Classical Boolean logic gates with quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Renaud, N; Joachim, C, E-mail: n-renaud@northwestern.edu [Nanoscience Group and MANA Satellite CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France)
2011-04-15
An analytical method is proposed to implement any classical Boolean function in a small quantum system by taking the advantage of its electronic transport properties. The logical input, {alpha} = {l_brace}{alpha}{sub 1}, ..., {alpha}{sub N}{r_brace}, is used to control well-identified parameters of the Hamiltonian of the system noted H{sub 0}({alpha}). The logical output is encoded in the tunneling current intensity passing through the quantum system when connected to conducting electrodes. It is demonstrated how to implement the six symmetric two-input/one-output Boolean functions in a quantum system. This system can be switched from one logic function to another by changing its structural parameters. The stability of the logic gates is discussed, perturbing the Hamiltonian with noise sources and studying the effect of decoherence.
Quantum Circuit Synthesis using a New Quantum Logic Gate Library of NCV Quantum Gates
Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Sai; Song, Xiaoyu; Perkowski, Marek; Chen, Hanwu; Zhu, Wei
2017-04-01
Since Controlled-Square-Root-of-NOT (CV, CV‡) gates are not permutative quantum gates, many existing methods cannot effectively synthesize optimal 3-qubit circuits directly using the NOT, CNOT, Controlled-Square-Root-of-NOT quantum gate library (NCV), and the key of effective methods is the mapping of NCV gates to four-valued quantum gates. Firstly, we use NCV gates to create the new quantum logic gate library, which can be directly used to get the solutions with smaller quantum costs efficiently. Further, we present a novel generic method which quickly and directly constructs this new optimal quantum logic gate library using CNOT and Controlled-Square-Root-of-NOT gates. Finally, we present several encouraging experiments using these new permutative gates, and give a careful analysis of the method, which introduces a new idea to quantum circuit synthesis.
Quantum Circuit Synthesis using a New Quantum Logic Gate Library of NCV Quantum Gates
Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Sai; Song, Xiaoyu; Perkowski, Marek; Chen, Hanwu; Zhu, Wei
2016-12-01
Since Controlled-Square-Root-of-NOT (CV, CV‡) gates are not permutative quantum gates, many existing methods cannot effectively synthesize optimal 3-qubit circuits directly using the NOT, CNOT, Controlled-Square-Root-of-NOT quantum gate library (NCV), and the key of effective methods is the mapping of NCV gates to four-valued quantum gates. Firstly, we use NCV gates to create the new quantum logic gate library, which can be directly used to get the solutions with smaller quantum costs efficiently. Further, we present a novel generic method which quickly and directly constructs this new optimal quantum logic gate library using CNOT and Controlled-Square-Root-of-NOT gates. Finally, we present several encouraging experiments using these new permutative gates, and give a careful analysis of the method, which introduces a new idea to quantum circuit synthesis.
Cyclic groups and quantum logic gates
Pourkia, Arash; Batle, J.; Raymond Ooi, C. H.
2016-10-01
We present a formula for an infinite number of universal quantum logic gates, which are 4 by 4 unitary solutions to the Yang-Baxter (Y-B) equation. We obtain this family from a certain representation of the cyclic group of order n. We then show that this discrete family, parametrized by integers n, is in fact, a small sub-class of a larger continuous family, parametrized by real numbers θ, of universal quantum gates. We discuss the corresponding Yang-Baxterization and related symmetries in the concomitant Hamiltonian.
Second Quantization Representation of Quantum Logic Gate Transformations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Lei; ZHANG Yong-De
2001-01-01
By using the theory of multimode linear transformation in Fock space, we offer an effective method to study the quantum logic gates based on fermion states. The forms of some basic quantum logic operations are also obtained.
Implementation of Quantum Logic Gates by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DU Jiang-Feng; WU Ji-Hui; SHI Ming-Jun; HAN Liang; ZHOU Xian-Yi; YE Bang-Jiao; WENG Hui-Ming; HAN Rong-Dian
2000-01-01
Using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques with a solution of cytosine molecules, we show an implementation of certain quantum logic gates (including NOT gate, square-root of NOT gate and controlled-NOT gate), which have central importance in quantum computing. In addition, experimental results show that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can efficiently measure the result of quantum computing without attendant wave-function collapse.
Quantum logic gates from Dirac quasiparticles
Marino, E. C.; Brozeguini, J. C.
2015-03-01
We show that one of the fundamental operations of topological quantum computation, namely the non-Abelian braiding of identical particles, can be physically realized in a general system of Dirac quasiparticles in 1 + 1D. Our method is based on the study of the analytic structure of the different Euclidean correlation functions of Dirac fields, which are conveniently expressed as functions of a complex variable. When the Dirac field is an (Abelian) anyon with statistics parameter s (2s not an integer), we show that the associated Majorana states of such a field present non-Abelian statistics. The explicit form of the unitary, non-commuting (monodromy) matrices generated upon braiding is derived as a function of s and is shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter algebra. For the special case of s = 1/4, we show that the braiding matrices become the logic gates NOT, CNOT,… required in the algorithms of universal quantum computation. We suggest that maybe polyacetylene, alternately doped with alkali and halogen atoms, is a potential candidate for a physical material realization of the system studied here.
Two-Qubit Quantum Logic Gate in Molecular Magnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Jing-Min; TIAN Li-Jun; GE Mo-Lin
2005-01-01
@@ We propose a scheme to realize a controlled-NOT quantum logic gate in a dimer of exchange coupled singlemolecule magnets, [Mn4]2. We chosen the ground state and the three low-lying excited states of a dimer in a finite longitudinal magnetic field as the quantum computing bases and introduced a pulsed transverse magnetic field with a special frequency. The pulsed transverse magnetic field induces the transitions between the quantum computing bases so as to realize a controlled-NOT quantum logic gate. The transition rates between a pair of the four quantum computing bases and between the quantum computing bases and excited states are evaluated and analysed.
Parallel transport quantum logic gates with trapped ions
de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P
2015-01-01
Quantum information processing will require combinations of gate operations and communication, with each applied in parallel to large numbers of quantum systems. These tasks are often performed sequentially, with gates implemented by pulsed fields and information transported either by moving the physical qubits or using photonic links. For trapped ions, an alternative approach is to implement quantum logic gates by transporting the ions through static laser beams, combining qubit operations with transport. This has significant advantages for scalability since the voltage waveforms required for transport can potentially be generated using micro-electronics integrated into the trap structure itself, while both optical and microwave control elements are significantly more bulky. Using a multi-zone ion trap, we demonstrate transport gates on a qubit encoded in the hyperfine structure of a beryllium ion. We show the ability to perform sequences of operations, and to perform parallel gates on two ions transported t...
A quantum logic gate between a solid-state quantum bit and a photon
Kim, Hyochul; Shen, Thomas C; Solomon, Glenn S; Waks, Edo; 10.1038/nphoton.2013.48
2013-01-01
Integrated quantum photonics provides a promising route towards scalable solid-state implementations of quantum networks, quantum computers, and ultra-low power opto-electronic devices. A key component for many of these applications is the photonic quantum logic gate, where the quantum state of a solid-state quantum bit (qubit) conditionally controls the state of a photonic qubit. These gates are crucial for development of robust quantum networks, non-destructive quantum measurements, and strong photon-photon interactions. Here we experimentally realize a quantum logic gate between an optical photon and a solid-state qubit. The qubit is composed of a quantum dot (QD) strongly coupled to a nano-cavity, which acts as a coherently controllable qubit system that conditionally flips the polarization of a photon on picosecond timescales, implementing a controlled-NOT (cNOT) gate. Our results represent an important step towards solid-state quantum networks and provide a versatile approach for probing QD-photon inter...
High-order noise filtering in nontrivial quantum logic gates
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Green, T
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Treating the effects of a time-dependent classical dephasing environment during quantum logic operations poses a theoretical challenge, as the application of noncommuting control operations gives rise to both dephasing and depolarization errors...
The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate.
Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C
2015-08-28
The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor.
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schumann, Andrew [University of Information Technology and Management, Sucharskiego 2, Rzeszow, 35-225 (Poland)
2015-03-10
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.
Energy dissipation dataset for reversible logic gates in quantum dot-cellular automata.
Bahar, Ali Newaz; Rahman, Mohammad Maksudur; Nahid, Nur Mohammad; Hassan, Md Kamrul
2017-02-01
This paper presents an energy dissipation dataset of different reversible logic gates in quantum-dot cellular automata. The proposed circuits have been designed and verified using QCADesigner simulator. Besides, the energy dissipation has been calculated under three different tunneling energy level at temperature T=2 K. For estimating the energy dissipation of proposed gates; QCAPro tool has been employed.
Six-Correction Logic (SCL Gates in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Anisur Rahman
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA is a promising nanotechnology in Quantum electronics for its ultra low power consumption, faster speed and small size features. It has significant advantages over the Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor (CMOS technology. This paper present, a novel QCA representation of Six-Correction Logic (SCL gate based on QCA logic gates: the Maj3, Maj AND gate and Maj OR. In order to design and verify the functionality of the proposed layout, QCADesigner a familiar QCA simulator has been employed. The simulation results confirm correctness of the claims and its usefulness in designing a digital circuits.
Del Duce, A; Bayvel, P
2009-01-01
We analyse the design and optimisation of quantum logic circuits suitable for the experimental demonstration of a three-qubit quantum computation prototype based on optically-controlled, solid-state quantum logic gates. In these gates, the interaction between two qubits carried by the electron-spin of donors is mediated by the optical excitation of a control particle placed in their proximity. First, we use a geometrical approach for analysing the entangling characteristics of these quantum gates. Then, using a genetic programming algorithm, we develop circuits for the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm investigating different strategies for obtaining short total computational times. We test two separate approaches based on using different sets of entangling gates with the shortest possible gate computation time which, however, does not introduce leakage of quantum information to the control particles. The first set exploits fast approximations of controlled-phase gates as entangling gates, while the other one a...
Efficient quantum computation in a network with probabilistic gates and logical encoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borregaard, J.; Sørensen, A. S.; Cirac, J. I.
2017-01-01
An approach to efficient quantum computation with probabilistic gates is proposed and analyzed in both a local and nonlocal setting. It combines heralded gates previously studied for atom or atomlike qubits with logical encoding from linear optical quantum computation in order to perform high......-fidelity quantum gates across a quantum network. The error-detecting properties of the heralded operations ensure high fidelity while the encoding makes it possible to correct for failed attempts such that deterministic and high-quality gates can be achieved. Importantly, this is robust to photon loss, which...... is typically the main obstacle to photonic-based quantum information processing. Overall this approach opens a path toward quantum networks with atomic nodes and photonic links....
Exact Quantum Logic Gates with a Single Trapped Cold Ion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韦联福; 刘世勇; 雷啸霖
2001-01-01
We present an alternative scheme to exactly implement one-qubit and two-qubit quantum gates with a single trapped cold ion driven by a travelling laser field. The internal degree of freedom of the ion acts as the target qubit and the control qubit is encoded by two Fock states of the external vibration of the ion. The conditions to realize these operations, including the duration of each applied laser pulse and Lamb-Dicke parameter, are derived. In our scheme neither the auxiliary atomic level nor the Lamb-Dicke approximation is required. The multiquantum transition between the internal and external degrees of freedom of the ion is considered.
Di Vincenzo, D P
1997-01-01
A historical review is given of the emergence of the idea of the quantum logic gate from the theory of reversible Boolean gates. I highlight the quantum XOR or controlled NOT as the fundamental two-bit gate for quantum computation. This gate plays a central role in networks for quantum error correction.
Energy dissipation dataset for reversible logic gates in quantum dot-cellular automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Newaz Bahar
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an energy dissipation dataset of different reversible logic gates in quantum-dot cellular automata. The proposed circuits have been designed and verified using QCADesigner simulator. Besides, the energy dissipation has been calculated under three different tunneling energy level at temperature T=2 K. For estimating the energy dissipation of proposed gates; QCAPro tool has been employed.
Ferritin-templated quantum dots for quantum logic gates (Invited Paper)
Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.
2005-05-01
Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. This technology is essential for NASA, DoD, and industrial nanotechnology applications such as: ultra-high density data storage, quantum electronic devices, biomedical nanorobots, molecular tagging, terahertz radiation sources, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), etc. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. By either the magnetic or electrical property of reconstituted core materials, the QD can be used for logic gates which are fundamental building blocks for quantum computing. However, QLGs are in an incubation stage and still have many potential obstacles that need to be addressed, such as an error collection, a decoherence, and a hardware architecture. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The other methods known so far, such as self-assembled QD grown in the Stranski-Krastanov mode, are usually randomly organized. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconstitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagon-shaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various
Implementation of quantum logic gates using coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luiz, F.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Duzzioni, E.I. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Sanz, L., E-mail: lsanz@infis.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica
2015-10-15
In this work, we are interested in the implementation of single-qubit gates on coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The system, a feasible candidate for a qubit, consists of condensed atoms in different hyperfine levels coupled by a two-photon transition. It is well established that the dynamics of coupled BECs can be described by the two-mode Hamiltonian that takes into account the confinement potential of the trap and the effects of collisions associated with each condensate. Other effects, such as collisions between atoms belonging to different BECs and detuning, are included in this approach. We demonstrate how to implement two types of quantum logic gates: population-transfer gates (NOT, Ŷ, and Hadamard), which require a population inversion between hyperfine levels, and phase gates (Z{sup ^}, Ŝ and T{sup ^}), which require self-trapping. We also discuss the experimental feasibility by evaluating the robustness of quantum gates against variations of physical parameters outside of the ideal conditions for the implementation of each quantum logic gate. (author)
Quantum logic gates with two-level trapped ions beyond Lamb-Dicke limit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Xiao-Juan; Luo Yi-Min; Cai Jian-Wu
2009-01-01
In the system with two two-level ions confined in a linear trap,this paper presents a simple scheme to realize the quantum phase gate(QPG)and the swap gate beyond the Lamb-Dicke(LD)limit.These two-qubit quantum logic gates only involve the internal states of two trapped ions.The scheme does not use the vibrational mode as the data bus and only requires a single resonant interaction of the ions with the lasers.Neither the LD approximation nor the auxiliary atomic level is needed in the proposed scheme.Thus the scheme is simple and the interaction time is very short,which is important in view of decoherence.The experimental feasibility for achieving this scheme is also discussed.
Implementation of Quantum Logic Gates Using Polar Molecules in Pendular States
Zhu, Jing; Wei, Qi; Herschbach, Dudley; Friedrich, Bretislav
2012-01-01
We present a systematic approach to implementation of basic quantum logic gates operating on polar molecules in pendular states as qubits for a quantum computer. A static electric field prevents quenching of the dipole moments by rotation, thereby creating the pendular states; also, the field gradient enables distinguishing among qubit sites. Multi-Target Optimal Control Theory (MTOCT) is used as a means of optimizing the initial-to-target transition probability via a laser field. We give detailed calculations for the SrO molecule, a favorite candidate for proposed quantum computers. Our simulation results indicate that NOT, Hadamard and CNOT gates can be realized with high fidelity for such pendular qubit states.
Castagnoli, G C
1999-01-01
In former work, quantum computation has been shown to be a problem solving process essentially affected by both the reversible dynamics leading to the state before measurement, and the logical-mathematical constraints introduced by quantum measurement (in particular, the constraint that there is only one measurement outcome). This dual influence, originated by independent initial and final conditions, justifies the quantum computation speed-up and is not representable inside dynamics, namely as a one-way propagation. In this work, we reformulate von Neumann's model of quantum measurement at the light of above findings. We embed it in a broader representation based on the quantum logic gate formalism and capable of describing the interplay between dynamical and non-dynamical constraints. The two steps of the original model, namely (1) dynamically reaching a complete entanglement between pointer and quantum object and (2) enforcing the one-outcome-constraint, are unified and reversed. By representing step (2) r...
Quantum logic gates using coherent population trapping states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok Vudayagiri
2011-12-01
A scheme is proposed for achieving a controlled phase gate using interaction between atomic spin dipoles. Further, the spin states are prepared in coherent population trap states (CPTs), which are robust against perturbations, laser ﬂuctuations etc. We show that one-qubit and two-qubit operations can easily be obtained in this scheme. The scheme is also robust against decoherences due to spontaneous emissions as the CPT states used are dressed states formed out of Zeeman sublevels of ground states of the bare atom. However, certain practical issues are of concern in actually obtaining the scheme, which are also discussed at the end of this paper.
Quantum gate between logical qubits in decoherence-free subspace implemented with trapped ions
Ivanov, Peter A; Singer, Kilian; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand
2009-01-01
We propose an efficient technique for the implementation of a geometric phase gate in a decoherence-free subspace with trapped ions. In this scheme, the quantum information is encoded in the Zeeman sublevels of the ground state and two physical qubits are used to make up one logical qubit with ultra long coherence time. The physical realization of a geometric phase gate between two logic qubits is performed with four ions in a linear crystal simultaneously interacting with single laser beam. We investigate in detail the robustness of the scheme with respect to the right choice of the trap frequency and provide a detailed analysis of error sources, taking into account the experimental conditions. Furthermore, possible applications for the generation of cluster states for larger numbers of ions within the decoherence-free subspace are presented.
Influence of non-resonant effects on the dynamics of quantum logic gates at room temperature
Berman, G. P.; Bishop, A. R.; Doolen, G. D.; López, G. V.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.
2001-01-01
We study numerically the influence of non-resonant effects on the dynamics of a single- π-pulse quantum CONTROL-NOT (CN) gate in a macroscopic ensemble of four-spin molecules at room temperature. The four nuclear spins in each molecule represent a four-qubit register. The qubits are “labeled” by the characteristic frequencies, ωk, ( k=0-3) due to the Zeeman interaction of the nuclear spins with the magnetic field. The qubits interact with each other through an Ising interaction of strength J. The paper examines the feasibility of implementing a single-pulse quantum CN gate in an ensemble of quantum molecules at room temperature. We determine a parameter region, ωk and J, in which a single-pulse quantum CN gate can be implemented at room temperature. We also show that there exist characteristic critical values of parameters, Δ ωcr≡| ωk‧ - ωk| cr and Jcr, such that for JJcr and Δ ωk≡| ωk‧ - ωk|<Δ ωcr, non-resonant effects are sufficient to destroy the dynamics required for quantum logic operations.
Fast Rydberg antiblockade regime and its applications in quantum logic gates
Su, Shi-Lei; Gao, Ya; Liang, Erjun; Zhang, Shou
2017-02-01
Unlike the Rydberg blockade regime, the Rydberg antiblockade regime (RABR) allows more than one Rydberg atom to be excited, which can bring other interesting phenomena and applications. We propose an alternative scheme to quickly achieve the RABR. The proposed RABR can be implemented by adjusting the detuning of the classical driving field, which is, in turn, based on the former numbers of the excited Rydberg atoms. In contrast to the former schemes, the current one enables more than two atoms to be excited to Rydberg states in a short period of time and thus is useful for large-scale quantum information processing. The proposed RABR can be used to construct two- and multiqubit quantum logic gates. In addition, a Rydberg excitation superatom, which can decrease the blockade error and enlarge the blockade radius for Rydberg blockade-based schemes, is constructed based on the suggested RABR and used to realize a more robust quantum logic gate. The mechanical effect and the ionization are discussed, and the performance is investigated using the master-equation method. Finally, other possible applications of the present RABR are also given.
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Quantum state transfer and logic gates with two 3-level atoms in cavity QED
Yang, Chui-Ping; Chu, Shih-I.
2004-08-01
We present a new way to implement quantum controlled phase-shift gate, quantum exchange gate (SWAP gate), and quantum state transfer with two 3-level atoms in cavity QED. The method does not involve real excitation of a cavity photon during the operation, thus decoherence induced due to the cavity-photon decay is minimized. In addition, it is remarkable that for all present purposes, no auxiliary atoms or any measurement is needed. Therefore, the operation is significantly simplified.
Chen, Qi; Yoo, Si-Youl; Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Ji-Young; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo
2016-10-01
Various bio-logic gates have been studied intensively to overcome the rigidity of single-function silicon-based logic devices arising from combinations of various gates. Here, a simple control tool using electrochemical signals from quantum dots (QDs) was constructed using DNA and organic materials for multiple logic functions. The electrochemical redox current generated from QDs was controlled by the DNA structure. DNA structure, in turn, was dependent on the components (organic materials) and the input signal (pH). Independent electrochemical signals from two different logic units containing QDs were merged into a single analog-type logic gate, which was controlled by two inputs. We applied this electrochemical biodevice to a simple logic system and achieved various logic functions from the controlled pH input sets. This could be further improved by choosing QDs, ionic conditions, or DNA sequences. This research provides a feasible method for fabricating an artificial intelligence system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
AN IMPROVED DESIGN OF A MULTIPLIER USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.R.BHAGYALAKSHMI
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic gates are very much in demand for the future computing technologies as they are known to produce zero power dissipation under ideal conditions. This paper proposes an improved design of a multiplier using reversible logic gates. Multipliers are very essential for the construction of various computational units of a quantum computer. The quantum cost of a reversible logic circuit can be minimized by reducing the number of reversible logic gates. For this two 4*4 reversible logic gates called a DPG gate and a BVF gate are used.
Yang, Guowu; Song, Xiaoyu; Perkowski, Marek
2011-01-01
We propose an approach to optimally synthesize quantum circuits from non-permutative quantum gates such as Controlled-Square-Root-of-Not (i.e. Controlled-V). Our approach reduces the synthesis problem to multiple-valued optimization and uses group theory. We devise a novel technique that transforms the quantum logic synthesis problem from a multi-valued constrained optimization problem to a group permutation problem. The transformation enables us to utilize group theory to exploit the properties of the synthesis problem. Assuming a cost of one for each two-qubit gate, we found all reversible circuits with quantum costs of 4, 5, 6, etc, and give another algorithm to realize these reversible circuits with quantum gates.
Logic Gates with Ion Transistors
Grebel, Haim
2016-01-01
Electronic logic gates are the basic building blocks of every computing and micro controlling system. Logic gates are made of switches, such as diodes and transistors. Ion-selective, ionic switches may emulate electronic switches [1-8]. If we ever want to create artificial bio-chemical circuitry, then we need to move a step further towards ion-logic circuitry. Here we demonstrate ion XOR and OR gates with electrochemical cells, and specifically, with two wet-cell batteries. In parallel to vacuum tubes, the batteries were modified to include a third, permeable and conductive mid electrode (the gate), which was placed between the anode and cathode in order to affect the ion flow through it. The key is to control the cell output with a much smaller biasing power, as demonstrated here. A successful demonstration points to self-powered ion logic gates.
Patel, Raj B; Ho, Joseph; Ferreyrol, Franck; Ralph, Timothy C; Pryde, Geoff J
2016-03-01
Minimizing the resources required to build logic gates into useful processing circuits is key to realizing quantum computers. Although the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, difficulties in scaling quantum systems have made more complex operations intractable. This is exemplified in the classical Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate for which, despite theoretical proposals, no quantum analog has been realized. By adding control to the SWAP unitary, we use photonic qubit logic to demonstrate the first quantum Fredkin gate, which promises many applications in quantum information and measurement. We implement example algorithms and generate the highest-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to date. The technique we use allows one to add a control operation to a black-box unitary, something that is impossible in the standard circuit model. Our experiment represents the first use of this technique to control a two-qubit operation and paves the way for larger controlled circuits to be realized efficiently.
Demonstration of a quantum logic gate in a cryogenic surface-electrode ion trap
Wang, Shannon X; Ge, Yufei; Shewmon, Ruth; Chuang, Isaac L
2009-01-01
We demonstrate quantum control techniques for a single trapped ion in a cryogenic, surface-electrode trap. A narrow optical transition of Sr+ along with the ground and first excited motional states of the harmonic trapping potential form a two-qubit system. The optical qubit transition is susceptible to magnetic field fluctuations, which we stabilize with a simple and compact method using superconducting rings. Decoherence of the motional qubit is suppressed by the cryogenic environment. AC Stark shift correction is accomplished by controlling the laser phase in the pulse sequencer, eliminating the need for an additional laser. Quantum process tomography is implemented on atomic and motional states using conditional pulse sequences. With these techniques we demonstrate a Cirac-Zoller Controlled-NOT gate in a single ion with a mean fidelity of 91(1)%.
Quantum logic gates from time-dependent global magnetic field in a system with constant exchange
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nenashev, A. V., E-mail: nenashev@isp.nsc.ru; Dvurechenskii, A. V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zinovieva, A. F. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Gornov, A. Yu.; Zarodnyuk, T. S. [Institute for System Dynamics and Control Theory SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)
2015-03-21
We propose a method that implements a universal set of one- and two-quantum-bit gates for quantum computation in a system of coupled electron pairs with constant non-diagonal exchange interaction. In our proposal, suppression of the exchange interaction is performed by the continual repetition of single-spin rotations. A small g-factor difference between the electrons allows for addressing qubits and avoiding strong magnetic field pulses. Numerical experiments were performed to show that, to implement the one- and two-qubit operations, it is sufficient to change the strength of the magnetic field by a few Gauss. This introduces one and then the other electron in a resonance. To determine the evolution of the two-qubit system, we use the algorithms of optimal control theory.
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Takeuchi, N; Yamanashi, Y; Yoshikawa, N
2014-01-01
.... However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices...
Cluster States from Quantum Logic Gates with Trapped Ions in Thermal Motion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Wen-Xing; ZHAN Zhi-Ming; LI Jia-Hua
2006-01-01
Following the recent proposal by Briegel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 910], a procedure is proposed for one-step realizing quantum control phase gates with two trapped ions in thermal motion. It is shown that the scheme can also be used to create a new special type of entangled states, i.e., cluster states of many trapped ions. In the scheme the two-trapped ions are simultaneously excited by a single laser beam and the frequency of the laser beam is slightly off resonance with the first lower vibration sideband of the trapped ions. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it does not use the vibrational mode as the data bus. Furthermore, our scheme is insensitive to both the initial motional state and heating (or decay) as long as the system remains in the Lamb-Dicke regime.
Single spin universal Boolean logic gate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agarwal, H; Pramanik, S; Bandyopadhyay, S [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)
2008-01-15
Recent advances in manipulating single electron spins in quantum dots have brought us close to the realization of classical logic gates, where binary bits are encoded in spin polarizations of single electrons. Here, we show that a linear array of three quantum dots, each containing a single spin polarized electron, and with nearest neighbor exchange coupling, acts as a NAND gate. The energy dissipated during switching this gate is the Landauer-Shannon limit of kTln(1/p{sub i} ) (T = ambient temperature and p{sub i}= intrinsic gate error probability). With present day technology, p{sub i} = 10{sup -9} is achievable above 1 K temperature. Even with this small intrinsic error probability, the energy dissipated during switching is only {approx}21kT, while today's nanoscale transistors dissipate about 40 000-50 000kT when they switch.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng Xiaojuan [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081 (China); Fang Maofa [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081 (China); Liao Xiangping [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081 (China); Cai Jianwu [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081 (China)
2007-02-14
In the system with a two-level ion confined both in a linear trap and in a high-Q single-mode cavity, we present a simple scheme to realize the basic two-qubit logic gates such as the quantum phase gate (QPG), the SWAP gate and the controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate beyond the Lamb-Dicke (LD) limit. We realize the three kinds of two-qubit quantum phase gates, i.e. QPG operation involving the cavity mode as well as the vibrational mode of the trapped ion, QPG operation involving the internal states as well as the vibrational mode of the trapped ion and QPG operation involving the internal states of the trapped ion as well as the cavity mode. The controlled-NOT gate can be implemented from a QPG operation through a rotation of the second qubit before and after the QPG operation. We can also perform the SWAP gate operation involving the ionic internal states of the trapped ion and the two-mode bosonic basis. The logic gates involving the cavity mode as well as the vibrational mode of the trapped ion are insensitive to spontaneous emission, and the logic gates involving the internal states as well as the vibrational mode of the trapped ion are insensitive to the decay of the cavity, which is an important feature for the practical implementation of quantum computing. Neither the LD approximation nor the auxiliary atomic level is needed in our scheme. Experimental feasibility for achieving our scheme is also discussed.
Basic Reversible Logic Gates and It’s Qca Implementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Papiya Biswas,
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic has various applications in various field like in Nanotechnology, quantum computing, Low power CMOS, Optical computing and DNA computing, etc. Quantum computation is One of the most important applications of the reversible logic.Basically reversible circuits do not lose information & reversible computation is performed only when system comprises of reversible gates. The reversible logic is design,main purposes are - decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits & the number of garbage output. This paper provides the basic‘s of reversible logic gates & its implementation in qca.
Adiabatic quantum gates and Boolean functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrecut, M; Ali, M K [Department of Physics, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4 (Canada)
2004-06-25
We discuss the logical implementation of quantum gates and Boolean functions in the framework of quantum adiabatic method, which uses the language of ground states, spectral gaps and Hamiltonians instead of the standard unitary transformation language. (letter to the editor)
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices
Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.
2014-09-01
Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage.
Simple and Fast Scheme for Realizing Quantum Logic Gates in an Ion Trap
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Shi-Biao
2004-01-01
We propose a simple and fast scheme to realize a controlled-NOT gate between two trapped ions using a resonant laser pulse. Our scheme allows the Rabi frequency of the laser field to be of the order of the vibrational frequency and thus the time required to complete the operation is greatly shortened, which is of importance in view of decoherence.
Rapidly Reconfigurable All-Optical Universal Logic Gates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goddard, L L; Kallman, J S; Bond, T C
2006-06-21
We present designs and simulations for a highly cascadable, rapidly reconfigurable, all-optical, universal logic gate. We will discuss the gate's expected performance, e.g. speed, fanout, and contrast ratio, as a function of the device layout and biasing conditions. The gate is a three terminal on-chip device that consists of: (1) the input optical port, (2) the gate selection port, and (3) the output optical port. The device can be built monolithically using a standard multiple quantum well graded index separate confinement heterostructure laser configuration. The gate can be rapidly and repeatedly reprogrammed to perform any of the basic digital logic operations by using an appropriate analog electrical or optical signal at the gate selection port. Specifically, the same gate can be selected to execute one of the 2 basic unary operations (NOT or COPY), or one of the 6 binary operations (OR, XOR, AND, NOR, XNOR, or NAND), or one of the many logic operations involving more than two inputs. The speed of the gate for logic operations as well as for reprogramming the function of the gate is primarily limited to the small signal modulation speed of a laser, which can be on the order of tens of GHz. The reprogrammable nature of the universal gate offers maximum flexibility and interchangeability for the end user since the entire application of a photonic integrated circuit built from cascaded universal logic gates can be changed simply by adjusting the gate selection port signals.
Protected gates for topological quantum field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beverland, Michael E.; Pastawski, Fernando; Preskill, John [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Buerschaper, Oliver [Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Koenig, Robert [Institute for Advanced Study and Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sijher, Sumit [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2016-02-15
We study restrictions on locality-preserving unitary logical gates for topological quantum codes in two spatial dimensions. A locality-preserving operation is one which maps local operators to local operators — for example, a constant-depth quantum circuit of geometrically local gates, or evolution for a constant time governed by a geometrically local bounded-strength Hamiltonian. Locality-preserving logical gates of topological codes are intrinsically fault tolerant because spatially localized errors remain localized, and hence sufficiently dilute errors remain correctable. By invoking general properties of two-dimensional topological field theories, we find that the locality-preserving logical gates are severely limited for codes which admit non-abelian anyons, in particular, there are no locality-preserving logical gates on the torus or the sphere with M punctures if the braiding of anyons is computationally universal. Furthermore, for Ising anyons on the M-punctured sphere, locality-preserving gates must be elements of the logical Pauli group. We derive these results by relating logical gates of a topological code to automorphisms of the Verlinde algebra of the corresponding anyon model, and by requiring the logical gates to be compatible with basis changes in the logical Hilbert space arising from local F-moves and the mapping class group.
Quantum half-adder Boolean logic gate with a nano-graphene molecule and graphene nano-electrodes
Srivastava, Saurabh; Kino, Hiori; Joachim, Christian
2017-01-01
A molecule Boolean 1 / 2 -adder is designed and the XOR and AND truth table calculated at +0.1 V using 4 graphene electrodes. It functions with level repulsion and destructive interferences effects using 4 molecule electronic states in a quantum Hamiltonian computing approach (QHC) with the abrupt change of the molecular orbital weight of those 4 calculating states as a function of the logical input configuration. The logical inputs enter rotating the two nitro groups of the central board. With QHC, a complex Boolean digital function can be implemented employing the same graphene material for interconnects and the molecule calculating parts.
Design of Asynchronous Sequential Circuits using Reversible Logic Gates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahram Dehghan
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In recent literature, Reversible logic has become one of the promising arena in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its applications in low power CMOS circuits ,optical information processing and nanotechnology. The reversible circuits form the basic building block of quantum computers as all quantum operations are reversible. This paper presents asynchronoussequential circuits and circuits without hazard effect using reversible logic gates. I illustrate that we can produce AND, OR, NAND, NOR, EXOR and EXNOR outputs in one design using reversible logic gates. Also, I will evaluate the proposed circuits. The results show that reversible logic can be used to design these circuits. In this paper, the number of gates and garbage outputs is considered.
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Allowable Generalized Quantum Gates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LONG Gui-Lu; LIU Yang; WANG Chuan
2009-01-01
In this paper, we give the most general duality gates, or generalized quantum gates in duality quantum computers. Here we show by explicit construction that a n-bit duality quantum computer with d slits can be simulated perfectly with an ordinary quantum computer with n qubits and one auxiliary qudit. Using this model, we give the most general form of duality gates which is of the form Σ(d-1)(i=0)piUi, and the Pi's are complex numbers with module less or equal to I and constrained by |Σipi|≤1.
Synthesizing biomolecule-based Boolean logic gates.
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2013-02-15
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, and hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications.
Entanglement of Formation for Werner States and Isotropic States via Logical Gates
Bertini, Cesarino; Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Leporini, Roberto
To what extent is a logical characterization of entanglement possible? We investigate some correlations that hold between the concept of entanglement of formation for Werner states and for isotropic states and the probabilistic behavior of some quantum logical gates.
Qin, Jun; Lu, Guo-Wei; Sakamoto, Takahide; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Wang, Danshi; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Hongxiang; Zhang, Min; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Ji, Yuefeng
2014-12-01
In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous multichannel wavelength multicasting (MWM) and exclusive-OR logic gate multicasting (XOR-LGM) for three 10Gbps non-return-to-zero differential phase-shift-keying (NRZ-DPSK) signals in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) by exploiting the four-wave mixing (FWM) process. No additional pump is needed in the scheme. Through the interaction of the input three 10Gbps DPSK signal lights in QD-SOA, each channel is successfully multicasted to three wavelengths (1-to-3 for each), totally 3-to-9 MWM, and at the same time, three-output XOR-LGM is obtained at three different wavelengths. All the new generated channels are with a power penalty less than 1.2dB at a BER of 10(-9). Degenerate and non-degenerate FWM components are fully used in the experiment for data and logic multicasting.
Novel Low Power Comparator Design using Reversible Logic Gates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nagamani A N
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic has received great attention in the recent years due to its ability to reduce the power dissipation which is the main requirement in low power digital design. It has wide applications inadvanced computing, low power CMOS design, Optical information processing, DNA computing, bio information, quantum computation and nanotechnology. This paper presents a novel design of reversiblecomparator using the existing reversible gates and proposed new Reversible BJN gate. All the comparators have been modeled and verified using VHDL and ModelSim. A comparative result is presented in terms of number of gates, number of garbage outputs, number of constant inputs and Quantum cost.
A quantum Fredkin gate (Conference Presentation)
Patel, Raj B.; Ho, Joseph; Ferreyrol, Franck; Ralph, Timothy C.; Pryde, Geoff J.
2016-10-01
One of the greatest challenges in modern science is the realisation of quantum computers which, as their scale increases, will allow enhanced performance of tasks across many areas of quantum information processing. Quantum logic gates play a vital role in realising these applications by carrying out the elementary operations on the qubits; a key aim is minimising the resources needed to build these gates into useful circuits. While the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, e.g., single- and two-qubit gates, difficulties in scaling quantum systems to encode and manipulate multiple qubits has hindered demonstrations of more complex operations. This is exemplified by the classical Fredkin (or controlled-SWAP) gate [1] for which, despite many theoretical proposals [2,3] relying on concatenating multiple two-qubit gates, a quantum analogue has yet to be realised. Here, by directly adding control to a two-qubit SWAP unitary [4], we use photonic qubit logic to report the first experimental demonstration of a quantum Fredkin gate [5]. Our scheme uses linear optics and improves on the overall probability of success by an order of magnitude over previous proposals [2,3]. This optical approach allows us to add control an arbitrary black-box unitary which is otherwise forbidden in the standard circuit model [6]. Additionally, the action of our gate exhibits quantum coherence allowing the generation of the highest fidelity three-photon GHZ states to date. The quantum Fredkin gate has many applications in quantum computing, quantum measurements [7] and cryptography [8,9]. Using our scheme, we apply the Fredkin gate to the task of direct measurements of the purity and state overlap of a quantum system [7] without recourse to quantum state tomography.
Szilard engine reversibility as quantum gate function
Mihelic, F. Matthew
2012-06-01
A quantum gate is a logically and thermodynamically reversible situation that effects a unitary transformation of qubits of superimposed information, and essentially constitutes a situation for a reversible quantum decision. A quantum decision is a symmetry break, and the effect of the function of a Szilard engine is a symmetry break. A quantum gate is a situation in which a reversible quantum decision can be made, and so if a logically and thermodynamically reversible Szilard engine can be theoretically constructed then it would function as a quantum gate. While the traditionally theorized Szilard engine is not thermodynamically reversible, if one of the bounding walls of a Szilard engine were to be constructed out of the physical information by which it functions in such a manner as to make that information available to both sides of the wall simultaneously, then such a Szilard engine would be both logically and thermodynamically reversible, and thus capable of function as a quantum gate. A theoretical model of the special case of a reversible Szilard engine functioning as a quantum gate is presented and discussed, and since a quantum decision is made when the shutter of a Szilard engine closes, the coherence of linked reversible Szilard engines should be considered as a state during which all of the shutters of linked Szilard engines are open simultaneously.
Quantum logic networks for probabilistic teleportation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘金明; 张永生; 郭光灿
2003-01-01
By means of the primitive operations consisting of single-qubit gates, two-qubit controlled-not gates, Von Neuman measurement and classically controlled operations, we construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing probabilistic teleportation of a single qubit, atwo-particle entangled state, and an N-particle entanglement. Based on the quantum networks, we show that after the partially entangled states are concentrated into maximal entanglement,the above three kinds of probabilistic teleportation are the same as the standard teleportation using the corresponding maximally entangled states as the quantum channels.
Quantum logic networks for probabilistic teleportation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘金明; 张永生; 等
2003-01-01
By eans of the primitive operations consisting of single-qubit gates.two-qubit controlled-not gates,Von Neuman measurement and classically controlled operations.,we construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing probabilistic teleportation of a single qubit,a two-particle entangled state,and an N-particle entanglement.Based on the quantum networks,we show that after the partially entangled states are concentrated into maximal entanglement,the above three kinds of probabilistic teleportation are the same as the standard teleportation using the corresponding maximally entangled states as the quantum channels.
Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks.
Wei, Hong; Wang, Zhuoxian; Tian, Xiaorui; Käll, Mikael; Xu, Hongxing
2011-07-12
Optical computing has been pursued for decades as a potential strategy for advancing beyond the fundamental performance limitations of semiconductor-based electronic devices, but feasible on-chip integrated logic units and cascade devices have not been reported. Here we demonstrate that a plasmonic binary NOR gate, a 'universal logic gate', can be realized through cascaded OR and NOT gates in four-terminal plasmonic nanowire networks. This finding provides a path for the development of novel nanophotonic on-chip processor architectures for future optical computing technologies.
Optimized reversible BCD adder using new reversible logic gates
Bhagyalakshmi, H R
2010-01-01
Reversible logic has received great attention in the recent years due to their ability to reduce the power dissipation which is the main requirement in low power digital design. It has wide applications advanced computing, low power CMOS design, Optical information processing, DNA computing, bio information, quantum computation and nanotechnology. This paper presents an optimized reversible BCD adder using a new reversible gate. A comparative result is presented which shows that the proposed design is more optimized in terms of number of gates, number of garbage outputs and quantum cost than the existing designs.
Logic gates based on ion transistors.
Tybrandt, Klas; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus
2012-05-29
Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.
Experimental Demonstration of a Quantum Circuit using Linear Optics Gates
Pittman, T B; Franson, J D
2004-01-01
Probabilistic quantum logic gates can be constructed using linear optical elements, ancilla photons, and post-selection based on the results of measurements. Here we describe an experimental demonstration of a simple quantum circuit that combines two exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates of that kind. Although circuits using XOR gates are not reversible, they may still be useful in a variety of applications such as generating non-classical states of light.
Slime mould logical gates: exploring ballistic approach
Adamatzky, Andrew
2010-01-01
Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. On a non-nutrient substrate the plasmodium propagates as a traveling localization, as a compact wave-fragment of protoplasm. The plasmodium-localization travels in its originally predetermined direction for a substantial period of time even when no gradient of chemo-attractants is present. We utilize this property of \\emph{Physarum} localizations to design a two-input two-output Boolean logic gates $ \\to $ and $ \\to $. We verify the designs in laboratory experiments and computer simulations. We cascade the logical gates into one-bit half-adder and simulate its functionality.
Designing novel reversible BCD adder and parallel adder/subtraction using new reversible logic gates
Zhou, Rigui; Zhang, Manqun; Wu, Qian; Shi, Yang
2012-10-01
Reversible logic has received much attention in recent years when calculation with minimum energy consumption is considered. Especially, interest is sparked in reversible logic by its applications in some technologies, such as quantum computing, low-power CMOS design, optical information processing and nanotechnology. This article proposes two new reversible logic gates, ZRQ and NC. The first gate ZRQ not only implements all Boolean functions but also can be used to design optimised adder/subtraction architectures. One of the prominent functionalities of the proposed ZRQ gate is that it can work by itself as a reversible full adder/subtraction unit. The second gate NC can complete overflow detection logic of Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) adder. This article proposes two approaches to design novel reversible BCD adder using new reversible gates. A comparative result which is presented shows that the proposed designs are more optimised in terms of number of gates, garbage outputs, quantum costs and unit delays than the existing designs.
Block-based quantum-logic synthesis
Saeedi, Mehdi; Zamani, Morteza Saheb; Sedighi, Mehdi
2010-01-01
In this paper, the problem of constructing an efficient quantum circuit for the implementation of an arbitrary quantum computation is addressed. To this end, a basic block based on the cosine-sine decomposition method is suggested which contains $l$ qubits. In addition, a previously proposed quantum-logic synthesis method based on quantum Shannon decomposition is recursively applied to reach unitary gates over $l$ qubits. Then, the basic block is used and some optimizations are applied to remove redundant gates. It is shown that the exact value of $l$ affects the number of one-qubit and CNOT gates in the proposed method. In comparison to the previous synthesis methods, the value of $l$ is examined consequently to improve either the number of CNOT gates or the total number of gates. The proposed approach is further analyzed by considering the nearest neighbor limitation. According to our evaluation, the number of CNOT gates is increased by at most a factor of $\\frac{5}{3}$ if the nearest neighbor interaction i...
Coherent spaces, Boolean rings and quantum gates
Vourdas, A.
2016-10-01
Coherent spaces spanned by a finite number of coherent states, are introduced. Their coherence properties are studied, using the Dirac contour representation. It is shown that the corresponding projectors resolve the identity, and that they transform into projectors of the same type, under displacement transformations, and also under time evolution. The set of these spaces, with the logical OR and AND operations is a distributive lattice, and with the logical XOR and AND operations is a Boolean ring (Stone's formalism). Applications of this Boolean ring into classical CNOT gates with n-ary variables, and also quantum CNOT gates with coherent states, are discussed.
Logical independence and quantum randomness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at
2010-01-15
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shefali Mamataj
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In today‟s world everyday a new technology which is faster, smaller and more complex than its predecessor is being developed. Reversible computation is a research area characterized by having only computational models that is both forward and backward deterministic. Reversible Logic is gaining significant consideration as the potential logic design style for implementation in modern nanotechnology and quantum computing with minimal impact on physical entropy. It has become very popular over the last few years since reversible logic circuits dramatically reduce energy loss. It consumes less power by recovering bit loss from its unique input-output mapping. This paper represents the implementation of conventional Boolean functions for basic digital gate by using COG reversible gate. This paper also represents a multi logic function generator circuit for generating multiple logical function simultaneously using COG gates. And also represents a controlled multi logic function generator circuit for generating any specified output in a controlled way.
Improved Classical Simulation of Quantum Circuits Dominated by Clifford Gates.
Bravyi, Sergey; Gosset, David
2016-06-24
We present a new algorithm for classical simulation of quantum circuits over the Clifford+T gate set. The runtime of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of qubits and the number of Clifford gates in the circuit but exponential in the number of T gates. The exponential scaling is sufficiently mild that the algorithm can be used in practice to simulate medium-sized quantum circuits dominated by Clifford gates. The first demonstrations of fault-tolerant quantum circuits based on 2D topological codes are likely to be dominated by Clifford gates due to a high implementation cost associated with logical T gates. Thus our algorithm may serve as a verification tool for near-term quantum computers which cannot in practice be simulated by other means. To demonstrate the power of the new method, we performed a classical simulation of a hidden shift quantum algorithm with 40 qubits, a few hundred Clifford gates, and nearly 50 T gates.
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
Zhang, Jingfu; Laflamme, Raymond; Suter, Dieter
2012-09-07
Large-scale universal quantum computing requires the implementation of quantum error correction (QEC). While the implementation of QEC has already been demonstrated for quantum memories, reliable quantum computing requires also the application of nontrivial logical gate operations to the encoded qubits. Here, we present examples of such operations by implementing, in addition to the identity operation, the NOT and the Hadamard gate to a logical qubit encoded in a five qubit system that allows correction of arbitrary single-qubit errors. We perform quantum process tomography of the encoded gate operations, demonstrate the successful correction of all possible single-qubit errors, and measure the fidelity of the encoded logical gate operations.
Universal programmable logic gate and routing method
Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An universal and programmable logic gate based on G.sup.4-FET technology is disclosed, leading to the design of more efficient logic circuits. A new full adder design based on the G.sup.4-FET is also presented. The G.sup.4-FET can also function as a unique router device offering coplanar crossing of signal paths that are isolated and perpendicular to one another. This has the potential of overcoming major limitations in VLSI design where complex interconnection schemes have become increasingly problematic.
Bimetal switches in an AND logic gate
Lubrica, Joel V.; Lubrica, Quantum Yuri B.
2016-09-01
In this frontline, we use bimetal switches to provide inputs in an electrical AND logic gate. These switches can be obtained from the pre-heat starters of fluorescent lamps, by safely removing the glass enclosure. They may be activated by small open flames. This frontline has a historical aspect because fluorescent lamps, together with pre-heat starters, are now being replaced by compact fluorescent, halogen, and LED lamps.
The Logic of Quantum Measurements
Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto
2013-07-01
We apply our previously developed formalism of contexts of histories, suitable to deal with quantum properties at different times, to the measurement process. We explore the logical implications which are allowed by the quantum theory, about the realization of properties of the microscopic measured system, before and after the measurement process with a given pointer value.
nLukac, Maarti; Kameyama, Michitaka
2011-01-01
It has been experimentally proven that realizing universal quantum gates using higher-radices logic is practically and technologically possible. We developed a Parallel Genetic Algorithm that synthesizes Boolean reversible circuits realized with a variety of quantum gates on qudits with various radices. In order to allow synthesizing circuits of medium sizes in the higher radix quantum space we performed the experiments using a GPU accelerated Genetic Algorithm. Using the accelerated GA we compare heuristic improvements to the mutation process based on cost minimization, on the adaptive cost of the primitives and improvements due to Baldwinian vs. Lamarckian GA. We also describe various fitness function formulations that allowed for various realizations of well known universal Boolean reversible or quantum-probabilistic circuits.
Yin, Z; Yin, Zhang-qi; Li, Fu-li
2007-01-01
A system consisting of two single-mode cavities spatially separated and connected by an optical fibre and multi two-level atoms trapped in the cavities is considered. If the atoms resonantly and collectively interact with the local cavity fields but there is no direct interaction between the atoms, we show that an ideal quantum state transfer, and highly reliable quantum swap, entangling and controlled-Z gates can be deterministically realized between the distant cavities. We find that the operation of the state-transfer, and swap, entangling and controlled-Z gates can be greatly speeded up as number of the atoms in the cavities increases. We also notice that the effects of spontaneous emission of atoms and photon leakage out of cavity on the quantum processes can also be greatly diminished in the multi-atom case.
Quantum logic processor: Implementation with electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Sarkar, Angik; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patwardhan, Ajay
2006-05-01
An approach for implementation of quantum logic in electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) has been described in this letter. All single qubit gates can be achieved by electron spin manipulation using Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Double qubit gates can also be implemented using the orbital degree of freedom of the electron. The MZI can be realized with intertwined ballistic nanowires. Spin injection and detection in the system can be done by a mesoscopic Stern-Gerlach apparatus. The system can be coupled in an array to form the quantum logic processor.
Optimized design of BCD adder and Carry skip BCD adder using reversible logic gates
H.R.Bhagyalakshmi,; M K Venkatesha
2011-01-01
Reversible logic is very essential for the construction of low power, low loss computational structures which are very essential for the construction of arithmetic circuits used in quantum computation, nano technology and other low power digital circuits. In the present paper an optimized and low quantum cost one digit BCD adder and an optimized one digit carry skip BCD adder using new reversible logic gates are proposed. The proposed work is best compared to the other existing circuits.
DESIGN OF OPTIMAL CARRY SKIP ADDER AND CARRY SKIP BCD ADDER USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATES
Praveena Murugesan; Thanushkodi Keppanagounder
2014-01-01
Reversible logic circuits have the ability to produce zero power dissipation which has found its importance in quantum computing, optical computing and low power digital circuits. The study presents improved and efficient reversible logic circuits for carry skip adder and carry skip BCD adder. The performance of the proposed architecture is better than the existing works in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and constant inputs. This design forms the basis for different quantum ALU and embe...
Optimized design of Carry Skip BCD adder using new FHNG reversible logic gates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md.Belayet Ali
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic is very essential for the construction of low power, low loss computational structures which are very essential for the construction of arithmetic circuits used in quantum computation, nanotechnology and other low power digital circuits. In the present paper an optimized and low quantum cost one digit carry skip BCD adder using new reversible logic gates are proposed. The proposed work is best compared to the other existing circuits.
Optimized design of BCD adder and Carry skip BCD adder using reversible logic gates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.R.Bhagyalakshmi,
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic is very essential for the construction of low power, low loss computational structures which are very essential for the construction of arithmetic circuits used in quantum computation, nano technology and other low power digital circuits. In the present paper an optimized and low quantum cost one digit BCD adder and an optimized one digit carry skip BCD adder using new reversible logic gates are proposed. The proposed work is best compared to the other existing circuits.
Development of a DNA sensor using molecular logic gate
Bhattacharjee, D; Chakraborty, S; Hussain, Syed Arshad
2014-01-01
This communication reports the increase in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency between two laser dyes in presence of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Two types of molecular logic gates have been designed where DNA acts as input signal and fluorescence intensity of different bands are taken as output signal. Use of these logic gates as DNA sensor has been demonstrated
Optimized 4-bit Quantum Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
Ayyoub, Slimani; Achour, Benslama
2017-08-01
Reversible logic has received a great attention in the recent years due to its ability to reduce the power dissipation. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is an important part of central processing unit (CPU) as the execution unit. This paper presents a complete design of a new reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The proposed ALU based on a reversible low power control unit and small performance parameters full adder named double Peres gates. The presented ALU can produce the largest number (28) of arithmetic and logic functions and have the smallest number of quantum cost and delay compared with existing designs.
Digital systems from logic gates to processors
Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; Terés, Lluís
2017-01-01
This textbook for a one-semester course in Digital Systems Design describes the basic methods used to develop “traditional” Digital Systems, based on the use of logic gates and flip flops, as well as more advanced techniques that enable the design of very large circuits, based on Hardware Description Languages and Synthesis tools. It was originally designed to accompany a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) created at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), currently available on the Coursera platform. Readers will learn what a digital system is and how it can be developed, preparing them for steps toward other technical disciplines, such as Computer Architecture, Robotics, Bionics, Avionics and others. In particular, students will learn to design digital systems of medium complexity, describe digital systems using high level hardware description languages, and understand the operation of computers at their most basic level. All concepts introduced are reinforced by plentiful illustrations, examples, ...
Demonstration of a Quantum Nondemolition Sum Gate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yoshikawa, J.; Miwa, Y.; Huck, Alexander;
2008-01-01
The sum gate is the canonical two-mode gate for universal quantum computation based on continuous quantum variables. It represents the natural analogue to a qubit C-NOT gate. In addition, the continuous-variable gate describes a quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction between the quadrature compo...
Synthesis of Reversible Functions Beyond Gate Count and Quantum Cost
Wille, Robert; Drechsler, Rolf
2010-01-01
Many synthesis approaches for reversible and quantum logic have been proposed so far. However, most of them generate circuits with respect to simple metrics, i.e. gate count or quantum cost. On the other hand, to physically realize reversible and quantum hardware, additional constraints exist. In this paper, we describe cost metrics beyond gate count and quantum cost that should be considered while synthesizing reversible and quantum logic for the respective target technologies. We show that the evaluation of a synthesis approach may differ if additional costs are applied. In addition, a new cost metric, namely Nearest Neighbor Cost (NNC) which is imposed by realistic physical quantum architectures, is considered in detail. We discuss how existing synthesis flows can be extended to generate optimal circuits with respect to NNC while still keeping the quantum cost small.
Quantum logic via optimal control in holographic dipole traps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorner, U [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Calarco, T [ECT, I-38050 Villazzano, TN (Italy); Zoller, P [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Browaeys, A [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, Centre Universitaire, Batiment 503, F-91403 Orsay (France); Grangier, P [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, Centre Universitaire, Batiment 503, F-91403 Orsay (France)
2005-10-01
We propose a scheme for quantum logic with neutral atoms stored in an array of holographic dipole traps where the positions of the atoms can be rearranged by using holographic optical tweezers. In particular, this allows for the transport of two atoms to the same well where an external control field is used to perform gate operations via the molecular interaction between the atoms. We show that optimal control techniques allow for the fast implementation of the gates with high fidelity.
Quantum logic via optimal control in holographic dipole traps
Dorner, U; Zoller, P; Browaeys, A; Grangier, P
2005-01-01
We propose a scheme for quantum logic with neutral atoms stored in an array of holographic dipole traps where the positions of the atoms can be rearranged by using holographic optical tweezers. In particular, this allows for the transport of two atoms to the same well where an external control field is used to perform gate operations via the molecular interaction between the atoms. We show that optimal control techniques allow for the fast implementation of the gates with high fidelity.
Protected quantum computing: interleaving gate operations with dynamical decoupling sequences.
Zhang, Jingfu; Souza, Alexandre M; Brandao, Frederico Dias; Suter, Dieter
2014-02-07
Implementing precise operations on quantum systems is one of the biggest challenges for building quantum devices in a noisy environment. Dynamical decoupling attenuates the destructive effect of the environmental noise, but so far, it has been used primarily in the context of quantum memories. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a general scheme for combining dynamical decoupling with quantum logical gate operations using the example of an electron-spin qubit of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. We achieve process fidelities >98% for gate times that are 2 orders of magnitude longer than the unprotected dephasing time T2.
Model of biological quantum logic in DNA.
Mihelic, F Matthew
2013-08-02
The DNA molecule has properties that allow it to act as a quantum logic processor. It has been demonstrated that there is coherent conduction of electrons longitudinally along the DNA molecule through pi stacking interactions of the aromatic nucleotide bases, and it has also been demonstrated that electrons moving longitudinally along the DNA molecule are subject to a very efficient electron spin filtering effect as the helicity of the DNA molecule interacts with the spin of the electron. This means that, in DNA, electrons are coherently conducted along a very efficient spin filter. Coherent electron spin is held in a logically and thermodynamically reversible chiral symmetry between the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers of the deoxyribose moiety in each nucleotide, which enables each nucleotide to function as a quantum gate. The symmetry break that provides for quantum decision in the system is determined by the spin direction of an electron that has an orbital angular momentum that is sufficient to overcome the energy barrier of the double well potential separating the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers, and that enantiomeric energy barrier is appropriate to the Landauer limit of the energy necessary to randomize one bit of information.
Model of Biological Quantum Logic in DNA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Matthew Mihelic
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The DNA molecule has properties that allow it to act as a quantum logic processor. It has been demonstrated that there is coherent conduction of electrons longitudinally along the DNA molecule through pi stacking interactions of the aromatic nucleotide bases, and it has also been demonstrated that electrons moving longitudinally along the DNA molecule are subject to a very efficient electron spin filtering effect as the helicity of the DNA molecule interacts with the spin of the electron. This means that, in DNA, electrons are coherently conducted along a very efficient spin filter. Coherent electron spin is held in a logically and thermodynamically reversible chiral symmetry between the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers of the deoxyribose moiety in each nucleotide, which enables each nucleotide to function as a quantum gate. The symmetry break that provides for quantum decision in the system is determined by the spin direction of an electron that has an orbital angular momentum that is sufficient to overcome the energy barrier of the double well potential separating the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers, and that enantiomeric energy barrier is appropriate to the Landauer limit of the energy necessary to randomize one bit of information.
Quantum Logic Networks for Probabilistic and Controlled Teleportation of Unknown Quantum States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Ting
2004-01-01
We present simplification schemes for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of the unknown quantum states of both one particle and two particles and construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing the new schemes by means of the primitive operations consisting of single-qubit gates, two-qubit controlled-not gates, Von Neumann measurement, and classically controlled operations. In these schemes the teleportation are not always successful but with certain probability.
Quantum gates with topological phases
Ionicioiu, R
2003-01-01
We investigate two models for performing topological quantum gates with the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) effects. Topological one- and two-qubit Abelian phases can be enacted with the AB effect using charge qubits, whereas the AC effect can be used to perform all single-qubit gates (Abelian and non-Abelian) for spin qubits. Possible experimental setups suitable for a solid state implementation are briefly discussed.
Fredkin Gates for Finite-valued Reversible and Conservative Logics
Cattaneo, G; Leporini, R; Cattaneo, Gianpiero; Leporati, Alberto; Leporini, Roberto
2002-01-01
The basic principles and results of Conservative Logic introduced by Fredkin and Toffoli on the basis of a seminal paper of Landauer are extended to d-valued logics, with a special attention to three-valued logics. Different approaches to d-valued logics are examined in order to determine some possible universal sets of logic primitives. In particular, we consider the typical connectives of Lukasiewicz and Godel logics, as well as Chang's MV-algebras. As a result, some possible three-valued and d-valued universal gates are described which realize a functionally complete set of fundamental connectives.
Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic with Global Radiation Fields
Weidt, S.; Randall, J.; Webster, S. C.; Lake, K.; Webb, A. E.; Cohen, I.; Navickas, T.; Lekitsch, B.; Retzker, A.; Hensinger, W. K.
2016-11-01
Trapped ions are a promising tool for building a large-scale quantum computer. However, the number of required radiation fields for the realization of quantum gates in any proposed ion-based architecture scales with the number of ions within the quantum computer, posing a major obstacle when imagining a device with millions of ions. Here, we present a fundamentally different approach for trapped-ion quantum computing where this detrimental scaling vanishes. The method is based on individually controlled voltages applied to each logic gate location to facilitate the actual gate operation analogous to a traditional transistor architecture within a classical computer processor. To demonstrate the key principle of this approach we implement a versatile quantum gate method based on long-wavelength radiation and use this method to generate a maximally entangled state of two quantum engineered clock qubits with fidelity 0.985(12). This quantum gate also constitutes a simple-to-implement tool for quantum metrology, sensing, and simulation.
Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic with Global Radiation Fields.
Weidt, S; Randall, J; Webster, S C; Lake, K; Webb, A E; Cohen, I; Navickas, T; Lekitsch, B; Retzker, A; Hensinger, W K
2016-11-25
Trapped ions are a promising tool for building a large-scale quantum computer. However, the number of required radiation fields for the realization of quantum gates in any proposed ion-based architecture scales with the number of ions within the quantum computer, posing a major obstacle when imagining a device with millions of ions. Here, we present a fundamentally different approach for trapped-ion quantum computing where this detrimental scaling vanishes. The method is based on individually controlled voltages applied to each logic gate location to facilitate the actual gate operation analogous to a traditional transistor architecture within a classical computer processor. To demonstrate the key principle of this approach we implement a versatile quantum gate method based on long-wavelength radiation and use this method to generate a maximally entangled state of two quantum engineered clock qubits with fidelity 0.985(12). This quantum gate also constitutes a simple-to-implement tool for quantum metrology, sensing, and simulation.
Complete all-optical processing polarization-based binary logic gates and optical processors.
Zaghloul, Y A; Zaghloul, A R M
2006-10-16
-input gates, and sequential and non-sequential Boolean expressions are presented and discussed. The operation of each design is simply understood by a bullet train traveling at the speed of light on a railroad system preconditioned by the crossover states predetermined by the control inputs. The presented designs allow for optical processing of the information eliminating the need to convert it, back and forth, to an electronic signal for processing purposes. All gates with a truth table, including for example Fredkin, Toffoli, testable reversible logic, and threshold logic gates, can be designed and implemented using the railroad architecture. That includes any future gates not known today. Those designs and the quantum gates are not discussed in this paper.
Hassan, Md Kamrul; Nahid, Nur Mohammad; Bahar, Ali Newaz; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maksudur Rahman; Abdullah-Al-Shafi, Md; Ahmed, Kawsar
2017-08-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a developing nanotechnology, which seems to be a good candidate to replace the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this article, we present the dataset of average output polarization (AOP) for basic reversible logic gates presented in Ali Newaz et al. (2016) [1]. QCADesigner 2.0.3 has been employed to analysis the AOP of reversible gates at different temperature levels in Kelvin (K) unit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Kamrul Hassan
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is a developing nanotechnology, which seems to be a good candidate to replace the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. In this article, we present the dataset of average output polarization (AOP for basic reversible logic gates presented in Ali Newaz et al. (2016 [1]. QCADesigner 2.0.3 has been employed to analysis the AOP of reversible gates at different temperature levels in Kelvin (K unit.
A Novel Design of Half Subtractor using Reversible Feynman Gate in Quantum Dot cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rubina Akter
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum Dot cellular Automata (QCA is an emerging, promising alternative to CMOS technology that performs its task by encoding binary information on electronic charge configuration of a cell. All circuit based on QCA has an advantages of high speed, high parallel processing, high integrityand low power consumption. Reversible logic gates are the leading part in Quantum Dot cellular Automata. Reversible logic gates have an extensive feature that does not lose information. In this paper, we present a novel architecture of half subtractor gate design by reversible Feynman gate. This circuit is designedbased on QCA logic gates such as QCA majority voter gate, majority AND gate, majority OR gate and inverter gate. This circuit will provide an effective working efficiency on computational units of the digital circuit system.
NOVEL REVERSIBLE VARIABLE PRECISION MULTIPLIER USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATES
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
M. Saravanan; K. Suresh Manic
2014-01-01
.... In this study a reversible logic gate based design of variable precision multiplier is proposed which have the greater efficiency in power consumption and speed since the partial products received...
Interpreting Quantum Logic as a Pragmatic Structure
Garola, Claudio
2017-02-01
Many scholars maintain that the language of quantum mechanics introduces a quantum notion of truth which is formalized by (standard, sharp) quantum logic and is incompatible with the classical (Tarskian) notion of truth. We show that quantum logic can be identified (up to an equivalence relation) with a fragment of a pragmatic language LGP of assertive formulas, that are justified or unjustified rather than trueor false. Quantum logic can then be interpreted as an algebraic structure that formalizes properties of the notion of empirical justification according to quantum mechanics rather than properties of a quantum notion of truth. This conclusion agrees with a general integrationist perspective that interprets nonstandard logics as theories of metalinguistic notions different from truth, thus avoiding incompatibility with classical notions and preserving the globality of logic.
Experimental investigation of a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit
Stárek, R.; Mičuda, M.; Miková, M.; Straka, I.; Dušek, M.; Ježek, M.; Fiurášek, J.
2016-09-01
We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit. Our robust and versatile scheme exploits encoding of two qubits into polarization and path degrees of single photons and involves two crossed inherently stable interferometers. This approach allows us to design a complex quantum logic circuit that combines a genuine four-qubit C3Z gate and several two-qubit and single-qubit gates. The C3Z gate introduces a sign flip if and only if all four qubits are in the computational state |1>. We verify high-fidelity performance of this central four-qubit gate using Hofmann bounds on quantum gate fidelity and Monte Carlo fidelity sampling. We also experimentally demonstrate that the quantum logic circuit can generate genuine multipartite entanglement and we certify the entanglement with the use of suitably tailored entanglement witnesses.
All-optical reversible logic gates with microresonators
Sethi, Purnima; Roy, Sukhdev; Topolancik, Juraj; Vollmer, Frank
2011-08-01
We present designs of all-optical reversible logic gates, namely, Feynman, Toffoli, Peres and Feynman Double gates, based on switching of a near-IR (1310/1550 nm) signal by low-power control signals at 532 nm and 405 nm, in optically controlled bacteriorhodopsin protein-coated silica microcavities coupled between two tapered single-mode fibers.
Variable Block Carry Skip Logic using Reversible Gates
Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Islam, Md. Saiful; Karim, Muhammad Rezaul; Mahmud, Abdullah Al; Babu, Hafiz Md. Hasan
2010-01-01
Reversible circuits have applications in digital signal processing, computer graphics, quantum computation and cryptography. In this paper, a generalized k*k reversible gate family is proposed and a 3*3 gate of the family is discussed. Inverter, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and EXOR gates can be realized by this gate. Implementation of a full-adder circuit using two such 3*3 gates is given. This full-adder circuit contains only two reversible gates and produces no extra garbage outputs. The proposed f...
Local Gate Control in Carbon Nanotube Quantum Devices
Biercuk, Michael
2005-03-01
Carbon nanotubes exhibit many properties which make them ideal candidates for applications in coherent electronic devices for quantum computation.We have made significant technological advancements in device fabrication,for the creation of multiple spatially localized electrostatic gates on a single nanotube device. These advancements permit a previously unattainable level of device control in the quantum regime, essential forelectronic logic operations. Our measurements have demonstrated independent gate control in nanotube double quantum dots defined by naturally occurring tunnel barriers [1], as well as the controllable formation of intratube quantum point contacts [2]. In these devices conductance quantization is evident in units of e2/h, suggesting that both band and spin degeneracies may be lifted at zero magnetic field. Local gating has also permitted the fabrication of fully gate-defined intratube quantum dots with gate-tunable tunnel barriers. Multiple quantum dots with independent control over charge number and tunneling rates have been demonstrated [3], raising the functionality of carbon nanotube devices to match that of standard semiconductor heterostructures. New devices incorporating integrated RF-SETs, and microwave studies of gate-defined intratube quantum dots will be discussed.[1] Science 303 p.655, 20042] PRL in press, cond-mat/04066523] To be published
Design of CMOS logic gates for TID radiation
Attia, John Okyere; Sasabo, Maria L.
1993-01-01
The rise time, fall time and propagation delay of the logic gates were derived. The effects of total ionizing dose (TID) radiation on the fall and rise times of CMOS logic gates were obtained using C program calculations and PSPICE simulations. The variations of mobility and threshold voltage on MOSFET transistors when subjected to TID radiation were used to determine the dependence of switching times on TID. The results of this work indicate that by increasing the size of P-channel transistor with respect to the N-channel transistors of the CMOS gates, the propagation delay of CMOS logic gate can be made to decrease with, or be independent of an increase in TID radiation.
Design of High Speed Low Power Reversible Logic Adder Using HNG Gate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manjeet Singh Sankhwar,
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Reversibility plays a fundamental role when computations with minimal energy dissipation are considered. In recent years, reversible logic has emerged as one of the most important approaches for power optimization with its application in low power CMOS, optical information processing, quantum computing and nanotechnology. This research proposes a new implementation of adder in reversible logic. The design reduces the number of gate operations compared to the existing adder reversible logic implementations. So, this design gives rise to an implementation with a reduced area and delay. We can use it to construct more complex systems in nanotechnology.
Philosophy and logic of quantum physics
Dapprich, Jan Philipp
2015-01-01
The book investigates the ontology and logic of quantum physics. The first part discusses the relationship of theory and observation and different views on the ontological status of scientific theories. It introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and some of its interpretations and their compatibility with various ontological positions. In the second part, implications of quantum mechanics on classical logic, especially on the distributive law and bivalence, as discussed by Garrett Birkhoff & John von Neumann (1936) and Hilary Putnam (1968), and their counterarguments are reconstructed and discussed. It is concluded that classical logic is sufficient for dealing with quantum mechanical propositions.
Quantum Logic with Cavity Photons From Single Atoms
Holleczek, Annemarie; Barter, Oliver; Rubenok, Allison; Dilley, Jerome; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B. R.; Langfahl-Klabes, Gunnar; Marshall, Graham D.; Sparrow, Chris; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Kuhn, Axel; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-07-01
We demonstrate quantum logic using narrow linewidth photons that are produced with an a priori nonprobabilistic scheme from a single 87Rb atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity. We use a controlled-not gate integrated into a photonic chip to entangle these photons, and we observe nonclassical correlations between photon detection events separated by periods exceeding the travel time across the chip by 3 orders of magnitude. This enables quantum technology that will use the properties of both narrow-band single photon sources and integrated quantum photonics.
Variable Block Carry Skip Logic using Reversible Gates
Islam, Md Rafiqul; Karim, Muhammad Rezaul; Mahmud, Abdullah Al; Babu, Hafiz Md Hasan
2010-01-01
Reversible circuits have applications in digital signal processing, computer graphics, quantum computation and cryptography. In this paper, a generalized k*k reversible gate family is proposed and a 3*3 gate of the family is discussed. Inverter, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and EXOR gates can be realized by this gate. Implementation of a full-adder circuit using two such 3*3 gates is given. This full-adder circuit contains only two reversible gates and produces no extra garbage outputs. The proposed full-adder circuit is efficient in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and quantum cost. A 4-bit carry skip adder is designed using this full-adder circuit and a variable block carry skip adder is discussed. Necessary equations required to evaluate these adder are presented.
Chaplin, J C; Russell, N A; Krasnogor, N
2012-07-01
In this paper we detail experimental methods to implement registers, logic gates and logic circuits using populations of photochromic molecules exposed to sequences of light pulses. Photochromic molecules are molecules with two or more stable states that can be switched reversibly between states by illuminating with appropriate wavelengths of radiation. Registers are implemented by using the concentration of molecules in each state in a given sample to represent an integer value. The register's value can then be read using the intensity of a fluorescence signal from the sample. Logic gates have been implemented using a register with inputs in the form of light pulses to implement 1-input/1-output and 2-input/1-output logic gates. A proof of concept logic circuit is also demonstrated; coupled with the software workflow describe the transition from a circuit design to the corresponding sequence of light pulses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Orbach, Ron; Remacle, Françoise; Levine, R D; Willner, Itamar
2012-12-26
The Toffoli and Fredkin gates were suggested as a means to exhibit logic reversibility and thereby reduce energy dissipation associated with logic operations in dense computing circuits. We present a construction of the logically reversible Toffoli and Fredkin gates by implementing a library of predesigned Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzymes and their respective substrates. Although the logical reversibility, for which each set of inputs uniquely correlates to a set of outputs, is demonstrated, the systems manifest thermodynamic irreversibility originating from two quite distinct and nonrelated phenomena. (i) The physical readout of the gates is by fluorescence that depletes the population of the final state of the machine. This irreversible, heat-releasing process is needed for the generation of the output. (ii) The DNAzyme-powered logic gates are made to operate at a finite rate by invoking downhill energy-releasing processes. Even though the three bits of Toffoli's and Fredkin's logically reversible gates manifest thermodynamic irreversibility, we suggest that these gates could have important practical implication in future nanomedicine.
Fredkin gates for finite-valued reversible and conservative logics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cattaneo, G; Leporati, A; Leporini, R [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemistica e Comunicazione, Universita degli Studi di Milano - Bicocca, via Bicocca degli Arcimboldi 8, 20126 Milan (Italy)
2002-11-22
The basic principles and results of conservative logic introduced by Fredkin and Toffoli in 1982, on the basis of a seminal paper of Landauer, are extended to d-valued logics, with a special attention to three-valued logics. Different approaches to d-valued logics are examined in order to determine some possible universal sets of logic primitives. In particular, we consider the typical connectives of Lukasiewicz and Goedel logics, as well as Chang's MV-algebras. As a result, some possible three-valued and d-valued universal gates are described which realize a functionally complete set of fundamental connectives. Two no-go theorems are also proved.
Quantum Logic Between Distant Trapped Ions
Olmschenk, S; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Moehring, D L; Monroe, C
2009-01-01
Trapped atomic ions have proven to be one of the most promising candidates for the realization of quantum computation due to their long trapping times, excellent coherence properties, and exquisite control of the internal atomic states. Integrating ions (quantum memory) with photons (distance link) offers a unique path to large-scale quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. In this article, we present a detailed review of the experimental implementation of a heralded photon-mediated quantum gate between remote ions, and the employment of this gate to perform a teleportation protocol between two ions separated by a distance of about one meter.
Non-adiabatic geometrical quantum gates in semiconductor quantum dots
Solinas, P; Zanghì, N; Rossi, F; Solinas, Paolo; Zanardi, Paolo; Zanghì, Nino; Rossi, Fausto
2003-01-01
In this paper we study the implementation of non-adiabatic geometrical quantum gates with in semiconductor quantum dots. Different quantum information enconding/manipulation schemes exploiting excitonic degrees of freedom are discussed. By means of the Aharanov-Anandan geometrical phase one can avoid the limitations of adiabatic schemes relying on adiabatic Berry phase; fast geometrical quantum gates can be in principle implemented
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yi-Min; ZHOU Yan-Li; LIANG Lin-Mei; LI Cheng-Zu
2009-01-01
We propose a feasible scheme to achieve universal quantum gate operations in decoherence-free subspace with superconducting charge qubits placed in a microwave cavity.Single-logic-qubit gates can be realized with cavity assisted interaction, which possesses the advantages of unconventional geometric gate operation.The two-logic-qubit controlled-phase gate between subsystems can be constructed with the help of a variable electrostatic transformer, The collective decoherence can be successfully avoided in our well-designed system.Moreover, GHZ state for logical qubits can also be easily produced in this system.
VLSI Implementation of Fault Tolerance Multiplier based on Reversible Logic Gate
Ahmad, Nabihah; Hakimi Mokhtar, Ahmad; Othman, Nurmiza binti; Fhong Soon, Chin; Rahman, Ab Al Hadi Ab
2017-08-01
Multiplier is one of the essential component in the digital world such as in digital signal processing, microprocessor, quantum computing and widely used in arithmetic unit. Due to the complexity of the multiplier, tendency of errors are very high. This paper aimed to design a 2×2 bit Fault Tolerance Multiplier based on Reversible logic gate with low power consumption and high performance. This design have been implemented using 90nm Complemetary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology in Synopsys Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Tools. Implementation of the multiplier architecture is by using the reversible logic gates. The fault tolerance multiplier used the combination of three reversible logic gate which are Double Feynman gate (F2G), New Fault Tolerance (NFT) gate and Islam Gate (IG) with the area of 160μm x 420.3μm (67.25 mm2). This design achieved a low power consumption of 122.85μW and propagation delay of 16.99ns. The fault tolerance multiplier proposed achieved a low power consumption and high performance which suitable for application of modern computing as it has a fault tolerance capabilities.
A single nano cantilever as a reprogrammable universal logic gate
Chappanda, K. N.; Ilyas, S.; Kazmi, S. N. R.; Holguin-Lerma, J.; Batra, N. M.; Costa, P. M. F. J.; Younis, M. I.
2017-04-01
The current transistor-based computing circuits use multiple interconnected transistors to realize a single Boolean logic gate. This leads to higher power requirements and delayed computing. Transistors are not suitable for applications in harsh environments and require complicated thermal management systems due to excessive heat dissipation. Also, transistor circuits lack the ability to dynamically reconfigure their functionality in real time, which is desirable for enhanced computing capability. Further, the miniaturization of transistors to improve computational power is reaching its ultimate physical limits. As a step towards overcoming the limitations of transistor-based computing, here we demonstrate a reprogrammable universal Boolean logic gate based on a nanoelectromechanical cantilever (NC) oscillator. The fundamental XOR, AND, NOR, OR and NOT logic gates are condensed in a single NC, thereby reducing electrical interconnects between devices. The device is dynamically switchable between any logic gates at the same drive frequency without the need for any change in the circuit. It is demonstrated to operate at elevated temperatures minimizing the need for thermal management systems. It has a tunable bandwidth of 5 MHz enabling parallel and dynamically reconfigurable logic device for enhanced computing.
A single nano cantilever as a reprogrammable universal logic gate
Chappanda, K. N.
2017-02-24
The current transistor-based computing circuits use multiple interconnected transistors to realize a single Boolean logic gate. This leads to higher power requirements and delayed computing. Transistors are not suitable for applications in harsh environments and require complicated thermal management systems due to excessive heat dissipation. Also, transistor circuits lack the ability to dynamically reconfigure their functionality in real time, which is desirable for enhanced computing capability. Further, the miniaturization of transistors to improve computational power is reaching its ultimate physical limits. As a step towards overcoming the limitations of transistor-based computing, here we demonstrate a reprogrammable universal Boolean logic gate based on a nanoelectromechanical cantilever (NC) oscillator. The fundamental XOR, AND, NOR, OR and NOT logic gates are condensed in a single NC, thereby reducing electrical interconnects between devices. The device is dynamically switchable between any logic gates at the same drive frequency without the need for any change in the circuit. It is demonstrated to operate at elevated temperatures minimizing the need for thermal management systems. It has a tunable bandwidth of 5 MHz enabling parallel and dynamically reconfigurable logic device for enhanced computing.
NOVEL REVERSIBLE VARIABLE PRECISION MULTIPLIER USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATES
M. Saravanan; K. Suresh Manic
2014-01-01
Multipliers play a vital role in digital systems especially in digital processors. There are many algorithms and designs were proposed in the earlier works, but still there is a need and a greater interest in designing a less complex, low power consuming, fastest multipliers. Reversible logic design became the promising technologies gaining greater interest due to less dissipation of heat and low power consumption. In this study a reversible logic gate based design of variable precision multi...
Implementation of Effective Code Converters using Reversible Logic Gates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ponnuru Koteswara Rao
2016-05-01
Full Text Available aThe development in the field of nanometer technology leads to minimize the power consumption of logic circuits. Reversible logic design has been one of the promising technologies gaining greater interest due to less dissipation of heat and low power consumption. In the digital design, the code converters are widely used process. So, the reversible logic gates and reversible circuits for realizing code converters like as Binary to Gray code, Gray to Binary code, BCD to Excess 3 code, Excess 3 to BCD codes using reversible logic gates is proposed. Designing of reversible logic circuit is challenging task, since not enough number of gates are available for design. Reversible processor design needs its building blocks should be reversible in this view the designing of reversible code converters became essential one. In the digital domain, data or information is represented by a combination of 0’s and 1’s. A code is basically the pattern of these 0’s and 1’s used to represent the data. Code converters are a class of combinational digital circuits that are used to convert one type of code in to another. The proposed design leads to the reduction of power consumption compared with conventional logic circuits
Rebuilding mathematics on a quantum logical foundation
DeJonghe, Richard J., III
We construct a rich first-order quantum logic which generalizes the standard classical predicate logic used in the development of virtually all of modern mathematics, and we use this quantum logic to build the foundations of a new quantum mathematics. First, we prove both soundness and completeness for the quantum logic we develop, and also prove a powerful new completeness result which heretofore had been known to hold for classical, but not quantum, first-order logic. We then use our quantum logic to develop multiple areas of mathematics, including abstract algebra, axiomatic set theory, and arithmetic. In some preliminary investigations into quantum mathematics, Dunn found that the Peano axioms for arithmetic yield the same theorems using either classical or quantum logic. We prove a similar result for certain classes of abstract algebras, and then show that Dunn's result is not generic by presenting examples of quantum monoids, groups, lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras, all which differ from their classical counterparts. Moreover, we find natural classes of quantum lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras which all have a beautiful inter-relationship, and make some preliminary investigations into using these structures as a basis for a new mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. We also develop a quantum set theory (equivalent to ZFC under classical logic) which is far more tractable than quantum set theory previously developed. We then use this set theory to construct a quantum version of the natural numbers, and develop an arithmetic of these numbers based upon an alternative to Peano's axioms (which avoids Dunn's theorem). Surprisingly, we find that these "quantum natural numbers" satisfy our arithmetical axioms if and only if the underlying truth values form a modular lattice, giving a new arithmetical characterization of this important lattice-theoretic property. Finally, we show that these numbers have a natural interpretation as
Quantum Logic Networks for Probabilistic Teleportation of an Arbitrary Three-Particle State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Xue-Min; FANG Jian-Xing; ZHU Shi-Qun; XI Yong-Jun
2005-01-01
The scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state is proposed. By using single qubit gate and three two-qubit gates, efficient quantum logic networks for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state are constructed.
A reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic gate.
Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Amos, Martyn
2012-09-18
Engineering genetic Boolean logic circuits is a major research theme of synthetic biology. By altering or introducing connections between genetic components, novel regulatory networks are built in order to mimic the behaviour of electronic devices such as logic gates. While electronics is a highly standardized science, genetic logic is still in its infancy, with few agreed standards. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of logical values in terms of molecular concentrations. We describe the results of computational investigations of a novel circuit that is able to trigger specific differential responses depending on the input standard used. The circuit can therefore be dynamically reconfigured (without modification) to serve as both a NAND/NOR logic gate. This multi-functional behaviour is achieved by a) varying the meanings of inputs, and b) using branch predictions (as in computer science) to display a constrained output. A thorough computational study is performed, which provides valuable insights for the future laboratory validation. The simulations focus on both single-cell and population behaviours. The latter give particular insights into the spatial behaviour of our engineered cells on a surface with a non-homogeneous distribution of inputs. We present a dynamically-reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic circuit that can be switched between modes of operation via a simple shift in input signal concentration. The circuit addresses important issues in genetic logic that will have significance for more complex synthetic biology applications.
Fratto, Brian E; Katz, Evgeny
2016-04-04
Controlled logic gates, where the logic operations on the Data inputs are performed in the way determined by the Control signal, were designed in a chemical fashion. Specifically, the systems where the Data output signals directed to various output channels depending on the logic value of the Control input signal have been designed based on enzyme biocatalyzed reactions performed in a multi-cell flow system. In the Switch gate one Data signal was directed to one of two possible output channels depending on the logic value of the Control input signal. In the reversible Fredkin gate the routing of two Data signals between two output channels is controlled by the third Control signal. The flow devices were created using a network of flow cells, each modified with one enzyme that biocatalyzed one chemical reaction. The enzymatic cascade was realized by moving the solution from one reacting cell to another which were organized in a specific network. The modular design of the enzyme-based systems realized in the flow device allowed easy reconfiguration of the logic system, thus allowing simple extension of the logic operation from the 2-input/3-output channels in the Switch gate to the 3-input/3-output channels in the Fredkin gate. Further increase of the system complexity for realization of various logic processes is feasible with the use of the flow cell modular design. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shefali Mamataj; Biswajit Das
2016-01-01
.... Reversible Logic is gaining significant consideration as the potential logic design style for implementation in modern nanotechnology and quantum computing with minimal impact on physical entropy...
Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.
Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen
2012-10-21
Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction.
Optimization Approaches for Designing Quantum Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali
2016-03-01
Reversible logic is emerging as a promising alternative for applications in low-power design and quantum computation in recent years due to its ability to reduce power dissipation, which is an important research area in low power VLSI and ULSI designs. Many important contributions have been made in the literatures towards the reversible implementations of arithmetic and logical structures; however, there have not been many efforts directed towards efficient approaches for designing reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this study, three efficient approaches are presented and their implementations in the design of reversible ALUs are demonstrated. Three new designs of reversible one-digit arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic has been presented in this article. This paper provides explicit construction of reversible ALU effecting basic arithmetic operations with respect to the minimization of cost metrics. The architectures of the designs have been proposed in which each block is realized using elementary quantum logic gates. Then, reversible implementations of the proposed designs are analyzed and evaluated. The results demonstrate that the proposed designs are cost-effective compared with the existing counterparts. All the scales are in the NANO-metric area.
Microdroplet-based universal logic gates by electrorheological fluid
Zhang, Mengying
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a uniquely designed microfluid logic gate with universal functionality, which is capable of conducting all 16 logic operations in one chip, with different input voltage combinations. A kind of smart colloid, giant electrorheological (GER) fluid, functions as the translation media among fluidic, electronic and mechanic information, providing us with the capability of performing large integrations either on-chip or off-chip, while the on-chip hybrid circuit is formed by the interconnection of the electric components and fluidic channels, where the individual microdroplets travelling in a channel represents a bit. The universal logic gate reveals the possibilities of achieving a large-scale microfluidic processor with more complexity for on-chip processing for biological, chemical as well as computational experiments. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Divide and control: split design of multi-input DNA logic gates.
Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M
2015-01-18
Logic gates made of DNA have received significant attention as biocompatible building blocks for molecular circuits. The majority of DNA logic gates, however, are controlled by the minimum number of inputs: one, two or three. Here we report a strategy to design a multi-input logic gate by splitting a DNA construct.
Wang, Baojun; Buck, Martin
2014-10-11
We designed and constructed versatile modular genetic logic gates in bacterial cells. These function as digital logic 1-input Buffer gate, 2-input and 3-input AND gates with one inverted input and integrate multiple chemical input signals in customised logic manners. Such rapidly engineered devices serve to achieve increased sensing signal selectivity.
Construction of DNA logic gates utilizing a H+/Ag+ induced i-motif structure.
Shi, Yunhua; Sun, Hongxia; Xiang, Junfeng; Chen, Hongbo; Yang, Qianfan; Guan, Aijiao; Li, Qian; Yu, Lijia; Tang, Yalin
2014-12-18
A simple technology to construct diverse DNA logic gates (OR and INHIBIT) has been designed utilizing a H(+) and/or Ag(+) induced i-motif structure. The logic gates are easily controlled and also show a real time response towards inputs. The research provides a new insight for designing DNA logic gates using an i-motif DNA structure.
Rapidly reconfigurable all-optical universal logic gate
Goddard, Lynford L.; Bond, Tiziana C.; Kallman, Jeffrey S.
2010-09-07
A new reconfigurable cascadable all-optical on-chip device is presented. The gate operates by combining the Vernier effect with a novel effect, the gain-index lever, to help shift the dominant lasing mode from a mode where the laser light is output at one facet to a mode where it is output at the other facet. Since the laser remains above threshold, the speed of the gate for logic operations as well as for reprogramming the function of the gate is primarily limited to the small signal optical modulation speed of the laser, which can be on the order of up to about tens of GHz. The gate can be rapidly and repeatedly reprogrammed to perform any of the basic digital logic operations by using an appropriate analog optical or electrical signal at the gate selection port. Other all-optical functionality includes wavelength conversion, signal duplication, threshold switching, analog to digital conversion, digital to analog conversion, signal routing, and environment sensing. Since each gate can perform different operations, the functionality of such a cascaded circuit grows exponentially.
MoS2 based dual input logic AND gate
Martinez, Luis M.; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Naylor, Carl H.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie
2016-12-01
Crystalline monolayers of CVD MoS2 are used as the active semiconducting channel in a split-gate field effect transistor. The device demonstrates logic AND functionality that is controlled by independently addressing each gate terminal with ±10V. When +10V was simultaneously applied to both gates, the device was conductive (ON), while any other combination of gate voltages rendered the device resistive (OFF). The ON/OFF ratio of the device was ˜ 35 and the charge mobility using silicon nitride as the gate dielectric was 1.2cm2/V-s and 0.1cm2/V-s in the ON and OFF states respectively. Clear discrimination between the two states was observed when a simple circuit containing a load resistor was used to test the device logic AND functionality at 10Hz. One advantage is that split gate technology can reduce the number of devices required in complex circuits, leading to compact electronics and large scale integration based on intrinsic 2-D semiconducting materials.
Abstract quantum computing machines and quantum computational logics
Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe; Leporini, Roberto
2016-06-01
Classical and quantum parallelism are deeply different, although it is sometimes claimed that quantum Turing machines are nothing but special examples of classical probabilistic machines. We introduce the concepts of deterministic state machine, classical probabilistic state machine and quantum state machine. On this basis, we discuss the question: To what extent can quantum state machines be simulated by classical probabilistic state machines? Each state machine is devoted to a single task determined by its program. Real computers, however, behave differently, being able to solve different kinds of problems. This capacity can be modeled, in the quantum case, by the mathematical notion of abstract quantum computing machine, whose different programs determine different quantum state machines. The computations of abstract quantum computing machines can be linguistically described by the formulas of a particular form of quantum logic, termed quantum computational logic.
Quantum Process Tomography of a Universal Entangling Gate Implemented with Josephson Phase Qubits
Bialczak, Radoslaw C; Hofheinz, Max; Lucero, Erik; Neeley, Matthew; O'Connell, Aaron; Sank, Daniel; Wang, Haohua; Wenner, James; Steffen, Matthias; Cleland, Andrew; Martinis, John
2009-01-01
Quantum logic gates must perform properly when operating on their standard input basis states, as well as when operating on complex superpositions of these states. Experiments using superconducting qubits have validated the truth table for particular implementations of e.g. the controlled-NOT gate [1,2], but have not fully characterized gate operation for arbitrary superpositions of input states. Here we demonstrate the use of quantum process tomography (QPT) [3,4] to fully characterize the performance of a universal entangling gate between two superconducting quantum bits. Process tomography permits complete gate analysis, but requires precise preparation of arbitrary input states, control over the subsequent qubit interaction, and simultaneous single-shot measurement of the output states. We use QPT to measure the fidelity of the entangling gate and to quantify the decoherence mechanisms affecting the gate performance. In addition to demonstrating a promising fidelity, our entangling gate has a on/off ratio...
Design of 4:16 decoder using reversible logic gates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santhi Chebiyyam
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic has received great importance in the recent years because of its feature of reduction in power dissipation. It finds application in low power digital designs, quantum computing, nanotechnology, DNA computing etc. Large number of researches are currently ongoing on sequential and combinational circuits using reversible logic. Decoders are one of the most important circuits used in combinational logic. Different approaches have been proposed for their design. In this article, we have proposed a novel design of 4:16.
S. M. Afanador-Delgado; R. Jaimes-Reátegui; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; G. Huerta-Cuéllar; J. H. García-López; D. López Mancilla; L. A. Camacho-Castillo; C. E. Castañeda-Hernández
2013-01-01
We implement an algorithm to reproduce the behavior of a dynamic logic gate which consists of three elements: a fiber laser in chaotic regime, a threshold controller and the output of the logic gate. The output signal of the fiber laser is sent to the logic gate input as to the threshold controller; threshold controller output signal is sent at the entrance of the logic gate and also fed back to the fiber laser which changes their dynamic behavior. The output of the logic gate consists of a d...
PLQP & Company: Decidable Logics for Quantum Algorithms
Baltag, Alexandru; Bergfeld, Jort; Kishida, Kohei; Sack, Joshua; Smets, Sonja; Zhong, Shengyang
2014-10-01
We introduce a probabilistic modal (dynamic-epistemic) quantum logic PLQP for reasoning about quantum algorithms. We illustrate its expressivity by using it to encode the correctness of the well-known quantum search algorithm, as well as of a quantum protocol known to solve one of the paradigmatic tasks from classical distributed computing (the leader election problem). We also provide a general method (extending an idea employed in the decidability proof in Dunn et al. (J. Symb. Log. 70:353-359, 2005)) for proving the decidability of a range of quantum logics, interpreted on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We give general conditions for the applicability of this method, and in particular we apply it to prove the decidability of PLQP.
Orthogonally modulated molecular transport junctions for resettable electronic logic gates
Meng, Fanben; Hervault, Yves-Marie; Shao, Qi; Hu, Benhui; Norel, Lucie; Rigaut, Stéphane; Chen, Xiaodong
2014-01-01
Individual molecules have been demonstrated to exhibit promising applications as functional components in the fabrication of computing nanocircuits. Based on their advantage in chemical tailorability, many molecular devices with advanced electronic functions have been developed, which can be further modulated by the introduction of external stimuli. Here, orthogonally modulated molecular transport junctions are achieved via chemically fabricated nanogaps functionalized with dithienylethene units bearing organometallic ruthenium fragments. The addressable and stepwise control of molecular isomerization can be repeatedly and reversibly completed with a judicious use of the orthogonal optical and electrochemical stimuli to reach the controllable switching of conductivity between two distinct states. These photo-/electro-cooperative nanodevices can be applied as resettable electronic logic gates for Boolean computing, such as a two-input OR and a three-input AND-OR. The proof-of-concept of such logic gates demonstrates the possibility to develop multifunctional molecular devices by rational chemical design.
Environmental noise reduction for holonomic quantum gates
Parodi, Daniele; Solinas, Paolo; Zanghì, Nino
2007-01-01
We study the performance of holonomic quantum gates, driven by lasers, under the effect of a dissipative environment modeled as a thermal bath of oscillators. We show how to enhance the performance of the gates by suitable choice of the loop in the manifold of the controllable parameters of the laser. For a simplified, albeit realistic model, we find the surprising result that for a long time evolution the performance of the gate (properly estimated in terms of average fidelity) increases. On the basis of this result, we compare holonomic gates with the so-called STIRAP gates.
Construction of a fuzzy and all Boolean logic gates based on DNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
M. Zadegan, Reza; Jepsen, Mette D E; Hildebrandt, Lasse
2015-01-01
computing and biosensing. The ideal logic gate system should provide a wide selection of logical operations, and be integrable in multiple copies into more complex structures. Here we show the successful construction of a small DNA-based logic gate complex that produces fluorescent outputs corresponding......Logic gates are devices that can perform logical operations by transforming a set of inputs into a predictable single detectable output. The hybridization properties, structure, and function of nucleic acids can be used to make DNA-based logic gates. These devices are important modules in molecular...... to the operation of the six Boolean logic gates AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR. The logic gate complex is shown to work also when implemented in a three-dimensional DNA origami box structure, where it controlled the position of the lid in a closed or open position. Implementation of multiple microRNA sensitive...
Logic and algebraic structures in quantum computing
Eskandarian, Ali; Harizanov, Valentina S
2016-01-01
Arising from a special session held at the 2010 North American Annual Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, this volume is an international cross-disciplinary collaboration with contributions from leading experts exploring connections across their respective fields. Themes range from philosophical examination of the foundations of physics and quantum logic, to exploitations of the methods and structures of operator theory, category theory, and knot theory in an effort to gain insight into the fundamental questions in quantum theory and logic. The book will appeal to researchers and students working in related fields, including logicians, mathematicians, computer scientists, and physicists. A brief introduction provides essential background on quantum mechanics and category theory, which, together with a thematic selection of articles, may also serve as the basic material for a graduate course or seminar.
Fibred Coalgebraic Logic and Quantum Protocols
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Marsden
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Motivated by applications in modelling quantum systems using coalgebraic techniques, we introduce a fibred coalgebraic logic. Our approach extends the conventional predicate lifting semantics with additional modalities relating conditions on different fibres. As this fibred setting will typically involve multiple signature functors, the logic incorporates a calculus of modalities enabling the construction of new modalities using various composition operations. We extend the semantics of coalgebraic logic to this setting, and prove that this extension respects behavioural equivalence. We show how properties of the semantics of modalities are preserved under composition operations, and then apply the calculational aspect of our logic to produce an expressive set of modalities for reasoning about quantum systems, building these modalities up from simpler components. We then demonstrate how these modalities can describe some standard quantum protocols. The novel features of our logic are shown to allow for a uniform description of unitary evolution, and support local reasoning such as "Alice's qubit satisfies condition" as is common when discussing quantum protocols.
Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider
Zhou, Bingpu
2012-01-01
We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Radiative corrections and quantum gates in molecular systems
Huffenberger, Kevin M
2004-01-01
We propose a method for quantum information processing using molecules coupled to an external laser field. This utilizes molecular interactions, control of the external field and an effective energy shift of the doubly-excited state of two coupled molecules. Such a level shift has been seen in the two-photon resonance experiments recently reported in Ref. [1]. Here we show that this can be explained in terms of the QED Lamb shift. We quantify the performance of the proposed quantum logic gates in the presence of dissipative mechanisms. The unitary transformations required for performing one- and two-qubit operations can be implemented with present day technology.
Marmon, Jason K; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Weilie; Zhang, Yong
2016-01-01
Modern electronics are developing electronic-optical integrated circuits, while their electronic backbone, e.g. field-effect transistors (FETs), remains the same. However, further FET down scaling is facing physical and technical challenges. A light-effect transistor (LET) offers electronic-optical hybridization at the component level, which can continue Moore's law to the quantum region without requiring a FET's fabrication complexity, e.g. a physical gate and doping, by employing optical gating and photoconductivity. Multiple independent gates are therefore readily realized to achieve unique functionalities without increasing chip space. Here we report LET device characteristics and novel digital and analog applications, such as optical logic gates and optical amplification. Prototype CdSe-nanowire-based LETs show output and transfer characteristics resembling advanced FETs, e.g. on/off ratios up to ~1.0x10^6 with a source-drain voltage of ~1.43 V, gate-power of ~260 nW, and subthreshold swing of ~0.3 nW/de...
Designing quantum gates using the genetic algorithm
Kumar, Karthikeyan S.; Paraoanu, G. S.
2012-12-01
We demonstrate the usage of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to tailor the radio frequency pulses for producing unitary transformations in qubit systems. We find that the initial population converges to the optimal solution after 10 generations, for a one segment pulse corresponding to single qubit Hadamard gate. For a two qubit CNOT gate, we see the population convergence for a two segment pulse after 150 generations. This demonstrates that the method is suitable for designing quantum gates.
Criteria for universality of quantum gates
Sawicki, Adam; Karnas, Katarzyna
2017-06-01
We consider the problem of deciding if a set of quantum one-qudit gates S ={U1,...,Un} is universal. We provide the compact-form criteria leading to a simple algorithm that allows deciding the universality of any given set of gates in a finite number of steps. Moreover, for a nonuniversal S our criteria indicate what types of gates can be added to S to turn it into a universal set.
One-qubit quantum gates in a circular graphene quantum dot: genetic algorithm approach.
Amparán, Gibrán; Rojas, Fernando; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio
2013-05-16
The aim of this work was to design and control, using genetic algorithm (GA) for parameter optimization, one-charge-qubit quantum logic gates σx, σy, and σz, using two bound states as a qubit space, of circular graphene quantum dots in a homogeneous magnetic field. The method employed for the proposed gate implementation is through the quantum dynamic control of the qubit subspace with an oscillating electric field and an onsite (inside the quantum dot) gate voltage pulse with amplitude and time width modulation which introduce relative phases and transitions between states. Our results show that we can obtain values of fitness or gate fidelity close to 1, avoiding the leakage probability to higher states. The system evolution, for the gate operation, is presented with the dynamics of the probability density, as well as a visualization of the current of the pseudospin, characteristic of a graphene structure. Therefore, we conclude that is possible to use the states of the graphene quantum dot (selecting the dot size and magnetic field) to design and control the qubit subspace, with these two time-dependent interactions, to obtain the optimal parameters for a good gate fidelity using GA.
One-qubit quantum gates in a circular graphene quantum dot: genetic algorithm approach
Amparán, Gibrán; Rojas, Fernando; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio
2013-05-01
The aim of this work was to design and control, using genetic algorithm (GA) for parameter optimization, one-charge-qubit quantum logic gates σ x, σ y, and σ z, using two bound states as a qubit space, of circular graphene quantum dots in a homogeneous magnetic field. The method employed for the proposed gate implementation is through the quantum dynamic control of the qubit subspace with an oscillating electric field and an onsite (inside the quantum dot) gate voltage pulse with amplitude and time width modulation which introduce relative phases and transitions between states. Our results show that we can obtain values of fitness or gate fidelity close to 1, avoiding the leakage probability to higher states. The system evolution, for the gate operation, is presented with the dynamics of the probability density, as well as a visualization of the current of the pseudospin, characteristic of a graphene structure. Therefore, we conclude that is possible to use the states of the graphene quantum dot (selecting the dot size and magnetic field) to design and control the qubit subspace, with these two time-dependent interactions, to obtain the optimal parameters for a good gate fidelity using GA.
Fidelity of adiabatic holonomic quantum gates
Malinovsky, Vladimir; Rudin, Sergey
2016-05-01
During last few years non-Abelian geometric phases are attracting increasing interest due to possible experimental applications in quantum computation. Here we discuss universal set of holonomic quantum gates using the geometric phase that the qubit wave function acquires after a cyclic evolution. The proposed scheme utilizes ultrafast pulses and provides a possibility to substantially suppress transient population of the ancillary states. Fidelity of the holonomic quantum gates in the presence of dephasing and dissipation is discussed. Example of electron spin qubit system in the InGaN/GaN, GaN/AlN quantum dot is considered in details.
Charging dynamics of a floating gate transistor with site-controlled quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maier, P., E-mail: patrick.maier@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Hartmann, F.; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L. [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany)
2014-08-04
A quantum dot memory based on a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wire with site-controlled InAs quantum dots was realized by means of molecular beam epitaxy and etching techniques. By sampling of different gate voltage sweeps for the determination of charging and discharging thresholds, it was found that discharging takes place at short time scales of μs, whereas several seconds of waiting times within a distinct negative gate voltage range were needed to charge the quantum dots. Such quantum dot structures have thus the potential to implement logic functions comprising charge and time dependent ingredients such as counting of signals or learning rules.
Novel three-state quantum dot gate field effect transistor fabrication, modeling and applications
Karmakar, Supriya
2014-01-01
The book presents the fabrication and circuit modeling of quantum dot gate field effect transistor (QDGFET) and quantum dot gate NMOS inverter (QDNMOS inverter). It also introduces the development of a circuit model of QDGFET based on Berkley Short Channel IGFET model (BSIM). Different ternary logic circuits based on QDGFET are also investigated in this book. Advanced circuit such as three-bit and six bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) were also simulated.
An enzyme-free and DNA-based Feynman gate for logically reversible operation.
Zhou, Chunyang; Wang, Kun; Fan, Daoqing; Wu, Changtong; Liu, Dali; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang
2015-06-28
A logically reversible Feynman gate was successfully realized under enzyme-free conditions by integrating graphene oxide and DNA for the first time. The gate has a one-to-one mapping function to identify inputs from the corresponding outputs. This type of reversible logic gate may have great potential applications in information processing and biosensing systems.
Learning robust pulses for generating universal quantum gates
Dong, Daoyi; Wu, Chengzhi; Chen, Chunlin; Qi, Bo; Petersen, Ian R.; Nori, Franco
2016-01-01
Constructing a set of universal quantum gates is a fundamental task for quantum computation. The existence of noises, disturbances and fluctuations is unavoidable during the process of implementing quantum gates for most practical quantum systems. This paper employs a sampling-based learning method to find robust control pulses for generating a set of universal quantum gates. Numerical results show that the learned robust control fields are insensitive to disturbances, uncertainties and fluctuations during the process of realizing universal quantum gates. PMID:27782219
On Multiplicative Linear Logic, Modality and Quantum Circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ugo Dal Lago
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A logical system derived from linear logic and called QMLL is introduced and shown able to capture all unitary quantum circuits. Conversely, any proof is shown to compute, through a concrete GoI interpretation, some quantum circuits. The system QMLL, which enjoys cut-elimination, is obtained by endowing multiplicative linear logic with a quantum modality.
Reversible logic synthesis methodologies with application to quantum computing
Taha, Saleem Mohammed Ridha
2016-01-01
This book opens the door to a new interesting and ambitious world of reversible and quantum computing research. It presents the state of the art required to travel around that world safely. Top world universities, companies and government institutions are in a race of developing new methodologies, algorithms and circuits on reversible logic, quantum logic, reversible and quantum computing and nano-technologies. In this book, twelve reversible logic synthesis methodologies are presented for the first time in a single literature with some new proposals. Also, the sequential reversible logic circuitries are discussed for the first time in a book. Reversible logic plays an important role in quantum computing. Any progress in the domain of reversible logic can be directly applied to quantum logic. One of the goals of this book is to show the application of reversible logic in quantum computing. A new implementation of wavelet and multiwavelet transforms using quantum computing is performed for this purpose. Rese...
An Explicit Universal Gate-set for Exchange-Only Quantum Computation
Hsieh, M; Myrgren, S; Whaley, K B
2003-01-01
A single physical interaction might not be universal for quantum computation in general. It has been shown, however, that in some cases it can generate universal quantum computation over a subspace. For example, by encoding logical qubits into arrays of multiple physical qubits, a single isotropic or anisotropic exchange interaction can generate a universal logical gate-set. Recently, encoded universality for the exchange interaction was explicitly demonstrated on three-qubit arrays, the smallest nontrivial encoding. We now present the exact specification of a discrete universal logical gate-set on four-qubit arrays. We show how to implement the single qubit operations exactly with at most 3 nearest neighbor exchange operations and how to generate the encoded controlled-not with 29 parallel nearest neighbor exchange interactions or 54 serial gates, obtained from extensive numerical optimization using genetic algorithms and Nelder-Mead searches. Our gate-sequences are immediately applicable to implementations ...
Gate-Level Simulation of Quantum Circuits
Viamontes, G F; Markov, I L; Hayes, J P; Viamontes, George F.; Rajagopalan, Manoj; Markov, Igor L.; Hayes, John P.
2002-01-01
While thousands of experimental physicists and chemists are currently trying to build scalable quantum computers, it appears that simulation of quantum computation will be at least as critical as circuit simulation in classical VLSI design. However, since the work of Richard Feynman in the early 1980s little progress was made in practical quantum simulation. Most researchers focused on polynomial-time simulation of restricted types of quantum circuits that fall short of the full power of quantum computation. Simulating quantum computing devices and useful quantum algorithms on classical hardware now requires excessive computational resources, making many important simulation tasks infeasible. In this work we propose a new technique for gate-level simulation of quantum circuits which greatly reduces the difficulty and cost of such simulations. The proposed technique is implemented in a simulation tool called the Quantum Information Decision Diagram (QuIDD) and evaluated by simulating Grover's quantum search al...
Forsati, Rana; Valipour Ebrahimi, Sara; Navi, Keivan; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jashnsaz, Hossein
2013-02-01
Increasing demand for power reduction in computer systems has led to new trends in computations and computer design including reversible computing. Its main aim is to eliminate power dissipation in logical elements but can have some other advantages such as data security and error prevention. Because of interesting properties of reversible computing, implementing computing devices with reversible manner is the only way to make the reversible computing a reality. In recent years, reversible logic has turned out to be a promising computing paradigm having application in CMOS, nanotechnology, quantum computing and optical computing. In this paper, we propose and realize a novel implementation of Toffoli gate in all-optical domain. We have explained its principle of operations and described an actual experimental implementation. The all-optical reversible gate presented in this paper will be useful in different applications such as arithmetic and logical operations in the domain of reversible logic-based computing.
DNA Sequential Logic Gate Using Two-Ring DNA.
Zhang, Cheng; Shen, Linjing; Liang, Chao; Dong, Yafei; Yang, Jing; Xu, Jin
2016-04-13
Sequential DNA detection is a fundamental issue for elucidating the interactive relationships among complex gene systems. Here, a sequential logic DNA gate was achieved by utilizing the two-ring DNA structure, with the ability to recognize "before" and "after" triggering sequences of DNA signals. By taking advantage of a "loop-open" mechanism, separations of two-ring DNAs were controlled. Three triggering pathways with different sequential DNA treatments were distinguished by comparing fluorescent outputs. Programmed nanoparticle arrangement guided by "interlocked" two-ring DNA was also constructed to demonstrate the achievement of designed nanostrucutres. Such sequential logic DNA operation may guide future molecular sensors to monitor more complex gene network in biological systems.
A New DNA-based Logical Gate Comes into Being
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
@@ Across-disciplinary research team, headed by Prof. FAN Chunhai from the CAS Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Prof. HE Lin, a CAS Member, and Prof. ZHANG Zhizhou at the Bio-X Research Center under Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), succeeded in developing a new type of logical gates by applying the deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme), adding a new brick to the groundwork of a DNA-based computation. The related research results have been reported on the German journal Angew. Chem. Int.Ed., 2006, 45, 1759.
Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards
2015-01-01
A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems. PMID:25839049
Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards.
Cannon, Brittany L; Kellis, Donald L; Davis, Paul H; Lee, Jeunghoon; Kuang, Wan; Hughes, William L; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Knowlton, William B
2015-03-18
A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems.
Three-Function Logic Gate Controlled by Analog Voltage
Zebulum, Ricardo; Stoica, Adrian
2006-01-01
The figure is a schematic diagram of a complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) electronic circuit that performs one of three different logic functions, depending on the level of an externally applied control voltage, V(sub sel). Specifically, the circuit acts as A NAND gate at V(sub sel) = 0.0 V, A wire (the output equals one of the inputs) at V(sub sel) = 1.0 V, or An AND gate at V(sub sel) = -1.8 V. [The nominal power-supply potential (VDD) and logic "1" potential of this circuit is 1.8 V.] Like other multifunctional circuits described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, this circuit was synthesized following an automated evolutionary approach that is so named because it is modeled partly after the repetitive trial-and-error process of biological evolution. An evolved circuit can be tested by computational simulation and/or tested in real hardware, and the results of the test can provide guidance for refining the design through further iteration. The evolutionary synthesis of electronic circuits can now be implemented by means of a software package Genetic Algorithms for Circuit Synthesis (GACS) that was developed specifically for this purpose. GACS was used to synthesize the present trifunctional circuit. As in the cases of other multifunctional circuits described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the multiple functionality of this circuit, the use of a single control voltage to select the function, and the automated evolutionary approach to synthesis all contribute synergistically to a combination of features that are potentially advantageous for the further development of robust, multiple-function logic circuits, including, especially, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These advantages include the following: This circuit contains only 9 transistors about half the number of transistors that would be needed to obtain equivalent NAND/wire/AND functionality by use of components from a standard digital design library. If
Aptamer-Binding Directed DNA Origami Pattern for Logic Gates.
Yang, Jing; Jiang, Shuoxing; Liu, Xiangrong; Pan, Linqiang; Zhang, Cheng
2016-12-14
In this study, an aptamer-substrate strategy is introduced to control programmable DNA origami pattern. Combined with DNA aptamer-substrate binding and DNAzyme-cutting, small DNA tiles were specifically controlled to fill into the predesigned DNA origami frame. Here, a set of DNA logic gates (OR, YES, and AND) are performed in response to the stimuli of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cocaine. The experimental results are confirmed by AFM imaging and time-dependent fluorescence changes, demonstrating that the geometric patterns are regulated in a controllable and programmable manner. Our approach provides a new platform for engineering programmable origami nanopatterns and constructing complex DNA nanodevices.
Rational Design of a Fusion Protein to Exhibit Disulfide-Mediated Logic Gate Behavior
2015-01-01
Synthetic cellular logic gates are primarily built from gene circuits owing to their inherent modularity. Single proteins can also possess logic gate functions and offer the potential to be simpler, quicker, and less dependent on cellular resources than gene circuits. However, the design of protein logic gates that are modular and integrate with other cellular components is a considerable challenge. As a step toward addressing this challenge, we describe the design, construction, and characterization of AND, ORN, and YES logic gates built by introducing disulfide bonds into RG13, a fusion of maltose binding protein and TEM-1 β-lactamase for which maltose is an allosteric activator of enzyme activity. We rationally designed these disulfide bonds to manipulate RG13’s allosteric regulation mechanism such that the gating had maltose and reducing agents as input signals, and the gates could be toggled between different gating functions using redox agents, although some gates performed suboptimally. PMID:25144732
Quantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers
Yao, Norman Y; Laumann, Chris R; Bennett, Steven D; Duan, L -M; Lukin, Mikhail D; Jiang, Liang; Gorshkov, Alexey V
2012-01-01
We analyze two approaches to quantum state transfer in solid-state spin systems. First, we consider unpolarized spin-chains and extend previous analysis to various experimentally relevant imperfections, including quenched disorder, dynamical decoherence, and uncompensated long range coupling. In finite-length chains, the interplay between disorder-induced localization and decoherence yields a natural optimal channel fidelity, which we calculate. Long-range dipolar couplings induce a finite intrinsic lifetime for the mediating eigenmode; extensive numerical simulations of dipolar chains of lengths up to L=12 show remarkably high fidelity despite these decay processes. We further consider the extension of the protocol to bosonic systems of coupled oscillators. Second, we introduce a quantum mirror based architecture for universal quantum computing which exploits all of the spins in the system as potential qubits. While this dramatically increases the number of qubits available, the composite operations required...
Classical Logic and Quantum Logic with Multiple and Common Lattice Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladen Pavičić
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a proper propositional quantum logic and show that it has multiple disjoint lattice models, only one of which is an orthomodular lattice (algebra underlying Hilbert (quantum space. We give an equivalent proof for the classical logic which turns out to have disjoint distributive and nondistributive ortholattices. In particular, we prove that both classical logic and quantum logic are sound and complete with respect to each of these lattices. We also show that there is one common nonorthomodular lattice that is a model of both quantum and classical logic. In technical terms, that enables us to run the same classical logic on both a digital (standard, two-subset, 0-1-bit computer and a nondigital (say, a six-subset computer (with appropriate chips and circuits. With quantum logic, the same six-element common lattice can serve us as a benchmark for an efficient evaluation of equations of bigger lattice models or theorems of the logic.
Parallel logic gates in synthetic gene networks induced by non-Gaussian noise.
Xu, Yong; Jin, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Huiqing
2013-11-01
The recent idea of logical stochastic resonance is verified in synthetic gene networks induced by non-Gaussian noise. We realize the switching between two kinds of logic gates under optimal moderate noise intensity by varying two different tunable parameters in a single gene network. Furthermore, in order to obtain more logic operations, thus providing additional information processing capacity, we obtain in a two-dimensional toggle switch model two complementary logic gates and realize the transformation between two logic gates via the methods of changing different parameters. These simulated results contribute to improve the computational power and functionality of the networks.
Quantum superreplication of states and gates
Chiribella, Giulio; Yang, Yuxiang
2016-06-01
Although the no-cloning theorem forbids perfect replication of quantum information, it is sometimes possible to produce large numbers of replicas with vanishingly small error. This phenomenon, known as quantum superreplication, can occur for both quantum states and quantum gates. The aim of this paper is to review the central features of quantum superreplication and provide a unified view of existing results. The paper also includes new results. In particular, we show that when quantum superreplication can be achieved, it can be achieved through estimation up to an error of size O( M/ N 2), where N and M are the number of input and output copies, respectively. Quantum strategies still offer an advantage for superreplication in that they allow for exponentially faster reduction of the error. Using the relation with estimation, we provide i) an alternative proof of the optimality of Heisenberg scaling in quantum metrology, ii) a strategy for estimating arbitrary unitary gates with a mean square error scaling as log N/ N 2, and iii) a protocol that generates O( N 2) nearly perfect copies of a generic pure state U |0> while using the corresponding gate U only N times. Finally, we point out that superreplication can be achieved using interactions among k systems, provided that k is large compared to M 2/ N 2.
Area efficient digital logic NOT gate using single electron box (SEB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahrepour Davoud
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The continuing scaling down of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS has led researchers to build new devices with nano dimensions, whose behavior will be interpreted based on quantum mechanics. Single-electron devices (SEDs are promising candidates for future VLSI applications, due to their ultra small dimensions and lower power consumption. In most SED based digital logic designs, a single gate is introduced and its performance discussed. While in the SED based circuits the fan out of designed gate circuit should be considered and measured. In the other words, cascaded SED based designs must work properly so that the next stage(s should be driven by the previous stage. In this paper, previously NOT gate based on single electron box (SEB which is an important structure in SED technology, is reviewed in order to obtain correct operation in series connections. The correct operation of the NOT gate is investigated in a buffer circuit which uses two connected NOT gate in series. Then, for achieving better performance the designed buffer circuit is improved by the use of scaling process.
Orthogonal Ambipolar Semiconductor Nanostructures for Complementary Logic Gates.
Huang, Weiguo; Markwart, Jens C; Briseno, Alejandro L; Hayward, Ryan C
2016-09-27
We report orthogonal ambipolar semiconductors that exhibit hole and electron transport in perpendicular directions based on aligned films of nanocrystalline "shish-kebabs" containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and N,N'-di-n-octyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) as p- and n-type components, respectively. Polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements reveal a high degree of in-plane alignment. Relying on the orientation of interdigitated electrodes to enable efficient charge transport from either the respective p- or n-channel materials, we demonstrate semiconductor films with high anisotropy in the sign of charge carriers. Films of these aligned crystalline semiconductors were used to fabricate complementary inverter devices, which exhibited good switching behavior and a high noise margin of 80% of 1/2 Vdd. Moreover, complementary "NAND" and "NOR" logic gates were fabricated and found to exhibit excellent voltage transfer characteristics and low static power consumption. The ability to optimize the performance of these devices, simply by adjusting the solution concentrations of P3HT and PDI, makes this a simple and versatile method for preparing ambipolar organic semiconductor devices and high-performance logic gates. Further, we demonstrate that this method can also be applied to mixtures of PDI with another conjugated polymer, poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene]) (PBTTT), with better hole transport characteristics than P3HT, opening the door to orthogonal ambipolar semiconductors with higher performance.
Quantum logic with molecular ions
Wolf, Fabian; Heip, Jan C; Gebert, Florian; Shi, Chunyan; Schmidt, Piet O
2015-01-01
Laser spectroscopy of cold and trapped molecular ions is a powerful tool for fundamental physics, including the determination of fundamental constants, the laboratory test for their possible variation, and the search for a possible electric dipole moment of the electron. Optical clocks based on molecular ions sensitive to some of these effects are expected to achieve uncertainties approaching the $10^{-18}$ level. While the complexity of molecular structure facilitates these applications, the absence of cycling transitions poses a challenge for direct laser cooling, quantum state control, and detection. Previously employed state detection techniques based on photo-dissociation or chemical reactions are destructive and therefore inefficient. Here we experimentally demonstrate non-destructive state detection of a single trapped molecular ion through its strong Coulomb coupling to a well-controlled co-trapped atomic ion. An algorithm based on a state-dependent optical dipole force(ODF) changes the internal state...
Quaternary Logic and Applications Using Multiple Quantum Well Based SWSFETs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Gogna
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents Spatial Wavefunction-Switched Field-Effect Transistors (SWSFET to implement efficient quaternary logic and arithmetic functions. Various quaternary logic gates and digital building blocks are presented using SWSFETs. In addition, arithmetic operation with full adder using novel logic algebra is also presented. The SWSFET based implementation of digital logic, cache and arithmetic block results in up to 75% reduction in transistor count and up to 50% reduction in data interconnect densities. Simulations of quaternary logic gates using the BSIM equivalent models for SWSFET channels are also described.
Construction of a fuzzy and Boolean logic gates based on DNA.
Zadegan, Reza M; Jepsen, Mette D E; Hildebrandt, Lasse L; Birkedal, Victoria; Kjems, Jørgen
2015-04-17
Logic gates are devices that can perform logical operations by transforming a set of inputs into a predictable single detectable output. The hybridization properties, structure, and function of nucleic acids can be used to make DNA-based logic gates. These devices are important modules in molecular computing and biosensing. The ideal logic gate system should provide a wide selection of logical operations, and be integrable in multiple copies into more complex structures. Here we show the successful construction of a small DNA-based logic gate complex that produces fluorescent outputs corresponding to the operation of the six Boolean logic gates AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR. The logic gate complex is shown to work also when implemented in a three-dimensional DNA origami box structure, where it controlled the position of the lid in a closed or open position. Implementation of multiple microRNA sensitive DNA locks on one DNA origami box structure enabled fuzzy logical operation that allows biosensing of complex molecular signals. Integrating logic gates with DNA origami systems opens a vast avenue to applications in the fields of nanomedicine for diagnostics and therapeutics.
Radiative Corrections and Quantum Gates in Molecular Systems
Reina, John H.; Beausoleil, Ray G.; Spiller, Tim P.; Munro, William J.
2004-12-01
We propose a method for quantum information processing using molecules coupled to an external laser field. This utilizes molecular interactions, control of the external field, and an effective energy shift of the doubly excited state of two coupled molecules. Such a level shift has been seen in the two-photon resonance experiments recently reported by Hettich etal. Here we show that this can be explained in terms of the QED Lamb shift. We quantify the performance of the proposed quantum logic gates in the presence of dissipative mechanisms. The unitary transformations required for performing one- and two-qubit operations can be implemented with present day molecular technology. The proposed techniques can also be applied to coupled quantum dot and biomolecular systems.
Ultrafast Quantum Gates in Circuit QED
Romero, G; Wang, Y M; Scarani, V; Solano, E
2011-01-01
We present a method of implementing ultrafast two-qubit gates valid for the ultrastrong coupling (USC) and deep strong coupling (DSC) regimes of light-matter interaction, considering state-of-the-art circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) technology. Our proposal includes a suitable qubit architecture and is based on a four-step sequential displacement of an intracavity mode, operating at a time proportional to the inverse of the resonator frequency. Through ab initio calculations, we show that these quantum gates can be performed at subnanosecond time scales, while keeping the fidelity above 99%.
MOSFET-like CNFET based logic gate library for low-power application: a comparative study
Gowri Sankar, P. A.; Udhayakumar, K.
2014-07-01
The next generation of logic gate devices are expected to depend upon radically new technologies mainly due to the increasing difficulties and limitations of existing CMOS technology. MOSFET like CNFETs should ideally be the best devices to work with for high-performance VLSI. This paper presents results of a comprehensive comparative study of MOSFET-like carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) technology based logic gate library for high-speed, low-power operation than conventional bulk CMOS libraries. It focuses on comparing four promising logic families namely: complementary-CMOS (C-CMOS), transmission gate (TG), complementary pass logic (CPL) and Domino logic (DL) styles are presented. Based on these logic styles, the proposed library of static and dynamic NAND-NOR logic gates, XOR, multiplexer and full adder functions are implemented efficiently and carefully analyzed with a test bench to measure propagation delay and power dissipation as a function of supply voltage. This analysis provides the right choice of logic style for low-power, high-speed applications. Proposed logic gates libraries are simulated using Synopsys HSPICE based on the standard 32 nm CNFET model. The simulation results demonstrate that, it is best to use C-CMOS logic style gates that are implemented in CNFET technology which are superior in performance compared to other logic styles, because of their low average power-delay-product (PDP). The analysis also demonstrates how the optimum supply voltage varies with logic styles in ultra-low power systems. The robustness of the proposed logic gate library is also compared with conventional and state-art of CMOS logic gate libraries.
Universal quantum gates for Single Cooper Pair Box based quantum computing
Echternach, P.; Williams, C. P.; Dultz, S. C.; Braunstein, S.; Dowling, J. P.
2000-01-01
We describe a method for achieving arbitrary 1-qubit gates and controlled-NOT gates within the context of the Single Cooper Pair Box (SCB) approach to quantum computing. Such gates are sufficient to support universal quantum computation.
Enzymatic AND logic gates operated under conditions characteristic of biomedical applications.
Melnikov, Dmitriy; Strack, Guinevere; Zhou, Jian; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Halámek, Jan; Bocharova, Vera; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Privman, Vladimir; Wang, Joseph; Katz, Evgeny
2010-09-23
Experimental and theoretical analyses of the lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase based enzymatic AND logic gates in which the enzymes and their substrates serve as logic inputs are performed. These two systems are examples of the novel, previously unexplored class of biochemical logic gates that illustrate potential biomedical applications of biochemical logic. They are characterized by input concentrations at logic 0 and 1 states corresponding to normal and pathophysiological conditions. Our analysis shows that the logic gates under investigation have similar noise characteristics. Both significantly amplify random noise present in inputs; however, we establish that for realistic widths of the input noise distributions, it is still possible to differentiate between the logic 0 and 1 states of the output. This indicates that reliable detection of pathophysiological conditions is indeed possible with such enzyme logic systems.
Three qubit quantum phase gate based on cavity QED
Chang, Juntao; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2004-10-01
We describe a three qubit quantum phase gate in which the three qubits are represented by the photons in a three-modes optical cavity. This gate is implemented by passing a four-level atom in a cascade configuration through the cavity. We shall discuss the application of such a quantum phase gate to quantum searching.
SynBioLGDB: a resource for experimentally validated logic gates in synthetic biology
Wang, Liqiang; Qian, Kun; Huang, Yan; Jin, Nana; Lai, Hongyan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Chunhua; Zhang, Chunrui; Bi, Xiaoman; Wu, Deng; Wang, Changliang; Wu, Hao; Tan, Puwen; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Liqun; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Wang, Dong
2015-01-01
Synthetic biologists have developed DNA/molecular modules that perform genetic logic operations in living cells to track key moments in a cell's life or change the fate of a cell. Increasing evidence has also revealed that diverse genetic logic gates capable of generating a Boolean function play critically important roles in synthetic biology. Basic genetic logic gates have been designed to combine biological science with digital logic. SynBioLGDB (http://bioinformatics.ac.cn/synbiolgdb/) aims to provide the synthetic biology community with a useful resource for efficient browsing and visualization of genetic logic gates. The current version of SynBioLGDB documents more than 189 genetic logic gates with experimental evidence involving 80 AND gates and 16 NOR gates, etc. in three species (Human, Escherichia coli and Bacillus clausii). SynBioLGDB provides a user-friendly interface through which conveniently to query and browse detailed information about these genetic logic gates. SynBioLGDB will enable more comprehensive understanding of the connection of genetic logic gates to execute complex cellular functions in living cells.
Experimental realization of universal geometric quantum gates with solid-state spins.
Zu, C; Wang, W-B; He, L; Zhang, W-G; Dai, C-Y; Wang, F; Duan, L-M
2014-10-02
Experimental realization of a universal set of quantum logic gates is the central requirement for the implementation of a quantum computer. In an 'all-geometric' approach to quantum computation, the quantum gates are implemented using Berry phases and their non-Abelian extensions, holonomies, from geometric transformation of quantum states in the Hilbert space. Apart from its fundamental interest and rich mathematical structure, the geometric approach has some built-in noise-resilience features. On the experimental side, geometric phases and holonomies have been observed in thermal ensembles of liquid molecules using nuclear magnetic resonance; however, such systems are known to be non-scalable for the purposes of quantum computing. There are proposals to implement geometric quantum computation in scalable experimental platforms such as trapped ions, superconducting quantum bits and quantum dots, and a recent experiment has realized geometric single-bit gates in a superconducting system. Here we report the experimental realization of a universal set of geometric quantum gates using the solid-state spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centres. These diamond defects provide a scalable experimental platform with the potential for room-temperature quantum computing, which has attracted strong interest in recent years. Our experiment shows that all-geometric and potentially robust quantum computation can be realized with solid-state spin quantum bits, making use of recent advances in the coherent control of this system.
Methodology of Resonant Equiangular Composite Quantum Gates
Low, Guang Hao; Yoder, Theodore J.; Chuang, Isaac L.
2016-10-01
The creation of composite quantum gates that implement quantum response functions U ^(θ ) dependent on some parameter of interest θ is often more of an art than a science. Through inspired design, a sequence of L primitive gates also depending on θ can engineer a highly nontrivial U ^ (θ ) that enables myriad precision metrology, spectroscopy, and control techniques. However, discovering new, useful examples of U ^(θ ) requires great intuition to perceive the possibilities, and often brute force to find optimal implementations. We present a systematic and efficient methodology for composite gate design of arbitrary length, where phase-controlled primitive gates all rotating by θ act on a single spin. We fully characterize the realizable family of U ^ (θ ) , provide an efficient algorithm that decomposes a choice of U ^ (θ ) into its shortest sequence of gates, and show how to efficiently choose an achievable U ^(θ ) that, for fixed L , is an optimal approximation to objective functions on its quadratures. A strong connection is forged with classical discrete-time signal processing, allowing us to swiftly construct, as examples, compensated gates with optimal bandwidth that implement arbitrary single-spin rotations with subwavelength spatial selectivity.
High-Confidence Quantum Gate Tomography
Johnson, Blake; da Silva, Marcus; Ryan, Colm; Kimmel, Shelby; Donovan, Brian; Ohki, Thomas
2014-03-01
Debugging and verification of high-fidelity quantum gates requires the development of new tools and protocols to unwrap the performance of the gate from the rest of the sequence. Randomized benchmarking tomography[2] allows one to extract full information of the unital portion of the gate with high confidence. We report experimental confirmation of the technique's applicability to quantum gate tomography. We show that the method is robust to common experimental imperfections such as imperfect single-shot readout and state preparation. We also demonstrate the ability to characterize non-Clifford gates. To assist in the experimental implementation we introduce two techniques. ``Atomic Cliffords'' use phase ramping and frame tracking to allow single-pulse implementation of the full group of single-qubit Clifford gates. Domain specific pulse sequencers allow rapid implementation of the many thousands of sequences needed. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office contract no. W911NF-10-1-0324.
Error correction in short time steps during the application of quantum gates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, L.A. de, E-mail: leonardo.castro@usp.br; Napolitano, R.D.J.
2016-04-15
We propose a modification of the standard quantum error-correction method to enable the correction of errors that occur due to the interaction with a noisy environment during quantum gates without modifying the codification used for memory qubits. Using a perturbation treatment of the noise that allows us to separate it from the ideal evolution of the quantum gate, we demonstrate that in certain cases it is necessary to divide the logical operation in short time steps intercalated by correction procedures. A prescription of how these gates can be constructed is provided, as well as a proof that, even for the cases when the division of the quantum gate in short time steps is not necessary, this method may be advantageous for reducing the total duration of the computation.
Two all-optical logic gates in a single photonic interferometer
Araújo, Antônio; Oliveira, Antônio; Martins, Francisco; Coelho, Amarílio; Fraga, Wilton; Nascimento, José
2015-11-01
In this paper is presented the all-optical AND and OR gates with high contrast ratio in a single interferometric configuration, i.e., when two logic signals are modulated in the input of the interferometer, so we have the OR gate in the first output and the AND gate in the second output. These logic gates were obtained by numerical investigation of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer constituted of dual-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber operating with ultrashort fundamental solitons of 100 fs. To represent the logic information, pulse amplitude modulation by amplitude shift-keying was used.
Realization of allowable qeneralized quantum gates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The most general duality gates were introduced by Long,Liu and Wang and named allowable generalized quantum gates (AGQGs,for short).By definition,an allowable generalized quantum gate has the form of U=YfkjsckUK,where Uk’s are unitary operators on a Hilbert space H and the coefficients ck’s are complex numbers with |Yfijo ck\\ ∧ 1 an d 1ck| <1 for all k=0,1,...,d-1.In this paper,we prove that an AGQG U=YfkZo ck∧k is realizable,i.e.there are two d by d unitary matrices W and V such that ck=W0kVk0 (0
Antibody activation using DNA-based logic gates.
Janssen, Brian M G; van Rosmalen, Martijn; van Beek, Lotte; Merkx, Maarten
2015-02-16
Oligonucleotide-based molecular circuits offer the exciting possibility to introduce autonomous signal processing in biomedicine, synthetic biology, and molecular diagnostics. Here we introduce bivalent peptide-DNA conjugates as generic, noncovalent, and easily applicable molecular locks that allow the control of antibody activity using toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions. Employing yeast as a cellular model system, reversible control of antibody targeting is demonstrated with low nM concentrations of peptide-DNA locks and oligonucleotide displacer strands. Introduction of two different toehold strands on the peptide-DNA lock allowed signal integration of two different inputs, yielding logic OR- and AND-gates. The range of molecular inputs could be further extended to protein-based triggers by using protein-binding aptamers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
A Scheme for Atomic Entangled States and Quantum Gate Operations in Cavity QED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Peng-Bo; GU Ying; GONG Qi-Huang; GUO Guang-Can
2009-01-01
We propose a scheme for controllably entangling the ground states of five-state W-type atoms confined in a cavity and realizing swap gate and phase gate operations.In this scheme the cavity is only virtually excited and the atomic excited states are almost not occupied,so the produced entangled states and quantum logic operations are very robust against the cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission.
Superlogic manifolds and geometric approach to quantum logic
da Costa, Newton; Kouneiher, Joseph
2016-10-01
The main purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to logic or what we will call superlogic. This approach constitutes a new way of looking at the connection between quantum mechanics and logic. It is a geometrization of the quantum logic. Note that this superlogic is not distributive reflecting a good propriety to describe quantum mechanics, non-commutative spaces and contains a nilpotent element.
A testable parity conservative gate in quantum-dot cellular automata
Karkaj, Ehsan Taher; Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli
2017-01-01
There are important challenges in current VLSI technology such as feature size. New technologies are emerging to overcome these challenges. One of these technologies is quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) but it also has some disadvantages. One of the very important challenges in QCA is the occurrence of faults due to its very small area. There are different ways to overcome this challenge, one of which is the testable logic gate. There are two types of testable gate; reversible gate, and conservative gate. We propose a new testable parity conservative gate in this paper. This gate is simulated with QCADesigner and compared with previous structures. Power dissipation of proposed gate investigated using QCAPro simulator as an accurate power estimator tool.
Enhanced architectures for room-temperature reversible logic gates in graphene
Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea
2014-09-01
We show that reversible two- and three-input logic gates, such as the universal Toffoli gate, can be implemented with three tilted gate electrodes patterned on a monolayer graphene flake. These reversible gates are based on the unique properties of ballistic charge carriers in graphene, which induce bandgaps in transmission for properly chosen potential barriers. The enhanced architectures for reversible logic gate implementation proposed in this paper offer a remarkable design simplification compared to standard approaches based on field-effect transistor circuits, as well as potential high-frequency operation.
Logic and probability in quantum mechanics
1976-01-01
During the academic years 1972-1973 and 1973-1974, an intensive sem inar on the foundations of quantum mechanics met at Stanford on a regular basis. The extensive exploration of ideas in the seminar led to the org~ization of a double issue of Synthese concerned with the foundations of quantum mechanics, especially with the role of logic and probability in quantum meChanics. About half of the articles in the volume grew out of this seminar. The remaining articles have been so licited explicitly from individuals who are actively working in the foun dations of quantum mechanics. Seventeen of the twenty-one articles appeared in Volume 29 of Syn these. Four additional articles and a bibliography on -the history and philosophy of quantum mechanics have been added to the present volume. In particular, the articles by Bub, Demopoulos, and Lande, as well as the second article by Zanotti and myself, appear for the first time in the present volume. In preparing the articles for publication I am much indebted to ...
The Quantum Logical Challenge: Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to Logic and Philosophy of Science
Beltrametti, E.; Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Giuntini, R.
2017-04-01
Peter Mittelstaedt's contributions to quantum logic and to the foundational problems of quantum theory have significantly realized the most authentic spirit of the International Quantum Structures Association: an original research about hard technical problems, which are often "entangled" with the emergence of important changes in our general world-conceptions. During a time where both the logical and the physical community often showed a skeptical attitude towards Birkhoff and von Neumann's quantum logic, Mittelstaedt brought into light the deeply innovating features of a quantum logical thinking that allows us to overcome some strong and unrealistic assumptions of classical logical arguments. Later on his intense research on the unsharp approach to quantum theory and to the measurement problem stimulated the increasing interest for unsharp forms of quantum logic, creating a fruitful interaction between the work of quantum logicians and of many-valued logicians. Mittelstaedt's general views about quantum logic and quantum theory seem to be inspired by a conjecture that is today more and more confirmed: there is something universal in the quantum theoretic formalism that goes beyond the limits of microphysics, giving rise to interesting applications to a number of different fields.
Universal holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free subspace on superconducting circuits
Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Z. D.
2015-08-01
To implement a set of universal quantum logic gates based on non-Abelian geometric phases, it is conventional wisdom that quantum systems beyond two levels are required, which is extremely difficult to fulfill for superconducting qubits and appears to be a main reason why only single-qubit gates were implemented in a recent experiment [A. A. Abdumalikov, Jr. et al., Nature (London) 496, 482 (2013), 10.1038/nature12010]. Here we propose to realize nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspace on circuit QED, where one can use only the two levels in transmon qubits, a usual interaction, and a minimal resource for the decoherence-free subspace encoding. In particular, our scheme not only overcomes the difficulties encountered in previous studies but also can still achieve considerably large effective coupling strength, such that high-fidelity quantum gates can be achieved. Therefore, the present scheme makes realizing robust holonomic quantum computation with superconducting circuits very promising.
Quantum logical operations for spin 3/2 quadrupolar nuclei monitored by quantum state tomography.
Bonk, F A; deAzevedo, E R; Sarthour, R S; Bulnes, J D; Freitas, J C C; Guimarães, A P; Oliveira, I S; Bonagamba, T J
2005-08-01
This article presents the realization of many self-reversible quantum logic gates using two-qubit quadrupolar spin 3/2 systems. Such operations are theoretically described using propagation matrices for the RF pulses that include the effect of the quadrupolar evolution during the pulses. Experimental demonstrations are performed using a generalized form of the recently developed method for quantum state tomography in spin 3/2 systems. By doing so, the possibility of controlling relative phases of superimposed pseudo-pure states is demonstrated. In addition, many aspects of the effect of the quadrupolar evolution, occurring during the RF pulses, on the quantum operations performance are discussed. Most of the procedures presented can be easily adapted to describe selective pulses of higher spin systems (>3/2) and for spin 1/2 under J couplings.
High fidelity quantum gates with vibrational qubits.
Berrios, Eduardo; Gruebele, Martin; Shyshlov, Dmytro; Wang, Lei; Babikov, Dmitri
2012-11-26
Physical implementation of quantum gates acting on qubits does not achieve a perfect fidelity of 1. The actual output qubit may not match the targeted output of the desired gate. According to theoretical estimates, intrinsic gate fidelities >99.99% are necessary so that error correction codes can be used to achieve perfect fidelity. Here we test what fidelity can be accomplished for a CNOT gate executed by a shaped ultrafast laser pulse interacting with vibrational states of the molecule SCCl(2). This molecule has been used as a test system for low-fidelity calculations before. To make our test more stringent, we include vibrational levels that do not encode the desired qubits but are close enough in energy to interfere with population transfer by the laser pulse. We use two complementary approaches: optimal control theory determines what the best possible pulse can do; a more constrained physical model calculates what an experiment likely can do. Optimal control theory finds pulses with fidelity >0.9999, in excess of the quantum error correction threshold with 8 × 10(4) iterations. On the other hand, the physical model achieves only 0.9992 after 8 × 10(4) iterations. Both calculations converge as an inverse power law toward unit fidelity after >10(2) iterations/generations. In principle, the fidelities necessary for quantum error correction are reachable with qubits encoded by molecular vibrations. In practice, it will be challenging with current laboratory instrumentation because of slow convergence past fidelities of 0.99.
Simplified Quantum Logic with Trapped Ions
2016-06-23
couples the states un&u↓& and un&u↑& with Rabi frequency @13,14# Vn ,n5 1 \\ u^n z^↑uHI~ j !u↓& zn&u 5g jz^nueih~a1a †!un& z 5g je 2h2/2Ln~h 2!, ~4...where Ln(x) is a Laguerre polynomial. Specializing to the un&5u0& and un&5u1& vibrational levels relevant to quantum logic, we have V0,05g je 2h2/2...V1,15g je 2h2/2~12h2!. ~5! From Eqs. ~4! and ~5!, the carrier Rabi frequencies de- pend nonlinearly on the vibrational quantum number n , with the
Realization of Two-Qutrit Quantum Gates with Control Pulses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jie; DI Yao-Min; WEI Hai-Rui
2009-01-01
We investigate the realization of 2-qutrit logic gate in a bipartite 3-level system with qusi-Ising interaction. On the basis of Caftan decomposition of matrices, the unitary matrices of 2-qutrit are factorized into products of a series of realizable matrices. It is equivalent to exerting a certain control field on the system, and the control goal is usually gained by a sequence of control pulses. The general discussion on the realization of 2-qutrit logic gate is made first, and then the realization of the ternary SWAP gate and the ternary gate are discussed specifically, and the sequences of control pulses and drift processes implementing these gates are given.
A Novel Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible Full Adder Gate in Nanotechnology
Islam, Md Saiful
2010-01-01
Reversible logic has become one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its applications in low power CMOS design, cryptography, optical information processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents a novel and quantum cost efficient reversible full adder gate in nanotechnology. This gate can work singly as a reversible full adder unit and requires only one clock cycle. The proposed gate is a universal gate in the sense that it can be used to synthesize any arbitrary Boolean functions. It has been demonstrated that the hardware complexity offered by the proposed gate is less than the existing counterparts. The proposed reversible full adder gate also adheres to the theoretical minimum established by the researchers.
Bioelectronic Interface Connecting Reversible Logic Gates Based on Enzyme and DNA Reactions.
Guz, Nataliia; Fedotova, Tatiana A; Fratto, Brian E; Schlesinger, Orr; Alfonta, Lital; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Katz, Evgeny
2016-07-18
It is believed that connecting biomolecular computation elements in complex networks of communicating molecules may eventually lead to a biocomputer that can be used for diagnostics and/or the cure of physiological and genetic disorders. Here, a bioelectronic interface based on biomolecule-modified electrodes has been designed to bridge reversible enzymatic logic gates with reversible DNA-based logic gates. The enzyme-based Fredkin gate with three input and three output signals was connected to the DNA-based Feynman gate with two input and two output signals-both representing logically reversible computing elements. In the reversible Fredkin gate, the routing of two data signals between two output channels was controlled by the control signal (third channel). The two data output signals generated by the Fredkin gate were directed toward two electrochemical flow cells, responding to the output signals by releasing DNA molecules that serve as the input signals for the next Feynman logic gate based on the DNA reacting cascade, producing, in turn, two final output signals. The Feynman gate operated as the controlled NOT gate (CNOT), where one of the input channels controlled a NOT operation on another channel. Both logic gates represented a highly sophisticated combination of input-controlled signal-routing logic operations, resulting in redirecting chemical signals in different channels and performing orchestrated computing processes. The biomolecular reaction cascade responsible for the signal processing was realized by moving the solution from one reacting cell to another, including the reacting flow cells and electrochemical flow cells, which were organized in a specific network mimicking electronic computing circuitries. The designed system represents the first example of high complexity biocomputing processes integrating enzyme and DNA reactions and performing logically reversible signal processing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Misalignment-free signal propagation in nanomagnet arrays and logic gates with 45°-clocking field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Zheng; Kwon, Byung Seok; Krishnan, Kannan M., E-mail: kannanmk@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Washington, Box 352120, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)
2014-05-07
A key obstacle for the application of Magnetic Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) is the misalignment of clocking field, which results in low stability for both signal propagations within nanomagnet array and logic operation in majority gates. Here, we demonstrate that a reversal clocking field applied at 45° off the hard axis, with progressively reduced amplitude, applied to a shape-tuned nanomagnet array fabricated by e-beam lithography, helps intrinsically eliminate the misalignment sensitivity of the elements and results in correct signal propagation. Further, least reversal steps and reduced field amplitude was required owing to the 45°-clocking field. This clocking field was also tested for majority gates (OR function) and characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy demonstrating correct output. This novel design provides high stability for signal propagation and logic operation of MQCA and potentially paves way for its application.
Misalignment-free signal propagation in nanomagnet arrays and logic gates with 45Â°-clocking field
Li, Zheng; Kwon, Byung Seok; Krishnan, Kannan M.
2014-05-01
A key obstacle for the application of Magnetic Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) is the misalignment of clocking field, which results in low stability for both signal propagations within nanomagnet array and logic operation in majority gates. Here, we demonstrate that a reversal clocking field applied at 45° off the hard axis, with progressively reduced amplitude, applied to a shape-tuned nanomagnet array fabricated by e-beam lithography, helps intrinsically eliminate the misalignment sensitivity of the elements and results in correct signal propagation. Further, least reversal steps and reduced field amplitude was required owing to the 45°-clocking field. This clocking field was also tested for majority gates (OR function) and characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy demonstrating correct output. This novel design provides high stability for signal propagation and logic operation of MQCA and potentially paves way for its application.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG An-Shou; LIU Ji-Bing; XIANG Dong; LIU Cui-Lan; YUAN Hong
2007-01-01
An alternative approach is proposed to realize an n-qubit Toffoli gate with superconducting quantum-interference devices (SQUIDs) in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In the proposal, we represent two logical gates of a qubit with the two lowest levels of a SQUID while a higher-energy intermediate level of each SQUID is utilized for the gate manipulation. During the operating process, because the cavity field is always in vacuum state, the requirement on the cavity is greatly loosened and there is no transfer of quantum information between the cavity and SQUIDs.
The Discrete-Continuous Logic and its possible quantum realizations
Vol, E D
2013-01-01
We propose a new version of generalized probabilistic propositional logic, namely, discrete-continuous logic (DCL) in which every generalized proposition (GP) is represented as 2x2 nondiagonal positive matrix with unit trace. We demonstrate that on the set of propositions of this kind one can define both the discrete logical operations (connectives) such as negation and strong logical disjunction and in addition one parameter group of continuous operations (logical rotations). We prove that an arbitrary classical proposition (which in this logic is represented by the purely diagonal matrix) can be considered as the result of strong disjunction of two identical GP. This fact gives one a good reason to presume the DCL as a prime logical substructure underlying to ordinary propositional logic, which is recorded by our consciousness. We believe that proposed version of DCL will find many applications both in physics (quantum logic) and also in cognitive sciences (mental imagery) for better understanding of the pe...
Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams
Zhang, Ting; Cheng, Ying; Guo, Jian-zhong; Xu, Jian-yi; Liu, Xiao-jun
2015-03-01
The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.
Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Ting; Xu, Jian-yi [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cheng, Ying, E-mail: chengying@nju.edu.cn; Liu, Xiao-jun, E-mail: liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, Jian-zhong [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xian 710119 (China)
2015-03-16
The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.
Multibit CkNOT quantum gates via Rydberg blockade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Isenhower, L.; Saffman, Mark; Mølmer, Klaus
2011-01-01
Long range Rydberg blockade interactions have the potential for efficient implementation of quantum gates between multiple atoms. Here we present and analyze a protocol for implementation of a k-atom controlled NOT (CkNOT) neutral atom gate. This gate can be implemented using sequential or simult......Long range Rydberg blockade interactions have the potential for efficient implementation of quantum gates between multiple atoms. Here we present and analyze a protocol for implementation of a k-atom controlled NOT (CkNOT) neutral atom gate. This gate can be implemented using sequential...
Engineering integrated photonics for heralded quantum gates
Meany, Thomas; Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Broome, Matthew A.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Delanty, Michael; Steel, M. J.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Marshall, Graham D.; White, Andrew G.; Withford, Michael J.
2016-01-01
Scaling up linear-optics quantum computing will require multi-photon gates which are compact, phase-stable, exhibit excellent quantum interference, and have success heralded by the detection of ancillary photons. We investigate the design, fabrication and characterisation of the optimal known gate scheme which meets these requirements: the Knill controlled-Z gate, implemented in integrated laser-written waveguide arrays. We show device performance to be less sensitive to phase variations in the circuit than to small deviations in the coupler reflectivity, which are expected given the tolerance values of the fabrication method. The mode fidelity is also shown to be less sensitive to reflectivity and phase errors than the process fidelity. Our best device achieves a fidelity of 0.931 ± 0.001 with the ideal 4 × 4 unitary circuit and a process fidelity of 0.680 ± 0.005 with the ideal computational-basis process. PMID:27282928
Engineering integrated photonics for heralded quantum gates.
Meany, Thomas; Biggerstaff, Devon N; Broome, Matthew A; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Delanty, Michael; Steel, M J; Gilchrist, Alexei; Marshall, Graham D; White, Andrew G; Withford, Michael J
2016-06-10
Scaling up linear-optics quantum computing will require multi-photon gates which are compact, phase-stable, exhibit excellent quantum interference, and have success heralded by the detection of ancillary photons. We investigate the design, fabrication and characterisation of the optimal known gate scheme which meets these requirements: the Knill controlled-Z gate, implemented in integrated laser-written waveguide arrays. We show device performance to be less sensitive to phase variations in the circuit than to small deviations in the coupler reflectivity, which are expected given the tolerance values of the fabrication method. The mode fidelity is also shown to be less sensitive to reflectivity and phase errors than the process fidelity. Our best device achieves a fidelity of 0.931 ± 0.001 with the ideal 4 × 4 unitary circuit and a process fidelity of 0.680 ± 0.005 with the ideal computational-basis process.
Design of a novel RTD-based three-variable universal logic gate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mao-qun YAO; Kai YANG; Cong-yuan XU; Ji-zhong SHEN
2015-01-01
Traditional CMOS technology faces some fundamental physical limitations. Therefore, it has become very important for the integrated circuit industry to continue to develop modern devices and new design methods. The threshold logic gate has attracted much attention because of its powerful logic function. The resonant tunneling diode (RTD) is well suited for imple-menting the threshold logic gate because of its high-speed switching capability, negative differential resistance (NDR) charac-teristic, and functional versatility. In this paper, based on the Reed-Muller (RM) algebraic system, a novel method is proposed to convert three-variable non-threshold functions to the XOR of multiple threshold functions, which is simple and has a program-mable implementation. With this approach, all three-variable non-threshold functions can be presented by the XOR of two threshold functions, except for two special functions. On this basis, a novel three-variable universal logic gate (ULG3) is proposed, composed of two RTD-based universal threshold logic gates (UTLG) and an RTD-based three-variable XOR gate (XOR3). The ULG3 has a simple structure, and a simple method is presented to implement all three-variable functions using one ULG3. Thus, the proposed ULG3 provides a new efficient universal logic gate to implement RTD-based arbitrary n-variable functions.
Complete Characterization of a Quantum Process: The Two-Bit Quantum Gate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poyatos, J.; Cirac, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Zoller, P. [Institut fuer Theoretisch Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020, Innsbruck (Austria)
1997-01-01
We show how to fully characterize a quantum process in an open quantum system. We particularize the procedure to the case of a universal two-qubit gate in a quantum computer. We illustrate the method with a numerical simulation of a quantum gate in the ion trap quantum computer. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Complete Characterization of a Quantum Process the Two-Bit Quantum Gate
Poyatos, J F; Zoller, P
1997-01-01
We show how to fully characterize a quantum process in an open quantum system. We particularize the procedure to the case of a universal two-qubit gate in a quantum computer. We illustrate the method with a numerical simulation of a quantum gate in the ion trap quantum computer.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
VENKATESH P R; VENKATESAN A; LAKSHMANAN M
2016-06-01
The idea of synchronization can be explicitly demonstrated by both numerical and analytical means on a nonlinear electronic circuit. Also, we introduce a scheme to obtain various logic gate structures, using synchronization of chaotic systems. By a small change in the response parameter of unidirectionally coupled nonlinear systems, one is able to construct various logic behaviours by both numerical and analytical methods.
Logic gates scheme based on Coulomb blockade in metallic nanoclusters with organic ligands
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cervera, Javier [Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Ramirez, Patricio [Depto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Mafe, Salvador, E-mail: smafe@uv.e [Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)
2010-01-11
We propose a logic gates scheme based on the electron transfer through metallic nanoclusters linked to organic ligands and discuss theoretically the characteristics needed for practical implementation. As a proof-of-the-concept, we demonstrate the OR, AND and NOT gates and study the performance in terms of temperature, applied voltage, and noise.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DARKO STEFANOVIC
2003-05-01
Full Text Available We recently reported the first complete set of molecular-scale logic gates based on deoxyribozymes. Here we report how we tile these logic gates and construct new logic elements: OR, NAND, and the first element with four inputs (i1^i5Ú(i2^i6. Tiling of logic gates was achieved through a common substrate used for core deoxyribozyme; degradation of this substrate defines the output. This kind of connection between logic gates is an implicit-OR tiling, because it suffices that one componenet of the network is active for the whole network to give an output of 1.
Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting
Cinà, G.; Aerts, D.; de Ronde, C.; Freytes, H.; Giuntini, R.
2016-01-01
The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either
Rydberg-interaction-based quantum gates free from blockade error
Shi, Xiao-Feng
2016-01-01
Accurate quantum gates are basic elements for building quantum computers. There has been great interest in designing quantum gates by using blockade effect of Rydberg atoms recently. The fidelity and operation speed of these gates, however, are fundamentally limited by the blockade error. Here we propose another type of quantum gates, which are based on Rydberg blockade effect, yet free from any blockade error. In contrast to the `blocking' method in previous schemes, we use Rydberg energy shift to realise a rational generalised Rabi frequency so that a novel $\\pi$ phase for one input state of the gate emerges. This leads to an accurate Rydberg-blockade based two-qubit quantum gate that can operate in a $0.1\\mu s$ timescale or faster thanks to that it operates by a Rabi frequency which is comparable to the blockade shift.
Nanofabrication of gate-defined GaAs/AlGaAs lateral quantum dots.
Bureau-Oxton, Chloé; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel
2013-11-01
A quantum computer is a computer composed of quantum bits (qubits) that takes advantage of quantum effects, such as superposition of states and entanglement, to solve certain problems exponentially faster than with the best known algorithms on a classical computer. Gate-defined lateral quantum dots on GaAs/AlGaAs are one of many avenues explored for the implementation of a qubit. When properly fabricated, such a device is able to trap a small number of electrons in a certain region of space. The spin states of these electrons can then be used to implement the logical 0 and 1 of the quantum bit. Given the nanometer scale of these quantum dots, cleanroom facilities offering specialized equipment- such as scanning electron microscopes and e-beam evaporators- are required for their fabrication. Great care must be taken throughout the fabrication process to maintain cleanliness of the sample surface and to avoid damaging the fragile gates of the structure. This paper presents the detailed fabrication protocol of gate-defined lateral quantum dots from the wafer to a working device. Characterization methods and representative results are also briefly discussed. Although this paper concentrates on double quantum dots, the fabrication process remains the same for single or triple dots or even arrays of quantum dots. Moreover, the protocol can be adapted to fabricate lateral quantum dots on other substrates, such as Si/SiGe.
Yu, Ruomeng; Wu, Wenzhuo; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhaona; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-02-04
Using polarization charges created at the metal-cadmium sulfide interface under strain to gate/modulate electrical transport and optoelectronic processes of charge carriers, the piezo-phototronic effect is applied to process mechanical and optical stimuli into electronic controlling signals. The cascade nanowire networks are demonstrated for achieving logic gates, binary computations, and gated D latches to store information carried by these stimuli.
Pykacz, Jarosław
2015-01-01
This Brief presents steps towards elaborating a new interpretation of quantum mechanics based on a specific version of Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic. It begins with a short survey of main interpretations of quantum mechanics already proposed, as well as various models of many-valued logics and previous attempts to apply them for the description of quantum phenomena. The prospective many-valued interpretation of quantum mechanics is soundly based on a theorem concerning the isomorphic representation of Birkhoff-von Neumann quantum logic in the form of a special Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic endowed with partially defined conjunctions and disjunctions.
Singla, Pradeep
2012-01-01
This paper present the research work directed towards the design of reversible programmable logic array using very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL). Reversible logic circuits have significant importance in bioinformatics, optical information processing, CMOS design etc. In this paper the authors propose the design of new RPLA using Feynman & MUX gate.VHDL based codes of reversible gates with simulating results are shown .This proposed RPLA may be further used to design any reversible logic function or Boolean function (Adder, subtractor etc.) which dissipate very low or ideally no heat.
Designing reversible arithmetic, logic circuit to implement micro-operation in quantum computation
Kalita, Gunajit; Saikia, Navajit
2016-10-01
The futuristic computing is desired to be more power full with low-power consumption. That is why quantum computing has been a key area of research for quite some time and is getting more and more attention. Quantum logic being reversible, a significant amount of contributions has been reported on reversible logic in recent times. Reversible circuits are essential parts of quantum computers, and hence their designs are of great importance. In this paper, designs of reversible circuits are proposed using a recently proposed reversible gate for arithmetic and logic operations to implement various micro-operations (simple add and subtract, add with carry, subtract with borrow, transfer, incrementing, decrementing etc., and logic operations like XOR, XNOR, complementing etc.) in a reversible computer like quantum computer. The two new reversible designs proposed here for half adder and full adders are also used in the presented reversible circuits to implement various microoperations. The quantum costs of these designs are comparable. Many of the implemented micro-operations are not seen in previous literatures. The performances of the proposed circuits are compared with existing designs wherever available.
Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting
Cinà, Giovanni
The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either of the two languages. This paper explores the interplay of the two formalisms in the peculiar context of Quantum Theory. After a review of some influential abstract frameworks, we show how different modal logic frames can be extracted from the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, connecting the Categorical Quantum Mechanics approach to some modal logics that have been proposed for Quantum Computing. We then apply a general version of the same technique to two other categorical frameworks, the `topos approach' of Doering and Isham and the sheaf-theoretic work on contextuality by Abramsky and Brandenburger, suggesting how some key features can be expressed with modal languages.
Mixed-Species Logic Gates and High-Fidelity Universal Gate Set for Trapped-Ion Qubits
Tan, Ting Rei
2016-05-01
Precision control over hybrid physical systems at the quantum level is important for the realization of many quantum-based technologies. For trapped-ions, a hybrid system formed of different species introduces extra degrees of freedom that can be exploited to expand and refine the control of the system. We demonstrate an entangling gate between two atomic ions of different elements that can serve as an important building block of quantum information processing (QIP), quantum networking, precision spectroscopy, metrology, and quantum simulation. An entangling geometric phase gate between a 9 Be+ ion and a 25 Mg+ ion is realized through an effective spin-spin interaction generated by state-dependent forces. A mixed-species Bell state is thereby created with a fidelity of 0 . 979(1) . We use the gate to construct a SWAP gate that interchanges the quantum states of the two dissimilar qubits. We also report a high-fidelity universal gate set for 9 Be+ ion qubits, achieved through a combination of improved laser beam quality and control, improved state preparation, and reduced electric potential noise on trap electrodes. Supported by Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), ONR, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.
Ultracompact all-optical logic gates based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities
Yang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2017-01-01
In this study, nanoscale integrated all-optical XNOR, XOR, and NAND logic gates were realized based on all-optical tunable on-chip plasmon-induced transparency in plasmonic circuits. A large nonlinear enhancement was achieved with an organic composite cover layer based on the resonant excitation-enhancing nonlinearity effect, slow light effect, and field confinement effect provided by the plasmonic nanocavity mode, which ensured a low excitation power of 200 μW that is three orders of magnitude lower than the values in previous reports. A feature size below 600 nm was achieved, which is a one order of magnitude lower compared to previous reports. The contrast ratio between the output logic states "1" and "0" reached 29 dB, which is among the highest values reported to date. Our results not only provide an on-chip platform for the study of nonlinear and quantum optics but also open up the possibility for the realization of nanophotonic processing chips based on nonlinear plasmonics.
The dynamic turn in quantum logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the
A Scheme for Simulation of Quantum Gates by Abelian Anyons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈尧; 艾青; 龙桂鲁
2011-01-01
Anyons can be used to realize quantum computation, because they are two-level systems in two dimensions. In this paper, we propose a scheme to simulate single-qubit gates and CNOT gate using Abelian anyons in the Kitaev model. Two pairs of anyons （six spins） are used to realize single-qubit gates, while ten spins are needed for the CNOT gate. Based on these quantum gates, we show how to realize the Grover algorithm in a two-qubit system.
All-optical logic-gates based on bacteriorhodopsin film
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Gui-Ying; Zhang Chun-Ping; Guo Zong-Xia; Tian Jian-Guo; Zhang Guang-Yin; Song Qi-Wang
2005-01-01
Based on self-diffraction in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) film, we propose all-optical NOT, XOR, half adder and XNOR logic operations. Using the relation between diffraction light and the polarization states of recording beams, we demonstrate NOT and XNOR logic operations. Studying the relation of polarization states among the diffracting, recording and reading beams, we implement XOR logic and half adder operations with three inputs. The methods are simple and practicable.
Quantum view on contextual logic of composite intelligent devices
Vol, E D
2013-01-01
Based on the ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) we propose the consistent approach to study probabilistic many-valued propositional logic of intelligent devices that are composed from separate but interconnected logical units. In this preliminary communication we consider only the simplest example of such systems, namely, four- valued probabilistic logical device composed of two logical subsystems. We demonstrate that similar devices can generate two classes of probabilistic propositions:1) decomposable propositions, which in fact are equivalent to certain ordered pair of propositions in device subsystems and 2) indecomposable propositions which are connected with inherent logical interaction between device units. The indecomposable propositions are undoubtedly of greatest interest since they, as shown in the paper, provide powerful additional logical resource compared to standard parallel processing in composite intelligent systems. The contextual logic of composite devices proposed in this paper...
Elementary Quantum Gates Based on Intrinsic Interaction Hamiltonian
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jing; YU Chang-Shui; SONG He-Shan
2006-01-01
A kind of new operators, the generalized pseudo-spin operators are introduced and a universal intrinsic Hamiltonian of two-qubit interaction is studied in terms of the generalized pseudo-spin operators. A fundamental quantum gate U(θ) is constructed based on the universal Hamiltonian and shown that the roles of the new quantum gate U(θ) is equivalent, functionally, to the joint operation of Hadamard and C-Not gates.
Gates controlled parallel-coupled bilayer graphene double quantum dot
Wang, Lin-Jun; Wei, Da; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Chang, A M
2011-01-01
Here we report the fabrication and quantum transport measurements of gates controlled parallel-coupled bilayer graphene double quantum dot. It is shown that the interdot coupling strength of the parallel double dots can be effectively tuned from weak to strong regime by both the in-plane plunger gates and back gate. All the relevant energy scales and parameters of the bilayer graphene parallel-coupled double dot can be extracted from the honeycomb charge stability diagrams revealed through the transport measurements.
Realization of morphing logic gates in a repressilator with quorum sensing feedback
Agrawal, Vidit; Kang, Shivpal Singh; Sinha, Sudeshna
2014-03-01
We demonstrate how a genetic ring oscillator network with quorum sensing feedback can operate as a robust logic gate. Specifically we show how a range of logic functions, namely AND/NAND, OR/NOR and XOR/XNOR, can be realized by the system, thus yielding a versatile unit that can morph between different logic operations. We further demonstrate the capacity of this system to yield complementary logic operations in parallel. Our results then indicate the computing potential of this biological system, and may lead to bio-inspired computing devices.
Fluorescent nanoparticle beacon for logic gate operation regulated by strand displacement.
Yang, Jing; Shen, Lingjing; Ma, Jingjing; Schlaberg, H Inaki; Liu, Shi; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Cheng
2013-06-26
A mechanism is developed to construct a logic system by employing DNA/gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugates as a basic work unit, utilizing a fluorescent beacon probe to detect output signals. To implement the logic circuit, a self-assembly DNA structure is attached onto nanoparticles to form the fluorescent beacon. Moreover, assisted by regulation of multilevel strand displacement, cascaded logic gates are achieved. The computing results are detected by methods using fluorescent signals, gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This work is expected to demonstrate the feasibility of the cascaded logic system based on fluorescent nanoparticle beacons, suggesting applications in DNA computation and biotechnology.
Realization of Morphing Logic Gates in a Repressilator with Quorum Sensing Feedback
Agrawal, Vidit; Sinha, Sudeshna
2013-01-01
We demonstrate how a genetic ring oscillator network with quorum sensing feedback can operate as a robust logic gate. Specifically we show how a range of logic functions, namely AND/NAND, OR/NOR and XOR/XNOR, can be realized by the system, thus yielding a versatile unit that can morph between different logic operations. We further demonstrate the capacity of this system to yield complementary logic operations in parallel. Our results then indicate the computing potential of this biological system, and may lead to bio-inspired computing devices.
A reconfigurable spintronic device for quantum and classical logic
Bhowmik, Debanjan; Sarkar, Angik; Bhattacharyya, Tarun Kanti
2010-01-01
Quantum superposition and entanglement of physical states can be harnessed to solve some problems which are intractable on a classical computer implementing binary logic. Several algorithms have been proposed to utilize the quantum nature of physical states and solve important problems. For example, Shor's quantum algorithm is extremely important in the field of cryptography since it factors large numbers exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. Another celebrated example is the Grovers quantum algorithm. These algorithms can only be implemented on a quantum computer which operates on quantum bits (qubits). Rudimentary implementations of quantum processor have already been achieved through linear optical components, ion traps, NMR etc. However demonstration of a solid state quantum processor had been elusive till DiCarlo et al demonstrated two qubit algorithms in superconducting quantum processor. Though this has been a significant step, scalable semiconductor based room temperature quantum co...
Gated Clock Implementation of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Neelam R. Prakash
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Low power design has emerged as one of the challenging area in today’s ASIC (Application specific integrated circuit design. With continuous decrease in transistor size, power density is increasing and there is an urgent need for reduction in total power consumption. Clock gating is one most effective technique for low power synchronous circuit design. Clock gating technique in low power design is used to reduce the dynamic power consumption. Clock signal in a synchronous circuit is used for synchronization only and hence does not carry any important information. Since clock is applied to each block of a synchronous circuit, and clock switches for every cycle, clock power is the major part of dynamic power consumption in synchronous circuits. Clock gating is a well known technique to reduce clock power. In clock gating clock to an idle block is disabled. Thus significant amount of power consumption is reduced by employing clock gating. In this paper an ALU design is proposed employing Gated clock for its operation. Design simulation has been performed on Xilinx ISE design suite, and power calculation is done by Xilinx Xpower analyzer. Results show that approximately 17% of total clock power consumption is reduced by gated clock implementation.
Terahertz all-optical NOR and AND logic gates based on 2D photonic crystals
Parandin, Fariborz; Karkhanehchi, Mohammad Mehdi
2017-01-01
Usually, photonic crystals are used in designing optical logic gates. This study focuses on the design and simulation of an all optical NOR and AND logic gates based on two dimensional photonic crystals. The simplicity of the proposed structure is a characteristic feature of this designation. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) as well as Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) methods have been used for this structural analysis. The simulation results revealed an increase in the interval between "zero" and "one" logic levels. Also, the simple structure and its small size demonstrate the usefulness of this structure in optical integrated circuits. The proposed optical gates can operate with a bit rate of about 1.54 Tbit/s.
Alternative approach of conducting phase-modulated all-optical logic gates
Chakraborty, Bikash; Mukhopadhyay, Sourangshu
2009-03-01
It is well established that optical devices and components are more advantageous than their electronic counterparts because of inherent parallelism in optics. Basically electronics are found to be very unsuitable in high speed (above gigahertz) data processing systems whereas tremendous operational speed (in the range of terahertz) can be achieved with the help of optics. The parallelism of optics and the properties of low loss transmission make optics a powerful technology for digital computing and processing and in long-range communications. Again it is well established that logic gates are the basic building blocks of any computing or data processing system. Therefore, any optical data processor needs suitable optically run logic gates. A method of conducting phase-modulated all-optical logic gates is proposed. Here we will exploit the advantages of phase modulation not only in processing but also in encoding as well decoding also.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
F. Djeffal; A. Ferdi; M. Chahdi
2012-01-01
The double gate (DG) silicon MOSFET with an extremely short-channel length has the appropriate features to constitute the devices for nanoscale circuit design.To develop a physical model for extremely scaled DG MOSFETs,the drain current in the channel must be accurately determined under the application of drain and gate voltages.However,modeling the transport mechanism for the nanoscale structures requires the use of overkill methods and models in terms of their complexity and computation time (self-consistent,quantum computations ).Therefore,new methods and techniques are required to overcome these constraints.In this paper,a new approach based on the fuzzy logic computation is proposed to investigate nanoscale DG MOSFETs.The proposed approach has been implemented in a device simulator to show the impact of the proposed approach on the nanoelectronic circuit design.The approach is general and thus is suitable for any type ofnanoscale structure investigation problems in the nanotechnology industry.
Multiplexing of injury codes for the parallel operation of enzyme logic gates.
Halámek, Jan; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Zhou, Jian; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Strack, Guinevere; Arugula, Mary A; Chinnapareddy, Soujanya; Bocharova, Vera; Wang, Joseph; Katz, Evgeny
2010-09-01
The development of a highly parallel enzyme logic sensing concept employing a novel encoding scheme for the determination of multiple pathophysiological conditions is reported. The new concept multiplexes a contingent of enzyme-based logic gates to yield a distinct 'injury code' corresponding to a unique pathophysiological state as prescribed by a truth table. The new concept is illustrated using an array of NAND and AND gates to assess the biomedical significance of numerous biomarker inputs including creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, norepinephrine, glutamate, alanine transaminase, lactate, glucose, glutathione disulfide, and glutathione reductase to assess soft-tissue injury, traumatic brain injury, liver injury, abdominal trauma, hemorrhagic shock, and oxidative stress. Under the optimal conditions, physiological and pathological levels of these biomarkers were detected through either optical or electrochemical techniques by monitoring the level of the outputs generated by each of the six logic gates. By establishing a pathologically meaningful threshold for each logic gate, the absorbance and amperometric assays tendered the diagnosis in a digitally encoded 6-bit word, defined as an 'injury code'. This binary 'injury code' enabled the effective discrimination of 64 unique pathological conditions to offer a comprehensive high-fidelity diagnosis of multiple injury conditions. Such processing of relevant biomarker inputs and the subsequent multiplexing of the logic gate outputs to yield a comprehensive 'injury code' offer significant potential for the rapid and reliable assessment of varied and complex forms of injury in circumstances where access to a clinical laboratory is not viable. While the new concept of parallel and multiplexed enzyme logic gates is illustrated here in connection to multi-injury diagnosis, it could be readily extended to a wide range of practical medical, industrial, security and environmental applications.
Local Gate Control of a Carbon Nanotube Double Quantum Dot
2016-04-04
Nanotube Double Quantum Dot N. Mason,*† M. J. Biercuk,* C. M. Marcus† We have measured carbon nanotube quantum dots with multiple electro- static gates and...used the resulting enhanced control to investigate a nano- tube double quantum dot. Transport measurements reveal honeycomb charge stability diagrams...This ability to control electron interactions in the quantum regime in a molecular conductor is important for applications such as quantum
Scanning gate microscopy of ultra clean carbon nanotube quantum dots
Xue, Jiamin; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; LeRoy, Brian J.
2015-01-01
We perform scanning gate microscopy on individual suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. The size and position of the quantum dots can be visually identified from the concentric high conductance rings. For the ultra clean devices used in this study, two new effects are clearly identified. Electrostatic screening creates non-overlapping multiple sets of Coulomb rings from a single quantum dot. In double quantum dots, by changing the tip voltage, the interactions between the quantum dots can b...
Molecular logic gates and luminescent sensors based on photoinduced electron transfer.
de Silva, A Prasanna; Uchiyama, Seiichi
2011-01-01
The competition between Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and other de-excitation pathways such as fluorescence and phosphorescence can be controlled within designed molecular structures. Depending on the particular design, the resulting optical output is thus a function of various inputs such as ion concentration and excitation light dose. Once digitized into binary code, these input-output patterns can be interpreted according to Boolean logic. The single-input logic types of YES and NOT cover simple sensors and the double- (or higher-) input logic types represent other gates such as AND and OR. The logic-based arithmetic processors such as half-adders and half-subtractors are also featured. Naturally, a principal application of the more complex gates is in multi-sensing contexts.
DESIGN OF TWO-PHASE SINUSOIDAL POWER CLOCK AND CLOCKED TRANSMISSION GATE ADIABATIC LOGIC CIRCUIT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Pengjun; Yu Junjun
2007-01-01
First the research is conducted on the design of the two-phase sinusoidal power clock generator in this paper. Then the design of the new adiabatic logic circuit adopting the two-phase sinusoidal power clocks-Clocked Transmission Gate Adiabatic Logic (CTGAL) circuit is presented. This circuit makes use of the clocked transmission gates to sample the input signals, then the output loads are charged and discharged in a fully adiabatic manner by using bootstrapped N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NMOS) and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) latch structure.Finally, with the parameters of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.25 μm CMOS device, the transient energy consumption of CTGAL, Bootstrap Charge-Recovery Logic (BCRL)and Pass-transistor Adiabatic Logic (PAL) including their clock generators is simulated. The simulation result indicates that CTGAL circuit has the characteristic of remarkably low energy consumption.
Passive all-optical polarization switch, binary logic gates, and digital processor.
Zaghloul, Y A; Zaghloul, A R M; Adibi, A
2011-10-10
We introduce the passive all-optical polarization switch, which modulates light with light. That switch is used to construct all the binary logic gates of two or more inputs. We discuss the design concepts and the operation of the AND, OR, NAND, and NOR gates as examples. The rest of the 16 logic gates are similarly designed. Cascading of such gates is straightforward as we show and discuss. Cascading in itself does not require a power source, but feedback at this stage of development does. The design and operation of an SR Latch is presented as one of the popular basic sequential devices used for memory cells. That completes the essential components of an all-optical polarization digital processor. The speed of such devices is well above 10 GHz for bulk implementations and is much higher for chip-size implementations. In addition, the presented devices do have the four essential characteristics previously thought unique to the microelectronic ones.
Compact representations for the design of quantum logic
Niemann, Philipp
2017-01-01
This book discusses modern approaches and challenges of computer-aided design (CAD) of quantum circuits with a view to providing compact representations of quantum functionality. Focusing on the issue of quantum functionality, it presents Quantum Multiple-Valued Decision Diagrams (QMDDs – a means of compactly and efficiently representing and manipulating quantum logic. For future quantum computers, going well beyond the size of present-day prototypes, the manual design of quantum circuits that realize a given (quantum) functionality on these devices is no longer an option. In order to keep up with the technological advances, methods need to be provided which, similar to the design and synthesis of conventional circuits, automatically generate a circuit description of the desired functionality. To this end, an efficient representation of the desired quantum functionality is of the essence. While straightforward representations are restricted due to their (exponentially) large matrix descriptions and other de...
Correlated Knowledge: an Epistemic-Logic View on Quantum Entanglement
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
2010-12-01
In this paper we give a logical analysis of both classical and quantum correlations. We propose a new logical system to reason about the information carried by a complex system composed of several parts. Our formalism is based on an extension of epistemic logic with operators for “group knowledge” (the logic GEL), further extended with atomic sentences describing the results of “joint observations” (the logic LCK). As models we introduce correlation models, as a generalization of the standard representation of epistemic models as vector models. We give sound and complete axiomatizations for our logics, and we use this setting to investigate the relationship between the information carried by each of the parts of a complex system and the information carried by the whole system. In particular we distinguish between the “distributed information”, obtainable by simply pooling together all the information that can be separately observed in any of the parts, and “correlated information”, obtainable only by doing joint observations of the parts (and pooling together the results). Our formalism throws a new light on the difference between classical and quantum information and gives rise to an informational-logical characterization of the notion of “quantum entanglement”.
Serial DNA relay in DNA logic gates by electrical fusion and mechanical splitting of droplets
Kawano, Ryuji; Takinoue, Masahiro; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa
2017-01-01
DNA logic circuits utilizing DNA hybridization and/or enzymatic reactions have drawn increasing attention for their potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of cellular diseases. The compartmentalization of such a system into a microdroplet considerably helps to precisely regulate local interactions and reactions between molecules. In this study, we introduced a relay approach for enabling the transfer of DNA from one droplet to another to implement multi-step sequential logic operations. We proposed electrical fusion and mechanical splitting of droplets to facilitate the DNA flow at the inputs, logic operation, output, and serial connection between two logic gates. We developed Negative-OR operations integrated by a serial connection of the OR gate and NOT gate incorporated in a series of droplets. The four types of input defined by the presence/absence of DNA in the input droplet pair were correctly reflected in the readout at the Negative-OR gate. The proposed approach potentially allows for serial and parallel logic operations that could be used for complex diagnostic applications. PMID:28700641
Privman, Vladimir; Fratto, Brian E.; Zavalov, Oleksandr; Halamek, Jan; Katz, Evgeny
2013-01-01
We report a study of a system which involves an enzymatic cascade realizing an AND logic gate, with an added photochemical processing of the output allowing to make the gate's response sigmoid in both inputs. New functional forms are developed for quantifying the kinetics of such systems, specifically designed to model their response in terms of signal and information processing. These theoretical expressions are tested for the studied system, which also allows us to consider aspects of bioch...
Quantum Dot Channel (QDC) FETs with Wraparound II-VI Gate Insulators: Numerical Simulations
Jain, F.; Lingalugari, M.; Kondo, J.; Mirdha, P.; Suarez, E.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.
2016-11-01
This paper presents simulations predicting the feasibility of 9-nm wraparound quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FETs). In particular, II-VI lattice-matched layers which reduce the density of interface states, serving as top (tunnel gate), side, and bottom gate insulators, have been simulated. Quantum simulations show FET operation with voltage swing of ~0.2 V. Incorporation of cladded quantum dots, such as SiO x -Si and GeO x -Ge, under the gate tunnel oxide results in electrical transport in one or more quantum dot layers which form a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL). Long-channel QDC FETs have experimental multistate drain current ( I D)-gate voltage ( V G) and drain current ( I D)-drain voltage ( V D) characteristics, which can be attributed to the manifestation of extremely narrow energy minibands formed in the QDSL. An approach for modeling the multistate I D- V G characteristics is reported. The multistate characteristics of QDC FETs permit design of compact two-bit multivalued logic circuits.
Optimal quantum circuit synthesis from Controlled-U gates
Zhang, J; Sastry, S; Whaley, K B; Zhang, Jun; Vala, Jiri; Sastry, Shankar
2003-01-01
From a geometric approach, we derive the minimum number of applications needed for an arbitrary Controlled-Unitary gate to construct a universal quantum circuit. A new analytic construction procedure is presented and shown to be either optimal or close to optimal. This result can be extended to improve the efficiency of universal quantum circuit construction from any entangling gate. Specifically, for both the Controlled-NOT and Double-CNOT gates, we develop simple analytic ways to construct universal quantum circuits with three applications, which is the least possible.
Zaari, Ryan R; Brown, Alex
2011-07-28
The importance of the ro-vibrational state energies on the ability to produce high fidelity binary shaped laser pulses for quantum logic gates is investigated. The single frequency 2-qubit ACNOT(1) and double frequency 2-qubit NOT(2) quantum gates are used as test cases to examine this behaviour. A range of diatomics is sampled. The laser pulses are optimized using a genetic algorithm for binary (two amplitude and two phase parameter) variation on a discretized frequency spectrum. The resulting trends in the fidelities were attributed to the intrinsic molecular properties and not the choice of method: a discretized frequency spectrum with genetic algorithm optimization. This is verified by using other common laser pulse optimization methods (including iterative optimal control theory), which result in the same qualitative trends in fidelity. The results differ from other studies that used vibrational state energies only. Moreover, appropriate choice of diatomic (relative ro-vibrational state arrangement) is critical for producing high fidelity optimized quantum logic gates. It is also suggested that global phase alignment imposes a significant restriction on obtaining high fidelity regions within the parameter search space. Overall, this indicates a complexity in the ability to provide appropriate binary laser pulse control of diatomics for molecular quantum computing.
Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Bentley, Christopher D B; Taylor, Richard L; Carvalho, Andre R R; Hope, Joseph J; Streed, Erik W; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David
2016-01-01
Trapped ions are one of the most promising approaches for the realization of a universal quantum computer. Faster quantum logic gates could dramatically improve the performance of trapped-ion quantum computers, and require the development of suitable high repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here we report on a robust frequency upconverted fiber laser based source, able to deliver 2.5 ps ultraviolet (UV) pulses at a stabilized repetition rate of 300.00000 MHz with an average power of 190 mW. The laser wavelength is resonant with the strong transition in Ytterbium (Yb+) at 369.53 nm and its repetition rate can be scaled up using high harmonic mode locking. We show that our source can produce arbitrary pulse patterns using a programmable pulse pattern generator and fast modulating components. Finally, simulations demonstrate that our laser is capable of performing resonant, temperature-insensitive, two-qubit quantum logic gates on trapped Yb$^+$ ions faster than the trap period and with fidelity above 99%.
Investigation of a simultaneous multifunctional photonic logic gate based on bidirectional FWM
Li, Lanlan; Lv, Tingting; Wu, Jian
2013-11-01
We demonstrate a multi-functional photonic logic gate for RZ-PolSK signals based on four wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Bidirectional operation with one spool of HNLF is implemented numerically at 40 Gb/s. The basic logic arithmetics, such as XOR, AB¯,A¯B, XNOR, AND, NOR, and complex logic functions such as half-subtracter, half-adder, comparator and decoder are simultaneously realized by adjusting the polarization controllers. This novel structure is low-cost and rather flexible. Proper logic results, clear waveforms and high Q factors of eye diagrams are presented. Simulation analysis shows that bit error-free operation for the logic gate can be obtained when the wavelength separation is from -7 to 6 nm for two input signals. The impact of the input power on the Q factor is also investigated. Due to the femoto-second response time of Kerr-effect in HNLF we used in the scheme, the logic gate has great potential in future ultra-high speed optical transmission systems.
A smart gelator as a chemosensor: application to integrated logic gates in solution, gel, and film.
Xue, Pengchong; Lu, Ran; Jia, Junhui; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka
2012-03-19
A gelator that consisted of one benzimidazole moiety and four amide units was used as a chemosensor. We found that its absorption and emission spectra in solution were sensitive to two complementary chemical stimuli: protons and anions. Thus, YES and INH logic gates were obtained when absorbance was defined as an output. A combination gate of XNOR and AND with an emission output was also obtained. Moreover, wet gels in two solvents were used to construct two more-complicated three-input-three-output gates, owing to the existence of the gel phase as an additional output. Finally, in xerogel films that were formed from two kinds of wet gels, reversible changes in their emission spectra were observed when they were sequentially exposed to volatile acid and NH(3). Another combination two-output logic gate was obtained for xerogel films. Finally, three states of the gelator were used to construct not only basic logic gate, but also some combination gates because of their response to multiple chemical stimuli and their multiple output signals, in which one chemical input could erase the effect of another chemical input. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Conditional quantum logic using two atomic qubits
Protsenko, I E; Schlosser, N; Grangier, P
2002-01-01
In this paper we propose and analyze a feasible scheme where the detection of a single scattered photon from two trapped atoms or ions performs a conditional unitary operation on two qubits. As examples we consider the preparation of all four Bell states, the reverse operation that is a Bell measurement, and a CNOT gate. We study the effect of atomic motion and multiple scattering, by evaluating Bell inequalities violations, and by calculating the CNOT gate fidelity.
A Comparison of Implications in Orthomodular Quantum Logic—Morphological Analysis of Quantum Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitsuhiko Fujio
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Morphological operators are generalized to lattices as adjunction pairs (Serra, 1984; Ronse, 1990; Heijmans and Ronse, 1990; Heijmans, 1994. In particular, morphology for set lattices is applied to analyze logics through Kripke semantics (Bloch, 2002; Fujio and Bloch, 2004; Fujio, 2006. For example, a pair of morphological operators as an adjunction gives rise to a temporalization of normal modal logic (Fujio and Bloch, 2004; Fujio, 2006. Also, constructions of models for intuitionistic logic or linear logics can be described in terms of morphological interior and/or closure operators (Fujio and Bloch, 2004. This shows that morphological analysis can be applied to various non-classical logics. On the other hand, quantum logics are algebraically formalized as orhomodular or modular ortho-complemented lattices (Birkhoff and von Neumann, 1936; Maeda, 1980; Chiara and Giuntini, 2002, and shown to allow Kripke semantics (Chiara and Giuntini, 2002. This suggests the possibility of morphological analysis for quantum logics. In this article, to show an efficiency of morphological analysis for quantum logic, we consider the implication problem in quantum logics (Chiara and Giuntini, 2002. We will give a comparison of the 5 polynomial implication connectives available in quantum logics.
Chauhan, Chanderkanta; Bedi, Amna; Kumar, Santosh
2017-02-01
In this ultra fast computing era power optimization is a major technological challenge that requires new computing paradigms. Conservative and reversible logic opens up the possibility of ultralow power computing. In this paper, basic reversible logic gate (double Feynman gate) using the lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed. The results are verified using beam propagation method and MATLAB simulations.
Hur, Seung-Hyun; Yoon, Myung-Han; Gaur, Anshu; Shim, Moonsub; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Rogers, John A
2005-10-12
We report the implementation of three dimensionally cross-linked, organic nanodielectric multilayers as ultrathin gate dielectrics for a type of thin film transistor device that uses networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes as effective semiconductor thin films. Unipolar n- and p-channel devices are demonstrated by use of polymer coatings to control the behavior of the networks. Monolithically integrating these devices yields complementary logic gates. The organic multilayers provide exceptionally good gate dielectrics for these systems and allow for low voltage, low hysteresis operation. The excellent performance characteristics suggest that organic dielectrics of this general type could provide a promising path to SWNT-based thin film electronics.
Rapoport, Diego L.
2011-01-01
In this transdisciplinary article which stems from philosophical considerations (that depart from phenomenology—after Merleau-Ponty, Heidegger and Rosen—and Hegelian dialectics), we develop a conception based on topological (the Moebius surface and the Klein bottle) and geometrical considerations (based on torsion and non-orientability of manifolds), and multivalued logics which we develop into a unified world conception that surmounts the Cartesian cut and Aristotelian logic. The role of torsion appears in a self-referential construction of space and time, which will be further related to the commutator of the True and False operators of matrix logic, still with a quantum superposed state related to a Moebius surface, and as the physical field at the basis of Spencer-Brown's primitive distinction in the protologic of the calculus of distinction. In this setting, paradox, self-reference, depth, time and space, higher-order non-dual logic, perception, spin and a time operator, the Klein bottle, hypernumbers due to Musès which include non-trivial square roots of ±1 and in particular non-trivial nilpotents, quantum field operators, the transformation of cognition to spin for two-state quantum systems, are found to be keenly interwoven in a world conception compatible with the philosophical approach taken for basis of this article. The Klein bottle is found not only to be the topological in-formation for self-reference and paradox whose logical counterpart in the calculus of indications are the paradoxical imaginary time waves, but also a classical-quantum transformer (Hadamard's gate in quantum computation) which is indispensable to be able to obtain a complete multivalued logical system, and still to generate the matrix extension of classical connective Boolean logic. We further find that the multivalued logic that stems from considering the paradoxical equation in the calculus of distinctions, and in particular, the imaginary solutions to this equation
Efficient measurement of quantum gate error by interleaved randomized benchmarking.
Magesan, Easwar; Gambetta, Jay M; Johnson, B R; Ryan, Colm A; Chow, Jerry M; Merkel, Seth T; da Silva, Marcus P; Keefe, George A; Rothwell, Mary B; Ohki, Thomas A; Ketchen, Mark B; Steffen, M
2012-08-24
We describe a scalable experimental protocol for estimating the average error of individual quantum computational gates. This protocol consists of interleaving random Clifford gates between the gate of interest and provides an estimate as well as theoretical bounds for the average error of the gate under test, so long as the average noise variation over all Clifford gates is small. This technique takes into account both state preparation and measurement errors and is scalable in the number of qubits. We apply this protocol to a superconducting qubit system and find a bounded average error of 0.003 [0,0.016] for the single-qubit gates X(π/2) and Y(π/2). These bounded values provide better estimates of the average error than those extracted via quantum process tomography.
Notes on stochastic (bio)-logic gates: computing with allosteric cooperativity.
Agliari, Elena; Altavilla, Matteo; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Katz, Evgeny
2015-05-15
Recent experimental breakthroughs have finally allowed to implement in-vitro reaction kinetics (the so called enzyme based logic) which code for two-inputs logic gates and mimic the stochastic AND (and NAND) as well as the stochastic OR (and NOR). This accomplishment, together with the already-known single-input gates (performing as YES and NOT), provides a logic base and paves the way to the development of powerful biotechnological devices. However, as biochemical systems are always affected by the presence of noise (e.g. thermal), standard logic is not the correct theoretical reference framework, rather we show that statistical mechanics can work for this scope: here we formulate a complete statistical mechanical description of the Monod-Wyman-Changeaux allosteric model for both single and double ligand systems, with the purpose of exploring their practical capabilities to express noisy logical operators and/or perform stochastic logical operations. Mixing statistical mechanics with logics, and testing quantitatively the resulting findings on the available biochemical data, we successfully revise the concept of cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity) for allosteric systems, with particular emphasis on its computational capabilities, the related ranges and scaling of the involved parameters and its differences with classical cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity).
Quasi-classical modeling of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata multidriver gates
Rahimi, Ehsan; Nejad, Shahram Mohammad
2012-05-01
Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (mQCA) has received considerable attention in nanoscience. Unlike the current-based molecular switches, where the digital data is represented by the on/off states of the switches, in mQCA devices, binary information is encoded in charge configuration within molecular redox centers. The mQCA paradigm allows high device density and ultra-low power consumption. Digital mQCA gates are the building blocks of circuits in this paradigm. Design and analysis of these gates require quantum chemical calculations, which are demanding in computer time and memory. Therefore, developing simple models to probe mQCA gates is of paramount importance. We derive a semi-classical model to study the steady-state output polarization of mQCA multidriver gates, directly from the two-state approximation in electron transfer theory. The accuracy and validity of this model are analyzed using full quantum chemistry calculations. A complete set of logic gates, including inverters and minority voters, are implemented to provide an appropriate test bench in the two-dot mQCA regime. We also briefly discuss how the QCADesigner tool could find its application in simulation of mQCA devices.
Can many-valued logic help to comprehend quantum phenomena?
Pykacz, Jarosław
2014-01-01
Following {\\L}ukasiewicz, we argue that future non-certain events should be described with the use of many-valued, not 2-valued logic. The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger `paradox' is shown to be an artifact caused by unjustified use of 2-valued logic while considering results of future non-certain events. Description of properties of quantum objects before they are measured should be performed with the use of propositional functions that form a particular model of infinitely-valued {\\L}ukasiewicz logic. This model is distinguished by specific operations of negation, conjunction, and disjunction that are used in it.
Implementing entangling gates via quantum walks through branching graphs
Solenov, Dmitry; Cavin, Thomas
Efficient quantum gates are essential to quantum computing. It was found recently that quantum walks can enhance performance of quantum gates. We investigate how the propagation of a complicated, branching system can be solved analytically by first mapping it to linear chain. We found that certain types of systems, including systems of n qubits, can be algorithmically mapped to a system of disjoint linear chains. In particular, we found a solution for the 3 qubit system that performs either a trivial return walk or a return walk with a phase of pi introduced.
Flip-Flops for accurate multiphase clocking: transmission gate versus current mode logic
Dutta, R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Gao, X.; Ru, Z.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Nauta, Bram
2013-01-01
Dynamic transmission gate (DTG) flip-flops (FFs) (DTG-FFs) and current mode logic (CML) FFs (CML-FFs) are compared targeting power efficient multiphase clock generation with low phase error. The effect of component mismatches on multiphase clock timing inaccuracies is modeled and compared, using the
Passive linear-optics 640 Gbit/s logic NOT gate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael;
2015-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a 640 Gbit/s all-optical NOT gate for high-speed telecommunication on-off-keying (OOK) data signals. We employ linear optical signal processing based on spectral phase-only (all-pass) optical filtering to perform the target logic NOT operation....
A DNAzyme-mediated logic gate for programming molecular capture and release on DNA origami.
Li, Feiran; Chen, Haorong; Pan, Jing; Cha, Tae-Gon; Medintz, Igor L; Choi, Jong Hyun
2016-06-28
Here we design a DNA origami-based site-specific molecular capture and release platform operated by a DNAzyme-mediated logic gate process. We show the programmability and versatility of this platform with small molecules, proteins, and nanoparticles, which may also be controlled by external light signals.
Flip-Flops for accurate multiphase clocking: transmission gate versus current mode logic
Dutta, R.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Gao, X.; Ru, Z.; Zee, van der R.A.R.; Nauta, B.
2013-01-01
Dynamic transmission gate (DTG) flip-flops (FFs) (DTG-FFs) and current mode logic (CML) FFs (CML-FFs) are compared targeting power efficient multiphase clock generation with low phase error. The effect of component mismatches on multiphase clock timing inaccuracies is modeled and compared, using the
Adiabatic holonomic quantum gates for a single qubit
Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Rudin, Sergey
2014-04-01
A universal set of single qubit holonomic quantum gates using the geometric phase that the qubit wave function acquires after a cyclic evolution is discussed. The proposed scheme utilizes ultrafast linearly chirped pulses and provides a possibility to substantially suppress transient population of the ancillary state in a generic three-level system. That provides a possibility to reduce the decoherence effect and achieve a higher fidelity of the quantum gates.
A conditional quantum phase gate between two 3-state atoms
Yi, X X; You, L
2002-01-01
We propose a scheme for conditional quantum logic between two 3-state atoms that share a quantum data-bus such as a single mode optical field in cavity QED systems, or a collective vibrational state of trapped ions. Making use of quantum interference, our scheme achieves successful conditional phase evolution without any real transitions of atomic internal states or populating the quantum data-bus. In addition, it only requires common addressing of the two atoms by external laser fields.
Conditional quantum phase gate between two 3-state atoms.
Yi, X X; Su, X H; You, L
2003-03-07
We propose a scheme for conditional quantum logic between two 3-state atoms that share a quantum data bus such as a single mode optical field in cavity QED systems, or a collective vibrational state of trapped ions. Making use of quantum interference, our scheme achieves successful conditional phase evolution without any real transitions of atomic internal states or populating the quantum data bus. In addition, it requires only common addressing of the two atoms by external laser fields.
A photon-photon quantum gate based on a single atom in an optical resonator.
Hacker, Bastian; Welte, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2016-08-11
That two photons pass each other undisturbed in free space is ideal for the faithful transmission of information, but prohibits an interaction between the photons. Such an interaction is, however, required for a plethora of applications in optical quantum information processing. The long-standing challenge here is to realize a deterministic photon-photon gate, that is, a mutually controlled logic operation on the quantum states of the photons. This requires an interaction so strong that each of the two photons can shift the other's phase by π radians. For polarization qubits, this amounts to the conditional flipping of one photon's polarization to an orthogonal state. So far, only probabilistic gates based on linear optics and photon detectors have been realized, because "no known or foreseen material has an optical nonlinearity strong enough to implement this conditional phase shift''. Meanwhile, tremendous progress in the development of quantum-nonlinear systems has opened up new possibilities for single-photon experiments. Platforms range from Rydberg blockade in atomic ensembles to single-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics. Applications such as single-photon switches and transistors, two-photon gateways, nondestructive photon detectors, photon routers and nonlinear phase shifters have been demonstrated, but none of them with the ideal information carriers: optical qubits in discriminable modes. Here we use the strong light-matter coupling provided by a single atom in a high-finesse optical resonator to realize the Duan-Kimble protocol of a universal controlled phase flip (π phase shift) photon-photon quantum gate. We achieve an average gate fidelity of (76.2 ± 3.6) per cent and specifically demonstrate the capability of conditional polarization flipping as well as entanglement generation between independent input photons. This photon-photon quantum gate is a universal quantum logic element, and therefore could perform most existing two-photon operations
A photon-photon quantum gate based on a single atom in an optical resonator
Hacker, Bastian; Welte, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2016-08-01
That two photons pass each other undisturbed in free space is ideal for the faithful transmission of information, but prohibits an interaction between the photons. Such an interaction is, however, required for a plethora of applications in optical quantum information processing. The long-standing challenge here is to realize a deterministic photon-photon gate, that is, a mutually controlled logic operation on the quantum states of the photons. This requires an interaction so strong that each of the two photons can shift the other’s phase by π radians. For polarization qubits, this amounts to the conditional flipping of one photon’s polarization to an orthogonal state. So far, only probabilistic gates based on linear optics and photon detectors have been realized, because “no known or foreseen material has an optical nonlinearity strong enough to implement this conditional phase shift”. Meanwhile, tremendous progress in the development of quantum-nonlinear systems has opened up new possibilities for single-photon experiments. Platforms range from Rydberg blockade in atomic ensembles to single-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics. Applications such as single-photon switches and transistors, two-photon gateways, nondestructive photon detectors, photon routers and nonlinear phase shifters have been demonstrated, but none of them with the ideal information carriers: optical qubits in discriminable modes. Here we use the strong light-matter coupling provided by a single atom in a high-finesse optical resonator to realize the Duan-Kimble protocol of a universal controlled phase flip (π phase shift) photon-photon quantum gate. We achieve an average gate fidelity of (76.2 ± 3.6) per cent and specifically demonstrate the capability of conditional polarization flipping as well as entanglement generation between independent input photons. This photon-photon quantum gate is a universal quantum logic element, and therefore could perform most existing two
Implications of the Landauer limit for quantum logic
Mihelic, F. Matthew
2014-05-01
The design of any system of quantum logic must take into account the implications of the Landauer limit for logical bits. Useful computation implies a deterministic outcome, and so any system of quantum computation must produce a final deterministic outcome, which in a quantum computer requires a quantum decision that produces a deterministic qubit. All information is physical, and any bit of information can be considered to exist in a physicality represented as a decision between the two wells of a double well potential in which the energy barrier between the two wells must be greater than kT·ln2. Any proposed system of quantum computation that does not result in such a deterministic outcome can only be considered stochastically as a probability distribution (i.e. a wave function). An example of such determinism in a quantum logic system is theorized to exist in the DNA molecule, where the decoherence of quantum decision results in an enantiomeric shift in the deoxyribose moiety that is appropriate to the Landauer limit.
Logic Gate Operation by DNA Translocation through Biological Nanopores.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroki Yasuga
Full Text Available Logical operations using biological molecules, such as DNA computing or programmable diagnosis using DNA, have recently received attention. Challenges remain with respect to the development of such systems, including label-free output detection and the rapidity of operation. Here, we propose integration of biological nanopores with DNA molecules for development of a logical operating system. We configured outputs "1" and "0" as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA that is or is not translocated through a nanopore; unlabeled DNA was detected electrically. A negative-AND (NAND operation was successfully conducted within approximately 10 min, which is rapid compared with previous studies using unlabeled DNA. In addition, this operation was executed in a four-droplet network. DNA molecules and associated information were transferred among droplets via biological nanopores. This system would facilitate linking of molecules and electronic interfaces. Thus, it could be applied to molecular robotics, genetic engineering, and even medical diagnosis and treatment.
Kim, Hoon-Sik; Won, Sang Min; Ha, Young-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.; Rogers, John A.
2009-11-01
This letter reports the fabrication and electrical characterization of mechanically flexible and low operating voltage transistors and logic gates (NOT, NAND, and NOR gates) using printed silicon nanomembranes and self-assembled nanodielectrics on thin plastic substrates. The transistors exhibit effective linear mobilities of ˜680 cm2/V s, on/off ratios >107, gate leakage current densities <2.8×10-7 A/cm2, and subthreshold slopes ˜120 mV/decade. The inverters show voltage gains as high as 4.8. Simple digital logic gates (NAND and NOR gates) demonstrate the possible application of this materials combination in digital integrated circuits.
Wavelet analisys and HHG in nanorings Their applications in logic gates and memory mass devices
Cricchio, Dario
2015-01-01
We study the application of one nanoring driven by a laser field in different states of polarization in logic circuits. In particular we show that assigning boolean values to different state of the incident laser field and to the emitted signals, we can create logic gates such as OR, XOR and AND. We also show the possibility to make logic circuits such as half-adder and full-adder using one and two nanoring respectively. Using two nanorings we made the Toffoli gate. Finally we use the final angular momentum acquired by the electron to store information and hence show the possibility to use an array of nanorings as a mass memory device.
Accurate dynamic power estimation for CMOS combinational logic circuits with real gate delay model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omnia S. Fadl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic power estimation is essential in designing VLSI circuits where many parameters are involved but the only circuit parameter that is related to the circuit operation is the nodes’ toggle rate. This paper discusses a deterministic and fast method to estimate the dynamic power consumption for CMOS combinational logic circuits using gate-level descriptions based on the Logic Pictures concept to obtain the circuit nodes’ toggle rate. The delay model for the logic gates is the real-delay model. To validate the results, the method is applied to several circuits and compared against exhaustive, as well as Monte Carlo, simulations. The proposed technique was shown to save up to 96% processing time compared to exhaustive simulation.
A Survey Analysis on CMOS Integrated Circuits with Clock-Gated Logic Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PADMA KHARE
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Various circuit design techniques has been presented to improve noise tolerance of the proposed CGS logic families. Noise in deep submicron technology limits the reliability and performance of ICs. The ANTE (Average Noise Threshold Energy metric is used for the analysis of noise tolerance of proposed CGS. A 2- input NAND and NOR gate is designed by the proposed technique. Simulation results for a 2-input NAND gate at clock gated logic show that the proposed noise tolerant circuit achieves 1.79X ANTE improvement along with the reduction in leakage power. Continuous scaling of technology towards the manometer range significantly increases leakage current level and the effect of noise. This research can be further extended for performance optimization in terms of power, speed, area and noise immunity.
Genomic mining of prokaryotic repressors for orthogonal logic gates.
Stanton, Brynne C; Nielsen, Alec A K; Tamsir, Alvin; Clancy, Kevin; Peterson, Todd; Voigt, Christopher A
2014-02-01
Genetic circuits perform computational operations based on interactions between freely diffusing molecules within a cell. When transcription factors are combined to build a circuit, unintended interactions can disrupt its function. Here, we apply 'part mining' to build a library of 73 TetR-family repressors gleaned from prokaryotic genomes. The operators of a subset were determined using an in vitro method, and this information was used to build synthetic promoters. The promoters and repressors were screened for cross-reactions. Of these, 16 were identified that both strongly repress their cognate promoter (5- to 207-fold) and exhibit minimal interactions with other promoters. Each repressor-promoter pair was converted to a NOT gate and characterized. Used as a set of 16 NOT/NOR gates, there are >10(54) circuits that could be built by changing the pattern of input and output promoters. This represents a large set of compatible gates that can be used to construct user-defined circuits.
Algebra, Logic and Qubits Quantum Abacus
Vlasov, A Yu
2000-01-01
The canonical anticommutation relations (CAR) for fermion systems can be represented by finite-dimensional matrix algebra, but it is impossible for canonical commutation relations (CCR) for bosons. After description of more simple case with representation CAR and (bounded) quantum computational networks via Clifford algebras in the paper are discussed CCR. For representation of the algebra it is not enough to use quantum networks with fixed number of qubits and it is more convenient to consider Turing machine with essential operation of appending new cells for description of infinite tape in finite terms --- it has straightforward generalization for quantum case, but for CCR it is necessary to work with symmetrized version of the quantum Turing machine. The system is called here quantum abacus due to understanding analogy with the ancient counting devices (abacus).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F., E-mail: fremacle@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, B6c, University of Liege, B4000 Liege (Belgium)
2014-10-28
A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.
Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F.
2014-10-01
A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.
New low power adders in Self Resetting Logic with Gate Diffusion Input Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Uma
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The objective vividly defines a new low-power and high-speed logic family; named Self Resetting Logic with Gate Diffusion Input (SRLGDI. This logic family resolves the issues in dynamic circuits like charge sharing, charge leakage, short circuit power dissipation, monotonicity requirement and low output voltage. In the proposed design structure of SRLGDI, the pull down tree is implemented with Gate Diffusion Input (GDI with level restoration which apparently eliminated the conductance overlap between nMOS and pMOS devices, thereby reducing the short circuit power dissipation and providing High Output Voltage VoH. The output stage of SRLGDI has been incorporated with an inverter to produce both true and complementary output function. The Resistance Capacitance (RC delay model has been proposed to obtain the total delay of the circuit during precharge and evaluation phases. Using SRLGDI, the primitive cells and 3 different full adder circuits were designed and simulated in a 0.250 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS process technology. The simulated result demonstrates that the proposed SRLGDI logic family is superior in terms of speed and power consumption with respect to other logic families like Dynamic logic (DY, CMOS, Self Resetting CMOS (SRCMOS and GDI.
Enzyme-Based Logic Gates and Networks with Output Signals Analyzed by Various Methods.
Katz, Evgeny
2017-07-05
The paper overviews various methods that are used for the analysis of output signals generated by enzyme-based logic systems. The considered methods include optical techniques (optical absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance), electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, potentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, conductivity measurements, use of field effect transistor devices, pH measurements), and various mechanoelectronic methods (using atomic force microscope, quartz crystal microbalance). Although each of the methods is well known for various bioanalytical applications, their use in combination with the biomolecular logic systems is rather new and sometimes not trivial. Many of the discussed methods have been combined with the use of signal-responsive materials to transduce and amplify biomolecular signals generated by the logic operations. Interfacing of biocomputing logic systems with electronics and "smart" signal-responsive materials allows logic operations be extended to actuation functions; for example, stimulating molecular release and switchable features of bioelectronic devices, such as biofuel cells. The purpose of this review article is to emphasize the broad variability of the bioanalytical systems applied for signal transduction in biocomputing processes. All bioanalytical systems discussed in the article are exemplified with specific logic gates and multi-gate networks realized with enzyme-based biocatalytic cascades. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Simplified realization of two-qubit quantum phase gate with four-level systems in cavity QED
Yang, Chui-Ping; Chu, Shih-I.; Han, Siyuan
2004-10-01
We propose a method for realizing two-qubit quantum phase gate with 4-level systems in cavity QED. In this proposal, the two logical states of a qubit are represented by the two lowest levels of each system, and two intermediate levels of each system are utilized to facilitate coherent control and manipulation of quantum states of the qubits. The present method does not involve cavity-photon population during the operation. In addition, we show that the gate can be achieved using only two-step operations.
N Channel JFET Based Digital Logic Gate Structure
Krasowski, Michael J (Inventor)
2013-01-01
An apparatus is provided that includes a first field effect transistor with a source tied to zero volts and a drain tied to voltage drain drain (Vdd) through a first resistor. The apparatus also includes a first node configured to tie a second resistor to a third resistor and connect to an input of a gate of the first field effect transistor in order for the first field effect transistor to receive a signal. The apparatus also includes a second field effect transistor configured as a unity gain buffer having a drain tied to Vdd and an uncommitted source.
Compiling quantum algorithms for architectures with multi-qubit gates
Martinez, Esteban A.; Monz, Thomas; Nigg, Daniel; Schindler, Philipp; Blatt, Rainer
2016-06-01
In recent years, small-scale quantum information processors have been realized in multiple physical architectures. These systems provide a universal set of gates that allow one to implement any given unitary operation. The decomposition of a particular algorithm into a sequence of these available gates is not unique. Thus, the fidelity of the implementation of an algorithm can be increased by choosing an optimized decomposition into available gates. Here, we present a method to find such a decomposition, where a small-scale ion trap quantum information processor is used as an example. We demonstrate a numerical optimization protocol that minimizes the number of required multi-qubit entangling gates by design. Furthermore, we adapt the method for state preparation, and quantum algorithms including in-sequence measurements.
Speed limits for quantum gates in multiqubit systems
Ashhab, S.; De Groot, P.C.; Nori, F.
2012-01-01
We use analytical and numerical calculations to obtain speed limits for various unitary quantum operations in multiqubit systems under typical experimental conditions. The operations that we consider include single-, two-, and three-qubit gates, as well as quantum-state transfer in a chain of qubits
Orbach, Ron; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar
2015-03-11
This feature article addresses the implementation of catalytic nucleic acids as functional units for the construction of logic gates and computing circuits, and discusses the future applications of these systems. The assembly of computational modules composed of DNAzymes has led to the operation of a universal set of logic gates, to field programmable logic gates and computing circuits, to the development of multiplexers/demultiplexers, and to full-adder systems. Also, DNAzyme cascades operating as logic gates and computing circuits were demonstrated. DNAzyme logic systems find important practical applications. These include the use of DNAzyme-based systems for sensing and multiplexed analyses, for the development of controlled release and drug delivery systems, for regulating intracellular biosynthetic pathways, and for the programmed synthesis and operation of cascades.
Entangling Dipole-Dipole Interactions for Quantum Logic in Optical Lattices
Deutsch, Ivan
2000-06-01
The ability to engineer the quantum state of a many-body system represents the ``holy grail" of coherent control and opens the door to a host of new applications and fundamental studies ranging from improvements in precision measurement to quantum computation. At the heart of these quantum-information processing tasks are entangled states. These can be created through a ``quantum-circuit" consisting of a series of simple quantum logic gates acting only on single or pairs of qubits. Any physical implementation of a quantum circuit must contend with an inherent conflict. Qubits must strongly couple to one another and to an external classical field which drives the algorithm, while simultaneously coupling very weakly to the noisy environment which decoheres the quantum superpositions. We have identified a new system for quantum-information processing: ultra-cold trapped neutral atoms (G. K. Brennen et al. ), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 , 1060 (1999); see also eprint quant- ph/9910031. Neutrals interact very weakly with the environment and coupling between them can be induced on demand through resonant excitation or elastic collisions via direct overlap between wavepackets(D. Jaksch et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 1975 (1999).. The ability to turn interactions on and off reduces decoherence and the spread of errors amongst qubits. In the implementation presented here I will discuss entangling atoms with electric dipole-dipole interactions in optical lattices (P.S. Jessen and I. H. Deutsch, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 36), 91 (1996).. These traps provide an extremely flexible environment for coherent control of both internal and external degrees of freedom of atom wave packets as in ion traps(D. Wineland et al.), Fortschr. Phys. 46, 363 (1998).. Dipole-dipole interactions can be coherent when atoms are tightly localized at a distance small compared to the optical wavelength. By inducing dipoles conditional on the logical state of the atoms we can engineer quantum gates. Detailed analysis
Budyka, Mikhail F; Li, Vitalii M
2017-01-18
Using molecular logic gates (MLGs) for information processing attracts attention due to perspectives of creating molecular computers. Biphotochromic dyads are suitable models of photonic MLGs. However, they suffer from one weakness: the activity of one of the photochromes is often quenched because of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Herein, we designed a dyad with reduced FRET, in which both photochromes keep their photoactivity thanks to spectral and spatial separation, allowing MLG switching between different states. This novel dyad reproduces the functionality of the full set of 16 two-input gates, as well a reversible gate-dual inverter, all gates are photonic. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Gate contact resistive random access memory in nano scaled FinFET logic technologies
Hsu, Meng-Yin; Shih, Yi-Hong; Chih, Yue-Der; Lin, Chrong Jung; King, Ya-Chin
2017-04-01
A full logic-compatible embedded gate contact resistive random access memory (GC-RRAM) cell in the CMOS FinFET logic process without extra mask or processing steps has been successfully demonstrated for high-density and low-cost logic nonvolatile memory (NVM) applications. This novel GC-RRAM cell is composed of a transition metal oxide from the gate contact plug and interlayer dielectric (ILD) in the middle, and a gate contact and an n-type epitaxial drain terminal as the top and bottom electrodes, respectively. It features low-voltage operation and reset current, compact cell size, and a stable read window. As a promising embedded NVM solution, the compact one transistor and one resistor (1T1R) cell is highly scalable as the technology node progresses. Excellent data retention and cycling capability have also been demonstrated by the reliability testing results. These superior characteristics make GC-RRAM one of a few viable candidates for logic NVM for future FinFET circuits.
Quantum logic operations on two distant atoms trapped in two optical-fibre-connected cavities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Ying-Qiao; Zhang Shou; Yeon Kyu-Hwang; Yu Seong-Cho
2011-01-01
Based on the coupling of two distant three-level atoms in two separate optical cavities connected with two optical fibres,schemes on the generation of several two-qubit logic gates are discussed under the conditions of △ =δ -2v cos πk/2 (》) g/2 and (v～ g).Discussion and analysis of the fidelity,gate time and experimental setups show that our schemes are feasible with current optical cavity,atomic trap and optical fibre techniques.Moreover,the atom-cavityfibre coupling can be used to generate an N-qubit nonlocal entanglement and transfer quantum information among N distant atoms by arranging N atom-cavity assemblages in a line and connecting each two adjacent cavities with two optical fibres.
Rani, Preeti; Kalra, Yogita; Sinha, R. K.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we have reported design and analysis of polarization independent all optical logic gates in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal consisting of two dimensional honeycomb lattices with two different air holes exhibiting photonic band gap for both TE and TM mode in the optical communication window. The proposed structures perform as an AND optical logic gate and all the optical logic gates based on the phenomenon of interference. The response period and bit rate for TE and TM polarizations at a wavelength of 1.55 μm show improved results as reported earlier.
An Electrostatic Model of Split-Gate Quantum Wires
Sun, Yinlong; Kirczenow, George; Sachrajda, Andrew. S.; Feng, Yan
1995-01-01
We present a theoretical model of split-gate quantum wires that are fabricated from GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures. The model is built on the physical properties of donors and of semiconductor surfaces, and considerations of equilibrium in such systems. Based on the features of this model, we have studied different ionization regimes of quantum wires, provided a method to evaluate the shallow donor density, and calculated the depletion and pinchoff voltages of quantum wires both before and afte...
Enzyme-based NAND and NOR logic gates with modular design.
Zhou, Jian; Arugula, Mary A; Halámek, Jan; Pita, Marcos; Katz, Evgeny
2009-12-10
The logic gates NAND/NOR were mimicked by enzyme biocatalyzed reactions activated by sucrose, maltose and phosphate. The subunits performing AND/OR Boolean logic operations were designed using maltose phosphorylase and cooperative work of invertase/amyloglucosidase, respectively. Glucose produced as the output signal from the AND/OR subunits was applied as the input signal for the INVERTER gate composed of alcohol dehydrogenase, glucose oxidase, microperoxidase-11, ethanol and NAD(+), which generated the final output in the form of NADH inverting the logic signal from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0. The final output signal was amplified by a self-promoting biocatalytic system. In order to fulfill the Boolean properties of associativity and commutativity in logic networks, the final NADH output signal was converted to the initial signals of maltose and phosphate, thus allowing assembling of the same standard units in concatenated sequences. The designed modular approach, signal amplification and conversion processes open the way toward complex logic networks composed of standard elements resembling electronic integrated circuitries.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Ke-Hui; ZHOU Zheng-Wei; GUO Guang-Can
2006-01-01
We present a scheme to realize geometric phase-shift gate for two superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits coupled to a single-mode microwave field. The geometric phase-shift gate operation is performed transitions during the gate operation. Thus, the docoherence due to energy spontaneous emission based on the levels of SQUIDs are suppressed. The gate is insensitive to the cavity decay throughout the operation since the cavity mode is displaced along a circle in the phase space, acquiring a phase conditional upon the two lower flux states of the SQUID qubits, and the cavity mode is still in the original vacuum state. Based on the SQUID qubits interacting with the cavity mode, our proposed approach may open promising prospects for quantum logic in SQUID-system.
Fault Tolerant Variable Block Carry Skip Logic (VBCSL) using Parity Preserving Reversible Gates
Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar
2010-01-01
Reversible logic design has become one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient design approaches of fault tolerant carry skip adders (FTCSAs) and compares those designs with the existing ones. Variable block carry skip logic (VBCSL) using the fault tolerant full adders (FTFAs) has also been developed. The designs are minimized in terms of hardware complexity, gate count, constant inputs and garbage outputs. Besides of it, technology independent evaluation of the proposed designs clearly demonstrates its superiority with the existing counterparts.
All-optical 10 Gb/s AND logic gate in a silicon microring resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiong, Meng; Lei, Lei; Ding, Yunhong
2013-01-01
An all-optical AND logic gate in a single silicon microring resonator is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gb/s with 50% RZ-OOK signals. By setting the wavelengths of two intensity-modulated input pumps on the resonances of the microring resonator, field-enhanced four-wave mixing with a total inp...... power of only 8.5 dBm takes place in the ring, resulting in the generation of an idler whose intensity follows the logic operation between the pumps. Clear and open eye diagrams with a bit-error- ratio below 10−9 are achieved....
Privman, Vladimir; Fratto, Brian E; Zavalov, Oleksandr; Halámek, Jan; Katz, Evgeny
2013-06-27
We report a study of a system which involves an enzymatic cascade realizing an AND logic gate, with an added photochemical processing of the output, allowing the gate's response to be made sigmoid in both inputs. New functional forms are developed for quantifying the kinetics of such systems, specifically designed to model their response in terms of signal and information processing. These theoretical expressions are tested for the studied system, which also allows us to consider aspects of biochemical information processing such as noise transmission properties and control of timing of the chemical and physical steps.
Reversible arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert; Axelsen, Holger Bock
2010-01-01
-bit operands and does not use ancillae. This remarkable low resource consumption was achieved by generalizing the V-shape design first introduced for quantum ripple-carry adders and nesting multiple V-shapes in a novel integrated design. This communication shows that the realization of an efficient reversible...
Xia, Hongyan; Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Guang; Jiang, Hao; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin
2014-02-01
Here, a novel multi-stimuli-responsive fluorescence probe is developed by incorporating spiropyran group into the coumarin-substituted polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles. The fluorescence of PDA can be turned on upon heating, and can be quenched upon exposure to UV light irradiation or pH stimuli owing to the fluorescene resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the red-phase PDA and the open merocyanine (MC) form of spiropyran. Moreover, we have designed and experimentally realized a set of logic gate operations for the first time based on the fluorescence modulation of the designed system upon thermal, photo, and pH stimuli. This novel type of resettable logic gates augur well for practical applications in information storage, optical recording, and sensing in complicated microenvironments. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Generation of logic gates based on a photonic crystal fiber Michelson interferometer
Sousa, J. R. R.; Filho, A. F. G. F.; Ferreira, A. C.; Batista, G. S.; Sobrinho, C. S.; Bastos, A. M.; Lyra, M. L.; Sombra, A. S. B.
2014-07-01
We present a numerical investigation of all-optical logical gates based in a Michelson interferometer (MI) of micro structured fibers, also known as photonic crystal fibers (PCF). We considered an ultra-short pulse propagating along the system in three distinct regimes of pump power. We determine several relevant quantities to characterize the system performance such as transmission, extinction ratio and crosstalk as a function of the dephasing added to one of the Bragg gratings of the Michelson interferometer (MI). High-order effects, such as third-order dispersion, intrapulse Raman scattering and self-steepening were included in the nonlinear generalized Schrödinger equation governing the pulse propagation. Our results show that the proposed device can be used to obtain all-optical XOR, OR and NOT logic gates.
A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads.
Douglas, Shawn M; Bachelet, Ido; Church, George M
2012-02-17
We describe an autonomous DNA nanorobot capable of transporting molecular payloads to cells, sensing cell surface inputs for conditional, triggered activation, and reconfiguring its structure for payload delivery. The device can be loaded with a variety of materials in a highly organized fashion and is controlled by an aptamer-encoded logic gate, enabling it to respond to a wide array of cues. We implemented several different logical AND gates and demonstrate their efficacy in selective regulation of nanorobot function. As a proof of principle, nanorobots loaded with combinations of antibody fragments were used in two different types of cell-signaling stimulation in tissue culture. Our prototype could inspire new designs with different selectivities and biologically active payloads for cell-targeting tasks.
Percolation, renormalization, and quantum computing with nondeterministic gates.
Kieling, K; Rudolph, T; Eisert, J
2007-09-28
We apply a notion of static renormalization to the preparation of entangled states for quantum computing, exploiting ideas from percolation theory. Such a strategy yields a novel way to cope with the randomness of nondeterministic quantum gates. This is most relevant in the context of optical architectures, where probabilistic gates are common, and cold atoms in optical lattices, where hole defects occur. We demonstrate how to efficiently construct cluster states without the need for rerouting, thereby avoiding a massive amount of conditional dynamics; we furthermore show that except for a single layer of gates during the preparation, all subsequent operations can be shifted to the final adapted single-qubit measurements. Remarkably, cluster state preparation is achieved using essentially the same scaling in resources as if deterministic gates were available.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taherkhani, Masoomeh; Gregersen, Niels; Willatzen, Morten
2017-01-01
The exciton oscillator strength (OS) in type-II quantum dot (QD) nanowires is calculated by using a fast and efficient method. We propose a new structure in Double-Well QD (DWQD) nanowire that considerably increases OS of type-II QDs which is a key parameter in optical quantum gating...... in the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) process [1] for implementing quantum gates....
Reduction of Power Dissipation in Dynamic BiCMOS Logic Gates by Transistor Reordering
S. M. Rezaul Hasan; Yufridin Wahab
2002-01-01
This paper explores the deterministic transistor reordering in low-voltage dynamic BiCMOS logic gates, for reducing the dynamic power dissipation. The constraints of load driving (discharging) capability and NPN turn-on delay for MOSFET reordered structures has been carefully considered. Simulations shows significant reduction in the dynamic power dissipation for the transistor reordered BiCMOS structures. The power-delay product figure-of-merit is found to be significantly enhanced without a...
Wu, Shing-Trong; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Ho, Shau-Jung; Li, Ming-Shian
2015-03-01
This study investigates the bichromatic tuning of cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) reflection bands from reflectors containing chiral azo dopants. Because the chiral azo molecules change their helical twist power in reversible photoisomerization, the reflection bands of the CLCs are modulated using purple and green laser beams. The CLC reflectors are integrated into an optical gate that can be used to modulate output spectra. We also apply the integrated system in optical switching and logic.
Fan, Kaiqi; Yang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobo; Song, Jian
2014-11-07
A gelator containing a sorbitol moiety and a naphthalene-based salicylideneaniline group exhibits macroscopic gel-sol behavior in response to four complementary input stimuli: temperature, UV light, OH(-), and Cu(2+). On the basis of its multiple-stimuli responsive properties, we constructed a rational gel-based supramolecular logic gate that performed OR and INH types of reversible stimulus responsive gel-sol transition in the presence of various combinations of the four stimuli when the gel state was defined as an output. Moreover, a combination two-output logic gate was obtained, owing to the existence of the naked eye as an additional output. Hence, gelator 1 could construct not only a basic logic gate, but also a two-input-two-output logic gate because of its response to multiple chemical stimuli and multiple output signals, in which one input could erase the effect of another input.
Entangling quantum gate in trapped ions via Rydberg blockade
Li, Weibin
2013-01-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the implementation of an entangling quantum gate between two trapped Ca$^+$ ions which is based on the dipolar interaction among ionic Rydberg states. In trapped ions the Rydberg excitation dynamics is usually strongly affected by mechanical forces due to the strong couplings between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in inhomogeneous electric fields. We demonstrate that this harmful effect can be overcome by using dressed states that emerge from the microwave coupling of nearby Rydberg states. At the same time these dressed states exhibit long range dipolar interactions which we use to implement a controlled adiabatic phase gate. Our study highlights a route towards a trapped ion quantum processor in which quantum gates are realized independently of the vibrational modes.
Gate Bias Effects on Samples with Edge Gates in the Quantum Hall Regime
若林 淳一; 風間 重雄; 長嶋 登志夫
2001-01-01
We have fabricated GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure Hall samples that have edge gate with several widths along both sides of the sample. The gate width dependence of an effect of the gate voltage to the Hall resistance was measured at the middle of a transition region between the adjacent quantum Hall plateaus. The results have been analyzed based on two model functions of current distribution;an exponential type and the modified Beenakker type. The results of the former have shown qualitative agr...
An organic jelly made fractal logic gate with an infinite truth table
Ghosh, Subrata; Fujita, Daisuke; Bandyopadhyay, Anirban
2015-06-01
Widely varying logic gates invented over a century are all finite. As data deluge problem looms large on the information processing and communication industry, the thrust to explore radical concepts is increasing rapidly. Here, we design and synthesis a molecule, wherein, the input energy transmits in a cycle inside the molecular system, just like an oscillator, then, we use the molecule to make a jelly that acts as chain of oscillators with a fractal like resonance band. Hence, with the increasing detection resolution, in the vacant space between two energy levels of a given resonance band, a new band appears, due to fractal nature, generation of newer energy levels never stops. This is natural property of a linear chain oscillator. As we correlate each energy level of the resonance band of organic jelly, as a function of pH and density of the jelly, we realize a logic gate, whose truth table is finite, but if we zoom any small part, a new truth table appears. In principle, zooming of truth table would continue forever. Thus, we invent a new class of infinite logic gate for the first time.
Graphene-ferroelectric metadevices for nonvolatile memory and reconfigurable logic-gate operations
Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Teun-Teun; Park, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Kanghee; Choi, Hyun Joo; Lee, Seung Hoon; Son, Jaehyeon; Park, Namkyoo; Min, Bumki
2016-01-01
Memory metamaterials are artificial media that sustain transformed electromagnetic properties without persistent external stimuli. Previous memory metamaterials were realized with phase-change materials, such as vanadium dioxide or chalcogenide glasses, which exhibit memory behaviour with respect to electrically/optically induced thermal stimuli. However, they require a thermally isolated environment for longer retention or strong optical pump for phase-change. Here we demonstrate electrically programmable nonvolatile memory metadevices realised by the hybridization of graphene, a ferroelectric and meta-atoms/meta-molecules, and extend the concept further to establish reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices. For a memory metadevice having a single electrical input, amplitude, phase and even the polarization multi-states were clearly distinguishable with a retention time of over 10 years at room temperature. Furthermore, logic-gate functionalities were demonstrated with reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices having two electrical inputs, with each connected to separate ferroelectric layers that act as the multi-level controller for the doping level of the sandwiched graphene layer.
Quantum gates with optimal bandwidth in noisy environments
Low, Guang Hao; Theodore, Yoder; Chuang, Isaac
The traditional approach of open-loop quantum error correction suppresses certain systematic imperfections ɛ in quantum control to higher orders ɛ (L) by a well-designed sequence of L imperfect quantum gates. However, this philosophy of maximal flatness leads to an ɛ-bandwidth that scales poorly with length and a residual that is easily overwhelmed by unaccounted sources of noise. We advance the paradigm of equiripple compensated gates that directly optimize for bandwidth given the limitations imposed by noise of magnitude δ, leading to dramatically improved performance. Where ɛ represent amplitude errors, we provide a formalism that generalizes both approaches and is effective at finding such gates. With it, we provide in closed-form the phase angles for an optimal family of population inversion gates with an ɛ -bandwidth of (logδ-1/L) - a quadratic improvement over optimal maximally flat variants. We also construct optimal NOT gates and discuss extensions to other gates and error models.
Fast synthesis of the Fredkin gate via quantum Zeno dynamics
Shao, Xiao-Qiang; Zheng, Tai-Yu; Zhang, Shou
2012-12-01
We propose a scheme for fast synthesizing the Fredkin gate with rf SQUID qubits. This scheme utilizes the quantum Zeno dynamics induced by continuous couplings and the non-identical couplings between SQUIDs and superconducting cavity. The effects of decoherence on the performance for the gate are analyzed in virtue of master equation and non-unitary evolution with full Hamiltonian. The strictly numerical simulation shows that the fidelity of this Fredkin gate is relatively high corresponding to current typical experimental parameters. Furthermore, an equivalent physical model is also constructed in an array of coupled cavities.
Unconventional geometric quantum phase gates with a cavity QED system
Zheng, Shi-Biao
2004-11-01
We propose a scheme for realizing two-qubit quantum phase gates via an unconventional geometric phase shift with atoms in a cavity. In the scheme the atoms interact simultaneously with a highly detuned cavity mode and a classical field. The atoms undergo no transitions during the gate operation, while the cavity mode is displaced along a circle in the phase space, aquiring a geometric phase conditional upon the atomic state. Under certain conditions, the atoms are disentangled with the cavity mode and thus the gate is insensitive to both the atomic spontaneous emission and the cavity decay.
Zhang, Ting; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Bao-Guo; Guo, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xiao-Jun
2016-05-01
The extraordinary transmission in density-near-zero (DNZ) acoustic metamaterials (AMs) provides possibilities to manipulate acoustic signals with extremely large effective phase velocity and wavelength. Here, we report compact transformable acoustic logic gates with a subwavelength size as small as 0.82λ based on DNZ AMs. The basic acoustic logic gates, composed of a tri-port structure filled with space-coiling DNZ AMs, enable precise direct linear interference of input signals with considerably small phase lag and wavefront distortion. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally the basic Boolean logic operations such as OR, AND, XOR, and NOT with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability, by adjusting the phase difference between two input signals. More complex logic calculus, such as "I1 + I2 × I3," are also realized by cascading of the basic logic gates. Our proposal provides diverse routes to construct devices for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.
Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang
2014-06-25
Molecular logic gates in response to chemical, biological, or optical input signals at a molecular level have received much interest over the past decade. Herein, we construct "plug and play" logic systems based on the fluorescence switching of guest molecules confined in coordination polymer nanoparticles generated from nucleotide and lanthanide ions. In the system, the addition of new modules directly enables new logic functions. PASS 0, YES, PASS 1, NOT, IMP, OR, and AND gates are successfully constructed in sequence. Moreover, different logic gates (AND, INH, and IMP) can be constructed using different guest molecules and the same input combinations. The work will be beneficial to the future logic design and expand the applications of coordination polymers.
Fratto, Brian E; Katz, Evgeny
2015-05-18
Reversible logic gates, such as the double Feynman gate, Toffoli gate and Peres gate, with 3-input/3-output channels are realized using reactions biocatalyzed with enzymes and performed in flow systems. The flow devices are constructed using a modular approach, where each flow cell is modified with one enzyme that biocatalyzes one chemical reaction. The multi-step processes mimicking the reversible logic gates are organized by combining the biocatalytic cells in different networks. This work emphasizes logical but not physical reversibility of the constructed systems. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and potential use in biosensing systems, rather than in computing devices, is suggested. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Single-loop multiple-pulse nonadiabatic holonomic quantum gates
Herterich, Emmi; Sjöqvist, Erik
2016-11-01
Nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation provides the means to perform fast and robust quantum gates by utilizing the resilience of non-Abelian geometric phases to fluctuations of the path in state space. While the original scheme [E. Sjöqvist et al., New J. Phys. 14, 103035 (2012), 10.1088/1367-2630/14/10/103035] needs two loops in the Grassmann manifold (i.e., the space of computational subspaces of the full state space) to generate an arbitrary holonomic one-qubit gate, we propose single-loop one-qubit gates that constitute an efficient universal set of holonomic gates when combined with an entangling holonomic two-qubit gate. Our one-qubit gate is realized by dividing the loop into path segments, each of which is generated by a Λ -type Hamiltonian. We demonstrate that two path segments are sufficient to realize arbitrary single-loop holonomic one-qubit gates. We describe how our scheme can be implemented experimentally in a generic atomic system exhibiting a three-level Λ -coupling structure by utilizing carefully chosen laser pulses.
Possibility designing XNOR and NAND molecular logic gates by using single benzene ring
Abbas, Mohammed A.; Hanoon, Falah H.; Al-Badry, Lafy F.
2017-09-01
This study focused on examining electronic transport through single benzene ring and suggested how such ring can be employed to design XNOR and NAND molecular logic gates. The single benzene ring was threaded by a magnetic flux. The magnetic flux and applied gate voltages were considered as the key tuning parameter in the XNOR and NAND gates operation. All the calculations are achieved by using steady-state theoretical model, which is based on the time-dependent Hamiltonian model. The transmission probability and the electric current are calculated as functions of electron energy and bias voltage, respectively. The application of the anticipated results can be a base for the progress of molecular electronics.
Energy-Efficient and Secure S-Box circuit using Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Dinesh [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Thapliyal, Himanshu [ORNL; Mohammad, Azhar [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Singh, Vijay [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL
2016-01-01
Differential Power Analysis (DPA) attack is considered to be a main threat while designing cryptographic processors. In cryptographic algorithms like DES and AES, S-Box is used to indeterminate the relationship between the keys and the cipher texts. However, S-box is prone to DPA attack due to its high power consumption. In this paper, we are implementing an energy-efficient 8-bit S-Box circuit using our proposed Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic (SPGAL). SPGAL is energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. SPGAL is energy-efficient due to reduction of non-adiabatic loss during the evaluate phase of the outputs. Further, the S-Box circuit implemented using SPGAL is resistant to DPA attacks. The results are verified through SPICE simulations in 180nm technology. SPICE simulations show that the SPGAL based S-Box circuit saves upto 92% and 67% of energy as compared to the conventional CMOS and Secured Quasi-Adiabatic Logic (SQAL) based S-Box circuit. From the simulation results, it is evident that the SPGAL based circuits are energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. In nutshell, SPGAL based gates can be used to build secure hardware for lowpower portable electronic devices and Internet-of-Things (IoT) based electronic devices.
Design of High-Performance Asynchronous Pipeline Using Synchronizing Logic Gates
Xia, Zhengfan; Ishihara, Shota; Hariyama, Masanori; Kameyama, Michitaka
This paper introduces a novel design method of an asynchronous pipeline based on dual-rail dynamic logic. The overhead of handshake control logic is greatly reduced by constructing a reliable critical datapath, which offers the pipeline high throughput as well as low power consumption. Synchronizing Logic Gates (SLGs), which have no data dependency problem, are used in the design to construct the reliable critical datapath. The design targets latch-free and extremely fine-grain or gate-level pipeline, where the depth of every pipeline stage is only one dual-rail dynamic logic. HSPICE simulation results, in a 65nm design technology, indicate that the proposed design increases the throughput by 120% and decreases the power consumption by 54% compared with PS0, a classic dual-rail asynchronous pipeline implementation style, in 4-bit wide FIFOs. Moreover, this method is applied to design an array style multiplier. It shows that the proposed design reduces power by 37.9% compared to classic synchronous design when the workloads are 55%. A chip has been fabricated with a 4×4 multiplier function, which works well at 2.16G data-set/s (Post-layout simulation).
A method for characterizing coherent-state quantum gates
Blandino, Rémi; Barbieri, Marco; Grangier, Philippe; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa
2011-01-01
We discuss and implement experimentally a method for characterizing quantum gates operating on superpositions of coherent states. The peculiarity of this encoding of qubits is to work with a non-orthogonal basis, and therefore some technical limitations prevent us from using standard methods, such as process tomography. We adopt a different technique, that relies on some a-priori knowledge about the physics underlying the functioning of the device. A parameter characterizing the global quality of the quantum gate is obtained by \\virtually" processing an entangled state.
Universal Quantum Gates Based on Both Geometric and Dynamic Phases in Quantum Dots
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨开宇; 朱诗亮; 汪子丹
2003-01-01
A large-scalable quantum computer model, whose qubits are represented by the subspace subtended by the ground state and the single exciton state on semiconductor quantum dots, is proposed. A universal set of quantum gates in this system may be achieved by a mixed approach, composed of dynamic evolution and nonadiabatic geometric phase.
Quantum Weak Values and Logic: An Uneasy Couple
Svensson, Bengt E. Y.
2017-03-01
Quantum mechanical weak values of projection operators have been used to answer which-way questions, e. g. to trace which arms in a multiple Mach-Zehnder setup a particle may have traversed from a given initial to a prescribed final state. I show that this procedure might lead to logical inconsistencies in the sense that different methods used to answer composite questions, like "Has the particle traversed the way X or the way Y?", may result in different answers depending on which methods are used to find the answer. I illustrate the problem by considering some examples: the "quantum pigeonhole" framework of Aharonov et al., the three-box problem, and Hardy's paradox. To prepare the ground for my main conclusion on the incompatibility in certain cases of weak values and logic, I study the corresponding situation for strong/projective measurements. In this case, no logical inconsistencies occur provided one is always careful in specifying exactly to which ensemble or sample space one refers. My results cast doubts on the utility of quantum weak values in treating cases like the examples mentioned.
Fratto, Brian E; Roby, Lucas J; Guz, Nataliia; Katz, Evgeny
2014-10-18
The enzyme-based system performing a biocatalytic cascade reaction was realized in a flow device and was used to mimic Boolean logic operations. Chemical inputs applied to the system resulted in the activation of additional reaction steps, allowing the reversible switch of the logic operations between OR, NXOR and NAND gates for processing of two other biomolecular inputs.
Larom, Bar; Nazarathy, Moshe; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Nevet, Amir; Zalevsky, Zeev
2010-06-21
Feasibility of cascading and reconfiguring a pair of linear-nonlinear all-optical logic gate structures is experimentally demonstrated using RF photonics. Progress in highly integrated O/E/O repeaters over Si/InP hybrid platforms enables large-scale reconfigurable gate arrays.
Noise gates for decoherent quantum circuits
Bassi, Angelo; Deckert, D. -A.
2008-01-01
A major problem in exploiting microscopic systems for developing a new technology based on the principles of Quantum Information is the influence of noise which tends to work against the quantum features of such systems. It becomes then crucial to understand how noise affects the evolution of quantum circuits: several techniques have been proposed among which stochastic differential equations (SDEs) can represent a very convenient tool. We show how SDEs naturally map any Markovian noise into ...
2014-09-01
implementation of XOR/XNOR, making for a more modular nature to implement the common logic gates. The library is used to implement 1-bit full adders and a CIC...implementations. We validate such techniques through the design and simulation of inverters, full adders , and a five-stage cascaded integrator-comb (CIC...filter (inverter, XOR, NAND, flip flop, full adder , ripple carry adder , 26 bits). 2. Circuit Topology/Gate Design/Inverter and Gate Design Trade-Offs
Gate complexity using Dynamic Programming
Sridharan, Srinivas; Gu, Mile; James, Matthew R.
2008-01-01
The relationship between efficient quantum gate synthesis and control theory has been a topic of interest in the quantum control literature. Motivated by this work, we describe in the present article how the dynamic programming technique from optimal control may be used for the optimal synthesis of quantum circuits. We demonstrate simulation results on an example system on SU(2), to obtain plots related to the gate complexity and sample paths for different logic gates.
Complete multiple round quantum dense coding with quantum logical network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI ChunYan; LI XiHan; DENG FuGuo; ZHOU Ping; ZHOU HongYu
2007-01-01
We present a complete multiple round quantum dense coding scheme for improving the source capacity of that introduced recently by Zhang et al. The receiver resorts to two qubits for storing the four local unitary operations in each round.
New Directions in Categorical Logic, for Classical, Probabilistic and Quantum Logic
Jacobs, Bart
2012-01-01
Traditionally in categorical logic predicates on an object/type X are represented as subobjects of X. Here we break with that tradition and use maps of the form p : X --> X + X with [id, id] o p = id as predicates. This new view gives a more dynamic, measurement-oriented view on predicates, that works well especially in a quantitative setting. In classical logic (in the category of sets) these new predicates coincide with the traditional ones (subsets, or characteristic maps X --> {0,1}); in probabilistic logic (in the category of sets and Markov chains), the new predicates correspond to fuzzy predicates X --> [0,1]; and in quantum logic (in Hilbert spaces) they correspond to effects (positive endomaps below the identity), which may be understood as fuzzy predicates on a changed basis. It is shown that, under certain conditions about coproducts +, predicates p : X --> X + X form effect algebras and carry a scalar multiplication (with probabilities). Suitable substitution functors give rise to indexed/fibred c...
Quantum CPF gates between rare earth ions through measurement
Xiao, Yun-Feng; Han, Zheng-Fu; Yang, Yong; Guo, Guang-Can
2004-09-01
We propose a method to realize quantum controlled phase flip (CPF) through interaction between a single-photon pulse and two microsphere cavities with a single three-level ion respectively and final photonic measurement. Our CPF gates are scalable with extremely high fidelity and low error rate, and are more applicable based on current laboratory cavity-QED technology.
Quantum CPF gates between rare earth ions through measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao Yunfeng [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: yfxiao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Han Zhengfu [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: zfhan@ustc.edu.cn; Yang Yong [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China); Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China (CAS), Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: gcguo@ustc.edu.cn
2004-09-20
We propose a method to realize quantum controlled phase flip (CPF) through interaction between a single-photon pulse and two microsphere cavities with a single three-level ion respectively and final photonic measurement. Our CPF gates are scalable with extremely high fidelity and low error rate, and are more applicable based on current laboratory cavity-QED technology.
Logic Gates Made of N-Channel JFETs and Epitaxial Resistors
Krasowski, Michael J.
2008-01-01
Prototype logic gates made of n-channel junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) and epitaxial resistors have been demonstrated, with a view toward eventual implementation of digital logic devices and systems in silicon carbide (SiC) integrated circuits (ICs). This development is intended to exploit the inherent ability of SiC electronic devices to function at temperatures from 300 to somewhat above 500 C and withstand large doses of ionizing radiation. SiC-based digital logic devices and systems could enable operation of sensors and robots in nuclear reactors, in jet engines, near hydrothermal vents, and in other environments that are so hot or radioactive as to cause conventional silicon electronic devices to fail. At present, current needs for digital processing at high temperatures exceed SiC integrated circuit production capabilities, which do not allow for highly integrated circuits. Only single to small number component production of depletion mode n-channel JFETs and epitaxial resistors on a single substrate is possible. As a consequence, the fine matching of components is impossible, resulting in rather large direct-current parameter distributions within a group of transistors typically spanning multiples of 5 to 10. Add to this the lack of p-channel devices to complement the n-channel FETs, the lack of precise dropping diodes, and the lack of enhancement mode devices at these elevated temperatures and the use of conventional direct coupled and buffered direct coupled logic gate design techniques is impossible. The presented logic gate design is tolerant of device parameter distributions and is not hampered by the lack of complementary devices or dropping diodes. In addition to n-channel JFETs, these gates include level-shifting and load resistors (see figure). Instead of relying on precise matching of parameters among individual JFETS, these designs rely on choosing the values of these resistors and of supply potentials so as to make the circuits perform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotd, Amer, E-mail: amer_22003@yahoo.com, E-mail: kotb@phys.uconn.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, (Egypt)
2015-06-15
The modeling of all-optical logic XNOR gate is realized by a series combination of XOR and INVERT gates. This Boolean function is simulated by using Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) utilizing quantum-dots semiconductor optical amplifiers (QDs-SOAs). The study is carried out when the effect of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is included. The dependence of the output quality factor (Q-factor) on signals and QDs-SOAs' parameters is also investigated and discussed. The simulation is conducted under a repetition rate of ∼1 Tb/s. (author)
Lize, Yannick K; Christen, Louis; Nazarathy, Moshe; Nuccio, Scott; Wu, Xiaoxia; Willner, Alan E; Kashyap, Raman
2007-05-28
We present an optical multipath error correction technique for differentially encoded modulation formats such as differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) and differential polarization shift keying (DPolSK) for fiber-based and free-space communication. This multipath error correction method combines optical and electronic logic gates. The scheme can easily be implemented using commercially available interferometers and high speed logic gates and does not require any data overhead therefore does not affect the effective bandwidth of the transmitted data. It is not merely compatible but also complementary to error correction codes commonly used in optical transmission systems such as forward-error-correction (FEC). The technique consists of separating the demodulation at the receiver in multiple paths. Each path consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a different integer bit delay used in each path. Some basic logic operations follow and the three paths are compared using a simple majority vote algorithm. Experimental results show that the scheme improves receiver sensitivity by 1.5 dB at BER of 10(-3),in back-to-back configuration. Numerical results indicate a 1.6 dB improvement in the presence of Chromatic Dispersion for a 25% increase in tolerance for a 3dB penalty from +/-1220 ps/nm to +/-1520 ps/nm. and a 0.35 dB improvement for back-to-back operation.
Skyrmion domain wall collision and domain wall-gated skyrmion logic
Xing, Xiangjun; Pong, Philip W. T.; Zhou, Yan
2016-08-01
Skyrmions and domain walls are significant spin textures of great technological relevance to magnetic memory and logic applications, where they can be used as carriers of information. The unique topology of skyrmions makes them display emergent dynamical properties as compared with domain walls. Some studies have demonstrated that the two topologically inequivalent magnetic objects could be interconverted by using cleverly designed geometric structures. Here, we numerically address the skyrmion domain wall collision in a magnetic racetrack by introducing relative motion between the two objects based on a specially designed junction. An electric current serves as the driving force that moves a skyrmion toward a trapped domain wall pair. We see different types of collision dynamics depending on the driving parameters. Most importantly, the modulation of skyrmion transport using domain walls is realized in this system, allowing a set of domain wall-gated logical NOT, NAND, and NOR gates to be constructed. This work provides a skyrmion-based spin-logic architecture that is fully compatible with racetrack memories.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sukhdev Roy
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present designs of all-optical reversible gates, namely, Feynman, Toffoli, Peres, and Feynman double gates, with optically controlled microresonators. To demonstrate the applicability, a bacteriorhodopsin protein-coated silica microcavity in contact between two tapered single-mode fibers has been used as an all-optical switch. Low-power control signals (<200 μW at 532 nm and at 405 nm control the conformational states of the protein to switch a near infrared signal laser beam at 1310 or 1550 nm. This configuration has been used as a template to design four-port tunable resonant coupler logic gates. The proposed designs are general and can be implemented in both fiber-optic and integrated-optic formats and with any other coated photosensitive material. Advantages of directed logic, high Q-factor, tunability, compactness, low-power control signals, high fan-out, and flexibility of cascading switches in 2D/3D architectures to form circuits make the designs promising for practical applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peilin Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present an algorithm of quantum restricted Boltzmann machine network based on quantum gates. The algorithm is used to initialize the procedure that adjusts the qubit and weights. After adjusting, the network forms an unsupervised generative model that gives better classification performance than other discriminative models. In addition, we show how the algorithm can be constructed with quantum circuit for quantum computer.
Fault tolerant quantum computation with nondeterministic gates.
Li, Ying; Barrett, Sean D; Stace, Thomas M; Benjamin, Simon C
2010-12-17
In certain approaches to quantum computing the operations between qubits are nondeterministic and likely to fail. For example, a distributed quantum processor would achieve scalability by networking together many small components; operations between components should be assumed to be failure prone. In the ultimate limit of this architecture each component contains only one qubit. Here we derive thresholds for fault-tolerant quantum computation under this extreme paradigm. We find that computation is supported for remarkably high failure rates (exceeding 90%) providing that failures are heralded; meanwhile the rate of unknown errors should not exceed 2 in 10(4) operations.
Fully fault tolerant quantum computation with non-deterministic gates
Li, Ying; Stace, Thomas M; Benjamin, Simon C
2010-01-01
In certain approaches to quantum computing the operations between qubits are non-deterministic and likely to fail. For example, a distributed quantum processor would achieve scalability by networking together many small components; operations between components should assumed to be failure prone. In the logical limit of this architecture each component contains only one qubit. Here we derive thresholds for fault tolerant quantum computation under such extreme paradigms. We find that computation is supported for remarkably high failure rates (exceeding 90%) providing that failures are heralded, meanwhile the rate of unknown errors should not exceed 2 in 10^4 operations.
Duality Theory and Categorical Universal Logic: With Emphasis on Quantum Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshihiro Maruyama
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Categorical Universal Logic is a theory of monad-relativised hyperdoctrines (or fibred universal algebras, which in particular encompasses categorical forms of both first-order and higher-order quantum logics as well as classical, intuitionistic, and diverse substructural logics. Here we show there are those dual adjunctions that have inherent hyperdoctrine structures in their predicate functor parts. We systematically investigate into the categorical logics of dual adjunctions by utilising Johnstone-Dimov-Tholen's duality-theoretic framework. Our set-theoretical duality-based hyperdoctrines for quantum logic have both universal and existential quantifiers (and higher-order structures, giving rise to a universe of Takeuti-Ozawa's quantum sets via the tripos-to-topos construction by Hyland-Johnstone-Pitts. The set-theoretical hyperdoctrinal models of quantum logic, as well as all quantum hyperdoctrines with cartesian base categories, turn out to give sound and complete semantics for Faggian-Sambin's first-order quantum sequent calculus over cartesian type theory; in addition, quantum hyperdoctrines with monoidal base categories are sound and complete for the calculus over linear type theory. We finally consider how to reconcile Birkhoff-von Neumann's quantum logic and Abramsky-Coecke's categorical quantum mechanics (which is modernised quantum logic as an antithesis to the traditional one via categorical universal logic.
Ho, Kum-Song; Han, Yong-Ha; Ri, Chol-Song; Im, Song-Jin
2016-08-15
The development of nanoscale optical logic gates has attracted immense attention due to increasing demand for ultrahigh-speed and energy-efficient optical computing and data processing, however, suffers from the difficulty in precise control of phase difference of the two optical signals. We propose a novel conception of nanoscale optical logic gates based on actively phase-controlled coupling between two plasmonic waveguides via an in-between gain-assisted nanoresonator. Precise control of phase difference between the two plasmonic signals can be performed by manipulating pumping rate at an appropriate frequency detuning, enabling a high contrast between the output logic states "1" and "0." Without modification of the structural parameters, different logic functions can be provided. This active nanoscale optical logic device is expected to be quite energy-efficient with ideally low energy consumption on the order of 0.1 fJ/bit. Analytical calculations and numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of the proposed concept.
Son, Donghee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Mincheol; Shim, Hyung Joon; Park, Minjoon; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Dae-Hyeong
2015-05-26
Electronics for wearable applications require soft, flexible, and stretchable materials and designs to overcome the mechanical mismatch between the human body and devices. A key requirement for such wearable electronics is reliable operation with high performance and robustness during various deformations induced by motions. Here, we present materials and device design strategies for the core elements of wearable electronics, such as transistors, charge-trap floating-gate memory units, and various logic gates, with stretchable form factors. The use of semiconducting carbon nanotube networks designed for integration with charge traps and ultrathin dielectric layers meets the performance requirements as well as reliability, proven by detailed material and electrical characterizations using statistics. Serpentine interconnections and neutral mechanical plane layouts further enhance the deformability required for skin-based systems. Repetitive stretching tests and studies in mechanics corroborate the validity of the current approaches.
Dynamically Arranging Gold Nanoparticles on DNA Origami for Molecular Logic Gates.
Yang, Jing; Song, Zhichao; Liu, Shi; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng
2016-08-31
In molecular engineering, DNA molecules have been extensively studied owing to their capacity for accurate structural control and complex programmability. Recent studies have shown that the versatility and predictability of DNA origami make it an excellent platform for constructing nanodevices. In this study, we developed a strand-displacing strategy to selectively and dynamically release specific gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a rectangular DNA origami. A set of DNA logic gates ("OR", "AND", and "three-input majority gate") were established based on this strategy, in which computing results were identified by disassembly between the AuNPs and DNA origami. The computing results were detected using experimental approaches such as gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This method can be used to assemble more complex nanosystems and may have potential applications for molecular engineering.
Switchable electrode controlled by Boolean logic gates using enzymes as input signals.
Wang, Xuemei; Zhou, Jian; Tam, Tsz Kin; Katz, Evgeny; Pita, Marcos
2009-11-01
Application of Boolean logic operations performed by enzymes to control electrochemical systems is presented. Indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes with the surface modified with poly-4-vinyl pyridine (P4VP) brush were synthesized and used as switchable electrochemical systems. The switch ON and OFF of the electrode activity were achieved by pH changes generated in situ by biocatalytic reactions in the presence of enzymes used as input signals. Two logic gates operating as AND/OR Boolean functions were designed using invertase and glucose oxidase or esterase and glucose oxidase as input signals, respectively. The electrode surface coated with a shrunk P4VP polymer at neutral pH values was not electrochemically active because of the blocking effect of the polymer film. The positive outputs of the logic operations yielded a pH drop to acidic conditions, resulting in the protonation and swelling of the P4VP polymer allowing penetration of a soluble redox probe to the conducting support, thus switching the electrode activity ON. The electrode interface was reset to the initial OFF state, with the inhibited electrochemical reaction, upon in situ pH increase generated by another enzymatic reaction in the presence of urease. Logically processed biochemical inputs of various enzymes allowed reversible activation-inactivation of the electrochemical reaction.
Logic Gates and Ring Oscillators Based on Ambipolar Nanocrystalline-Silicon TFTs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anand Subramaniam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si thin film transistors (TFTs are well suited for circuit applications that require moderate device performance and low-temperature CMOS-compatible processing below 250°C. Basic logic gate circuits fabricated using ambipolar nc-Si TFTs alone are presented and shown to operate with correct outputs at frequencies of up to 100 kHz. Ring oscillators consisting of nc-Si TFT-based inverters are also shown to operate at above 20 kHz with a supply voltage of 5 V, corresponding to a propagation delay of 5 V for several hours.
Zhai, Wei; Du, Chunyan; Li, Xiaohong
2014-02-28
Direct reduction of Pb(2+) in self-assembled G-quadruplex on the gold electrode was first observed, which was applied in constructing a series of simple and reversible logic gates, such as one-input, two-input and three-input logic gates. Importantly, the largest scale of reversibility among two-input logic gates was achieved based on the reciprocal transformations of DNA.
Kazemi, Mehdi Mohammad; Mazaheri Tehrani, Alireza; Zeb Khan, Tahir; Namboodiri, Mahesh; Materny, Arnulf
2015-12-01
A Toffoli logic gate (CCNOT gate) is a universal reversible logic gate from which all other reversible gates can be constructed. It has a three-bit input and output. The goal of our work was to realize a Toffoli gate where all inputs and outputs are realized optically, which allows for ultrafast switching processes. We demonstrate experimentally that a Toffoli logic gate can be created based on nonlinear multi-wave interactions of light with matter. Using femtosecond laser pulses, the all-optical Toffoli gate is based on the coherence of the optical signals produced via the nonlinear optical processes. Sum frequency (SF) and second harmonic (SH) generations are combined in such a way so as to yield the complete truth table of the universal reversible logic gate.
High-speed all-optical NAND/AND logic gates using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering.
Li, Kangmei; Ting, Hong-Fu; Foster, Mark A; Foster, Amy C
2016-07-15
A high-speed all-optical NAND logic gate is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering in highly nonlinear fiber. NAND/AND logic functions are implemented at two wavelengths by encoding logic inputs on two pumps via on-off keying. A 15.2-dB depletion of the signal is obtained for NAND operation, and time domain measurements show 10-Gb/s NAND/AND logic operations with open eye diagrams. The approach can be readily extended to higher data rates and transferred to on-chip waveguide platforms.
Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Petrasiunas, Matthew Joseph; Bentley, Christopher D B; Taylor, Richard L; Carvalho, André R R; Hope, Joseph J; Streed, Erik W; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David
2016-07-25
Trapped ions are one of the most promising approaches for the realization of a universal quantum computer. Faster quantum logic gates could dramatically improve the performance of trapped-ion quantum computers, and require the development of suitable high repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here we report on a robust frequency upconverted fiber laser based source, able to deliver 2.5 ps ultraviolet (UV) pulses at a stabilized repetition rate of 300.00000 MHz with an average power of 190 mW. The laser wavelength is resonant with the strong transition in Ytterbium (Yb+) at 369.53 nm and its repetition rate can be scaled up using high harmonic mode locking. We show that our source can produce arbitrary pulse patterns using a programmable pulse pattern generator and fast modulating components. Finally, simulations demonstrate that our laser is capable of performing resonant, temperature-insensitive, two-qubit quantum logic gates on trapped Yb+ ions faster than the trap period and with fidelity above 99%.
Gate-defined graphene quantum point contact in the quantum Hall regime.
Nakaharai, S; Williams, J R; Marcus, C M
2011-07-15
We investigate transport in a gate-defined graphene quantum point contact in the quantum Hall regime. Edge states confined to the interface of p and n regions in the graphene sheet are controllably brought together from opposite sides of the sample and allowed to mix in this split-gate geometry. Among the expected quantum Hall features, an unexpected additional plateau at 0.5h/e2 is observed. We propose that chaotic mixing of edge channels gives rise to the extra plateau.
High-fidelity single-shot Toffoli gate via quantum control
Sanders, Barry; Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip
2015-05-01
A single-shot Toffoli, or controlled-controlled-NOT, gate is desirable for classical and for quantum information processing. The Toffoli gate alone is universal for reversible computing and, accompanied by the Hadamard gate, are universal for quantum computing. The Toffoli gate is a key ingredient for (non-topological) quantum error correction. Currently Toffoli gates are achieved by decomposing into sequentially implemented single- and two-qubit gates, which requires much longer times and yields lower overall fidelities compared to a single-shot implementation. We develop a quantum-control procedure to directly construct single-shot Toffoli gates and devise a scheme for three nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting transmon systems that should operate with 99.9% fidelity under realistic conditions. The gate is achieved by a non-greedy quantum control procedure using our enhanced version of the Differential Evolution algorithm. arXiv:1501.04676 Acknowledges support from AITF, NSERC, USARO and 1000 Talent Plan.
Optimized Multiplier Using Reversible Multicontrol Input Toffoli Gates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H R Bhagyalakshmi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic is an important area to carry the computation into the world of quantum computing. In thispaper a 4-bit multiplier using a new reversible logic gate called BVPPG gate is presented. BVPPG gate isa 5 x 5 reversible gate which is designed to generate partial products required to perform multiplicationand also duplication of operand bits is obtained. This reduces the total cost of the circuit. Toffoli gate isthe universal and also most flexible reversible logic gate. So we have used the Toffoli gates to construct thedesigned multiplier.
A Reversible DNA Logic Gate Platform Operated by One- and Two-Photon Excitations.
Tam, Dick Yan; Dai, Ziwen; Chan, Miu Shan; Liu, Ling Sum; Cheung, Man Ching; Bolze, Frederic; Tin, Chung; Lo, Pik Kwan
2016-01-04
We demonstrate the use of two different wavelength ranges of excitation light as inputs to remotely trigger the responses of the self-assembled DNA devices (D-OR). As an important feature of this device, the dependence of the readout fluorescent signals on the two external inputs, UV excitation for 1 min and/or near infrared irradiation (NIR) at 800 nm fs laser pulses, can mimic function of signal communication in OR logic gates. Their operations could be reset easily to its initial state. Furthermore, these DNA devices exhibit efficient cellular uptake, low cytotoxicity, and high bio-stability in different cell lines. They are considered as the first example of a photo-responsive DNA logic gate system, as well as a biocompatible, multi-wavelength excited system in response to UV and NIR. This is an important step to explore the concept of photo-responsive DNA-based systems as versatile tools in DNA computing, display devices, optical communication, and biology. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Electrochemically controlled assembly and logic gates operations of gold nanoparticle arrays.
Frasconi, Marco; Mazzei, Franco
2012-02-14
The reversible assembly of β-cyclodextrin-functionalized gold NPs (β-CD Au NPs) is studied on mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM), formed by coadsorption of redox-active ferrocenylalkylthiols and n-alkanethiols on gold surfaces. The surface coverage and spatial distribution of the β-CD Au NPs monolayer on the gold substrate are tuned by the self-assembled monolayer composition. The binding and release of β-CD Au NPs to and from the SAMs modified surface are followed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. The redox state of the tethered ferrocene in binary SAMs controls the formation of the supramolecular interaction between ferrocene moieties and β-CD-capped Au NPs. As a result, the potential-induced uptake and release of β-CD Au NPs to and from the surface is accomplished. The competitive binding of β-CD Au NPs with guest molecules in solution shifted the equilibrium of the complexation-decomplexation process involving the supramolecular interaction with the Fc-functionalized surface. The dual controlled assembly of β-CD Au NPs on the surface enabled to use two stimuli as inputs for logic gate activation; the coupling between the localized surface plasmon, associated with the Au NP, and the surface plasmon wave, associated with the thin metal surface, is implemented as readout signal for "AND" logic gate operations.
Ultracompact all-optical XOR logic gate in a slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguide.
Husko, C; Vo, T D; Corcoran, B; Li, J; Krauss, T F; Eggleton, B J
2011-10-10
We demonstrate an ultracompact, chip-based, all-optical exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gate via slow-light enhanced four-wave mixing (FWM) in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide (PhCWG). We achieve error-free operation (<10⁻⁹) for 40 Gbit/s differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals with a 2.8 dB power penalty. Slowing the light to vg = c/32 enables a FWM conversion efficiency, η, of -30 dB for a 396 μm device. The nonlinear FWM process is enhanced by 20 dB compared to a relatively fast mode of vg = c/5. The XOR operation requires ≈ 41 mW, corresponding to a switching energy of 1 pJ/bit. We compare the slow-light PhCWG device performance with experimentally demonstrated XOR DPSK logic gates in other platforms and discuss scaling the device operation to higher bit-rates. The ultracompact structure suggests the potential for device integration.
Quantum logic networks for cloning a quantum state near a given state
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Yan-Hui
2011-01-01
Two quantum logic networks are proposed to simulate a cloning machine that copies the states near a given one.Probabilistic cloning based on the first network is realized and the cloning probability of success based on the second network is 100%.Therefore,the second network is more motivative than the first one.
A Quantum Logic Array Microarchitecture: Scalable Quantum Data Movement and Computation
Metodi, T S; Cross, A W; Chong, F T; Chuang, I L; Metodi, Tzvetan S.; Thaker, Darshan D.; Cross, Andrew W.; Chong, Frederic T.; Chuang, Isaac L.
2005-01-01
Recent experimental advances have demonstrated technologies capable of supporting scalable quantum computation. A critical next step is how to put those technologies together into a scalable, fault-tolerant system that is also feasible. We propose a Quantum Logic Array (QLA) microarchitecture that forms the foundation of such a system. The QLA focuses on the communication resources necessary to efficiently support fault-tolerant computations. We leverage the extensive groundwork in quantum error correction theory and provide analysis that shows that our system is both asymptotically and empirically fault tolerant. Specifically, we use the QLA to implement a hierarchical, array-based design and a logarithmic expense quantum-teleportation communication protocol. Our goal is to overcome the primary scalability challenges of reliability, communication, and quantum resource distribution that plague current proposals for large-scale quantum computing.
Randomized benchmarking of quantum gates implemented by electron spin resonance
Park, Daniel K.; Feng, Guanru; Rahimi, Robabeh; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond
2016-06-01
Spin systems controlled and probed by magnetic resonance have been valuable for testing the ideas of quantum control and quantum error correction. This paper introduces an X-band pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer designed for high-fidelity coherent control of electron spins, including a loop-gap resonator for sub-millimeter sized samples with a control bandwidth ∼40 MHz. Universal control is achieved by a single-sideband upconversion technique with an I-Q modulator and a 1.2 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. A single qubit randomized benchmarking protocol quantifies the average errors of Clifford gates implemented by simple Gaussian pulses, using a sample of gamma-irradiated quartz. Improvements in unitary gate fidelity are achieved through phase transient correction and hardware optimization. A preparation pulse sequence that selects spin packets in a narrowed distribution of static fields confirms that inhomogeneous dephasing (1 / T2∗) is the dominant source of gate error. The best average fidelity over the Clifford gates obtained here is 99.2 % , which serves as a benchmark to compare with other technologies.
Holism, ambiguity and approximation in the logics of quantum computation: a survey
Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto
2011-01-01
Quantum computation has suggested some new forms of quantum logic (called quantum computational logics), where meanings of sentences are identified with quantum information quantities. This provides a mathematical formalism for an abstract theory of meanings that can be applied to investigate different kinds of semantic phenomena (in social sciences, in medicine, in natural languages and in the languages of art), where both ambiguity and holism play an essential role.
Source-Coupled, N-Channel, JFET-Based Digital Logic Gate Structure Using Resistive Level Shifters
Krasowski, Michael J.
2011-01-01
A circuit topography is used to create usable, digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs), load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the DC parametric distributions of these JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state-of-the-art in high-temperature (300 to 500 C and higher) silicon carbide (SiC) device production, and defines an adaptation to the logic gate described in U.S. Patent 7,688,117 in that, by removing the level shifter from the output of the gate structure described in the patent (and applying it to the input of the same gate), a source-coupled gate topography is created. This structure allows for the construction AND/OR (sum of products) arrays that use far fewer transistors and resistors than the same array as constructed from the gates described in the aforementioned patent. This plays a central role when large multiplexer constructs are necessary; for example, as in the construction of memory. This innovation moves the resistive level shifter from the output of the basic gate structure to the front as if the input is now configured as what would be the output of the preceding gate, wherein the output is the two level shifting resistors. The output of this innovation can now be realized as the lone follower transistor with its source node as the gate output. Additionally, one may leave intact the resistive level shifter on the new gate topography. A source-coupled to direct-coupled logic translator will be the result.
Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S., E-mail: miaoxs@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2013-12-21
Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices.
Demonstration of a quantum controlled-NOT gate in the telecommunications band.
Chen, Jun; Altepeter, Joseph B; Medic, Milja; Lee, Kim Fook; Gokden, Burc; Hadfield, Robert H; Nam, Sae Woo; Kumar, Prem
2008-04-04
We present the first quantum controlled-not (cnot) gate realized using a fiber-based indistinguishable photon-pair source in the 1.55 microm telecommunications band. Using this free-space cnot gate, all four Bell states are produced and fully characterized by performing quantum-state tomography, demonstrating the gate's unambiguous entangling capability and high fidelity. Telecom-band operation makes this cnot gate particularly suitable for quantum-information-processing tasks that are at the interface of quantum communication and linear optical quantum computing.
Li, Lei; Qi, Zhipeng; Hu, Guohua; Yun, Binfeng; Zhong, Yuan; Cui, Yiping
2016-10-01
A compact electro-optical "NOR" logic gate device based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is proposed and investigated theoretically. By introducing a hook-type waveguide, the signal could be coupled between the bus and hook-type waveguide to form an optical circuit and realize NOR logic gate. We can easily realize the NOR logical function by the voltage applied on the coupling components. The numerical simulation shows that a high coupling efficiency of more than 99% is obtained at the wavelength of 1550 nm, and the footprint of our device is smaller than 90 μm2. In addition, the response time of the proposed NOR logic gate is 3 ns with a switching voltage of 1.8 V. Moreover, it is demonstrated that such NOR logic gate device could obtain an extinction ratio of 21.8 dB. Thus, it has great potential to achieve high speed response, low power consumption, and small footprint, which fulfill the demands of next-generation on-chip computer multiplex processors.
Quantum gates and architecture for the quantum simulation of the Fermi-Hubbard model
Dallaire-Demers, Pierre-Luc; Wilhelm, Frank K.
2016-12-01
Quantum computers are the ideal platform for quantum simulations. Given enough coherent operations and qubits, such machines can be leveraged to simulate strongly correlated materials, where intricate quantum effects give rise to counterintuitive macroscopic phenomena such as high-temperature superconductivity. In this paper, we provide a gate decomposition and an architecture for a quantum simulator used to simulate the Fermi-Hubbard model in a hybrid variational quantum-classical algorithm. We propose a simple planar implementation-independent layout of qubits that can also be used to simulate more general fermionic systems. By working through a concrete application, we show the gate decomposition used to simulate the Hamiltonian of a cluster of the Fermi-Hubbard model. We briefly analyze the Trotter-Suzuki errors and estimate the scaling properties of the algorithm for more complex applications.
Quantum field theory and coalgebraic logic in theoretical computer science.
Basti, Gianfranco; Capolupo, Antonio; Vitiello, Giuseppe
2017-05-04
We suggest that in the framework of the Category Theory it is possible to demonstrate the mathematical and logical dual equivalence between the category of the q-deformed Hopf Coalgebras and the category of the q-deformed Hopf Algebras in quantum field theory (QFT), interpreted as a thermal field theory. Each pair algebra-coalgebra characterizes a QFT system and its mirroring thermal bath, respectively, so to model dissipative quantum systems in far-from-equilibrium conditions, with an evident significance also for biological sciences. Our study is in fact inspired by applications to neuroscience where the brain memory capacity, for instance, has been modeled by using the QFT unitarily inequivalent representations. The q-deformed Hopf Coalgebras and the q-deformed Hopf Algebras constitute two dual categories because characterized by the same functor T, related with the Bogoliubov transform, and by its contravariant application T(op), respectively. The q-deformation parameter is related to the Bogoliubov angle, and it is effectively a thermal parameter. Therefore, the different values of q identify univocally, and label the vacua appearing in the foliation process of the quantum vacuum. This means that, in the framework of Universal Coalgebra, as general theory of dynamic and computing systems ("labelled state-transition systems"), the so labelled infinitely many quantum vacua can be interpreted as the Final Coalgebra of an "Infinite State Black-Box Machine". All this opens the way to the possibility of designing a new class of universal quantum computing architectures based on this coalgebraic QFT formulation, as its ability of naturally generating a Fibonacci progression demonstrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Efficient controlled-phase gate for single-spin qubits in quantum dots
Meunier, T.; Calado, V.E.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.
2011-01-01
Two-qubit interactions are at the heart of quantum information processing. For single-spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots, the exchange gate has always been considered the natural two-qubit gate. The recent integration of a magnetic field or g-factor gradients in coupled quantum dot systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Jingwei [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wei, L.F., E-mail: weilianfu@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)
2015-10-23
Highlights: • A specific SCRAP technique is proposed to realize quantum gates in the circuit QED. • These quantum gates are insensitive to the durations of the applied pluses. • The implemented quantum gates are robustness against the operational imperfections. - Abstract: We show that a set of universal quantum gates could be implemented robustly in a circuit QED system by using Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique. Under the adiabatic limit we find that the population transfers could be deterministically passaged from one selected quantum states to the others, and thus the desired quantum gates can be implemented. The proposed SCRAP-based gates are insensitive to the details of the operations and thus relax the designs of the applied pulses, operational imperfections, and the decoherence of the system.
Takeuchi, Naoki; Suzuki, Hideo; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2017-05-01
Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) is an energy-efficient superconductor logic. The advantage of AQFP is that the switching energy can be reduced by lowering operation frequencies or by increasing the quality factors of Josephson junctions, while keeping the energy barrier height much larger than thermal energy. In other words, both low energy dissipation and low bit error rates (BERs) can be achieved. In this paper, we report the first measurement results of the low BERs of AQFP logic. We used a superconductor voltage driver with a stack of dc superconducting-quantum-interference-devices to amplify the logic signals of AQFP gates into mV-range voltage signals for the BER measurement. Our measurement results showed 3.3 dB and 2.6 dB operation margins, in which BERs were less than 10-20, for 1 Gbps and 2 Gbps data rates, respectively. While the observed BERs were very low, the estimated switching energy for the 1-Gbps operation was only 2 zJ or 30kBT, where kB is the Boltzmann's constant and T is the temperature. Unlike conventional non-adiabatic logic, BERs are not directly associated with switching energy in AQFP.
Ntalaperas, D
2016-01-01
We propose an architecture based on Quantum cellular Automata which allows the use of only one type of quantum gates per computational step in order to perform nearest neighbor interactions. The model is built in partial steps, each one of them analyzed using nearest neighbor interactions, starting with single qubit operations and continuing with two qubit ones. The effectiveness of the model is tested and valuated by developing a quantum circuit implementing the Quantum Fourier Transform. The important outcome of this validation was that the operations are performed in a local and controlled manner thus reducing the error rate of each computational step.
Privman, Vladimir; Arugula, Mary A; Halámek, Jan; Pita, Marcos; Katz, Evgeny
2009-04-16
We develop an approach aimed at optimizing the parameters of a network of biochemical logic gates for reduction of the "analog" noise buildup. Experiments for three coupled enzymatic AND gates are reported, illustrating our procedure. Specifically, starch, one of the controlled network inputs, is converted to maltose by beta-amylase. With the use of phosphate (another controlled input), maltose phosphorylase then produces glucose. Finally, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), the third controlled input, is reduced under the action of glucose dehydrogenase to yield the optically detected signal. Network functioning is analyzed by varying selective inputs and fitting standardized few-parameters "response-surface" functions assumed for each gate. This allows a certain probe of the individual gate quality, but primarily yields information on the relative contribution of the gates to noise amplification. The derived information is then used to modify our experimental system to put it in a regime of a less noisy operation.
Optimal diabatic dynamics of Majorana-based quantum gates
Rahmani, Armin; Seradjeh, Babak; Franz, Marcel
2017-08-01
In topological quantum computing, unitary operations on qubits are performed by adiabatic braiding of non-Abelian quasiparticles, such as Majorana zero modes, and are protected from local environmental perturbations. In the adiabatic regime, with timescales set by the inverse gap of the system, the errors can be made arbitrarily small by performing the process more slowly. To enhance the performance of quantum information processing with Majorana zero modes, we apply the theory of optimal control to the diabatic dynamics of Majorana-based qubits. While we sacrifice complete topological protection, we impose constraints on the optimal protocol to take advantage of the nonlocal nature of topological information and increase the robustness of our gates. By using the Pontryagin's maximum principle, we show that robust equivalent gates to perfect adiabatic braiding can be implemented in finite times through optimal pulses. In our implementation, modifications to the device Hamiltonian are avoided. Focusing on thermally isolated systems, we study the effects of calibration errors and external white and 1 /f (pink) noise on Majorana-based gates. While a noise-induced antiadiabatic behavior, where a slower process creates more diabatic excitations, prohibits indefinite enhancement of the robustness of the adiabatic scheme, our fast optimal protocols exhibit remarkable stability to noise and have the potential to significantly enhance the practical performance of Majorana-based information processing.
Microwave quantum logic spectroscopy and control of molecular ions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shi, M.; F. Herskind, P.; Drewsen, M.;
2013-01-01
A general method for rotational microwave spectroscopy and control of polar molecular ions via direct microwave addressing is considered. Our method makes use of spatially varying AC Stark shifts, induced by far off-resonant, focused laser beams to achieve an effective coupling between the rotati......A general method for rotational microwave spectroscopy and control of polar molecular ions via direct microwave addressing is considered. Our method makes use of spatially varying AC Stark shifts, induced by far off-resonant, focused laser beams to achieve an effective coupling between...... the rotational state of a molecular ion and the electronic state of an atomic ion. In this setting, the atomic ion is used for read-out of the molecular ion state, in a manner analogous to quantum logic spectroscopy based on Raman transitions. In addition to high-precision spectroscopy, this setting allows...
Notes on automata theory based on quantum logic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIU DaoWen
2007-01-01
The main results are as follows: (1) it deals with a number of basic operations (concatenation, Kleene closure, homomorphism, complement); (2) due to a condition imposed on the implication operator for discussing some basic issues in orthomodular lattice-valued automata, this condition is investigated in detail, and it is discovered that all the relatively reasonable five implication operators in quantum logic do not satisfy this condition, and that one of the five implications satisfies such a condition iff the truth-value lattice is indeed a Boolean algebra; (3) it deals further with orthomodular lattice-valued successor and source operators; (4) an example is provided, implying that some negative results obtained in the literature may still hold in some typical orthomodular lattice-valued automata.
Reduction of Power Dissipation in Dynamic BiCMOS Logic Gates by Transistor Reordering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. Rezaul Hasan
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the deterministic transistor reordering in low-voltage dynamic BiCMOS logic gates, for reducing the dynamic power dissipation. The constraints of load driving (discharging capability and NPN turn-on delay for MOSFET reordered structures has been carefully considered. Simulations shows significant reduction in the dynamic power dissipation for the transistor reordered BiCMOS structures. The power-delay product figure-of-merit is found to be significantly enhanced without any associated silicon-area penalty. In order to experimentally verify the reduction in power dissipation, original and reordered structures were fabricated using the MOSIS 2 μm N-well analog CMOS process which has a P-base layer for bipolar NPN option. Measured results shows a 20% reduction in the power dissipation for the transistor reordered structure, which is in close agreement with the simulation.
Analysis of Pocket Double Gate Tunnel FET for Low Stand by Power Logic Circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamal K. Jha
2013-12-01
Full Text Available For low power circuits downscaling of MOSFET has a major issue of scaling of voltage which has ceased after 1V. This paper highlights comparative study and analysis of pocket double gate tunnel FET (DGTFET with MOSFET for low standby power logic circuits. The leakage current of pocket DGTFET and MOSFET have been studied and the analysis results shows that the pocket DGTFET gives the lower leakage current than the MOSFET. Further a pocket DGTFET inverter circuit is design in 32 nm technology node at VDD =0.6 V. The pocket DGTFET inverter shows the significant improvement on the leakage power than multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS inverter. The leakage power of pocket DGFET and MTCMOS inverter are 0.116 pW and 1.83 pW respectively. It is found that, the pocket DGTFET can replace the MOSFET for low standby power circuits.
Quantum Transport in Gated Dangling-Bond Atomic Wires.
Bohloul, S; Shi, Q; Wolkow, Robert A; Guo, Hong
2017-01-11
A single line of dangling bonds (DBs) on Si(100)-2 × 1:H surface forms a perfect metallic atomic-wire. In this work, we investigate quantum transport properties of such dangling bond wires (DBWs) by a state-of-the-art first-principles technique. It is found that the conductance of the DBW can be gated by electrostatic potential and orbital overlap due to only a single DB center (DBC) within a distance of ∼16 Å from the DBW. The gating effect is more pronounced for two DBCs and especially, when these two DB "gates" are within ∼3.9 Å from each other. These effective length scales are in excellent agreement with those measured in scanning tunnelling microscope experiments. By analyzing transmission spectrum and density of states of DBC-DBW systems, with or without subsurface doping, for different length of the DBW, distance between DBCs and the DBW, and distance between DB gates, we conclude that charge transport in a DBW can be regulated to have both an on-state and an off-state using only one or two DBs.
IST-LASAGNE: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos, F.; Kehayas, E.; Martinez, J.M.
2005-01-01
The Information Society Technologies - all-optical LAbel SwApping employing optical logic Gates in NEtwork nodes (IST-LASAGNE) project aims at designing and implementing the first, modular, scalable, and truly all-optical photonic router capable of operating at 40 Gb/s. The results of the first...
Pyrene-based dual-mode fluorescence switches and logic gates that function in solution and film.
Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yongjun; Li, Yuliang; Liu, Huibiao; Wang, Shu; Li, Cuihong; Yuan, Mingjian; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Daoben
2006-07-17
A dual-mode fluorescence switch controlled by external inputs such as protons and metal ions is described, and each state corresponds to a specific fluorescent emission peak. Based on the reversible changes of the fluorescence emission of the switch responding to different external stimuli, the corresponding integrated logic gates and communication networks have been constructed in solid film or in solution.
IST-LASAGNE: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos, F.; Kehayas, E.; Martinez, J.M.
2005-01-01
The Information Society Technologies - all-optical LAbel SwApping employing optical logic Gates in NEtwork nodes (IST-LASAGNE) project aims at designing and implementing the first, modular, scalable, and truly all-optical photonic router capable of operating at 40 Gb/s. The results of the first...
A Geometric Algebra Perspective On Quantum Computational Gates And Universality In Quantum Computing
Cafaro, Carlo
2010-01-01
We investigate the utility of geometric (Clifford) algebras (GA) methods in two specific applications to quantum information science. First, using the multiparticle spacetime algebra (MSTA, the geometric algebra of a relativistic configuration space), we present an explicit algebraic description of one and two-qubit quantum states together with a MSTA characterization of one and two-qubit quantum computational gates. Second, using the above mentioned characterization and the GA description of the Lie algebras SO(3) and SU(2) based on the rotor group Spin+(3, 0) formalism, we reexamine Boykin's proof of universality of quantum gates. We conclude that the MSTA approach does lead to a useful conceptual unification where the complex qubit space and the complex space of unitary operators acting on them become united, with both being made just by multivectors in real space. Finally, the GA approach to rotations based on the rotor group does bring conceptual and computational advantages compared to standard vectoria...
Reducing the quantum-computing overhead with complex gate distillation
Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Poulin, David
2015-04-01
In leading fault-tolerant quantum-computing schemes, accurate transformations are obtained by a two-stage process. In a first stage, a discrete universal set of fault-tolerant operations is obtained by error-correcting noisy transformations and distilling resource states. In a second stage, arbitrary transformations are synthesized to desired accuracy by combining elements of this set into a circuit. Here we present a scheme that merges these two stages into a single one, directly distilling complex transformations. We find that our scheme can reduce the total overhead to realize certain gates by up to a few orders of magnitude. In contrast to other schemes, this efficient gate synthesis does not require computationally intensive compilation algorithms and a straightforward generalization of our scheme circumvents compilation and synthesis altogether.
Finger-gate manipulated quantum transport in Dirac materials.
Kleftogiannis, Ioannis; Tang, Chi-Shung; Cheng, Shun-Jen
2015-05-27
We investigate the quantum transport properties of multichannel nanoribbons made of materials described by the Dirac equation, under an in-plane magnetic field. In the low energy regime, positive and negative finger-gate potentials allow the electrons to make intra-subband transitions via hole-like or electron-like quasibound states (QBS), respectively, resulting in dips in the conductance. In the high energy regime, double dip structures in the conductance are found, attributed to spin-flip or spin-nonflip inter-subband transitions through the QBSs. Inverting the finger-gate polarity offers the possibility to manipulate the spin polarized electronic transport to achieve a controlled spin-switch.
Li, Qiliang; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Dongqiang; Zhu, Mengyun; Tang, Xianghong; Li, Shuqin
2014-12-01
In this paper, we theoretically investigate all-optical logical gates based on the pump-induced resonant nonlinearity in an erbium-doped fiber coupler. The resonant nonlinearity yielded by the optical transitions between the (4)I(15/2) states and (4)I(13/2) states in Er(3+) induces the refractive index to change, which leads to switching between two output ports. First, we do a study on the switching performance, and calculate the extinction ratio (Xratio) of the device. Second, using the Xratio, we obtain the truth tables of the device. The results reveal that compared with other undoped nonlinear couplers, the erbium-doped fiber coupler can drop the switching threshold power. We also obtain different logic gates and logic operations in the cases of the same phase and different phase of two initial signals by changing the pump power.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Li-Bing; Lu Hong; Jin Rui-Bo
2007-01-01
We present a systematic simple method to implement a generalized quantum control-NOT (CNOT) gate on two d-dimensional distributed systems. First, we show how the nonlocal generalized quantum CNOT gate can be implemented with unity fidelity and unity probability by using a maximally entangled pair of qudits as a quantum channel. We also put forward a scheme for probabilistically implementing the nonlocal operation with unity fidelity by employing a partially entangled qudit pair as a quantum channel. Analysis of the scheme indicates that the use of partially entangled quantum channel for implementing the nonlocal generalized quantum CNOT gate leads to the CNOT gate can be used in the entanglement swapping between particles belonging to distant users in a communication network and distributed quantum computer.
Zhong, Dongzhou; Luo, Wei; Xu, Geliang
2016-09-01
Using the dynamical properties of the polarization bistability that depends on the detuning of the injected light, we propose a novel approach to implement reliable all-optical stochastic logic gates in the cascaded vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with optical-injection. Here, two logic inputs are encoded in the detuning of the injected light from a tunable CW laser. The logic outputs are decoded from the two orthogonal polarization lights emitted from the optically injected VCSELs. For the same logic inputs, under electro-optic modulation, we perform various digital signal processing (NOT, AND, NAND, XOR, XNOR, OR, NOR) in the all-optical domain by controlling the logic operation of the applied electric field. Also we explore their delay storages by using the mechanism of the generalized chaotic synchronization. To quantify the reliabilities of these logic gates, we further demonstrate their success probabilities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61475120) and the Innovative Projects in Guangdong Colleges and Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2014KTSCX134 and 2015KTSCX146).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lilin Yi; Weisheng Hu; Hao He; Yi Dong; Yaohui Jin; Weiqiang Sun
2011-01-01
We demonstrate an all-optical reconfigurable logic gate based on dominant nonlinear polarization rotation accompanied with cross-gain modulation effect in a singlc semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Five logic functions, including NOT, OR, NOR, AND, and NAND, are realized using 10-Gb/s on-off keying signals with flexible wavelength tunability. The operation principle is explained in detail. By adjusting polarization controllers, multiple logic functions corresponding to different input polarization states are separately achieved using a single SOA with high flexibility.%@@ We demonstrate an all-optical reconfigurable logic gate based on dominant nonlinear polarization rotation accompanied with cross-gain modulation effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA).Five logic functions, including NOT, OR, NOR, AND, and NAND, are realized using 10-Gb/s on-off keying signals with flexible wavelength tunability.The operation principle is explained in detail.By adjusting polarization controllers, multiple logic functions corresponding to different input polarization states are separately achieved using a single SOA with high flexibility.
Wei, Hai-Rui; Lu Long, Gui
2015-01-01
Hybrid quantum gates hold great promise for quantum information processing since they preserve the advantages of different quantum systems. Here we present compact quantum circuits to deterministically implement controlled-NOT, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates between a flying photon qubit and diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers assisted by microcavities. The target qubits of these universal quantum gates are encoded on the spins of the electrons associated with the diamond NV centers and they have long coherence time for storing information, and the control qubit is encoded on the polarizations of the flying photon and can be easily manipulated. Our quantum circuits are compact, economic, and simple. Moreover, they do not require additional qubits. The complexity of our schemes for universal three-qubit gates is much reduced, compared to the synthesis with two-qubit entangling gates. These schemes have high fidelities and efficiencies, and they are feasible in experiment. PMID:26271899
Bian, Yusheng; Gong, Qihuang
2014-02-01
The whole set of fundamental all-optical logic gates is realized theoretically using a multi-channel configuration based on one-dimensional (1D) metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures by leveraging the linear interference between surface plasmon polariton modes. The working principle and conditions for different logic functions are analyzed and demonstrated numerically by means of the finite element method. In contrast to most of the previous studies that require more than one type of configuration to achieve different logic functions, a single geometry with fixed physical dimensions can realize all fundamental functions in our case studies. It is shown that by switching the optical signals to different input channels, the presented device can realize simple logic functions such as OR, AND and XOR. By adding signal in the control channel, more functions including NOT, XNOR, NAND and NOR can be implemented. For these considered logic functions, high intensity contrast ratios between Boolean logic states "1" and "0" can be achieved at the telecom wavelength. The presented all-optical logic device is simple, compact and efficient. Moreover, the proposed scheme can be applied to many other nano-photonic logic devices as well, thereby potentially offering useful guidelines for their designs and further applications in on-chip optical computing and optical interconnection networks.
A scheme of quantum phase gate for trapped ion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Jian-Wu; Fang Mao-Fa; Zheng Xiao-Juan; Liao Xiang-Ping
2007-01-01
We propose a scheme to implement two-qubit controlled quantum phase gate(CQPG) via a single trapped twolevel ion located in the standing wave field of a quantum cavity, in which the trap works beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit. When the light field is resonant with the atomic transition |g〉←→|e〉of the ion located at the antinode of the standing wave, we can perform CQPG between the internal and external states of the trapped ion; while the frequency of the light field is chosen to be resonant with the first red sideband of the collective vibrational mode of the ion located at the node of the standing wave, we can perform CQPG between the cavity mode and the collective vibrational mode of the trapped ion. Neither the Lamb-Dicke approximation nor the assistant classical laser is needed. Also we can generate a GHZ state if assisted with a classical laser.
Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography.
Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim
2010-12-20
It has previously been shown that the gated detectors of two commercially available quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are blindable and controllable by an eavesdropper using continuous-wave illumination and short bright trigger pulses, manipulating voltages in the circuit [Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010)]. This allows for an attack eavesdropping the full raw and secret key without increasing the quantum bit error rate (QBER). Here we show how thermal effects in detectors under bright illumination can lead to the same outcome. We demonstrate that the detectors in a commercial QKD system Clavis2 can be blinded by heating the avalanche photo diodes (APDs) using bright illumination, so-called thermal blinding. Further, the detectors can be triggered using short bright pulses once they are blind. For systems with pauses between packet transmission such as the plug-and-play systems, thermal inertia enables Eve to apply the bright blinding illumination before eavesdropping, making her more difficult to catch.
Learning algorithm and application of quantum BP neural networks based on universal quantum gates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A quantum BP neural networks model with learning algorithm is proposed.First,based on the universality of single qubit rotation gate and two-qubit controlled-NOT gate,a quantum neuron model is constructed,which is composed of input,phase rotation,aggregation,reversal rotation and output.In this model,the input is described by qubits,and the output is given by the probability of the state in which |1＞ is observed.The phase rotation and the reversal rotation are performed by the universal quantum gates.Secondly,the quantum BP neural networks model is constructed,in which the output layer and the hide layer are quantum neurons.With the application of the gradient descent algorithm,a learning algorithm of the model is proposed,and the continuity of the model is proved.It is shown that this model and algorithm are superior to the conventional BP networks in three aspects: convergence speed,convergence rate and robustness,by two application examples of pattern recognition and function approximation.
Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Liang, Ru-Ping; Qiu, Jian-Ding
2013-07-16
Utilizing the principles of metal-ion-mediated base pairs (C-Ag-C and T-Hg-T), the pH-sensitive conformational transition of C-rich DNA strand, and the ligand-exchange process triggered by DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), a system of colorimetric logic gates (YES, AND, INHIBIT, and XOR) can be rationally constructed based on the aggregation of the DNA-modified Au NPs. The proposed logic operation system is simple, which consists of only T-/C-rich DNA-modified Au NPs, and it is unnecessary to exquisitely design and alter the DNA sequence for different multiple molecular logic operations. The nonnatural base pairing combined with unique optical properties of Au NPs promises great potential in multiplexed ion sensing, molecular-scale computers, and other computational logic devices.
Wu, Cuichen; Wan, Shuo; Hou, Weijia; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Jiehua; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Hu, Jun; Tan, Weihong
2015-03-04
Nucleic acid-based logic devices were first introduced in 1994. Since then, science has seen the emergence of new logic systems for mimicking mathematical functions, diagnosing disease and even imitating biological systems. The unique features of nucleic acids, such as facile and high-throughput synthesis, Watson-Crick complementary base pairing, and predictable structures, together with the aid of programming design, have led to the widespread applications of nucleic acids (NA) for logic gate and computing in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this feature article, the development of in vitro NA logic systems will be discussed, as well as the expansion of such systems using various input molecules for potential cellular, or even in vivo, applications.
Quantum repeaters based on CNOT gate under decoherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TONG Zhao-yang; LIAO Ping; KUANG Le-man
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study single-qubit and single-user quantum repeaters based on CNOT gates under de, co-herence using the Kraus-operator representations of decoher-ence.We investigate the influence of decoherence on the information-disturbance trade-off of quantum repeaters. It is found that decoherence may lead to the appearance of three subspaces, called as the normal subspace, the anoma-lous subspace, and the decoherence-free subspace (DFS), re-spectively. It is indicated that in the normal subspace deco-herence decreases the transmission and estimation fidelities, in the anomalous subspace decoherence enhances these fideli-ties, and in the DFS these fidelities do not change. The con-cept of the quality factor is introduced to evaluate the quality of the quantum repeater. It is indicated that the quality factor can be efficiently controlled and manipulated by changing the initial state of the probe qubit. It is found that under certain conditions the quantum repeater can be optimal even in the presence of decoherence.
Scanning gate imaging of a disordered quantum point contact.
Aoki, N; da Cunha, C R; Akis, R; Ferry, D K; Ochiai, Y
2014-05-14
Scanning gate microscopy (SGM) is a novel technique that has been used to image characteristic features related to the coherent electron flow in mesoscopic structures. For instance, SGM has successfully been applied to study peculiar electron transport properties that arise due to small levels of disorder in a system. The particular case of an InGaAs quantum well layer in a heterostructure, which is dominated by a quasi-ballistic regime, was analyzed. A quantum point contact fabricated onto this material exhibits conduction fluctuations that are not expected in typical high-mobility heterostructures such as AlGaAs/GaAs. SGM revealed not only interference patterns corresponding to specific conductance fluctuations but also mode-dependent resistance peaks corresponding to the first and second quantum levels of conductance (2e(2)/h) at zero magnetic field. On the other hand, clear conductance plateaus originating from the integer quantum Hall effect were observed at high magnetic fields. The physical size of incompressible edge channels was estimated from cross-sectional analysis of these images.
Decoherence-protected quantum gates for a hybrid solid-state spin register.
van der Sar, T; Wang, Z H; Blok, M S; Bernien, H; Taminiau, T H; Toyli, D M; Lidar, D A; Awschalom, D D; Hanson, R; Dobrovitski, V V
2012-04-04
Protecting the dynamics of coupled quantum systems from decoherence by the environment is a key challenge for solid-state quantum information processing. An idle quantum bit (qubit) can be efficiently insulated from the outside world by dynamical decoupling, as has recently been demonstrated for individual solid-state qubits. However, protecting qubit coherence during a multi-qubit gate is a non-trivial problem: in general, the decoupling disrupts the interqubit dynamics and hence conflicts with gate operation. This problem is particularly salient for hybrid systems, in which different types of qubit evolve and decohere at very different rates. Here we present the integration of dynamical decoupling into quantum gates for a standard hybrid system, the electron-nuclear spin register. Our design harnesses the internal resonance in the coupled-spin system to resolve the conflict between gate operation and decoupling. We experimentally demonstrate these gates using a two-qubit register in diamond operating at room temperature. Quantum tomography reveals that the qubits involved in the gate operation are protected as accurately as idle qubits. We also perform Grover's quantum search algorithm, and achieve fidelities of more than 90% even though the algorithm run-time exceeds the electron spin dephasing time by two orders of magnitude. Our results directly allow decoherence-protected interface gates between different types of solid-state qubit. Ultimately, quantum gates with integrated decoupling may reach the accuracy threshold for fault-tolerant quantum information processing with solid-state devices.
Correcting errors in a quantum gate with pushed ions via optimal control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Sklarz, Shlomo; Tannor, David
2010-01-01
of errors coming from the quantum dynamics and reveal that slight nonlinearities in the ion-pushing force can have a dramatic effect on the adiabaticity of gate operation. By means of quantum optimal control techniques, we show how to suppress each of the resulting gate errors in order to reach a high...
A modular design of molecular qubits to implement universal quantum gates
Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Moreno Pineda, Eufemio; Chiesa, Alessandro; Fernandez, Antonio; Magee, Samantha A.; Carretta, Stefano; Santini, Paolo; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J.; Tuna, Floriana; Timco, Grigore A.; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Winpenny, Richard E. P.
2016-04-01
The physical implementation of quantum information processing relies on individual modules--qubits--and operations that modify such modules either individually or in groups--quantum gates. Two examples of gates that entangle pairs of qubits are the controlled NOT-gate (CNOT) gate, which flips the state of one qubit depending on the state of another, and the gate that brings a two-qubit product state into a superposition involving partially swapping the qubit states. Here we show that through supramolecular chemistry a single simple module, molecular {Cr7Ni} rings, which act as the qubits, can be assembled into structures suitable for either the CNOT or gate by choice of linker, and we characterize these structures by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. We introduce two schemes for implementing such gates with these supramolecular assemblies and perform detailed simulations, based on the measured parameters including decoherence, to demonstrate how the gates would operate.
Implementation of a quantum controlled-SWAP gate with photonic circuits
Ono, Takafumi; Okamoto, Ryo; Tanida, Masato; Hofmann, Holger F.; Takeuchi, Shigeki
2017-01-01
Quantum information science addresses how the processing and transmission of information are affected by uniquely quantum mechanical phenomena. Combination of two-qubit gates has been used to realize quantum circuits, however, scalability is becoming a critical problem. The use of three-qubit gates may simplify the structure of quantum circuits dramatically. Among them, the controlled-SWAP (Fredkin) gates are essential since they can be directly applied to important protocols, e.g., error correction, fingerprinting, and optimal cloning. Here we report a realization of the Fredkin gate for photonic qubits. We achieve a fidelity of 0.85 in the computational basis and an output state fidelity of 0.81 for a 3-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. The estimated process fidelity of 0.77 indicates that our Fredkin gate can be applied to various quantum tasks. PMID:28361950
High-fidelity gate operations for quantum computing beyond dephasing time limits
Souza, Alexandre M.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Suter, Dieter
2015-12-01
The implementation of quantum gates with fidelities that exceed the threshold for reliable quantum computing requires robust gates whose performance is not limited by the precision of the available control fields. The performance of these gates also should not be affected by the noisy environment of the quantum register. Here we use randomized benchmarking of quantum gate operations to compare the performance of different families of gates that compensate errors in the control field amplitudes and decouple the system from the environmental noise. We obtain average fidelities of up to 99.8%, which exceeds the threshold value for some quantum error correction schemes as well as the expected limit from the dephasing induced by the environment.
Dadgour, Hamed F.
2010-01-01
Nano-Electro-Mechanical Switches (NEMS) are among the most promising emerging devices due to their near-zero subthreshold-leakage currents. This paper reports device fabrication and modeling, as well as novel logic gate design using "laterally-actuated double-electrode NEMS" structures. The new device structure has several advantages over existing NEMS architectures such as being immune to impact bouncing and release vibrations (unlike a vertically-actuated NEMS) and offer higher flexibility to implement compact logic gates (unlike a single-electrode NEMS). A comprehensive analytical framework is developed to model different properties of these devices by solving the Euler-Bernoulli\\'s beam equation. The proposed model is validated using measurement data for the fabricated devices. It is shown that by ignoring the non-uniformity of the electrostatic force distribution, the existing models "underestimate" the actual value of Vpull-in and Vpull-out. Furthermore, novel energy efficient NEMS-based circuit topologies are introduced to implement compact inverter, NAND, NOR and XOR gates. For instance, the proposed XOR gate can be implemented by using only two NEMS devices compared to that of a static CMOS-based XOR gate that requires at least 10 transistors. © Copyright 2010 ACM.
State-Dependent Implication and Equivalence in Quantum Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedor Herbut
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Ideal occurrence of an event (projector leads to the known change of a state (density operator into (the Lüders state. It is shown that two events and give the same Lüders state if and only if the equivalence relation is valid. This relation determines equivalence classes. The set of them and each class, are studied in detail. It is proved that the range projector of the Lüders state can be evaluated as , where denotes the greatest lower bound, and is the null projector of . State-dependent implication extends absolute implication (which, in turn, determines the entire structure of quantum logic. and are investigated in a closely related way to mutual benefit. Inherent in the preorder is the state-dependent equivalence , defining equivalence classes in a given Boolean subalgebra. The quotient set, in which the classes are the elements, has itself a partially ordered structure, and so has each class. In a complete Boolean subalgebra, both structures are complete lattices. Physical meanings are discussed.
The NIST 27 Al+ quantum-logic clock
Leibrandt, David; Brewer, Samuel; Chen, Jwo-Sy; Hume, David; Hankin, Aaron; Huang, Yao; Chou, Chin-Wen; Rosenband, Till; Wineland, David
2016-05-01
Optical atomic clocks based on quantum-logic spectroscopy of the 1 S0 3 P0 transition in 27 Al+ have reached a systematic fractional frequency uncertainty of 8 . 0 ×10-18 , enabling table-top tests of fundamental physics as well as measurements of gravitational potential differences. Currently, the largest limitations to the accuracy are second order time dilation shifts due to the driven motion (i.e., micromotion) and thermal motion of the trapped ions. In order to suppress these shifts, we have designed and built new ion traps based on gold-plated, laser-machined diamond wafers with differential RF drive, and we have operated one of our clocks with the ions laser cooled to near the six mode motional ground state. We present a characterization of the time dilation shifts in the new traps with uncertainties near 1 ×10-18 . Furthermore, we describe a new protocol for clock comparison measurements based on synchronous probing of the two clocks using phase-locked local oscillators, which allows for probe times longer than the laser coherence time and avoids the Dick effect. This work is supported by ARO, DARPA, and ONR.
Quantum walks outside of boolean domain as a gate for one, two, or three qubits
Cavin, Thomas; Solenov, Dmitry
Quantum computing needs entangling quantum gates to perform computation and error correction. We will discuss a novel way to implement quantum gates, such as CNOT, using quantum walks that are directed through a network of states outside of the boolean domain. In such implementations it is important to investigate walks on networks of different connectivities. Specifically, we will discuss solutions to non-symmetric linear chain networks and demonstrate how solutions to more complex networks that have branching, such as cubes, can be expressed in terms of linear chain solutions. We then show examples of implementing single qubit and two-qubit entangling gates.
Europium Luminescence Used for Logic Gate and Ions Sensing with Enoxacin As the Antenna.
Lu, Lixia; Chen, Chuanxia; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Jian; Yang, Xiurong
2016-01-19
Luminescent lanthanide ion complexes have received increasing attention because of their unique optical properties. Herein, we discovered that the luminescence of europium(III) (Eu(3+)) could be regulated by Ag(+) and SCN(-) in seconds with enoxacin (ENX) as the antenna. Under given conditions, only the simultaneous introduction of Ag(+) and SCN(-) could remarkably enhance the luminescence intensity of Eu(3+)-ENX complexes. This phenomenon has been exploited to design an "AND" logic gate and specific luminescence turn-on assays for sensitively sensing Ag(+) and SCN(-) for the first time. Furthermore, the addition of S(2-) resulted in efficient luminescence quenching of the Eu(3+)/ENX/Ag(+)/SCN(-) system due to the strong affinity between Ag(+) and S(2-). Thus, a new luminescent sensing platform for S(2-) was established, which exhibited excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. S(2-) could be detected within the concentration range of 100 nM to 12.5 μM with a detection limit of 60 nM. Such sensing system features simplicity, rapidity, and flexibility. Moreover, this proposed Eu(3+)-based luminescent assay could be successfully applied in the real environmental water sample analysis.
Pangannaya, Srikala; Purayil, Neethu Padinchare; Dabhi, Shweta; Mankad, Venu; Jha, Prafulla K; Shinde, Satyam
2017-01-01
New colorimetric receptors R1 and R2 with varied positional substitution of a cyano and nitro signaling unit having a hydroxy functionality as the hydrogen bond donor site have been designed, synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The receptors R1 and R2 exhibit prominent visual response for F− and AcO– ions allowing the real time analysis of these ions in aqueous media. The formation of the receptor–anion complexes has been supported by UV–vis titration studies and confirmed through binding constant calculations. The anion binding process follows a first order rate equation and the calculated rate constants reveal a higher order of reactivity for AcO− ions. The 1H NMR titration and TDDFT studies provide full support of the binding mechanism. The Hg2+ and F− ion sensing property of receptor R1 has been utilized to arrive at “AND” and “INHIBIT” molecular logic gate applications.
Pan, Yi; Shi, Yupeng; Chen, Junying; Wong, Chap-Mo; Zhang, Heng; Li, Mei-Jin; Li, Cheuk-Wing; Yi, Changqing
2016-12-01
In this study, a highly sensitive and selective fluorescent Zn(2+) probe which exhibited excellent biocompatibility, water solubility, and cell-membrane permeability, was facilely synthesized in a single step by grafting polyethyleneimine (PEI) with quinoline derivatives. The primary amino groups in the branched PEI can increase water solubility and cell permeability of the probe PEIQ, while quinoline derivatives can specifically recognize Zn(2+) and reduce the potential cytotoxicity of PEI. Basing on fluorescence off-on mechanism, PEIQ demonstrated excellent sensing capability towards Zn(2+) in absolute aqueous solution, where a high sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 38.1nM, and a high selectivity over competing metal ions and potential interfering amino acids, were achieved. Inspired by these results, elementary logic operations (YES, NOT and INHIBIT) have been constructed by employing PEIQ as the gate while Zn(2+) and EDTA as chemical inputs. Together with the low cytotoxicity and good cell-permeability, the practical application of PEIQ in living cell imaging was satisfactorily demonstrated, emphasizing its wide application in fundamental biology research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
A Cu2+-selective fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY with two pyridine ligands and logic gate
Huang, Liuqian; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoxiu; Ma, Yifan; Huang, Tianjiao; Shen, Xi; Qiu, Huayu; He, Xingxing; Yin, Shouchun
2015-06-01
A novel near-infrared fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY (Py-1) has been synthesized and characterized. Py-1 displays high selectivity and sensitivity for sensing Cu2+ over other metal ions in acetonitrile. Upon addition of Cu2+ ions, the maximum absorption band of Py-1 in CH3CN displays a red shift from 603 to 608 nm, which results in a visual color change from pink to blue. When Py-1 is excited at 600 nm in the presence of Cu2+, the fluorescent emission intensity of Py-1 at 617 nm is quenched over 86%. Notably, the complex of Py-1-Cu2+ can be restored with the introduction of EDTA or S2-. Consequently, an IMPLICATION logic gate at molecular level operating in fluorescence mode with Cu2+ and S2- as chemical inputs can be constructed. Finally, based on the reversible and reproducible system, a nanoscale sequential memory unit displaying "Writing-Reading-Erasing-Reading" functions can be integrated.
Massey, M. K.; Kotsialos, A.; Qaiser, F.; Zeze, D. A.; Pearson, C.; Volpati, D.; Bowen, L.; Petty, M. C.
2015-04-01
This paper explores the use of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(butyl methacrylate) composites as a material for use in unconventional computing. The mechanical and electrical properties of the materials are investigated. The resulting data reveal a correlation between the SWCNT concentration/viscosity/conductivity and the computational capability of the composite. The viscosity increases significantly with the addition of SWCNTs to the polymer, mechanically reinforcing the host material and changing the electrical properties of the composite. The electrical conduction is found to depend strongly on the nanotube concentration; Poole-Frenkel conduction appears to dominate the conductivity at very low concentrations (0.11% by weight). The viscosity and conductivity both show a threshold point around 1% SWCNT concentration; this value is shown to be related to the computational performance of the material. A simple optimization of threshold logic gates shows that satisfactory computation is only achieved above a SWCNT concentration of 1%. In addition, there is some evidence that further above this threshold the computational efficiency begins to decrease.
Realization of Quantum Circuits in Fock Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Lei; LI Yun
2004-01-01
In this letter, by using the method we offered in our paper [L. Ma and Y.D. Zhang, Commun. Theor. Phys.(Beijing, China) 36 (2001) 119], some extended quantum logic gates, such as quantum counter, quantum adder, are studied and their expressions are given. It may be useful for us to study the more complicated quantum logic circuits deeply.
Double-layer-gate architecture for few-hole GaAs quantum dots
Wang, D. Q.; Hamilton, A. R.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Klochan, O.
2016-08-01
We report the fabrication of single and double hole quantum dots using a double-layer-gate design on an undoped accumulation mode {{Al}}x{{Ga}}1-x{As}/GaAs heterostructure. Electrical transport measurements of a single quantum dot show varying addition energies and clear excited states. In addition, the two-level-gate architecture can also be configured into a double quantum dot with tunable inter-dot coupling.
A practical scheme for quantum computation with any two-qubit entangling gate
Bremner, M J; Dodd, J L; Gilchrist, A; Harrow, A W; Mortimer, D; Nielsen, M A; Osborne, T J; Bremner, Michael J.; Dawson, Christopher M.; Dodd, Jennifer L.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Harrow, Aram W.; Mortimer, Duncan; Nielsen, Michael A.; Osborne, Tobias J.
2002-01-01
Which gates are universal for quantum computation? Although it is well known that certain gates on two-level quantum systems (qubits), such as the controlled-not (CNOT), are universal when assisted by arbitrary one-qubit gates, it has only recently become clear precisely what class of two-qubit gates is universal in this sense. Here we present an elementary proof that any entangling two-qubit gate is universal for quantum computation, when assisted by one-qubit gates. A proof of this important result for systems of arbitrary finite dimension has been provided by J. L. and R. Brylinski [arXiv:quant-ph/0108062, 2001]; however, their proof relies upon a long argument using advanced mathematics. In contrast, our proof provides a simple constructive procedure which is close to optimal and experimentally practical [C. M. Dawson and A. Gilchrist, online implementation of the procedure described herein (2002), http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/gqc/].
Li, Dandan; Cheng, Wei; Li, Yujian; Xu, YongJie; Li, Xinmin; Yin, Yibing; Ju, Huangxian; Ding, Shijia
2016-08-02
A target-switched DNA nanotweezer is designed for AND logic gate operation and enzyme-free detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) by catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) and proximity-dependent DNAzyme formation. The double crossover motif-based nanotweezer consists of an arched structure as the set strand for target inputs and two split G-rich DNAs at the termini of two arms for signal output. Upon a CHA, a small amount of binary target inputs can switch numerous open nanotweezers to a closed state, which leads to the formation of proximity-dependent DNAzyme in the presence of hemin to produce a highly sensitive biosensing system. The binary target inputs can be used for successful building of AND logic gate, which is validated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, surface plasmon resonance and the biosensing signal. The developed biosensing system shows a linear response of the output chemiluminescence signal to input binary miRNAs with a detection limit of 30 fM. It can be used for miRNAs analysis in complex sample matrix. This system provides a simple and reusable platform for logic gate operation and enzyme-free, highly sensitive, and specific multianalysis of miRNAs.
A Novel Seven Input Majority Gate in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keivan Navi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A Quantum Cellular Automaton (QCA is a nanotechnology which is an attractive alternative for transistor based technologies in the near future. A new seven input majority gate in quantum dot cellular automata is proposed in this paper. The basic elements in QCA are majority and inverter gates, therefore using a majority gate with more inputs in QCA circuit will cause reduction in cell count, latency and complexity. Furthermore, by using the proposed seven input majority gate we can design four inputs AND gate and OR gate in only two clock phases. By applying these kinds of gates QCA circuits could be simplified and optimized. In order to prove the functionality of the proposed device, QCADesigner tool and some physical proofs are utilized.
Topological quantum gate construction by iterative pseudogroup hashing
Burrello, Michele; Mussardo, Giuseppe; Wan, Xin
2011-02-01
We describe the hashing technique for obtaining a fast approximation of a target quantum gate in the unitary group SU(2) represented by a product of the elements of a universal basis. The hashing exploits the structure of the icosahedral group (or other finite subgroups of SU(2)) and its pseudogroup approximations to reduce the search within a small number of elements. One of the main advantages of the pseudogroup hashing is the possibility of iterating to obtain more accurate representations of the targets in the spirit of the renormalization group approach. We describe the iterative pseudogroup hashing algorithm using the universal basis given by the braidings of Fibonacci anyons. An analysis of the efficiency of the iterations based on the random matrix theory indicates that the runtime and braid length scale poly-logarithmically with the final error, comparing favorably to the Solovay-Kitaev algorithm.
Transmission Modulated by Quantum Gate in Aharonov-Casher Ring
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
We study the electron transmission tuned by quantum gate in an Aharonov-Casher (AC) ring. Transmis-sion probability is obtained as a function of the normalized textured electric fields and Fermi energy. We find thatmodulating electron wavefunction in the stub can drastically affects electron transmission through the ring system.As Fermi energy crosses every eigenenergy of the isolated stub, the phases of both anomalous and periodic oscillationsof the AC conductance generally have abrupt change by π. On two sides of several special Fermi energies, bothanomalous and periodic oscillations have no abrupt phase change and are in phase. The detailed characteristics of theanomalous oscillations are dependent on the difference between the tilt angle of the spin and that of textured electricfield. By modulating external magnetic field applied to the stub, we present AC oscillations of spin-polarized conduc-tance within adiabatic limit.
Topological quantum gate construction by iterative pseudogroup hashing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burrello, Michele; Mussardo, Giuseppe [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Wan Xin, E-mail: burrello@sissa.it, E-mail: mussardo@sissa.it [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-02-15
We describe the hashing technique for obtaining a fast approximation of a target quantum gate in the unitary group SU(2) represented by a product of the elements of a universal basis. The hashing exploits the structure of the icosahedral group (or other finite subgroups of SU(2)) and its pseudogroup approximations to reduce the search within a small number of elements. One of the main advantages of the pseudogroup hashing is the possibility of iterating to obtain more accurate representations of the targets in the spirit of the renormalization group approach. We describe the iterative pseudogroup hashing algorithm using the universal basis given by the braidings of Fibonacci anyons. An analysis of the efficiency of the iterations based on the random matrix theory indicates that the runtime and braid length scale poly-logarithmically with the final error, comparing favorably to the Solovay-Kitaev algorithm.
After-gate attack on a quantum cryptosystem
Wiechers, C.; Lydersen, L.; Wittmann, C.; Elser, D.; Skaar, J.; Marquardt, Ch; Makarov, V.; Leuchs, G.
2011-01-01
We present a method to control the detection events in quantum key distribution systems that use gated single-photon detectors. We employ bright pulses as faked states, timed to arrive at the avalanche photodiodes outside the activation time. The attack can remain unnoticed, since the faked states do not increase the error rate per se. This allows for an intercept-resend attack, where an eavesdropper transfers her detection events to the legitimate receiver without causing any errors. As a side effect, afterpulses, originating from accumulated charge carriers in the detectors, increase the error rate. We have experimentally tested detectors of the system id3110 (Clavis2) from ID Quantique. We identify the parameter regime in which the attack is feasible despite the side effect. Furthermore, we outline how simple modifications in the implementation can make the device immune to this attack.
Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou, E-mail: haiouli@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping, E-mail: haiouli@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2015-12-07
To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction.
Quantum Logic Network for Cloning a State Near a Given One Based on Cavity QED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Da-Wei; SHAO Xiao-Qiang; ZHU Ai-Dong
2008-01-01
A quantum logic network is constructed to simulate a cloning machine which copies states near a given one. Meanwhile, a scheme for implementing this cloning network based on the technique of cavity quantum electrody-namics (QED) is presented. It is easy to implement this network of cloning machine in the framework of cavity QED and feasible in the experiment.
Noncommutative tori and universal sets of non-binary quantum gates
Vlasov, A Yu
2002-01-01
Problem of universality in simulation of evolution of quantum system and in theory of quantum computations related with possibility of expression or approximation of arbitrary unitary transformation by composition of specific unitary transformations (quantum gates) from given set. In earlier paper (quant-ph/0010071) was shown application of Clifford algebras to constructions of universal sets of binary quantum gates $U_k \\in U(2^n)$. For application of similar approach to non-binary quantum gates $U_k \\in U(l^n)$ in present work is used rational noncommutative torus ${\\Bbb T}^{2n}_{1/l}$. Set of universal non-binary two-gates is presented here as one of examples.
Controlled phase gates based on two nonidentical quantum dots trapped in separate cavities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Xiao-Xia; Zhang Jian-Qi; Yu Ya-Fei; Zhang Zhi-Ming
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for realizing two-qubit controlled phase gates on two nonidentical quantum dots trapped in separate cavities.In our scheme,each dot simultaneously interacts with one highly detuned cavity mode and two strong driven classical fields.During the gate operation,the quantum dots undergo no transition,while the system can acquire different phases conditional on different states of the quantum dots.With the application of the single-qubit operations,two-qubit controlled phase gates can be realized.
PEET: a Matlab tool for estimating physical gate errors in quantum information processing systems
Hocker, David; Kosut, Robert; Rabitz, Herschel
2016-09-01
A Physical Error Estimation Tool (PEET) is introduced in Matlab for predicting physical gate errors of quantum information processing (QIP) operations by constructing and then simulating gate sequences for a wide variety of user-defined, Hamiltonian-based physical systems. PEET is designed to accommodate the interdisciplinary needs of quantum computing design by assessing gate performance for users familiar with the underlying physics of QIP, as well as those interested in higher-level computing operations. The structure of PEET separates the bulk of the physical details of a system into Gate objects, while the construction of quantum computing gate operations are contained in GateSequence objects. Gate errors are estimated by Monte Carlo sampling of noisy gate operations. The main utility of PEET, though, is the implementation of QuantumControl methods that act to generate and then test gate sequence and pulse-shaping techniques for QIP performance. This work details the structure of PEET and gives instructive examples for its operation.
Quantum theory as a relevant framework for the statement of probabilistic and many-valued logic
Vol, E D
2012-01-01
Based on ideas of quantum theory of open systems we propose the consistent approach to the formulation of logic of plausible propositions. To this end we associate with every plausible proposition diagonal matrix of its likelihood and examine it as density matrix of relevant quantum system. We are showing that all logical connectives between plausible propositions can be represented as special positive valued transformations of these matrices. We demonstrate also the above transformations can be realized in relevant composite quantum systems by quantum engineering methods. The approach proposed allows one not only to reproduce and generalize results of well-known logical systems (Boolean, Lukasiewicz and so on) but also to classify and analyze from unified point of view various actual problems in psychophysics and social sciences.
Teleportation-based realization of an optical quantum two-qubit entangling gate
Gao, Wei-Bo; Lu, Chao-Yang; Dai, Han-Ning; Wagenknecht, Claudia; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Bo; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2010-01-01
In recent years, there has been heightened interest in quantum teleportation, which allows for the transfer of unknown quantum states over arbitrary distances. Quantum teleportation not only serves as an essential ingredient in long-distance quantum communication, but also provides enabling technologies for practical quantum computation. Of particular interest is the scheme proposed by Gottesman and Chuang [Nature \\textbf{402}, 390 (1999)], showing that quantum gates can be implemented by teleporting qubits with the help of some special entangled states. Therefore, the construction of a quantum computer can be simply based on some multi-particle entangled states, Bell state measurements and single-qubit operations. The feasibility of this scheme relaxes experimental constraints on realizing universal quantum computation. Using two different methods we demonstrate the smallest non-trivial module in such a scheme---a teleportation-based quantum entangling gate for two different photonic qubits. One uses a high-...
Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Manna, Abhishek; Paul, Sima; Aich, Krishnendu; Das, Avijit K; Chakraborty, Shampa
2013-06-14
In this study, we have synthesized a simple Schiff base type isophthaloyl salicylaldehyde hydrazone (ISH) moiety which selectively detects Al(III) and PPi with a fluorescence enhancement at two different wavelengths in aqueous solution. The sensing phenomenon is also reversible and thus the sensor beautifully mimics logic gates (INHIBIT and EXOR gates).
Implantable synthetic cytokine converter cells with AND-gate logic treat experimental psoriasis.
Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin
2015-12-16
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting disease course and correlated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 22 (IL22). Psoriasis is hard to treat because of the unpredictable and asymptomatic flare-up, which limits handling of skin lesions to symptomatic treatment. Synthetic biology-based gene circuits are uniquely suited for the treatment of diseases with complex dynamics, such as psoriasis, because they can autonomously couple the detection of disease biomarkers with the production of therapeutic proteins. We designed a mammalian cell synthetic cytokine converter that quantifies psoriasis-associated TNF and IL22 levels using serially linked receptor-based synthetic signaling cascades, processes the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines with AND-gate logic, and triggers the corresponding expression of therapeutic levels of the anti-inflammatory/psoriatic cytokines IL4 and IL10, which have been shown to be immunomodulatory in patients. Implants of microencapsulated cytokine converter transgenic designer cells were insensitive to simulated bacterial and viral infections as well as psoriatic-unrelated inflammation. The designer cells specifically prevented the onset of psoriatic flares, stopped acute psoriasis, improved psoriatic skin lesions and restored normal skin-tissue morphology in mice. The antipsoriatic designer cells were equally responsive to blood samples from psoriasis patients, suggesting that the synthetic cytokine converter captures the clinically relevant cytokine range. Implanted designer cells that dynamically interface with the patient's metabolism by detecting specific disease metabolites or biomarkers, processing their blood levels with synthetic circuits in real time, and coordinating immediate production and systemic delivery of protein therapeutics may advance personalized gene- and cell-based therapies.
Systems chemistry: logic gates, arithmetic units, and network motifs in small networks.
Wagner, Nathaniel; Ashkenasy, Gonen
2009-01-01
A mixture of molecules can be regarded as a network if all the molecular components participate in some kind of interaction with other molecules--either physical or functional interactions. Template-assisted ligation reactions that direct replication processes can serve as the functional elements that connect two members of a chemical network. In such a process, the template does not necessarily catalyze its own formation, but rather the formation of another molecule, which in turn can operate as a template for reactions within the network medium. It was postulated that even networks made up of small numbers of molecules possess a wealth of molecular information sufficient to perform rather complex behavior. To probe this assumption, we have constructed virtual arrays consisting of three replicating molecules, in which dimer templates are capable of catalyzing reactants to form additional templates. By using realistic parameters from peptides or DNA replication experiments, we simulate the construction of various functional motifs within the networks. Specifically, we have designed and implemented each of the three-element Boolean logic gates, and show how these networks are assembled from four basic "building blocks". We also show how the catalytic pathways can be wired together to perform more complex arithmetic units and network motifs, such as the half adder and half subtractor computational modules, and the coherent feed-forward loop network motifs under different sets of parameters. As in previous studies of chemical networks, some of the systems described display behavior that would be difficult to predict without the numerical simulations. Furthermore, the simulations reveal trends and characteristics that should be useful as "recipes" for future design of experimental functional motifs and for potential integration into modular circuits and molecular computation devices.
Fast universal quantum gates on microwave photons with all-resonance operations in circuit QED.
Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-03-19
Stark shift on a superconducting qubit in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) has been used to construct universal quantum entangling gates on superconducting resonators in previous works. It is a second-order coupling effect between the resonator and the qubit in the dispersive regime, which leads to a slow state-selective rotation on the qubit. Here, we present two proposals to construct the fast universal quantum gates on superconducting resonators in a microwave-photon quantum processor composed of multiple superconducting resonators coupled to a superconducting transmon qutrit, that is, the controlled-phase (c-phase) gate on two microwave-photon resonators and the controlled-controlled phase (cc-phase) gates on three resonators, resorting to quantum resonance operations, without any drive field. Compared with previous works, our universal quantum gates have the higher fidelities and shorter operation times in theory. The numerical simulation shows that the fidelity of our c-phase gate is 99.57% within about 38.1 ns and that of our cc-phase gate is 99.25% within about 73.3 ns.
Quantum logic networks for controlled teleportation of a single particle via W state
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuan Hong-Chun; Qi Kai-Guo
2005-01-01
We discuss the scheme for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of an unknown state of one particle using the general three-particle W state as the quantum channel. The feature of this scheme is that teleportation between two sides depends on the agreement of the third side (Charlie), who may participate the process of quantum teleportation as a supervisor. In addition, we also construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing the new scheme by means of the primitive operations.
Reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic.
Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2017-03-06
Reversible computing is considered to be a key technology to achieve an extremely high energy efficiency in future computers. In this study, we investigated the relationship between reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic. We analyzed the evolution of phase differences of Josephson junctions in the reversible quantum-flux-parametron (RQFP) gate and confirmed that the phase differences can change time reversibly, which indicates that the RQFP gate is physically, as well as logically, reversible. We calculated energy dissipation required for the RQFP gate to perform a logic operation and numerically demonstrated that the energy dissipation can fall below the thermal limit, or the Landauer bound, by lowering operation frequencies. We also investigated the 1-bit-erasure gate as a logically irreversible gate and the quasi-RQFP gate as a physically irreversible gate. We calculated the energy dissipation of these irreversible gates and showed that the energy dissipation of these gate is dominated by non-adiabatic state changes, which are induced by unwanted interactions between gates due to logical or physical irreversibility. Our results show that, in reversible computing using adiabatic superconductor logic, logical and physical reversibility are required to achieve energy dissipation smaller than the Landauer bound without non-adiabatic processes caused by gate interactions.
A nanomechanical Fredkin gate.
Wenzler, Josef-Stefan; Dunn, Tyler; Toffoli, Tommaso; Mohanty, Pritiraj
2014-01-08
Irreversible logic operations inevitably discard information, setting fundamental limitations on the flexibility and the efficiency of modern computation. To circumvent the limit imposed by the von Neumann-Landauer (VNL) principle, an important objective is the development of reversible logic gates, as proposed by Fredkin, Toffoli, Wilczek, Feynman, and others. Here, we present a novel nanomechanical logic architecture for implementing a Fredkin gate, a universal logic gate from which any reversible computation can be built. In addition to verifying the truth table, we demonstrate operation of the device as an AND, OR, NOT, and FANOUT gate. Excluding losses due to resonator dissipation and transduction, which will require significant improvement in order to minimize the overall energy cost, our device requires an energy of order 10(4) kT per logic operation, similar in magnitude to state-of-the-art transistor-based technologies. Ultimately, reversible nanomechanical logic gates could play a crucial role in developing highly efficient reversible computers, with implications for efficient error correction and quantum computing.
Introduction to quantum computers
Berman, Gennady P; Mainieri, Ronnie; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir I
1998-01-01
Quantum computing promises to solve problems which are intractable on digital computers. Highly parallel quantum algorithms can decrease the computational time for some problems by many orders of magnitude. This important book explains how quantum computers can do these amazing things. Several algorithms are illustrated: the discrete Fourier transform, Shorâ€™s algorithm for prime factorization; algorithms for quantum logic gates; physical implementations of quantum logic gates in ion traps and in spin chains; the simplest schemes for quantum error correction; correction of errors caused by im
Demonstration of a Controlled-Phase Gate for Continuous-Variable One-Way Quantum Computation
Ukai, Ryuji; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2011-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a controlled-phase gate for continuous variables in a fully measurement-based fashion. In our scheme, the two independent input states of the gate, encoded in two optical modes, are teleported into a four-mode Gaussian cluster state. As a result, one of the entanglement links present in the initial cluster state appears in the two unmeasured output modes as the corresponding entangling gate acting on the input states. The genuine quantum character of this gate becomes manifest and is verified through the presence of entanglement at the output for a product two-mode coherent input state. By combining our controlled-phase gate with the recently reported module for universal single-mode Gaussian operations [R. Ukai et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 240504 (2011)], it is possible to implement universal Gaussian operations on arbitrary multi-mode quantum optical states in form of a fully measurement-based one-way quantum computation.
Optimal Control of High-Fidelity Quantum Gates in the Presence of Decoherence
Grace, M; Kosut, R; Lidar, D A; Rabitz, H; Walmsley, I; Brif, Constantin; Grace, Matthew; Kosut, Robert; Lidar, Daniel A.; Rabitz, Herschel; Walmsley, Ian
2006-01-01
This work studies the feasibility of optimal control of high-fidelity quantum gates in a model of interacting two-level particles. One set of particles serves as the quantum information processor, whose evolution is controlled by a time-dependent external field. The other particles are not directly controlled and serve as an effective environment, coupling to which is the source of decoherence. The control objective is to generate target one- and two-qubit gates in the presence of strong environmentally-induced decoherence and physically motivated restrictions on the control field. The quantum-gate fidelity, expressed in terms of a state-independent distance measure, is maximized with respect to the control field using combined genetic and gradient algorithms. The resulting high-fidelity gates demonstrate the utility of optimal control for precise management of quantum dynamics, especially when the system complexity is exacerbated by environmental coupling.
Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien
2016-08-05
In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature 'prototype' PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits.
Universal Set of Quantum Gates for Double-Dot Exchange-Only Spin Qubits Under Realistic Conditions
de Michielis, Marco; Ferraro, Elena; Rotta, Davide; Mazzeo, Giovanni; Tagliaferri, Marco; Crippa, Alessandro; Fanciulli, Marco; Prati, Enrico
2014-03-01
We report on a universal set of quantum logic gates for hybrid qubits. In a hybrid qubit the information is encoded in the spin state of three electrons elettrostatically confined in a silicon double quantum dot (QD), in (2,1) filling. All electrical operations, reduced fabrication complexity and high scalability are the strengths of this technology. Schrieffer-Wolff effective models for both one and two coupled hybrid qubit are developed including the inescapable exchange interaction between electrons in the same QD. Optimal sequences of exchange interactions creating a complete set of quantum operations, namely Hadamard, π/8 and CNOT gates, are obtained by using a search algorithm, based on simplex and genetic ones. Silicon devices have been designed by SDFT-based program and efforts in its fabrication have produced in-plane inter-QDs distances down to 100 nm by means of electron beam lithography. Double QDs devices operating in few electron filling regime have been preliminary characterized at 4.2 K. Second affiliation: DSM, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano, Italy.
Yeom, Donghyuk; Keem, Kihyun; Kang, Jeongmin; Jeong, Dong-Young; Yoon, Changjoon; Kim, Dongseung; Kim, Sangsig
2008-07-02
Electrical characteristics of NOT and NAND logic circuits fabricated using top-gate ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) with high-k Al(2)O(3) gate layers were investigated in this study. To form a NOT logic circuit, two identical FETs whose I(on)/I(off) ratios were as high as ∼10(8) were connected in series in a single ZnO nanowire channel, sharing a common source electrode. Its voltage transfer characteristics exhibited an inverting operation and its logic swing was 98%. In addition, the characteristics of a NAND logic circuit composed of three top-gate FETs connected in series in a single nanowire channel are discussed in this paper.
Tunable double quantum dots in InAs nanowires defined by local gate electrodes.
Fasth, Carina; Fuhrer, Andreas; Samuelson, Lars
2006-03-01
We present low-temperature transport measurements on quantum dots induced in homogeneous InAs quantum wires 50 nm in diameter. Quantum dots are induced by electrical depletion of the wire using local gate electrodes with down to 30 nm electrode spacing. This scheme has permitted the realization of fully gate-defined multiple quantum dots along the nanowire [1]. Tunability in double quantum dots is a prerequisite for the system to be operated as a quantum gate. We demonstrate control over the lead tunnel barrier transparencies and, in the case of double quantum dots, the interdot coupling. Using the local gate electrodes also as plunger gates we measure double dot honeycomb stability diagrams which show the transition from a single large dot to two weakly coupled dots at 4.2K. The induced quantum dots can be tuned into the few-electron regime which is shown from Coulomb blockade measurements. We extract values of orbital energy-level spacings, capacitances and capacitive and tunnel interdot coupling for this system. [1] C. Fasth et al., NanoLett 5, 1487 (2005).
Yao, Xing-Can; Fiurásek, Jaromír; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei
2010-09-17
We experimentally demonstrate an advanced linear-optical programmable quantum processor that combines two elementary single-qubit programmable quantum gates. We show that this scheme enables direct experimental probing of quantum commutation relations for Pauli operators acting on polarization states of single photons. Depending on a state of two-qubit program register, we can probe either commutation or anticommutation relations. Very good agreement between theory and experiment is observed, indicating high-quality performance of the implemented quantum processor.
Realization of quantum gates with multiple control qubits or multiple target qubits in a cavity
Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Shahid
2015-06-01
We propose a scheme to realize a three-qubit controlled phase gate and a multi-qubit controlled NOT gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling n-target qubits with a four-level quantum system in a cavity. The implementation time for multi-qubit controlled NOT gate is independent of the number of qubit. Three-qubit phase gate is generalized to n-qubit phase gate with multiple control qubits. The number of steps reduces linearly as compared to conventional gate decomposition method. Our scheme can be applied to various types of physical systems such as superconducting qubits coupled to a resonator and trapped atoms in a cavity. Our scheme does not require adjustment of level spacing during the gate implementation. We also show the implementation of Deutsch-Joza algorithm. Finally, we discuss the imperfections due to cavity decay and the possibility of physical implementation of our scheme.
Design of Parity Preserving Logic Based Fault Tolerant Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakshith Saligram1
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Reversible Logic is gaining significant consideration as the potential logic design style for implementation in modern nanotechnology and quantum computing with minimal impact on physical entropy .Fault Tolerant reversible logic is one class of reversible logic that maintain the parity of the input and the outputs. Significant contributions have been made in the literature towards the design of fault tolerant reversible logic gate structures and arithmetic units, however, there are not many efforts directed towards the design of fault tolerant reversible ALUs. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU is the prime performing unit in any computing device and it has to be made fault tolerant. In this paper we aim to design one such fault tolerant reversible ALU that is constructed using parity preserving reversible logic gates. The designed ALU can generate up to seven Arithmetic operations and four logical operations
Design of Parity Preserving Logic Based Fault Tolerant Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakshith Saligram
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Reversible Logic is gaining significant consideration as the potential logic design style for implementationin modern nanotechnology and quantum computing with minimal impact on physical entropy .FaultTolerant reversible logic is one class of reversible logic that maintain the parity of the input and theoutputs. Significant contributions have been made in the literature towards the design of fault tolerantreversible logic gate structures and arithmetic units, however, there are not many efforts directed towardsthe design of fault tolerant reversible ALUs. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU is the prime performing unit inany computing device and it has to be made fault tolerant. In this paper we aim to design one such faulttolerant reversible ALU that is constructed using parity preserving reversible logic gates. The designedALU can generate up to seven Arithmetic operations and four logical operations.
Recovering Quantum Logic within an Extended Classical Framework
Garola, Claudio
2011-01-01
We present a procedure which allows us to recover classical and nonclassical logical structures as \\emph{concrete logics} associated with physical theories expressed by means of classical languages. This procedure consists in choosing, for a given theory $\\mathcal T$ and classical language $\\mathcal L$ expressing $\\mathcal T$, an observative sublanguage $L$ of $\\mathcal L$ with a notion of truth as correspondence, introducing in $L$ a derived and theory-dependent notion of \\emph{C-truth} (\\emph{true with certainty}), defining a \\emph{physical preorder} induced by C-truth, and finally selecting a set of sentences that are \\emph{verifiable} (or \\emph{testable}) according to $\\mathcal T$, on which a \\emph{weak complementation} is induced by $\\mathcal T$. The triple consisting of the set of verifiable sentences, physical order and weak complementation is then the desired concrete logic. By applying our procedure we recover a classical logic as the concrete logic associated with classical mechanics and standard qu...
Comparison of the Cost Metrics for Reversible and Quantum Logic Synthesis
Miller, D M; Maslov, Dmitri
2005-01-01
A breadth-first search method for determining optimal 3-line circuits composed of quantum NOT, CNOT, controlled-V and controlled-V+ (NCV) gates is introduced. Results are presented for simple gate count and for technology motivated cost metrics. The optimal NCV circuits are also compared to NCV circuits derived from optimal NOT, CNOT and Toffoli (NCT) gate circuits. The work presented here provides basic results and motivation for continued study of the direct synthesis of NCV circuits, and establishes relations between function realizations in different circuit cost metrics.
Molecular spintronics: destructive quantum interference controlled by a gate.
Saraiva-Souza, Aldilene; Smeu, Manuel; Zhang, Lei; Souza Filho, Antonio Gomes; Guo, Hong; Ratner, Mark A
2014-10-22
The ability to control the spin-transport properties of a molecule bridging conducting electrodes is of paramount importance to molecular spintronics. Quantum interference can play an important role in allowing or forbidding electrons from passing through a system. In this work, the spin-transport properties of a polyacetylene chain bridging zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are studied with nonequilibrium Green's function calculations performed within the density functional theory framework (NEGF-DFT). ZGNR electrodes have inherent spin polarization along their edges, which causes a splitting between the properties of spin-up and spin-down electrons in these systems. Upon adding an imidazole donor group and a pyridine acceptor group to the polyacetylene chain, this causes destructive interference features in the electron transmission spectrum. Particularly, the donor group causes a large antiresonance dip in transmission at the Fermi energy EF of the electrodes. The application of a gate is investigated and found to provide control over the energy position of this feature making it possible to turn this phenomenon on and off. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of this system are also calculated, showing near ohmic scaling for spin-up but negative differential resistance (NDR) for spin-down.
An Imidazole based probe for relay recognition of Cu2+ and OH− ions leading to AND logic gate
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Navneet Kaur; Priya Alreja
2015-07-01
2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole 1, an imidazole-based compound, was found to sense Cu2+ ions via fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy over a number of other metal ions. During Cu2+ sensing, the chemosensor 1 followed a “switch-off” mechanism. Job’s plot supported 1:1 stoichiometry of 1-Cu2+ complex. The 1-Cu2+ complex formed in situ underwent different absorption changes with OH− ions. These differential absorption changes observed with the addition of Cu2+ and OH− ions were used to mimic AND logic gate using A274nm as output.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-01
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (cz) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a cz gate in <10 μ s with error probability on the order of 10-3.
Circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture for gate-defined quantum dots in silicon
Mi, X.; Cady, J. V.; Zajac, D. M.; Stehlik, J.; Edge, L. F.; Petta, J. R.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate a hybrid device architecture where the charge states in a double quantum dot (DQD) formed in a Si/SiGe heterostructure are read out using an on-chip superconducting microwave cavity. A quality factor Q = 5400 is achieved by selectively etching away regions of the quantum well and by reducing photon losses through low-pass filtering of the gate bias lines. Homodyne measurements of the cavity transmission reveal DQD charge stability diagrams and a charge-cavity coupling rate gc/2 π= 23 MHz. These measurements indicate that electrons trapped in a Si DQD can be effectively coupled to microwave photons, potentially enabling coherent electron-photon interactions in silicon.
On Universal Gate Libraries and Generic Minimal Two-qubit Quantum Circuits
Shende, V V; Bullock, S S; Shende, Vivek V.; Markov, Igor L.; Bullock, Stephen S.
2003-01-01
We show how to implement exactly an arbitrary two-qubit unitary operation in several universal gate libraries using the smallest possible number of gates. To this end, we prove that n-qubit circuits using CNOT and one-qubit gates require at least ceil((4^n - 3n -1)/4) CNOT gates in the worst case. For two-qubit operators, this yields a lower bound of three gates, which we match with an upper bound of three gates. Using quantum circuit identities, we improve an earlier lower bound of 17 elementary gates by Bullock and Markov to 18, and their upper bound of 23 elementary gates to 18. We also improve upon the generic circuit with six CNOT gates by Zhang et al. (our circuit uses three), and that by Vidal and Dawson with 11 basic gates (we use 10). Given the available results, it appears that some universal gate libraries are at a disadvantage, at least in the sense that no construction is known to produce smallest possible circuits.
A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part I: Epistemic Structures
Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe
2014-10-01
Some critical open problems of epistemic logics can be investigated in the framework of a quantum computational approach. The basic idea is to interpret sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that π is irrational" as pieces of quantum information (generally represented by density operators of convenient Hilbert spaces). Logical epistemic operators ( to understand, to know…) are dealt with as (generally irreversible) quantum operations, which are, in a sense, similar to measurement-procedures. This approach permits us to model some characteristic epistemic processes, that concern both human and artificial intelligence. For instance, the operation of "memorizing and retrieving information" can be formally represented, in this framework, by using a quantum teleportation phenomenon.
Selective darkening of degenerate transitions for implementing quantum controlled-NOT gates
De Groot, P.C.; Ashhab, S.; Lupascu, A.; DiCarlo, L.; Nori, F.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.
2012-01-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the selective darkening method for implementing quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. This method, which we have recently proposed and demonstrated, consists of driving two transversely coupled quantum bits (qubits) with a driving field that is resonant with one o
Design of Reversible Sequential Circuit Using Reversible Logic Synthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Belayet Ali
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic is one of the most vital issue at present time and it has different areas for its application,those are low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, cryptography, optical computing, DNA computing, digital signal processing (DSP, quantum dot cellular auto meta, communication, computer graphics. It is not possible to realize quantum computing without implementation of reversible logic. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. In this paper, we have proposed a new reversible gate. And we have designed RS flip flop and D flip flop by using our proposed gate and Peres gate. The proposed designs are better than the existing proposed ones in terms of number of reversible gates and garbage outputs. So, this realization is more efficient and less costly than other realizations.
Design of Reversible Sequential Circuit Using Reversible Logic Synthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Mosharof Hossin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic is one of the most vital issue at present time and it has different areas for its application, those are low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, cryptography, optical computing, DNA computing, digital signal processing (DSP, quantum dot cellular automata, communication, computer graphics. It is not possible to realize quantum computing without implementation of reversible logic. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. In this paper, we have proposed a new reversible gate. And we have designedRS flip flop and D flip flop by using our proposed gate and Peres gate. The proposed designs are better than the existing proposed ones in terms of number of reversible gates and garbage outputs. So, this realization is more efficient and less costly than other realizations.
Virtual-photon-induced quantum phase gates for two distant atoms trapped in separate cavities
Zheng, Shi-Biao
2012-01-01
We propose a scheme for implementing quantum gates for two atoms trapped in distant cavities connected by an optical fiber. The effective long-distance coupling between the two distributed qubits is achieved without excitation and transportation of photons through the optical fiber. Since the cavity modes and fiber mode are never populated and the atoms undergo no transitions, the gate operation is insensitive to the decoherence effect when the thermal photons in the environment are negligible. The scheme opens promising perspectives for networking quantum information processors and implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation.
Quantum reversible logic circuits synthesis based on genetic algorithm%基于遗传算法的量子可逆逻辑电路综合方法研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吕洪君; 乐亮; 韩良顺; 解光军
2011-01-01
量子可逆逻辑电路综合主要是研究在给定的量子门和量子电路的约束条件及限制下,找到最小或较小的量子代价实现所需量子逻辑功能的电路.把量子逻辑门的功能用矩阵的数学模型表示,用遗传算法作全局搜索工具,将遗传算法应用于量子可逆逻辑电路综合,是一种全新的可逆逻辑电路综合方法,实现了合成、优化同步进行.四阶量子电路实验已取得了很好的效果,并进一步分析了此方法在高阶量子电路综合问题上的应用前景.%Reversible quantum logic synthesis is to study given quantum gates and quantum circuits of the constraints and limitations and find the smallest or smaller quantum cost to achieve the desired quantum logic circuits. The quantum logic gate functions of the matrix is indicated by the mathematical model. The synthesis and optimization are achieved simultaneously by the genetic algorithm as global search tool. Genetic algorithm is applied to quantum reversible logic synthesis. The fourth-order quantum circuit experiment has achieved good results, and further analysis of this method in high-level synthesis of quantum circuits and its application is completed.
Robust and High Fidelity Quantum Logic with the Rydberg-Dressed Blockade
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert; Deutsch, Ivan; Hankin, Aaron; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant
2015-05-01
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By adiabatically dressing the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise from atomic thermal motion. The adiabatic protocol also allows for a Doppler-free configuration with counterpropagating lasers in a σ+ /σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in logic.
From Sentence to Concept, a Linguistic Quantum Logic
Preller, Anne
2011-01-01
The category of semi-modules over the lattice of a real interval $I$ serves as a common frame for extensional logical semantics and conceptual vector semantics of natural language. The vector lattice of an $I$-space is embedded in its projector lattice. Words are represented by an extensional vector given in a pregroup lexicon and a conceptual vector that lives in a tensor product of 2-dimensional spaces where each 2-dimensional space stand for a 'basic' concept. Syntactical analysis defines ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王朝; 刘建伟; 陈秀波; 毕亚港; 尚涛
2015-01-01
This study proposes two novel fault tolerant deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) schemes resistant to collective noise using logical Bell states. Either DSQC scheme is constructed based on a new coding function, which is designed by exploiting the property of the corresponding logical Bell states immune to collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. The secret message can be encoded by two simple unitary operations and decoded by merely performing Bell measurements, which can make the proposed scheme more convenient in practical applications. Moreover, the strategy of one-step quanta transmission, together with the technique of decoy logical qubits checking not only reduces the influence of other noise existing in a quantum channel, but also guarantees the security of the communi-cation between two legitimate users. The final analysis shows that the proposed schemes are feasible and robust against various well-known attacks over the collective noise channel.
Donker, H. C.; Katsnelson, M. I.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.
The logical inference approach to quantum theory, proposed earlier De Raedt et al. (2014), is considered in a relativistic setting. It is shown that the Klein-Gordon equation for a massive, charged, and spinless particle derives from the combination of the requirements that the space-time data
Donker, H. C.; Katsnelson, M. I.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.
2016-01-01
The logical inference approach to quantum theory, proposed earlier De Raedt et al. (2014), is considered in a relativistic setting. It is shown that the Klein-Gordon equation for a massive, charged, and spinless particle derives from the combination of the requirements that the space-time data colle
Multiple-valued logic-protected coding for an optical non-quantum communication line
Antipov, A. L.; Bykovsky, A. Yu.; Vasiliev, N. A.; Egorov, A. A.
2006-01-01
A simple and cheap method of secret coding in an optical line is proposed based on multiple-valued logic. This method is shown to have very high cryptography resources and is designated for bidirectional information exchange in a team of mobile robots, where quantum teleportation coding cannot yet b
Implementation of non-local quantum controlled-NOT gate with multiple targets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Libing Chen(陈立冰); Hong Lu(路洪)
2004-01-01
We show how a non-local quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate with multiple targets can be implemented with unit fidelity and unit probability. The explicit quantum circuit for implementing the operation is presented. Two schemes for probabilistic implementing the operation via partially entangled quantum channels with unit fidelity are put forward. The overall physical resources required for accomplishing these schemes are different, and the successful implementation probabilities are also different.
Single-shot realization of nonadiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free subspaces
Zhao, P. Z.; Xu, G. F.; Ding, Q. M.; Sjöqvist, Erik; Tong, D. M.
2017-06-01
Nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces has attracted increasing attention recently, as it allows for high-speed implementation and combines both the robustness of holonomic gates and the coherence stabilization of decoherence-free subspaces. Since the first protocol of nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces, a number of schemes for its physical implementation have been put forward. However, all previous schemes require two noncommuting gates to realize an arbitrary one-qubit gate, which doubles the exposure time of gates to error sources as well as the resource expenditure. In this paper, we propose an alternative protocol for nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces, in which an arbitrary one-qubit gate in decoherence-free subspaces is realized by a single-shot implementation. The present protocol not only maintains the merits of the original protocol but also avoids the extra work of combining two gates to implement an arbitrary one-qubit gate and thereby reduces the exposure time to various error sources.
Nugamesh Mutter, Kussay; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Abdul Aziz, Azlan
2010-05-01
Many researches are conducted to improve Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) performance especially for speed and memory capacity in different approaches. However, there is still a significant scope of developing HNN using Optical Logic Gates. We propose here a new model of HNN based on all-optical XNOR logic gates for real time color image recognition. Firstly, we improved HNN toward optimum learning and converging operations. We considered each unipolar image as a set of small blocks of 3-pixels as vectors for HNN. This enables to save large number of images in the net with best reaching into global minima, and because there are only eight fixed states of weights so that only single iteration performed to construct a vector with stable state at minimum energy. HNN is useless in dealing with data not in bipolar representation. Therefore, HNN failed to work with color images. In RGB bands each represents different values of brightness, for d-bit RGB image it is simply consists of d-layers of unipolar. Each layer is as a single unipolar image for HNN. In addition, the weight matrices with stability of unity at the diagonal perform clear converging in comparison with no self-connecting architecture. Synchronously, each matrix-matrix multiplication operation would run optically in the second part, since we propose an array of all-optical XOR gates, which uses Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) for neurons setup and a controlling system to distribute timely signals with inverting to achieve XNOR function. The primary operation and simulation of the proposal HNN is demonstrated.
Schr\\"odinger Cat States Generated by Quantum Gated Photonic Gauge Field
Wang, Da-Wei; Liu, Ren-Bao; Scully, Marlan O
2016-01-01
Schr\\"odinger cat states of photons can be prepared by effective gauge fields gated by the quantum states of a two-level atom interacting with three cavities. By periodically modulating the cavity frequencies with different phases, opposite effective gauge fields of cavity photons can be created for the two quantum states of the atom. A superposition of atomic states can transport photons from one cavity to a macroscopic superposition of the other two cavities. This mechanism provides new possibilities in exploring quantum entanglement and has applications in quantum metrology and quantum information.
Sun, Jie; Larsson, Marcus; Xu, H. Q.
2011-12-01
Single and double quantum dot devices are realized in InGaAs/InP heterostructures by top gating technology with incorporated High-κ HfO2 gate dielectric layers. At 300 mK, Coulomb blockade effects are observed in as-fabricated devices, and the charge states can be measured by the integrated quantum point contacts. The developed technology should stimulate the research on quantum devices made from materials to which the gating technology is often difficult to apply due to low Schottky barrier height.
Design of Digital Adder Using Reversible Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gowthami P
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have promising applications in Quantum computing, Low power VLSI design, Nanotechnology, optical computing, DNA computing and Quantum dot cellular automata. In spite of them another main prominent application of reversible logic is Quantum computers where the quantum devices are essential which are ideally operated at ultra high speed with less power dissipation must be built from reversible logic components. This makes the reversible logic as a one of the most promising research areas in the past few decades. In VLSI design the delay is the one of the major issue along with area and power. This paper presents the implementation of Ripple Carry Adder (RCA circuits using reversible logic gates are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖林荣; 陈偕雄; 应时彦
2011-01-01
为了减少纳米器件量子细胞自动机(QCA)电路的线交叉数和电路综合时采用的门电路类型,在介绍QCA细胞结构、逻辑器件、模块化设计技术以及最佳通用逻辑门ULG.2的基础上,提出基于模块化技术的最佳通用逻辑门ULG.2的QCA电路实现方案.利用最佳QCA通用逻辑门ULG.2设计了全加/减器、全比较器和4选1数据选择器.所设计的QCA电路均用QCADesigner软件进行模拟,结果表明:该电路不仅具有正确的逻辑功能,而且某些性能得到了很大的改善.特别地对于4选1数据选择器,与已有的多数门和反相器直接设计的电路相比,细胞数、QCA线交叉数分别减少了31.8％和62.5％.%In order to reduce the number of wire-crossings in quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) circuits and the types of QCA logic gates in logic synthesis, based on the introduction of basic principles of QCA , QCA logic devices and modular design methodology, a novel QCA optimal universal logic gate ULG. 2 was designed. Three circuits of full adder/subtraction, full comparator and 4-to-l multiplexer were implemented with the optimal QCA universal logic gate ULG. 2. Simulation by using the QCADesigner tool for the proposed QCA circuits confirms that the proposed circuits have correct logic function and their performance was improved dramatically in comparison to the other previous designs. Especially, the proposed 4-to-l multiplexer was reduced 31. 8%QCA cells and 62. 5% number of wire-crossings compared with the traditional design based on majority gates and inverters.
Heo, Jino; Hong, Chang-Ho; Yang, Hyung-Jin; Hong, Jong-Phil; Choi, Seong-Gon
2017-04-01
We demonstrate the advantages of an optical parity gate using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs), quantum bus (qubus) beams, and photon number resolving (PNR) measurement through our analysis, utilizing a master equation under the decoherence effect (occurred the dephasing and photon loss). To generate Bell states, parity gates based on quantum non-demolition measurement using XKNL are extensively employed in quantum information processing. When designing a parity gate via XKNL, the parity gate can be diversely constructed according to the measurement strategies. In practice, the interactions of XKNLs in optical fiber are inevitable under the decoherence effect. Thus, by our analysis of the decoherence effect, we show that the designed parity gate employing homodyne measurement would not be expected to provide reliable quantum operation. Furthermore, compared with a parity gate using a displacement operator and PNR measurement, we conclude there is experimental benefit from implementation of a parity gate via qubus beams and PNR measurement under the decoherence effect.
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities.
Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology.
Quantum theory and the schism in physics from the postscript to the logic of scientific discovery
Popper, Karl Raimund
1982-01-01
Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper's Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The Postscript is the culmination of Popper's work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science.Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is the third volume of the Postscript. It may be read independently, but it also forms part of Popper's interconnected argument in the Postscript. It presents Popper's classic statement on quantum physics a
Xue, Zheng-Yuan
2013-04-01
We propose a scheme to implement controlled not gate for topological qubits in a quantum-dot and Majorana fermion hybrid system. Quantum information is encoded on pairs of Majorana fermions, which live on the the interface between topologically trivial and nontrivial sections of a quantum nanowire deposited on an s-wave superconductor. A measurement based two-qubit controlled not gate is produced with the help of parity measurements assisted by the quantum-dot and followed by prescribed single-qubit gates. The parity measurement, on the quantum-dot and a topological qubit, is achieved by the Aharonov-Casher effect.
Cavity QED quantum phase gates for a single longitudinal mode of the intracavity field
García-Maraver, R; Eckert, K; Rebic, S; Artoni, M; Mompart, J
2004-01-01
A single three-level atom driven by a longitudinal mode of a high-Q cavity is used to implement two-qubit quantum phase gates for the intracavity field. The two qubits are associated to the zero-and one-photon Fock states of each of the two opposite circular polarization states of the field. The three-level atom yields the conditional phase gate provided the two polarization states and the atom interact in a $V$-type configuration and the two photon resonance condition is fulfilled. Microwave and optical implementations are discussed with gate fidelities being evaluated against several decoherence mechanisms such as atomic velocity fluctuations or the presence of a weak magnetic field. The use of coherent states for both polarization states is investigated to assess the entanglement capability of the proposed quantum gates.
Cavity QED quantum phase gates for a single longitudinal mode of the intracavity field
García-Maraver, R.; Corbalán, R.; Eckert, K.; Rebić, S.; Artoni, M.; Mompart, J.
2004-12-01
A single three-level atom driven by a longitudinal mode of a high- Q cavity is used to implement two-qubit quantum phase gates for the intracavity field. The two qubits are associated with the zero- and one-photon Fock states of each of the two opposite circular polarization states of the field. The three-level atom mediates the conditional phase gate provided the two polarization states and the atom interact in a V-type configuration and the two-photon resonance condition is satisfied. Microwave and optical implementations are discussed with gate fidelities being evaluated against several decoherence mechanisms such as atomic velocity fluctuations or the presence of a weak magnetic field. The use of coherent states for both polarization states is investigated to assess the entanglement capability of the proposed quantum gates.
Formation of strain-induced quantum dots in gated semiconductor nanostructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ted Thorbeck
2015-08-01
Full Text Available A long-standing mystery in the field of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs is: Why are there so many unintentional dots (also known as disorder dots which are neither expected nor controllable. It is typically assumed that these unintentional dots are due to charged defects, however the frequency and predictability of the location of the unintentional QDs suggests there might be additional mechanisms causing the unintentional QDs besides charged defects. We show that the typical strains in a semiconductor nanostructure from metal gates are large enough to create strain-induced quantum dots. We simulate a commonly used QD device architecture, metal gates on bulk silicon, and show the formation of strain-induced QDs. The strain-induced QD can be eliminated by replacing the metal gates with poly-silicon gates. Thus strain can be as important as electrostatics to QD device operation operation.
Formation of strain-induced quantum dots in gated semiconductor nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thorbeck, Ted, E-mail: tcthorbeck@wisc.edu [Quantum Measurement Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Joint Quantum Institute and Dept. of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); Zimmerman, Neil M. [Quantum Measurement Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)
2015-08-15
A long-standing mystery in the field of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is: Why are there so many unintentional dots (also known as disorder dots) which are neither expected nor controllable. It is typically assumed that these unintentional dots are due to charged defects, however the frequency and predictability of the location of the unintentional QDs suggests there might be additional mechanisms causing the unintentional QDs besides charged defects. We show that the typical strains in a semiconductor nanostructure from metal gates are large enough to create strain-induced quantum dots. We simulate a commonly used QD device architecture, metal gates on bulk silicon, and show the formation of strain-induced QDs. The strain-induced QD can be eliminated by replacing the metal gates with poly-silicon gates. Thus strain can be as important as electrostatics to QD device operation operation.
Wolters, Sander A M
2010-01-01
The aim of this paper is to compare the two topos-theoretic approaches to quantum mechanics that may be found in the literature to date. The first approach, which we will call the contravariant approach, was proposed by Isham and Butterfield, and was later extended by Doering and Isham. The second approach, which we will call the covariant approach, was developed by Heunen, Landsman and Spitters. Motivated by coarse-graining and the Kochen-Specker theorem, the contravariant approach uses the topos of presheaves on a specific context category, defined as the poset of commutative von Neumann subalgebras of some given von Neumann algebra. The intuitionistic logic of this approach is presented by the (complete) Heyting algebra of closed open subobjects of the so-called spectral presheaf. We demonstrate that in a natural way, this Heyting algebra defines a locale, internal to the given presheaf topos. This locale is not regular, which is connected to undesirable properties of the Heyting negation. In the covariant...
Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-02-24
We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well.
Optical holonomic single quantum gates with a geometric spin under a zero field
Sekiguchi, Yuhei; Niikura, Naeko; Kuroiwa, Ryota; Kano, Hiroki; Kosaka, Hideo
2017-04-01
The realization of fast fault-tolerant quantum gates on a single spin is the core requirement for solid-state quantum-information processing. As polarized light shows geometric interference, spin coherence is also geometrically controlled with light via the spin-orbit interaction. Here, we show that a geometric spin in a degenerate subspace of a spin-1 electronic system under a zero field in a nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond allows implementation of optical non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates. The geometric spin under quasi-resonant light exposure undergoes a cyclic evolution in the spin-orbit space, and acquires a geometric phase or holonomy that results in rotations about an arbitrary axis by any angle defined by the light polarization and detuning. This enables universal holonomic quantum gates with a single operation. We demonstrate a complete set of Pauli quantum gates using the geometric spin preparation and readout techniques. The new scheme opens a path to holonomic quantum computers and repeaters.
Application of bistable optical logic gate arrays to all-optical digital parallel processing
Walker, A. C.
1986-05-01
Arrays of bistable optical gates can form the basis of an all-optical digital parallel processor. Two classes of signal input geometry exist - on- and off-axis - and lead to distinctly different device characteristics. The optical implementation of multisignal fan-in to an array of intrinsically bistable optical gates using the more efficient off-axis option is discussed together with the construction of programmable read/write memories from optically bistable devices. Finally the design of a demonstration all-optical parallel processor incorporating these concepts is presented.
Chen, Yuqi; Song, Yanyan; Wu, Fan; Liu, Wenting; Fu, Boshi; Feng, Bingkun; Zhou, Xiang
2015-04-25
A conveniently amplified DNA AND logic gate platform was designed for the highly sensitive detection of low-abundance DNA fragment inputs based on strand displacement reaction and rolling circle amplification strategy. Compared with others, this system can detect miRNAs in biological samples. The success of this strategy demonstrates the potential of DNA logic gates in disease diagnosis.
Simulation of a quantum NOT gate for a single qutrit system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Avila M; Rueda-Paz J
2016-04-01
A three-level system based an a three-level atom interacting with a detuned cavity is considered. Because of the fact that the three-level atom defines a total normalized state composed of superposition of three different single-level states, it is assumed that such a system implements a qutrit. In order to achieve a quantum NOT gate for a single qutrit, the respective Schrödinger equation is solved numerically within a two-photon rotating wave approximation. For small values of one-photon detuning, there appear decoherence effects. Meanwhile, for large values of onephoton detuning, an ideal quantum NOT gate for a single qutrit is achieved. An expression for the execution time of the quantum NOT gate for a single qutrit as a function of the one-photon detuning is found.
Novel Design for Quantum Dots Cellular Automata to Obtain Fault-Tolerant Majority Gate
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Razieh Farazkish
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is one of the most attractive technologies for computing at nanoscale. The principle element in QCA is majority gate. In this paper, fault-tolerance properties of the majority gate is analyzed. This component is suitable for designing fault-tolerant QCA circuits. We analyze fault-tolerance properties of three-input majority gate in terms of misalignment, missing, and dislocation cells. In order to verify the functionality of the proposed component some physical proofs using kink energy (the difference in electrostatic energy between the two polarization states and computer simulations using QCA Designer tool are provided. Our results clearly demonstrate that the redundant version of the majority gate is more robust than the standard style for this gate.
Compact quantum gates for hybrid photon-atom systems assisted by Faraday rotation
Song, Guo-Zhu; Yang, Guo-Jian; Zhang, Mei
2017-02-01
We present some compact circuits for a deterministic quantum computing on the hybrid photon-atom systems, including the Fredkin gate and SWAP gate. These gates are constructed by exploiting the optical Faraday rotation induced by an atom trapped in a single-sided optical microcavity. The control qubit of our gates is encoded on the polarization states of the single photon, and the target qubit is encoded on the ground states of an atom confined in an optical microcavity. Since the decoherence of the flying qubit with atmosphere for a long distance is negligible and the stationary qubits are trapped inside single-sided microcavities, our gates are robust. Moreover, ancillary single photon is not needed and only some linear-optical devices are adopted, which makes our protocols efficient and practical. Our schemes need not meet the condition that the transmission for the uncoupled cavity is balanceable with the reflectance for the coupled cavity, which is different from the quantum computation with a double-sided optical microcavity. Our calculations show that the fidelities of the two hybrid quantum gates are high with the available experimental technology.
A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics
Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe
2014-10-01
By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that π is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.
The electronic properties of concentric double quantum ring and possibility designing XOR gate
AL-Badry, Lafy. F.
2017-03-01
In this paper I have investigated the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in concentric double quantum ring. The outer ring attached to leads while the inner ring only tunnel-coupled to the outer ring. The effect of inner ring on electron transport properties through outer ring studied and found that the conductance spectrum consists of two types of oscillations. One is the normal Aharonov-Bohm oscillation, and other is a small oscillations superposed above AB oscillation. The AB oscillation utilized to designing nanoscale XOR gate by choosing the magnetic flux and tuning the gate voltages which realization XOR gate action.