (model LI-190R, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE), with an optical filter and silicon photodiode detector housed in a cosine-corrected head, is designed to provide a better response to incident radiation across the 400-700 nm range. The new design is expected to significantly improve spectral response due to uniformity across the PAR waveband, but particularly in the wavebands from 520 nm to 600 nm and 665 nm to 680 nm, and sharp cutoffs in the regions below and above the PAR waveband. Special care was taken to make sure that PAR sensor would not substantially respond to incident radiation above the 700 nm threshold because this can lead to errors when performing measurements in environments with a large proportion of near-infrared radiation, such as canopy understory. The physical housing of the sensor is designed to be weather-resistant, to effectively shed precipitation, provide protection at high temperature and high humidity conditions, and has a cosine-corrected response to 82° zenith angle. The latter is particularly important when measuring incident radiation at low elevation angles, diffuse light, or low light conditions. This presentation describes the principles of the new design, and shows the performance results from field experiments and laboratory tests.

  5. Pedagogical Review of Quantum Measurement Theory with an Emphasis on Weak Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt E. Y. Svensson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The quantum theory of measurement has been with us since quantum mechanics was invented. It has recently been invigorated, partly due to the increasing interest in quantum information science. In this partly pedagogical review I attempt to give a self-contained overview of non-relativistic quantum theory of measurement expressed in density matrix formalism. I will not dwell on the applications in quantum information theory; it is well covered by several books in that field. The focus is instead on applications to the theory of weak measurement, as developed by Aharonov and collaborators. Their development of weak measurement combined with what they call post-selection - judiciously choosing not only the initial state of a system (pre-selection but also its final state - has received much attention recently. Not the least has it opened up new, fruitful experimental vistas, like novel approaches to amplification. But the approach has also attached to it some air of mystery. I will attempt to demystify it by showing that (almost all results can be derived in a straight-forward way from conventional quantum mechanics. Among other things, I develop the formalism not only to first order but also to second order in the weak interaction responsible for the measurement. I apply it to the so called Leggett-Garg inequalities, also known as Bell inequalities in time. I also give an outline, even if rough, of some of the ingenious experiments that the work by Aharonov and collaborators has inspired. As an application of weak measurement, not related to the approach by Aharonov and collaborators, the formalism also allows me to derive the master equation for the density matrix of an open system in interaction with an environment. An issue that remains in the weak measurement plus post-selection approach is the interpretation of the so called weak value of an observable. Is it a bona fide property of the system considered? I have no definite answer to this

  6. Perfect Biparticle Teleportation by Using Multi-particle Quantum Channel with Joint Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-Qing; NIE Jing; REN Zhong-Zhou; LI Chong; CHEN Yu-Qing; YI Xue-Xi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we reinvestigate the faithful quantum teleportation of an arbitrary two-qubit state by a multi-particle channel with multi-particle joint measurements. The relationship between multi-particle quantum channel and the multi-particle joint measurement bases has been found. In addition, we show how to construct the multi-particle joint measurement bases.

  7. A Representation of Quantum Measurement in Nonassociative Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Starting from an abstract setting for the Lueders - von Neumann quantum measurement process and its interpretation as a probability conditionalization rule in a non-Boolean event structure, the author derived a certain generalization of operator algebras in a preceding paper. This is an order-unit space with some specific properties. It becomes a Jordan operator algebra under a certain set of additional conditions, but does not own a multiplication operation in the most general case. A major objective of the present paper is the search for such examples of the structure mentioned above that do not stem from Jordan operator algebras; first natural candidates are matrix algebras over the octonions and other nonassociative rings. Therefore, the case when a nonassociative commutative multiplication exists is studied without assuming that it satisfies the Jordan condition. The characteristics of the resulting algebra are analyzed. This includes the uniqueness of the spectral resolution as well as a criterion for i...

  8. Measuring Renyi entanglement entropy in quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Matthew B; González, Iván; Kallin, Ann B; Melko, Roger G

    2010-04-16

    We develop a quantum Monte Carlo procedure, in the valence bond basis, to measure the Renyi entanglement entropy of a many-body ground state as the expectation value of a unitary Swap operator acting on two copies of the system. An improved estimator involving the ratio of Swap operators for different subregions enables convergence of the entropy in a simulation time polynomial in the system size. We demonstrate convergence of the Renyi entropy to exact results for a Heisenberg chain. Finally, we calculate the scaling of the Renyi entropy in the two-dimensional Heisenberg model and confirm that the Néel ground state obeys the expected area law for systems up to linear size L=32.

  9. Quantum Efficiency Measurements of Femtosecond Vectorial Photoemission on Cu Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, F; Galimberti, P G; Giannetti, C; Pagliara, S; Parmigiani, F; Pedersoli, E

    2005-01-01

    Quantum Efficiency (QE) measurements of single photon photoemission from a Cu(111) single crystal and a Cu polycrystal photocathodes, irradiated by 150~fs-6.28~eV laser pulses, are reported over a broad range of incidence angle in both s and p polarizations. The maximum value of QE for the Cu polycrystal sample is Y~4*10(-4), obtained with p polarization at an angle of incidence theta=65°. Our data confirm the vectorial photoemission model. Issues concerning surface roughness and symmetry considerations are addressed. An explanation in terms of non local conductivity tensor is proposed. Advantages of a 6.28~eV photon as compared to the standard 4.71~eV photon in use with Cu photocathodes are discussed.

  10. Quantum resonance scheme to measure the gravitational constant G

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    In this study the Newton's gravity constant G has been measured at scale of atoms by the quantum resonance method other than Cavendish's torsion-balance way. The analyzed and experiment model is based on the "hyperfine splitting" of the ground energy state of hydrogen atom. The result is that only in empty space the G is constant, in hydrogen atom (near the distance of Bohr radius), the gravitational constant G=6.7192878(13)\\times10-11 N\\cdotm2/kg2; in vacuum, G=6.6722779(13)\\times10-11 N\\cdotm2/kg2. This method of experiment has eliminated all sources of possible experimental errors associated with the classical and existed setup, and with a precision more better than existing experiments.

  11. Collapsing a perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state without measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Ahmed; Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Given a perfect superposition of [Formula: see text] states on a quantum system of [Formula: see text] qubits. We propose a fast quantum algorithm for collapsing the perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state [Formula: see text] without applying any measurements. The basic idea is to use a phase destruction mechanism. Two operators are used, the first operator applies a phase shift and a temporary entanglement to mark [Formula: see text] in the superposition, and the second operator applies selective phase shifts on the states in the superposition according to their Hamming distance with [Formula: see text]. The generated state can be used as an excellent input state for testing quantum memories and linear optics quantum computers. We make no assumptions about the used operators and applied quantum gates, but our result implies that for this purpose the number of qubits in the quantum register offers no advantage, in principle, over the obvious measurement-based feedback protocol.

  12. Collapsing a perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state without measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Younes

    Full Text Available Given a perfect superposition of [Formula: see text] states on a quantum system of [Formula: see text] qubits. We propose a fast quantum algorithm for collapsing the perfect superposition to a chosen quantum state [Formula: see text] without applying any measurements. The basic idea is to use a phase destruction mechanism. Two operators are used, the first operator applies a phase shift and a temporary entanglement to mark [Formula: see text] in the superposition, and the second operator applies selective phase shifts on the states in the superposition according to their Hamming distance with [Formula: see text]. The generated state can be used as an excellent input state for testing quantum memories and linear optics quantum computers. We make no assumptions about the used operators and applied quantum gates, but our result implies that for this purpose the number of qubits in the quantum register offers no advantage, in principle, over the obvious measurement-based feedback protocol.

  13. Measures of coherence-generating power for quantum unital operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Styliaris, Georgios; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Given an orthonormal basis B in a d -dimensional Hilbert space and a unital quantum operation E acting on it, one can define a nonlinear mapping that associates with E a d ×d real-valued matrix that we call the coherence matrix of E with respect to B . This is the Gram matrix of the coherent part of the basis projections of B under E . We show that one can use this coherence matrix to define vast families of measures of the coherence-generating power (CGP) of the operation. These measures have a natural geometrical interpretation as separation of E from the set of incoherent unital operations. The probabilistic approach to CGP discussed in P. Zanardi et al. [Phys. Rev. A 95, 052306 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.052306] can be reformulated and generalized, introducing, alongside the coherence matrix, another d ×d real-valued matrix, the simplex correlation matrix. This matrix describes the relevant statistical correlations in the input ensemble of incoherent states. Contracting these two matrices, one finds CGP measures associated with the process of preparing the given incoherent ensemble and processing it with the chosen unital operation. Finally, in the unitary case, we discuss how these concepts can be made compatible with an underlying tensor product structure by defining families of CGP measures that are additive.

  14. Robustness of coherence: An operational and observable measure of quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Napoli, Carmine; Cianciaruso, Marco; Piani, Marco; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying coherence is an essential endeavour for both quantum foundations and quantum technologies. Here the robustness of coherence is defined and proven a full monotone in the context of the recently introduced resource theories of quantum coherence. The measure is shown to be observable, as it can be recast as the expectation value of a coherence witness operator for any quantum state. The robustness of coherence is evaluated analytically on relevant classes of states, and an efficient semidefinite program that computes it on general states is given. An operational interpretation is finally provided: the robustness of coherence quantifies the advantage enabled by a quantum state in a phase-discrimination task.

  15. Muon $g-2$ measurements and non-commutative geometry of quantum beams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Srivastava; A Widom

    2004-03-01

    We discuss a completely quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. A beam of muons move in a strong uniform magnetic field and a weak focusing electrostatic field. Errors in the classical beam analysis are exposed. In the Dirac quantum beam analysis, an important role is played by non-commutative muon beam coordinates leading to a discrepancy between the classical and quantum theories. We obtain a quantum limit to the accuracy achievable in BNL type experiments. Some implications of the quantum corrected data analysis for supersymmetry are briefly mentioned.

  16. Measurement-induced chaos and quantum state discrimination in an iterated Tavis-Cummings scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Juan Mauricio; Bernád, József Zsolt; Alber, Gernot; Kálmán, Orsolya; Kiss, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    A cavity quantum electrodynamical scenario is proposed for implementing a Schr\\"odinger microscope capable of amplifying differences between non orthogonal atomic quantum states. The scheme involves an ensemble of identically prepared two-level atoms interacting pairwise with a single mode of the radiation field as described by the Tavis-Cummings model. By repeated measurements of the cavity field and of one atom within each pair a measurement-induced nonlinear quantum transformation of the r...

  17. Open Quantum System Dynamics from a Measurement Perspective: Applications to Coherent Particle Transport and to Quantum~Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamleitner, Ingo

    2010-09-01

    We employ the theoretical framework of positive operator valued measures, to study Markovian open quantum systems. In particular, we discuss how a quantum system influences its environment. Using the theory of indirect measurements, we then draw conclusions about the information we could hypothetically obtain about the system by observing the environment. Although the environment is not actually observed, we can use these results to describe the change of the quantum system due to its interaction with the environment. We apply this technique to two different problems. In the first part, we study the coherently driven dynamics of a particle on a rail of quantum dots. This tunnelling between adjacent quantum dots can be controlled externally. We employ an adiabatic scheme similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, to transfer the particle between different quantum dots. We compare two fundamentally different sources of decoherence. In the second part, we study the dynamics of a free quantum particle, which experiences random collisions with gas particles. Previous studies on this topic applied scattering theory to momentum eigenstates. We present a supplementary approach, where we develop a rigorous measurement interpretation of the collision process to derive a master equation. Finally, we study the collisional decoherence process in terms of the Wigner function. We restrict ourselves to one spatial dimension. Nevertheless, we find some interesting new insight, including that the previously celebrated quantum contribution to position diffusion is not real, but a consequence of the Markovian approximation. Further, we discover that the leading decoherence process is due to phase averaging, rather than induced by the information transfer between the colliding particles.

  18. The von Neumann model of measurement in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Pier A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 México, D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-01-08

    We describe how to obtain information on a quantum-mechanical system by coupling it to a probe and detecting some property of the latter, using a model introduced by von Neumann, which describes the interaction of the system proper with the probe in a dynamical way. We first discuss single measurements, where the system proper is coupled to one probe with arbitrary coupling strength. The goal is to obtain information on the system detecting the probe position. We find the reduced density operator of the system, and show how Lüders rule emerges as the limiting case of strong coupling. The von Neumann model is then generalized to two probes that interact successively with the system proper. Now we find information on the system by detecting the position-position and momentum-position correlations of the two probes. The so-called 'Wigner's formula' emerges in the strong-coupling limit, while 'Kirkwood's quasi-probability distribution' is found as the weak-coupling limit of the above formalism. We show that successive measurements can be used to develop a state-reconstruction scheme. Finally, we find a generalized transform of the state and the observables based on the notion of successive measurements.

  19. Quantum Zeno Effect in the Strong Measurement Regime of Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    we report the direct observation of theQZE in a superconducting qubit undergoing continuous strongmeasurement with simultaneous qubit driving...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 053031 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/5/053031 PAPER Quantum Zeno effect in the strongmeasurement regime of circuit quantum...of quantum jumps between states for a qubit beingmeasured continuously at rate Gm is the same as that for a qubit undergoing discretemeasurements at

  20. EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2010-09-01

    Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit

  1. A Framework of Principles for Quantum General Relativity with Time and Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Maran, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline a framework of concepts and principles to combine quantum mechanics and general relativity so that time and measurement (reduction) are present as integral parts of the basic foundations. First, the problem of time in quantum gravity and the measurement problem in quantum mechanics are briefly reviewed and the popular proposals to tackle these two problems are briefly discussed. Next, on the already known foundations of quantum mechanics, a framework of principles of dynamics is built: 1) Self-Time Evolution - Newtons first law is reinterpreted to define time, 2) Local Measurement by Local Reduction - Quantum diffusion theory is adapted, and 3) Global Evolution by Global Reduction. Ideas on how to apply the framework to study quantum general relativistic physics are discussed. Further, more general and modified forms of some of these principles are also discussed. The theoretical elements in the framework to be made concrete by further theoretical and experimental inv...

  2. Measuring the absolute quantum efficiency of luminescent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwer, Lauren Shea [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-0892, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0892 (United States)]. E-mail: leshea@sandia.gov; Martin, James E. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-0892, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0892 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    A measurement system and mathematical procedure are developed for determining the absolute quantum efficiency (QE), of luminescent materials. This technique, based on absorption of diffuse light within an integrating sphere, is applied to fluorescent laser dyes and conventional phosphor powders. The system described is tested for excitation in the near-UV and blue regions, but can be applied to higher energy excitation (UV), as well as lower energy excitation in the visible to near-IR, with the appropriate photodetectors and optical filters. The system was tested on both liquid and solid samples such as Coumarin 500 (CM500) dye in methanol and ethyl acetate; Rhodamine 6G in ethanol; and a variety of powder phosphors. The QE of quinine sulfate dihydrate solution (5x10{sup -3} M in 0.1 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), a NIST fluorescence standard, was found to be in good agreement with the NIST value under 390 nm excitation. The accuracy of this measurement technique is acceptable for samples with absorption cross sections greater than {approx}6 mm{sup 2}.

  3. Relativity as the quantum mechanics of space-time measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Lieu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Can a simple microscopic model of space and time demonstrate Special Relativity as the macroscopic (aggregate) behavior of an ensemble ? The question will be investigated in three parts. First, it is shown that the Lorentz transformation formally stems from the First Relativity Postulate (FRP) {\\it alone} if space-time quantization is a fundamental law of physics which must be included as part of the Postulate. An important corollary, however, is that when measuring devices which carry the basic units of lengths and time (e.g. a clock ticking every time quantum) are `moving' uniformly, they appear to be measuring with larger units. Secondly, such an apparent increase in the sizes of the quanta can be attributed to extra fluctuations associated with motion, which are precisely described in terms of a thermally agitated harmonic oscillator by using a temperature parameter. This provides a stringent constraint on the microscopic properties of flat space-time: it is an array of quantized oscillators. Thirdly, sin...

  4. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  5. Direct measurement on the geometric phase of a double quantum dot qubit via quantum point contact device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao; Zhang, Feng-Yang; Song, Jie; Song, He-Shan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a direct measurement scheme to read out the geometric phase of a coupled double quantum dot system via a quantum point contact(QPC) device. An effective expression of the geometric phase has been derived, which relates the geometric phase of the double quantum dot qubit to the current through QPC device. All the parameters in our expression are measurable or tunable in experiment. Moreover, since the measurement process affects the state of the qubit slightly, the geometric phase can be protected. The feasibility of the scheme has been analyzed. Further, as an example, we simulate the geometrical phase of a qubit when the QPC device is replaced by a single electron transistor(SET). PMID:26121538

  6. A New Ontological View of the Quantum Measurement Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-13

    include the Aspect et al. experiment (Aspect 1976; Aspect, Grangier & Roger 1981) to test Bell’s inequality (Bell 1965) and quantum entanglement, which...Symposium Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, eds. M. Namiki et al. (Tokyo: Phy. Soc. Japan), p.36 Aspect, A. 1976, Phys. Rev. D14, 1944 Aspect, A., Grangier

  7. Determining the speed of multipartite quantum systems by few local measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chao; Hou, Zhi-Bo; Cao, Huan; Liu, Bi-Heng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Maity, Reevu; Vedral, Vlatko; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Girolami, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the speed of evolution of a quantum system can reveal its key properties and structure. Yet, it usually requires experimental and computational resources which increase exponentially with the system size. Here we show how to evaluate the speed of a multipartite quantum system by measurement networks scaling linearly with the system parts. We employ the scheme to detect fundamental quantum properties including metrologically useful coherence and entanglement in an all-optical experiment. The result paves the way for the investigation of quantum phenomena in large complex systems with limited resources.

  8. Collective dynamics of multimode bosonic systems induced by weak quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F; Mekhov, Igor B

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to strong projective measurement, which freezes the system evolution by quantum Zeno effect, weak measurement can effectively compete with standard unitary dynamics leading to nontrivial effects. Here we consider global weak measurement addressing several bosonic modes at the same time, thus preserving quantum superpositions due to the lack of which path information. While for certainty we focus on ultracold atoms, the idea can be generalized to other multimode quantum systems, including various quantum emitters, optomechanical arrays, and purely photonic systems with multiple-path interferometers. We show that light scattering from ultracold bosons in optical lattices can be used for defining macroscopically occupied spatial modes that exhibit long-range coherent dynamics. Even for constant external measurement, the quantum measurement backaction acts on the atomic ensemble quasi-periodically and induces collective oscillatory dynamics of all the atoms. We introduce an effective model for the evo...

  9. Quantum Correlations Are Stronger Than All Nonsignaling Correlations Produced by n-Outcome Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Cabello, Adán

    2016-10-07

    We show that, for any n, there are m-outcome quantum correlations, with m>n, which are stronger than any nonsignaling correlation produced from selecting among n-outcome measurements. As a consequence, for any n, there are m-outcome quantum measurements that cannot be constructed by selecting locally from the set of n-outcome measurements. This is a property of the set of measurements in quantum theory that is not mandatory for general probabilistic theories. We also show that this prediction can be tested through high-precision Bell-type experiments and identify past experiments providing evidence that some of these strong correlations exist in nature. Finally, we provide a modified version of quantum theory restricted to having at most n-outcome quantum measurements.

  10. Analyzing the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects using optimal projective measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Muhammad Junaid; Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2017-09-18

    Measurements in quantum mechanics can not only effectively freeze the quantum system (the quantum Zeno effect) but also accelerate the time evolution of the system (the quantum anti-Zeno effect). In studies of these effects, a quantum state is prepared repeatedly by projecting the quantum state onto the initial state. In this paper, we repeatedly prepare the initial quantum state in a different manner. Instead of only performing projective measurements, we allow unitary operations to be performed, on a very short time-scale, after each measurement. We can then repeatedly prepare the initial state by performing some projective measurement and then, after each measurement, we perform a suitable unitary operation to end up with the same initial state as before. Our objective is to find the projective measurements that minimize the effective decay rate of the quantum state. We find such optimal measurements and the corresponding decay rates for a variety of system-environment models such as the pure dephasing model and the spin-boson model. We find that there can be considerable differences between this optimized effective decay rate and the usual decay rate obtained by repeatedly projecting onto the initial state. In particular, the Zeno and anti-Zeno regimes can be considerably modified.

  11. Quantum criticality at the superconductor-insulator transition revealed by specific heat measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, S; Nguyen-Duc, T; Auerbach, A; Dupuis, N; Frydman, A; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2017-02-22

    The superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is considered an excellent example of a quantum phase transition that is driven by quantum fluctuations at zero temperature. The quantum critical point is characterized by a diverging correlation length and a vanishing energy scale. Low-energy fluctuations near quantum criticality may be experimentally detected by specific heat, cp, measurements. Here we use a unique highly sensitive experiment to measure cp of two-dimensional granular Pb films through the SIT. The specific heat shows the usual jump at the mean field superconducting transition temperature marking the onset of Cooper pairs formation. As the film thickness is tuned towards the SIT, is relatively unchanged, while the magnitude of the jump and low-temperature specific heat increase significantly. This behaviour is taken as the thermodynamic fingerprint of quantum criticality in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition.

  12. Quantum criticality at the superconductor-insulator transition revealed by specific heat measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, S.; Nguyen-Duc, T.; Auerbach, A.; Dupuis, N.; Frydman, A.; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The superconductor–insulator transition (SIT) is considered an excellent example of a quantum phase transition that is driven by quantum fluctuations at zero temperature. The quantum critical point is characterized by a diverging correlation length and a vanishing energy scale. Low-energy fluctuations near quantum criticality may be experimentally detected by specific heat, cp, measurements. Here we use a unique highly sensitive experiment to measure cp of two-dimensional granular Pb films through the SIT. The specific heat shows the usual jump at the mean field superconducting transition temperature marking the onset of Cooper pairs formation. As the film thickness is tuned towards the SIT, is relatively unchanged, while the magnitude of the jump and low-temperature specific heat increase significantly. This behaviour is taken as the thermodynamic fingerprint of quantum criticality in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition. PMID:28224994

  13. Physical Meaning of the Optimum Measurement Process in Quantum Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Masao; Kozuka, Haruhisa; Hirota, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    The optimum measurement processes are represented as the optimum detection operators in the quantum detection theory. The error probability by the optimum detection operators goes beyond the standard quantum limit automatically. However the optimum detection operators are given by pure mathematical descriptions. In order to realize a communication system overcoming the standard quantum limit, we try to give the physical meaning of the optimum detection operators.

  14. Thresholds for Correcting Errors, Erasures, and Faulty Syndrome Measurements in Degenerate Quantum Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumer, Ilya; Kovalev, Alexey A; Pryadko, Leonid P

    2015-07-31

    We suggest a technique for constructing lower (existence) bounds for the fault-tolerant threshold to scalable quantum computation applicable to degenerate quantum codes with sublinear distance scaling. We give explicit analytic expressions combining probabilities of erasures, depolarizing errors, and phenomenological syndrome measurement errors for quantum low-density parity-check codes with logarithmic or larger distances. These threshold estimates are parametrically better than the existing analytical bound based on percolation.

  15. Quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulator nanostructures (Review Article)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Lei; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2014-04-01

    We review the recent experimental advances on quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulators with emphasis on quantum oscillation, weak antilocalization and Aharonov-Bohm effect and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect. Following a brief introduction on the topic, we discuss the identification of the topological surface state based on quantum phenomena. Research prospect of topological insulators is described at the end of this article.

  16. Quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulator nanostructures (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2014-04-01

    We review the recent experimental advances on quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulators with emphasis on quantum oscillation, weak antilocalization and Aharonov-Bohm effect and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect. Following a brief introduction on the topic, we discuss the identification of the topological surface state based on quantum phenomena. Research prospect of topological insulators is described at the end of this article.

  17. Site-resolved imaging of single atoms with a Faraday quantum gas microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Ryuta; Kato, Kohei; Kuno, Takuma; Sakura, Yuto; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    We successfully demonstrate a quantum gas microscopy using the Faraday effect which has an inherently non-destructive nature. The observed Faraday rotation angle reaches 3.0(2) degrees for a single atom. We reveal the non-destructive feature of this Faraday imaging method by comparing the detuning dependence of the Faraday signal strength with that of the photon scattering rate. We determine the atom distribution with deconvolution analysis. We also demonstrate the absorption and the dark field Faraday imaging, and reveal the different shapes of the point spread functions for these methods, which are fully explained by theoretical analysis. Our result is an important first step towards an ultimate quantum non-demolition site-resolved imaging and furthermore opens up the possibilities for quantum feedback control of a quantum many-body system with a single-site resolution.

  18. Online evolution reconstruction from a single measurement record with random time intervals for quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Su, Yang; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Yong; Shen, Huiping; Pu, Tao; Wu, Chuanxin; Zhao, Jiyong; Zhang, Baofu; Xu, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Online reconstruction of a time-variant quantum state from the encoding/decoding results of quantum communication is addressed by developing a method of evolution reconstruction from a single measurement record with random time intervals. A time-variant two-dimensional state is reconstructed on the basis of recovering its expectation value functions of three nonorthogonal projectors from a random single measurement record, which is composed from the discarded qubits of the six-state protocol. The simulated results prove that our method is robust to typical metro quantum channels. Our work extends the Fourier-based method of evolution reconstruction from the version for a regular single measurement record with equal time intervals to a unified one, which can be applied to arbitrary single measurement records. The proposed protocol of evolution reconstruction runs concurrently with the one of quantum communication, which can facilitate the online quantum tomography.

  19. Measurement uncertainties in the quantum formalism: quasi-realities of individual systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Holger F

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of uncertainties in quantum measurements is problematic since the correct value of an observable between state preparation and measurement is experimentally inaccessible. In Ozawa's formulation of uncertainty relations for quantum measurements, the correct value of an observable is represented by the operator of that observable. Here, I consider the implications of this operator-based assignment of values to individual systems and discuss the relation with weak values and weak measurement statistics.

  20. Electromagnetic and quantum measurements a bitemporal neoclassical theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wessel-Berg, Tore

    2001-01-01

    It is a pleasure to write a foreword for Professor Tore Wessel-Berg's book, "Electromagnetic and Quantum Measurements: A Bitemporal Neoclassical Theory." This book appeals to me for several reasons. The most important is that, in this book, Wessel-Berg breaks from the pack. The distinguished astrophysicist Thomas Gold has written about the pressures on scientists to move in tight formation, to avoid having their legs nipped by the sheepdogs of science. This book demonstrates that Wessel-Berg is willing to take that risk. I confess that I do not sufficiently understand this book to be able to either agree or disagree with its thesis. Nevertheless, Wessel-Berg makes very cogent arguments for setting out on his journey. The basic equations of physics are indeed time-reversible. Our experience, that leads us to the concept of an "arrow of time," is derived from macro­ scopic phenomena, not from fundamental microscopic phenomena. For this reason, it makes very good sense to explore the consequences of treating mi...

  1. Device-independent quantum key distribution based on measurement inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Ramij; Parker, Matthew G.; Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    We provide an analysis of a family of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that has the following features. (a) The bits used for the secret key do not come from the results of the measurements on an entangled state but from the choices of settings. (b) Instead of a single security parameter (a violation of some Bell inequality) a set of them is used to estimate the level of trust in the secrecy of the key. The main advantage of these protocols is a smaller vulnerability to imperfect random number generators made possible by feature (a). We prove the security and the robustness of such protocols. We show that using our method it is possible to construct a QKD protocol which retains its security even if the source of randomness used by communicating parties is strongly biased. As a proof of principle, an explicit example of a protocol based on the Hardy's paradox is presented. Moreover, in the noiseless case, the protocol is secure in a natural way against any type of memory attack, and thus allows one to reuse the device in subsequent rounds. We also analyze the robustness of the protocol using semidefinite programming methods. Finally, we present a postprocessing method, and observe a paradoxical property that rejecting some random part of the private data can increase the key rate of the protocol.

  2. Complex Squeezing and Force Measurement Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmann, L F; Kohler, J; Spethmann, N; Stamper-Kurn, D M

    2016-01-01

    A continuous quantum field, such as a propagating beam of light, may be characterized by a squeezing spectrum that is inhomogeneous in frequency. We point out that homodyne detectors, which are commonly employed to detect quantum squeezing, are blind to squeezing spectra in which the correlation between amplitude and phase fluctuations is complex. We find theoretically that such complex squeezing is a component of ponderomotive squeezing of light through cavity optomechanics. We propose a detection scheme, called synodyne detection, which reveals complex squeezing and allows its use to improve force detection beyond the standard quantum limit.

  3. Accelerating dark-matter axion searches with quantum measurement technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Huaixiu; Brierley, R T; Girvin, S M; Lehnert, K W

    2016-01-01

    The axion particle, a consequence of an elegant hypothesis that resolves the strong-CP problem of quantum chromodynamics, is a plausible origin for cosmological dark matter. In searches for axionic dark matter that detect the conversion of axions to microwave photons, the quantum noise associated with microwave vacuum fluctuations will soon limit the rate at which parameter space is searched. Here we show that this noise can be partially overcome either by squeezing the quantum vacuum using recently developed Josephson parametric devices, or by using superconducting qubits to count microwave photons.

  4. Universality of quantum computation with cluster states and (X, Y)-plane measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantri, Atul; Demarie, Tommaso F.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC) is a model of quantum computation where quantum information is coherently processed by means of projective measurements on highly entangled states. Following the introduction of MBQC, cluster states have been studied extensively both from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Indeed, the study of MBQC was catalysed by the realisation that cluster states are universal for MBQC with (X, Y)-plane and Z measurements. Here we examine the question of whether the requirement for Z measurements can be dropped while maintaining universality. We answer this question in the affirmative by showing that universality is possible in this scenario. PMID:28216652

  5. N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with N + 1 un-characterized sources: zero quantum-bit-error-rate case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo

    2016-01-01

    We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing.

  6. Collective dynamics of multimode bosonic systems induced by weak quantum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Kozlowski, Wojciech; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to the fully projective limit of strong quantum measurement, where the evolution is locked to a small subspace (quantum Zeno dynamics), or even frozen completely (quantum Zeno effect), the weak non-projective measurement can effectively compete with standard unitary dynamics leading to nontrivial effects. Here we consider global weak measurement addressing collective variables, thus preserving quantum superpositions due to the lack of which path information. While for certainty we focus on ultracold atoms, the idea can be generalized to other multimode quantum systems, including various quantum emitters, optomechanical arrays, and purely photonic systems with multiple-path interferometers (photonic circuits). We show that light scattering from ultracold bosons in optical lattices can be used for defining macroscopically occupied spatial modes that exhibit long-range coherent dynamics. Even if the measurement strength remains constant, the quantum measurement backaction acts on the atomic ensemble quasi-periodically and induces collective oscillatory dynamics of all the atoms. We introduce an effective model for the evolution of the spatial modes and present an analytic solution showing that the quantum jumps drive the system away from its stable point. We confirm our finding describing the atomic observables in terms of stochastic differential equations.

  7. Geometric measures of quantum correlations with Bures and Hellinger distances

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Comment: to be published as a chapter of the book "Lectures on general quantum correlations and their applications" edited by F. Fanchini, D. Soares-Pinto, and G. Adesso (Springer, 2017); 43 pages, 3 figures

  8. Derandomizing Quantum Circuits with Measurement-Based Unitary Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Peter S.; Markham, Damian

    2016-05-01

    Entangled multipartite states are resources for universal quantum computation, but they can also give rise to ensembles of unitary transformations, a topic usually studied in the context of random quantum circuits. Using several graph state techniques, we show that these resources can "derandomize" circuit results by sampling the same kinds of ensembles quantum mechanically, analogously to a quantum random number generator. Furthermore, we find simple examples that give rise to new ensembles whose statistical moments exactly match those of the uniformly random distribution over all unitaries up to order t , while foregoing adaptive feedforward entirely. Such ensembles—known as t designs—often cannot be distinguished from the "truly" random ensemble, and so they find use in many applications that require this implied notion of pseudorandomness.

  9. How to Measure the Quantum Measure - In memory of David Ritz Finkelstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauca, Álvaro Mozota; Sorkin, Rafael Dolnick

    2017-01-01

    The histories-based framework of Quantum Measure Theory assigns a generalized probability or measure μ(E) to every (suitably regular) set E of histories. Even though μ(E) cannot in general be interpreted as the expectation value of a selfadjoint operator (or POVM), we describe an arrangement which makes it possible to determine μ(E) experimentally for any desired E. Taking, for simplicity, the system in question to be a particle passing through a series of Stern-Gerlach devices or beam-splitters, we show how to couple a set of ancillas to it, and then to perform on them a suitable unitary transformation followed by a final measurement, such that the probability of a final outcome of "yes" is related to μ(E) by a known factor of proportionality. Finally, we discuss in what sense a positive outcome of the final measurement should count as a minimally disturbing verification that the microscopic event E actually happened.

  10. How to Measure the Quantum Measure. In memory of David Ritz Finkelstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauca, Álvaro Mozota; Sorkin, Rafael Dolnick

    2017-01-01

    The histories-based framework of Quantum Measure Theory assigns a generalized probability or measure μ( E) to every (suitably regular) set E of histories. Even though μ( E) cannot in general be interpreted as the expectation value of a selfadjoint operator (or POVM), we describe an arrangement which makes it possible to determine μ( E) experimentally for any desired E. Taking, for simplicity, the system in question to be a particle passing through a series of Stern-Gerlach devices or beam-splitters, we show how to couple a set of ancillas to it, and then to perform on them a suitable unitary transformation followed by a final measurement, such that the probability of a final outcome of "yes" is related to μ( E) by a known factor of proportionality. Finally, we discuss in what sense a positive outcome of the final measurement should count as a minimally disturbing verification that the microscopic event E actually happened.

  11. Quantum Information Measurements for Garfinkle-Horne Dilaton Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xian-Hui; SHEN You-Gen

    2004-01-01

    @@ The quantum non-cloning theorem is discussed for Garfinkle-Horne dilaton black holes. It is found that if the black hole complementarity principle is correct, then it will be questioned whether the quantum non-cloning theorem is well established inside the inner horizon. It is also found that another complementarity principle may be needed inside the inner horizon of the Garfinkle-Horne dilaton black hole.

  12. Quantum to Classical Transitions via Weak Measurements and Post-Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eliahu; Aharonov, Yakir

    Alongside its immense empirical success, the quantum mechanical account of physical systems imposes a myriad of divergences from our thoroughly ingrained classical ways of thinking. These divergences, while striking, would have been acceptable if only a continuous transition to the classical domain was at hand. Strangely, this is not quite the case. The difficulties involved in reconciling the quantum with the classical have given rise to different interpretations, each with its own shortcomings. Traditionally, the two domains are sewed together by invoking an ad hoc theory of measurement, which has been incorporated in the axiomatic foundations of quantum theory. This work will incorporate a few related tools for addressing the above conceptual difficulties: deterministic operators, weak measurements, and post-selection. Weak Measurement, based on a very weak von Neumann coupling, is a unique kind of quantum measurement with numerous theoretical and practical applications. In contrast to other measurement techniques, it allows to gather a small amount of information regarding the quantum system, with only a negligible probability of collapsing it onto an eigenstate of the measured observable. A single weak measurement yieldsan almost random outcome, but when performed repeatedly over a large ensemble, the averaged outcome becomes increasingly robust and accurate. Importantly, a long sequence of weak measurements can be thought of as a single projective measurement. We claim in this work that classical variables appearing in the o-world, such as center of mass, moment of inertia, pressure, and average forces, result from a multitude of quantum weak measurements performed in the micro-world. Here again, the quantum outcomes are highly uncertain, but the law of large numbers obliges their convergence to the definite quantities we know from our everyday lives. By augmenting this description with a final boundary condition and employing the notion of "classical

  13. Nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulation: An approach based on quantum measurement picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulation implies an effective quantum measurement on the electronic states by the classical motion of atoms. Based on this insight, we propose a quantum trajectory mean-field approach for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations. The new protocol provides a natural interface between the separate quantum and classical treatments, without invoking artificial surface hopping algorithm. Moreover, it also bridges two widely adopted nonadiabatic dynamics methods, the Ehrenfest mean-field theory and the trajectory surface-hopping method. Excellent agreement with the exact results is illustrated with representative model systems, including the challenging ones for traditional methods.

  14. Measurement-Induced Strong Kerr Nonlinearity for Weak Quantum States of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Luca S.; Coelho, Antonio S.; Biagi, Nicola; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Bellini, Marco; Zavatta, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    Strong nonlinearity at the single photon level represents a crucial enabling tool for optical quantum technologies. Here we report on experimental implementation of a strong Kerr nonlinearity by measurement-induced quantum operations on weak quantum states of light. Our scheme coherently combines two sequences of single photon addition and subtraction to induce a nonlinear phase shift at the single photon level. We probe the induced nonlinearity with weak coherent states and characterize the output non-Gaussian states with quantum state tomography. The strong nonlinearity is clearly witnessed as a change of sign of specific off-diagonal density matrix elements in the Fock basis.

  15. The negativity of Wigner function as a measure of quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyouri, F.; El Baz, M.; Hassouni, Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study comparatively the behaviors of Wigner function and quantum correlations for two quasi-Werner states formed with two general bipartite superposed coherent states. We show that the Wigner function can be used to detect and quantify the quantum correlations. However, we show that it is in fact not sensitive to all kinds of quantum correlations but only to entanglement. Then, we analyze the measure of non-classicality of quantum states based on the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function.

  16. Quantum Steering Inequality with Tolerance for Measurement-Setting Errors: Experimentally Feasible Signature of Unbounded Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Adam; Buraczewski, Adam; Horodecki, Paweł; Stobińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Quantum steering is a relatively simple test for proving that the values of quantum-mechanical measurement outcomes come into being only in the act of measurement. By exploiting quantum correlations, Alice can influence—steer—Bob's physical system in a way that is impossible in classical mechanics, as shown by the violation of steering inequalities. Demonstrating this and similar quantum effects for systems of increasing size, approaching even the classical limit, is a long-standing challenging problem. Here, we prove an experimentally feasible unbounded violation of a steering inequality. We derive its universal form where tolerance for measurement-setting errors is explicitly built in by means of the Deutsch-Maassen-Uffink entropic uncertainty relation. Then, generalizing the mutual unbiasedness, we apply the inequality to the multisinglet and multiparticle bipartite Bell state. However, the method is general and opens the possibility of employing multiparticle bipartite steering for randomness certification and development of quantum technologies, e.g., random access codes.

  17. Measurement-induced chaos and quantum state discrimination in an iterated Tavis-Cummings scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juan Mauricio; Bernád, József Zsolt; Alber, Gernot; Kálmán, Orsolya; Kiss, Tamás

    2017-02-01

    A cavity quantum electrodynamical scenario is proposed for implementing a Schrödinger microscope capable of amplifying differences between nonorthogonal atomic quantum states. The scheme involves an ensemble of identically prepared two-level atoms interacting pairwise with a single mode of the radiation field as described by the Tavis-Cummings model. By repeated measurements of the cavity field and of one atom within each pair a measurement-induced nonlinear quantum transformation of the relevant atomic states can be realized. The intricate dynamical properties of this nonlinear quantum transformation, which exhibits measurement-induced chaos, allow approximate orthogonalization of atomic states by purification after a few iterations of the protocol and thus the application of the scheme for quantum state discrimination.

  18. Imperfect measurements settings: implications on quantum state tomography and entanglement witnesses

    CERN Document Server

    Rosset, Denis; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    Reliable and well-characterized quantum resources are indispensable ingredients in quantum information processing. Typically, in a realistic characterization of these resources, imperfect apparatuses result in unavoidable uncertainties and thus give rise to systematic errors. While this is usually accounted for through careful calibration, the effect of such imperfections on the characterization of quantum resources has been largely overlooked in the literature. In this paper, we investigate the effect of systematic errors that arise from imperfect alignment of measurement bases. We show that characterization of quantum resources using quantum state tomography or entanglement witnesses can be undermined with an amount of systematic error that is not uncommon in the laboratories. Curiously, for quantum state tomography, we found that having entanglement can help to reduce the susceptibility to this kind of error. We also briefly discuss how a given entanglement witness can be modified to incorporate the effect...

  19. Calculation of quantum discord and entanglement measures using the random mutations optimization algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyavskiy, A. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The simple and universal global optimization method based on simplified multipopulation genetic algorithm is presented. The method is applied to quantum information problems. It is compared to the genetic algorithm on standard test functions, and also tested on the calculation of quantum discord and minimal entanglement entropy, which is an entanglement measure for pure multipartite states.

  20. Quantum Memory Effects in the Measurement of Observables with a Continuous Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Druhl, K J

    1993-01-01

    In the measurement of a continuous observable Q, the pure components of the reduced state do, in general, depend on the initial state. For measurements which attempt to localize the measured system in a certain region R, the localized wave functions are proportional to the original wave function outside of R. This `quantum memory' effect shows that it is not possible to perfectly localize a quantum particle.

  1. Quantum quasi-Zeno dynamics: Transitions mediated by frequent projective measurements near the Zeno regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. J.; Vedral, V.

    2016-07-01

    Frequent observation of a quantum system leads to quantum Zeno physics, where the system evolution is constrained to states commensurate with the measurement outcome. We show that, more generally, the system can evolve between such states through higher-order virtual processes that pass through states outside the measurement subspace. We derive effective Hamiltonians to describe this evolution, and the dependence on the time between measurements. We demonstrate application of this phenomena to prototypical quantum many-body system examples, spin chains and atoms in optical lattices, where it facilitates correlated dynamical effects.

  2. Measuring-basis-encrypted six-state quantum key distribution scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Pan; DENG Fuguo; WANG Pingxiao; LONG Guilu

    2006-01-01

    A six-state quantum key distribution scheme with measuring-basis encryption technique, which is based on the six-state protocol and the MBE protocol, is proposed. In this modified six-state quantum key distribution protocol, Alice and Bob use a control key to synchronize the use of their measuring-basis so that they always use the same measuring-basis. This modified six-state quantum key distribution protocol retains the advantage of higher security and at the same time has a higher efficiency.

  3. Conditional purity and quantum correlation measures in two qubit mixed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebón, L.; Rossignoli, R.; Varga, J. J. M.; Gigena, N.; Canosa, N.; Iemmi, C.; Ledesma, S.

    2016-11-01

    We analyze and show experimental results of the conditional purity, the quantum discord and other related measures of quantum correlation in mixed two-qubit states constructed from a pair of photons in identical polarization states. The considered states are relevant for the description of spin pair states in interacting spin chains in a transverse magnetic field. We derive clean analytical expressions for the conditional local purity and other correlation measures obtained as a result of a remote local projective measurement, which are fully verified by the experimental results. A simple exact expression for the quantum discord of these states in terms of the maximum conditional purity is also derived.

  4. Quantum measurement-induced antiferromagnetic order and density modulations in ultracold Fermi gases in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-08-01

    Ultracold atomic systems offer a unique tool for understanding behavior of matter in the quantum degenerate regime, promising studies of a vast range of phenomena covering many disciplines from condensed matter to quantum information and particle physics. Coupling these systems to quantized light fields opens further possibilities of observing delicate effects typical of quantum optics in the context of strongly correlated systems. Measurement backaction is one of the most funda- mental manifestations of quantum mechanics and it is at the core of many famous quantum optics experiments. Here we show that quantum backaction of weak measurement can be used for tailoring long-range correlations of ultracold fermions, realizing quantum states with spatial modulations of the density and magnetization, thus overcoming usual requirement for a strong interatomic interactions. We propose detection schemes for implementing antiferromagnetic states and density waves. We demonstrate that such long-range correlations cannot be realized with local addressing, and they are a consequence of the competition between global but spatially structured backaction of weak quantum measurement and unitary dynamics of fermions.

  5. Quantum measurement-induced antiferromagnetic order and density modulations in ultracold Fermi gases in optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F; Mekhov, Igor B

    2016-08-11

    Ultracold atomic systems offer a unique tool for understanding behavior of matter in the quantum degenerate regime, promising studies of a vast range of phenomena covering many disciplines from condensed matter to quantum information and particle physics. Coupling these systems to quantized light fields opens further possibilities of observing delicate effects typical of quantum optics in the context of strongly correlated systems. Measurement backaction is one of the most funda- mental manifestations of quantum mechanics and it is at the core of many famous quantum optics experiments. Here we show that quantum backaction of weak measurement can be used for tailoring long-range correlations of ultracold fermions, realizing quantum states with spatial modulations of the density and magnetization, thus overcoming usual requirement for a strong interatomic interactions. We propose detection schemes for implementing antiferromagnetic states and density waves. We demonstrate that such long-range correlations cannot be realized with local addressing, and they are a consequence of the competition between global but spatially structured backaction of weak quantum measurement and unitary dynamics of fermions.

  6. When a quantum measurement can be implemented locally, and when it cannot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States) and Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    In the absence of quantum channels, local operations on subsystems and classical communication between parties (LOCC) constitute the most general protocols available on spatially separated quantum systems. Every LOCC protocol implements a separable quantum measurement, but it is known that there exist separable measurements that cannot be implemented by LOCC. A longstanding problem in quantum information theory is to understand the difference between LOCC and the full set of separable measurements. Toward this end, we show in this paper how to construct an LOCC protocol to implement an arbitrary separable measurement whenever such a protocol exists. In addition, given a measurement that cannot be implemented by LOCC within some fixed maximum number of rounds, the method shows explicitly that this is the case.

  7. Nonideal Quantum Measurement Effects on the Switching Currents Distribution of Josephson Junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Pierro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The quantum character of Josephson junctions is ordinarily revealed through the analysis of the switching currents, i.e. the current at which a finite voltage appears: A sharp rise of the voltage signals the passage (tunnel) from a trapped state (the zero voltage solution) to a running state (the finite voltage solution). In this context, we investigate the probability distribution of the Josephson junctions switching current taking into account the effect of the bias sweeping rate and introducing a simple nonideal quantum measurements scheme. The measurements are modelled as repeated voltage samplings at discrete time intervals, that is with repeated projections of the time dependent quantum solutions on the static or the running states, to retrieve the probability distribution of the switching currents. The distribution appears to be immune of the quantum Zeno effect, and it is close to, but distinguishable from, the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. For energy barriers comparable to the quantum fund...

  8. Geometric measures of quantum correlations: characterization, quantification, and comparison by distances and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roga, W.; Spehner, D.; Illuminati, F.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate and compare three distinguished geometric measures of bipartite quantum correlations that have been recently introduced in the literature: the geometric discord, the measurement-induced geometric discord, and the discord of response, each one defined according to three contractive distances on the set of quantum states, namely the trace, Bures, and Hellinger distances. We establish a set of exact algebraic relations and inequalities between the different measures. In particular, we show that the geometric discord and the discord of response based on the Hellinger distance are easy to compute analytically for all quantum states whenever the reference subsystem is a qubit. These two measures thus provide the first instance of discords that are simultaneously fully computable, reliable (since they satisfy all the basic Axioms that must be obeyed by a proper measure of quantum correlations), and operationally viable (in terms of state distinguishability). We apply the general mathematical structure to determine the closest classical-quantum state of a given state and the maximally quantum-correlated states at fixed global state purity according to the different distances, as well as a necessary condition for a channel to be quantumness breaking.

  9. Quantum Measurements and the kappa--Poincare Group

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, A; Camacho, Abel

    2005-01-01

    The possible description of the vacuum of quantum gravity through the so called kappa--Poincare group is analyzed considering some of the consequences of this symmetry in the path integral formulation of nonrelativistic quantum theory. This study is carried out with two cases, firstly, a free particle, and finally, the situation of a particle immersed in a homogeneous gravitational field. It will be shown that the kappa--Poincare group implies the loss of some of the basic properties associated to Feynman's path integral. For instance, loss of the group characteristic related to the time dependence of the evolution operator, or the breakdown of the composition law for amplitudes of events occurring successively in time. Additionally some similarities between the present idea and the so called restricted path integral formalism will be underlined. These analogies advocate the claim that if the kappa--Poincare group contains some of the physical information of the quantum gravity vacuum, then this vacuum could ...

  10. ER=EPR, GHZ, and the Consistency of Quantum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates various aspects of the ER=EPR conjecture.It begins with a brief heuristic argument, using the Ryu-Takayanagi correspondence, for why entanglement between black holes implies the existence of Einstein-Rosen bridges. The main part of the paper addresses a fundamental question: Is ER=EPR consistent with the standard postulates of quantum mechanics? Naively it seems to lead to an inconsistency between observations made on entangled systems by different observers. The resolution of the paradox lies in the properties of multiple black holes, entangled in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger pattern. The last part of the paper is about entanglement as a resource for quantum communication. ER=EPR provides a way to visualize protocols like quantum teleportation. In some sense teleportation takes place through the wormhole, but as usual, classical communication is necessary to complete the protocol.

  11. ER=EPR, GHZ, and the consistency of quantum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, Leonard [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This paper illustrates various aspects of the ER=EPR conjecture. It begins with a brief heuristic argument, using the Ryu-Takayanagi correspondence, for why entanglement between black holes implies the existence of Einstein-Rosen bridges. The main part of the paper addresses a fundamental question: Is ER=EPR consistent with the standard postulates of quantum mechanics? Naively it seems to lead to an inconsistency between observations made on entangled systems by different observers. The resolution of the paradox lies in the properties of multiple black holes, entangled in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger pattern. The last part of the paper is about entanglement as a resource for quantum communication. ER=EPR provides a way to visualize protocols like quantum teleportation. In some sense teleportation takes place through the wormhole, but as usual, classical communication is necessary to complete the protocol. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. On A Testing and Implementation of Quantum Gate and Measurement Emulator (QGAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Mutiara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, people are looking forward to get an awesome computational power. This kind of desire can be answered by quantum computing. By adopting quantum mechanics theory, it can generate a very fast computation result. As known, quantum mechanics can establish that particle can also become wave; it shows that electron can be in duality. Through this theory, even a human teleportation is issuedcan be really happened in the future. However, it needs a high requirement of hardware support to implement the real quantum computing. That is why it is difficult to bring quantum computing intoreality. This research presents a study about quantum computing. Here it is studied, a specialty of quantum computing, like superposition, as if the classical computer can do it. Since there was a marvellous research about quantum computer simulation that runs on classical computer, this research provides an analysis about our testing and implementation of Quantum Gate and Measurement Emulator (QGAME. Our analysis, testing and implementation are based on a method that always use in the software engineering field.

  13. Species distributions, quantum theory, and the enhancement of biodiversity measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Real, Raimundo; Barbosa, A. Márcia; Bull, Joseph William

    2016-01-01

    differently to similar environmental conditions at different places or moments, so their distribution is, in principle, not completely predictable. We argue that this uncertainty exists, and warrants considering species distributions as analogous to coherent quantum objects, whose distributions are better...... biodiversity”. We show how conceptualizing species’ distributions in this way could help overcome important weaknesses in current biodiversity metrics, both in theory and by using a worked case study of mammal distributions in Spain over the last decade. We propose that considerable theoretical advances could...... eventually be gained through interdisciplinary collaboration between biogeographers and quantum physicists. [Biogeography; favorability; physics; predictability; probability; species occurrence; uncertainty; wavefunction....

  14. Optical measurements for excitation of CdTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, Marian; Feies, Valentin; Schiopu, Paul; Craciun, Alexandru; Grosu, Neculai; Manea, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the experimental results obtained using a laboratory setup installation for fluorescence excitation of CdTe QDs used as biomarkers for clinical diagnostics. Quantum Dots (QDs) made of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), are highly fluorescent and they are used as robust biomarkers. Generally, QDs are referred to as the zero-dimensional colloidal crystals that possess strong size dependence and multi-colored luminescence properties. Along with its intrinsic features, such as sharp and symmetric emission, photo-stability and high quantum yields, QDs play a vital role in various applications, namely the identification of the chemical moieties, clinical diagnostics, optoelectronics, bio-imaging and bio-sensing1.

  15. Characterizing the dynamics of quantum discord under phase damping with POVM measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋峰建; 叶剑锋; 闫新虎; 吕海江

    2015-01-01

    In the analysis of quantum discord, the minimization of average entropy traditionally involved over orthogonal projec-tive measurements may be attained at more optimal decompositions by using the positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) measurements. Taking advantage of the quantum steering ellipsoid in combination with three-element POVM optimization, we show that, for a family of two-qubit X states locally interacting with Markovian non-dissipative environments, the decay rates of quantum discord show smooth dynamical evolutions without any sudden change. This is in contrast to two-element orthogonal projective measurements, in which case the sudden change of the decay rates of quantum and classical decoher-ences may be a common phenomenon. Notwithstanding this, we find that a subset of X states (including the Bell diagonal states) involving POVM optimization can still preserve the sudden change character as usual.

  16. Measurements of gain and index dynamics in quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast gain and index recovery of a 1.5um quantum dash amplifier after short pulse amplification is measured using pump-probe spectroscopy. The major part of the gain reduction is found to recover within a few picoseconds....

  17. Realization of a Binary-Outcome Projection Measurement of a Three-Level Superconducting Quantum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Markus; Macha, Pascal; Hamann, Andrés Rosario; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Juliusson, Kristinn; Fedorov, Arkady

    2016-07-01

    Binary-outcome measurements allow one to determine whether a multilevel quantum system is in a certain state while preserving quantum coherence between all orthogonal states. In this paper, we explore different regimes of the dispersive readout of a three-level superconducting quantum system coupled to a microwave cavity in order to implement binary-outcome measurements. By designing identical cavity-frequency shifts for the first and second excited states of the system, we realize strong projective binary-outcome measurements onto its ground state with a fidelity of 94.3%. Complemented with standard microwave control and low-noise parametric amplification, this scheme enables the quantum nondemolition detection of leakage errors and can be used to create sets of compatible measurements to reveal the contextual nature of superconducting circuits.

  18. A reconstruction algorithm for compressive quantum tomography using various measurement sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Li, Kezhi; Cong, Shuang

    2016-12-14

    Compressed sensing (CS) has been verified that it offers a significant performance improvement for large quantum systems comparing with the conventional quantum tomography approaches, because it reduces the number of measurements from O(d(2)) to O(rd log(d)) in particular for quantum states that are fairly pure. Yet few algorithms have been proposed for quantum state tomography using CS specifically, let alone basis analysis for various measurement sets in quantum CS. To fill this gap, in this paper an efficient and robust state reconstruction algorithm based on compressive sensing is developed. By leveraging the fixed point equation approach to avoid the matrix inverse operation, we propose a fixed-point alternating direction method algorithm for compressive quantum state estimation that can handle both normal errors and large outliers in the optimization process. In addition, properties of five practical measurement bases (including the Pauli basis) are analyzed in terms of their coherences and reconstruction performances, which provides theoretical instructions for the selection of measurement settings in the quantum state estimation. The numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm has much less calculating time, higher reconstruction accuracy and is more robust to outlier noises than many existing state reconstruction algorithms.

  19. A reconstruction algorithm for compressive quantum tomography using various measurement sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Li, Kezhi; Cong, Shuang

    2016-12-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) has been verified that it offers a significant performance improvement for large quantum systems comparing with the conventional quantum tomography approaches, because it reduces the number of measurements from O(d2) to O(rd log(d)) in particular for quantum states that are fairly pure. Yet few algorithms have been proposed for quantum state tomography using CS specifically, let alone basis analysis for various measurement sets in quantum CS. To fill this gap, in this paper an efficient and robust state reconstruction algorithm based on compressive sensing is developed. By leveraging the fixed point equation approach to avoid the matrix inverse operation, we propose a fixed-point alternating direction method algorithm for compressive quantum state estimation that can handle both normal errors and large outliers in the optimization process. In addition, properties of five practical measurement bases (including the Pauli basis) are analyzed in terms of their coherences and reconstruction performances, which provides theoretical instructions for the selection of measurement settings in the quantum state estimation. The numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm has much less calculating time, higher reconstruction accuracy and is more robust to outlier noises than many existing state reconstruction algorithms.

  20. Quantum back-action-evading measurement of motion in a negative mass reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Christoffer B.; Thomas, Rodrigo A.; Vasilakis, Georgios; Zeuthen, Emil; Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Balabas, Mikhail; Jensen, Kasper; Schliesser, Albert; Hammerer, Klemens; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum mechanics dictates that a continuous measurement of the position of an object imposes a random quantum back-action (QBA) perturbation on its momentum. This randomness translates with time into position uncertainty, thus leading to the well known uncertainty on the measurement of motion. As a consequence of this randomness, and in accordance with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the QBA puts a limitation—the so-called standard quantum limit—on the precision of sensing of position, velocity and acceleration. Here we show that QBA on a macroscopic mechanical oscillator can be evaded if the measurement of motion is conducted in the reference frame of an atomic spin oscillator. The collective quantum measurement on this hybrid system of two distant and disparate oscillators is performed with light. The mechanical oscillator is a vibrational ‘drum’ mode of a millimetre-sized dielectric membrane, and the spin oscillator is an atomic ensemble in a magnetic field. The spin oriented along the field corresponds to an energetically inverted spin population and realizes a negative-effective-mass oscillator, while the opposite orientation corresponds to an oscillator with positive effective mass. The QBA is suppressed by -1.8 decibels in the negative-mass setting and enhanced by 2.4 decibels in the positive-mass case. This hybrid quantum system paves the way to entanglement generation and distant quantum communication between mechanical and spin systems and to sensing of force, motion and gravity beyond the standard quantum limit.

  1. Measuring Gaussian Quantum Information and Correlations Using the Rényi Entropy of Order 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Girolami, Davide; Serafini, Alessio

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate that the Rényi-2 entropy provides a natural measure of information for any multimode Gaussian state of quantum harmonic systems, operationally linked to the phase-space Shannon sampling entropy of the Wigner distribution of the state. We prove that, in the Gaussian scenario, such an entropy satisfies the strong subadditivity inequality, a key requirement for quantum information theory. This allows us to define and analyze measures of Gaussian entanglement and more general quantum correlations based on such an entropy, which are shown to satisfy relevant properties such as monogamy.

  2. Coarse Quantum Measurement: An analysis of the Stern-Gerlach experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anirudh; Samuel, Joseph; Shivam, Kumar; Sinha, Supurna

    2016-03-01

    We study the Quantum Measurement Process in a Stern-Gerlach setup with the spin of a silver atom as the quantum system and the position as the apparatus. The system and the apparatus are treated quantum-mechanically using unitary evolution. The new ingredient in our analysis is the idea that the probes determining the position of the silver atom are limited in resolution. We show using a Wigner matrix that due to the coarseness of the detection process, the pure density matrix appears to evolve to an impure one. We quantify the information gained about the spin in a coarse position measurement.

  3. Precision measurement and compensation of optical stark shifts for an ion-trap quantum processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häffner, H; Gulde, S; Riebe, M; Lancaster, G; Becher, C; Eschner, J; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Blatt, R

    2003-04-11

    Using optical Ramsey interferometry, we precisely measure the laser-induced ac-Stark shift on the S(1/2)-D(5/2) "quantum bit" transition near 729 nm in a single trapped 40Ca+ ion. We cancel this shift using an additional laser field. This technique is of particular importance for the implementation of quantum information processing with cold trapped ions. As a simple application we measure the atomic phase evolution during a n x 2 pi rotation of the quantum bit.

  4. Quasi-determinism of weak measurement statistics: Laplace's demon's quantum cousin

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Holger F

    2010-01-01

    Weak measurements can provide a complete characterization of post-selected ensembles, including the uncertainties of observables. Interestingly, the average uncertainties for pure initial and final states are always zero, suggesting the kind of complete knowledge that would allow a knowledge of past, presence and future in the sense of Laplace's demon. However, the quantum version actually describes cancellations of positive and negative uncertainties made possible by the strangeness of weak values. In this paper, I take a closer look at the relation between statistics and causality in quantum mechanics, in an attempt to recover the traces of classical determinism in the statistical relations of quantum measurement outcomes.

  5. Control and measurement of electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Elzerman, J.M.; Hanson, R.; Willems van Beveren, L.H.; Vandersypen, L.M.K. [ERATO Mesoscopic Correlation Project, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    We present an overview of experimental steps taken towards using the spin of a single electron trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot as a spin qubit [Loss and DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. A 57, 120 (1998)]. Fabrication and characterization of a double quantum dot containing two coupled spins has been achieved, as well as initialization and single-shot read-out of the spin state. The relaxation time T {sub 1} of single-spin and two-spin states was found to be on the order of a millisecond, dominated by spin-orbit interactions. The time-averaged dephasing time T{sub 2}{sup *}, due to fluctuations in the ensemble of nuclear spins in the host semiconductor, was determined to be on the order of several tens of nanoseconds. Coherent manipulation of single-spin states can be performed using a microfabricated wire located close to the quantum dot, while two-spin interactions rely on controlling the tunnel barrier connecting the respective quantum dots [Petta et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005)]. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Quantum Interference: How to Measure the Wavelength of a Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of wave-particle duality in quantum theory is difficult to grasp because it attributes particle-like properties to classical waves and wave-like properties to classical particles. There seems to be an inconsistency involved with the notion that particle-like or wave-like attributes depend on how you look at an entity. The concept comes…

  7. Comment on "Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements"

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yu Shun; Guo Guang Can; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2001-01-01

    In a recent paper [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. A 61, 052312 (2000)], a quantum key distribution protocol based on entanglement swapping was proposed. However, in this comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve use a special strategy to attack.

  8. Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAIDI,SALEEM H.

    2000-04-01

    Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to

  9. Measuring quantum effects in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes with multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Cathal

    This thesis is a compilation of studies on delocalization measures, entanglement, and the role of quantum coherence in electronic energy transfer (EET) in light-harvesting complexes. The first two chapters after the introduction provide foundational knowledge of quantum information and light-harvesting, respectively. Chapter 2 introduces concepts from quantum information such as purity, bipartite entanglement and criteria for its measurement. The peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2, isolated from the anoxygenic purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, is employed as model system of interest. This light-harvesting complex, along with a description of the process of light-harvesting, the presence of quantum coherence, and the different models used to simulate EET, are described in chapter 3. In combination these two chapters lay the foundation for chapter 4, a critical assessment of the current measures of delocalization employed in EET studies, their relationship, and overall effectiveness. The conclusion is that entanglement based measures are most effective at measuring quantum effects, and that they can be related to more conventional delocalization measures such as the inverse participation ratio (IPR) by taking into account the entropy of the system under study. All the measures within this chapter are known as bipartite measures, and only measure the strength of correlation between two sites. The fifth chapter presents the core of this thesis. Following a brief introduction to the concept of multipartite entanglement, the development of multipartite delocalization measures that give high-resolution information on quantum coherence in light-harvesting complexes is detailed. In contrast to other measures, these analytical measures can detect many body correlations in large systems undergoing decoherence. We determine that, much like the bipartite entanglement based measures of chapter 4, these measures are also a function of system entropy, and have a

  10. Size dependence of the wavefunction of self-assembled InAs quantum dots from time-resolved optical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Stobbe, Søren; Nikolaev, Ivan S.;

    2008-01-01

    and a theoretical model, we determine the striking dependence of the overlap of the electron and hole wavefunctions on the quantum dot size. We conclude that the optical quality is best for large quantum dots, which is important in order to optimally tailor quantum dot emitters for, e.g., quantum electrodynamics......The radiative and nonradiative decay rates of InAs quantum dots are measured by controlling the local density of optical states near an interface. From time-resolved measurements, we extract the oscillator strength and the quantum efficiency and their dependence on emission energy. From our results...

  11. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  12. Quantum back-action of an individual variable-strength measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatridge, M; Shankar, S; Mirrahimi, M; Schackert, F; Geerlings, K; Brecht, T; Sliwa, K M; Abdo, B; Frunzio, L; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J; Devoret, M H

    2013-01-11

    Measuring a quantum system can randomly perturb its state. The strength and nature of this back-action depend on the quantity that is measured. In a partial measurement performed by an ideal apparatus, quantum physics predicts that the system remains in a pure state whose evolution can be tracked perfectly from the measurement record. We demonstrated this property using a superconducting qubit dispersively coupled to a cavity traversed by a microwave signal. The back-action on the qubit state of a single measurement of both signal quadratures was observed and shown to produce a stochastic operation whose action is determined by the measurement result. This accurate monitoring of a qubit state is an essential prerequisite for measurement-based feedback control of quantum systems.

  13. Theory of the Robin quantum wall in a linear potential. I. Energy spectrum, polarization and quantum-information measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendski, O.

    2016-12-01

    Information-theoretical concepts are employed for the analysis of the interplay between a transverse electric field $\\mathscr{E}$ applied to a one-dimensional surface and Robin boundary condition (BC), which with the help of the extrapolation length $\\Lambda$ zeroes at the interface a linear combination of the quantum mechanical wave function and its spatial derivative, and its influence on the properties of the structure. For doing this, exact analytical solutions of the corresponding Schr\\"{o}dinger equation are derived and used for calculating energies, dipole moments, position $S_x$ and momentum $S_k$ quantum information entropies and their Fisher information $I_x$ and $I_k$ and Onicescu information energies $O_x$ and $O_k$ counterparts. It is shown that the weak (strong) electric field changes the Robin wall into the Dirichlet, $\\Lambda=0$ (Neumann, $\\Lambda=\\infty$), surface. This transformation of the energy spectrum and associated waveforms in the growing field defines an evolution of the quantum-information measures; for example, it is proved that for the Dirichlet and Neumann BCs the position (momentum) quantum information entropy varies as a positive (negative) natural logarithm of the electric intensity what results in their field-independent sum $S_x+S_k$. Analogously, at $\\Lambda=0$ and $\\Lambda=\\infty$ the position and momentum Fisher informations (Onicescu energies) depend on the applied voltage as $\\mathscr{E}^{2/3}$ ($\\mathscr{E}^{1/3}$) and its inverse, respectively, leading to the field-independent product $I_xI_k$ ($O_xO_k$). Peculiarities of their transformations at the finite nonzero $\\Lambda$ are discussed and similarities and differences between the three quantum-information measures in the electric field are highlighted with the special attention being paid to the configuration with the negative extrapolation length.

  14. Measurement-induced operation of two-ion quantum heat machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Suman; Biswas, Asoka

    2017-03-01

    We show how one can implement a quantum heat machine by using two interacting trapped ions, in presence of a thermal bath. The electronic states of the ions act like a working substance, while the vibrational mode is modelled as the cold bath. The heat exchange with the cold bath is mimicked by the projective measurement of the electronic states. We show how such measurement in a suitable basis can lead to either a quantum heat engine or a refrigerator, which undergoes a quantum Otto cycle. The local magnetic field is adiabatically changed during the heat cycle. The performance of the heat machine depends upon the interaction strength between the ions, the magnetic fields, and the measurement cost. In our model, the coupling to the hot and the cold baths is never switched off in an alternative fashion during the heat cycle, unlike other existing proposals of quantum heat engines. This makes our proposal experimentally realizable using current tapped-ion technology.

  15. Quantum Superpositions and the Representation of Physical Reality Beyond Measurement Outcomes and Mathematical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    de Ronde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we intend to discuss the importance of providing a physical representation of quantum superpositions which goes beyond the mere reference to mathematical structures and measurement outcomes. This proposal goes in the opposite direction of the orthodox project which attempts to "bridge the gap" between the quantum formalism and common sense "classical reality" --precluding, right from the start, the possibility of interpreting quantum superpositions through non-classical notions. We will argue that in order to restate the problem of interpretation of quantum mechanics in truly ontological terms we require a radical revision of the problems and definitions addressed within the orthodox literature. On the one hand, we will discuss the need of providing a formal redefinition of superpositions which captures their contextual character. On the other hand, we attempt to replace the focus on the measurement problem, which concentrates on the justification of measurement outcomes from "weird" superposed ...

  16. The Double Quantum Dot Feline Cousin of Schrödinger's Cat An Experimental Test bed for a Discourse of Quantum Measurement Dichotomies

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, S

    1999-01-01

    Intriguing dichotomies in quantum measurement theory involving the role of the obersever, objective reality, collapse of wavefunctions and actualization of a measurement outcome are cast into a patholigical gedanken experiment involving a single electron in a double quantum dot system coupled via a weak link.

  17. Quantum Dynamics Simulations for Modeling Experimental Pump-Probe Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brett; Nayyar, Sahil; Liss, Kyle; Weinacht, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Time-resolved studies of quantum dynamics have benefited greatly from developments in ultrafast table-top and free electron lasers. Advances in computer software and hardware have lowered the barrier for performing calculations such that relatively simple simulations allow for direct comparison with experimental results. We describe here a set of quantum dynamics calculations in low-dimensional molecular systems. The calculations incorporate coupled electronic-nuclear dynamics, including two interactions with an applied field and nuclear wave packet propagation. The simulations were written and carried out by undergraduates as part of a senior research project, with the specific goal of allowing for detailed interpretation of experimental pump-probe data (in additional to the pedagogical value).

  18. Quantum measurement corrections to CIDNP in photosynthetic reaction centers

    OpenAIRE

    Kominis, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization is a signature of spin order appearing in many photosynthetic reaction centers. Such polarization, significantly enhanced above thermal equilibrium, is known to result from the nuclear spin sorting inherent in the radical pair mechanism underlying long-lived charge-separated states in photosynthetic reaction centers. We will here show that the recently understood fundamental quantum dynamics of radical-ion-pair reactions open up a new and comple...

  19. Finite Algebraic Geometrical Structures Underlying Mutually Unbiased Quantum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Planat, M R P; Perrine, S; Saniga, M; Planat, Michel R. P.; Rosu, Haret; Perrine, Serge; Saniga, Metod

    2004-01-01

    The basic methods of constructing the sets of mutually unbiased bases in the Hilbert space of an arbitrary finite dimension are discussed and an emerging link between them is outlined. It is shown that these methods employ a wide range of important mathematical concepts like, e.g., Fourier transforms, Galois fields and rings, finite and related projective geometries, and entanglement, to mention a few. Some applications of the theory to quantum information tasks are also mentioned.

  20. Quantum private query with perfect user privacy against a joint-measurement attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Li, Jian; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zuo, Hui-Juan; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-12-01

    The joint-measurement (JM) attack is the most powerful threat to the database security for existing quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based quantum private query (QPQ) protocols. Wei et al. (2016) [28] proposed a novel QPQ protocol against the JM attack. However, their protocol relies on two-way quantum communication thereby affecting its real implementation and communication efficiency. Moreover, it cannot ensure perfect user privacy. In this paper, we present a new one-way QPQ protocol in which the special way of classical post-processing of oblivious key ensures the security against the JM attack. Furthermore, it realizes perfect user privacy and lower complexity of communication.

  1. Nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulation: An approach based on quantum measurement picture

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-Qi; Fang, Weihai; Yan, YiJing

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulation implies an effective measurement on the electronic states owing to continuously tracking the atomic forces.Based on this insight, we propose a quantum trajectory mean-field approach for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations. The new protocol provides a natural interface between the separate quantum and classical treatments, without invoking artificial surface hopping algorithm. Moreover, it also bridges two widely adopted nonadiabatic dynamics methods, the Ehrenfest mean-field theory and the trajectory surface-hopping method. Excellent agreement with the exact results is illustrated with representative model systems, including the challenging ones for traditional methods.

  2. Gaussian-modulated coherent-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang-Chun; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Gui, Ming; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), leaving the detection procedure to the third partner and thus being immune to all detector side-channel attacks, is very promising for the construction of high-security quantum information networks. We propose a scheme to implement MDI-QKD, but with continuous variables instead of discrete ones, i.e., with the source of Gaussian-modulated coherent states, based on the principle of continuous-variable entanglement swapping. This protocol not only can be implemented with current telecom components but also has high key rates compared to its discrete counterpart; thus it will be highly compatible with quantum networks.

  3. Quantum measurement of the degree of polarization of a light beam

    CERN Document Server

    Legré, M; Gisin, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a coherent quantum measurement for the determination of the degree of polarization (DOP). This method allows to measure the DOP in the presence of fast polarization state fluctuations, difficult to achieve with the typically used polarimetric technique. A good precision of the DOP measurements is obtained using 8 type II nonlinear crystals assembled for spatial walk-off compensation.

  4. The uniform measure for discrete-time quantum walks in one dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Konno, Norio

    2013-01-01

    We obtain the uniform measure as a stationary measure of the one-dimensional discrete-time quantum walks by solving the corresponding eigenvalue problem. As an application, the uniform probability measure on a finite interval at a time can be given.

  5. The quantum measurement problem as a witness to "It from bit"

    CERN Document Server

    Srikanth, R

    2006-01-01

    A conceptual difficulty in the foundations of quantum mechanics is the quantum measurement problem (QMP), essentially concerned with the apparent non-unitarity of the measurement process and the classicality of macroscopic systems. In an information theoretic approach proposed by us earlier (Quantum Information Processing 2, 153, 2003), which we clarify and elaborate here, QMP is understood to signal a fundamental finite resolution of quantum states, or, equivalently, a discreteness of Hilbert space. This was motivated by the notion that physical reality is a manifestation of information stored and discrete computations performed at a deeper, sub-physical layer. This model entails that states of sufficiently complex, entangled systems will be unresolvable, or, {\\em computationally unstable}. Wavefunction collapse is postulated as an error preventive response to such computational instability. In effect, sufficiently complex systems turn classical because of the finiteness of the computational resources availa...

  6. W-state Analyzer and Multi-party Measurement-device-independent Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changhua; Xu, Feihu; Pei, Changxing

    2015-12-01

    W-state is an important resource for many quantum information processing tasks. In this paper, we for the first time propose a multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on W-state. With linear optics, we design a W-state analyzer in order to distinguish the four-qubit W-state. This analyzer constructs the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Moreover, we derived a complete security proof of the four-party MDI-QKD, and performed a numerical simulation to study its performance. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 150 km standard telecom fiber with off-the-shelf single photon detectors. This work takes an important step towards multi-party quantum communication and a quantum network.

  7. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures over a metropolitan network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Wei-Long; Tang, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Hui; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Li, Hao; Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; You, Li-Xing; Andersson, Erika; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Curty, Marcos; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Quantum digital signatures (QDSs) provide a means for signing electronic communications with information-theoretic security. However, all previous demonstrations of quantum digital signatures assume trusted measurement devices. This renders them vulnerable against detector side-channel attacks, just like quantum key distribution. Here we exploit a measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum network, over a metropolitan area, to perform a field test of a three-party MDI QDS scheme that is secure against any detector side-channel attack. In so doing, we are able to successfully sign a binary message with a security level of about 10-7. Remarkably, our work demonstrates the feasibility of MDI QDSs for practical applications.

  8. Measurement of a microwave field amplitude beyond the standard quantum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, M.; Gerlich, S.; Rybarczyk, T.; Métillon, V.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S.; Davidovich, L.; Dotsenko, I.

    2016-08-01

    We report a quantum measurement beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL) for the amplitude of a small displacement acting on a cavity field. This measurement uses as a resource an entangled mesoscopic state, prepared by the resonant interaction of a circular Rydberg atom with a field stored in a superconducting cavity. We analyze the measurement process in terms of Fisher information and prove that it is, in principle, optimal. The experimental precision achieved, 2.4 dB below the SQL, is well understood in terms of experimental imperfections. This method could be transposed to other systems, particularly to circuit QED, for the precise measurement of weak forces acting on oscillators.

  9. Cavity Control of a Single-Electron Quantum Cyclotron:\\\\Measuring the Electron Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneke, D; Gabrielse, G

    2010-01-01

    Measurements with a one-electron quantum cyclotron determine the electron magnetic moment, given by $g/2 = 1.001\\,159\\,652\\,180\\,73\\,(28)\\,[0.28~\\textrm{ppt}]$, and the fine structure constant, $\\alpha^{-1}=137.035\\,999\\,084\\,(51)\\,[0.37~\\textrm{ppb}]$. Brief announcements of these measurements are supplemented here with a more complete description of the one-electron quantum cyclotron and the new measurement methods, a discussion of the cavity control of the radiation field, a summary of the analysis of the measurements, and a fuller discussion of the uncertainties.

  10. High-Fidelity Adaptive Qubit Detection through Repetitive Quantum Nondemolition Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D. B.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.

    2007-09-01

    Using two trapped ion species (Al+27 and Be+9) as primary and ancillary quantum systems, we implement qubit measurements based on the repetitive transfer of information and quantum nondemolition detection. The repetition provides a natural mechanism for an adaptive measurement strategy, which leads to exponentially lower error rates compared to using a fixed number of detection cycles. For a single qubit we demonstrate 99.94% measurement fidelity. We also demonstrate a technique for adaptively measuring multiple qubit states using a single ancilla, and apply the technique to spectroscopy of an optical clock transition.

  11. Measurement based controlled not gate for topological qubits in a Majorana fermion and quantum-dot hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    We propose a scheme to implement controlled not gate for topological qubits in a quantum-dot and Majorana fermion hybrid system. Quantum information is encoded on pairs of Majorana fermions, which live on the the interface between topologically trivial and nontrivial sections of a quantum nanowire deposited on an s-wave superconductor. A measurement based two-qubit controlled not gate is produced with the help of parity measurements assisted by the quantum-dot and followed by prescribed single-qubit gates. The parity measurement, on the quantum-dot and a topological qubit, is achieved by the Aharonov-Casher effect.

  12. Design and Stability of Discrete-Time Quantum Filters with Measurement Imperfections

    CERN Document Server

    Somaraju, Abhinav; Sayrin, Clement; Rouchon, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This work considers the theory underlying a discrete-time quantum filter recently used in a quantum feedback experiment. It proves that this filter taking into account decoherence and measurement errors is optimal and stable. We present the general framework underlying this filter and show that it corresponds to a recursive expression of the least-square optimal estimation of the density operator in the presence of measurement imperfections. By measurement imperfections, we mean in a very general sense unread measurement performed by the environment (decoherence) and active measurement performed by non-ideal detectors. However, we assume to know precisely all the Kraus operators and also the detection error rates. Such recursive expressions combine well known methods from quantum filtering theory and classical probability theory (Bayes' law). We then demonstrate that such a recursive filter is always stable with respect to its initial condition: the fidelity between the optimal filter state (when the initial ...

  13. Quantum de Finetti Theorem under Fully-One-Way Adaptive Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2015-04-01

    We prove a version of the quantum de Finetti theorem: permutation-invariant quantum states are well approximated as a probabilistic mixture of multifold product states. The approximation is measured by distinguishability under measurements that are implementable by fully-one-way local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our result strengthens Brandão and Harrow's de Finetti theorem where a kind of partially-one-way LOCC measurements was used for measuring the approximation, with essentially the same error bound. As main applications, we show (i) a quasipolynomial-time algorithm which detects multipartite entanglement with an amount larger than an arbitrarily small constant (measured with a variant of the relative entropy of entanglement), and (ii) a proof that in quantum Merlin-Arthur proof systems, polynomially many provers are not more powerful than a single prover when the verifier is restricted to one-way LOCC operations.

  14. Measurement Back-Action in Quantum Point-Contact Charge Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Küng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Charge sensing with quantum point-contacts (QPCs is a technique widely used in semiconductor quantum-dot research. Understanding the physics of this measurement process, as well as finding ways of suppressing unwanted measurement back-action, are therefore both desirable. In this article, we present experimental studies targeting these two goals. Firstly, we measure the effect of a QPC on electron tunneling between two InAs quantum dots, and show that a model based on the QPC’s shot-noise can account for it. Secondly, we discuss the possibility of lowering the measurement current (and thus the back-action used for charge sensing by correlating the signals of two independent measurement channels. The performance of this method is tested in a typical experimental setup.

  15. Bell's measure and implementing quantum Fourier transform with orbital angular momentum of classical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-09-15

    We perform Bell's measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally.

  16. On the Brodutch and Modi method of constructing geometric measures of classical and quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Zbigniew; Wintrowicz, Iwona

    2017-03-01

    Recently, Brodutch and Modi proposed a general method of constructing meaningful measures of classical and quantum correlations. We systematically apply this method to obtain geometric classical and quantum correlations based on the Bures and the trace distances for two-qubit Bell diagonal states. Moreover, we argue that in general the Brodutch and Modi method may provide non-unique results, and we show how to modify this method to avoid this issue.

  17. The remote implementation of all possible generalized quantum measurements on a single atomic qubit in a quantum network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yang; Wu Chun-Wang; Wu Wei; Chen Ping-Xing; Li Cheng-Zu

    2009-01-01

    To implement generalized quantum measurement (GQM) one has to extend the original Hilbert space.Generally speaking,the additional dimensions of the ancilla space increase as the number of the operators of the CQM n increases.This paper presents a scheme for deterministically implementing all possible n-operator GQMs on a single atomic qubit by using only one 2-dimensional ancillary atomic qubit repeatedly,which remarkably reduces the complexity of the realistic physical system.Here the qubit is encoded in the internal states of an atom trapped in an optical cavity and single-photon pulses are employed to provide the interaction between qublts.It shows that the scheme can be performed remotely,and thus it is suitable for implementing GQM in a quantum network.What is more,the number of the total ancilla dimensions in our scheme achieves the theoretic low bound.

  18. Quantum trajectory tests of radical-pair quantum dynamics in CIDNP measurements of photosynthetic reaction centers

    CERN Document Server

    Tsampourakis, K

    2015-01-01

    Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization is a ubiquitous phenomenon in photosynthetic reaction centers. The relevant nuclear spin observables are a direct manifestation of the radical-pair mechanism. We here use quantum trajectories to describe the time evolution of radical-pairs, and compare their prediction of nuclear spin observables to the one derived from the radical-pair master equation. We unravel a major inconsistency within the Haberkorn approach, while our approach provides a consistent description. These results further challenge the traditional understanding of the radical-pair mechanism as well as the understanding of CIDNP experiments within Haberkorn's approach.

  19. Hierarchy of universal entanglement in 2D measurement-based quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob; Miyake, Akimasa

    2016-11-01

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MQC) is a paradigm for studying quantum computation using many-body entanglement and single-qubit measurements. Although MQC has inspired wide-ranging discoveries throughout quantum information, our understanding of the general principles underlying MQC seems to be biased by its historical reliance upon the archetypal 2D cluster state. Here we utilise recent advances in the subject of symmetry-protected topological order (SPTO) to introduce a novel MQC resource state, whose physical and computational behaviour differs fundamentally from that of the cluster state. We show that, in sharp contrast to the cluster state, our state enables universal quantum computation using only measurements of single-qubit Pauli X, Y, and Z operators. This novel computational feature is related to the 'genuine' 2D SPTO possessed by our state, and which is absent in the cluster state. Our concrete connection between the latent computational complexity of many-body systems and macroscopic quantum orders may find applications in quantum many-body simulation for benchmarking classically intractable complexity.

  20. Gleason-Type Theorem for Projective Measurements, Including Qubits: The Born Rule Beyond Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zela, F.

    2016-10-01

    Born's quantum probability rule is traditionally included among the quantum postulates as being given by the squared amplitude projection of a measured state over a prepared state, or else as a trace formula for density operators. Both Gleason's theorem and Busch's theorem derive the quantum probability rule starting from very general assumptions about probability measures. Remarkably, Gleason's theorem holds only under the physically unsound restriction that the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space {H} must be larger than two. Busch's theorem lifted this restriction, thereby including qubits in its domain of validity. However, while Gleason assumed that observables are given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors, Busch made the mathematically stronger assumption that observables are given by positive operator-valued measures. The theorem we present here applies, similarly to the quantum postulate, without restricting the dimension of {H} and for observables given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors. We also show that the Born rule applies beyond the quantum domain, thereby exhibiting the common root shared by some quantum and classical phenomena.

  1. Generation of Entanglement, Measure of Multipartite Entanglement in Fermionic Systems and Quantum Discord in Bipartite Systems and Heisenberg Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    This is a thesis submitted to university of Pune, India, for the Ph.D. degree. This work deals with entanglement production in two qubit, two qutrit and three qubit systems, entanglement in indistinguishable fermionic systems, quantum discord in a Heisenberg chain and geometric measure of quantum discord in an arbitrary state of a bipartite quantum system.

  2. Improving Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Multipartite Quantum Communication with Optical Amplifiers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Wei; Li, Fei; Huang, Duan; Liao, Qin; Xie, Cai-Lang

    2017-08-01

    The developing tendency of continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum cryptography is to cope with the practical issue of implementing scalable quantum networks. Up to now, most theoretical and experimental researches on CV-MDI QKD are focused on two-party protocols. However, we suggest a CV-MDI multipartite quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol use the EPR states coupled with optical amplifiers. More remarkable, QSS is the real application in multipartite CV-MDI QKD, in other words, is the concrete implementation method of multipartite CV-MDI QKD. It can implement a practical quantum network scheme, under which the legal participants create the secret correlations by using EPR states connecting to an untrusted relay via insecure links and applying the multi-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis at relay station. Even if there is a possibility that the relay may be completely tampered, the legal participants are still able to extract a secret key from network communication. The numerical simulation indicates that the quantum network communication can be achieved in an asymmetric scenario, fulfilling the demands of a practical quantum network. Additionally, we illustrate that the use of optical amplifiers can compensate the partial inherent imperfections of detectors and increase the transmission distance of the CV-MDI quantum system.

  3. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state.

  4. Investigation of measurement accuracy of factors used for detective quantum efficiency measurement in digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shuji; Higashide, Ryo; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hattori, Masumi; Okada, Yoko; Hayashi, Norio; Sawada, Michito

    2014-07-01

    In the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) evaluation of detectors for digital radiography (DR) systems, physical image quality indices such as modulation transfer function (MTF) and normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) need to be accurately measured to obtain highly accurate DQE evaluations. However, there is a risk of errors in these measurements. In this study, we focused on error factors that should be considered in measurements using clinical DR systems. We compared the incident photon numbers indicated in IEC 62220-1 with those estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation based on X-ray energy spectra measured employing four DR systems. For NNPS, influences of X-ray intensity non-uniformity, tube voltage and aluminum purity were investigated. The effects of geometric magnifications on MTF accuracy were also examined using a tungsten edge plate at distances of 50, 100 and 150 mm from the detector surface at a source-image receptor distance of 2000 mm. The photon numbers in IEC 62220-1 coincided with our estimates of values, with error rates below 2.5%. Tube voltage errors of approximately ±5 kV caused NNPS errors of within 1.0%. The X-ray intensity non-uniformity caused NNPS errors of up to 2.0% at the anode side. Aluminum purity did not affect the measurement accuracy. The maximum MTF reductions caused by geometric magnifications were 3.67% for 1.0-mm X-ray focus and 1.83% for 0.6-mm X-ray focus.

  5. Quantum nondemolition measurements of a flux qubit coupled to a noisy detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wei; Yu Yang; Wei Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically study the quantum nondemolition measurements of a flux qubit coupled to a noisy superconducting quantum interference device(SQUID).The obtained analytical results indicate that the measurement probability is frequency-dependent in a short time scale and has a close relationship with the measurement-induced dephasing.Furthermore,when the detuning between the driven and bare resonator equals the coupling strength,we can obtain the maximum measurement rate that is determined by the character of the noise in the SQUID.Finally,we analysed the mixed effect caused by coupling between the non-diagonal term and the external variable.It is found that the initial information of the qubit is destroyed due to quantum tunneling between the qubit states.

  6. Quantum Bayesian rule for weak measurements of qubits in superconducting circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiyue; Qin, Lupei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2014-12-01

    Compared with the quantum trajectory equation (QTE), the quantum Bayesian approach has the advantage of being more efficient to infer a quantum state under monitoring, based on the integrated output of measurements. For weak measurement of qubits in circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED), properly accounting for the measurement backaction effects within the Bayesian framework is an important problem of current interest. Elegant work towards this task was carried out by Korotkov in ‘bad-cavity’ and weak-response limits (Korotkov 2011 Quantum Bayesian approach to circuit QED measurement (arXiv:1111.4016)). In the present work, based on insights from the cavity-field states (dynamics) and the help of an effective QTE, we generalize the results of Korotkov to more general system parameters. The obtained Bayesian rule is in full agreement with Korotkov's result in limiting cases and as well holds satisfactory accuracy in non-limiting cases in comparison with the QTE simulations. We expect the proposed Bayesian rule to be useful for future cQED measurement and control experiments.

  7. Quantum Measurements for Graph Isomorphism Require Entanglement: Tight Results on Multiregister Fourier Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Recently, Moore, Russell and Schulman showed that quantum measurements of single coset states in the symmetric group yield exponentially little information about the Hidden Subgroup Problem in the case relevant to Graph Isomorphism. Extending their techniques to multiregister Fourier sampling, Moore and Russell showed that entangled measurements over pairs of registers yield superpolynomially little information, and conjectured that entangled measurements over $\\Theta(n \\log n)$ registers are necessary. Here we prove this conjecture. This significantly restricts the types of possible quantum algorithms for Graph Isomorphism.

  8. On the nature of the change in the wave function in a measurement in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, D M

    1996-01-01

    Generally a central role has been assigned to an unavoidable physical interaction between the measuring instrument and the physical entity measured in the change in the wave function that often occurs in measurement in quantum mechanics. A survey of textbooks on quantum mechanics by authors such as Dicke and Witke (1960), Eisberg and Resnick (1985), Gasiorowicz (1974), Goswami (1992), ift fur Physik, vol. 158, p. 417), supports these points. Work on electron shelving is reported by Dehmelt and his colleagues (Physical Review Letters, vol. 56, p. 2797), Wineland and his colleagues (Physical Review Letters, vol. 57, p. 1699), and Sauter, Neuhauser, Blatt, and Toschek (Physical Review Letters, vol. 57, p. 1696).

  9. Relativity with Respect to Measurement: Collapse and Quantum Events from Fock to Cramer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Chiatti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some observations are presented starting with the well-known article by Vladimir Fock “Quantum Physics and Philosophical Problems”, published in 1971. In this article, which summarizes for Western readers a long and complicated reflection of the foundations of quantum mechanics (QM, Fock illustrates his “minimal” interpretation of this theory. By minimal, we mean that it only uses concepts related to the operational aspects of the measurement procedures, avoiding any mention of definite quantum ontologies (Bell’s beables. It is argued that, by taking into account the time reversal invariance of the microscopic processes and introducing the notion of irreversibility in an appropriate manner, Fock’s description becomes an anticipation of the “transaction” notion introduced by Cramer a decade later. So, the concept of “collapse” does retain the features of a QM “freak” postulate to become a new way to look at the elementary quantum processes.

  10. Direct measurement of large-scale quantum states via expectation values of non-Hermitian matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Eliot; Gariepy, Genevieve; Leach, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, predictions are made by way of calculating expectation values of observables, which take the form of Hermitian operators. Non-Hermitian operators, however, are not necessarily devoid of physical significance, and they can play a crucial role in the characterization of quantum states. Here we show that the expectation values of a particular set of non-Hermitian matrices, which we call column operators, directly yield the complex coefficients of a quantum state vector. We provide a definition of the state vector in terms of measurable quantities by decomposing these column operators into observables. The technique we propose renders very-large-scale quantum states significantly more accessible in the laboratory, as we demonstrate by experimentally characterizing a 100,000-dimensional entangled state. This represents an improvement of two orders of magnitude with respect to previous phase-and-amplitude characterizations of discrete entangled states.

  11. Direct measurement of non-linear properties of bipartite quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, F A; Castagnoli, G C; Ekert, A; Horodecki, P; Sergienko, A V; Alves, Carolina Moura; Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Castagnoli, Giuseppe; Ekert, Artur; Horodecki, Pawel; Sergienko, Alexander Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Non-linear properties of quantum states, such as entropy or entanglement, quantify important physical resources and are frequently used in quantum information science. They are usually calculated from a full description of a quantum state, even though they depend only on a small number parameters that specify the state. Here we extract a non-local and a non-linear quantity, namely the Renyi entropy, from local measurements on two pairs of polarization entangled photons. We also introduce a "phase marking" technique which allows to select uncorrupted outcomes even with non-deterministic sources of entangled photons. We use our experimental data to demonstrate the violation of entropic inequalities. They are examples of a non-linear entanglement witnesses and their power exceeds all linear tests for quantum entanglement based on all possible Bell-CHSH inequalities.

  12. Measurements of nanoresonator-qubit interactions in a hybrid quantum electromechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol, F.; Hao, Y.; Brito, F.; Caldeira, A. O.; Irish, E. K.; LaHaye, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Experiments to probe the basic quantum properties of motional degrees of freedom of mechanical systems have developed rapidly over the last decade. One promising approach is to use hybrid electromechanical systems incorporating superconducting qubits and microwave circuitry. However, a critical challenge facing the development of these systems is to achieve strong coupling between mechanics and qubits while simultaneously reducing coupling of both the qubit and mechanical mode to the environment. Here we report measurements of a qubit-coupled mechanical resonator system consisting of an ultra-high-frequency nanoresonator and a long coherence-time superconducting transmon qubit, embedded in a superconducting coplanar waveguide cavity. It is demonstrated that the nanoresonator and transmon have commensurate energies and transmon coherence times are one order of magnitude larger than for all previously reported qubit-coupled nanoresonators. Moreover, we show that numerical simulations of this new hybrid quantum system are in good agreement with spectroscopic measurements and suggest that the nanoresonator in our device resides at low thermal occupation number, near its ground state, acting as a dissipative bath seen by the qubit. We also outline how this system could soon be developed as a platform for implementing more advanced experiments with direct relevance to quantum information processing and quantum thermodynamics, including the study of nanoresonator quantum noise properties, reservoir engineering, and nanomechanical quantum state generation and detection.

  13. Quantum measurement corrections to chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Kominis, I K

    2013-01-01

    Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization has emerged as a universal signature of spin order in photosynthetic reaction centers. Such polarization, significantly enhanced above thermal equilibrium, is known to result from the nuclear spin sorting inherent in the radical pair mechanism underlying long-lived charge-separated states in photosynthetic reaction centers. We will here show that the recently understood fundamental quantum dynamics of radical-ion-pair reactions open up a new and completely unexpected venue towards obtaining CIDNP signals. The fundamental decoherence mechanism inherent in the recombination process of radical pairs is shown to produce nuclear spin polarizations on the order of $10^4$ times or more higher than thermal equilibrium values at low fields relevant to natural photosynthesis in earth's magnetic field. This opens up the possibility of a fundamentally new exploration of the biological significance of high nuclear polarizations in photosynthesis.

  14. Quantum measurement as a driven phase transition: An exactly solvable model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahverdyan, A.; Balian, R.

    2001-01-01

    A model of quantum measurement is proposed, which aims to describe statistical mechanical aspects of this phenomenon, starting from a purely Hamiltonian formulation. The macroscopic measurement apparatus is modeled as an ideal Bose gas, the order parameter of which, that is, the amplitude of the con

  15. Examining Student Ideas about Energy Measurements on Quantum States across Undergraduate and Graduate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Energy measurements play a fundamental role in the theory of quantum mechanics, yet there is evidence that the underlying concepts are difficult for many students, even after all undergraduate instruction. We present results from an investigation into student ability to determine the possible energies that can be measured for a given wave function…

  16. Measuring-Basis Encrypted Quantum Key Distribution with Four-State Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Pan; LI Yan-Song; DENG Fu-Guo; LONG Gui-Lu

    2007-01-01

    A measuring-basis encrypted quantum key distribution scheme is proposed by using twelve nonorthogonal states in a four-state system and the measuring-basis encryption technique. In this scheme, two bits of classical information can be encoded on one four-state particle and the transmitted particles can be fully used.

  17. Noise and measurement errors in a practical two-state quantum bit commitment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loura, Ricardo; Almeida, Álvaro J.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.; Mateus, Paulo; Paunković, Nikola

    2014-05-01

    We present a two-state practical quantum bit commitment protocol, the security of which is based on the current technological limitations, namely the nonexistence of either stable long-term quantum memories or nondemolition measurements. For an optical realization of the protocol, we model the errors, which occur due to the noise and equipment (source, fibers, and detectors) imperfections, accumulated during emission, transmission, and measurement of photons. The optical part is modeled as a combination of a depolarizing channel (white noise), unitary evolution (e.g., systematic rotation of the polarization axis of photons), and two other basis-dependent channels, namely the phase- and bit-flip channels. We analyze quantitatively the effects of noise using two common information-theoretic measures of probability distribution distinguishability: the fidelity and the relative entropy. In particular, we discuss the optimal cheating strategy and show that it is always advantageous for a cheating agent to add some amount of white noise—the particular effect not being present in standard quantum security protocols. We also analyze the protocol's security when the use of (im)perfect nondemolition measurements and noisy or bounded quantum memories is allowed. Finally, we discuss errors occurring due to a finite detector efficiency, dark counts, and imperfect single-photon sources, and we show that the effects are the same as those of standard quantum cryptography.

  18. Symmetry constraints on temporal order in measurement-based quantum computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raussendorf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the interdependence of resource state, measurement setting and temporal order in measurement-based quantum computation. The possible temporal orders of measurement events are constrained by the principle that the randomness inherent in quantum measurement should not affect the outcome of the computation. We provide a classification for all temporal relations among measurement events compatible with a given initial stabilizer state and measurement setting, in terms of a matroid. Conversely, we show that classical processing relations necessary for turning the local measurement outcomes into computational output determine the resource state and measurement setting up to local equivalence. Further, we find a symmetry transformation related to local complementation that leaves the temporal relations invariant.

  19. Repeatability of measurements: Non-Hermitian observables and quantum Coriolis force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardas, Bartłomiej; Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2016-08-01

    A noncommuting measurement transfers, via the apparatus, information encoded in a system's state to the external "observer." Classical measurements determine properties of physical objects. In the quantum realm, the very same notion restricts the recording process to orthogonal states as only those are distinguishable by measurements. Therefore, even a possibility to describe physical reality by means of non-Hermitian operators should volens nolens be excluded as their eigenstates are not orthogonal. Here, we show that non-Hermitian operators with real spectra can be treated within the standard framework of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, we propose a quantum canonical transformation that maps Hermitian systems onto non-Hermitian ones. Similar to classical inertial forces this map is accompanied by an energetic cost, pinning the system on the unitary path.

  20. Correlation of Conductance Measurements from a Quantum Dot with Three Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Ryan; Prada, Marta; Qin, Hua; Huettel, Andreas; Goswami, Srijit; Blick, Robert; Eberl, Karl

    2005-03-01

    We have measured the differential conductance of a quantum dot coupled by three tunable tunneling barriers to three terminals. The quantum dot is formed by laterally constricting a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructure with Schottky split-gates. The advantage to performing conductance measurements on a quantum dot with three leads is that we are able to directly measure information about the individual tunneling barriers and determine how the states interact with the leads. At a base temperature of 250mK, we have observed new phenomena not previously reported from three-terminal, mesoscopic experiments. These effects include conductance peak suppression in the nonlinear bias regime and the simultaneous coupling of two different states to two separate leads.

  1. Short Multi-Prover Quantum Proofs for SAT without Entangled Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing

    2010-01-01

    BellQMA protocols are a subclass of multi-prover quantum Merlin-Arthur protocols in which the verifier is restricted to perform nonadaptive,unentangled measurements on the quantum states received from each Merlin. In this paper, we prove that m-clause 3-SAT instances have BellQMA proofs of satisfiability with constant soundness gap, in which O(sqrt(m)polylog(m)) Merlins each send O(log m) qubits to Arthur. Our result answers a question of Aaronson et al., who gave a protocol with similar parameters that used entangled measurements; the analysis of our protocol is significantly simpler than that of Aaronson et al. Our result also complements recent work of Brandao, Christandl, and Yard, who showed upper bounds on the power of multiprover quantum proofs with unentangled but adaptive (LOCC) measurements.

  2. Quantum Yield Measurements of Fluorophores in Lipid Bilayers Using a Plasmonic Nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Falk; Ruhlandt, Daja; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg; Chizhik, Alexey I

    2017-03-20

    Precise knowledge of the quantum yield is important for many fluorescence-spectroscopic techniques, for example, for Förster resonance energy transfer. However, to measure it for emitters in a complex environment and at low concentrations is far from being trivial. Using a plasmonic nanocavity, we measure the absolute quantum yield value of lipid-conjugated dyes incorporated into a supported lipid bilayer. We show that for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules the quantum yield of dyes inside the lipid bilayer strongly differs from its value in aqueous solution. This finding is of particular importance for all fluorescence-spectroscopic studies involving lipid bilayers, such as protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions in membranes or direct fluorescence-spectroscopic measurements of membrane physical properties.

  3. Controlling and measuring quantum transport of heat in trapped-ion crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, A; Bruderer, M; Plenio, M B

    2013-07-26

    Measuring heat flow through nanoscale devices poses formidable practical difficulties as there is no "ampere meter" for heat. We propose to overcome this problem in a chain of trapped ions, where laser cooling the chain edges to different temperatures induces a heat current of local vibrations (vibrons). We show how to efficiently control and measure this current, including fluctuations, by coupling vibrons to internal ion states. This demonstrates that ion crystals provide an ideal platform for studying quantum transport, e.g., through thermal analogues of quantum wires and quantum dots. Notably, ion crystals may give access to measurements of the elusive bosonic fluctuations in heat currents and the onset of Fourier's law. Our results are strongly supported by numerical simulations for a realistic implementation with specific ions and system parameters.

  4. Cluster-state quantum computing enhanced by high-fidelity generalized measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, D N; Kaltenbaek, R; Hamel, D R; Weihs, G; Rudolph, T; Resch, K J

    2009-12-11

    We introduce and implement a technique to extend the quantum computational power of cluster states by replacing some projective measurements with generalized quantum measurements (POVMs). As an experimental demonstration we fully realize an arbitrary three-qubit cluster computation by implementing a tunable linear-optical POVM, as well as fast active feedforward, on a two-qubit photonic cluster state. Over 206 different computations, the average output fidelity is 0.9832+/-0.0002; furthermore the error contribution from our POVM device and feedforward is only of O(10(-3)), less than some recent thresholds for fault-tolerant cluster computing.

  5. Fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computing with continuous-variable cluster states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2014-03-28

    A long-standing open question about Gaussian continuous-variable cluster states is whether they enable fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation. The answer is yes. Initial squeezing in the cluster above a threshold value of 20.5 dB ensures that errors from finite squeezing acting on encoded qubits are below the fault-tolerance threshold of known qubit-based error-correcting codes. By concatenating with one of these codes and using ancilla-based error correction, fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation of theoretically indefinite length is possible with finitely squeezed cluster states.

  6. Accurate measurement of the transition dipole moment of self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Johansen, Jeppe; Nikolaev, I.S.

    2007-01-01

    Here we present quantitative measurements of the dipole moment of an ensemble of self-assembled quantum dots employing a modified optical local density of states (LDOS). The LDOS is controlled by varying the distance from the QDs to a semiconductor/air interface.......Here we present quantitative measurements of the dipole moment of an ensemble of self-assembled quantum dots employing a modified optical local density of states (LDOS). The LDOS is controlled by varying the distance from the QDs to a semiconductor/air interface....

  7. Fisher Information and the Quantum Cramér-Rao Sensitivity Limit of Continuous Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements with quantum systems rely on our ability to trace the differences between experimental signals to variations in unknown physical parameters. In this Letter we derive the Fisher information and the ensuing Cramér-Rao sensitivity limit for parameter estimation by continuous...... measurements on an open quantum system. We illustrate our theory by its application to resonance fluorescence from a laser-driven two-state atom; we show that photon counting and homodyne detection records yield different sensitivity to the atomic parameters, while none of them exceed our general result....

  8. Autonomous Quantum Clocks: Does Thermodynamics Limit Our Ability to Measure Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erker, Paul; Mitchison, Mark T.; Silva, Ralph; Woods, Mischa P.; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus

    2017-07-01

    Time remains one of the least well-understood concepts in physics, most notably in quantum mechanics. A central goal is to find the fundamental limits of measuring time. One of the main obstacles is the fact that time is not an observable and thus has to be measured indirectly. Here, we explore these questions by introducing a model of time measurements that is complete and autonomous. Specifically, our autonomous quantum clock consists of a system out of thermal equilibrium—a prerequisite for any system to function as a clock—powered by minimal resources, namely, two thermal baths at different temperatures. Through a detailed analysis of this specific clock model, we find that the laws of thermodynamics dictate a trade-off between the amount of dissipated heat and the clock's performance in terms of its accuracy and resolution. Our results furthermore imply that a fundamental entropy production is associated with the operation of any autonomous quantum clock, assuming that quantum machines cannot achieve perfect efficiency at finite power. More generally, autonomous clocks provide a natural framework for the exploration of fundamental questions about time in quantum theory and beyond.

  9. Superresolving Phase Measurement with Short-Wavelength NOON States by Quantum Frequency Up-Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Shi-Long; Liu, Shi-Kai; Li, Yin-Hai; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2017-06-01

    Precise measurements are the key to advances in all fields of science. Quantum entanglement shows higher sensitivity than that which is achievable by classical methods. Most physical quantities including position, displacement, distance, angle, and optical path length can be obtained by optical phase measurements. Reducing the photon wavelength of the interferometry can further enhance the optical-path-length sensitivity and imaging resolution. By quantum frequency up-conversion, we realize a short-wavelength two-photon number entangled state. Nearly perfect Hong-Ou-Mandel interference is achieved after both 1547-nm photons are up-converted to 525 nm. Optical phase measurement of the two-photon entanglement state yields a visibility greater than the threshold to surpass the standard quantum limit. A spectra change of the photon pair after being up-converted is observed and well explained. These results offer alternative ways for high-precision quantum metrology using a short-wavelength quantum entanglement number state and offer a potential all-optical spectra engineering technique for the photon pair source.

  10. Dividing line between quantum and classical trajectories in a measurement problem: Bohmian time constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Antonio B; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2013-10-11

    This Letter proposes an answer to a challenge posed by Bell on the lack of clarity in regards to the dividing line between the quantum and classical regimes in a measurement problem. To this end, a generalized logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation is proposed to describe the time evolution of a quantum dissipative system under continuous measurement. Within the Bohmian mechanics framework, a solution to this equation reveals a novel result: it displays a time constant that should represent the dividing line between the quantum and classical trajectories. It is shown that continuous measurements and damping not only disturb the particle but compel the system to converge in time to a Newtonian regime. While the width of the wave packet may reach a stationary regime, its quantum trajectories converge exponentially in time to classical trajectories. In particular, it is shown that damping tends to suppress further quantum effects on a time scale shorter than the relaxation time of the system. If the initial wave packet width is taken to be equal to 2.8×10(-15) m (the approximate size of an electron), the Bohmian time constant is found to have an upper limit, i.e., τ(Bmax)=10(-26) s.

  11. Simuluating quantum many-body systems subject to measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren

    is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations....

  12. Simulating quantum many-body systems subject to measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren

    is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations....

  13. Analog of Formula of Total Probability for Quantum Observables Represented by Positive Operator Valued Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    We represent Born's rule as an analog of the formula of total probability (FTP): the classical formula is perturbed by an additive interference term. In this note we consider practically the most general case: generalized quantum observables given by positive operator valued measures and measurement feedback on states described by atomic instruments. This representation of Born's rule clarifies the probabilistic structure of quantum mechanics (QM). The probabilistic counterpart of QM can be treated as the probability update machinery based on the special generalization of classical FTP. This is the essence of the Växjö interpretation of QM: statistical realist contextual and local interpretation. We analyze the origin of the additional interference term in quantum FTP by considering the contextual structure of the two slit experiment which was emphasized by R. Feynman.

  14. Non-adiabatic elimination of auxiliary modes in continuous quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Chen, Yanbei

    2011-01-01

    When measuring a complex quantum system, we are often interested in only a few degrees of freedom-the plant, while the rest of them are collected as auxiliary modes-the bath. The bath can have finite memory (non-Markovian), and simply ignoring its dynamics, i.e., adiabatically eliminating it, is inadequate to predict the true quantum behavior of the plant. We generalize the technique introduced by Strunz et. al. [Phys. Rev. Lett 82, 1801 (1999)], and develop a formalism that allows us to eliminate the bath non-adiabatically in continuous quantum measurements, and derive a non-Markovian stochastic master equation for the plant alone. We apply this formalism to two interesting examples in cavity QED: (i) a two-level atom (a qubit) coupled to a cavity and (ii) linear optomechanical interaction, both of which can be exactly solved.

  15. Additional degrees of freedom associated with position measurements in non-commutative quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rohwer, CM

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we shall demonstrate that a measurement of position alone in non-commutative space cannot yield complete information about the quantum state of a particle. Indeed, the formalism used entails a description that is non-local in that it requires all orders of positional derivatives through the star product that is used ubiquitously to map operator multiplication onto function multiplication in non-commutative systems. It will be shown that there exist several equivalent local descriptions, which are arrived at via the introduction of additional degrees of freedom. Consequently non-commutative quantum mechanical position measurements necessarily confront us with some additional structure which is necessary to specify quantum states completely. The remainder of the thesis, will involve investigations into the physical interpretation of these additional degrees of freedom. For one particular local formulation, the corresponding classical theory will be used to demonstrate that the concept of extended...

  16. How to construct the optimal Bayesian measurement in quantum statistical decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fuyuhiko

    Recently, much more attention has been paid to the study aiming at the application of fundamental properties in quantum theory to information processing and technology. In particular, modern statistical methods have been recognized in quantum state tomography (QST), where we have to estimate a density matrix (positive semidefinite matrix of trace one) representing a quantum system from finite data collected in a certain experiment. When the dimension of the density matrix gets large (from a few hundred to millions), it gets a nontrivial problem. While a specific measurement is often given and fixed in QST, we are also able to choose a measurement itself according to the purpose of QST by using qunatum statistical decision theory. Here we propose a practical method to find the best projective measurement in the Bayesian sense. We assume that a prior distribution (e.g., the uniform distribution) and a convex loss function (e.g., the squared error) are given. In many quantum experiments, these assumptions are not so restrictive. We show that the best projective measurement and the best statistical inference based on the measurement outcome exist and that they are obtained explicitly by using the Monte Carlo optimization. The Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (No. 26280005).

  17. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: A role of phase and group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Mikaila; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.

    2017-08-01

    We consider the motion of a quantum particle in a free space. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity. We discuss the possibilities to demonstrate these effects for the optical pulses in coherently driven media or for radiation propagating in waveguides.

  18. Measuring entanglement entropy of a generic many-body system with a quantum switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanin, Dmitry A; Demler, Eugene

    2012-07-13

    Entanglement entropy has become an important theoretical concept in condensed matter physics because it provides a unique tool for characterizing quantum mechanical many-body phases and new kinds of quantum order. However, the experimental measurement of entanglement entropy in a many-body system is widely believed to be unfeasible, owing to the nonlocal character of this quantity. Here, we propose a general method to measure the entanglement entropy. The method is based on a quantum switch (a two-level system) coupled to a composite system consisting of several copies of the original many-body system. The state of the switch controls how different parts of the composite system connect to each other. We show that, by studying the dynamics of the quantum switch only, the Rényi entanglement entropy of the many-body system can be extracted. We propose a possible design of the quantum switch, which can be realized in cold atomic systems. Our work provides a route towards testing the scaling of entanglement in critical systems as well as a method for a direct experimental detection of topological order.

  19. Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental setups for the optical implementation of projective measurements in the Laguerre-Gaussian basis are discussed. Special attention is given to the case where the measurements are made with the aid of single-mode fibers that are used...

  20. Examining student ideas about energy measurements on quantum states across undergraduate and graduate levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Energy measurements play a fundamental role in the theory of quantum mechanics, yet there is evidence that the underlying concepts are difficult for many students, even after all undergraduate instruction. We present results from an investigation into student ability to determine the possible energies that can be measured for a given wave function and Hamiltonian, to determine the probabilities of each energy measurement and how they depend on time, and to recognize how a measurement of energy affects the state. By analyzing student responses to open-ended questions, we identify five broad, interrelated sets of conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to energy measurements. Data are drawn from sophomore-, junior-, and graduate-level quantum mechanics courses. Particular attention is paid to incorrect ideas that persist across all levels.