Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, P
1998-03-01
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
Quantum algorithmic information theory
Svozil, Karl
1995-01-01
The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...
Quantum biological information theory
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2016-01-01
This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...
Nielsen, M. A.
2000-01-01
Quantum information theory is the study of the achievable limits of information processing within quantum mechanics. Many different types of information can be accommodated within quantum mechanics, including classical information, coherent quantum information, and entanglement. Exploring the rich variety of capabilities allowed by these types of information is the subject of quantum information theory, and of this Dissertation. In particular, I demonstrate several novel limits to the informa...
Nielsen, M A
1998-01-01
Quantum information theory is the study of the achievable limits of information processing within quantum mechanics. Many different types of information can be accommodated within quantum mechanics, including classical information, coherent quantum information, and entanglement. Exploring the rich variety of capabilities allowed by these types of information is the subject of quantum information theory, and of this Dissertation. In particular, I demonstrate several novel limits to the information processing ability of quantum mechanics. Results of especial interest include: the demonstration of limitations to the class of measurements which may be performed in quantum mechanics; a capacity theorem giving achievable limits to the transmission of classical information through a two-way noiseless quantum channel; resource bounds on distributed quantum computation; a new proof of the quantum noiseless channel coding theorem; an information-theoretic characterization of the conditions under which quantum error-cor...
Pitalúa-García, Damián
2012-01-01
How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combin...
Lombardi, Olimpia; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian
2017-04-01
Preface; Introduction; Part I. About the Concept of Information: 1. About the concept of information Sebastian Fortin and Olimpia Lombardi; 2. Representation, information, and theories of information Armond Duwell; 3. Information, communication, and manipulability Olimpia Lombardi and Cristian López; Part II. Information and quantum mechanics: 4. Quantum versus classical information Jeffrey Bub; 5. Quantum information and locality Dennis Dieks; 6. Pragmatic information in quantum mechanics Juan Roederer; 7. Interpretations of quantum theory: a map of madness Adán Cabello; Part III. Probability, Correlations, and Information: 8. On the tension between ontology and epistemology in quantum probabilities Amit Hagar; 9. Inferential versus dynamical conceptions of physics David Wallace; 10. Classical models for quantum information Federico Holik and Gustavo Martin Bosyk; 11. On the relative character of quantum correlations Guido Bellomo and Ángel Ricardo Plastino; Index.
Quantum information causality.
Pitalúa-García, Damián
2013-05-24
How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combines the quantum teleportation and superdense coding protocols with a task that has classical inputs.
Controlling Quantum Information
Landahl, A J
2002-01-01
Quantum information science explores ways in which quantum physical laws can be harnessed to control the acquisition, transmission, protection, and processing of information. This field has seen explosive growth in the past several years from progress on both theoretical and experimental fronts. Essential to this endeavor are methods for controlling quantum information. In this thesis, I present three new approaches for controlling quantum information. First, I present a new protocol for continuously protecting unknown quantum states from noise. This protocol combines and expands ideas from the theories of quantum error correction and quantum feedback control. The result can outperform either approach by itself. I generalize this protocol to all known quantum stabilizer codes, and study its application to the three-qubit repetition code in detail via Monte Carlo simulations. Next, I present several new protocols for controlling quantum information that are fault-tolerant. These protocols require only local qu...
Quantum Information An Introduction
Hayashi, Masahito
2006-01-01
Recently, quantum information theory has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields. This requires that understanding of basic results on diverse topics, and derived from different disciplinary perspectives, is required for appreciating the overall picture. Intended to merge key topics from both the information-theoretic and quantum- mechanical viewpoints, this graduate-level textbook provides a unified viewpoint of quantum information theory and lucid explanations of those basic results, so that the reader fundamentally grasps advances and challenges. For example, advanced topics in quantum communication such as quantum teleportation, superdense coding, quantum state transmission (quantum error-correction), and quantum encryption especially benefit from this unified approach. Unlike earlier treatments, the text requires knowledge of only linear algebra, probability theory, and quantum mechanics, while it treats the topics of quantum hypothesis testing and the discrimination of q...
Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian
2017-01-01
Combining physics and philosophy, this is a uniquely interdisciplinary examination of quantum information science which provides an up-to-date examination of developments in this field. The authors provide coherent definitions and theories of information, taking clearly defined approaches to considering information in connection with quantum mechanics, probability, and correlations. Concepts addressed include entanglement of quantum states, the relation of quantum correlations to quantum information, and the meaning of the informational approach for the foundations of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the mathematical concept of information in the communicational context, and the notion of pragmatic information are considered. Suitable as both a discussion of the conceptual and philosophical problems of this field and a comprehensive stand-alone introduction, this book will benefit both experienced and new researchers in quantum information and the philosophy of physics.
Quantum information and coherence
Öhberg, Patrik
2014-01-01
This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...
Wilde, Mark M
2017-01-01
Developing many of the major, exciting, pre- and post-millennium developments from the ground up, this book is an ideal entry point for graduate students into quantum information theory. Significant attention is given to quantum mechanics for quantum information theory, and careful studies of the important protocols of teleportation, superdense coding, and entanglement distribution are presented. In this new edition, readers can expect to find over 100 pages of new material, including detailed discussions of Bell's theorem, the CHSH game, Tsirelson's theorem, the axiomatic approach to quantum channels, the definition of the diamond norm and its interpretation, and a proof of the Choi–Kraus theorem. Discussion of the importance of the quantum dynamic capacity formula has been completely revised, and many new exercises and references have been added. This new edition will be welcomed by the upcoming generation of quantum information theorists and the already established community of classical information theo...
Hybrid quantum information processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)
2014-12-04
I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.
Griffiths, Robert B.
2007-01-01
Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. Distinguishing these incompatible types is useful in understanding the role of the two classical bits in teleportation (or one bit in one-bit teleportation), for discussing decoherence in information-theoretic terms, and for giving a proper definition, in quantum terms, of ``classical information.'' Various examples (some updating...
Relativistic quantum information
Mann, R. B.; Ralph, T. C.
2012-11-01
Over the past few years, a new field of high research intensity has emerged that blends together concepts from gravitational physics and quantum computing. Known as relativistic quantum information, or RQI, the field aims to understand the relationship between special and general relativity and quantum information. Since the original discoveries of Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, it has been known that incorporating the concepts of quantum theory into relativistic settings can produce new and surprising effects. However it is only in recent years that it has become appreciated that the basic concepts involved in quantum information science undergo significant revision in relativistic settings, and that new phenomena arise when quantum entanglement is combined with relativity. A number of examples illustrate that point. Quantum teleportation fidelity is affected between observers in uniform relative acceleration. Entanglement is an observer-dependent property that is degraded from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Entanglement can also be extracted from the vacuum of relativistic quantum field theories, and used to distinguish peculiar motion from cosmological expansion. The new quantum information-theoretic framework of quantum channels in terms of completely positive maps and operator algebras now provides powerful tools for studying matters of causality and information flow in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. This focus issue provides a sample of the state of the art in research in RQI. Some of the articles in this issue review the subject while others provide interesting new results that will stimulate further research. What makes the subject all the more exciting is that it is beginning to enter the stage at which actual experiments can be contemplated, and some of the articles appearing in this issue discuss some of these exciting new developments. The subject of RQI pulls together concepts and ideas from
Lombardi, Olimpia; Holik, Federico; Vanni, Leonardo
2016-11-01
In the present article we address the question 'What is quantum information?' from a conceptual viewpoint. In particular, we argue that there seems to be no sufficiently good reasons to accept that quantum information is qualitatively different from classical information. The view that, in the communicational context, there is only one kind of information, physically neutral, which can be encoded by means of classical or quantum states has, in turn, interesting conceptual advantages. First, it dissolves the widely discussed puzzles of teleportation without the need to assume a particular interpretation of information. Second, and from a more general viewpoint, it frees the attempts to reconstruct quantum mechanics on the basis of informational constraints from any risk of circularity; furthermore, it endows them with a strong conceptual appealing and, derivatively, opens the way to the possibility of a non-reductive unification of physics. Finally, in the light of the idea of the physical neutrality of information, the wide field of research about classical models for quantum information acquires a particular conceptual and philosophical interest.
Introduction to quantum information science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Masahito [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Ishizaka, Satoshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Kawachi, Akinori [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Computing Sciences; Kimura, Gen [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan). College of Systems Engineering and Science; Ogawa, Tomohiro [Univ. of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Information Systems
2015-04-01
Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error
Quantum information theory mathematical foundation
Hayashi, Masahito
2017-01-01
This graduate textbook provides a unified view of quantum information theory. Clearly explaining the necessary mathematical basis, it merges key topics from both information-theoretic and quantum- mechanical viewpoints and provides lucid explanations of the basic results. Thanks to this unified approach, it makes accessible such advanced topics in quantum communication as quantum teleportation, superdense coding, quantum state transmission (quantum error-correction) and quantum encryption. Since the publication of the preceding book Quantum Information: An Introduction, there have been tremendous strides in the field of quantum information. In particular, the following topics – all of which are addressed here – made seen major advances: quantum state discrimination, quantum channel capacity, bipartite and multipartite entanglement, security analysis on quantum communication, reverse Shannon theorem and uncertainty relation. With regard to the analysis of quantum security, the present book employs an impro...
Quantum criticality from Fisher information
Song, Hongting; Luo, Shunlong; Fu, Shuangshuang
2017-04-01
Quantum phase transition is primarily characterized by a qualitative sudden change in the ground state of a quantum system when an external or internal parameter of the Hamiltonian is continuously varied. Investigating quantum criticality using information-theoretic methods has generated fruitful results. Quantum correlations and fidelity have been exploited to characterize the quantum critical phenomena. In this work, we employ quantum Fisher information to study quantum criticality. The singular or extremal point of the quantum Fisher information is adopted as the estimated thermal critical point. By a significant model constructed in Quan et al. (Phys Rev Lett 96: 140604, 2006), the effectiveness of this method is illustrated explicitly.
Quantum Information Theory - an Invitation
Werner, R. F.
2001-01-01
We give a non-technical introduction of the basic concepts of Quantum Information Theory along the distinction between possible and impossible machines. We then proceed to describe the mathematical framework of Quantum Information Theory. The capacities of a quantum channel for classical and for quantum information are defined in a unified scheme, and a mathematical characterization of all teleportation and dense coding schemes is given.
Quantum information processing in nanostructures Quantum optics; Quantum computing
Reina-Estupinan, J H
2002-01-01
Since information has been regarded os a physical entity, the field of quantum information theory has blossomed. This brings novel applications, such as quantum computation. This field has attracted the attention of numerous researchers with backgrounds ranging from computer science, mathematics and engineering, to the physical sciences. Thus, we now have an interdisciplinary field where great efforts are being made in order to build devices that should allow for the processing of information at a quantum level, and also in the understanding of the complex structure of some physical processes at a more basic level. This thesis is devoted to the theoretical study of structures at the nanometer-scale, 'nanostructures', through physical processes that mainly involve the solid-state and quantum optics, in order to propose reliable schemes for the processing of quantum information. Initially, the main results of quantum information theory and quantum computation are briefly reviewed. Next, the state-of-the-art of ...
Quantum-Holographic Informational Consciousness
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Francisco Di Biase
2009-01-01
The author propose a quantum-informational holographic model of brain-consciousness-universe interactions based in the holonomic neural networks of Karl Pribram, in the holographic quantum theory...
Brady, Adam; Chapagain, Nirdosh; Simkhada, Prashanna
2011-10-01
Quantum Information (QI) is a relatively young science with exciting research opportunities. Nepal has an untapped reserve of motivated students with scientific research potential. Based on our educational experience in Nepal and in the US and based on our exposure to QI, we explore the possibility of developing QI research in Nepal. In this poster we lay out basic facts on physics and physics education in Nepal, report on an introductory QI class experiment at BYU, and use what we have learned to envision a QI future in Nepal.
Recoverability in quantum information theory
Wilde, Mark M
2015-01-01
The fact that the quantum relative entropy is non-increasing with respect to quantum physical evolutions lies at the core of many optimality theorems in quantum information theory and has applications in other areas of physics. In this work, we establish improvements of this entropy inequality in the form of physically meaningful remainder terms. One of the main results can be summarized informally as follows: if the decrease in quantum relative entropy between two quantum states after a quantum physical evolution is relatively small, then it is possible to perform a recovery operation, such that one can perfectly recover one state while approximately recovering the other. This can be interpreted as quantifying how well one can reverse a quantum physical evolution. Our proof method is elementary, relying on the method of complex interpolation, basic linear algebra, and the recently introduced Renyi generalization of a relative entropy difference. The theorem has a number of applications in quantum information...
Quantum information density and network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiao BI; Jin-qing FANG; Gui-ping LIU
2009-01-01
We present a quantum information network in which quantum information density is used for per- forming quantum computing or teleportation. The pho- tons are entangled in quantum channels and play a role of flying ebit to transmit interaction among the nodes. A particular quantum Gaussian channel is constructed; it permits photon-encoded information to transmit quan- tum signals with certain quantum parallelism. The cor- responding quantum dynamical mutual information is discussed, and the controlling nodes connectivity by driv- ing the network is studied. With regard to different driving functions, the connectivity distribution of the network is complicated. They obey positive or negative power law, and also influence the assortativity coefficient or the dynamical property of the network.
Quantum information does not exist
Duwell, Armond
Some physicists seem to believe that quantum information theory requires a new concept of information (Jozsa, 1998, Quantum information and its properties. In: Hoi-Kwong Lo, S. Popescu, T. Spiller (Eds.), Introduction to Quantum Computation and Information, World Scientific, Singapore, (pp. 49-75); Deutsch & Hayden, 1999, Information flow in entangled quantum subsystems, preprint quant-ph/9906007). I will argue that no new concept is necessary. Shannon's concept of information is sufficient for quantum information theory. Properties that are cited to contrast quantum information and classical information (i.e., Shannon information) actually point to differences in our ability to manipulate, access, and transfer information depending on whether quantum systems, opposed to classical systems, are used in a communication system. I also demonstrate that conceptually puzzling phenomena in quantum information theory, such as dense coding, teleportation, and Schumacher coding, all of which are cited as evidence that a new concept of information is required, do not have to be regarded as such.
Inequalities for quantum skew information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Audenaert, Koenraad; Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank
2008-01-01
We study quantum information inequalities and show that the basic inequality between the quantum variance and the metric adjusted skew information generates all the multi-operator matrix inequalities or Robertson type determinant inequalities studied by a number of authors. We introduce an order...... relation on the set of functions representing quantum Fisher information that renders the set into a lattice with an involution. This order structure generates new inequalities for the metric adjusted skew informations. In particular, the Wigner-Yanase skew information is the maximal skew information...... with respect to this order structure in the set of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations....
Quantum information theory and quantum statistics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petz, D. [Alfred Renyi Institute of Mathematics, Budapest (Hungary)
2008-07-01
Based on lectures given by the author, this book focuses on providing reliable introductory explanations of key concepts of quantum information theory and quantum statistics - rather than on results. The mathematically rigorous presentation is supported by numerous examples and exercises and by an appendix summarizing the relevant aspects of linear analysis. Assuming that the reader is familiar with the content of standard undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics, probability theory, linear algebra and functional analysis, the book addresses graduate students of mathematics and physics as well as theoretical and mathematical physicists. Conceived as a primer to bridge the gap between statistical physics and quantum information, a field to which the author has contributed significantly himself, it emphasizes concepts and thorough discussions of the fundamental notions to prepare the reader for deeper studies, not least through the selection of well chosen exercises. (orig.)
Quantum information: primitive notions and quantum correlations
Scarani, Valerio
2009-01-01
This series of introductory lectures consists of two parts. In the first part, I rapidly review the basic notions of quantum physics and many primitives of quantum information (i.e. notions that one must be somehow familiar with in the field, like cloning, teleportation, state estimation...). The second part is devoted to a detailed introduction to the topic of quantum correlations, covering the evidence for failure of alternative theories, some aspects of the formalism of no-signaling probability distributions and some hints towards some current research topics in the field.
BRICS and Quantum Information Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Erik Meineche
1998-01-01
BRICS is a research centre and international PhD school in theoretical computer science, based at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The centre has recently become engaged in quantum information processing in cooperation with the Department of Physics, also University of Aarhus. This extended...... abstract surveys activities at BRICS with special emphasis on the activities in quantum information processing....
Quantum information and computing
Ohya, M; Watanabe, N
2006-01-01
The main purpose of this volume is to emphasize the multidisciplinary aspects of this very active new line of research in which concrete technological and industrial realizations require the combined efforts of experimental and theoretical physicists, mathematicians and engineers. Contents: Coherent Quantum Control of ?-Atoms through the Stochastic Limit (L Accardi et al.); Recent Advances in Quantum White Noise Calculus (L Accardi & A Boukas); Joint Extension of States of Fermion Subsystems (H Araki); Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation Model Using Beam Splittings (K-H Fichtner et al.); Quantum
Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric
2017-01-01
of an uncorrelated ancilla system. This removes a restriction on the standard notion of decoupling, which becomes important for structureless resources, and yields a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. Catalytic decoupling naturally unifies various tasks like the erasure of correlations......The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...... and quantum state merging, and leads to a resource theory of decoupling....
Studies in quantum information theory
Menicucci, Nicolas C.
Quantum information theory started as the backdrop for quantum computing and is often considered only in relation to this technology, which is still in its infancy. But quantum information theory is only partly about quantum computing. While much of the interest in this field is spurred by the possible use of quantum computers for code breaking using fast factoring algorithms, to a physicist interested in deeper issues, it presents an entirely new set of questions based on an entirely different way of looking at the quantum world. This thesis is an exploration of several topics in quantum information theory. But it is also more than this. This thesis explores the new paradigm brought about by quantum information theory---that of physics as the flow of information. The thesis consists of three main parts. The first part describes my work on continuous-variable cluster states, a new platform for quantum computation. This begins with background material discussing classical and quantum computation and emphasizing the physical underpinnings of each, followed by a discussion of two recent unorthodox models of quantum computation. These models are combined into an original proposal for quantum computation using continuous-variable cluster states, including a proposed optical implementation. These are followed by a mathematical result radically simplifying the optical construction. Subsequent work simplifies this connection even further and provides a constructive proposal for scalable generation of large-scale cluster states---necessary if there is to be any hope of using this method in practical quantum computation. Experimental implementation is currently underway by my collaborators at The University of Virginia. The second part describes my work related to the physics of trapped ions, starting with an overview of the basic theory of linear ion traps. Although ion traps are often discussed in terms of their potential use for quantum computation, my work looks at their
Quantum information with Rydberg atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.; Mølmer, Klaus
2010-01-01
qubits. The availability of a strong long-range interaction that can be coherently turned on and off is an enabling resource for a wide range of quantum information tasks stretching far beyond the original gate proposal. Rydberg enabled capabilities include long-range two-qubit gates, collective encoding...... of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing.......Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom...
High Information Capacity Quantum Imaging
2014-09-19
the quantum nature of light), and detector reset time. Algorithmic : We provide a method for spatiotemporally-regularized estimation of intensity and...High Information Capacity Quantum Imaging This is the final report for the DARPA InPho program. In reality, we finished this program in early 2013...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Quantum Imaging, Photon Counting, LIDAR REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Leaf [Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)
2004-04-09
Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before
Quantum information and convex optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reimpell, Michael
2008-07-01
This thesis is concerned with convex optimization problems in quantum information theory. It features an iterative algorithm for optimal quantum error correcting codes, a postprocessing method for incomplete tomography data, a method to estimate the amount of entanglement in witness experiments, and it gives necessary and sufficient criteria for the existence of retrodiction strategies for a generalized mean king problem. (orig.)
Quantum information to the home
Choi, Iris; Young, Robert J.; Townsend, Paul D.
2011-06-01
Information encoded on individual quanta will play an important role in our future lives, much as classically encoded digital information does today. Combining quantum information carried by single photons with classical signals encoded on strong laser pulses in modern fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks is a significant challenge, the solution to which will facilitate the global distribution of quantum information to the home and with it a quantum internet [1]. In real-world networks, spontaneous Raman scattering in the optical fibre would induce crosstalk between the high-power classical channels and a single-photon quantum channel, such that the latter is unable to operate. Here, we show that the integration of quantum and classical information on an FTTH network is possible by performing quantum key distribution (QKD) on a network while simultaneously transferring realistic levels of classical data. Our novel scheme involves synchronously interleaving a channel of quantum data with the Raman scattered photons from a classical channel, exploiting the periodic minima in the instantaneous crosstalk and thereby enabling secure QKD to be performed.
Quantum information to the home
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Iris; Young, Robert J; Townsend, Paul D, E-mail: paul.townsend@tyndall.ie [Photonic Systems Group, Tyndall National Institute and Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)
2011-06-15
Information encoded on individual quanta will play an important role in our future lives, much as classically encoded digital information does today. Combining quantum information carried by single photons with classical signals encoded on strong laser pulses in modern fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks is a significant challenge, the solution to which will facilitate the global distribution of quantum information to the home and with it a quantum internet. In real-world networks, spontaneous Raman scattering in the optical fibre would induce crosstalk between the high-power classical channels and a single-photon quantum channel, such that the latter is unable to operate. Here, we show that the integration of quantum and classical information on an FTTH network is possible by performing quantum key distribution (QKD) on a network while simultaneously transferring realistic levels of classical data. Our novel scheme involves synchronously interleaving a channel of quantum data with the Raman scattered photons from a classical channel, exploiting the periodic minima in the instantaneous crosstalk and thereby enabling secure QKD to be performed.
Quantum communication and information processing
Beals, Travis Roland
Quantum computers enable dramatically more efficient algorithms for solving certain classes of computational problems, but, in doing so, they create new problems. In particular, Shor's Algorithm allows for efficient cryptanalysis of many public-key cryptosystems. As public key cryptography is a critical component of present-day electronic commerce, it is crucial that a working, secure replacement be found. Quantum key distribution (QKD), first developed by C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, offers a partial solution, but many challenges remain, both in terms of hardware limitations and in designing cryptographic protocols for a viable large-scale quantum communication infrastructure. In Part I, I investigate optical lattice-based approaches to quantum information processing. I look at details of a proposal for an optical lattice-based quantum computer, which could potentially be used for both quantum communications and for more sophisticated quantum information processing. In Part III, I propose a method for converting and storing photonic quantum bits in the internal state of periodically-spaced neutral atoms by generating and manipulating a photonic band gap and associated defect states. In Part II, I present a cryptographic protocol which allows for the extension of present-day QKD networks over much longer distances without the development of new hardware. I also present a second, related protocol which effectively solves the authentication problem faced by a large QKD network, thus making QKD a viable, information-theoretic secure replacement for public key cryptosystems.
Recoverability in quantum information theory
Wilde, Mark
The fact that the quantum relative entropy is non-increasing with respect to quantum physical evolutions lies at the core of many optimality theorems in quantum information theory and has applications in other areas of physics. In this work, we establish improvements of this entropy inequality in the form of physically meaningful remainder terms. One of the main results can be summarized informally as follows: if the decrease in quantum relative entropy between two quantum states after a quantum physical evolution is relatively small, then it is possible to perform a recovery operation, such that one can perfectly recover one state while approximately recovering the other. This can be interpreted as quantifying how well one can reverse a quantum physical evolution. Our proof method is elementary, relying on the method of complex interpolation, basic linear algebra, and the recently introduced Renyi generalization of a relative entropy difference. The theorem has a number of applications in quantum information theory, which have to do with providing physically meaningful improvements to many known entropy inequalities. This is based on arXiv:1505.04661, now accepted for publication in Proceedings of the Royal Society A. I acknowledge support from startup funds from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at LSU, the NSF under Award No. CCF-1350397, and the DARPA Quiness Program through US Army Research Office award W31P4Q-12-1-0019.
Quantum States as Ordinary Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Wharton
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.
Isotope-based quantum information
G Plekhanov, Vladimir
2012-01-01
The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial...
Introduction to quantum information theory
Nielsen, M. A.
2000-01-01
This is an expanded and revised text for a fifteen minute talk given at the University of Queensland Physics Camp, September 2000. The focus is on the goals and motivations for studying quantum information theory, rather than on technical results.
Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric
2017-01-01
of an uncorrelated ancilla system. This removes a restriction on the standard notion of decoupling, which becomes important for structureless resources, and yields a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. Catalytic decoupling naturally unifies various tasks like the erasure of correlations......The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...
Foundations of quantum theory and quantum information applications
Galvão, E F
2002-01-01
This thesis establishes a number of connections between foundational issues in quantum theory, and some quantum information applications. It starts with a review of quantum contextuality and non-locality, multipartite entanglement characterisation, and of a few quantum information protocols. Quantum non-locality and contextuality are shown to be essential for different implementations of quantum information protocols known as quantum random access codes and quantum communication complexity protocols. I derive sufficient experimental conditions for tests of these quantum properties. I also discuss how the distribution of quantum information through quantum cloning processes can be useful in quantum computing. Regarding entanglement characterisation, some results are obtained relating two problems, that of additivity of the relative entropy of entanglement, and that of identifying different types of tripartite entanglement in the asymptotic regime of manipulations of many copies of a given state. The thesis end...
Chaos and quantum Fisher information in the quantum kicked top
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Xiao-Qian; Ma Jian; Zhang Xi-He; Wang Xiao-Guang
2011-01-01
Quantum Fisher information is related to the problem of parameter estimation. Recently, a criterion has been proposed for entanglement in multipartite systems based on quantum Fisher information. This paper studies the behaviours of quantum Fisher information in the quantum kicked top model, whose classical correspondence can be chaotic. It finds that, first, detected by quantum Fisher information, the quantum kicked top is entangled whether the system is in chaotic or in regular case. Secondly, the quantum Fisher information is larger in chaotic case than that in regular case, which means, the system is more sensitive in the chaotic case.
Information transfer through quantum channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kretschmann, D.
2007-03-12
This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory
Interference Phenomena in Quantum Information
Stefanak, Martin
2010-01-01
One of the key features of quantum mechanics is the interference of probability amplitudes. The reason for the appearance of interference is mathematically very simple. It is the linear structure of the Hilbert space which is used for the description of quantum systems. In terms of physics we usually talk about the superposition principle valid for individual and composed quantum objects. So, while the source of interference is understandable it leads in fact to many counter-intuitive physical phenomena which puzzle physicists for almost hundred years. The present thesis studies interference in two seemingly disjoint fields of physics. However, both have strong links to quantum information processing and hence are related. In the first part we study the intriguing properties of quantum walks. In the second part we analyze a sophisticated application of wave packet dynamics in atoms and molecules for factorization of integers. The main body of the thesis is based on the original contributions listed separately...
Quantum Information Science: An Update
Kwek, L. C.; Zen, Freddy P.
2016-08-01
It is now roughly thirty years since the incipient ideas on quantum information science was concretely formalized. Over the last three decades, there has been much development in this field, and at least one technology, namely devices for quantum cryptography, is now commercialized. Yet, the holy grail of a workable quantum computing machine still lies faraway at the horizon. In any case, it took nearly several centuries before the vacuum tubes were invented after the first mechanical calculating were constructed, and several decades later, for the transistor to bring the current computer technology to fruition. In this review, we provide a short survey of the current development and progress in quantum information science. It clearly does not do justice to the amount of work in the past thirty years. Nevertheless, despite the modest attempt, this review hopes to induce younger researchers into this exciting field.
Contract Signature Using Quantum Information
De Sousa, P B M; Ramos, Rubens Viana; Sousa, Paulo Benicio Melo de
2006-01-01
This paper describes how to perform contract signature in a fair way using quantum information. The protocol proposed permits two partners, users of a communication network, to exchange their signatures with non-repudiation. For this, we assume that there is a trustable arbitrator, responsible for the authentication of the signers and that performs a central task in a quantum teleportation protocol of the XOR function between two classical bits.
Quantum Information with Structured Light
Mirhosseini, Mohammad
Quantum information science promises dramatic progress in a variety of fields such as cryptography, computation, and metrology. Although the proof-of-principle attempts for implementing quantum protocols have often relied on only a few qubits, the utilization of more sophisticated quantum systems is required for practical applications. In this thesis, we investigate the emerging role of high-dimensional optical states as a resource for encoding quantum information. We begin the first chapter with a review of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as a prime candidate for realizing multilevel quantum states and follow with a brief introduction to the quantum measurement theory. The second and the third chapters are dedicated to the application of OAM modes in quantum cryptography. In the second chapter, we discuss the challenges of projective measurement of OAM at the single-photon level, a crucial task required for quantum information processing. We then present our development of an efficient and accurate mode-sorting device that is capable of projectively measuring the orbital angular momentum of single photons. In the third chapter, we discuss the role of OAM modes in increasing the information capacity of quantum cryptography. We start this chapter by establishing the merits of encoding information on the quantum index of OAM modes in a free-space link. We then generalizing the BB-84 QKD protocol to the Hilbert space spanned by a finite number of OAM modes and outline our experimental realization. The last two chapters are dedicated to the tomography of structured light fields. We start the fourth chapter by applying the recently found method of direct measurement to the characterization of OAM superpositions. We find the quantum state in the Hilbert space spanned by 27 OAM modes by performing a weak measurement of orbital angular momentum (OAM) followed by a strong measurement of azimuthal angle. We then introduce the concept of compressive direct measurement (CDM
Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information
Strauch, Frederick W.
2016-07-01
This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.
Dynamical Equations for Quantum Information and Application in Information Channel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BI Qiao; XING Xiu-San; H. E. Ruda
2005-01-01
@@ We establish several dynamical equations for quantum information density. It is demonstrated that quantum information density shares the same formalism of the Liouville equation, subdynamics kinetic equation and Fokker-Planck equation as the density operator and also possesses the superposition property. These allow one to use quantum information density directly to model quantum information. The kinetic equations for quantum information density reveal that the dynamical process of quantum information may be related to dissipative,Markovian, or diffusional information flows, together causing irreversibility. Finally, we discuss superposition of quantum information density, which allows us to construct a quantum information channel in the coherent state representation using harmonic oscillator based encoded quantum information, and obtain a formula for quantum dynamical mutual information.
Quantum information and general relativity
Peres, A
2004-01-01
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as one-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks.
Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information
Steeb, Willi-Hans
2012-01-01
Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...
Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction An Engineering Approach
Djordjevic, Ivan
2012-01-01
Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information, quantum computation, and quantum error-correction. Assuming no knowledge of quantum mechanics and written at an intuitive level suitable for the engineer, the book gives all the essential principles needed to design and implement quantum electronic and photonic circuits. Numerous examples from a wide area of application are given to show how the principles can be implemented in practice. This book is ideal for the electronics, photonics and computer engineer
A group theoretic approach to quantum information
Hayashi, Masahito
2017-01-01
This textbook is the first one addressing quantum information from the viewpoint of group symmetry. Quantum systems have a group symmetrical structure. This structure enables to handle systematically quantum information processing. However, there is no other textbook focusing on group symmetry for quantum information although there exist many textbooks for group representation. After the mathematical preparation of quantum information, this book discusses quantum entanglement and its quantification by using group symmetry. Group symmetry drastically simplifies the calculation of several entanglement measures although their calculations are usually very difficult to handle. This book treats optimal information processes including quantum state estimation, quantum state cloning, estimation of group action and quantum channel etc. Usually it is very difficult to derive the optimal quantum information processes without asymptotic setting of these topics. However, group symmetry allows to derive these optimal solu...
Negative entropy and information in quantum mechanics
Cerf, N. J.; Adami, C.
1995-01-01
A framework for a quantum mechanical information theory is introduced that is based entirely on density operators, and gives rise to a unified description of classical correlation and quantum entanglement. Unlike in classical (Shannon) information theory, quantum (von Neumann) conditional entropies can be negative when considering quantum entangled systems, a fact related to quantum non-separability. The possibility that negative (virtual) information can be carried by entangled particles sug...
Minimum-cost quantum measurements for quantum information
Wallden, Petros; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika
2014-01-01
Knowing about optimal quantum measurements is important for many applications in quantum information and quantum communication. However, deriving optimal quantum measurements is often difficult. We present a collection of results for minimum-cost quantum measurements, and give examples of how they can be used. Among other results, we show that a minimum-cost measurement for a set of given pure states is formally equivalent to a minimum-error measurement for certain mixed states of those same ...
Ion trapping for quantum information processing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WAN Jin-yin; WANG Yu-zhu; LIU Liang
2007-01-01
In this paper we have reviewed the recent pro-gresses on the ion trapping for quantum information process-ing and quantum computation. We have first discussed the basic principle of quantum information theory and then fo-cused on ion trapping for quantum information processing.Many variations, especially the techniques of ion chips, have been investigated since the original ion trap quantum compu-tation scheme was proposed. Full two-dimensional control of multiple ions on an ion chip is promising for the realization of scalable ion trap quantum computation and the implemen-tation of quantum networks.
Quantum information and physics: Some future directions
Preskill, John
2000-01-01
I consider some promising future directions for quantum information theory that could influence the development of 21st century physics. Advances in the theory of the distinguishability of superoperators may lead to new strategies for improving the precision of quantum-limited measurements. A better grasp of the properties of multi-partite quantum entanglement may lead to deeper understanding of strongly-coupled dynamics in quantum many-body systems, quantum field theory, and quantum gravity.
Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
2014-05-01
The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. Quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. We provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that the quantum gravity environment is an information resource-pool from which valuable information can be extracted. We analyze the structure of the quantum gravity space and the entanglement of the space-time geometry. We study the information transfer capabilities of quantum gravity space and define the quantum gravity channel. We characterize the information transfer of the gravity space and the correlation measure functions of the gravity channel. We investigate the process of stimulated storage for quantum gravity memories, a phenomenon that exploits the information resource-pool property of quantum gravity. The results confirm that the benefits of the quantum gravity space can be exploited in quantum computations, particularly in the development of quantum computers. The results are supported by the grant COST Action MP1006.
The decoupling approach to quantum information theory
Dupuis, Frédéric
2010-01-01
Quantum information theory studies the fundamental limits that physical laws impose on information processing tasks such as data compression and data transmission on noisy channels. This thesis presents general techniques that allow one to solve many fundamental problems of quantum information theory in a unified framework. The central theorem of this thesis proves the existence of a protocol that transmits quantum data that is partially known to the receiver through a single use of an arbitrary noisy quantum channel. In addition to the intrinsic interest of this problem, this theorem has as immediate corollaries several central theorems of quantum information theory. The following chapters use this theorem to prove the existence of new protocols for two other types of quantum channels, namely quantum broadcast channels and quantum channels with side information at the transmitter. These protocols also involve sending quantum information partially known by the receiver with a single use of the channel, and ha...
The role of quantum discord in quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Streltsov, Alexander [ICFO - The Institute of Photonic Sciences, Castelldefels (Spain)
2014-07-01
Quantum correlations beyond entanglement - in particular represented by quantum discord - have become a major research field in the last few years. In this talk we report on the role of quantum discord in several fundamental tasks in quantum information theory. Starting with the role of quantum discord in the quantum measurement process, we also discuss its role in the tasks of information sharing and entanglement distribution. Finally, we also show the limits of these results and present possible ways to go beyond these limits.
Quantum dots for quantum information technologies
2017-01-01
This book highlights the most recent developments in quantum dot spin physics and the generation of deterministic superior non-classical light states with quantum dots. In particular, it addresses single quantum dot spin manipulation, spin-photon entanglement and the generation of single-photon and entangled photon pair states with nearly ideal properties. The role of semiconductor microcavities, nanophotonic interfaces as well as quantum photonic integrated circuits is emphasized. The latest theoretical and experimental studies of phonon-dressed light matter interaction, single-dot lasing and resonance fluorescence in QD cavity systems are also provided. The book is written by the leading experts in the field.
How much a quantum measurement is informative?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Arno, Michele [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Sacchi, Massimiliano F. [Quit Group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (INF-CNR), P.zza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy)
2014-12-04
The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power.
Local, nonlocal quantumness and information theoretic measures
Agrawal, Pankaj; Sazim, Sk; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Pati, Arun K.
2016-08-01
It has been suggested that there may exist quantum correlations that go beyond entanglement. The existence of such correlations can be revealed by information theoretic quantities such as quantum discord, but not by the conventional measures of entanglement. We argue that a state displays quantumness, that can be of local and nonlocal origin. Information theoretic measures not only characterize the nonlocal quantumness, but also the local quantumness, such as the “local superposition”. This can be a reason, why such measures are nonzero, when there is no entanglement. We consider a generalized version of the Werner state to demonstrate the interplay of local quantumness, nonlocal quantumness and classical mixedness of a state.
The operational meaning of quantum conditional information
Devetak, I; Devetak, Igor; Yard, Jon
2006-01-01
With a statistical view towards information and noise, information theory derives ultimate limitations on information processing tasks. These limits are generally expressed in terms of entropic measures of information and correlations. Here we answer the quantum information-theoretic question: ``How correlated are two quantum systems from the perspective of a third?" by solving the following `quantum state redistribution' problem. Given an arbitrary quantum state of three systems, where Alice holds two and Bob holds one, what is the cost, in terms of quantum communication and entanglement, for Alice to give one of her parts to Bob? The communication cost gives the first operational interpretation to quantum conditional mutual information. The optimal procedure is self-dual under time reversal and is perfectly composable. This generalizes known protocols such as the state merging and fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocols, from which almost every known protocol in quantum Shannon theory can be derived.
Pragmatic Information in Quantum Mechanics
Roederer, Juan G
2015-01-01
An objective definition of pragmatic information and the consideration of recent results about information processing in the human brain can help overcome some traditional difficulties with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Rather than attempting to define information ab initio, I introduce the concept of interaction between material bodies as a primary concept. Two distinct categories can be identified: 1) Interactions which can always be reduced to a superposition of physical interactions (forces) between elementary constituents; 2) Interactions between complex bodies which cannot be reduced to a superposition of interactions between parts, and in which patterns and forms (in space and/or time) play the determining role. Pragmatic information is then defined as the correspondence between a given pattern and the ensuing pattern-specific change. I will show that pragmatic information is a biological concept that plays no active role in the purely physical domain; it only does so when a living organism ...
Principles and methods of quantum information technologies
Semba, Kouichi
2016-01-01
This book presents the research and development-related results of the “FIRST” Quantum Information Processing Project, which was conducted from 2010 to 2014 with the support of the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation of the Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan. The project supported 33 research groups and explored five areas: quantum communication, quantum metrology and sensing, coherent computing, quantum simulation, and quantum computing. The book is divided into seven main sections. Parts I through V, which consist of twenty chapters, focus on the system and architectural aspects of quantum information technologies, while Parts VI and VII, which consist of eight chapters, discuss the superconducting quantum circuit, semiconductor spin and molecular spin technologies. Readers will be introduced to new quantum computing schemes such as quantum annealing machines and coherent Ising machines, which have now arisen as alternatives to standard quantum computers and are designed to successf...
Relativistic quantum information theory and quantum reference frames
Palmer, Matthew C
2013-01-01
This thesis is a compilation of research in relativistic quantum information theory, and research in quantum reference frames. The research in the former category provides a fundamental construction of quantum information theory of localised qubits in curved spacetimes. For example, this concerns quantum experiments on free-space photons and electrons in the vicinity of the Earth. From field theory a description of localised qubits that traverse classical trajectories in curved spacetimes is obtained, for photons and massive spin-1/2 fermions. The equations governing the evolution of the two-dimensional quantum state and its absolute phase are determined. Quantum information theory of these qubits is then developed. The Stern-Gerlach measurement formalism for massive spin-1/2 fermions is also derived from field theory. In the latter category of research, the process of changing reference frames is considered for the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. As part of this process, it is shown that...
Quantum Information in Space and Time
Volovich, I V
2001-01-01
Many important results in modern quantum information theory have been obtained for an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as the notions of composite systems, entangled states and the channel should be formulated in space and time. We emphasize the importance of the investigation of quantum information in space and time. Entangled states in space and time are considered. A modification of Bell`s equation which includes the spacetime variables is suggested. A general relation between quantum theory and theory of classical stochastic processes is proposed. It expresses the condition of local realism in the form of a {\\it noncommutative spectral theorem}. Applications of this relation to the security of quantum key distribution in quantum cryptography are considered.
Phase Information in Quantum Oracle Computing
Machta, J.
1998-01-01
Computational devices may be supplied with external sources of information (oracles). Quantum oracles may transmit phase information which is available to a quantum computer but not a classical computer. One consequence of this observation is that there is an oracle which is of no assistance to a classical computer but which allows a quantum computer to solve undecidable problems. Thus useful relativized separations between quantum and classical complexity classes must exclude the transmissio...
Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity
Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2014-01-01
The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. The space of quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. In this work, we provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that the quantum gravity environment is an information resource-pool from which valuable information can be extracted. We analyze the structure of the quantum gravity space and the entanglement of the space-time geometry. We study the information transfer capabilities of quantum gravity space and define the quantum gravity channel. We reveal that the quantum gravity space acts as a background noise on the local environment states. We characterize the properties of the noise of the quantum gravity space and show that it allows the separate local...
Introduction to quantum physics and information processing
Vathsan, Radhika
2016-01-01
An Elementary Guide to the State of the Art in the Quantum Information FieldIntroduction to Quantum Physics and Information Processing guides beginners in understanding the current state of research in the novel, interdisciplinary area of quantum information. Suitable for undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics, mathematics, or engineering, the book goes deep into issues of quantum theory without raising the technical level too much.The text begins with the basics of quantum mechanics required to understand how two-level systems are used as qubits. It goes on to show how quant
Illustrating the concept of quantum information
Jozsa, R
2003-01-01
Over the past decade quantum information theory has developed into a vigorous field of research despite the fact that quantum information, as a precise concept, is undefined. Indeed the very idea of viewing quantum states as carriers of some kind of information (albeit unknowable in classical terms), leads naturally to interesting questions that might otherwise never have been asked, and corresponding new insights. We will discuss some illustrative examples, including a strengthening of the well known no-cloning theorem leading to a property of permanence for quantum information, and considerations arising from information compression that reflect on fundamental issues.
Holography, Quantum Geometry, and Quantum Information Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Zizzi
2000-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract: We interpret the Holographic Conjecture in terms of quantum bits (qubits. N-qubit states are associated with surfaces that are punctured in N points by spin networks' edges labelled by the spin-Ã‚Â½ representation of SU(2, which are in a superposed quantum state of spin "up" and spin "down". The formalism is applied in particular to de Sitter horizons, and leads to a picture of the early inflationary universe in terms of quantum computation. A discrete micro-causality emerges, where the time parameter is being defined by the discrete increase of entropy. Then, the model is analysed in the framework of the theory of presheaves (varying sets on a causal set and we get a quantum history. A (bosonic Fock space of the whole history is considered. The Fock space wavefunction, which resembles a Bose-Einstein condensate, undergoes decoherence at the end of inflation. This fact seems to be responsible for the rather low entropy of our universe.
Fisher Information of Wavefunctions: Classical and Quantum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Shun-Long
2006-01-01
A parametric quantum mechanical wavefunction naturally induces parametric probability distributions by taking absolute square, and we can consider its classical Fisher information. On the other hand, it also induces parametric rank-one projections which may be viewed as density operators, and we can talk about its quantum Fisher information. Among many versions of quantum Fisher information, there are two prominent ones. The first,deiined via a quantum score function, was introduced by Helstrom in 1967 and is well known. The second,defined via the square root of the density operator, has its origin in the skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase in 1963 and remains relatively unnoticed. This study is devoted to investigating the relationships between the classical Fisher information and these two versions of quantum Fisher information for wavefunctions.It is shown that the two versions of quantum Fisher information differ by a factor 2 and that they dominate the classical Fisher information. The non-coincidence of these two versions of quantum Fisher information may be interpreted as a manifestation of quantum discord. We further calculate the difference between the Helstrom quantum Fisher information and the classical Fisher information, and show that it is precisely the instantaneous phase fluctuation of the wavefunctions.
Some Issues in Quantum Information Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Run-Yao Duan; Zheng-Feng Ji; Yuan Feng; Ming-Sheng Ying
2006-01-01
Quantum information theory is a new interdisciplinary research field related to quantum mechanics, computer science, information theory, and applied mathematics. It provides completely new paradigms to do information processing tasks by employing the principles of quantum mechanics. In this review, we first survey some of the significant advances in quantum information theory in the last twenty years. We then focus mainly on two special subjects: discrimination of quantum objects and transformations between entanglements. More specifically, we first discuss discrimination of quantum states and quantum apparatus in both global and local settings. Secondly, we present systematical characterizations and equivalence relations of several interesting entanglement transformation phenomena, namely entanglement catalysis,multiple-copy entanglement transformation, and partial entanglement recovery.
Amplification, Redundancy, and Quantum Chernoff Information
Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2014-04-01
Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the quantum Chernoff information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment.
Modern Quantum Technologies of Information Security
Korchenko, Oleksandr; Gnatyuk, Sergiy
2010-01-01
In the paper systematization and classification of modern quantum technologies of the information security against cyber-terrorist attack are carried out. The characteristic of the basic directions of quantum cryptography from the viewpoint of used quantum technologies is given. The qualitative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of concrete quantum protocols is made. The current status of a problem of practical quantum cryptography using in telecommunication networks is considered. In particular, the short review of existing commercial systems of quantum key distribution is given.
Information, disturbance and Hamiltonian quantum feedback control
Doherty, A C; Jungman, G; Doherty, Andrew C.; Jacobs, Kurt; Jungman, Gerard
2001-01-01
We consider separating the problem of designing Hamiltonian quantum feedback control algorithms into a measurement (estimation) strategy and a feedback (control) strategy, and consider optimizing desirable properties of each under the minimal constraint that the available strength of both is limited. This motivates concepts of information extraction and disturbance which are distinct from those usually considered in quantum information theory. Using these concepts we identify an information trade-off in quantum feedback control.
From information geometry to quantum theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goyal, Philip [Perimeter Institute, Waterloo (Canada)], E-mail: pgoyal@perimeterinstitute.ca
2010-02-15
In this paper, we show how information geometry, the natural geometry of discrete probability distributions, can be used to derive the quantum formalism. The derivation rests upon three elementary features of quantum phenomena, namely complementarity, measurement simulability, and global gauge invariance. When these features are appropriately formalized within an information geometric framework, and combined with a novel information-theoretic principle, the central features of the finite-dimensional quantum formalism can be reconstructed.
Quantum information processing and relativistic quantum fields
Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Borsten, Leron; Buck, Michel; Dowker, Fay
2014-04-01
It is shown that an ideal measurement of a one-particle wave packet state of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski spacetime enables superluminal signalling. The result holds for a measurement that takes place over an intervention region in spacetime whose extent in time in some frame is longer than the light-crossing time of the packet in that frame. Moreover, these results are shown to apply not only to ideal measurements but also to unitary transformations that rotate two orthogonal one-particle states into each other. In light of these observations, possible restrictions on the allowed types of intervention are considered. A more physical approach to such questions is to construct explicit models of the interventions as interactions between the field and other quantum systems such as detectors. The prototypical Unruh-DeWitt detector couples to the field operator itself and so most likely respects relativistic causality. On the other hand, detector models which couple to a finite set of frequencies of field modes are shown to lead to superluminal signalling. Such detectors do, however, provide successful phenomenological models of atom-qubits interacting with quantum fields in a cavity but are valid only on time scales many orders of magnitude larger than the light-crossing time of the cavity.
Quantum theory informational foundations and foils
Spekkens, Robert
2016-01-01
This book provides the first unified overview of the burgeoning research area at the interface between Quantum Foundations and Quantum Information. Topics include: operational alternatives to quantum theory, information-theoretic reconstructions of the quantum formalism, mathematical frameworks for operational theories, and device-independent features of the set of quantum correlations. Powered by the injection of fresh ideas from the field of Quantum Information and Computation, the foundations of Quantum Mechanics are in the midst of a renaissance. The last two decades have seen an explosion of new results and research directions, attracting broad interest in the scientific community. The variety and number of different approaches, however, makes it challenging for a newcomer to obtain a big picture of the field and of its high-level goals. Here, fourteen original contributions from leading experts in the field cover some of the most promising research directions that have emerged in the new wave of quant...
Memory-based quantum repeater in quantum information communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Xiang-Sheng
2004-01-01
This paper studies the quantum repeater in quantum information communication. We propose to introduce the photon buffer mechanism for storing photons, which uses fibre delay loops as photon memories and a programmable 1 × N switcher for distributing photon delay time. Meanwhile, we also consider entanglement purification and entanglement swapping restoration at an entanglement purification or entanglement swapping failure and introduce a protection link mechanism that allows the photonic quantum repeater of a broken connection to initiate a connection restoration process.
Quantum information, cognition, and music
Dalla Chiara, Maria L.; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Negri, Eleonora; Sergioli, Giuseppe
2015-01-01
Parallelism represents an essential aspect of human mind/brain activities. One can recognize some common features between psychological parallelism and the characteristic parallel structures that arise in quantum theory and in quantum computation. The article is devoted to a discussion of the following questions: a comparison between classical probabilistic Turing machines and quantum Turing machines.possible applications of the quantum computational semantics to cognitive problems.parallelism in music. PMID:26539139
The Quantum Information of Cosmological Correlations
Lim, Eugene A
2014-01-01
It has been shown that the primordial perturbations sourced by inflation are driven to classicality by unitary evolution alone. However, their coupling with the environment such as photons and subsequent decoherence renders the cosmological correlations quantum, losing primordial information in the process. We argue that the quantumness of the resulting cosmological correlations is given by quantum discord, which captures non-classical behavior beyond quantum entanglement. By considering the environment as a quantum channel in which primordial information contained in the perturbations is transmitted to us, we can then ask how much of this information is inaccessible. We show that this amount of information is given by the discord of the joint primordial perturbations-environment system. To illustrate these points, we model the joint system as a mixed bi-modal Gaussian state, and show that quantum discord is dependent on the basis which decoherence occurs.
Distinguishability and accessible information in quantum theory
Fuchs, C
1996-01-01
This document focuses on translating various information-theoretic measures of distinguishability for probability distributions into measures of distin- guishability for quantum states. These measures should have important appli- cations in quantum cryptography and quantum computation theory. The results reported include the following. An exact expression for the quantum fidelity between two mixed states is derived. The optimal measurement that gives rise to it is studied in detail. Several upper and lower bounds on the quantum mutual information are derived via similar techniques and compared to each other. Of note is a simple derivation of the important upper bound first proved by Holevo and an explicit expression for another (tighter) upper bound that appears implicitly in the same derivation. Several upper and lower bounds to the quan- tum Kullback relative information are derived. The measures developed are also applied to ferreting out the extent to which quantum systems must be disturbed by information...
Quantum Information Processing and Relativistic Quantum Fields
Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Buck, Michel; Dowker, Fay
2014-01-01
It is shown that an ideal measurement of a one-particle wave packet state of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski spacetime enables superluminal signalling. The result holds for a measurement that takes place over an intervention region in spacetime whose extent in time in some frame is longer than the light-crossing time of the packet in that frame. Moreover, these results are shown to apply not only to ideal measurements but also to unitary transformations that rotate two orthogonal one-particle states into each other. In light of these observations, possible restrictions on the allowed types of intervention are considered. A more physical approach to such questions is to construct explicit models of the interventions as interactions between the field and other quantum systems such as detectors. The prototypical Unruh-DeWitt detector couples to the field operator itself and so most likely respects relativistic causality. On the other hand, detector models which couple to a finite set of frequencies of ...
Quantum Causality, Stochastics, Trajectories and Information
Belavkin, V P
2002-01-01
A history of the discovery of quantum mechanics and paradoxes of its interpretation is reconsidered from the modern point of view of quantum stochastics and information. It is argued that in the orthodox quantum mechanics there is no place for quantum phenomenology such as events. The development of quantum measurement theory, initiated by von Neumann, and Bell's conceptual critics of hidden variable theories indicated a possibility for resolution of this crisis. This can be done by divorcing the algebra of the dynamical generators and an extended algebra of the potential (quantum) and the actual (classical) observables. The latter, called beables, form the center of the algebra of all observables, as the only visible (macroscopic) observables must be compatible with any hidden (microscopic) observable. It is shown that within this approach quantum causality can be rehabilitated within an extended quantum mechanics (eventum mechanics) in the form of a superselection rule for compatibility of the consistent hi...
Photonic quantum information: science and technology.
Takeuchi, Shigeki
2016-01-01
Recent technological progress in the generation, manipulation and detection of individual single photons has opened a new scientific field of photonic quantum information. This progress includes the realization of single photon switches, photonic quantum circuits with specific functions, and the application of novel photonic states to novel optical metrology beyond the limits of standard optics. In this review article, the recent developments and current status of photonic quantum information technology are overviewed based on the author's past and recent works.
Spacetime replication of continuous variable quantum information
Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Salton, Grant; Sanders, Barry C.
2016-08-01
The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. We use a new class of homologically constructed CV quantum error correcting codes to provide efficient solutions for the general case of information replication. As compared to schemes encoding qubits, our CV solution requires half as many shares per encoded system. We also provide an optimized five-mode strategy for replicating quantum information in a particular configuration of four spacetime regions designed not to be reducible to previously performed experiments. For this optimized strategy, we provide detailed encoding and decoding procedures using standard optical apparatus and calculate the recovery fidelity when finite squeezing is used. As such we provide a scheme for experimentally realizing quantum information replication using quantum optics.
Quantum communication and other quantum information technologies
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2014-02-01
Full Text Available phase screen calculations: 0 1 2 3 w 0/r0 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 T a n g l e l = 1 l = 2 l = 3 l = 4 l = 5 l = 6 l = 7 – p. 40/41 Conclusions ⊲ Quantum communication, which enables fundamentally secure communication, is a new technology...) = ∫∫ E∗m(r1)En(r2)ψ(r1)ψ∗(r2) × exp [ −12Dθ (|r1 − r2|) ] d2r1 d2r2 Function of only w 0/r0 (contains all parameters including z) Evaluated at z = 0 aC. Paterson, Phys. Rev. Lett., 94, 153901 (2005) – p. 22/41 Entanglement decay Decay of qubit OAM...
Quantum information theory of the Bell-state quantum eraser
Glick, Jennifer R.; Adami, Christoph
2017-01-01
Quantum systems can display particle- or wavelike properties, depending on the type of measurement that is performed on them. The Bell-state quantum eraser is an experiment that brings the duality to the forefront, as a single measurement can retroactively be made to measure particlelike or wavelike properties (or anything in between). Here we develop a unitary information-theoretic description of this and several related quantum measurement situations that sheds light on the trade-off between the quantum and classical features of the measurement. In particular, we show that both the coherence of the quantum state and the classical information obtained from it can be described using only quantum-information-theoretic tools and that those two measures satisfy an equality on account of the chain rule for entropies. The coherence information and the which-path information have simple interpretations in terms of state preparation and state determination and suggest ways to account for the relationship between the classical and the quantum world.
The decoupling approach to quantum information theory
Dupuis, Frédéric
2010-04-01
Quantum information theory studies the fundamental limits that physical laws impose on information processing tasks such as data compression and data transmission on noisy channels. This thesis presents general techniques that allow one to solve many fundamental problems of quantum information theory in a unified framework. The central theorem of this thesis proves the existence of a protocol that transmits quantum data that is partially known to the receiver through a single use of an arbitrary noisy quantum channel. In addition to the intrinsic interest of this problem, this theorem has as immediate corollaries several central theorems of quantum information theory. The following chapters use this theorem to prove the existence of new protocols for two other types of quantum channels, namely quantum broadcast channels and quantum channels with side information at the transmitter. These protocols also involve sending quantum information partially known by the receiver with a single use of the channel, and have as corollaries entanglement-assisted and unassisted asymptotic coding theorems. The entanglement-assisted asymptotic versions can, in both cases, be considered as quantum versions of the best coding theorems known for the classical versions of these problems. The last chapter deals with a purely quantum phenomenon called locking. We demonstrate that it is possible to encode a classical message into a quantum state such that, by removing a subsystem of logarithmic size with respect to its total size, no measurement can have significant correlations with the message. The message is therefore "locked" by a logarithmic-size key. This thesis presents the first locking protocol for which the success criterion is that the trace distance between the joint distribution of the message and the measurement result and the product of their marginals be sufficiently small.
Colloquium: Protecting quantum information against environmental noise
Suter, Dieter; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.
2016-10-01
Quantum technologies represent a rapidly evolving field in which the specific properties of quantum mechanical systems are exploited to enhance the performance of various applications such as sensing, transmission, and processing of information. Such devices can be useful only if the quantum systems also interact with their environment. However, the interactions with the environment can degrade the specific quantum properties of these systems, such as coherence and entanglement. It is therefore essential that the interaction between a quantum system and the environment is controlled in such a way that the unwanted effects of the environment are suppressed while the necessary interactions are retained. This Colloquium gives an overview, aimed at newcomers to this field, of some of the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve this goal. A number of techniques have been developed for this purpose in different areas of physics including magnetic resonance, optics, and quantum information. They include the application of static or time-dependent fields to the quantum system, which are designed to average the effect of the environmental interactions to zero. Quantum error correction schemes were developed to detect and eliminate certain errors that occur during the storage and processing of quantum information. In many physical systems, it is useful to use specific quantum states that are intrinsically less susceptible to environmental noise for encoding the quantum information. The dominant contribution to the loss of information is pure dephasing, i.e., through the loss of coherence in quantum mechanical superposition states. Accordingly, most schemes for reducing loss of information focus on dephasing processes. This is also the focus of this Colloquium.
From Bell's inequalities to quantum information: a new quantum revolution
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
In 1964, John Stuart Bell discovered that it is possible to settle the debate experimentally, by testing the famous "Bell's inequalities", and to show directly that the revolutionary concept of entanglement is indeed a reality. A long series of experiments closer and closer to the ideal scheme presented by Bell has confirmed that entanglement is indeed "a great quantum mystery", to use the words of Feynman. Based on that concept, a new field of research has emerged, quantum information, where one uses quantum bits, the so-called “qubits”, to encode the information and process it. Entanglement ...
Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective
Toth, Geza
2015-01-01
We summarise important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramer-Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrela...
Complementarity and Entanglement in Quantum Information Theory
Tessier, T E
2004-01-01
The restrictions that nature places on the distribution of correlations in a multipartite quantum system play fundamental roles in the evolution of such systems, and yield vital insights into the design of protocols for the quantum control of ensembles with potential applications in the field of quantum computing. We show how this entanglement sharing behavior may be studied in increasingly complex systems of both theoretical and experimental significance and demonstrate that entanglement sharing, as well as other unique features of entanglement, e.g. the fact that maximal information about a multipartite quantum system does not necessarily entail maximal information about its component subsystems, may be understood as specific consequences of the phenomenon of complementarity extended to composite quantum systems. We also present a local hidden-variable model supplemented by an efficient amount of classical communication that reproduces the quantum-mechanical predictions for the entire class of Gottesman-Kni...
Quantum information processing through nuclear magnetic resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulnes, J.D.; Sarthour, R.S.; Oliveira, I.S. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bonk, F.A.; Azevedo, E.R. de; Bonagamba, T.J. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Freitas, J.C.C. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2005-09-15
We discuss the applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to quantum information processing, focusing on the use of quadrupole nuclei for quantum computing. Various examples of experimental implementation of logic gates are given and compared to calculated NMR spectra and their respective density matrices. The technique of Quantum State Tomography for quadrupole nuclei is briefly described, and examples of measured density matrices in a two-qubit I = 3/2 spin system are shown. Experimental results of density matrices representing pseudo-Bell states are given, and an analysis of the entropy of theses states is made. Considering an NMR experiment as a depolarization quantum channel we calculate the entanglement fidelity and discuss the criteria for entanglement in liquid state NMR quantum information. A brief discussion on the perspectives for NMR quantum computing is presented at the end. (author)
Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Nielsen, B.; Hettich, C.
2006-01-01
Quantum information networks, quantum memories, quantum repeaters, linear optics quantum computers Udgivelsesdato: 25 August......Quantum information networks, quantum memories, quantum repeaters, linear optics quantum computers Udgivelsesdato: 25 August...
Random subspaces in quantum information theory
Hayden, Patrick
2005-03-01
The selection of random unitary transformations plays a role in quantum information theory analogous to the role of random hash functions in classical information theory. Recent applications have included protocols achieving the quantum channel capacity and methods for extending superdense coding from bits to qubits. In addition, the corresponding random subspaces have proved useful for studying the structure of bipartite and multipartite entanglement. In quantum information theory, we're fond of saying that Hilbert space is a big place, the implication being that there's room for the unexpected to occur. The goal of this talk is to further bolster this homespun wisdowm. I'm going to present a number of results in quantum information theory that stem from the initially counterintuitive geometry of high-dimensional vector spaces, where subspaces with highly extremal properties are the norm rather than the exception. Peter Shor has shown, for example, that randomly selected subspaces can be used to send quantum information through a noisy quantum channel at the highest possible rate, that is, the quantum channel capacity. More recently, Debbie Leung, Andreas Winter and I demonstrated that a randomly chosen subspace of a bipartite quantum system will likely contain nothing but nearly maximally entangled states, even if the subspace is nearly as large as the original system in qubit terms. This observation has implications for communication, especially superdense coding.
Bibliographic guide to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information
Cabello, A
2000-01-01
This is a collection of references (papers, books, preprints, book reviews, Ph. D. thesis, patents, etc.), sorted alphabetically and (some of them) classified by subject, on foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. Specifically, it covers hidden variables (``no-go'' theorems, experiments), interpretations of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum effects (quantum Zeno effect, quantum erasure, ``interaction-free'' measurements, quantum ``non-demolition'' measurements), quantum information (cryptography, cloning, dense coding, teleportation), and quantum computation.
Information and Entropy in Quantum Theory
Maroney, O J E
2004-01-01
We look at certain thought experiments based upon the 'delayed choice' and 'quantum eraser' interference experiments, which present a complementarity between information gathered from a quantum measurement and interference effects. It has been argued that these experiments show the Bohm interpretation of quantum theory is untenable. We demonstrate that these experiments depend critically upon the assumption that a quantum optics device can operate as a measuring device, and show that, in the context of these experiments, it cannot be consistently understood in this way. By contrast, we then show how the notion of 'active information' in the Bohm interpretation provides a coherent explanation of the phenomena shown in these experiments. We then examine the relationship between information and entropy. The thought experiment connecting these two quantities is the Szilard Engine version of Maxwell's Demon, and it has been suggested that quantum measurement plays a key role in this. We provide the first complete ...
Hiding Quantum Information in the Perfect Code
Shaw, Bilal A
2010-01-01
We present and analyze a protocol for quantum steganography where the sender (Alice) encodes her steganographic information into the error syndromes of the perfect (five-qubit) quantum error-correcting code, and sends it to the receiver (Bob) over a depolarizing channel. Alice and Bob share a classical secret key, and hide quantum information in such a way that to an eavesdropper (Eve) without access to the secret key, the quantum message looks like an innocent codeword with a typical sequence of quantum errors. We calculate the average rate of key consumption, and show how the protocol improves in performance as information is spread over multiple codeword blocks. Alice and Bob utilize different encodings to optimize the average number of steganographic bits that they can send to each other while matching the error statistics of the depolarizing channel.
Information Erasure and Recovery in Quantum Memory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI Qing-Yu
2004-01-01
We show that information in quantum memory can be erased and recovered perfectly if it is necessary. The fact that the final states of environment are completely determined by the initial states of the system allows an erasure operation to be realized by a swap operation between the system and an ancilla. Therefore, the erased information can be recovered. When there is an irreversible process, e.g. an irreversible operation or a decoherence process, in the erasure process, the information would be erased perpetually. We present that quantum erasure will also give heat dissipation in the environment. A classical limit of quantum erasure is given to coincide with Landauer's erasure principle.
Quantum Measurements, Information and Entropy Production
Srivastava, Y N; Widom, A
1999-01-01
In order to understand the Landau-Lifshitz conjecture on the relationship between quantum measurements and the thermodynamic second law, we discuss the notion of ``diabatic'' and ``adiabatic'' forces exerted by the quantum object on the classical measurement apparatus. The notion of heat and work in measurements is made manifest in this approach, and the relationship between information entropy and thermodynamic entropy is explored.
Quantum Measurements, Information and Entropy Production
Srivastava, Y. N.; Vitiello, G; Widom, A.
1998-01-01
In order to understand the Landau-Lifshitz conjecture on the relationship between quantum measurements and the thermodynamic second law, we discuss the notion of ``diabatic'' and ``adiabatic'' forces exerted by the quantum object on the classical measurement apparatus. The notion of heat and work in measurements is made manifest in this approach, and the relationship between information entropy and thermodynamic entropy is explored.
Continuous Variables Quantum Information in Noisy Environments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berni, Adriano
safe from the detrimental effects of noise and losses. In the present work we investigate continuous variables Gaussian quantum information in noisy environments, studying the effects of various noise sources in the cases of a quantum metrological task, an error correction scheme and discord...
Continuous-variable quantum information processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.; Silberhorn, C.
2010-01-01
Observables of quantum systems can possess either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the conti......Observables of quantum systems can possess either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses...... the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous-variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments...... in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum information system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single-photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection...
Quantum Games of Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Xi; QIN Gan; ZHOU Xian-Yi; DU Jiang-Feng
2005-01-01
@@ We study two-player quantum games of incomplete information in which both the sides have partial information.The previous results of Du et al. [Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 016124] are incorporated in our more general formalism.Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits many interesting features.
Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, Benoît, E-mail: collins@math.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Département de Mathématique et Statistique, Université d’Ottawa, 585 King Edward, Ottawa, Ontario K1N6N5 (Canada); CNRS, Lyon (France); Nechita, Ion, E-mail: nechita@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Zentrum Mathematik, M5, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France)
2016-01-15
The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.
Quantum-Information Processing with Semiconductor Macroatoms
Biolatti, E; Zanardi, P; Rossi, F; Biolatti, Eliana; Iotti, Rita C.; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto
2000-01-01
An all optical implementation of quantum information processing with semiconductor macroatoms is proposed. Our quantum hardware consists of an array of semiconductor quantum dots and the computational degrees of freedom are energy-selected interband optical transitions. The proposed quantum-computing strategy exploits exciton-exciton interactions driven by ultrafast sequences of multi-color laser pulses. Contrary to existing proposals based on charge excitations, the present all-optical implementation does not require the application of time-dependent electric fields, thus allowing for a sub-picosecond, i.e. decoherence-free, operation time-scale in realistic state-of-the-art semiconductor nanostructures.
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Quantum Information Processing in Disordered and Complex Quantum Systems
De, A S; Ahufinger, V; Briegel, H J; Sanpera, A; Lewenstein, M; De, Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal; Ahufinger, Veronica; Briegel, Hans J.; Sanpera, Anna; Lewenstein, Maciej
2005-01-01
We investigate quantum information processing and manipulations in disordered systems of ultracold atoms and trapped ions. First, we demonstrate generation of entanglement and local realization of quantum gates in a quantum spin glass system. Entanglement in such systems attains significantly high values, after quenched averaging, and has a stable positive value for arbitrary times. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ion chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be modeled by neural network Hamiltonians. In such systems, we find the characteristic time of persistence of quenched averaged entanglement, and also find the time of its revival.
Quantum information processing and nuclear magnetic resonance
Cummins, H K
2001-01-01
as spectrometer pulse sequence programs. Quantum computers are information processing devices which operate by and exploit the laws of quantum mechanics, potentially allowing them to solve problems which are intractable using classical computers. This dissertation considers the practical issues involved in one of the more successful implementations to date, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Techniques for dealing with systematic errors are presented, and a quantum protocol is implemented. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to quantum computation. The physical basis of its efficiency and issues involved in its implementation are discussed. NMR quantum information processing is reviewed in more detail in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 considers some of the errors that may be introduced in the process of implementing an algorithm, and high-level ways of reducing the impact of these errors by using composite rotations. Novel general expressions for stabilising composite rotations are presented in Chapter 4 and a new class o...
Black holes, quantum information, and unitary evolution
Giddings, Steven B
2012-01-01
The unitary crisis for black holes indicates an apparent need to modify local quantum field theory. This paper explores the idea that quantum mechanics and in particular unitarity are fundamental principles, but at the price of familiar locality. Thus, one should seek to parameterize unitary evolution, extending the field theory description of black holes, such that their quantum information is transferred to the external state. This discussion is set in a broader framework of unitary evolution acting on Hilbert spaces comprising subsystems. Here, various constraints can be placed on the dynamics, based on quantum information-theoretic and other general physical considerations, and one can seek to describe dynamics with "minimal" departure from field theory. While usual spacetime locality may not be a precise concept in quantum gravity, approximate locality seems an important ingredient in physics. In such a Hilbert space approach an apparently "coarser" form of localization can be described in terms of tenso...
Extraction of information from a single quantum
Paraoanu, G. S.
2011-01-01
We investigate the possibility of performing quantum tomography on a single qubit with generalized partial measurements and the technique of measurement reversal. Using concepts from statistical decision theory, we prove that, somewhat surprisingly, no information can be obtained using this scheme. It is shown that, irrespective of the measurement technique used, extraction of information from single quanta is at odds with other general principles of quantum physics.
Vargas, David L.
Emerging quantum simulator technologies provide a new challenge to quantum many body theory. Quantifying the emergent order in and predicting the dynamics of such complex quantum systems requires a new approach. We develop such an approach based on complex network analysis of quantum mutual information. First, we establish the usefulness of quantum mutual information complex networks by reproducing the phase diagrams of transverse Ising and Bose-Hubbard models. By quantifying the complexity of quantum cellular automata we then demonstrate the applicability of complex network theory to non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. We conclude with a study of student collaboration networks, correlating a student's role in a collaboration network with their grades. This work thus initiates a quantitative theory of quantum complexity and provides a new tool for physics education research. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
Information capacity of quantum observable
Holevo, A S
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$
Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Maleeh
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.
Quantum probabilities: an information-theoretic interpretation
Bub, Jeffrey
2010-01-01
This Chapter develops a realist information-theoretic interpretation of the nonclassical features of quantum probabilities. On this view, what is fundamental in the transition from classical to quantum physics is the recognition that \\emph{information in the physical sense has new structural features}, just as the transition from classical to relativistic physics rests on the recognition that space-time is structurally different than we thought. Hilbert space, the event space of quantum systems, is interpreted as a kinematic (i.e., pre-dynamic) framework for an indeterministic physics, in the sense that the geometric structure of Hilbert space imposes objective probabilistic or information-theoretic constraints on correlations between events, just as the geometric structure of Minkowski space in special relativity imposes spatio-temporal kinematic constraints on events. The interpretation of quantum probabilities is more subjectivist in spirit than other discussions in this book (e.g., the chapter by Timpson)...
Information sharing in Quantum Complex Networks
Cardillo, Alessio; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús
2013-01-01
We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity thus breaking down the usual hierarchical picture of classical networks. We show both numerically and analytically that the mutual information characterizes the network topology. As a byproduct, our results point out that the amount of information available for an external node connecting to a quantum network allows to determine the network topology.
Quantum Computation and Information From Theory to Experiment
Imai, Hiroshi
2006-01-01
Recently, the field of quantum computation and information has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields in theoretical and practical areas. This book consists of the reviews of selected topics charterized by great progress and cover the field from theoretical areas to experimental ones. It contains fundamental areas, quantum query complexity, quantum statistical inference, quantum cloning, quantum entanglement, additivity. It treats three types of quantum security system, quantum public key cryptography, quantum key distribution, and quantum steganography. A photonic system is highlighted for the realization of quantum information processing.
Quantum Mechanics as Quantum Information (and only a little more)
Fuchs, C
2002-01-01
In this paper, I try once again to cause some good-natured trouble. The issue remains, when will we ever stop burdening the taxpayer with conferences devoted to the quantum foundations? The suspicion is expressed that no end will be in sight until a means is found to reduce quantum theory to two or three statements of crisp physical (rather than abstract, axiomatic) significance. In this regard, no tool appears better calibrated for a direct assault than quantum information theory. Far from a strained application of the latest fad to a time-honored problem, this method holds promise precisely because a large part--but not all--of the structure of quantum theory has always concerned information. It is just that the physics community needs reminding. This paper, though taking quant-ph/0106166 as its core, corrects one mistake and offers several observations beyond the previous version. In particular, I identify one element of quantum mechanics that I would not label a subjective term in the theory--it is the in...
Measuring the scrambling of quantum information
Swingle, Brian; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Hayden, Patrick
2016-01-01
We provide a protocol to measure out-of-time-order correlation functions. These correlation functions are of theoretical interest for diagnosing the scrambling of quantum information in black holes and strongly interacting quantum systems generally. Measuring them requires an echo-type sequence in which the sign of a many-body Hamiltonian is reversed. We detail an implementation employing cold atoms and cavity quantum electrodynamics to realize the chaotic kicked top model, and we analyze effects of dissipation to verify its feasibility with current technology. Finally, we propose in broad strokes a number of other experimental platforms where similar out-of-time-order correlation functions can be measured.
Bianucci, Pablo
Modern communications technology has encouraged an intimate connection between Semiconductor Physics and Optics, and this connection shows best in the combination of electron-confining structures with light-confining structures. Semiconductor quantum dots are systems engineered to trap electrons in a mesoscopic scale (the are composed of ≈ 10000 atoms), resulting in a behavior resembling that of atoms, but much richer. Optical microresonators are engineered to confine light, increasing its intensity and enabling a much stronger interaction with matter. Their combination opens a myriad of new directions, both in fundamental Physics and in possible applications. This dissertation explores both semiconductor quantum dots and microresonators, through experimental work done with semiconductor quantum dots and microsphere resonators spanning the fields of Quantum Optics, Quantum Information and Photonics; from quantum algorithms to polarization converters. Quantum Optics leads the way, allowing us to understand how to manipulate and measure quantum dots with light and to elucidate the interactions between them and microresonators. In the Quantum Information area, we present a detailed study of the feasibility of excitons in quantum dots to perform quantum computations, including an experimental demonstration of the single-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm performedin a single semiconductor quantum dot. Our studies in Photonics involve applications of microsphere resonators, which we have learned to fabricate and characterize. We present an elaborate description of the experimental techniques needed to study microspheres, including studies and proof of concept experiments on both ultra-sensitive microsphere sensors and whispering gallery mode polarization converters.
Pattern recognition of quantum information based on pattern-distance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Daoyi; Chen Zonghai; Jiang Shengxiang
2005-01-01
Looking upon every encoding state of quantum information systems as a quantum information pattern, A kind of pattern-distance between different patterns as a measurement of comparability of quantum information patterns is defined, and two kinds of recognition algorithms based on pattern-distance for quantum information are proposed. They can respectively recognize quantum information with known objective pattern and unknown objective pattern. In the two algorithms, the phases and occurrence probabilities of different eigenpatterns of quantum information are sufficiently considered. Two examples demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the two recognition methods. These algorithms point out a new and important path for applications of quantum information and pattern recognition.
Fisher information, nonclassicality and quantum revivals
Romera, Elvira; de los Santos, Francisco
2013-11-01
Wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are studied by means of a measure of nonclassicality based on the Fisher information. In particular, we show that the spreading and the regeneration of initially Gaussian wave packets in a quantum bouncer and in the infinite square-well correspond, respectively, to high and low nonclassicality values. This result is in accordance with the physical expectations that at a quantum revival wave packets almost recover their initial shape and the classical motion revives temporarily afterward.
Fisher information, nonclassicality and quantum revivals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romera, Elvira [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Santos, Francisco de los, E-mail: dlsantos@onsager.ugr.es [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Física de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)
2013-11-08
Wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are studied by means of a measure of nonclassicality based on the Fisher information. In particular, we show that the spreading and the regeneration of initially Gaussian wave packets in a quantum bouncer and in the infinite square-well correspond, respectively, to high and low nonclassicality values. This result is in accordance with the physical expectations that at a quantum revival wave packets almost recover their initial shape and the classical motion revives temporarily afterward.
On the realization of quantum Fisher information
Saha, Aparna; Talukdar, B.; Chatterjee, Supriya
2017-03-01
With special attention to the role of information theory in physical sciences we present analytical results for the coordinate- and momentum-space Fisher information of some important one-dimensional quantum systems which differ in spacing of their energy levels. The studies envisaged allow us to relate the coordinate-space information ({I}ρ ) with the familiar energy levels of the quantum system. The corresponding momentum-space information ({I}γ ) does not obey such a simple relationship with the energy spectrum. Our results for the product ({I}ρ {I}γ ) depend quadratically on the principal quantum number n and satisfy an appropriate uncertainty relation derived by Dehesa et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 1845)
Mutual Entropy in Quantum Information and Information Genetics
Ohya, M
2004-01-01
After Shannon, entropy becomes a fundamental quantity to describe not only uncertainity or chaos of a system but also information carried by the system. Shannon's important discovery is to give a mathematical expression of the mutual entropy (information), information transmitted from an input system to an output system, by which communication processes could be analyzed on the stage of mathematical science. In this paper, first we review the quantum mutual entropy and discuss its uses in quantum information theory, and secondly we show how the classical mutual entropy can be used to analyze genomes, in particular, those of HIV.
Research on Quantum Algorithms at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter
2016-05-29
Research on Quantum Algorithms at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter The central goals of our project are (1) to bring large-scale... quantum algorithms , quantum complexity, fault-tolerant quantum computing REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR...Research on Quantum Algorithms at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter Report Title The central goals of our project are (1) to bring large
A universal quantum information processor for scalable quantum communication and networks
Xihua Yang; Bolin Xue; Junxiang Zhang; Shiyao Zhu
2014-01-01
Entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum networks. How to conveniently and efficiently realize the generation, distribution, storage, retrieval, and control of multipartite entanglement is the basic requirement for realistic quantum information processing. Here, we present a theoretical proposal to efficiently and conveniently achieve a universal quantum information processor (QIP) via atomic coherence in an atomic ensemble. The a...
Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems
Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J.
2017-06-01
Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.
Quantum Fisher information as signature of superradiant quantum phase transition
Wang, T L; Yang, W; Jin, G R; Lambert, N; Nori, F
2013-01-01
The single-mode Dicke model is well-known to undergo a quantum phase transition from the so-called normal phase to the supperradiant phase (hereinafter called the "superradiant quantum phase transition"). Normally, quantum phase transitions are closely related to the critical behavior of quantities such as entanglement, quantum fluctuations, and fidelity. In this paper, we study quantum Fisher information (QFI) of the field mode and that of the atoms in the ground state of the Dicke Hamiltonian. For finite and large enough number of atoms N, our numerical results show that near the critical atom-field coupling, the QFIs of the atomic and the field subsystems can surpass the classical limits, due to the appearance of nonclassical squeezed states. As the coupling increases far beyond the critical point, the two subsystems are in highly mixed states, which degrade the QFI and hence the ultimate phase sensitivity. In the thermodynamic limit, we present analytical results of the QFIs and their relationships with t...
Irreversibility, Information and Randomness in Quantum Measurements
Mayburov, S N
2012-01-01
Irreversibility in quantum measurements is considered from the point of quantum information theory. For that purpose the information transfer between the measured object S and measuring system O is analyzed. It's found that due to the principal constraints of quantum-mechanical origin, the information about the purity of S state isn't transferred to O during the measurement of arbitraryS observable V. Consequently O can't discriminate the pure and mixed S ensembles with the same . As the result, the random outcomes should be detected by O in V measurement for S pure ensemble of V eigenstate superposition. It's shown that the outcome probabilties obey to Born rule. The influence of O decoherence by its environment is studied, however the account of its effects doesn't change these results principally.
Parallel information transfer in a multinode quantum information processor.
Borneman, T W; Granade, C E; Cory, D G
2012-04-06
We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel.
Quantum information and computation for chemistry
Kais, Sabre; Rice, Stuart A
2014-01-01
Examines the intersection of quantum information and chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. This volume of the series explores the latest research findings, applications, and new research paths from the quantum information science
Acetylcholine molecular arrays enable quantum information processing
Tamulis, Arvydas; Majauskaite, Kristina; Talaikis, Martynas; Zborowski, Krzysztof; Kairys, Visvaldas
2017-09-01
We have found self-assembly of four neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) molecular complexes in a water molecules environment by using geometry optimization with DFT B97d method. These complexes organizes to regular arrays of ACh molecules possessing electronic spins, i.e. quantum information bits. These spin arrays could potentially be controlled by the application of a non-uniform external magnetic field. The proper sequence of resonant electromagnetic pulses would then drive all the spin groups into the 3-spin entangled state and proceed large scale quantum information bits.
Holographic computations of the Quantum Information Metric
Trivella, Andrea
2016-01-01
In this note we show how the Quantum Information Metric can be computed holographically using a perturbative approach. In particular when the deformation of the conformal field theory state is induced by a scalar operator the corresponding bulk configuration reduces to a scalar field perturbatively probing the unperturbed background. We study two concrete examples: a CFT ground state deformed by a primary operator and thermofield double state in $d=2$ deformed by a marginal operator. Finally, we generalize the bulk construction to the case of a multi dimensional parameter space and show that the Quantum Information Metric coincides with the metric of the non-linear sigma model for the corresponding scalar fields.
Quantum control, quantum information processing, and quantum-limited metrology with trapped ions
Wineland, D J; Barrett, M D; Ben-Kish, A; Bergquist, J C; Blakestad, R B; Bollinger, J J; Britton, J L; Chiaverini, J; De Marco, B L; Hume, D; Itano, W M; Jensen, M; Jost, J D; Knill, E; Koelemeij, J C J; Langer, C; Oskay, W; Ozeri, R; Reichle, R; Rosenband, T; Schätz, T; Schmidt, P O; Seidelin, S
2005-01-01
We briefly discuss recent experiments on quantum information processing using trapped ions at NIST. A central theme of this work has been to increase our capabilities in terms of quantum computing protocols, but we have also applied the same concepts to improved metrology, particularly in the area of frequency standards and atomic clocks. Such work may eventually shed light on more fundamental issues, such as the quantum measurement problem.
Noise, errors and information in quantum amplification
D'Ariano, G M; Maccone, L
1997-01-01
We analyze and compare the characterization of a quantum device in terms of noise, transmitted bit-error-rate (BER) and mutual information, showing how the noise description is meaningful only for Gaussian channels. After reviewing the description of a quantum communication channel, we study the insertion of an amplifier. We focus attention on the case of direct detection, where the linear amplifier has a 3 decibels noise figure, which is usually considered an unsurpassable limit, referred to as the standard quantum limit (SQL). Both noise and BER could be reduced using an ideal amplifier, which is feasible in principle. However, just a reduction of noise beyond the SQL does not generally correspond to an improvement of the BER or of the mutual information. This is the case of a laser amplifier, where saturation can greatly reduce the noise figure, although there is no corresponding improvement of the BER. Such mechanism is illustrated on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenneker, Carsten (comp.)
2012-11-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Introduction to the theory of quantum information processing
Bergou, János A
2013-01-01
Introduction to the Theory of Quantum Information Processing provides the material for a one-semester graduate level course on quantum information theory and quantum computing for students who have had a one-year graduate course in quantum mechanics. Many standard subjects are treated, such as density matrices, entanglement, quantum maps, quantum cryptography, and quantum codes. Also included are discussions of quantum machines and quantum walks. In addition, the book provides detailed treatments of several underlying fundamental principles of quantum theory, such as quantum measurements, the no-cloning and no-signaling theorems, and their consequences. Problems of various levels of difficulty supplement the text, with the most challenging problems bringing the reader to the forefront of active research. This book provides a compact introduction to the fascinating and rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field of quantum information theory, and it prepares the reader for doing active research in this area.
Quantum information processing with optical vortices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khoury, Antonio Z. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: In this work we discuss several proposals for quantum information processing using the transverse structure of paraxial beams. Different techniques for production and manipulation of optical vortices have been employed and combined with polarization transformations in order to investigate fundamental properties of quantum entanglement as well as to propose new tools for quantum information processing. As an example, we have recently proposed and demonstrated a controlled NOT (CNOT) gate based on a Michelson interferometer in which the photon polarization is the control bit and the first order transverse mode is the target. The device is based on a single lens design for an astigmatic mode converter that transforms the transverse mode of paraxial optical beams. In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the non-separability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and non-separable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 2007. As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for non-separable modes. The inequality is discussed both in the classical and quantum domains. We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell-states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories. (author)
Quantum information, oscillations and the psyche
Martin, F; Carminati, G Galli
2010-01-01
In this paper, taking the theory of quantum information as a model, we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qubits). We view how there can be communication between these various qubit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this way we build a model of handling a mental qubit with the help of pulses of a mental field. Starting with an elementary interaction between two qubits we build two-qubit quantum logic gates that allow information to be transferred from one qubit to the other. In this manner we build a quantum process that permits consciousness to ``read{''} the unconscious and vice versa. The elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qubit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi o...
Gravity Dual of Quantum Information Metric
Miyaji, Masamichi; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento
2015-01-01
We study a quantum information metric (or fidelity susceptibility) in conformal field theories with respect to a small perturbation by a primary operator. We argue that its gravity dual is approximately given by a volume of maximal time slice in an AdS spacetime when the perturbation is exactly marginal. We confirm our claim in several examples.
Quantum information processing by weaving quantum Talbot carpets
Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; de Melo, Fernando; Milman, Pérola; Walborn, Stephen P.
2015-06-01
Single-photon interference due to passage through a periodic grating is considered in a novel proposal for processing D -dimensional quantum systems (quDits) encoded in the spatial degrees of freedom of light. We show that free-space propagation naturally implements basic single-quDit gates by means of the Talbot effect: an intricate time-space carpet of light in the near-field diffraction regime. By adding a diagonal phase gate, we show that a complete set of single-quDit gates can be implemented. We then introduce a spatially dependent beam splitter that allows for projective measurements in the computational basis and can be used for the implementation of controlled operations between two quDits. Universal quantum information processing can then be implemented with linear optics and ancilla photons via postselection and feed-forward following the original proposal of Knill-Laflamme and Milburn. Although we consider photons, our scheme should be directly applicable to a number of other physical systems. Interpretation of the Talbot effect as a quantum logic operation provides a beautiful and interesting way to visualize quantum computation through wave propagation and interference.
Quantum mechanics and quantum information a guide through the quantum world
Fayngold, Moses
2013-01-01
Alongside a thorough definition of the basic concepts and their interrelations, backed by numerous examples, this textbook features a rare discussion of the quantum information theory. It also deals with other important topics hardly found in the literature, including the Robertson-Schrodinger-relation, angle and angular momentum uncertainties, interaction-free measurements, and the limitations of the no-cloning theorem With its interpretations of quantum mechanics and its discussions of quantum computing, this book is poised to become the standard textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate quantum mechanics courses and as an essential reference for physics students and physics professionals.
Information ﬂow in quantum teleportation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Andrew Whitaker
2002-08-01
The ﬂow of information is discussed in the context of quantum teleportation. Situations are described which use a sequence of systems of particles in which, though there is no claim of faster-than-light signaling, it is plausible to suggest that information about measurement procedures in one wing of the apparatus does reach the other end in a non-local manner. The deﬁnition of the term ’parameter dependence’ is discussed.
Quantum preparation uncertainty and lack of information
Rozpędek, Filip; Kaniewski, Jędrzej; Coles, Patrick J.; Wehner, Stephanie
2017-02-01
The quantum uncertainty principle famously predicts that there exist measurements that are inherently incompatible, in the sense that their outcomes cannot be predicted simultaneously. In contrast, no such uncertainty exists in the classical domain, where all uncertainty results from ignorance about the exact state of the physical system. Here, we critically examine the concept of preparation uncertainty and ask whether similarly in the quantum regime, some of the uncertainty that we observe can actually also be understood as a lack of information (LOI), albeit a lack of quantum information. We answer this question affirmatively by showing that for the well known measurements employed in BB84 quantum key distribution (Bennett and Brassard 1984 Int. Conf. on Computer System and Signal Processing), the amount of uncertainty can indeed be related to the amount of available information about additional registers determining the choice of the measurement. We proceed to show that also for other measurements the amount of uncertainty is in part connected to a LOI. Finally, we discuss the conceptual implications of our observation to the security of cryptographic protocols that make use of BB84 states.
Quantum information processing with noisy cluster states
Tame, M S; Kim, M S; Vedral, V
2005-01-01
We provide an analysis of basic quantum information processing protocols under the effect of intrinsic non-idealities in cluster states. These non-idealities are based on the introduction of randomness in the entangling steps that create the cluster state and are motivated by the unavoidable imperfections faced in creating entanglement using condensed-matter systems. Aided by the use of an alternative and very efficient method to construct cluster state configurations, which relies on the concatenation of fundamental cluster structures, we address quantum state transfer and various fundamental gate simulations through noisy cluster states. We find that a winning strategy to limit the effects of noise, is the management of small clusters processed via just a few measurements. Our study also reinforces recent ideas related to the optical implementation of a one-way quantum computer.
Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes
Hiesmayr, B C
2014-01-01
We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...
Synchronicity, Quantum Information and the Psyche
Martin, Francois; Galli Carminati, Giuliana
2009-01-01
In this paper we describe synchronicity phenomena. As an explanation of these phenomena we propose quantum entanglement between the psychic realm known as the "unconscious" and also the classical illusion of the collapse of the wave-function. Then, taking the theory of quantum information as a model we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qu-bits). We analyze how there can be communication between these various qu-bit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this manner we build quantum processes that permit consciousness to "read" the unconscious and vice-versa. The most elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qu-bit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi oscillations. This time evolu...
Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective.
Bylicka, B; Chruściński, D; Maniscalco, S
2014-07-21
Quantum technologies rely on the ability to coherently transfer information encoded in quantum states along quantum channels. Decoherence induced by the environment sets limits on the efficiency of any quantum-enhanced protocol. Generally, the longer a quantum channel is the worse its capacity is. We show that for non-Markovian quantum channels this is not always true: surprisingly the capacity of a longer channel can be greater than of a shorter one. We introduce a general theoretical framework linking non-Markovianity to the capacities of quantum channels and demonstrate how harnessing non-Markovianity may improve the efficiency of quantum information processing and communication.
Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective
Bylicka, B.; Chruściński, D.; Maniscalco, S.
2014-01-01
Quantum technologies rely on the ability to coherently transfer information encoded in quantum states along quantum channels. Decoherence induced by the environment sets limits on the efficiency of any quantum-enhanced protocol. Generally, the longer a quantum channel is the worse its capacity is. We show that for non-Markovian quantum channels this is not always true: surprisingly the capacity of a longer channel can be greater than of a shorter one. We introduce a general theoretical framework linking non-Markovianity to the capacities of quantum channels and demonstrate how harnessing non-Markovianity may improve the efficiency of quantum information processing and communication. PMID:25043763
Quantum information sharing between topologically distinct platforms
Hou, Chang-Yu; Refael, Gil; Shtengel, Kirill
2016-12-01
Can topological quantum entanglement between anyons in one topological medium "stray" into a different, topologically distinct medium? In other words, can quantum information encoded nonlocally in the combined state of non-Abelian anyons be shared between two distinct topological media? For one-dimensional topological superconductors with Majorana bound states at the end of system, the quantum information store in those Majorana bound states can be transfered by directly coupling nearby Majorana bound states. However, coupling of two one-dimensional Majorana states will produce a gap, indicating that distinct topological regions of one-dimensional wires unite into a single topological region through the information transfer process. In this paper, we consider a setup with two two-dimensional p -wave superconductors of opposite chirality adjacent to each other. Even two comoving chiral modes at the domain wall between them cannot be gapped through interactions; we demonstrate that information encoded in the fermionic parity of two Majorana zero modes, originally within the same superconducting domain, can be shared between the domains or moved entirely from one domain to another provided that vortices can tunnel between them in a controlled fashion.
Nano and Biological Technology Panel: Quantum Information Science
2008-12-03
Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications The University of New South Wales Nano and Biological Technology Panel: Quantum Information Science 26th US Army...Technology Panel: Quantum Information Science 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Business School Summary – Quantum Information Science • Quantum information technologies now a reality • First impacts will be secure communications
PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
2007-07-01
The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable
Maximum Information and Quantum Prediction Algorithms
McElwaine, J N
1997-01-01
This paper describes an algorithm for selecting a consistent set within the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics and investigates its properties. The algorithm uses a maximum information principle to select from among the consistent sets formed by projections defined by the Schmidt decomposition. The algorithm unconditionally predicts the possible events in closed quantum systems and ascribes probabilities to these events. A simple spin model is described and a complete classification of all exactly consistent sets of histories formed from Schmidt projections in the model is proved. This result is used to show that for this example the algorithm selects a physically realistic set. Other tentative suggestions in the literature for set selection algorithms using ideas from information theory are discussed.
Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, R.; Leuchs, G.
2010-01-01
Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous-varia...
Quantum Theory is an Information Theory
D'Ariano, Giacomo M.; Perinotti, Paolo
2016-03-01
In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories (OPT), along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.
Quantum Information from Graviton-Matter Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukasz-Andrzej Glinka
2007-09-01
Full Text Available We present basics of conceptually new-type way for explaining of the origin, evolution and current physical properties of our Universe from the graviton-matter gas viewpoint. Quantization method for the Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe based on the canonical Hamilton equations of motion is proposed and quantum information theory way to physics of the Universe is showed. The current contribution from the graviton-matter gas temperature in quintessence approximation is discussed.
Quantum process discrimination with information from environment
Wang, Yuan-Mei; Li, Jun-Gang; Zou, Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming
2016-12-01
In quantum metrology we usually extract information from the reduced probe system but ignore the information lost inevitably into the environment. However, K. Mølmer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 040401 (2015)] showed that the information lost into the environment has an important effect on improving the successful probability of quantum process discrimination. Here we reconsider the model of a driven atom coupled to an environment and distinguish which of two candidate Hamiltonians governs the dynamics of the whole system. We mainly discuss two measurement methods, one of which obtains only the information from the reduced atom state and the other obtains the information from both the atom and its environment. Interestingly, for the two methods the optimal initial states of the atom, used to improve the successful probability of the process discrimination, are different. By comparing the two methods we find that the partial information from the environment is very useful for the discriminations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274043, 11375025, and 11005008).
Geons and the quantum information metric
Sinamuli, Musema; Mann, Robert B.
2017-07-01
We investigate the proposed duality between a quantum information metric in a CFTd +1 and the volume of a maximum time slice in the dual AdSd +2 for topological geons. Examining the specific cases of Banados-Teitelboim-Zannelli (BTZ) black holes and planar Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes, along with their geon counterparts, we find that the proposed duality relation for geons is the same apart from a factor of 4. The information metric therefore provides a probe of the topology of the bulk spacetime.
PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013
2014-11-01
Quantum Information can be understood as being naturally derived from a new understanding of information theory when quantum systems become information carriers and quantum effects become non negligible. Experiments and the realization of various interesting phenomena in quantum information within the established field of quantum optics have been reported, which has provided a very convenient framework for the former. Together, quantum optics and quantum information are among the most exciting areas of interdisciplinary research in modern day science which cover a broad spectrum of topics, from the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information science to the introduction of new types of quantum technologies and metrology. The International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013 was organized by the Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia with the objective of bringing together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars in the domain of interest from around the world to share their experiences and research results about all aspects of quantum optics and quantum information. While the event was organized on a somewhat modest scale, it was in fact a rather fruitful meeting for established researchers and students as well, especially for the local scene where the field is relatively new. We would therefore, like to thank the organizing committee, our advisors and all parties for having made this event successful and last but not least would extend our sincerest gratitude to IOP for publishing these selected papers from icQoQi2013 in Journal of Physics: Conference Series.
Storing Quantum Information via Atomic Dark Resonances
Caruso, Filippo
2010-01-01
In this thesis, after a brief review of some concepts of Quantum Optics, we analyze a three-level atomic system in the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), and we investigate the propagation of a gaussian pulse along a cigar-shaped cloud of both cold and hot atoms in EIT regime. In particular, we show that it is possible to amplify a slow propagating pulse without population inversion. We also analyze the regime of anomalous light propagation showing that it is possible to observe superluminal energy propagation. In these conditions, it is possible to imprint reversibly ('write') the information carried by the photons onto the atoms, specifically as a coherent pattern of atomic spins, and later the information stored in the atomic spins can be transferred back ('read') to the light field, implementing in this way a quantum memory. Besides, we analyze the propagation of a quantum field in an EIT medium sustaining dark state polaritons (DSP) in a quasi-particle picture. Here, the decohe...
Quantum Mutual Information Along Unitary Orbits
Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry
2011-01-01
Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyse the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system state, with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimisation problem for the smallest system of two qubits, and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems, such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward, however the minimisation of correlations displays non-trivial structures. We characterise a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides, and find a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular "Young tableau" form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with re...
Quantum Information Processing using Nonlinear Optical Effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lasse Mejling
of the converted idler depends on the other pump. This allows for temporal-mode-multiplexing. When the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) are included, the phases of the natural input and output modes are changed, reducing the separability. These effects are to some degree mediated by pre......This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear...... to obtain a 100 % conversion efficiency is to use multiple stages of frequency conversion, but this setup suffers from the combined effects of NPM. This problem is circumvented by using asymmetrically pumped BS, where one pump is continuous wave. For this setup, NPM is found to only lead to linear phase...
Informationally complete quantum measurements & entanglement bounds
Flammia, Steven Thomas
2007-12-01
We define a class of measurements which we call pure-state informationally complete (PSI-complete) POVMs. These are measurements which can be used to reconstruct the pure state of a d-dimensional quantum system, but not necessarily a mixed state. We show that 2d measurement outcomes is necessary and sufficient for PSI-completeness. This demonstrates that the measurement complexity (as measured by the number of measurement outcomes) can achieve quadratic improvements when the system is confidently believed to be in a pure state. Next, we consider symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC-POVMs). SIC-POVMs are relevant for mixed state quantum tomography, but are not well understood. We prove a theorem related to the conjectured existence of SIC-POVMs showing the uniqueness (up to certain symmetries) of SIC-POVMs of a particular group-covariant type when the dimension of the Hilbert space is a prime number. In the second part of the dissertation, we consider a computational model that has access to only one pure qubit, along with n qubits in the totally mixed state. This model is thought to be capable of performing sonic computational tasks exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. We show that circuits of this type generally lead to entangled states, but where the entanglement (as measured by the negativity) is bounded by a constant, independent of n, for all bipartite divisions. This suggests that the global nature of entanglement is a more important resource than the magnitude of the entanglement. We then consider multiply constrained bounds on entanglement measures based on convex constraint functions. We outline the general procedure, and then explicitly implement the program for the case of 4 x N quantum systems by bounding the entanglement of formation, the concurrence, and the tangle. Finally, we develop generalized bounds for quantum single-parameter estimation problems for which the coupling to the parameter is described by intrinsic multi
Quantum information paradox: Real or fictitious?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abhas Mitra
2009-09-01
One of the outstanding puzzles of theoretical physics is whether quantum information indeed gets lost in the case of black hole (BH) evaporation or accretion. Let us recall that quantum mechanics (QM) demands an upper limit on the acceleration of a test particle. On the other hand, it is pointed out here that, if a Schwarzschild BH exists, the acceleration of the test particle would blow up at the event horizon in violation of QM. Thus the concept of an exact BH is in contradiction with QM and quantum gravity (QG). It is also reminded that the mass of a BH actually appears as an integration constant of Einstein equations. And it has been shown that the value of this integration constant is actually zero! Thus even classically, there cannot be finite mass BHs though zero mass BH is allowed. It has been further shown that during continued gravitational collapse, radiation emanating from the contracting object gets trapped within it by the runaway gravitational field. As a consequence, the contracting body attains a quasi-static state where outward trapped radiation pressure gets balanced by inward gravitational pull and the ideal classical BH state is never formed in a finite proper time. In other words, continued gravitational collapse results in an `eternally collapsing object' which is a ball of hot plasma and which is asymptotically approaching the true BH state with = 0 after radiating away its entire mass energy. And if we include QM, this contraction must halt at a radius suggested by the highest QM acceleration. In any case no event horizon (EH) is ever formed and in reality, there is no quantum information paradox.
Magnetic atom lattices for quantum information
Naber, J.B.
2016-01-01
Simply put, a quantum computer aims at solving computational problems using genuine quantum mechanical effects. An important feature is that a quantum computer can simulate the behavior of any other quantum mechanical system. Furthermore, quantum devices are predicted to enable secure communication
Fluctuation of Quantum Information Density in Curved Time-Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BI Qiao
2007-01-01
A dynamical equation for quantum information density (QID)in curved spacetime is presented.The related fluctuation of QID with quantum Einstein equation is also discussed,which reveals the measuring of the dynamical mutual information condition using a Gaussian quantum channel.
Quantum thermodynamic processes energy and information flow at the nanoscale
Mahler, Guenter
2015-01-01
The point of departure of this book is a triad of themes: information theory, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics. These are related: thermodynamics and quantum mechanics form the basis of quantum thermodynamics; information and quantum mechanics underly, inter alia, the notorious quantum measurement problem; and information and thermodynamics have much to say about control limits in the tension between micro- and macro-descriptions.Why does the world around us typically look thermal-from cosmology down to individual embedded spins? Do informational measures constitute additional (independen
Pseudo-random unitary operators for quantum information processing.
Emerson, Joseph; Weinstein, Yaakov S; Saraceno, Marcos; Lloyd, Seth; Cory, David G
2003-12-19
In close analogy to the fundamental role of random numbers in classical information theory, random operators are a basic component of quantum information theory. Unfortunately, the implementation of random unitary operators on a quantum processor is exponentially hard. Here we introduce a method for generating pseudo-random unitary operators that can reproduce those statistical properties of random unitary operators most relevant to quantum information tasks. This method requires exponentially fewer resources, and hence enables the practical application of random unitary operators in quantum communication and information processing protocols. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor, we were able to realize pseudorandom unitary operators that reproduce the expected random distribution of matrix elements.
Quantum: information theory: technological challenge; Computacion Cuantica: un reto tecnologico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calixto, M.
2001-07-01
The new Quantum Information Theory augurs powerful machines that obey the entangled logic of the subatomic world. Parallelism, entanglement, teleportation, no-cloning and quantum cryptography are typical peculiarities of this novel way of understanding computation. (Author) 24 refs.
Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems.
Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J
2017-08-06
Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Decoding reality the universe as quantum information
Vedral, Vlatko
2010-01-01
In Decoding Reality, Vlatko Vedral offers a mind-stretching look at the deepest questions about the universe--where everything comes from, why things are as they are, what everything is. The most fundamental definition of reality is not matter or energy, he writes, but information--and it is the processing of information that lies at the root of all physical, biological, economic, and social phenomena. This view allows Vedral to address a host of seemingly unrelated questions: Why does DNA bind like it does? What is the ideal diet for longevity? How do you make your first million dollars? We can unify all through the understanding that everything consists of bits of information, he writes, though that raises the question of where these bits come from. To find the answer, he takes us on a guided tour through the bizarre realm of quantum physics. At this sub-sub-subatomic level, we find such things as the interaction of separated quantum particles--what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance." In fact, V...
Superconducting circuits for quantum information: an outlook.
Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2013-03-08
The performance of superconducting qubits has improved by several orders of magnitude in the past decade. These circuits benefit from the robustness of superconductivity and the Josephson effect, and at present they have not encountered any hard physical limits. However, building an error-corrected information processor with many such qubits will require solving specific architecture problems that constitute a new field of research. For the first time, physicists will have to master quantum error correction to design and operate complex active systems that are dissipative in nature, yet remain coherent indefinitely. We offer a view on some directions for the field and speculate on its future.
Measuring orbital interaction using quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rissler, Joerg [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, AG Vielteilchentheorie, Renthof 6, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: rissler@staff.uni-marburg.de; Noack, Reinhard M. [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, AG Vielteilchentheorie, Renthof 6, D-35032 Marburg (Germany); White, Steven R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)
2006-04-21
Quantum information theory gives rise to a straightforward definition of the interaction of electrons I {sub p,q} in two orbitals p,q for a given many-body wave function. A convenient way to calculate the von Neumann entropies needed is presented in this work, and the orbital interaction I {sub p,q} is successfully tested for different types of chemical bonds. As an example of an application of I {sub p,q} beyond the interpretation of wave functions, I {sub p,q} is then used to investigate the ordering problem in the density-matrix renormalization group.
Cryptography from quantum uncertainty in the presence of quantum side information
Bouman, Niek Johannes
2012-01-01
The thesis starts with a high-level introduction into cryptography and quantum mechanics. Chapter 2 gives a theoretical foundation by introducing probability theory, information theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. Chapter 3, 4 and 5 are editions of work
Cryptography from quantum uncertainty in the presence of quantum side information
Bouman, Niek Johannes
2012-01-01
The thesis starts with a high-level introduction into cryptography and quantum mechanics. Chapter 2 gives a theoretical foundation by introducing probability theory, information theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. Chapter 3, 4 and 5 are editions of work pub
Tools for Multimode Quantum Information: Modulation, Detection, and Spatial Quantum Correlations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Delaubert, Vincent; Janousek, Jirí
2007-01-01
We present here all the tools required for continuous variable parallel quantum information protocols based on spatial multi-mode quantum correlations and entanglement. We describe techniques for encoding and detecting this quantum information with high efficiency in the individual modes. We use ...
Quantum information storage and state transfer based on spin systems
Song, Z
2004-01-01
The idea of quantum state storage is generalized to describe the coherent transfer of quantum information through a coherent data bus. In this universal framework, we comprehensively review our recent systematical investigations to explore the possibility of implementing the physical processes of quantum information storage and state transfer by using quantum spin systems, which may be an isotropic antiferromagnetic spin ladder system or a ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain. Our studies emphasize the physical mechanisms and the fundamental problems behind the various protocols for the storage and transfer of quantum information in solid state systems.
Quantum correlations beyond entanglement and their role in quantum information theory
Streltsov, Alexander
2015-01-01
Quantum correlations are not restricted to the well known entanglement investigated in Bell-type experiments. Other forms of correlations, for example quantum discord, have recently been shown to play an important role in several aspects of quantum information theory. First experiments also support these findings. This book is an introduction into this up-and-coming research field and its likely impact on quantum technology. After giving a general introduction to the concept of quantum correlations and their role in quantum information theory, the author describes a number of pertinent results and their implications.
Waveform information from quantum mechanical entropy
Funkhouser, Scott; Suski, William; Winn, Andrew
2016-06-01
Although the entropy of a given signal-type waveform is technically zero, it is nonetheless desirable to use entropic measures to quantify the associated information. Several such prescriptions have been advanced in the literature but none are generally successful. Here, we report that the Fourier-conjugated `total entropy' associated with quantum-mechanical probabilistic amplitude functions (PAFs) is a meaningful measure of information in non-probabilistic real waveforms, with either the waveform itself or its (normalized) analytic representation acting in the role of the PAF. Detailed numerical calculations are presented for both adaptations, showing the expected informatic behaviours in a variety of rudimentary scenarios. Particularly noteworthy are the sensitivity to the degree of randomness in a sequence of pulses and potential for detection of weak signals.
Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference. Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, it may be well into the 21st century before we see quantum computing used at a commercial level for a variety of reasons discussed in this paper. The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This paper discusses some of the current advances, applications, and chal-lenges of quantum computing as well as its impact on corporate computing and implications for management. It shows how quantum computing can be utilized to process and store information, as well as impact cryptography for perfectly secure communication, algorithmic searching, factorizing large numbers very rapidly, and simulating quantum-mechanical systems efficiently. A broad interdisciplinary effort will be needed if quantum com-puters are to fulfill their destiny as the world's fastest computing devices.
Spin flips and quantum information for anti-parallel spins
Gisin, Nicolas
1999-01-01
We consider two different ways to encode quantum information, by parallel or anti-parallel pairs of spins. We find that there is more information in the anti-parallel ones. This purely quantum mechanical effect is due to entanglement, not of the states but occuring in the course of the measuring process. We also introduce a range of quantum information processing machines, such as spin-flip and anti-cloning.
Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation
Bae, Joonwoo
2017-10-01
In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.
PREFACE Quantum Groups, Quantum Foundations and Quantum Information: a Festschrift for Tony Sudbery
Weigert, Stefan
2010-11-01
On 29 July 2008, Professor Anthony Thomas Sudbery - known as Tony to his friends and colleagues - celebrated his 65th birthday. To mark this occasion and to honour Tony's scientific achievements, a 2-day Symposion was held at the University of York on 29-30 September 2008 under the sponsorship of the Institute of Physics and the London Mathematical Society. The breadth of Tony's research interests was reflected in the twelve invited lectures by A Beige, I Bengtsson, K Brown, N Cerf, E Corrigan, J Ladyman, A J Macfarlane, S Majid, C Manogue, S Popescu, J Ryan and R W Tucker. This Festschrift, also made possible by the generosity of the IOP and the LMS, reproduces the majority of these contributions together with other invited papers. Tony obtained his PhD from the University of Cambridge in 1970. His thesis, written under the guidance of Alan Macfarlane, is entitled Some aspects of chiral su(3) × su(3) symmetry in hadron dynamics. He arrived in York in 1971 with his wife Rodie, two young daughters, a lively mind and a very contemporary shock of hair. He was at that stage interested in mathematical physics and so was classed as an applied mathematician in the departmental division in place at that time. But luckily Tony did not fit into this category. His curiosity is combined with a good nose for problems and his capacity for knocking off conjectures impressed us all. Within a short time of his arrival he was writing papers on group theory, complex analysis and combinatorics, while continuing to work on quantum mechanics. His important paper on quaternionic analysis is an example of the imagination and elegance of his ideas. By developing a derivative, he replaced the relatively obscure analytical theory of quaternions by one informed by modern complex analysis. Other interests emerged, centred round the quantum: quantum mechanics and its foundations, quantum groups and quantum information. He didn't just dabble in these areas but mastered them, gaining a national
Molecular model with quantum mechanical bonding information.
Bohórquez, Hugo J; Boyd, Russell J; Matta, Chérif F
2011-11-17
The molecular structure can be defined quantum mechanically thanks to the theory of atoms in molecules. Here, we report a new molecular model that reflects quantum mechanical properties of the chemical bonds. This graphical representation of molecules is based on the topology of the electron density at the critical points. The eigenvalues of the Hessian are used for depicting the critical points three-dimensionally. The bond path linking two atoms has a thickness that is proportional to the electron density at the bond critical point. The nuclei are represented according to the experimentally determined atomic radii. The resulting molecular structures are similar to the traditional ball and stick ones, with the difference that in this model each object included in the plot provides topological information about the atoms and bonding interactions. As a result, the character and intensity of any given interatomic interaction can be identified by visual inspection, including the noncovalent ones. Because similar bonding interactions have similar plots, this tool permits the visualization of chemical bond transferability, revealing the presence of functional groups in large molecules.
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
2015-10-01
We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.
Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source
Quantum Limitations on the Storage and Transmission of Information
Bekenstein, J D; Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo
1990-01-01
Information must take up space, must weigh, and its flux must be limited. Quantum limits on communication and information storage leading to these conclusions are here described. Quantum channel capacity theory is reviewed for both steady state and burst communication. An analytic approximation is given for the maximum signal information possible with occupation number signal states as a function of mean signal energy. A theorem guaranteeing that these states are optimal for communication is proved. A heuristic "proof" of the linear bound on communication is given, followed by rigorous proofs for signals with specified mean energy, and for signals with given energy budget. And systems of many parallel quantum channels are shown to obey the linear bound for a natural channel architecture. The time--energy uncertainty principle is reformulated in information language by means of the linear bound. The quantum bound on information storage capacity of quantum mechanical and quantum field devices is reviewed. A sim...
What information theory can tell us about quantum reality
Adami, C
1998-01-01
An investigation of Einstein's ``physical'' reality and the concept of quantum reality in terms of information theory suggests a solution to quantum paradoxes such as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) and the Schroedinger-cat paradoxes. Quantum reality, the picture based on unitarily evolving wavefunctions, is complete, but appears incomplete from the observer's point of view for fundamental reasons arising from the quantum information theory of measurement. Physical reality, the picture based on classically accessible observables is, in the worst case of EPR experiments, unrelated to the quantum reality it purports to reflect. Thus, quantum information theory implies that only correlations, not the correlata, are physically accessible: the mantra of the Ithaca interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Quantum Information Processing in the Radical-Pair Mechanism
Mouloudakis, K
2016-01-01
Radical-ion-pair reactions, central for understanding the avian magnetic compass and spin transport in photosynthetic reaction centers, were recently shown to be a fruitful paradigm of the new synthesis of quantum information science with biological processes. We here show that the master equation so far constituting the theoretical foundation of spin chemistry violates fundamental bounds for the entropy of quantum systems, in particular the Ozawa bound. In contrast, a recently developed theory based on quantum measurements, quantum coherence measures and quantum retrodiction, thus exemplifying the paradigm of quantum biology, satisfies the Ozawa bound as well as the Lanford-Robinson bound on information extraction. By considering the quantum information extracted during the reaction we unravel new magnetic-field effects not conveyed by reaction yields.
Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly of Continuous Distributed Asymmetric Information
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xia; YANG Xiao-Hua; MIAO Lin; ZHOU Xiang; HU Cheng-Zheng
2007-01-01
The minimal quantization structure is employed to investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed asymmetric information, I.e. The first mover has incomplete information that obeys a continuous distribution while the second mover has complete information. It is found that the effects of the positive quantum entanglement on the outcomes exhibit many interesting features due to the information asymmetry. Moreover, although the first-mover advantage is counteracted by the information asymmetry, the positive quantum entanglement still enhances the first-mover advantage and improves the first-mover tolerance of the information asymmetry beyond the classical limit.
Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Kulkarni, Ravi [Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy)
2010-11-01
The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.
Cavity quantum networks for quantum information processing in decoherence-free subspace
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hua WEI; Zhi-jiao DENG; Wan-li YANG; Fei ZHOU
2009-01-01
We give a brief review on the quantum infor- mation processing in decoherence-free subspace (DFS). We show how to realize the initialization of the entangled quantum states, information transfer and teleportation of quantum states, two-qubit Grover search and how to construct the quantum network in DFS, within the cav- ity QED regime based on a cavity-assisted interaction by single-photon pulses.
Direct approach to quantum extensions of Fisher information
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ping; LUO Shunlong
2007-01-01
By manipulating classical Fisher information and employing various derivatives of density operators, and using entirely intuitive and direct methods, we introduce two families of quantum extensions of Fisher information that include those defined via the symmetric logarithmic derivative, via the right logarithmic derivative, via the Bogoliubov-Kubo-Mori derivative, as well as via the derivative in terms of commutators, as special cases. Some fundamental properties of these quantum extensions of Fisher information are investigated, a multi-parameter quantum Cramér-Rao inequality is established, and applications to characterizing quantum uncertainty are illustrated.
Logarithm Versus Square Root:Comparing Quantum Fisher Information
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Shun-Long
2007-01-01
In classical statistics,the Fisher information is unique in the sense that it is essentially the only monotone Riemannian metric on the space of probability densities.In quantum theory,this uniqueness breaks down,and there are many natural quantum analogues of the Fisher information,among which two particular versions distinguish themselves by their intuitive and informational significance:The first has its origin in the skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase in 1963 in the context of quantum measurement,and is defined via the square root of the density operator.The second arises from Helstrom's study of quantum detection in 1967,and is defined via the symmetric logarithmic derivative.The aim of this paper is to compare these two versions of quantum Fisher information,and to establish two informational inequalities relating them.
The black hole information problem beyond quantum theory
Mueller, Markus P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O
2012-01-01
The origin of black hole entropy and the black hole information problem provide important clues for trying to piece together a quantum theory of gravity. Thus far, discussions on this topic have mostly assumed that in a consistent theory of gravity and quantum mechanics, quantum theory will be unmodified. Here, we examine the black hole information problem in the context of generalisations of quantum theory. In particular, we examine black holes in the setting of generalised probabilistic theories, in which quantum theory and classical probability theory are special cases. We compute the time it takes information to escape a black hole, assuming that information is preserved. We find that under some very general assumptions, the arguments of Page (that information should escape the black hole after half the Hawking photons have been emitted), and the black-hole mirror result of Hayden and Preskill (that information can escape quickly) need to be modified. The modification is determined entirely by what we cal...
A universal quantum information processor for scalable quantum communication and networks.
Yang, Xihua; Xue, Bolin; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhu, Shiyao
2014-10-15
Entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum networks. How to conveniently and efficiently realize the generation, distribution, storage, retrieval, and control of multipartite entanglement is the basic requirement for realistic quantum information processing. Here, we present a theoretical proposal to efficiently and conveniently achieve a universal quantum information processor (QIP) via atomic coherence in an atomic ensemble. The atomic coherence, produced through electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the Λ-type configuration, acts as the QIP and has full functions of quantum beam splitter, quantum frequency converter, quantum entangler, and quantum repeater. By employing EIT-based nondegenerate four-wave mixing processes, the generation, exchange, distribution, and manipulation of light-light, atom-light, and atom-atom multipartite entanglement can be efficiently and flexibly achieved in a deterministic way with only coherent light fields. This method greatly facilitates the operations in quantum information processing, and holds promising applications in realistic scalable quantum communication and quantum networks.
Jerusalem Lectures on Black Holes and Quantum Information
Harlow, Daniel
2014-01-01
In these lectures I give an introduction to the quantum physics of black holes, including recent developments based on quantum information theory such as the firewall paradox and its various cousins. I also give an introduction to holography and the AdS/CFT correspondence, focusing on those aspects which are relevant for the black hole information problem.
Jerusalem lectures on black holes and quantum information
Harlow, D.
2016-01-01
These lectures give an introduction to the quantum physics of black holes, including recent developments based on quantum information theory such as the firewall paradox and its various cousins. An introduction is also given to holography and the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, focusing on those aspects which are relevant for the black hole information problem.
Quantum theory from first principles an informational approach
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2017-01-01
Quantum theory is the soul of theoretical physics. It is not just a theory of specific physical systems, but rather a new framework with universal applicability. This book shows how we can reconstruct the theory from six information-theoretical principles, by rebuilding the quantum rules from the bottom up. Step by step, the reader will learn how to master the counterintuitive aspects of the quantum world, and how to efficiently reconstruct quantum information protocols from first principles. Using intuitive graphical notation to represent equations, and with shorter and more efficient derivations, the theory can be understood and assimilated with exceptional ease. Offering a radically new perspective on the field, the book contains an efficient course of quantum theory and quantum information for undergraduates. The book is aimed at researchers, professionals, and students in physics, computer science and philosophy, as well as the curious outsider seeking a deeper understanding of the theory.
Concepts of a quantum information theory of many letters
Boström, K J
2000-01-01
A theoretical framework is presented allowing the treatment of quantum messages with components of variable length. To this aim a many-letter space is constructed which turns out to be a natural space for quantum messages of this type, generalizing the usual fixed-length quantum information theory which is fully contained within this framework. An observable is defined measuring the amount of quantum information carried by a particular message, with the "qbit" obtaining a second meaning as its unit. A general characterization of quantum codes is given where compression codes are defined by their property of decreasing the average information content of a given a priori message ensemble. A lossless quantum coding scheme - analog to the classical Huffman scheme but different from the Braunstein scheme - is implemented, which not only ensures perfect fidelity in retrieving the original messages but also provides optimal compression.
Quantum information processing with finite resources mathematical foundations
Tomamichel, Marco
2016-01-01
This book provides the reader with the mathematical framework required to fully explore the potential of small quantum information processing devices. As decoherence will continue to limit their size, it is essential to master the conceptual tools which make such investigation possible. A strong emphasis is given to information measures that are essential for the study of devices of finite size, including Rényi entropies and smooth entropies. The presentation is self-contained and includes rigorous and concise proofs of the most important properties of these measures. The first chapters will introduce the formalism of quantum mechanics, with particular emphasis on norms and metrics for quantum states. This is necessary to explore quantum generalizations of Rényi divergence and conditional entropy, information measures that lie at the core of information theory. The smooth entropy framework is discussed next and provides a natural means to lift many arguments from information theory to the quantum setting. F...
On the Possibility of Quantum Informational Structural Realism
Bynum, Terrell Ward
2013-01-01
In The Philosophy of Information (2011 book), Luciano Floridi presents an ontological theory of Being qua Being, which he calls "Informational Structural Realism", a theory which applies, he says, to every possible world. He identifies primordial information ("dedomena") as the foundation of any structure in any possible world. The present essay examines Floridi's defense of that theory, as well as his refutation of "Digital Ontology" (which some people might confuse with his own). Then, using Floridi's ontology as a starting point, the present essay adds quantum features to dedomena, yielding an ontological theory for our own universe, Quantum Informational Structural Realism, which provides a metaphysical interpretation of key quantum phenomena, and diminishes the "weirdness" or "spookiness" of quantum mechanics. Key Words: digital ontology, dedomena, structural realism, quantum information, primordial qubit
Photonic Architecture for Scalable Quantum Information Processing in Diamond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kae Nemoto
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Physics and information are intimately connected, and the ultimate information processing devices will be those that harness the principles of quantum mechanics. Many physical systems have been identified as candidates for quantum information processing, but none of them are immune from errors. The challenge remains to find a path from the experiments of today to a reliable and scalable quantum computer. Here, we develop an architecture based on a simple module comprising an optical cavity containing a single negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Modules are connected by photons propagating in a fiber-optical network and collectively used to generate a topological cluster state, a robust substrate for quantum information processing. In principle, all processes in the architecture can be deterministic, but current limitations lead to processes that are probabilistic but heralded. We find that the architecture enables large-scale quantum information processing with existing technology.
Quantum Information Biology: From Theory of Open Quantum Systems to Adaptive Dynamics
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
This chapter reviews quantum(-like) information biology (QIB). Here biology is treated widely as even covering cognition and its derivatives: psychology and decision making, sociology, and behavioral economics and finances. QIB provides an integrative description of information processing by bio-systems at all scales of life: from proteins and cells to cognition, ecological and social systems. Mathematically QIB is based on the theory of adaptive quantum systems (which covers also open quantum systems). Ideologically QIB is based on the quantum-like (QL) paradigm: complex bio-systems process information in accordance with the laws of quantum information and probability. This paradigm is supported by plenty of statistical bio-data collected at all bio-scales. QIB re ects the two fundamental principles: a) adaptivity; and, b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). In addition, quantum adaptive dynamics provides the most generally possible mathematical representation of these principles.
A Matter of Principle: The Principles of Quantum Theory, Dirac's Equation, and Quantum Information
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2015-01-01
This article is concerned with the role of fundamental principles in theoretical physics, especially quantum theory. The fundamental principles of relativity will be be addressed as well in view of their role in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, specifically Dirac's work, which, in particular Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation for the electron from the principles of relativity and quantum theory, is the main focus of this article. I shall, however, also consider Heisenberg's derivation of quantum mechanics, which inspired Dirac. I argue that Heisenberg's and Dirac's work alike was guided by their adherence to and confidence in the fundamental principles of quantum theory. The final section of the article discusses the recent work by G. M. D' Ariano and his coworkers on the principles of quantum information theory, which extends quantum theory and its principles in a new direction. This extension enabled them to offer a new derivation of Dirac's equation from these principles alone...
The future (and past) of quantum theory after the Higgs boson: a quantum-informational viewpoint.
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2016-05-28
Taking as its point of departure the discovery of the Higgs boson, this article considers quantum theory, including quantum field theory, which predicted the Higgs boson, through the combined perspective of quantum information theory and the idea of technology, while also adopting anon-realistinterpretation, in 'the spirit of Copenhagen', of quantum theory and quantum phenomena themselves. The article argues that the 'events' in question in fundamental physics, such as the discovery of the Higgs boson (a particularly complex and dramatic, but not essentially different, case), are made possible by the joint workings of three technologies: experimental technology, mathematical technology and, more recently, digital computer technology. The article will consider the role of and the relationships among these technologies, focusing on experimental and mathematical technologies, in quantum mechanics (QM), quantum field theory (QFT) and finite-dimensional quantum theory, with which quantum information theory has been primarily concerned thus far. It will do so, in part, by reassessing the history of quantum theory, beginning with Heisenberg's discovery of QM, in quantum-informational and technological terms. This history, the article argues, is defined by the discoveries of increasingly complex configurations of observed phenomena and the emergence of the increasingly complex mathematical formalism accounting for these phenomena, culminating in the standard model of elementary-particle physics, defining the current state of QFT.
Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nastasiuk, V.A., E-mail: nasa@i.ua
2015-09-25
The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones. - Highlights: • The financial Schrödinger equation is derived using the principle of minimum Fisher information. • Statistical models for price variation are mapped by the quantum models of coupled particle. • The model of quantum particle in parabolic potential well corresponds to Efficient market.
Realism and Antirealism in Informational Foundations of Quantum Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tina Bilban
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Zeilinger-Brukner's informational foundations of quantum theory, a theory based on Zeilinger's foundational principle for quantum mechanics that an elementary system carried one bit of information, explains seemingly unintuitive quantum behavior with simple theoretical framework. It is based on the notion that distinction between reality and information cannot be made, therefore they are the same. As the critics of informational foundations of quantum theory show, this antirealistic move captures the theory in tautology, where information only refers to itself, while the relationships outside the information with the help of which the nature of information would be defined are lost and the questions "Whose information? Information about what?" cannot be answered. The critic's solution is a return to realism, where the observer's effects on the information are neglected. We show that radical antirealism of informational foundations of quantum theory is not necessary and that the return to realism is not the only way forward. A comprehensive approach that exceeds mere realism and antirealism is also possible: we can consider both sources of the constraints on the information, those coming from the observer and those coming from the observed system/nature/reality. The information is always the observer's information about the observed. Such a comprehensive philosophical approach can still support the theoretical framework of informational foundations of quantum theory: If we take that one bit is the smallest amount of information in the form of which the observed reality can be grasped by the observer, we can say that an elementary system (grasped and defined as such by the observer correlates to one bit of information. Our approach thus explains all the features of the quantum behavior explained by informational foundations of quantum theory: the wave function and its collapse, entanglement, complementarity and quantum randomness. However, it does
Quantum channel for the transmission of information
Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.
2004-01-13
Systems and methods are described for a quantum channel for the transmission of information. A method includes: down converting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; changing a phase of at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam to generate a first interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam; combining the first interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam with a second interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam within a single beam splitter; wherein combining includes erasing energy and momentum characteristics from both the first interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam and the second interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam; splitting the first interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam and the second interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam within the single beam splitter, wherein splitting yields a first output beam of multi-color entangled photons and a second output beam of multi-color entangled photons; and modulating the first output beam of multi-color entangled photons.
Virtual photonic couplings of quantum nanostructures for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matsueda, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Ducommun, Y.
2008-01-01
of a model of resonance dynamic multipolemultipole interaction (RDMMI), on the basis of microphotoluminescence (μ-PL) experiment of a single asymmetric pair of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs). The ranges of the mediating photons in various RDMMI are estimated, proving the significance of RDMMI...
Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars Skovgaard
2012-01-01
The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states...... in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with current....... Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot...
Schrodinger cats and their power for quantum information processing
Gilchrist, A; Munro, W J; Ralph, T C; Glancy, S; Braunstein, S L; Milburn, G J; Nemoto, Kae; Braunstein, Samuel. L.
2003-01-01
We outline a toolbox comprised of passive optical elements, single photon detection and superpositions of coherent states (Schrodinger cat states). Such a toolbox is a powerful collection of primitives for quantum information processing tasks. We illustrate its use by outlining a proposal for universal quantum computation. We utilize this toolbox for quantum metrology applications, for instance weak force measurements and precise phase estimation. We show in both these cases that a sensitivity at the Heisenberg limit is achievable.
BOOK REVIEW: Time, Quantum and Information
Turner, Leaf
2004-04-01
Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsäcker’s endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsäcker’s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsäcker’s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsäcker’s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsäcker’s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsäcker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsäcker’s work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before
Bose, Ranojoy
In this thesis, we study solution-processed lead sulfide quantum dots for near-infrared quantum information and communication applications. Quantum dots processed through synthetic routes and colloidally suspended in solution offer far-reaching device application possibilities that are unparalelled in traditional self-assembled quantum dots. Lead sulfide quantum dots are especially promising for near-infrared quantum optics due to their optical emission at the wavelengths of fiber-optic communications (1.3--1.5 microm). The broad absorption spectrum of these quantum dots can be used for solar light-harvesting applications, to which end the results of Chapter 2---where we study Forster resonance energy transfer in quantum dot solids---provide remarkable insights into photon emission from quantum-dot based solar cells. In subsequent chapters, we explore quantum-dot photonic crystal applications, where exciton-photon interactions in the cavity environment remarkably allow for the emission of indistinguishable single photons that are important for distribution of high-security quantum keys---being highly sensitive to 'eavesdropping'. Particularly, the suggestion of the solution-processed QED system is novel compared to traditional self-assembled systems, and as we will discuss, offer integration and processing capabilities that are unprecedented, and perform well at wavelength ranges where standard QED systems scale poorly. The results of chapters 3--6 are therefore significant in the general field of cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Quantum Teleportation with an Accelerated Observer and Black Hole Information
Shiokawa, K
2009-01-01
Nonperturbative analysis of quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation protocol using oscillator variables carried by observers in relativistic motion under the continuous influence of the environment is given. The full time evolution of quantum entanglement among static and accelerated observers is studied. The environment plays a dual role. While it creates bipartite and tripartite entanglement among observers even when the initial state is separable, it suppresses the entanglement via decoherence. Motivated by the black hole information problem, we consider quantum teleportation between static and accelerated observers. Acceleration of the observer suppresses fidelity of teleportation. Some of the quantum information escapes outside of the horizon in the form of bipartite and tripartite entanglement during the teleportation process. Explicit calculation of information loss is provided. In addition to the loss due to the interaction with the environment, there is an intrinsic loss originated in a measur...
A quantum information theoretic analysis of three flavor neutrino oscillations
Banerjee, Subhashish; Srikanth, R; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C
2015-01-01
Correlations exhibited by neutrino oscillations are studied via quantum information theoretic quantities. We show that the strongest type of entanglement, genuine multipartite entanglement, is persistent in the flavour changing states. We prove the existence of Bell-type nonlocal features, in both its absolute and genuine avatars. Finally, we show that a measure of nonclassicality, dissension, which is a generalization of quantum discord to the tripartite case, is nonzero for almost the entire range of time in the evolution of an initial electron-neutrino. Via these quantum information theoretic quantities capturing different aspects of quantum correlations, we elucidate the differences between the flavour types, shedding light on the quantum-information theoretic aspects of the weak force.
La Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy for Applications in Quantum Information
Becker, Patrick; Donoghue, Liz; Dungan, Kristina; Liu, Jackie; Olmschenk, Steven
2015-05-01
Quantum information may revolutionize computation and communication by utilizing quantum systems based on matter quantum bits and entangled light. Ions are excellent candidates for quantum bits as they can be well-isolated from unwanted external influences by trapping and laser cooling. Doubly-ionized lanthanum in particular shows promise for use in quantum information as it has infrared transitions in the telecom band, with low attenuation in standard optical fiber, potentially allowing for long distance information transfer. However, the hyperfine splittings of the lowest energy levels, required for laser cooling, have not been measured. We present progress and recent results towards measuring the hyperfine splittings of these levels in lanthanum by saturated absorption spectroscopy with a hollow cathode lamp. This research is supported by the Army Research Office, Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and Denison University.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Maurya Ajay K; Mishra Manoj K; Prakash Hari
2016-03-01
The idea of secure quantum information exchange (SQIE) [{\\it J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.} 44, 115504 (2011)] is introduced for the secure exchange of single qubit information states between two legitimate users, Alice and Bob. In the present paper, we extend this original SQIE protocol by presenting a scheme, which enables the secure exchange of n-single qubit information states among the n nodes of a quantum network, with the aid of a special kind of 4$n$-qubit entangled state and the classical assistance of an extra participant Charlie. For experimental realization of our extended SQIE protocol, we suggest an efficient scheme for the generation of a special kind of 4n-qubit entangled state using the interaction between highly detuned $\\Lambda$-type three-level atoms and optical coherent field. Further, by discussing the various experimental parameters, we show that the special kind 4$n$-qubit entangled state can be generated with the presently available technology.
Quantum teleportation and entanglement. A hybrid approach to optical quantum information procesing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furusawa, Akira [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Physics; Loock, Peter van [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Optik
2011-07-01
Unique in that it is jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist, this monograph presents universal quantum computation based on quantum teleportation as an elementary subroutine and multi-party entanglement as a universal resource. Optical approaches to measurement-based quantum computation are also described, including schemes for quantum error correction, with most of the experiments carried out by the authors themselves. Ranging from the theoretical background to the details of the experimental realization, the book describes results and advances in the field, backed by numerous illustrations of the authors' experimental setups. Aimed at researchers, physicists, and graduate and PhD students in physics, theoretical quantum optics, quantum mechanics, and quantum information. (orig.)
Uncertainty relations based on skew information with quantum memory
Ma, ZhiHao; Chen, ZhiHua; Fei, Shao-Ming
2017-01-01
We present a new uncertainty relation by defining a measure of uncertainty based on skew information. For bipartite systems, we establish uncertainty relations with the existence of a quantum memory. A general relation between quantum correlations and tight bounds of uncertainty has been presented.
Modular quantum-information processing by dissipation
Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2016-11-01
Dissipation can be used as a resource to control and simulate quantum systems. We discuss a modular model based on fast dissipation capable of performing universal quantum computation, and simulating arbitrary Lindbladian dynamics. The model consists of a network of elementary dissipation-generated modules and it is in principle scalable. In particular, we demonstrate the ability to dissipatively prepare all single-qubit gates, and the controlled-not gate; prerequisites for universal quantum computing. We also show a way to implement a type of quantum memory in a dissipative environment, whereby we can arbitrarily control the loss in both coherence, and concurrence, over the evolution. Moreover, our dissipation-assisted modular construction exhibits a degree of inbuilt robustness to Hamiltonian and, indeed, Lindbladian errors, and as such is of potential practical relevance.
Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing
Université de Genève
2011-01-01
Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...
Information complementarity in multipartite quantum states and security in cryptography
Bera, Anindita; Kumar, Asutosh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2016-03-01
We derive complementarity relations for arbitrary quantum states of multiparty systems of any number of parties and dimensions between the purity of a part of the system and several correlation quantities, including entanglement and other quantum correlations as well as classical and total correlations, of that part with the remainder of the system. We subsequently use such a complementarity relation between purity and quantum mutual information in the tripartite scenario to provide a bound on the secret key rate for individual attacks on a quantum key distribution protocol.
Vitalis, K. M.; Kominis, I. K.
2016-01-01
Radical-ion pairs and their reactions have triggered the study of quantum effects in biological systems. This is because they exhibit a number of effects best understood within quantum information science, and at the same time are central in understanding the avian magnetic compass and the spin transport dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers. Here we address radical-pair reactions from the perspective of quantum metrology. Since the coherent spin motion of radical-pairs is effected by a...
The capacity of black holes to transmit quantum information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brádler, Kamil [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University,Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Adami, Christoph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)
2014-05-21
We study the properties of the quantum information transmission channel that emerges from the quantum dynamics of particles interacting with a black hole horizon. We calculate the quantum channel capacity in two limiting cases where a single-letter capacity is known to exist: the limit of perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing black holes. We find that the perfectly reflecting black hole channel is closely related to the Unruh channel and that its capacity is non-vanishing, allowing for the perfect reconstruction of quantum information outside of the black hole horizon. We also find that the complementary channel (transmitting entanglement behind the horizon) is entanglement-breaking in this case, with vanishing capacity. We then calculate the quantum capacity of the black hole channel in the limit of a perfectly absorbing black hole and find that this capacity vanishes, while the capacity of the complementary channel is non-vanishing instead. Rather than inviting a new crisis for quantum physics, this finding instead is in accordance with the quantum no-cloning theorem, because it guarantees that there are no space-like surfaces that contain both the sender’s quantum state and the receiver’s reconstructed quantum state.
Abstract algebra, projective geometry and time encoding of quantum information
Planat, M R P; Planat, Michel R. P.; Saniga, Metod
2005-01-01
Algebraic geometrical concepts are playing an increasing role in quantum applications such as coding, cryptography, tomography and computing. We point out here the prominent role played by Galois fields viewed as cyclotomic extensions of the integers modulo a prime characteristic $p$. They can be used to generate efficient cyclic encoding, for transmitting secrete quantum keys, for quantum state recovery and for error correction in quantum computing. Finite projective planes and their generalization are the geometric counterpart to cyclotomic concepts, their coordinatization involves Galois fields, and they have been used repetitively for enciphering and coding. Finally the characters over Galois fields are fundamental for generating complete sets of mutually unbiased bases, a generic concept of quantum information processing and quantum entanglement. Gauss sums over Galois fields ensure minimum uncertainty under such protocols. Some Galois rings which are cyclotomic extensions of the integers modulo 4 are al...
Quantum information processing with superconducting circuits: a review
Wendin, G.
2017-10-01
During the last ten years, superconducting circuits have passed from being interesting physical devices to becoming contenders for near-future useful and scalable quantum information processing (QIP). Advanced quantum simulation experiments have been shown with up to nine qubits, while a demonstration of quantum supremacy with fifty qubits is anticipated in just a few years. Quantum supremacy means that the quantum system can no longer be simulated by the most powerful classical supercomputers. Integrated classical-quantum computing systems are already emerging that can be used for software development and experimentation, even via web interfaces. Therefore, the time is ripe for describing some of the recent development of superconducting devices, systems and applications. As such, the discussion of superconducting qubits and circuits is limited to devices that are proven useful for current or near future applications. Consequently, the centre of interest is the practical applications of QIP, such as computation and simulation in Physics and Chemistry.
Scalable quantum information processing with photons and atoms
Pan, Jian-Wei
Over the past three decades, the promises of super-fast quantum computing and secure quantum cryptography have spurred a world-wide interest in quantum information, generating fascinating quantum technologies for coherent manipulation of individual quantum systems. However, the distance of fiber-based quantum communications is limited due to intrinsic fiber loss and decreasing of entanglement quality. Moreover, probabilistic single-photon source and entanglement source demand exponentially increased overheads for scalable quantum information processing. To overcome these problems, we are taking two paths in parallel: quantum repeaters and through satellite. We used the decoy-state QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon source, and used the measurement-device-independent QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon detectors--two main loopholes in quantum cryptograph. Based on these techniques, we are now building world's biggest quantum secure communication backbone, from Beijing to Shanghai, with a distance exceeding 2000 km. Meanwhile, we are developing practically useful quantum repeaters that combine entanglement swapping, entanglement purification, and quantum memory for the ultra-long distance quantum communication. The second line is satellite-based global quantum communication, taking advantage of the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the atmosphere. We realized teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100 km, and later on a rapidly moving platform. We are also making efforts toward the generation of multiphoton entanglement and its use in teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle, topological error correction, quantum algorithms for solving systems of linear equations and machine learning. Finally, I will talk about our recent experiments on quantum simulations on ultracold atoms. On the one hand, by applying an optical Raman lattice technique, we realized a two-dimensional spin-obit (SO
Entropy in quantum information theory - Communication and cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Majenz, Christian
to density matrices, the von Neumann entropy behaves dierently. The latter does not, for example, have the monotonicity property that the latter possesses: When adding another quantum system, the entropy can decrease. A long-standing open question is, whether there are quantum analogues of unconstrained non......Entropies have been immensely useful in information theory. In this Thesis, several results in quantum information theory are collected, most of which use entropy as the main mathematical tool. The rst one concerns the von Neumann entropy. While a direct generalization of the Shannon entropy...... in quantum Shannon theory. While immensely more entanglement-consuming, the variant of port based teleportation is interesting for applications like instantaneous non-local computation and attacks on quantum position-based cryptography. Port based teleportation cannot be implemented perfectly...
Quantum field theory, statistical physics, and information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toyoda, Tadashi [Tokai Univ., Kanagawa (Japan)
2001-05-01
It is shown that the one-particle Matsubara temperature Green's function can be regarded as a Fisher information matrix on the basis of the quantum generalization of relative entropy due to Watanabe and Neumann.
Why genetic information processing could have a quantum basis
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Apoorva Patel
2001-06-01
Living organisms are not just random collections of organic molecules. There is continuous information processing going on in the apparent bouncing around of molecules of life. Optimization criteria in this information processing can be searched for using the laws of physics. Quantum dynamics can explain why living organisms have 4 nucleotide bases and 20 amino acids, as optimal solutions of the molecular assembly process. Experiments should be able to tell whether evolution indeed took advantage of quantum dynamics or not.
Optomechanical transducers for quantum information processing
Stannigel, K; Sørensen, A S; Lukin, M D; Zoller, P
2011-01-01
We discuss the implementation of optical quantum networks where the interface between stationary and photonic qubits is realized by optomechanical transducers [K. Stannigel et al., PRL 105, 220501 (2010)]. This approach does not rely on the optical properties of the qubit and thereby enables optical quantum communication applications for a wide range of solid-state spin- and charge-based systems. We present an effective description of such networks for many qubits and give a derivation of a state transfer protocol for long-distance quantum communication. We also describe how to mediate local on-chip interactions by means of the optomechanical transducers that can be used for entangling gates. We finally discuss experimental systems for the realization of our proposal.
Probabilistic Teleportation via Quantum Channel with Partial Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Desheng Liu
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Two novel schemes are proposed to teleport an unknown two-level quantum state probabilistically when the sender and the receiver only have partial information about the quantum channel, respectively. This is distinct from the fact that either the sender or the receiver has entire information about the quantum channel in previous schemes for probabilistic teleportation. Theoretical analysis proves that these schemes are straightforward, efficient and cost-saving. The concrete realization procedures of our schemes are presented in detail, and the result shows that our proposals could extend the application range of probabilistic teleportation.
Exponential speed-up with a single bit of quantum information: Testing the quantum butterfly effect
Poulin, D; Laflamme, R; Ollivier, H; Poulin, David; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Laflamme, Raymond; Ollivier, Harold
2003-01-01
We present an efficient quantum algorithm to measure the average fidelity decay of a quantum map under perturbation using a single bit of quantum information. Our algorithm scales only as the complexity of the map under investigation, so for those maps admitting an efficient gate decomposition, it provides an exponential speed up over known classical procedures. Fidelity decay is important in the study of complex dynamical systems, where it is conjectured to be a signature of quantum chaos. Our result also illustrates the role of chaos in the process of decoherence.
Applied research of quantum information based on linear optics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Xiao-Ye
2016-08-01
This thesis reports on outstanding work in two main subfields of quantum information science: one involves the quantum measurement problem, and the other concerns quantum simulation. The thesis proposes using a polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer to achieve partial collapse measurement and its reversal, and presents the first experimental verification of the nonlocality of the partial collapse measurement and its reversal. All of the experiments are carried out in the linear optical system, one of the earliest experimental systems to employ quantum communication and quantum information processing. The thesis argues that quantum measurement can yield quantum entanglement recovery, which is demonstrated by using the frequency freedom to simulate the environment. Based on the weak measurement theory, the author proposes that white light can be used to precisely estimate phase, and effectively demonstrates that the imaginary part of the weak value can be introduced by means of weak measurement evolution. Lastly, a nine-order polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer employing bulk optics is constructed to perform quantum simulation of the Landau-Zener evolution, and by tuning the system Hamiltonian, the first experiment to research the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in non-equilibrium kinetics processes is carried out in the linear optical system.
Smooth Rényi Entropy of Ergodic Quantum Information Sources
Schoenmakers, Berry; Tjoelker, Jilles; Tuyls, Pim; Verbitskiy, Evgeny
2007-01-01
We investigate the recently introduced notion of smooth Rényi entropy for the case of ergodic information sources, thereby generalizing previous work which concentrated mainly on i.i.d. information sources. We will actually consider ergodic quantum information sources, of which ergodic classical
Smooth Rényi Entropy of Ergodic Quantum Information Sources
Schoenmakers, Berry; Tjoelker, Jilles; Tuyls, Pim; Verbitskiy, Evgeny
2007-01-01
We investigate the recently introduced notion of smooth Rényi entropy for the case of ergodic information sources, thereby generalizing previous work which concentrated mainly on i.i.d. information sources. We will actually consider ergodic quantum information sources, of which ergodic classical inf
Scalable Quantum Information Processing and Applications
2008-01-19
technique to accelerate the computation of states of the non-separable Schroedinger operator. The development of the iterative method was...from fully 3-dimensional self-consistent Poisson- Schroedinger calculations. The effects of Coulomb interaction on the quantum dot states and hence
MURI Center for Photonic Quantum Information Systems
2009-10-16
Yamamoto, "Quantum Interference Between Single Photons Emitted by Independent Semiconductor Nanodevices ," Submitted to Science (2008). 4. K. Wen, K...transitions, which can be described by a spin-fluctuator model. We showed that due to a process analogous to motional averaging in nuclear magnetic
Initialization and Readout of Spin Chains for Quantum Information Transport
Kaur, Gurneet
2011-01-01
Linear chains of spins acting as quantum wires are a promising approach to achieve scalable quantum information processors. Nuclear spins in apatite crystals provide an ideal test-bed for the experimental study of quantum information transport, as they closely emulate a one-dimensional spin chain. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques can be used to drive the spin chain dynamics and probe the accompanying transport mechanisms. Here we demonstrate initialization and readout capabilities in these spin chains, even in the absence of single-spin addressability. These control schemes enable preparing desired states for quantum information transport and probing their evolution under the transport Hamiltonian. We further optimize the control schemes by a detailed analysis of $^{19}$F NMR lineshape.
Quantum information processing in phase space: A modular variables approach
Ketterer, A.; Keller, A.; Walborn, S. P.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.
2016-08-01
Binary quantum information can be fault-tolerantly encoded in states defined in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Such states define a computational basis, and permit a perfect equivalence between continuous and discrete universal operations. The drawback of this encoding is that the corresponding logical states are unphysical, meaning infinitely localized in phase space. We use the modular variables formalism to show that, in a number of protocols relevant for quantum information and for the realization of fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, it is possible to loosen the requirements on the logical subspace without jeopardizing their usefulness or their successful implementation. Such protocols involve measurements of appropriately chosen modular variables that permit the readout of the encoded discrete quantum information from the corresponding logical states. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental feasibility of our approach by applying it to the transverse degrees of freedom of single photons.
Amplification of Information by Photons and the Quantum Chernoff Bound
Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2014-03-01
Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the ``collapse of the wavepacket,'' and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. This bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen Interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. The resultant amplification is huge, proportional to # ξQCB . Here, # is the environment size and ξQCB is the ``typical'' Quantum Chernoff Information, which quantifies the efficiency of the amplification. The information communicated though the environment is imprinted in the states of individual environment subsystems, e.g., in single photons, which document the transfer of information into the environment and result in the emergence of the classical world. See, http://mike.zwolak.org
Vitalis, K M
2016-01-01
Radical-ion pairs and their reactions have triggered the study of quantum effects in biological systems. This is because they exhibit a number of effects best understood within quantum information science, and at the same time are central in understanding the avian magnetic compass and the spin transport dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers. Here we address radical-pair reactions from the perspective of quantum metrology. Since the coherent spin motion of radical-pairs is effected by an external magnetic field, these spin-dependent reactions essentially realize a biochemical magnetometer. Using the quantum Fisher information, we find the fundamental quantum limits to the magnetic sensitivity of radical-pair magnetometers. We then explore how well the usual measurement scheme considered in radical-pair reactions, the measurement of reaction yields, approaches the fundamental limits. In doing so, we find the optimal hyperfine interaction Hamiltonian that leads to the best magnetic sensitivity as obtained...
Toward an Information-based Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Quantum-Classical Transition
Roederer, Juan G
2011-01-01
I will show how an objective definition of the concept of information and the consideration of recent results about information-processing in the human brain help clarify some fundamental and often counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics. In particular, I will discuss entanglement, teleportation, non-interaction measurements and decoherence in the light of the fact that pragmatic information, the one our brain handles, can only be defined in the classical macroscopic domain; it does not operate in the quantum domain. This justifies viewing quantum mechanics as a discipline dealing with mathematical models and procedures aimed exclusively at predicting possible macroscopic changes and their likelihood that a given quantum system may cause when it interacts with its environment, including man-made devices such as measurement instruments. I will discuss the informational and neurobiological reasons of why counter-intuitive aspects arise whenever we attempt to construct mental images of the "inner workings...
Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Bernhard
2008-11-03
The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)
A Quantum Rosetta Stone for the Information Paradox
Zayas, Leopoldo A Pando
2014-01-01
The black hole information loss paradox epitomizes the contradictions between general relativity and quantum field theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence provides an implicit answer for the information loss paradox in black hole physics by equating a gravity theory with an explicitly unitary field theory. Gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spacetimes is generically turbulent. Given that the mechanism to read out the information about correlations functions in the field theory side is plagued by deterministic classical chaos, we argue that quantum chaos might provide the true Rosetta Stone for answering the information paradox in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
A quantum Rosetta Stone for the information paradox
Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.
2014-11-01
The black hole information loss paradox epitomizes the contradictions between general relativity and quantum field theory. The AdS/conformal field theory (CFT) correspondence provides an implicit answer for the information loss paradox in black hole physics by equating a gravity theory with an explicitly unitary field theory. Gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spacetimes is generically turbulent. Given that the mechanism to read out the information about correlations functions in the field theory side is plagued by deterministic classical chaos, we argue that quantum chaos might provide the true Rosetta Stone for answering the information paradox in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Toolbox for reconstructing quantum theory from rules on information acquisition
Hoehn, Philipp A
2015-01-01
We develop a novel operational approach for reconstructing (qubit) quantum theory from elementary rules on information acquisition. The focus lies on an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and S's state is taken as O's `catalogue of knowledge' about S. The mathematical tools of the framework are simple and we attempt to highlight all underlying assumptions to provide a handle for future generalizations. Five principles are imposed, asserting (1) a limit on the amount of information available to O; (2) the mere existence of complementary information; (3) the possibility for O's information to be `in superposition'; (4) O's information to be preserved in between interrogations; and, (5) continuity of time evolution. This approach permits a constructive derivation of quantum theory, elucidating how the ensuing independence, complementarity and compatibility structure of O's questions matches that of projective measurements in quantum theory, how entanglement and monogamy of entanglement and...
Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing
Zielnicki, Kevin
Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on
Cold Trapped Ions as Quantum Information Processors
Sasura, M; Sasura, Marek; Buzek, Vladimir
2002-01-01
In this tutorial we review physical implementation of quantum computing using a system of cold trapped ions. We discuss systematically all the aspects for making the implementation possible. Firstly, we go through the loading and confining of atomic ions in the linear Paul trap, then we describe the collective vibrational motion of trapped ions. Further, we discuss interactions of the ions with a laser beam. We treat the interactions in the travelling-wave and standing-wave configuration for dipole and quadrupole transitions. We review different types of laser cooling techniques associated with trapped ions. We address Doppler cooling, sideband cooling in and beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit, sympathetic cooling and laser cooling using electromagnetically induced transparency. After that we discuss the problem of state detection using the electron shelving method. Then quantum gates are described. We introduce single-qubit rotations, two-qubit controlled-NOT and multi-qubit controlled-NOT gates. We also comment on...
Geometric algebra and information geometry for quantum computational software
Cafaro, Carlo
2017-03-01
The art of quantum algorithm design is highly nontrivial. Grover's search algorithm constitutes a masterpiece of quantum computational software. In this article, we use methods of geometric algebra (GA) and information geometry (IG) to enhance the algebraic efficiency and the geometrical significance of the digital and analog representations of Grover's algorithm, respectively. Specifically, GA is used to describe the Grover iterate and the discretized iterative procedure that exploits quantum interference to amplify the probability amplitude of the target-state before measuring the query register. The transition from digital to analog descriptions occurs via Stone's theorem which relates the (unitary) Grover iterate to a suitable (Hermitian) Hamiltonian that controls Schrodinger's quantum mechanical evolution of a quantum state towards the target state. Once the discrete-to-continuos transition is completed, IG is used to interpret Grover's iterative procedure as a geodesic path on the manifold of the parametric density operators of pure quantum states constructed from the continuous approximation of the parametric quantum output state in Grover's algorithm. Finally, we discuss the dissipationless nature of quantum computing, recover the quadratic speedup relation, and identify the superfluity of the Walsh-Hadamard operation from an IG perspective with emphasis on statistical mechanical considerations.
Quantum mechanics with applications to nanotechnology and information science
Band, Yehuda B
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information th...
Analysis of Information Leakage in Quantum Key Agreement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Sheng-li; ZHENG Dong; CHENG Ke-fei
2006-01-01
Quantum key agreement is one of the approaches to unconditional security. Since 1980's, different protocols for quantum key agreement have been proposed and analyzed. A new quantum key agreement protocol was presented in 2004, and a detailed analysis to the protocol was given. The possible game played between legitimate users and the enemy was described:sitting in the middle, an adversary can play a "man-in-the-middle" attack to cheat the sender and receiver. The information leaked to the adversary is essential to the length of the final quantum secret key. It was shown how to determine the amount of information leaked to the enemy and the amount of uncertainty between the legitimate sender and receiver.
Doubly infinite separation of quantum information and communication
Liu, Zi-Wen; Perry, Christopher; Zhu, Yechao; Koh, Dax Enshan; Aaronson, Scott
2016-01-01
We prove the existence of (one-way) communication tasks with a subconstant versus superconstant asymptotic gap, which we call "doubly infinite," between their quantum information and communication complexities. We do so by studying the exclusion game [C. Perry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030504] for which there exist instances where the quantum information complexity tends to zero as the size of the input n increases. By showing that the quantum communication complexity of these games scales at least logarithmically in n , we obtain our result. We further show that the established lower bounds and gaps still hold even if we allow a small probability of error. However in this case, the n -qubit quantum message of the zero-error strategy can be compressed polynomially.
Topological Quantum Information in a 3D Neutral Atom Array
2015-01-02
v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 12-23-2014 Final 12-01-2008-9-30-2014 ( DARPA ) TOPOLOGICAL QUANTUM INFORMATION IN A 3D NEUTRAL ATOM ARRAY FA9550-09...1-0041 David Weiss Penn State UP76XR0 AFOSR DARPA Approved for public release Work was performed to build core elements of a quantum computer...Hamiltonian within our trapped neutral atoms architecture. quantum computing, ultracold atoms David Weiss 814-861-3578 1 DARPA Final Report Grant
Quantum information processing using designed defect states in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger
2007-01-01
We propose a new physical implementation of spin qubits for quantum information processing, namely defect states in antidot lattices de¯ned in the two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. Calculations of the band structure of the periodic antidot lattice are presented......-coupled defect states is calculated numerically.We ¯nd results reminiscent of double quantum dot structures, indicating that the suggested structure is a feasible physical implementation of spin qubits....
Phase space view of quantum mechanical systems and Fisher information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagy, Á., E-mail: anagy@madget.atomki.hu
2016-06-17
Highlights: • Phase-space Fisher information coming from the canonical distribution is derived for the ground state of quantum mechanical systems. • Quantum mechanical phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. • A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator. - Abstract: Pennini and Plastino showed that the form of the Fisher information generated by the canonical distribution function reflects the intrinsic structure of classical mechanics. Now, a quantum mechanical generalization of the Pennini–Plastino theory is presented based on the thermodynamical transcription of the density functional theory. Comparing to the classical case, the phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. However, for the special case of constant temperature, the expression derived bears resemblance to the classical one. A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator.
Entropy in quantum information theory - Communication and cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Majenz, Christian
Entropies have been immensely useful in information theory. In this Thesis, several results in quantum information theory are collected, most of which use entropy as the main mathematical tool. The rst one concerns the von Neumann entropy. While a direct generalization of the Shannon entropy......-Shannon type inequalities. Here, a new constrained non-von-Neumann type inequality is proven, a step towards a conjectured unconstrained inequality by Linden and Winter. Like many other information-theoretic tasks, quantum source coding problems such as coherent state merging have recently been analyzed...... in the one-shot setting. While the case of many independent, identically distributed quantum states has been treated using the decoupling technique, the essentially optimal one-shot results in terms of the max-mutual information by Berta et al. and Anshu at al. had to bring in additional mathematical...
How an autonomous quantum Maxwell demon can harness correlated information
Chapman, Adrian; Miyake, Akimasa
2015-12-01
We study an autonomous quantum system which exhibits refrigeration under an information-work trade-off like a Maxwell demon. The system becomes correlated as a single "demon" qubit interacts sequentially with memory qubits while in contact with two heat reservoirs of different temperatures. Using strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy, we derive a global Clausius inequality to show thermodynamic advantages from access to correlated information. It is demonstrated, in a matrix product density operator formalism, that our demon can simultaneously realize refrigeration against a thermal gradient and erasure of information from its memory, which is impossible without correlations. The phenomenon can be even enhanced by the presence of quantum coherence.
Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jess Riedel, C; Zurek, Wojciech H, E-mail: criedel@physics.ucsb.edu [Theory Division, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2011-07-15
We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows-but does not stop-the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.
Quantum mechanics, common sense and the black hole information paradox
Danielsson, U H; Danielsson, Ulf H.; Schiffer, Marcelo
1993-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in the light of information theory and with the arsenal of (elementary) quantum mechanics (EPR correlations, copying machines, teleportation, mixing produced in sub-systems owing to a trace operation, etc.) the scenarios available on the market to resolve the so-called black-hole information paradox. We shall conclude that the only plausible ones are those where either the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics is given up, in which information leaks continuously in the course of black-hole evaporation through non-local processes, or those in which the world is polluted by an infinite number of meta-stable remnants.
Quantum mechanics, common sense, and the black hole information paradox
Danielsson, Ulf H.; Schiffer, Marcelo
1993-11-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyze, in the light of information theory and with the arsenal of (elementary) quantum mechanics (EPR, correlations, copying machines, teleportation, mixing produced in subsystems owing to a trace operation, etc.) the scenarios available on the market to resolve the so-called black hole information paradox. We shall conclude that the only plausible ones are those where either the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics is given up, in which information leaks continuously in the course of black hole evaporation through nonlocal processes, or those in which the world is polluted by an infinite number of metastable remnants.
Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons
Jess Riedel, C.; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2011-07-01
We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows—but does not stop—the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.
Quantum information and information loss in general relativity
Hooft, G. 't
1996-01-01
When it comes to performing thought experiments with black holes, Einstein-Bohr like discussions have to be re-opened. For instance one can ask what happens to the quantum state of a black hole when the wave function of a single ingoing particle is replaced by an other one that is orthogonal to the
Bonderson, Parsa
2010-01-01
We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems.
Bonderson, Parsa; Lutchyn, Roman M.
2011-04-01
We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kent, Adrian; Munro, William J.; Spiller, Timothy P. [Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Information Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2011-07-15
We define the task of quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, and show that protocols previously proposed by Malaney and Chandran et al. are provably insecure.
Quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits
Jun, Li; Yan, Zou
2016-02-01
We propose a scheme to realize coherent quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits. We first consider a hybrid system where a quantum dot (QD) is tunnel-coupled to a semiconductor Majorana-hosted nanowire (MNW) via using gated control as a switch, the information encoded in the superposition state of electron empty and occupied state can be transferred to each other through choosing the proper interaction time to make measurements. Then we consider another system including a double QDs and a pair of parallel MNWs, it is shown that the entanglement information transfer can be realized between the two kinds of systems. We also realize long distance quantum information transfer between two quantum dots separated by an MNW, by making use of the nonlocal fermionic level formed with the pared Majorana feimions (MFs) emerging at the two ends of the MNW. Furthermore, we analyze the teleportationlike electron transfer phenomenon predicted by Tewari et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 027001 (2008)] in our considered system. Interestingly, we find that this phenomenon exactly corresponds to the case that the information encoded in one QD just returns back to its original place during the dynamical evolution of the combined system from the perspective of quantum state transfer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304031).
Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witzel, Wayne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-11-01
Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.
Zurek, Wojciech Hubert
2007-11-01
Measurements transfer information about a system to the apparatus and then, further on, to observers and (often inadvertently) to the environment. I show that even imperfect copying essential in such situations restricts possible unperturbed outcomes to an orthogonal subset of all possible states of the system, thus breaking the unitary symmetry of its Hilbert space implied by the quantum superposition principle. Preferred outcome states emerge as a result. They provide a framework for “wave-packet collapse,” designating terminal points of quantum jumps and defining the measured observable by specifying its eigenstates. In quantum Darwinism, they are the progenitors of multiple copies spread throughout the environment—the fittest quantum states that not only survive decoherence, but subvert the environment into carrying information about them—into becoming a witness.
Survey of control performance in quantum information processing
Hocker, David; Zheng, Yicong; Kosut, Robert; Brun, Todd; Rabitz, Herschel
2016-11-01
There is a rich variety of physics underlying the fundamental gating operations for quantum information processing (QIP). A key aspect of a QIP system is how noise may enter during quantum operations and how suppressing or correcting its effects can best be addressed. Quantum control techniques have been developed to specifically address this effort, although a detailed classification of the compatibility of controls schemes with noise sources found in common quantum systems has not yet been performed. This work numerically examines the performance of modern control methods for suppressing decoherence in the presence of noise forms found in viable quantum systems. The noise-averaged process matrix for controlled one-qubit and two-qubit operations are calculated across noise found in systems driven by Markovian open quantum dynamics. Rather than aiming to describe the absolute best control scheme for a given physical circumstance, this work serves instead to classify quantum control behavior across a large class of noise forms so that opportunities for improving QIP performance may be identified.
Survey of control performance in quantum information processing
Hocker, David; Zheng, Yicong; Kosut, Robert; Brun, Todd; Rabitz, Herschel
2016-08-01
There is a rich variety of physics underlying the fundamental gating operations for quantum information processing (QIP). A key aspect of a QIP system is how noise may enter during quantum operations and how suppressing or correcting its effects can best be addressed. Quantum control techniques have been developed to specifically address this effort, although a detailed classification of the compatibility of controls schemes with noise sources found in common quantum systems has not yet been performed. This work numerically examines the performance of modern control methods for suppressing decoherence in the presence of noise forms found in viable quantum systems. The noise-averaged process matrix for controlled one-qubit and two-qubit operations are calculated across noise found in systems driven by Markovian open quantum dynamics. Rather than aiming to describe the absolute best control scheme for a given physical circumstance, this work serves instead to classify quantum control behavior across a large class of noise forms so that opportunities for improving QIP performance may be identified.
Quantum statistical gravity: time dilation due to local information in many-body quantum systems
Sels, Dries; Wouters, Michiel
2017-08-01
We propose a generic mechanism for the emergence of a gravitational potential that acts on all classical objects in a quantum system. Our conjecture is based on the analysis of mutual information in many-body quantum systems. Since measurements in quantum systems affect the surroundings through entanglement, a measurement at one position reduces the entropy in its neighbourhood. This reduction in entropy can be described by a local temperature, that is directly related to the gravitational potential. A crucial ingredient in our argument is that ideal classical mechanical motion occurs at constant probability. This definition is motivated by the analysis of entropic forces in classical systems.
Decision theory and information propagation in quantum physics
Forrester, Alan
In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule p k =| ψ k | 2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decision-theoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 3129-3137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415-438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts circularity. Deutsch and Wallace assume that the many worlds theory is true and that decoherence gives rise to a preferred basis. However, decoherence arguments use the reduced density matrix, which relies upon the partial trace and hence upon the Born rule for its validity. Using the Heisenberg picture and quantum Darwinism-the notion that classical information is quantum information that can proliferate in the environment pioneered in Ollivier et al. [(2004). Objective properties from subjective quantum states: Environment as a witness. Physical Review Letters, 93, 220401 and (2005). Environment as a witness: Selective proliferation of information and emergence of objectivity in a quantum universe. Physical Review A, 72, 042113]-I show that measurement interactions between two systems only create correlations between a specific set of commuting observables of system 1 and a specific set of commuting observables of system 2. This argument picks out a unique basis in which information flows in the correlations between those sets of commuting observables. I then derive the Born rule for both pure and mixed states and answer some other criticisms of the decision theoretic approach to quantum probability.
Quantum Bio-Informatics:From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics
Freudenberg, W; Ohya, M
2008-01-01
The purpose of this volume is examine bio-informatics and quantum information, which are growing rapidly at present, and to attempt to connect the two, with a view to enumerating and solving the many fundamental problems they entail. To this end, we look for interdisciplinary bridges in mathematics, physics, and information and life sciences. In particular, research into a new paradigm for information science and life science on the basis of quantum theory is emphasized. Sample Chapter(s). Markov Fields on Graphs (599 KB). Contents: Markov Fields on Graphs (L Accardi & H Ohno); Some Aspects of
Introduction to NMR Quantum Information Processing
Laflamme, R; Cory, D G; Fortunato, E M; Havel, T F; Miquel, C; Martínez, R; Negrevergne, C; Ortiz, G; Pravia, M A; Sharf, Y; Sinha, S; Somma, R D; Viola, L
2002-01-01
After a general introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we give the basics of implementing quantum algorithms. We describe how qubits are realized and controlled with RF pulses, their internal interactions, and gradient fields. A peculiarity of NMR is that the internal interactions (given by the internal Hamiltonian) are always on. We discuss how they can be effectively turned off with the help of a standard NMR method called ``refocusing''. Liquid state NMR experiments are done at room temperature, leading to an extremely mixed (that is, nearly random) initial state. Despite this high degree of randomness, it is possible to investigate QIP because the relaxation time (the time scale over which useful signal from a computation is lost) is sufficiently long. We explain how this feature leads to the crucial ability of simulating a pure (non-random) state by using ``pseudopure'' states. We discuss how the ``answer'' provided by a computation is obtained by measurement and how this measurement differs f...
Manipulating quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces
Zhang, Ming
2010-01-01
In this paper, we explore how to constructively manipulate quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces. It is revealed that one can make full use of distinguished properties of Pauli operators to design control Hamiltonian based on the geometric parametrization of quantum states. It is demonstrated in this research that Bang-Bang controls, triangle-function controls and square-function control can be utilized to manipulate controllable qubits or encoded qubits on controllable subspace for both open quantum dynamical systems and uncontrollable closed quantum dynamical systems. Furthermore, we propose a new kind of time-energy performance index to trade-off time and energy resource cost, and comprehensively discuss how to design control magnitude to minimize a kind of time-energy performance. A comparison has been made among these three kind of optimal control. It is underlined in this research that the optimal time performance can be always expressed as J^{*} =\\lamda{\\cdot}t^{*}_{f} +E^{*} for...
Recent progresses at IENGF on studies on quantum information
Brida, G.; Cagliero, E.; Genovese, M.; Gramegna, M.; Predazzi, E.
2005-08-01
In this proceeding we present the most recent studies performed at IEN "Galileo Ferraris" on quantum information by using quantum optical states. After a general summary of the most recent studies, among them we will present in some details the results of two recent experiments. The first was addressed to tomographic reconstruction of a quantum state by using an innovative theoretical scheme based on a variable quantum efficiency of the detector. This scheme has been applied to Fock (PDC heralded photons), coherent (attenuated laser beam) and thermal states, for which experimental results will be presented. The second was pointed to experimentally investigate the effects of fibre propagation of PDC light produced in a type II crystal and, in particular, to the restoration of entanglement due to wave packet dispersion. Also in this case we will present and discuss our most recent data. Finally, we will shortly acknowledge of realisation of a heralded photon source with strong spectral selection.
On two misconceptions in current relativistic quantum information
Bradler, Kamil
2011-01-01
We describe two problems current relativistic quantum information suffers from. The first point is an explanation of an alleged ambiguity of entropic quantities detected in a number of publications and incorrectly resolved in [M. Montero and E. Mart{\\i}n-Mart{\\i}nez, Physical Review A 83, 062323 (2011)]. We found that the problem arises due to wrong algebraic manipulations with fermions and ignoring the superselection rule for bosons and fermions. This leads to a misinterpretation of certain entropic quantities when applied to fermion fields. The second discussed point is to alert to a conceptual misunderstanding of the role of entanglement (and quantum correlations in general) in some of the studied relativistic scenarios. Instead, we argue in favor of investigating capacities of quantum channels induced by the relevant physical processes as dictated by quantum Shannon theory.
NMR Based Quantum Information Processing Achievements and Prospects
Cory, D G; Knill, E H; Viola, L; Havel, T F; Boulant, N; Boutis, G; Fortunato, E M; Lloyd, S; Martínez, R; Negrevergne, C; Pravia, M A; Sharf, Y; Teklemariam, G; Weinstein, Yu S; Zurek, W H
2000-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides an experimental setting to explore physical implementations of quantum information processing (QIP). Here we introduce the basic background for understanding applications of NMR to QIP and explain their current successes, limitations and potential. NMR spectroscopy is well known for its wealth of diverse coherent manipulations of spin dynamics. Ideas and instrumentation from liquid state NMR spectroscopy have been used to experiment with QIP. This approach has carried the field to a complexity of about 10 qubits, a small number for quantum computation but large enough for observing and better understanding the complexity of the quantum world. While liquid state NMR is the only present-day technology about to reach this number of qubits, further increases in complexity will require new methods. We sketch one direction leading towards a scalable quantum computer using spin 1/2 particles. The next step of which is a solid state NMR-based QIP capable of reaching 10-30 qub...
Wigner-Yanase skew information as tests for quantum entanglement
Chen, Z
2004-01-01
A Bell-type inequality is proposed in terms of Wigner-Yanase skew information, which is quadratic and involves only one local spin observable at each site. This inequality presents a hierarchic classification of all states of multipartite quantum systems from separable to fully entangled states, which is more powerful than the one presented by quadratic Bell inequalities from 2-entangled to fully entangled states. In particular, it is proved that the inequality provides an exact test to distinguish entangled from nonentangled pure states of two qubits. Our inequality sheds considerable new light on relationships between quantum entanglement and information theory.
On the quantum information processing in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azevedo, E.R. de; Bonk, F.A.; Vidoto, E.L.G.; Bonagamba, T.J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Sarthour, R.S.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Oliveira, I.S. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, J.C.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2003-07-01
Full text: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance appeared in the late nineties to be the most promising candidate to run quantum computing algorithms. An impressive number of experiments demonstrating the implementation of all logic gates and quantum algorithms in systems with a small number of qubits stimulated the general excitement about the technique, and greatly promoted the field. Particularly important were those experiments where entanglement of particles were aimed at. Entanglement is the most fundamental (and weird !) aspect of quantum systems, and is at the basis of quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, yet impossible to prove in NMR experiments. The hardcore of NMR quantum computing are the so-called pseudo-pure states, upon which radiofrequency (RF) pulses act to implement quantum mechanical unitary transformations, promoting changes in both, Zeeman level populations and coherences in the density matrix. Whereas pseudo-pure states are special non-equilibrium diagonal states, coherences encode information about superposition states. Now, one could safely say that the whole business of quantum computing goes about controlling relative ket phases. In spite of the impossibility to univocally associating a given quantum state to a NMR spectrum, it is possible to demonstrate the phase action of RF pulses over relative ket phases, even if no population changes take place. In this talk these issues will be addressed, and we will show experimental results of our own where this is done in the two-qubit quadrupole nuclei {sup 23}Na in C{sub 10}H{sub 21}NaO{sub 4}S liquid crystal. We demonstrate the reversibility of the Hadamard gate, and of a quantum circuit which generates pseudo-Bell states. The success of the operation reaches almost 100% in the case of the state |01+|10, 80% in the cases of |00> + |01> and |10> + |11>, and 65% for the cat-state |00> + |11>. (author)
Reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-07-01
In this short review I present my personal reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM).In general, this interpretation is very attractive for me. However, its rigid coupling to the notion of irreducible quantum randomness is a very complicated issue which I plan to address in more detail. This note may be useful for general public interested in quantum foundations, especially because I try to analyze essentials of the information interpretation critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages as it is commonly done). This review is written in non-physicist friendly manner. Experts actively exploring this interpretation may be interested in the paper as well, as in the comments of "an external observer" who have been monitoring the development of this approach to QM during the last 18 years. The last part of this review is devoted to the general methodology of science with references to views of de Finetti, Wigner, and Peres.
Reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner information interpretation of quantum mechanics
Khrennikov, Andrei
2015-01-01
In this short review I present my personal reflections on Zeilinger-Brukner information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM). In general this interpretation is very attractive for me. However, its rigid coupling to the notion of irreducible quantum randomness is a very complicated issue which I plan to enlighten in more detail. This note may be useful for general public interested in quantum foundations, especially because I try to analyze essentials of the information interpretation critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages as it is commonly done). This review is written in non-physicist friendly manner. Experts actively exploring this interpretation may be interested as well - in comments of "an external observer" who have been monitoring development of this approach to QM during last 18 years. The last part of this review is devoted to the general methodology of science with references to views of de Finetti, Wigner, and Peres.
Continuous variable quantum information: Gaussian states and beyond
Adesso, Gerardo; Lee, Antony R
2014-01-01
The study of Gaussian states has arisen to a privileged position in continuous variable quantum information in recent years. This is due to vehemently pursued experimental realisations and a magnificently elegant mathematical framework. In this article, we provide a brief, and hopefully didactic, exposition of Gaussian state quantum information and its contemporary uses, including sometimes omitted crucial details. After introducing the subject material and outlining the essential toolbox of continuous variable systems, we define the basic notions needed to understand Gaussian states and Gaussian operations. In particular, emphasis is placed on the mathematical structure combining notions of algebra and symplectic geometry fundamental to a complete understanding of Gaussian informatics. Furthermore, we discuss the quantification of different forms of correlations (including entanglement and quantum discord) for Gaussian states, paying special attention to recently developed measures. The manuscript is conclud...
Tradeoffs for reliable quantum information storage in 2D systems
Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara
2009-01-01
We ask whether there are fundamental limits on storing quantum information reliably in a bounded volume of space. To investigate this question, we study quantum error correcting codes specified by geometrically local commuting constraints on a 2D lattice of finite-dimensional quantum particles. For these 2D systems, we derive a tradeoff between the number of encoded qubits k, the distance of the code d, and the number of particles n. It is shown that kd^2=O(n) where the coefficient in O(n) depends only on the locality of the constraints and dimension of the Hilbert spaces describing individual particles. We show that the analogous tradeoff for the classical information storage is k\\sqrt{d} =O(n).
Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berta, Mario [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Seshadreesan, Kaushik P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Wilde, Mark M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2015-02-15
The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.
On the Character of Quantum Law: Complementarity, Entanglement, and Information
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2017-08-01
This article considers the relationships between the character of physical law in quantum theory and Bohr's concept of complementarity, under the assumption of the unrepresentable and possibly inconceivable nature of quantum objects and processes, an assumption that may be seen as the most radical departure from realism currently available. Complementarity, the article argues, is a reflection of the fact that, as against classical physics or relativity, the behavior of quantum objects of the same type, say, all electrons, is not governed by the same physical law in all contexts, specifically in complementary contexts. On the other hand, the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics offers correct probabilistic or statistical predictions (no other predictions are possible on experimental grounds) in all contexts, here, again, under the assumption that quantum objects themselves and their behavior are beyond representation or even conception. Bohr, in this connection, spoke of "an entirely new situation as regards the description of physical phenomena that, the notion of complementarity aims at characterizing." The article also considers the relationships among complementarity, entanglement, and quantum information, by basing these relationships on this understanding of complementarity.
Quantum-Dot-Based Photon Emission and Media Conversion for Quantum Information Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Kumano
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Single-photon as well as polarization-correlated photon pair emission from a single semiconductor quantum dots is demonstrated. Single photon generation and single photon-pair generation with little uncorrelated multiphoton emission and the feasibility of media conversion of the quantum states between photon polarization and electron spin are fundamental functions for quantum information applications. Mutual media conversion for the angular momentum between photon polarization and electron spin is also achieved with high fidelity via positively charged exciton state without external magnetic field. This is a clear indication that the coupling of photon polarizations and electron spins keeps secured during whole processes before photon emission. Possibility of a metal-embedded structure is demonstrated with the observation of drastic enhancement of excitation and/or collection efficiency of luminescence as well as clear antibunching of photons generated from a quantum dot.
Semiclassical gravity from the perspective of quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Landulfo, Andre Gustavo Scagliusi [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: Quantum field theory in curved spacetimes makes remarkable predictions about the behavior of quantum fields in the presence of strong gravitational fields. Nevertheless, these striking discoveries raises several issues. The development of a theory at the interface between relativity, quantum mechanics, and information theory could not only shed new light on such questions as well as allowing to uncover new low-energy quantum gravity effects. In this talk I will review several results in this new field. In particular it will be shown that the Bell inequalities can be satisfied rather than violated by quantum mechanics if the detectors making the measurements are set in relativistic motion. It will also be shown that the entanglement between a pair of quits can suffer a sudden death when one of the quits accelerates uniformly for a finite proper time. This result will be used to analyze the behavior of entanglement in the vicinity of a nonrotating chargeless black hole. I will end with a discussion about the prospects of the field, emphasizing the so called 'black hole information paradox' and the question of what is the microscopic origin of the black hole entropy. (author)
Lattice gauge theory simulations in the quantum information era
Dalmonte, M.; Montangero, S.
2016-07-01
The many-body problem is ubiquitous in the theoretical description of physical phenomena, ranging from the behaviour of elementary particles to the physics of electrons in solids. Most of our understanding of many-body systems comes from analysing the symmetric properties of Hamiltonian and states: the most striking examples are gauge theories such as quantum electrodynamics, where a local symmetry strongly constrains the microscopic dynamics. The physics of such gauge theories is relevant for the understanding of a diverse set of systems, including frustrated quantum magnets and the collective dynamics of elementary particles within the standard model. In the last few years, several approaches have been put forward to tackle the complex dynamics of gauge theories using quantum information concepts. In particular, quantum simulation platforms have been put forward for the realisation of synthetic gauge theories, and novel classical simulation algorithms based on quantum information concepts have been formulated. In this review, we present an introduction to these approaches, illustrating the basics concepts and highlighting the connections between apparently very different fields, and report the recent developments in this new thriving field of research.
Quantum Theory, Active Information and the Mind-Matter Problem
Pylkkänen, Paavo
Bohm and Hiley suggest that a certain new type of active information plays a key objective role in quantum processes. This chapter discusses the implications of this suggestion to our understanding of the relation between the mental and the physical aspects of reality.
Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tipsmark, Anders
2012-01-01
I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er...
Hybrid discrete- and continuous-variable quantum information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; van Loock, Peter
2015-01-01
Research in quantum information processing has followed two different directions: the use of discrete variables (qubits) and that of high-dimensional, continuous-variable Gaussian states (coherent and squeezed states). Recently, these two approaches have been converging in potentially more powerful...
Renyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information
Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M
2014-01-01
The conditional quantum mutual information $I(A;B|C)$ of a tripartite state $\\rho_{ABC}$ is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems $A$ and $B$, and that it obeys the duality relation $I(A;B|C)=I(A;B|D)$ for a four-party pure state on systems $ABCD$. It has been an open question to find Renyi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different $\\alpha$-Renyi generalizations $I_{\\alpha}(A;B|C)$ of the conditional mutual information that all converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit $\\alpha \\to 1$. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy the afo...
EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Information and Many-Body Theory
Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.
2010-02-01
Quantum many-body models describing natural systems or materials and physical systems assembled piece by piece in the laboratory for the purpose of realizing quantum information processing share an important feature: intricate correlations that originate from the coherent interaction between a large number of constituents. In recent years it has become manifest that the cross-fertilization between research devoted to quantum information science and to quantum many-body physics leads to new ideas, methods, tools, and insights in both fields. Issues of criticality, quantum phase transitions, quantum order and magnetism that play a role in one field find relations to the classical simulation of quantum systems, to error correction and fault tolerance thresholds, to channel capacities and to topological quantum computation, to name but a few. The structural similarities of typical problems in both fields and the potential for pooling of ideas then become manifest. Notably, methods and ideas from quantum information have provided fresh approaches to long-standing problems in strongly correlated systems in the condensed matter context, including both numerical methods and conceptual insights. Focus on quantum information and many-body theory Contents TENSOR NETWORKS Homogeneous multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz tensor networks for quantum critical systems M Rizzi, S Montangero, P Silvi, V Giovannetti and Rosario Fazio Concatenated tensor network states R Hübener, V Nebendahl and W Dür Entanglement renormalization in free bosonic systems: real-space versus momentum-space renormalization group transforms G Evenbly and G Vidal Finite-size geometric entanglement from tensor network algorithms Qian-Qian Shi, Román Orús, John Ove Fjærestad and Huan-Qiang Zhou Characterizing symmetries in a projected entangled pair state D Pérez-García, M Sanz, C E González-Guillén, M M Wolf and J I Cirac Matrix product operator representations B Pirvu, V Murg, J I Cirac
How an autonomous quantum Maxwell demon can harness correlated information
Chapman, Adrian; Miyake, Akimasa
2015-01-01
We study an autonomous quantum system which exhibits refrigeration under an information-work trade-off like a Maxwell demon. The system becomes correlated as a single "demon" qubit interacts sequentially with memory qubits while in contact with two heat reservoirs of different temperatures. Using strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy, we derive a global Clausius inequality to show thermodynamic advantages from access to correlated information. It is demonstrated, in a matrix product...
Toward a fully relativistic theory of quantum information
Adami, Christoph
2011-01-01
Information theory is a statistical theory dealing with the relative state of detectors and physical systems. Because of this physicality of information, the classical framework of Shannon needs to be extended to deal with quantum detectors, perhaps moving at relativistic speeds, or even within curved space-time. Considerable progress toward such a theory has been achieved in the last fifteen years, while much is still not understood. This review recapitulates some milestones along this road, and speculates about future ones.
Algebraic geometry informs perturbative quantum field theory
Broadhurst, David
2014-01-01
Single-scale Feynman diagrams yield integrals that are periods, namely projective integrals of rational functions of Schwinger parameters. Algebraic geometry may therefore inform us of the types of number to which these integrals evaluate. We give examples at 3, 4 and 6 loops of massive Feynman diagrams that evaluate to Dirichlet $L$-series of modular forms and examples at 6, 7 and 8 loops of counterterms that evaluate to multiple zeta values or polylogarithms of the sixth root of unity. At 8 loops and beyond, algebraic geometry informs us that polylogs are insufficient for the evaluation of terms in the beta-function of $\\phi^4$ theory. Here, modular forms appear as obstructions to polylogarithmic evaluation.
Information Geometry of Entanglement Renormalization for free Quantum Fields
Molina-Vilaplana, Javier
2015-01-01
We provide an explicit connection between the differential generation of entanglement entropy in a tensor network representation of the ground states of two field theories, and a geometric description of these states based on the Fisher information metric. We show how the geometrical description remains invariant despite there is an irreducible gauge freedom in the definition of the tensor network. The results might help to understand how spacetimes may emerge from distributions of quantum states, or more concretely, from the structure of the quantum entanglement concomitant to those distributions.
Ohya, Masanori
2011-01-01
This monograph provides a mathematical foundation to the theory of quantum information and computation, with applications to various open systems including nano and bio systems. It includes introductory material on algorithm, functional analysis, probability theory, information theory, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Apart from standard material on quantum information like quantum algorithm and teleportation, the authors discuss findings on the theory of entropy in C*-dynamical systems, space-time dependence of quantum entangled states, entangling operators, adaptive dynamics, relativistic quantum information, and a new paradigm for quantum computation beyond the usual quantum Turing machine. Also, some important applications of information theory to genetics and life sciences, as well as recent experimental and theoretical discoveries in quantum photosynthesis are described.
Information capacities of quantum measurement channels
Holevo, A. S.
2013-03-01
We study the relation between the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities C and Cea of entanglement-breaking channels. We argue that the gain of entanglement assistance Cea/C > 1 generically for measurement channels with unsharp observables; in particular for the measurements with pure posterior states the information loss in the entanglement-assisted protocol is zero, resulting in an arbitrarily large gain for very noisy or weak signal channels. This is illustrated by examples of continuous observables corresponding to state tomography in finite dimensions and heterodyne measurement. In contrast, state preparations are characterized by the property of having no gain of entanglement assistance, Cea/C = 1.
A Framework for Non-Asymptotic Quantum Information Theory
Tomamichel, Marco
2012-01-01
This thesis consolidates, improves and extends the smooth entropy framework for non-asymptotic information theory and cryptography. We investigate the conditional min- and max-entropy for quantum states, generalizations of classical R\\'enyi entropies. We introduce the purified distance, a novel metric for unnormalized quantum states and use it to define smooth entropies as optimizations of the min- and max-entropies over a ball of close states. We explore various properties of these entropies, including data-processing inequalities, chain rules and their classical limits. The most important property is an entropic formulation of the asymptotic equipartition property, which implies that the smooth entropies converge to the von Neumann entropy in the limit of many independent copies. The smooth entropies also satisfy duality and entropic uncertainty relations that provide limits on the power of two different observers to predict the outcome of a measurement on a quantum system. Finally, we discuss three example...
Spying on photons with photons: quantum interference and information
Ataman, Stefan
2016-07-01
The quest to have both which-path knowledge and interference fringes in a double-slit experiment dates back to the inception of quantum mechanics (QM) and to the famous Einstein-Bohr debates. In this paper we propose and discuss an experiment able to spy on one photon's path with another photon. We modify the quantum state inside the interferometer as opposed to the traditional physical modification of the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setup. We are able to show that it is the ability to harvest or not which-path information that finally limits the visibility of the interference pattern and not the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setups. Remarkably, a full "particle-like" experimental setup is able to show interference fringes with 100% visibility if the quantum state is carefully engineered.
An informationally-complete unification of quantum spacetime and matter
Chen, Zeng-Bing
2014-01-01
It was known long ago that quantum theory and general relativity, two pillars of modern physics, are in sharp conflict in their foundations. Their fundamental inconsistencies render a consistent theory of quantum gravity the most challenging problem in physics. Here we propose an informationally-complete quantum field theory (ICQFT), which describes elementary particles, their gauge fields and gravity as a trinity without the Hilbert-space inconsistency of Einstein's equation. We then argue that the ICQFT provide a coherent picture and conceptual framework of unifying matter and spacetime. The trinary field is characterized by dual entanglement and dual dynamics. Spacetime-matter entanglement allows us to give a natural explanation of the holographic principle, as well as two conjectures on black-hole states and on a possible candidate to dark matter/energy.
Spying on photons with photons: quantum interference and information
Ataman, Stefan
2016-01-01
The quest to have both which-path knowledge and interference fringes in a double-slit experiment dates back to the inception of quantum mechanics (QM) and to the famous Einstein-Bohr debates. In this paper we propose and discuss an experiment able to spy on one photon's path with another photon. We modify the quantum state inside the interferometer as opposed to the traditional physical modification of the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setup. We are able to show that it is the ability to harvest or not which-path information that finally limits the visibility of the interference pattern and not the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setups. Remarkably, a full "particle-like" experimental setup is able to show interference fringes with 100 % visibility if the quantum state is carefully engineered.
An information theory model for dissipation in open quantum systems
Rogers, David M.
2017-08-01
This work presents a general model for open quantum systems using an information game along the lines of Jaynes’ original work. It is shown how an energy based reweighting of propagators provides a novel moment generating function at each time point in the process. Derivatives of the generating function give moments of the time derivatives of observables. Aside from the mathematically helpful properties, the ansatz reproduces key physics of stochastic quantum processes. At high temperature, the average density matrix follows the Caldeira-Leggett equation. Its associated Langevin equation clearly demonstrates the emergence of dissipation and decoherence time scales, as well as an additional diffusion due to quantum confinement. A consistent interpretation of these results is that decoherence and wavefunction collapse during measurement are directly related to the degree of environmental noise, and thus occur because of subjective uncertainty of an observer.
Some applications of uncertainty relations in quantum information
Majumdar, A. S.; Pramanik, T.
2016-08-01
We discuss some applications of various versions of uncertainty relations for both discrete and continuous variables in the context of quantum information theory. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation enables demonstration of the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) paradox. Entropic uncertainty relations (EURs) are used to reveal quantum steering for non-Gaussian continuous variable states. EURs for discrete variables are studied in the context of quantum memory where fine-graining yields the optimum lower bound of uncertainty. The fine-grained uncertainty relation is used to obtain connections between uncertainty and the nonlocality of retrieval games for bipartite and tripartite systems. The Robertson-Schrödinger (RS) uncertainty relation is applied for distinguishing pure and mixed states of discrete variables.
Controlled teleportation of multi-qudit quantum information
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
We propose a scheme for realizing a controlled teleportation of random M-qudit quantum information under the control of N agents. The resource consumption includes a prearranged (2M + N + 1)-qudit entangled quantum channel and (2M + N + 1) log2 d-bit classical communication. And the quantum operations used in the teleportation process are a series of generalized Bell-state measurements, single-qudit measurements, qudit H-gates, qudit-Pauli gates and qudit phase gates. It is shown that the original state can be restored by the receiver only on condition that all the agents work in collaboration with each others. If one agent does not cooperate with the other, the original state cannot be fully recovered.
Nonlocal Quantum Information Transfer Without Superluminal Signalling and Communication
Walleczek, Jan; Grössing, Gerhard
2016-09-01
It is a frequent assumption that—via superluminal information transfers—superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, as a `no-go' theorem there exist two opposing interpretations of the non-signalling constraint: foundational and operational. Concerning Bell's theorem, we argue that Bell employed both interpretations, and that he finally adopted the operational position which is associated often with ontological quantum theory, e.g., de Broglie-Bohm theory. This position we refer to as "effective non-signalling". By contrast, associated with orthodox quantum mechanics is the foundational position referred to here as "axiomatic non-signalling". In search of a decisive communication-theoretic criterion for differentiating between "axiomatic" and "effective" non-signalling, we employ the operational framework offered by Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, whereby we distinguish between Shannon signals and non-Shannon signals. We find that an effective non-signalling theorem represents two sub-theorems: (1) Non-transfer-control (NTC) theorem, and (2) Non-signification-control (NSC) theorem. Employing NTC and NSC theorems, we report that effective, instead of axiomatic, non-signalling is entirely sufficient for prohibiting nonlocal communication. Effective non-signalling prevents the instantaneous, i.e., superluminal, transfer of message-encoded information through the controlled use—by a sender-receiver pair —of informationally-correlated detection events, e.g., in EPR-type experiments. An effective non-signalling theorem allows for nonlocal quantum information transfer yet—at the same time
How can an autonomous quantum Maxwell demon harness correlated information?
Chapman, Adrian; Miyake, Akimasa; CQuIC Thermodynamics Team
We study an autonomous quantum system, which exhibits refrigeration under an information-work tradeoff like a Maxwell demon. The system becomes correlated as a single ``demon'' qubit interacts sequentially with memory qubits while in contact with two heat reservoirs of different temperatures. Using strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy, we derive a global Clausius inequality to show thermodynamical advantages from access to correlated information. It is demonstrated, in a matrix product density operator formalism, that our demon can simultaneously realize refrigeration against a thermal gradient and erasure of information from its memory, which is impossible without correlations. The phenomenon can be even enhanced by the presence of quantum coherence. The work was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grants PHY-1212445 and PHY-1521016.
The g-theorem and quantum information theory
Casini, Horacio; Torroba, Gonzalo
2016-01-01
We study boundary renormalization group flows between boundary conformal field theories in $1+1$ dimensions using methods of quantum information theory. We define an entropic $g$-function for theories with impurities in terms of the relative entanglement entropy, and we prove that this $g$-function decreases along boundary renormalization group flows. This entropic $g$-theorem is valid at zero temperature, and is independent from the $g$-theorem based on the thermal partition function. We also discuss the mutual information in boundary RG flows, and how it encodes the correlations between the impurity and bulk degrees of freedom. Our results provide a quantum-information understanding of (boundary) RG flow as increase of distinguishability between vacuum states.
The g-theorem and quantum information theory
Casini, Horacio; Landea, Ignacio Salazar; Torroba, Gonzalo
2016-10-01
We study boundary renormalization group flows between boundary conformal field theories in 1 + 1 dimensions using methods of quantum information theory. We define an entropic g-function for theories with impurities in terms of the relative entanglement entropy, and we prove that this g-function decreases along boundary renormalization group flows. This entropic g-theorem is valid at zero temperature, and is independent from the g-theorem based on the thermal partition function. We also discuss the mutual information in boundary RG flows, and how it encodes the correlations between the impurity and bulk degrees of freedom. Our results provide a quantum-information understanding of (boundary) RG flow as increase of distinguishability between the UV fixed point and the theory along the RG flow.
Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information
Yamamoto, Naoki
2014-10-01
To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoki Yamamoto
2014-11-01
Full Text Available To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
Nambu-Goldstone Effective Theory of Information at Quantum Criticality
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico
2015-01-01
We establish a fundamental connection between quantum criticality of a many-body system, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, and its capacity of information-storage and processing. For deriving the effective theory of modes in the vicinity of the quantum critical point we develop a new method by mapping a Bose-Einstein condensate of $N$-particles onto a sigma model with a continuous global (pseudo)symmetry that mixes bosons of different momenta. The Bogolyubov modes of the condensate are mapped onto the Goldstone modes of the sigma model, which become gapless at the critical point. These gapless Goldstone modes are the quantum carriers of information and entropy. Analyzing their effective theory, we observe the information-processing properties strikingly similar to the ones predicted by the black hole portrait. The energy cost per qubit of information-storage vanishes in the large-$N$ limit and the total information-storage capacity increases with $N$ either exponentially or as a power law. The longevity of i...
Parallel Information Transfer in a Multi-Node Quantum Information Processor
Borneman, Troy W; Cory, David G
2011-01-01
We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel.
Characterizing quantum theory in terms of information-theoretic constraints
Clifton, R; Halvorson, H; Clifton, Rob; Bub, Jeffrey; Halvorson, Hans
2003-01-01
We show that three fundamental information-theoretic constraints--the impossibility of superluminal information transfer between two physical systems by performing measurements on one of them, the impossibility of broadcasting the information contained in an unknown physical state, and the impossibility of unconditionally secure bit commitment--suffice to entail that the observables and state space of a physical theory are quantum-mechanical. We demonstrate the converse derivation in part, and consider the implications of alternative answers to a remaining open question about nonlocality and bit commitment.
Quantum information transmission in the quantum wireless multihop network based on Werner state
Shi, Li-Hui; Yu, Xu-Tao; Cai, Xiao-Fei; Gong, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, Zai-Chen
2015-05-01
Many previous studies about teleportation are based on pure state. Study of quantum channel as mixed state is more realistic but complicated as pure states degenerate into mixed states by interaction with environment, and the Werner state plays an important role in the study of the mixed state. In this paper, the quantum wireless multihop network is proposed and the information is transmitted hop by hop through teleportation. We deduce a specific expression of the recovered state not only after one-hop teleportation but also across multiple intermediate nodes based on Werner state in a quantum wireless multihop network. We also obtain the fidelity of multihop teleportation. Project supported by the Prospective Future Network Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BY2013095-1-18) and the Independent Project of State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves (Grant No. Z201504).
Quantum information entropy for one-dimensional system undergoing quantum phase transition
Xu-Dong, Song; Shi-Hai, Dong; Yu, Zhang
2016-05-01
Calculations of the quantum information entropy have been extended to a non-analytically solvable situation. Specifically, we have investigated the information entropy for a one-dimensional system with a schematic “Landau” potential in a numerical way. Particularly, it is found that the phase transitional behavior of the system can be well expressed by the evolution of quantum information entropy. The calculated results also indicate that the position entropy Sx and the momentum entropy Sp at the critical point of phase transition may vary with the mass parameter M but their sum remains as a constant independent of M for a given excited state. In addition, the entropy uncertainty relation is proven to be robust during the whole process of the phase transition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375005) and partially by 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico.
Adaptive Controller Design for Faulty UAVs via Quantum Information Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuyang Chen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive controller is designed for a UAV flight control system against faults and parametric uncertainties based on quantum information technology and the Popov hyperstability theory. First, considering the bounded control input, the state feedback controller is designed to make the system stable. The model of adaptive control is introduced to eliminate the impact by the uncertainties of system parameters via quantum information technology. Then, according to the model reference adaptive principle, an adaptive control law based on the Popov hyperstability theory is designed. This law enable better robustness of the flight control system and tracking control performances. The closed-loop system's stability is guaranteed by the Popov hyperstability theory. The simulation results demonstrate that a better dynamic performance of the UAV flight control system with faults and parametric uncertainties can be maintained with the proposed method.
Adaptive Controller Design for Faulty UAVs via Quantum Information Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuyang Chen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive controller is designed for a UAV flight control system against faults and parametric uncertainties based on quantum information technology and the Popov hyperstability theory. First, considering the bounded control input, the state feedback controller is designed to make the system stable. The model of adaptive control is introduced to eliminate the impact by the uncertainties of system parameters via quantum information technology. Then, according to the model reference adaptive principle, an adaptive control law based on the Popov hyperstability theory is designed. This law enable better robustness of the flight control system and tracking control performances. The closed‐loop system’s stability is guaranteed by the Popov hyperstability theory. The simulation results demonstrate that a better dynamic performance of the UAV flight control system with faults and parametric uncertainties can be maintained with the proposed method.
Correlations in complex nonlinear systems and quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Galla, Tobias [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)
2010-07-01
The dynamical evolution of classical complex systems such as coupled logistic maps or simple models of lattice gases and cellular automata can result in correlations between distant parts of the system. For the understanding of these systems, it is crucial to develop methods to characterize and quantify these multi-party correlations. On the other hand, the study of correlations between distant particles is also a central problem in the field of quantum information theory. There, correlations are often viewed as a resource and many tools have been developed for their characterization. In this talk, we explore the extent to which the tools from quantum information can be applied to study classical complex systems and whether they allow to study complex systems from a different perspective.
Quantum Information in Non-physics Departments at Liberal Arts Colleges
Westmoreland, Michael
2012-02-01
Quantum information and quantum computing have changed our thinking about the basic concepts of quantum physics. These fields have also introduced exciting new applications of quantum mechanics such as quantum cryptography and non-interactive measurement. It is standard to teach such topics only to advanced physics majors who have completed coursework in quantum mechanics. Recent encounters with teaching quantum cryptography to non-majors and a bout of textbook-writing suggest strategies for teaching this interesting material to those without the standard quantum mechanics background. This talk will share some of those strategies.
Minimising the heat dissipation of quantum information erasure
Hamed Mohammady, M.; Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser
2016-01-01
Quantum state engineering and quantum computation rely on information erasure procedures that, up to some fidelity, prepare a quantum object in a pure state. Such processes occur within Landauer's framework if they rely on an interaction between the object and a thermal reservoir. Landauer's principle dictates that this must dissipate a minimum quantity of heat, proportional to the entropy reduction that is incurred by the object, to the thermal reservoir. However, this lower bound is only reachable for some specific physical situations, and it is not necessarily achievable for any given reservoir. The main task of our work can be stated as the minimisation of heat dissipation given probabilistic information erasure, i.e., minimising the amount of energy transferred to the thermal reservoir as heat if we require that the probability of preparing the object in a specific pure state ≤ft|{\\varphi }1\\right.> be no smaller than {p}{\\varphi 1}{max}-δ . Here {p}{\\varphi 1}{max} is the maximum probability of information erasure that is permissible by the physical context, and δ ≥slant 0 the error. To determine the achievable minimal heat dissipation of quantum information erasure within a given physical context, we explicitly optimise over all possible unitary operators that act on the composite system of object and reservoir. Specifically, we characterise the equivalence class of such optimal unitary operators, using tools from majorisation theory, when we are restricted to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Furthermore, we discuss how pure state preparation processes could be achieved with a smaller heat cost than Landauer's limit, by operating outside of Landauer's framework.
Claeson, Tord; Delsing, Per; Wendin, Göran
2009-12-01
Quantum mechanics is the most ground-breaking and fascinating theoretical concept developed in physics during the past century. Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world and its extension into the macroscopic world, including modern technical applications, is based upon quantum mechanics. We have experienced a remarkable development of information and communication technology during the past two decades, to a large extent depending upon successful fabrication of smaller and smaller components and circuits. However, we are finally approaching the physical limits of component miniaturization as we enter a microscopic world ruled by quantum mechanics. Present technology is mainly based upon classical physics such as mechanics and electromagnetism. We now face a similar paradigm shift as was experienced two hundred years ago, at the time of the industrial revolution. Engineered construction of systems is currently increasingly based on quantum physics instead of classical physics, and quantum information is replacing much of classical communication. Quantum computing is one of the most exciting sub-fields of this revolution. Individual quantum systems can be used to store and process information. They are called quantum bits, or qubits for short. A quantum computer could eventually be constructed by combining a number of qubits that act coherently. Important computations can be performed much more quickly than by classical computers. However, while we control and measure a qubit, it must be sufficiently isolated from its environment to avoid noise that causes decoherence at the same time. Currently, low temperature is generally needed to obtain sufficiently long decoherence times. Single qubits of many different kinds can be built and manipulated; some research groups have managed to successfully couple qubits and perform rudimentary logic operations. However, the fundamental problems, such as decoherence, entanglement, quantum measurements and error
Multi-photon entanglement and applications in quantum information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmid, Christian I.T.
2008-05-30
In this thesis, two new linear optics networks are introduced and their application for several quantum information tasks is presented. Spontaneous parametric down conversion, is used in different configurations to provide the input states for the networks. The first network is a new design of a controlled phase gate which is particularly interesting for applications in multi-photon experiments as it constitutes an improvement of former realizations with respect to stability and reliability. This is explicitly demonstrated by employing the gate in four-photon experiments. In this context, a teleportation and entanglement swapping protocol is performed in which all four Bell states are distinguished by means of the phase gate. A similar type of measurement applied to the subsystem parts of two copies of a quantum state, allows further the direct estimation of the state's entanglement in terms of its concurrence. Finally, starting from two Bell states, the controlled phase gate is applied for the observation of a four photon cluster state. The analysis of the results focuses on measurement based quantum computation, the main usage of cluster states. The second network, fed with the second order emission of non-collinear type ii spontaneous parametric down conversion, constitutes a tunable source of a whole family of states. Up to now the observation of one particular state required one individually tailored setup. With the network introduced here many different states can be obtained within the same arrangement by tuning a single, easily accessible experimental parameter. These states exhibit many useful properties and play a central role in several applications of quantum information. Here, they are used for the solution of a four-player quantum Minority game. It is shown that, by employing four-qubit entanglement, the quantum version of the game clearly outperforms its classical counterpart. Experimental data obtained with both networks are utilized to
Integrated System Technologies for Modular Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing
Crain, Stephen G.
Although trapped ion technology is well-suited for quantum information science, scalability of the system remains one of the main challenges. One of the challenges associated with scaling the ion trap quantum computer is the ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, laser beams are focused on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Multiple single qubit gates are demonstrated on trapped 171Yb+ qubits and the gate performance is characterized using quantum state tomography. The system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (system photon collection efficiency is increased from 2.2% to 3.4%, which allows for fast state detection of the qubit. For a detection beam intensity of 11 mW/cm 2, the average detection time is 23.7 mus with 99.885(7)% detection fidelity. The technologies demonstrated in this thesis can be integrated to form a single quantum register with all of the necessary resources to perform local gates as well as high fidelity readout and provide a photon link to other systems.
Quantum Fisher and skew information for Unruh accelerated Dirac qubit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Subhashish; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Jodhpur (India); Omkar, S. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram (India)
2016-08-15
We develop a Bloch vector representation of the Unruh channel for a Dirac field mode. This is used to provide a unified, analytical treatment of quantum Fisher and skew information for a qubit subjected to the Unruh channel, both in its pure form as well as in the presence of experimentally relevant external noise channels. The time evolution of Fisher and skew information is studied along with the impact of external environment parameters such as temperature and squeezing. The external noises are modelled by both purely dephasing phase damping and the squeezed generalised amplitude damping channels. An interesting interplay between the external reservoir temperature and squeezing on the Fisher and skew information is observed, in particular, for the action of the squeezed generalised amplitude damping channel. It is seen that for some regimes, squeezing can enhance the quantum information against the deteriorating influence of the ambient environment. Similar features are also observed for the analogous study of skew information, highlighting a similar origin of the Fisher and skew information. (orig.)
Phase space view of quantum mechanical systems and Fisher information
Nagy, Á.
2016-06-01
Pennini and Plastino showed that the form of the Fisher information generated by the canonical distribution function reflects the intrinsic structure of classical mechanics. Now, a quantum mechanical generalization of the Pennini-Plastino theory is presented based on the thermodynamical transcription of the density functional theory. Comparing to the classical case, the phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. However, for the special case of constant temperature, the expression derived bears resemblance to the classical one. A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator.
Experimental continuous-variable cloning of partial quantum information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabuncu, Metin; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2008-01-01
The fidelity of a quantum transformation is strongly linked with the prior partial information of the state to be transformed. We illustrate this interesting point by proposing and demonstrating the superior cloning of coherent states with prior partial information. More specifically, we propose...... two simple transformations that under the Gaussian assumption optimally clone symmetric Gaussian distributions of coherent states as well as coherent states with known phases. Furthermore, we implement for the first time near-optimal state-dependent cloning schemes relying on simple linear optics...
Concept of chemical bond and aromaticity based on quantum information theory
Szilvási, T; Legeza, Ö
2015-01-01
Quantum information theory (QIT) emerged in physics as standard technique to extract relevant information from quantum systems. It has already contributed to the development of novel fields like quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum complexity. This arises the question what information is stored according to QIT in molecules which are inherently quantum systems as well. Rigorous analysis of the central quantities of QIT on systematic series of molecules offered the introduction of the concept of chemical bond and aromaticity directly from physical principles and notions. We identify covalent bond, donor-acceptor dative bond, multiple bond, charge-shift bond, and aromaticity indicating unified picture of fundamental chemical models from ab initio.
Mitra, Avik; Sivapriya, K; Kumar, Anil
2007-08-01
In a three player quantum 'Dilemma' game each player takes independent decisions to maximize his/her individual gain. The optimal strategy in the quantum version of this game has a higher payoff compared to its classical counterpart. However, this advantage is lost if the initial qubits provided to the players are from a noisy source. We have experimentally implemented the three player quantum version of the 'Dilemma' game as described by Johnson, [N.F. Johnson, Phys. Rev. A 63 (2001) 020302(R)] using nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor and have experimentally verified that the payoff of the quantum game for various levels of corruption matches the theoretical payoff.
A. AL-Salhi, Yahya E.; Lu, Songfeng
2016-08-01
Quantum steganography can solve some problems that are considered inefficient in image information concealing. It researches on Quantum image information concealing to have been widely exploited in recent years. Quantum image information concealing can be categorized into quantum image digital blocking, quantum image stereography, anonymity and other branches. Least significant bit (LSB) information concealing plays vital roles in the classical world because many image information concealing algorithms are designed based on it. Firstly, based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR), image uniform blocks clustering around the concrete the least significant Qu-block (LSQB) information concealing algorithm for quantum image steganography is presented. Secondly, a clustering algorithm is proposed to optimize the concealment of important data. Finally, we used Con-Steg algorithm to conceal the clustered image blocks. Information concealing located on the Fourier domain of an image can achieve the security of image information, thus we further discuss the Fourier domain LSQu-block information concealing algorithm for quantum image based on Quantum Fourier Transforms. In our algorithms, the corresponding unitary Transformations are designed to realize the aim of concealing the secret information to the least significant Qu-block representing color of the quantum cover image. Finally, the procedures of extracting the secret information are illustrated. Quantum image LSQu-block image information concealing algorithm can be applied in many fields according to different needs.
Decoding quantum information via the Petz recovery map
Beigi, Salman; Datta, Nilanjana; Leditzky, Felix
2016-08-01
We obtain a lower bound on the maximum number of qubits, Q n , ɛ ( N ) , which can be transmitted over n uses of a quantum channel N , for a given non-zero error threshold ɛ. To obtain our result, we first derive a bound on the one-shot entanglement transmission capacity of the channel, and then compute its asymptotic expansion up to the second order. In our method to prove this achievability bound, the decoding map, used by the receiver on the output of the channel, is chosen to be the Petz recovery map (also known as the transpose channel). Our result, in particular, shows that this choice of the decoder can be used to establish the coherent information as an achievable rate for quantum information transmission. Applying our achievability bound to the 50-50 erasure channel (which has zero quantum capacity), we find that there is a sharp error threshold above which Q n , ɛ ( N ) scales as √{ n } .
Quadrature Uncertainty and Information Entropy of Quantum Elliptical Vortex States
Banerji, Anindya; Singh, Ravindra Pratap; Chowdhury, Saurav; Bandyopadhyay, Abir
2013-01-01
We study the quadrature uncertainty of the quantum elliptical vortex state using the associated Wigner function. Deviations from the minimum uncertainty states were observed due to the absence of the Gaussian nature. In our study of the entropy, we noticed that with increasing vorticity, entropy increases for both the modes. We further observed that, there exists an optimum value of ellipticity which gives rise to maximum entanglement of the two modes of the quantum elliptical vortex states. A further increase in ellipticity reduces the entropy thereby resulting in a loss of information carrying capacity. We check the validity of the entropic inequality relations, namely the subaddivity and the Araki-Lieb inequality. The later was satisfied only for a very small range of the ellipticity of the vortex while the former seemed to be valid at all values.
Information Geometry of Quantum Entangled Gaussian Wave-Packets
Kim, D -H; Cafaro, C; Mancini, S
2011-01-01
Describing and understanding the essence of quantum entanglement and its connection to dynamical chaos is of great scientific interest. In this work, using information geometric (IG) techniques, we investigate the effects of micro-correlations on the evolution of maximal probability paths on statistical manifolds induced by systems whose microscopic degrees of freedom are Gaussian distributed. We use the statistical manifolds associated with correlated and non-correlated Gaussians to model the scattering induced quantum entanglement of two spinless, structureless, non-relativistic particles, the latter represented by minimum uncertainty Gaussian wave-packets. Knowing that the degree of entanglement is quantified by the purity P of the system, we express the purity for s-wave scattering in terms of the micro-correlation coefficient r - a quantity that parameterizes the correlated microscopic degrees of freedom of the system; thus establishing a connection between entanglement and micro-correlations. Moreover, ...
Probabilistic protocols in quantum information science: Use and abuse
Caves, Carlton
2014-03-01
Protocols in quantum information science often succeed with less than unit probability, but nonetheless perform useful tasks because success occurs often enough to make tolerable the overhead from having to perform the protocol several times. Any probabilistic protocol must be analyzed from the perspective of the resources required to make the protocol succeed. I present results from analyses of two probabilistic protocols: (i) nondeterministic (or immaculate) linear amplification, in which an input coherent state is amplified some of the time to a larger-amplitude coherent state, and (ii) probabilistic quantum metrology, in which one attempts to improve estimation of a parameter (or parameters) by post-selecting on a particular outcome. The analysis indicates that there is little to be gained from probabilistic protocols in these two situations.
A quantum informational approach for dissecting chemical reactions
Duperrouzel, Corinne; Boguslawski, Katharina; Barcza, Gergerly; Legeza, Örs; Ayers, Paul W
2014-01-01
We present a conceptionally different approach to dissect bond-formation processes in metal-driven catalysis using concepts from quantum information theory. Our method uses the entanglement and correlation among molecular orbitals to analyze changes in electronic structure that accompany chemical processes. As a proof-of-principle example, the evolution of nickel-ethene bond-formation is dissected which allows us to monitor the interplay of back-bonding and $\\pi$-donation along the reaction coordinate. Furthermore, the reaction pathway of nickel-ethene complexation is analyzed using quantum chemistry methods revealing the presence of a transition state. Our study supports the crucial role of metal-to-ligand back-donation in the bond-forming process of nickel-ethene.
Planar ion chip design for scalable quantum information processing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wan Jin-Yin; Wang Yu-Zhu; Liu Liang
2008-01-01
We investigate a planar ion chip design with a two-dimensional array of linear ion traps for scalable quantum information processing.Qubits are formed from the internal electronic states of trapped 40Ca+ ions.The segmented electrodes reside in a single plane on a substrate and a grounded metal plate separately,a combination of appropriaterf and DC potentials is applied to them for stable ion confinement.Every two adjacent electrodes can generate a linear ion trap in and between the electrodes above the chip at a distance dependent on the geometrical scale and other considerations.The potential distributions are calculated by using a static electric field qualitatively.This architecture provides a conceptually simple avenue to achieving the microfabrication and large-scale quantum computation based on the axrays of trapped ions.
Topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems
Oreshkov, Ognyan
This thesis examines seven topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems. The first one concerns weak measurements and their universality as a means of generating quantum measurements. It is shown that every generalized measurement can be decomposed into a sequence of weak measurements which allows us to think of measurements as resulting form continuous stochastic processes. The second topic concerns an application of the decomposition into weak measurements to the theory of entanglement. Necessary and sufficient differential conditions for entanglement monotones are derived, and are used to find a new entanglement monotone for three-qubit states. The third topic examines the performance of different master equations for the description of non-Markovian dynamics. The system studied is a qubit coupled to a spin bath via the Ising interaction. The fourth topic studies continuous quantum error-correction in the case of non-Markovian decoherence. It is shown that due to the existence of a Zeno regime in non-Markovian dynamics, the performance of continuous quantum error correction may exhibit a quadratic improvement if the time resolution of the error-correcting operations is sufficiently high. The fifth topic concerns conditions for correctability of subsystem codes in the case of continuous decoherence. The obtained conditions on the Lindbladian and the system-environment Hamiltonian can be thought of as generalizations of the previously known conditions for noiseless subsystems to the case where the subsystem is time-dependent. The sixth topic examines the robustness of quantum error-correcting codes against initialization errors. It is shown that operator codes are robust against imperfect initialization without the need for restriction of the standard error-correction conditions. For this purpose, a new measure of fidelity for encoded information is introduced and its properties are discussed. The last topic concerns holonomic quantum
Few-Qubit Magnetic Resonance Quantum Information Processors: Simulating Chemistry and Physics
Criger, Ben; Baugh, Jonathan
2012-01-01
We review recent progress made in quantum information processing (QIP) which can be applied in the simulation of quantum systems and chemical phenomena. The review is focused on quantum algorithms which are useful for quantum simulation of chemistry and advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) QIP. Discussions also include a number of recent experiments demonstrating the current capabilities of the NMR QIP for quantum simulation and prospects for spin-based implementations of QIP.
The Introduction of Quantum Computation and Quantum Information%量子计算与量子信息简介
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2015-01-01
介绍量子计算与量子信息的产生背景、发展简史，量子比特与量子门的数学描述以及它们与物理概念之间的关系。介绍量子并行基础的线性叠加、量子力学独特资源的纠缠及其应用。介绍量子密码无条件安全的理论基础、发展历史，量子信息学研究、量子计算机实现的现状，并对未来作展望。%Introduces the background and the brief history of quantum computation and quantum information, describes the mathematical description of qubits and quantum gates and the relation between the mathematical description and their physical concepts. Introduces the linear su-perposition principle, which is the foundation of parallel computation, and quantum entanglement which is the unique property of quantum mechanics, and its application. Introduces the theory foundation of unconditional security of quantum cryptography and its history, intro-duces the current situation of the research on quantum information theory and the implement of quantum computer, and the future per-spective of quantum computation and quantum information.
Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2006-06-01
We lay a comprehensive foundation for the study of redundant information storage in decoherence processes. Redundancy has been proposed as a prerequisite for objectivity, the defining property of classical objects. We consider two ensembles of states for a model universe consisting of one system and many environments: the first consisting of arbitrary states, and the second consisting of “singly branching” states consistent with a simple decoherence model. Typical states from the random ensemble do not store information about the system redundantly, but information stored in branching states has a redundancy proportional to the environment’s size. We compute the specific redundancy for a wide range of model universes, and fit the results to a simple first-principles theory. Our results show that the presence of redundancy divides information about the system into three parts: classical (redundant); purely quantum; and the borderline, undifferentiated or “nonredundant,” information.
Information-theoretic approach to quantum error correction and reversible measurement
Nielsen, M A; Schumacher, B; Barnum, H N; Caves, Carlton M.; Schumacher, Benjamin; Barnum, Howard
1997-01-01
Quantum operations provide a general description of the state changes allowed by quantum mechanics. The reversal of quantum operations is important for quantum error-correcting codes, teleportation, and reversing quantum measurements. We derive information-theoretic conditions and equivalent algebraic conditions that are necessary and sufficient for a general quantum operation to be reversible. We analyze the thermodynamic cost of error correction and show that error correction can be regarded as a kind of ``Maxwell demon,'' for which there is an entropy cost associated with information obtained from measurements performed during error correction. A prescription for thermodynamically efficient error correction is given.
Arbitrary Waveform Generator for Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions
Bowler, R; Britton, J W; Sawyer, B C; Amini, J
2013-01-01
Atomic ions confined in multi-electrode traps have been proposed as a basis for scalable quantum information processing. This scheme involves transporting ions between spatially distinct locations by use of time-varying electric potentials combined with laser or microwave pulses for quantum logic in specific locations. We report the development of a fast multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator for applying the time-varying electric potentials used for transport and for shaping quantum logic pulses. The generator is based on a field-programmable gate array controlled ensemble of 16-bit digital-to-analog converters with an update frequency of 50 MHz and an output range of $\\pm$10 V. The update rate of the waveform generator is much faster than relevant motional frequencies of the confined ions in our experiments, allowing diabatic control of the ion motion. Numerous pre-loaded sets of time-varying voltages can be selected with 40 ns latency conditioned on real-time signals. Here we describe the device and de...
Trapped-ion antennae for the transmission of quantum information
Harlander, Maximilian; Brownnutt, Micheal; Blatt, Rainer; Hänsel, Wolfgang
2010-01-01
More than one hundred years ago Heinrich Hertz succeeded in transmitting signals over a few meters to a receiving antenna using an electromagnetic oscillator and thus proving the electromagnetic theory developed by James C. Maxwell[1]. Since then, technology has developed, and today a variety of oscillators is available at the quantum mechanical level. For quantized electromagnetic oscillations atoms in cavities can be used to couple electric fields[2, 3]. For mechanical oscillators realized, for example, with cantilevers[4, 5] or vibrational modes of trapped atoms[6] or ions[7, 8], a quantum mechanical link between two such oscillators has, to date, been demonstrated in very few cases and has only been achieved in indirect ways. Examples of this include the mechanical transport of atoms carrying the quantum information[9] or the use of spontaneously emitted photons[10]. In this work, direct coupling between the motional dipoles of separately trapped ions is achieved over a distance of 54 {\\mu}m, using the di...
Classical Information Storage in an n-Level Quantum System
Frenkel, Péter E.; Weiner, Mihály
2015-12-01
A game is played by a team of two—say Alice and Bob—in which the value of a random variable x is revealed to Alice only, who cannot freely communicate with Bob. Instead, she is given a quantum n-level system, respectively a classical n-state system, which she can put in possession of Bob in any state she wishes. We evaluate how successfully they managed to store and recover the value of x by requiring Bob to specify a value z and giving a reward of value f ( x, z) to the team. We show that whatever the probability distribution of x and the reward function f are, when using a quantum n-level system, the maximum expected reward obtainable with the best possible team strategy is equal to that obtainable with the use of a classical n-state system. The proof relies on mixed discriminants of positive matrices and—perhaps surprisingly—an application of the Supply-Demand Theorem for bipartite graphs. As a corollary, we get an infinite set of new, dimension dependent inequalities regarding positive operator valued measures and density operators on complex n-space. As a further corollary, we see that the greatest value, with respect to a given distribution of x, of the mutual information I ( x; z) that is obtainable using an n-level quantum system equals the analogous maximum for a classical n-state system.
A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraus, Christina V.
2009-11-02
In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS
Information dynamics and open systems classical and quantum approach
Ingarden, R S; Ohya, M
1997-01-01
This book aims to present an information-theoretical approach to thermodynamics and its generalisations On the one hand, it generalises the concept of `information thermodynamics' to that of `information dynamics' in order to stress applications outside thermal phenomena On the other hand, it is a synthesis of the dynamics of state change and the theory of complexity, which provide a common framework to treat both physical and nonphysical systems together Both classical and quantum systems are discussed, and two appendices are included to explain principal definitions and some important aspects of the theory of Hilbert spaces and operator algebras The concept of higher-order temperatures is explained and applied to biological and linguistic systems The theory of open systems is presented in a new, much more general form Audience This volume is intended mainly for theoretical and mathematical physicists, but also for mathematicians, experimental physicists, physical chemists, theoretical biologists, communicat...
Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)
2015-04-15
Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.
What Density Functional Theory could do for Quantum Information
Mattsson, Ann
2015-03-01
The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem of Density Functional Theory (DFT), and extensions thereof, tells us that all properties of a system of electrons can be determined through their density, which uniquely determines the many-body wave-function. Given access to the appropriate, universal, functionals of the density we would, in theory, be able to determine all observables of any electronic system, without explicit reference to the wave-function. On the other hand, the wave-function is at the core of Quantum Information (QI), with the wave-function of a set of qubits being the central computational resource in a quantum computer. While there is seemingly little overlap between DFT and QI, reliance upon observables form a key connection. Though the time-evolution of the wave-function and associated phase information is fundamental to quantum computation, the initial and final states of a quantum computer are characterized by observables of the system. While observables can be extracted directly from a system's wave-function, DFT tells us that we may be able to intuit a method for extracting them from its density. In this talk, I will review the fundamentals of DFT and how these principles connect to the world of QI. This will range from DFT's utility in the engineering of physical qubits, to the possibility of using it to efficiently (but approximately) simulate Hamiltonians at the logical level. The apparent paradox of describing algorithms based on the quantum mechanical many-body wave-function with a DFT-like theory based on observables will remain a focus throughout. The ultimate goal of this talk is to initiate a dialog about what DFT could do for QI, in theory and in practice. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
State preparation for quantum information science and metrology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samblowski, Aiko
2012-06-08
The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed
Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Ding, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Hui
2016-06-01
In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61572297, 61303199, 61272514, and 61373131, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2013FM025, ZR2013FQ001, ZR2014FM003, and ZY2015YL018, the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of China under Grant Nos. BS2015DX006 and BS2014DX007, the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research, China under Grant No. MMJJ201401012, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology Funds, and the Shandong Academy of Sciences Youth Fund Project, China under Grant Nos. 2015QN003 and 2013QN007
Banerjee, Subhashish; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar; Srikanth, R.; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.
2015-10-01
Correlations exhibited by neutrino oscillations are studied via quantum-information theoretic quantities. We show that the strongest type of entanglement, genuine multipartite entanglement, is persistent in the flavor changing states. We prove the existence of Bell-type nonlocal features, in both its absolute and genuine avatars. Finally, we show that a measure of nonclassicality, dissension, which is a generalization of quantum discord to the tripartite case, is nonzero for almost the entire range of time in the evolution of an initial electron-neutrino. Via these quantum-information theoretic quantities, capturing different aspects of quantum correlations, we elucidate the differences between the flavor types, shedding light on the quantum-information theoretic aspects of the weak force.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Subhashish; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Jodhpur (India); Srikanth, R. [Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, Banglore (India); Hiesmayr, Beatrix C. [University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)
2015-10-15
Correlations exhibited by neutrino oscillations are studied via quantum-information theoretic quantities. We show that the strongest type of entanglement, genuine multipartite entanglement, is persistent in the flavor changing states. We prove the existence of Bell-type nonlocal features, in both its absolute and genuine avatars. Finally, we show that a measure of nonclassicality, dissension, which is a generalization of quantum discord to the tripartite case, is nonzero for almost the entire range of time in the evolution of an initial electron-neutrino. Via these quantum-information theoretic quantities, capturing different aspects of quantum correlations, we elucidate the differences between the flavor types, shedding light on the quantum-information theoretic aspects of the weak force. (orig.)
Wang, Z H; Zheng, Q; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yong
2016-03-02
We study the energy-level crossing behavior in a two-dimensional quantum well with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings (SOCs). By mapping the SOC Hamiltonian onto an anisotropic Rabi model, we obtain the approximate ground state and its quantum Fisher information (QFI) via performing a unitary transformation. We find that the energy-level crossing can occur in the quantum well system within the available parameters rather than in cavity and circuit quantum eletrodynamics systems. Furthermore, the influence of two kinds of SOCs on the QFI is investigated and an intuitive explanation from the viewpoint of the stationary perturbation theory is given.
Moussa, Osama; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-01-01
We report the implementation of a 3-qubit quantum error correction code (QECC) on a quantum information processor realized by the magnetic resonance of Carbon nuclei in a single crystal of Malonic Acid. The code corrects for phase errors induced on the qubits due to imperfect decoupling of the magnetic environment represented by nearby spins, as well as unwanted evolution under the internal Hamiltonian. We also experimentally demonstrate sufficiently high fidelity control to implement two rounds of quantum error correction. This is a demonstration of state-of-the-art control in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, a leading test-bed for the implementation of quantum algorithms.
Moussa, Osama; Baugh, Jonathan; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-10-14
We report the implementation of a 3-qubit quantum error-correction code on a quantum information processor realized by the magnetic resonance of carbon nuclei in a single crystal of malonic acid. The code corrects for phase errors induced on the qubits due to imperfect decoupling of the magnetic environment represented by nearby spins, as well as unwanted evolution under the internal Hamiltonian. We also experimentally demonstrate sufficiently high-fidelity control to implement two rounds of quantum error correction. This is a demonstration of state-of-the-art control in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, a leading test bed for the implementation of quantum algorithms.
Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sodano, Pasquale
2011-10-01
In ( d + 1) dimensional Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) networks, tensors are connected so as to reproduce the discrete, ( d + 2) holographic geometry of Anti de Sitter space (AdS d+2) with the original system lying at the boundary. We analyze the MERA renormalization flow that arises when computing the quantum correlations between two disjoint blocks of a quantum critical system, to show that the structure of the causal cones characteristic of MERA, requires a transition between two different regimes attainable by changing the ratio between the size and the separation of the two disjoint blocks. We argue that this transition in the MERA causal developments of the blocks may be easily accounted by an AdS d+2 black hole geometry when the mutual information is computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. As an explicit example, we use a BTZ AdS3 black hole to compute the MI and the quantum correlations between two disjoint intervals of a one dimensional boundary critical system. Our results for this low dimensional system not only show the existence of a phase transition emerging when the conformal four point ratio reaches a critical value but also provide an intuitive entropic argument accounting for the source of this instability. We discuss the robustness of this transition when finite temperature and finite size effects are taken into account.
Mouloudakis, K; Kominis, I K
2017-02-01
Radical-ion-pair reactions, central for understanding the avian magnetic compass and spin transport in photosynthetic reaction centers, were recently shown to be a fruitful paradigm of the new synthesis of quantum information science with biological processes. We show here that the master equation so far constituting the theoretical foundation of spin chemistry violates fundamental bounds for the entropy of quantum systems, in particular the Ozawa bound. In contrast, a recently developed theory based on quantum measurements, quantum coherence measures, and quantum retrodiction, thus exemplifying the paradigm of quantum biology, satisfies the Ozawa bound as well as the Lanford-Robinson bound on information extraction. By considering Groenewold's information, the quantum information extracted during the reaction, we reproduce the known and unravel other magnetic-field effects not conveyed by reaction yields.
Determining the continuous family of quantum Fisher information from linear-response theory
Shitara, Tomohiro; Ueda, Masahito
2016-12-01
The quantum Fisher information represents a continuous family of metrics on the space of quantum states and places the fundamental limit on the accuracy of quantum state estimation. We show that the entire family of quantum Fisher information can be determined from linear-response theory through generalized covariances. We derive the generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates linear-response functions to generalized covariances and hence allows us to determine the quantum Fisher information from linear-response functions, which are experimentally measurable quantities. As an application, we examine the skew information, which is a quantum Fisher information, of a harmonic oscillator in thermal equilibrium, and show that the equality of the skew-information-based uncertainty relation holds.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2010-01-01
We propose a model of quantum-like (QL) processing of mental information. This model is based on quantum information theory. However, in contrast to models of ``quantum physical brain'' reducing mental activity (at least at the highest level) to quantum physical phenomena in the brain, our model matches well with the basic neuronal paradigm of the cognitive science. QL information processing is based (surprisingly) on classical electromagnetic signals induced by joint activity of neurons. This novel approach to quantum information is based on representation of quantum mechanics as a version of classical signal theory which was recently elaborated by the author. The brain uses the QL representation (QLR) for working with abstract concepts; concrete images are described by classical information theory. Two processes, classical and QL, are performed parallely. Moreover, information is actively transmitted from one representation to another. A QL concept given in our model by a density operator can generate a var...
Viola, Lorenza; Tannor, David
2011-08-01
Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet this challenge. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is to present a state-of-the-art account of recent advances and current trends in the field, as reflected in two international meetings that were held on the subject over the last summer and which motivated in part the compilation of this volume—the Topical Group: Frontiers in Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Control Theory, held at the Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), from 1-14 August 2010, and the Safed Workshop on Quantum Decoherence and Thermodynamics Control, held in Safed (Israel), from 22-27 August 2010. Initial developments in quantum control theory date back to (at least) the early 1980s, and have been largely inspired by the well-established mathematical framework for classical dynamical systems. As the above-mentioned meetings made clear, and as the burgeoning body of literature on the subject testifies, quantum control has grown since then well beyond its original boundaries, and has by now evolved into a highly cross-disciplinary field which, while still fast-moving, is also entering a new phase of maturity, sophistication, and integration. Two trends deserve special attention: on the one hand, a growing emphasis on control tasks and methodologies that are specifically motivated by QIP, in addition and in parallel to applications in more traditional areas where quantum coherence is nevertheless vital (such as, for instance
Quantum entanglement in non-local games, graph parameters and zero-error information theory
Scarpa, G.
2013-01-01
We study quantum entanglement and some of its applications in graph theory and zero-error information theory. In Chapter 1 we introduce entanglement and other fundamental concepts of quantum theory. In Chapter 2 we address the question of how much quantum correlations generated by entanglement can d
Quantum Information and Entropy Spueezing of a Nonlinear Multiquantum JC Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mahmoud Abdel-Aty
2002-01-01
We investigate the entropy squeezing of the nonlinear k-quantum JC model. A definition of squeezing is presented for this system based on the quantum information theory. The utility of the definition is illustrated by examining squeezing in the information entropy of a nonlinear k-quantum two-level atom. The influence of the atomic coherence and the detuning parameter on the properties of the information entropy and squeezing of the atomic variables is examined.
The geometrical structure of quantum theory as a natural generalization of information geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reginatto, Marcel [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
2015-01-13
Quantum mechanics has a rich geometrical structure which allows for a geometrical formulation of the theory. This formalism was introduced by Kibble and later developed by a number of other authors. The usual approach has been to start from the standard description of quantum mechanics and identify the relevant geometrical features that can be used for the reformulation of the theory. Here this procedure is inverted: the geometrical structure of quantum theory is derived from information geometry, a geometrical structure that may be considered more fundamental, and the Hilbert space of the standard formulation of quantum mechanics is constructed using geometrical quantities. This suggests that quantum theory has its roots in information geometry.
Quantum Fisher information of the Greenberg-Horne-Zeilinger state in decoherence channels
Ma, Jian; Huang, Yi-Xiao; Wang, Xiaoguang; Sun, C. P.
2011-08-01
Quantum Fisher information of a parameter characterizes the sensitivity of the state with respect to changes of the parameter. In this article, we study the quantum Fisher information of a state with respect to SU(2) rotations under three decoherence channels: the amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels. The initial state is chosen to be a Greenberg-Horne-Zeilinger state of which the phase sensitivity can achieve the Heisenberg limit. By using the Kraus operator representation, the quantum Fisher information is obtained analytically. We observe the decay and sudden change of the quantum Fisher information in all three channels.
A Scalable Microfabricated Ion Trap for Quantum Information Processing
Maunz, Peter; Haltli, Raymond; Hollowell, Andrew; Lobser, Daniel; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Rembetski, John; Resnick, Paul; Sterk, Jonathan D.; Stick, Daniel L.; Blain, Matthew G.
2016-05-01
Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing (QIP) relies on complex microfabricated trap structures to enable scaling of the number of quantum bits. Building on previous demonstrations of surface-electrode ion traps, we have designed and characterized the Sandia high-optical-access (HOA-2) microfabricated ion trap. This trap features high optical access, high trap frequencies, low heating rates, and negligible charging of dielectric trap components. We have observed trap lifetimes of more than 100h, measured trap heating rates for ytterbium of less than 40quanta/s, and demonstrated shuttling of ions from a slotted to an above surface region and through a Y-junction. Furthermore, we summarize demonstrations of high-fidelity single and two-qubit gates realized in this trap. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).
Integrated optics architecture for trapped-ion quantum information processing
Kielpinski, D.; Volin, C.; Streed, E. W.; Lenzini, F.; Lobino, M.
2016-12-01
Standard schemes for trapped-ion quantum information processing (QIP) involve the manipulation of ions in a large array of interconnected trapping potentials. The basic set of QIP operations, including state initialization, universal quantum logic, and state detection, is routinely executed within a single array site by means of optical operations, including various laser excitations as well as the collection of ion fluorescence. Transport of ions between array sites is also routinely carried out in microfabricated trap arrays. However, it is still not possible to perform optical operations in parallel across all array sites. The lack of this capability is one of the major obstacles to scalable trapped-ion QIP and presently limits exploitation of current microfabricated trap technology. Here we present an architecture for scalable integration of optical operations in trapped-ion QIP. We show theoretically that diffractive mirrors, monolithically fabricated on the trap array, can efficiently couple light between trap array sites and optical waveguide arrays. Integrated optical circuits constructed from these waveguides can be used for sequencing of laser excitation and fluorescence collection. Our scalable architecture supports all standard QIP operations, as well as photon-mediated entanglement channels, while offering substantial performance improvements over current techniques.
Construction of a single atom trap for quantum information protocols
Shea, Margaret E.; Baker, Paul M.; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Duke Physics Department Team
2016-05-01
The field of quantum information science addresses outstanding problems such as achieving fundamentally secure communication and solving computationally hard problems. Great progress has been made in the field, particularly using photons coupled to ions and super conducting qubits. Neutral atoms are also interesting for these applications and though the technology for control of neutrals lags behind that of trapped ions, they offer some key advantages: primarily coupling to optical frequencies closer to the telecom band than trapped ions or superconducting qubits. Here we report progress on constructing a single atom trap for 87 Rb. This system is a promising platform for studying the technical problems facing neutral atom quantum computing. For example, most protocols destroy the trap when reading out the neutral atom's state; we will investigate an alternative non-destructive state detection scheme. We detail the experimental systems involved and the challenges addressed in trapping a single atom. All of our hardware components are off the shelf and relatively inexpensive. Unlike many other systems, we place a high numerical aperture lens inside our vacuum system to increase photon collection efficiency. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the ARO through Grant # W911NF1520047.
Myoelectric control of artificial limb inspired by quantum information processing
Siomau, Michael; Jiang, Ning
2015-03-01
Precise and elegant coordination of a prosthesis across many degrees of freedom represents a significant challenge to efficient rehabilitation of people with limb deficiency. Processing the electrical neural signals collected from the surface of the remnant muscles of the stump is a common way to initiate and control the different movements available to the artificial limb. Based on the assumption that there are distinguishable and repeatable signal patterns among different types of muscular activation, the problem of prosthesis control reduces to one of pattern recognition. Widely accepted classical methods for pattern recognition, however, cannot provide simultaneous and proportional control of the artificial limb. Here we show that, in principle, quantum information processing of the neural signals allows us to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties, suggesting a very simple scheme for myoelectric control of artificial limb with advanced functionalities.
Myoelectric Control of Artificial Limb by Quantum Information Processing
Siomau, Michael
2013-01-01
Precise and elegant coordination of a prosthesis across many degrees of freedom is highly desired for rehabilitation of people with limb deficiency. Processing the electrical neural signals, collected from the surface of the remnant muscles of the stump, is a common way to activate certain function of the artificial limb. Based on the assumption that there are distinguishable and repeatable signal patterns among different types of muscular activation, the problem of the prosthesis control reduces to the pattern recognition. Widely accepted classical methods for pattern recognition, however, can not provide simultaneous and proportional control of the artificial limb. Here we show that quantum information processing of the neural signals allows us to overcome above difficulties suggesting a very simple scheme for myoelectric control of artificial limb with advanced functionalities.
Information flow during the quantum-classical transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, A.M., E-mail: kowalski@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIC) (Argentina); Martin, M.T., E-mail: mtmartin@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); Zunino, L., E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (IFISC) CSIC-UIB, Campus Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)] [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata - CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina)] [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2010-04-12
We have exhaustively investigated the classical limit of the semi-classical evolution with reference to a well-known model that represents the interaction between matter and a given field. In this Letter we approach this issue by recourse to a new statistical quantifier called the 'symbolic transfer entropy' [T. Schreiber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 461; M. Staniek, K. Lehnertz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 158101]. We encounter that the quantum-classical transition gets thereby described as the sign reversal of the dominating direction of the information flow between classical and quantal variables. This can be considered as an evidence of the physical useful of this new statistical quantifier.
Dynamical entanglement transfer for quantum-information networks
Paternostro, Mauro; Son, W.; Kim, M. S.; Falci, Giuseppe; Palma, G. Massimo
2004-08-01
A key element in the architecture of a quantum-information processing network is a reliable physical interface between fields and qubits. We study a process of entanglement transfer engineering, where two remote qubits respectively interact with an entangled two-mode continuous-variable (CV) field. We quantify the entanglement induced in the qubit state at the expenses of the loss of entanglement in the CV system. We discuss the range of mixed entangled states which can be obtained with this setup. Furthermore, we suggest a protocol to determine the residual entangling power of the light fields inferring, thus, the entanglement left in the field modes which, after the interaction, are no longer in a Gaussian state. Two different setups are proposed: a cavity-QED system and an interface between superconducting qubits and field modes. We address in detail the practical difficulties inherent in these two proposals, showing that the latter is promising in many aspects.
Quantum information analysis of electronic states at different molecular structures
Barcza, G; Marti, K H; Reiher, M
2010-01-01
We have studied transition metal clusters from a quantum information theory perspective using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We demonstrate the competition between entanglement and interaction localization. We also discuss the application of the configuration interaction based dynamically extended active space procedure which significantly reduces the effective system size and accelerates the speed of convergence for complicated molecular electronic structures to a great extent. Our results indicate the importance of taking entanglement among molecular orbitals into account in order to devise an optimal orbital ordering and carry out efficient calculations on transition metal clusters. We propose a recipe to perform DMRG calculations in a black-box fashion and we point out the connections of our work to other tensor network state approaches.
Fundamental properties of devices for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær
This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of the influence of the electronphonon interaction on semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamical systems, specifically a quantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity. We develop a theoretical description of the decay dynamics of the quantum dot ...
Scalable Engineering of Quantum Optical Information Processing Architectures (SEQUOIA)
2016-12-13
interfacing with telecom quantum networks /qubit distribution 4. DV quantum computing using CV cluster Embed circuit model quantum computing into CV...linear-optics mode transformations Realizing scalable, high-fidelity interferometric networks is a central challenge to be addressed on the path...methods for characterizing these large interferometric networks . Figure 1:Photonic integrated circuit. Left: programmable PIC. Right: Transmission at
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2002-01-01
Composite quantum systems cannot generally be analysed as a juxtaposition of separate entities, each described by its own wave function. They are described instead by a global entangled state. Entanglement appears thus as an essential concept, lying at the heart of quantum physics. At a fundamental level it is closely related to non-locality, quantum measurement, complementarity and decoherence, concepts that the founding fathers of quantum physics have analysed in various 'thought experiments'. At a more applied level, the engineering of entanglement in systems of increasing complexity could in principle open the way to various kinds of fascinating quantum information processing applications (quantum cryptography, teleportation, quantum computation). The study of entanglement has recently evolved as a very competitive field of research, both theoretical and experimental. In quantum optics, entanglement has been studied with twin-photon beams, trapped ions and with atoms and photons in cavities. After a gener...
Tamulis, A; Tretiak, S; Berman, G P; Allara, D L
2003-01-01
Implementation of quantum information processing based on spatially localized electronic spins in stable molecular radicals is discussed. The necessary operating conditions for such molecules are formulated in self-assembled monolayer (SAM) systems. As a model system we start with 1, 3 -diketone types of neutral radicals. Using first principles quantum chemical calculations we prove that these molecules have the stable localized electron spin, which may represent a qubit in quantum information processing.
Controlling Atomic, Solid-State and Hybrid Systems for Quantum Information Processing
Gullans, Michael John
Quantum information science involves the use of precise control over quantum systems to explore new technologies. However, as quantum systems are scaled up they require an ever deeper understanding of many-body physics to achieve the required degree of control. Current experiments are entering a regime which requires active control of a mesoscopic number of coupled quantum systems or quantum bits (qubits). This thesis describes several approaches to this goal and shows how mesoscopic quantum systems can be controlled and utilized for quantum information tasks. The first system we consider is the nuclear spin environment of GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. We show that the through appropriate control of dynamic nuclear polarization one can prepare the nuclear spin environment in three distinct collective quantum states which are useful for quantum information processing with electron spin qubits. We then investigate a hybrid system in which an optical lattice is formed in the near field scattering off an array of metallic nanoparticles by utilizing the plasmonic resonance of the nanoparticles. We show that such a system would realize new regimes of dense, ultra-cold quantum matter and can be used to create a quantum network of atoms and plasmons. Finally we investigate quantum nonlinear optical systems. We show that the intrinsic nonlinearity for plasmons in graphene can be large enough to make a quantum gate for single photons. We also consider two nonlinear optical systems based on ultracold gases of atoms. In one case, we demonstrate an all-optical single photon switch using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) and slow light. In the second case, we study few photon physics in strongly interacting Rydberg polariton systems, where we demonstrate the existence of two and three photon bound states and study their properties.
Finite-block-length analysis in classical and quantum information theory.
Hayashi, Masahito
2017-01-01
Coding technology is used in several information processing tasks. In particular, when noise during transmission disturbs communications, coding technology is employed to protect the information. However, there are two types of coding technology: coding in classical information theory and coding in quantum information theory. Although the physical media used to transmit information ultimately obey quantum mechanics, we need to choose the type of coding depending on the kind of information device, classical or quantum, that is being used. In both branches of information theory, there are many elegant theoretical results under the ideal assumption that an infinitely large system is available. In a realistic situation, we need to account for finite size effects. The present paper reviews finite size effects in classical and quantum information theory with respect to various topics, including applied aspects.
Stabilization of Quantum Information A Unified Dynamical-Algebraic Approach
Zanardi, P
2002-01-01
The notion of symmetry is shown to be at the heart of all error correction/avoidance strategies for preserving quantum coherence of an open quantum system S e.g., a quantum computer. The existence of a non-trivial group of symmetries of the dynamical algebra of S provides state-space sectors immune to decoherence. Such noiseless sectors, that can be viewed as a noncommutative version of the pointer basis, are shown to support universal quantum computation and to be robust against perturbations. When the required symmetry is not present one can generate it artificially resorting to active symmetrization procedures.
Actionable Information, Repeatability, Quantum Jumps, and the Wavepacket Collapse
Zurek, Wojciech H
2013-01-01
Unknown quantum state cannot be discovered as the measured system is re-prepared -- it jumps into an eigenstate of the measured observable. This impossibility to find out a quantum state and other symptoms of the wavepacket collapse follow (as was recently demonstrated for pure states of measured systems) from unitarity (that doesn't, however, allow for a literal collapse) and from the repeatability of measurements. Here we extend this result to mixtures and decohering systems. This accounts for quantum jumps in a macroscopic and open (but ultimately quantum) apparatus.
Rotta, Davide; Sebastiano, Fabio; Charbon, Edoardo; Prati, Enrico
2017-06-01
Even the quantum simulation of an apparently simple molecule such as Fe2S2 requires a considerable number of qubits of the order of 106, while more complex molecules such as alanine (C3H7NO2) require about a hundred times more. In order to assess such a multimillion scale of identical qubits and control lines, the silicon platform seems to be one of the most indicated routes as it naturally provides, together with qubit functionalities, the capability of nanometric, serial, and industrial-quality fabrication. The scaling trend of microelectronic devices predicting that computing power would double every 2 years, known as Moore's law, according to the new slope set after the 32-nm node of 2009, suggests that the technology roadmap will achieve the 3-nm manufacturability limit proposed by Kelly around 2020. Today, circuital quantum information processing architectures are predicted to take advantage from the scalability ensured by silicon technology. However, the maximum amount of quantum information per unit surface that can be stored in silicon-based qubits and the consequent space constraints on qubit operations have never been addressed so far. This represents one of the key parameters toward the implementation of quantum error correction for fault-tolerant quantum information processing and its dependence on the features of the technology node. The maximum quantum information per unit surface virtually storable and controllable in the compact exchange-only silicon double quantum dot qubit architecture is expressed as a function of the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology node, so the size scale optimizing both physical qubit operation time and quantum error correction requirements is assessed by reviewing the physical and technological constraints. According to the requirements imposed by the quantum error correction method and the constraints given by the typical strength of the exchange coupling, we determine the workable operation frequency
The Generalized Quantization Schemes for Games and its Application to Quantum Information
Nawaz, Ahmad
2010-01-01
Theory of quantum games is relatively new to the literature and its applications to various areas of research are being explored. It is a novel interpretation of strategies and decisions in quantum domain. In the earlier work on quantum games considerable attention was given to the resolution of dilemmas present in corresponding classical games. Two separate quantum schemes were presented by Eisert et al. and Marinatto and Weber to resolve dilemmas in Prisoners' Dilemma and Battle of Sexes games respectively. However for the latter scheme it was argued that dilemma was not resolved. We have modified the quantization scheme of Marinatto and Weber to resolve the dilemma. We have developed a generalized quantization scheme for two person non-zero sum games which reduces to the existing schemes under certain conditions. Applications of this generalized quantization scheme to quantum information theory are studied. Measurement being ubiquitous in quantum mechanics can not be ignored in quantum games. With the help...
Quantum trajectories making use of all the information in measurement records
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mølmer, Klaus
2014-01-01
The evolution of a continuously probed quantum system is referred to as a quantum trajectory. We discuss how to infer unknown parameters, and we derive resolution limits by detection of, e.g., light emitted by atomic systems. Probing affects not only the current state but also the quantum state o...... of a system in the past and we discuss how a theory of past quantum states may yield useful information in precision metrology [1-3]. [1] PRA 87, 032115 (2013) [2] arXiv:1310.5802 [3] PRL 111, 160401 (2013)......The evolution of a continuously probed quantum system is referred to as a quantum trajectory. We discuss how to infer unknown parameters, and we derive resolution limits by detection of, e.g., light emitted by atomic systems. Probing affects not only the current state but also the quantum state...
Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu
2016-06-01
We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.
Quantum Information Protocols with Gaussian States of Light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann
-to-point configurations that utilize Gaussian states to achieve security. Notably, we also present a novel experiment demonstrating the feasibility of delegated quantum computing on encrypted data, where we show that we can reliably encrypt and decrypt input and output states when a server with quantum computing...
Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors for quantum information and communications
Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio
2010-01-01
Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPD or SSPD) are highly promising devices in the growing field of quantum information and communications technology. We have developed a practical SSPD system with our superconducting thin films and devices fabrication, optical coupling packaging, and cryogenic technology. The SSPD system consists of six-channel SSPD devices and a compact Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler, and can operate continuously on 100 V ac power without the need for any cryogens. The SSPD devices were fabricated from high-quality niobium nitride (NbN) ultra-thin films that were epitaxially grown on single-crystal MgO substrates. The packaged SSPD devices were temperature stabilized to 2.96 K +/- 10 mK. The system detection efficiency for an SSPD device with an area of 20x20 $\\mu m^2$ was found to be 2.6% and 4.5% at wavelengths of 1550 and 1310 nm, respectively, at a dark count rate of 100 c/s, and a jitter of 100 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM). We also performed ultra-fast BB84 q...
Disorder overtakes Order in Information Concentration over Quantum Networks
Prabhu, R; De, Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal
2011-01-01
We consider different classes of quenched disordered quantum XY spin chains, including quantum XY spin glass and quantum XY model with a random transverse field, and investigate the behavior of genuine multiparty entanglement in the ground states of these models. We find that there are distinct ranges of the disorder parameter that gives rise to a higher genuine multiparty entanglement than in the corresponding systems without disorder -- an order-from-disorder in genuine multiparty entanglement. Moreover, we show that such a disorder-induced advantage in the genuine multiparty entanglement is useful -- it is almost certainly accompanied by a order-from-disorder for a multiport quantum dense coding capacity with the same ground state used as a multiport quantum network.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi Zhen-Gang; Chen Xiong-Wen; Zhu Xi-Xiang; Song Ke-Hui
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a simple scheme for realizing one-qubit and two-qubit quantum gates as well as multiqubit entanglement based on dc-SQUID charge qubits through the control of their coupling to a ID transmission line resonator (TLR). The TLR behaves effectively as a quantum data-bus mode of a harmonic oscillator, which has several practical advantages including strong coupling strength, reproducibility, immunity to 1// noise, and suppressed spontaneous emission. In this protocol, the data-bus does not need to stay adiabatically in its ground state, which results in not only fast quantum operation, but also high-fidelity quantum information processing. Also, it elaborates the transfer process with the 1D transmission line.
Gagatsos, Christos N.; Karanikas, Alexandros I.; Kordas, Georgios; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2016-02-01
In spite of their simple description in terms of rotations or symplectic transformations in phase space, quadratic Hamiltonians such as those modelling the most common Gaussian operations on bosonic modes remain poorly understood in terms of entropy production. For instance, determining the quantum entropy generated by a Bogoliubov transformation is notably a hard problem, with generally no known analytical solution, while it is vital to the characterisation of quantum communication via bosonic channels. Here we overcome this difficulty by adapting the replica method, a tool borrowed from statistical physics and quantum field theory. We exhibit a first application of this method to continuous-variable quantum information theory, where it enables accessing entropies in an optical parametric amplifier. As an illustration, we determine the entropy generated by amplifying a binary superposition of the vacuum and a Fock state, which yields a surprisingly simple, yet unknown analytical expression.
Quantum Dot-Photonic Crystal Cavity QED Based Quantum Information Processing
2012-08-14
Physical Review A, 2012] 3. Study of the off-resonant quantum dot-cavity coupling in solid-state cavity QED system, and the phonon mediated off...resonant interaction between two quantum dots [Majumdar et al., Physical Review B , 2012] 4. Coherent optical spectroscopy of a single quantum dot via an off...Resonant cavity - much simpler than in conventional approaches [Majumdar et al, Physical Review B, 2011; Papageorge et al., New. Journal of Physics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Da-Xiu; Luo Jun; Yang Xiao-Dong; Sun Xian-Ping; Zeng Xi-Zhi; Liu Mai-Li; Ding Shang-Wu; Zhan Ming-Sheng
2004-01-01
This paper presents a simple scheme for information transmission between two non-directly interactive qubits in an n-qubit system. An example has been realized on a three-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) spectrometer quantum computer. The experimental result successfully demonstrates that the feasible measure can also be extended to other quantum logical gates, or other quantum algorithms, where some qubits have no direct interactions in a multi-qubit system.
Akulin, V.M; Kurizki, G; Pellegrin, S
2005-01-01
This book is a collection of articles on the contemporary status of quantum mechanics, dedicated to the fundamental issues of entanglement, decoherence, irreversibility, information processing, and control of quantum evolution, with a view of possible applications. It has multidisciplinary character and is addressed at a broad readership in physics, computer science, chemistry, and electrical engineering. It is written by the world-leading experts in pertinent fields such as quantum computing, atomic, molecular and optical physics, condensed matter physics, and statistical physics.
A Simple Example of ``Quantum Darwinism'': Redundant Information Storage in Many-Spin Environments
Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2005-11-01
As quantum information science approaches the goal of constructing quantum computers, understanding loss of information through decoherence becomes increasingly important. The information about a system that can be obtained from its environment can facilitate quantum control and error correction. Moreover, observers gain most of their information indirectly, by monitoring (primarily photon) environments of the "objects of interest." Exactly how this information is inscribed in the environment is essential for the emergence of "the classical" from the quantum substrate. In this paper, we examine how many-qubit (or many-spin) environments can store information about a single system. The information lost to the environment can be stored redundantly, or it can be encoded in entangled modes of the environment. We go on to show that randomly chosen states of the environment almost always encode the information so that an observer must capture a majority of the environment to deduce the system's state. Conversely, in the states produced by a typical decoherence process, information about a particular observable of the system is stored redundantly. This selective proliferation of "the fittest information" (known as Quantum Darwinism) plays a key role in choosing the preferred, effectively classical observables of macroscopic systems. The developing appreciation that the environment functions not just as a garbage dump, but as a communication channel, is extending our understanding of the environment's role in the quantum-classical transition beyond the traditional paradigm of decoherence.
Information carriers and (reading them through) information theory in quantum chemistry.
Geerlings, Paul; Borgoo, Alex
2011-01-21
This Perspective discusses the reduction of the electronic wave function via the second-order reduced density matrix to the electron density ρ(r), which is the key ingredient in density functional theory (DFT) as a basic carrier of information. Simplifying further, the 1-normalized density function turns out to contain essentially the same information as ρ(r) and is even of preferred use as an information carrier when discussing the periodic properties along Mendeleev's table where essentially the valence electrons are at stake. The Kullback-Leibler information deficiency turns out to be the most interesting choice to obtain information on the differences in ρ(r) or σ(r) between two systems. To put it otherwise: when looking for the construction of a functional F(AB) = F[ζ(A)(r),ζ(B)(r)] for extracting differences in information from an information carrier ζ(r) (i.e. ρ(r), σ(r)) for two systems A and B the Kullback-Leibler information measure ΔS is a particularly adequate choice. Examples are given, varying from atoms, to molecules and molecular interactions. Quantum similarity of atoms indicates that the shape function based KL information deficiency is the most appropriate tool to retrieve periodicity in the Periodic Table. The dissimilarity of enantiomers for which different information measures are presented at global and local (i.e. molecular and atomic) level leads to an extension of Mezey's holographic density theorem and shows numerical evidence that in a chiral molecule the whole molecule is pervaded by chirality. Finally Kullback-Leibler information profiles are discussed for intra- and intermolecular proton transfer reactions and a simple S(N)2 reaction indicating that the theoretical information profile can be used as a companion to the energy based Hammond postulate to discuss the early or late transition state character of a reaction. All in all this Perspective's answer is positive to the question of whether an even simpler carrier of
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z Y
2016-07-26
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-07-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
Olendski, O.
2016-12-01
Information-theoretical concepts are employed for the analysis of the interplay between a transverse electric field $\\mathscr{E}$ applied to a one-dimensional surface and Robin boundary condition (BC), which with the help of the extrapolation length $\\Lambda$ zeroes at the interface a linear combination of the quantum mechanical wave function and its spatial derivative, and its influence on the properties of the structure. For doing this, exact analytical solutions of the corresponding Schr\\"{o}dinger equation are derived and used for calculating energies, dipole moments, position $S_x$ and momentum $S_k$ quantum information entropies and their Fisher information $I_x$ and $I_k$ and Onicescu information energies $O_x$ and $O_k$ counterparts. It is shown that the weak (strong) electric field changes the Robin wall into the Dirichlet, $\\Lambda=0$ (Neumann, $\\Lambda=\\infty$), surface. This transformation of the energy spectrum and associated waveforms in the growing field defines an evolution of the quantum-information measures; for example, it is proved that for the Dirichlet and Neumann BCs the position (momentum) quantum information entropy varies as a positive (negative) natural logarithm of the electric intensity what results in their field-independent sum $S_x+S_k$. Analogously, at $\\Lambda=0$ and $\\Lambda=\\infty$ the position and momentum Fisher informations (Onicescu energies) depend on the applied voltage as $\\mathscr{E}^{2/3}$ ($\\mathscr{E}^{1/3}$) and its inverse, respectively, leading to the field-independent product $I_xI_k$ ($O_xO_k$). Peculiarities of their transformations at the finite nonzero $\\Lambda$ are discussed and similarities and differences between the three quantum-information measures in the electric field are highlighted with the special attention being paid to the configuration with the negative extrapolation length.
Controlled Teleportation of Multi-Qudit Quantum Information
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI Hua; ZHAN Xiao-Gui; ZENG Hao-Sheng
2007-01-01
We present a controlled teleportation scheme for teleporting an arbitrary superposition state of an M-qudit quantum system. The scheme employs only one entangled state as quantum channel, which consists of the qudits from Alice, Bob and every agent. The quantum operations used in the teleportation process are a series of qudit Bell measurements, single-qudit projective measurements, qudit H-gates, qudit-Pauli gates and qudit phase gates. It is shown that the original state can be restored by the receiver only on the condition that all the agents collaborate. If any agent does not cooperate, the original state can not be fully recovered.
Rotta, Davide; De Michielis, Marco; Ferraro, Elena; Fanciulli, Marco; Prati, Enrico
2016-06-01
Scalability from single-qubit operations to multi-qubit circuits for quantum information processing requires architecture-specific implementations. Semiconductor hybrid qubit architecture is a suitable candidate to realize large-scale quantum information processing, as it combines a universal set of logic gates with fast and all-electrical manipulation of qubits. We propose an implementation of hybrid qubits, based on Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dots, compatible with the CMOS industrial technological standards. We discuss the realization of multi-qubit circuits capable of fault-tolerant computation and quantum error correction, by evaluating the time and space resources needed for their implementation. As a result, the maximum density of quantum information is extracted from a circuit including eight logical qubits encoded by the [[7, 1, 3
Scalable architecture for a room temperature solid-state quantum information processor.
Yao, N Y; Jiang, L; Gorshkov, A V; Maurer, P C; Giedke, G; Cirac, J I; Lukin, M D
2012-04-24
The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Here we propose and analyse an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at room temperature. Our approach is based on recent experimental advances involving nitrogen-vacancy colour centres in diamond. In particular, we demonstrate that the multiple challenges associated with operation at ambient temperature, individual addressing at the nanoscale, strong qubit coupling, robustness against disorder and low decoherence rates can be simultaneously achieved under realistic, experimentally relevant conditions. The architecture uses a novel approach to quantum information transfer and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Moreover, it alleviates the stringent constraints currently limiting the realization of scalable quantum processors and will provide fundamental insights into the physics of non-equilibrium many-body quantum systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita, E-mail: kavita@iisermohali.ac.in
2016-09-07
Estimation of quantum states is an important step in any quantum information processing experiment. A naive reconstruction of the density matrix from experimental measurements can often give density matrices which are not positive, and hence not physically acceptable. How do we ensure that at all stages of reconstruction, we keep the density matrix positive? Recently a method has been suggested based on maximum likelihood estimation, wherein the density matrix is guaranteed to be positive definite. We experimentally implement this protocol on an NMR quantum information processor. We discuss several examples and compare with the standard method of state estimation. - Highlights: • State estimation using maximum likelihood method was performed on an NMR quantum information processor. • Physically valid density matrices were obtained every time in contrast to standard quantum state tomography. • Density matrices of several different entangled and separable states were reconstructed for two and three qubits.
A quantum-information theoretic analysis of three-flavor neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Subhashish, E-mail: subhashish@iitj.ac.in; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar, E-mail: akalok@iitj.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, 342011, Jodhpur (India); Srikanth, R., E-mail: srik@poornaprajna.org [Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, Sadashivnagar, 560080, Banglore (India); Hiesmayr, Beatrix C., E-mail: Beatrix.Hiesmayr@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090, Vienna (Austria)
2015-10-13
Correlations exhibited by neutrino oscillations are studied via quantum-information theoretic quantities. We show that the strongest type of entanglement, genuine multipartite entanglement, is persistent in the flavor changing states. We prove the existence of Bell-type nonlocal features, in both its absolute and genuine avatars. Finally, we show that a measure of nonclassicality, dissension, which is a generalization of quantum discord to the tripartite case, is nonzero for almost the entire range of time in the evolution of an initial electron-neutrino. Via these quantum-information theoretic quantities, capturing different aspects of quantum correlations, we elucidate the differences between the flavor types, shedding light on the quantum-information theoretic aspects of the weak force.
Quantum Sensors at the Intersections of Fundamental Science, Quantum Information Science & Computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chattopadhyay, Swapan [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Falcone, Roger [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Walsworth, Ronald [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)
2016-02-25
Over the last twenty years, there has been a boom in quantum science - i.e., the development and exploitation of quantum systems to enable qualitatively and quantitatively new capabilities, with high-impact applications and fundamental insights that can range across all areas of science and technology.
2007-11-30
Ohtsuki, K. Nakagami , W. Zhu, and H. Rabitz, Chem. Phys., 287, 197-216 (2003). Quantum Control via Adaptive Tracking, W. Zhu and H. Rabitz, J. Chem...dynamics under the influence of dissipation, Y. Ohtsuki, K. Nakagami , W. Zhu, and H. Rabitz, Chem. Phys., 287, 197-216 (2003). 22. Quantum Control via
Efficient scheme for two-atom entanglement and quantum information processing in cavity QED
Zheng; Guo
2000-09-11
A scheme is proposed for the generation of two-atom maximally entangled states and realization of quantum logic gates and teleportation with cavity QED. The scheme does not require the transfer of quantum information between the atoms and cavity. In the scheme the cavity is only virtually excited and thus the requirement on the quality factor of the cavities is greatly loosened.
Efficient Quantum Information Transfer Through a Uniform Channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paola Verrucchi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Effective quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be obtained by inducing a coherent dynamics in quantum wires with homogeneous intrawire interactions. This goal is accomplished by optimally tuning the coupling between the wire endpoints and the two qubits there attached. A general procedure to determine such value is devised, and scaling laws between the optimal coupling and the length of the wire are found. The procedure is implemented in the case of a wire consisting of a spin-1/2 XY chain: results for the time dependence of the quantities which characterize quantum-state and entanglement transfer are found of extremely good quality also for very long wires. The present approach does not require engineered intrawire interactions nor a specific initial pulse shaping, and can be applied to a vast class of quantum channels.
Topological Quantum Information Processing Mediated Via Hybrid Topogical Insulator Structures
2014-03-28
Matthew J. Gilbert, and Benjamin L. Lev, "Imaging Topologically Protected Transport with Quantum Degenerate Gases," Physical Review B 85 205422 (2012...from the Entanglement Spectrum," Physical Review B: Rapid Communications 86, 041401 (2012). 3 Qinglei Meng, Taylor L. Hughes, Matthew J. Gilbert...Josephson Effect and Electrically Controlled Magnetization in Quantum Spin Hall Edges," Physical Review B 86, 165110 (2012). 5 Youngseok Kim, E. M
Quantum Information Measurements for Garfinkle-Horne Dilaton Black Holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GE Xian-Hui; SHEN You-Gen
2004-01-01
@@ The quantum non-cloning theorem is discussed for Garfinkle-Horne dilaton black holes. It is found that if the black hole complementarity principle is correct, then it will be questioned whether the quantum non-cloning theorem is well established inside the inner horizon. It is also found that another complementarity principle may be needed inside the inner horizon of the Garfinkle-Horne dilaton black hole.
Quadrature Uncertainty and Information Entropy of Quantum Elliptical Vortex States
Banerji, Anindya; Panigrahi, Prasanta. K.; Singh, Ravindra Pratap; Chowdhury, Saurav; Bandyopadhyay, Abir
2012-01-01
We study the quadrature uncertainty of the quantum elliptical vortex state using the associated Wigner function. Deviations from the minimum uncertainty states were observed due to the absence of the Gaussian nature. In our study of the entropy, we noticed that with increasing vorticity, entropy increases for both the modes. We further observed that, there exists an optimum value of ellipticity which gives rise to maximum entanglement of the two modes of the quantum elliptical vortex states. ...
Private algebras in quantum information and infinite-dimensional complementarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crann, Jason, E-mail: jason-crann@carleton.ca [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Laboratoire de Mathématiques Paul Painlevé–UMR CNRS 8524, UFR de Mathématiques, Université Lille 1–Sciences et Technologies, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cédex (France); Kribs, David W., E-mail: dkribs@uoguelph.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Levene, Rupert H., E-mail: rupert.levene@ucd.ie [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Todorov, Ivan G., E-mail: i.todorov@qub.ac.uk [Pure Mathematics Research Centre, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)
2016-01-15
We introduce a generalized framework for private quantum codes using von Neumann algebras and the structure of commutants. This leads naturally to a more general notion of complementary channel, which we use to establish a generalized complementarity theorem between private and correctable subalgebras that applies to both the finite and infinite-dimensional settings. Linear bosonic channels are considered and specific examples of Gaussian quantum channels are given to illustrate the new framework together with the complementarity theorem.
Unification of Quantum and Gravity by Non Classical Information Entropy Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davide Fiscaletti
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A quantum entropy space is suggested as the fundamental arena describing the quantum effects. In the quantum regime the entropy is expressed as the superposition of many different Boltzmann entropies that span the space of the entropies before any measure. When a measure is performed the quantum entropy collapses to one component. A suggestive reading of the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics and of Bohm’s quantum potential in terms of the quantum entropy are provided. The space associated with the quantum entropy determines a distortion in the classical space of position, which appears as a Weyl-like gauge potential connected with Fisher information. This Weyl-like gauge potential produces a deformation of the moments which changes the classical action in such a way that Bohm’s quantum potential emerges as consequence of the non classical definition of entropy, in a non-Euclidean information space under the constraint of a minimum condition of Fisher information (Fisher Bohm- entropy. Finally, the possible quantum relativistic extensions of the theory and the connections with the problem of quantum gravity are investigated. The non classical thermodynamic approach to quantum phenomena changes the geometry of the particle phase space. In the light of the representation of gravity in ordinary phase space by torsion in the flat space (Teleparallel gravity, the change of geometry in the phase space introduces quantum phenomena in a natural way. This gives a new force to F. Shojai’s and A. Shojai’s theory where the geometry of space-time is highly coupled with a quantum potential whose origin is not the Schrödinger equation but the non classical entropy of a system of many particles that together change the geometry of the phase space of the positions (entanglement. In this way the non classical thermodynamic changes the classical geodetic as a consequence of the quantum phenomena and quantum and gravity are unified. Quantum
Liu, X M; Cheng, W W; Liu, J-M
2016-01-19
We investigate the quantum Fisher information and quantum phase transitions of an XY spin chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction using the quantum renormalization-group method. The quantum Fisher information, its first-derivatives, and the finite-size scaling behaviors are rigorously calculated respectively. The singularity of the derivatives at the phase transition point as a function of lattice size is carefully discussed and it is revealed that the scaling exponent for quantum Fisher information at the critical point can be used to describe the correlation length of this model, addressing the substantial role of staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in modulating quantum phase transitions.
Preparation of multi-atom specially entangled W-class state and splitting quantum information
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG YaHong; SONG HeShan
2009-01-01
We give a protocol to prepare specially entangled W-class state of multi-atom which can be used to exactly teleport an arbitrarily unknown two-level two-atom state.During the process,the quantum information is split into n parts and the original quantum information can be sent to anyone of the n recipients with the other n-1 recipients' collaboration.In addition,we will give a suggestion to realize this scheme via QED cavity.
Fisher information and quantum-classical field theory: classical statistics similarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Syska, J. [Department of Field Theory and Particle Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)
2007-07-15
The classical statistics indication for the impossibility to derive quantum mechanics from classical mechanics is proved. The formalism of the statistical Fisher information is used. Next the Fisher information as a tool of the construction of a self-consistent field theory, which joins the quantum theory and classical field theory, is proposed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Quantum Bio-Informatics II From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics
Accardi, L.; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori
2009-02-01
The problem of quantum-like representation in economy cognitive science, and genetics / L. Accardi, A. Khrennikov and M. Ohya -- Chaotic behavior observed in linea dynamics / M. Asano, T. Yamamoto and Y. Togawa -- Complete m-level quantum teleportation based on Kossakowski-Ohya scheme / M. Asano, M. Ohya and Y. Tanaka -- Towards quantum cybernetics: optimal feedback control in quantum bio informatics / V. P. Belavkin -- Quantum entanglement and circulant states / D. Chruściński -- The compound Fock space and its application in brain models / K. -H. Fichtner and W. Freudenberg -- Characterisation of beam splitters / L. Fichtner and M. Gäbler -- Application of entropic chaos degree to a combined quantum baker's map / K. Inoue, M. Ohya and I. V. Volovich -- On quantum algorithm for multiple alignment of amino acid sequences / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya --Quantum-like models for decision making in psychology and cognitive science / A. Khrennikov -- On completely positive non-Markovian evolution of a d-level system / A. Kossakowski and R. Rebolledo -- Measures of entanglement - a Hilbert space approach / W. A. Majewski -- Some characterizations of PPT states and their relation / T. Matsuoka -- On the dynamics of entanglement and characterization ofentangling properties of quantum evolutions / M. Michalski -- Perspective from micro-macro duality - towards non-perturbative renormalization scheme / I. Ojima -- A simple symmetric algorithm using a likeness with Introns behavior in RNA sequences / M. Regoli -- Some aspects of quadratic generalized white noise functionals / Si Si and T. Hida -- Analysis of several social mobility data using measure of departure from symmetry / K. Tahata ... [et al.] -- Time in physics and life science / I. V. Volovich -- Note on entropies in quantum processes / N. Watanabe -- Basics of molecular simulation and its application to biomolecules / T. Ando and I. Yamato -- Theory of proton-induced superionic conduction in hydrogen-bonded systems
Recent advances in exciton-based quantum information processing in quantum dot nanostructures
Krenner, Hubert J.; Stufler, Stefan; Sabathil, Matthias; Clark, Emily C.; Ester, Patrick; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J.; Zrenner, Artur
2005-08-01
Recent experimental developments in the field of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) spectroscopy are discussed. Firstly, we report about single QD exciton two-level systems and their coherent properties in terms of single-qubit manipulations. In the second part, we report on coherent quantum coupling in a prototype 'two-qubit' system consisting of a vertically stacked pair of QDs. The interaction can be tuned in such QD molecule devices using an applied voltage as external parameter.
Recent advances in exciton-based quantum information processing in quantum dot nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krenner, Hubert J [Physik Department and Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Stufler, Stefan [Universitaet Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Sabathil, Matthias [Physik Department and Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Clark, Emily C [Physik Department and Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ester, Patrick [Universitaet Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Bichler, Max [Physik Department and Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Abstreiter, Gerhard [Physik Department and Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Finley, Jonathan J [Physik Department and Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zrenner, Artur [Universitaet Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)
2005-08-01
Recent experimental developments in the field of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) spectroscopy are discussed. Firstly, we report about single QD exciton two-level systems and their coherent properties in terms of single-qubit manipulations. In the second part, we report on coherent quantum coupling in a prototype 'two-qubit' system consisting of a vertically stacked pair of QDs. The interaction can be tuned in such QD molecule devices using an applied voltage as external parameter.
Li, Pengbo
2010-01-01
We propose an efficient scheme for the realization of quantum information transfer and entanglement with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to a high-Q microspherical resonator. We show that, based on the effective dipole-dipole interaction between the NV centers mediated by the whispering-gallery mode (WGM), quantum information can be transferred between the NV centers through Raman transitions combined with laser fields. This protocol may open up promising possibilities for quantum communications with the solid state cavity QED system.
Hybrid Quantum-Classical Protocol for Storage and Retrieval of Discrete-Valued Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah M. Iliyasu
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a hybrid (i.e., quantum-classical adaptive protocol for the storage and retrieval of discrete-valued information. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a procedure that exhibits how to store and retrieve unanticipated information values by using a quantum property, that of using different vector space bases for preparation and measurement of quantum states. This simple idea leads to an interesting old wish in Artificial Intelligence: the development of computer systems that can incorporate new knowledge on a real-time basis just by hardware manipulation.
Theory of Gaussian quantum information and correlations using Renyi-2 entropy
Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio
2012-01-01
We demonstrate that the Renyi-2 entropy provides a natural measure of information for any multimode Gaussian state of quantum harmonic systems, operationally linked to the phase-space Shannon sampling entropy of the Wigner distribution of the state. We prove that, in the Gaussian scenario, such an entropy satisfies the strong subadditivity inequality, a key requirement for quantum information theory. This allows us to define and analyze measures of Gaussian entanglement and more general quantum correlations based on such an entropy, which are shown to satisfy relevant properties such as monogamy.
Measuring Gaussian Quantum Information and Correlations Using the Rényi Entropy of Order 2
Adesso, Gerardo; Girolami, Davide; Serafini, Alessio
2012-11-01
We demonstrate that the Rényi-2 entropy provides a natural measure of information for any multimode Gaussian state of quantum harmonic systems, operationally linked to the phase-space Shannon sampling entropy of the Wigner distribution of the state. We prove that, in the Gaussian scenario, such an entropy satisfies the strong subadditivity inequality, a key requirement for quantum information theory. This allows us to define and analyze measures of Gaussian entanglement and more general quantum correlations based on such an entropy, which are shown to satisfy relevant properties such as monogamy.
Scheme for splitting quantum information via W states in cavity QED systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Xi-Mei; Gu Yong-Jian; Ma Li-Zhen; Zhou Bang-An
2008-01-01
Assisted by multipartite entanglement,Quantum information may be split so that the original qubit can be reconstructed if and only if the recipients cooperate.This paper proposes an experimentally feasible scheme for splitting quantum information via W-type entangled states in cavity QED systems,where three-level Rydberg atoms interact with nonresonant cavities.Since W-type states are used as the quantum channel and the cavities are only virtually excited,the scheme is easy to implement and robust against decoherence,and the dependence on the quality factor of the cavities is greatly reduced.
Characterization of complex quantum dynamics with a scalable NMR information processor.
Ryan, C A; Emerson, J; Poulin, D; Negrevergne, C; Laflamme, R
2005-12-16
We present experimental results on the measurement of fidelity decay under contrasting system dynamics using a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. The measurements were performed by implementing a scalable circuit in the model of deterministic quantum computation with only one quantum bit. The results show measurable differences between regular and complex behavior and for complex dynamics are faithful to the expected theoretical decay rate. Moreover, we illustrate how the experimental method can be seen as an efficient way for either extracting coarse-grained information about the dynamics of a large system or measuring the decoherence rate from engineered environments.
The role of quantum information in thermodynamics—a topical review
Goold, John; Huber, Marcus; Riera, Arnau; del Rio, Lídia; Skrzypczyk, Paul
2016-04-01
This topical review article gives an overview of the interplay between quantum information theory and thermodynamics of quantum systems. We focus on several trending topics including the foundations of statistical mechanics, resource theories, entanglement in thermodynamic settings, fluctuation theorems and thermal machines. This is not a comprehensive review of the diverse field of quantum thermodynamics; rather, it is a convenient entry point for the thermo-curious information theorist. Furthermore this review should facilitate the unification and understanding of different interdisciplinary approaches emerging in research groups around the world.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Peng-Bo; Li Fu-Li
2011-01-01
A protocol is proposed to generate atomic entangled states and implement quantum information transfer in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system. It utilizes Raman transitions or stimulated Raman adiabatic passages between two systems to entangle the ground states of two three-state A-type atoms trapped in a single mode cavity. It does not need the measurements on cavity field nor atomic detection and can be implemented in a deterministic fashion. Since the present protocol is insensitive to both cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission,it may have some interesting applications in quantum information processing.
Deterministic multimode photonic device for quantum-information processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anne Ersbak Bang; Mølmer, Klaus
2010-01-01
We propose the implementation of a light source that can deterministically generate a rich variety of multimode quantum states. The desired states are encoded in the collective population of different ground hyperfine states of an atomic ensemble and converted to multimode photonic states...... by excitation to optically excited levels followed by cooperative spontaneous emission. Among our examples of applications, we demonstrate how two-photon-entangled states can be prepared and implemented in a protocol for a reference-frame-free quantum key distribution and how one-dimensional as well as higher...
Baladrón, Carlos; Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-12-01
The similarities between biological and physical systems as respectively defined in quantum information biology (QIB) and in a Darwinian approach to quantum mechanics (DAQM) have been analysed. In both theories the processing of information is a central feature characterising the systems. The analysis highlights a mutual support on the thesis contended by each theory. On the one hand, DAQM provides a physical basis that might explain the key role played by quantum information at the macroscopic level for bio-systems in QIB. On the other hand, QIB offers the possibility, acting as a macroscopic testing ground, to analyse the emergence of quantumness from classicality in the terms held by DAQM. As an added result of the comparison, a tentative definition of quantum information in terms of classical information flows has been proposed. The quantum formalism would appear from this comparative analysis between QIB and DAQM as an optimal information scheme that would maximise the stability of biological and physical systems at any scale.
Information Entropy. and Squeezing of Quantum Fluctuations in a Two-Level Atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Mao-Fa; ZHOU Peng; S. Swain
2000-01-01
We study the atomic squeezing in the language of the quantum information theory. A rigorous entropy uncertainty relation which suits for characterizing the squeezing of a two-level atoms is obtained, and a general definition of information entropy squeezing in the two-level atoms is given. The information entropy squeezing of two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode quantum field is examined. Our results show that the information entropy is a superior measure of the quantum uncertainty of atomic observable, also is a remarkable good precision measure of atomic squeezing. When the population difference of two-level atom is zero, the definition of atomic squeezing based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is trivial, while the definition of information entropy squeezing of the atom based on the entropy uncertainty relation is valid and can provide full information on the atomic squeezing in any cases.
Architectures and Applications for Scalable Quantum Information Systems
2007-01-01
Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 77, p. 198, 1996. arXive e-print quant-ph/9602019. [18] V. Adve, C. Lattner, M. Brukman, A. Shukla , and B. Gaeke, “LLVA: A Low...the quantum nature of electrons begins to dominate over normal classical behavior. For example, in 100-nm-wide polysil- icon wires at 100 mK , electrons
For quantum information, two wrongs can make a right
Oppenheim, Jonathan
2010-01-01
Superactivation is the phenomenon where two quantum channels which individually have zero-capacity can have positive capacity when used together. The perspective given here provides an intuitive explanation of this discovery by Smith and Yard, and gives a protocol to activate any private channel.
Polycarpou, Constantina; Venturi, Giovanni; Zavatta, Alessandro; Bellini, Marco
2011-01-01
A photon is the single excitation of a particular spatiotemporal mode of the electromagnetic field. A precise knowledge of the mode structure is therefore essential for its processing and detection, as well as for applying generic quantum light states to novel technologies. Here we demonstrate an adaptive scheme for reconstructing the arbitrary amplitude and phase spectro-temporal profile of an ultrashort single-photon pulse. The method combines techniques from the fields of ultrafast coherent control and quantum optics to map the mode of a fragile quantum state onto that of an intense coherent field. In addition, we show that the possibility of generating and detecting quantum states in multiple spectro-temporal modes may serve as a basis for encoding qubits (and qudits) into single, broadband, ultrashort, photons. Providing access to a much larger Hilbert space, this scheme may boost the capacity of current quantum information protocols.
Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory.
Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David
2013-10-08
Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information.
Redundant imprinting of information in non-ideal environments: Quantum Darwinism via a noisy channel
Zwolak, Michael; Quan, Haitao; Zurek, Wojciech
2011-03-01
Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. While causing a system to decohere, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information about the system, yet can still acquire redundant information about the system [1,2]. Our results show that Quantum Darwinism is robust with respect to non-ideal initial states of the environment. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.
Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory
Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P.; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David
2013-01-01
Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information. PMID:24062431
Quantum information processing using acceptors in silicon and phonon entanglement
Clark, Susan; Reinke, Charles; McGuinness, Hayden; El-Kady, Ihab
2014-03-01
Quantum computing with large numbers of qubits remains challenging due to the decoherence and complexity that arise as more qubits are added to a system. Here I propose a new platform for semiconductor quantum computing which may be robust to common sources of decoherence and may not be difficult to fabricate repeatedly. This system consists of a hole bound to an acceptor in silicon which has been implanted in the center of a mechanical cavity (similar to a photonic crystal cavity) and connected to other cavities by a system of waveguides. I will outline a basic entangling gate and calculations showing the promise of this platform as the ideal qubit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Fast ion swapping for quantum-information processing
Kaufmann, H.; Ruster, T.; Schmiegelow, C. T.; Luda, M. A.; Kaushal, V.; Schulz, J.; von Lindenfels, D.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Poschinger, U. G.
2017-05-01
We demonstrate a swap gate between laser-cooled ions in a segmented microtrap via fast physical swapping of the ion positions. This operation is used in conjunction with qubit initialization, manipulation, and readout and with other types of shuttling operations such as linear transport and crystal separation and merging. Combining these operations, we perform quantum process tomography of the swap gate, obtaining a mean process fidelity of 99.5(5)%. The swap operation is demonstrated with motional excitations below 0.05(1) quantum for all six collective modes of a two-ion crystal for a process duration of 42 μ s . Extending these techniques to three ions, we reverse the order of a three-ion crystal and reconstruct the truth table for this operation, resulting in a mean process fidelity of 99.96(13)% in the logical basis.
Theoretical Study of Solid State Quantum Information Processing
2013-08-28
Physical Review A, (02 2013): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.022332 08/28/2013 30.00 Peihao Huang, Xuedong Hu. Spin qubit relaxation in a moving quantum dot, Physical Review B, (08 2013): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.075301 08/28/2013 29.00 Lukasz Cywinski, Xuedong Hu, S. Das Sarma, Jo-Tzu Hung. Hyperfine interaction induced dephasing of coupled spin qubits in semiconductor double quantum dots, Physical Review B, (08 2013): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085314 08/28/2013 28.00 Ting Yu, WenXian Zhang, XueDong Hu,
Topological Quantum Information Processing Mediated Via Hybrid Topological Insulator Structures
2013-11-13
Matthew J. Gilbert, and Benjamin L. Lev, "Imaging Topologically Protected Transport with Quantum Degenerate Gases," Physical Review B 85 205422...from the Entanglement Spectrum," Physical Review B: Rapid Communications 86, 041401 (2012). 3 Qinglei Meng, Taylor L. Hughes, Matthew J. Gilbert...34 Physical Review B 86, 155110 (2012). 4 Qinglei Meng, Vasudha Shivamoggi, Taylor L. Hughes, Matthew J. Gilbert and S. Vishveshwara, "Fractional Spin
A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics. 2. ed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diosi, Lajos [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (RMKI), Budapest (Hungary). MTA Budapest
2011-07-01
This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition: ''The best things about this book are its brevity and clarity. In around 100 pages it provides a tutorial introduction to quantum information theory, including problems and solutions.. it's worth a look if you want to quickly get up to speed with the language and central concepts of quantum information theory, including the background classical information theory.'' (Craig Savage, Australian Physics, Vol. 44 (2), 2007). (orig.)
量子信息技术纵览%A survey on quantum information technology
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周正威; 陈巍; 孙方稳; 项国勇; 李传锋
2012-01-01
After nearly three decades of rapid development, the quantum information technology in the theoretical and technical studies has gained remarkable achievements. This review gives a brief introduction to the development of various hot research branches of quantum information technology, including quantum cryptography, quantum communication, quantum computing, quantum simulation, quantum metrology, and fundamental theory of quantum information. In addition, this review also discusses various physical systems which have been well applied in the quantum information technology, such as atomic, molecular and optical physics, different branches in solid state physics (superconducting Josephson Junction system, semiconductor quantum dots, Nitrogen-vacancy color centers in diamond), trapped ions, and nuclear magnetic resonance system. With the investigation and accumulation of quantum information technology, the ability to control microscopic world has been significantly improved. Quantum cryptography has been close to the practical application and the long-distance quantum communication has overcome the practical obstacles in principle. Quantum simulation is close to the limit of the classical computer. Also, quantum metrology has gained rapid development. This review not only shows the situation of the international development of quantum information technology, but also highlights the achievements of China in recent years. These achievements demonstrate that China is an indispensable force in the worldwide quantum information community.%量子信息技术经过近三十年突飞猛进的发展,在理论和技术方面已经获得了举世瞩目的成就.本文主要对量子信息技术各个热点研究分支的发展进行了概括性的介绍,涉及到量子密码、量子通信、量子计算、量子模拟、量子度量学、量子信息物理基础等各个领域,此外,也讨论了原子、分子和光物理、固体物理的各个分支(超导约瑟夫森结系
Universal behavior of the Shannon mutual information in nonintegrable self-dual quantum chains
Alcaraz, F. C.
2016-09-01
An existing conjecture states that the Shannon mutual information contained in the ground-state wave function of conformally invariant quantum chains, on periodic lattices, has a leading finite-size scaling behavior that, similarly as the von Neumann entanglement entropy, depends on the value of the central charge of the underlying conformal field theory describing the physical properties. This conjecture applies whenever the ground-state wave function is expressed in some special basis (conformal basis). Its formulation comes mainly from numerical evidences on exactly integrable quantum chains. In this paper, the above conjecture was tested for several general nonintegrable quantum chains. We introduce new families of self-dual Z (Q ) symmetric quantum chains (Q =2 ,3 ,... ). These quantum chains contain nearest-neighbor as well next-nearest-neighbor interactions (coupling constant p ). In the cases Q =2 and Q =3 , they are extensions of the standard quantum Ising and three-state Potts chains, respectively. For Q =4 and Q ≥5 , they are extensions of the Ashkin-Teller and Z (Q ) parafermionic quantum chains. Our studies indicate that these models are interesting on their own. They are critical, conformally invariant, and share the same universality class in a continuous critical line. Moreover, our numerical analysis for Q =2 -8 indicate that the Shannon mutual information exhibits the conjectured behavior irrespective if the conformally invariant quantum chain is exactly integrable or not. For completeness we also calculated, for these new families of quantum chains, the two existing generalizations of the Shannon mutual information, which are based on the Rényi entropy and on the Rényi divergence.
Optimal quantum cloning based on the maximin principle by using a priori information
Kang, Peng; Dai, Hong-Yi; Wei, Jia-Hua; Zhang, Ming
2016-10-01
We propose an optimal 1 →2 quantum cloning method based on the maximin principle by making full use of a priori information of amplitude and phase about the general cloned qubit input set, which is a simply connected region enclosed by a "longitude-latitude grid" on the Bloch sphere. Theoretically, the fidelity of the optimal quantum cloning machine derived from this method is the largest in terms of the maximin principle compared with that of any other machine. The problem solving is an optimization process that involves six unknown complex variables, six vectors in an uncertain-dimensional complex vector space, and four equality constraints. Moreover, by restricting the structure of the quantum cloning machine, the optimization problem is simplified as a three-real-parameter suboptimization problem with only one equality constraint. We obtain the explicit formula for a suboptimal quantum cloning machine. Additionally, the fidelity of our suboptimal quantum cloning machine is higher than or at least equal to that of universal quantum cloning machines and phase-covariant quantum cloning machines. It is also underlined that the suboptimal cloning machine outperforms the "belt quantum cloning machine" for some cases.
Fisher information and asymptotic normality in system identification for quantum Markov chains
Guta, Madalin
2010-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of estimating the coupling constant $\\theta$ of a mixing quantum Markov chain with finite dimensional quantum systems. For a repeated measurement on the chain's output we show that the outcomes' time average has an asymptotically normal (Gaussian) distribution, and we give the explicit expressions of its mean and variance. This provides a simple estimator of $\\theta$ with computable classical Fisher information which can be optimized over different choices of measurements. We then show that the output itself is asymptotically normal, i.e. at time $n$ the joint output states with parameters of the form $\\theta_{0}+u/\\sqrt{n}$ look like a one dimensional family of coherent states with displacement $u\\sqrt{F/2}$, where $F$ is the quantum Fisher information of the output. These results are quantum extensions of theorems from the theory of classical Markov chains, and further extensions to continuous time dynamics and multiple parameters are in preparation.
Spectroscopy of cold rubidium Rydberg atoms for applications in quantum information
Ryabtsev, I I; Tretyakov, D B; Entin, V M; Yakshina, E A
2016-01-01
Atoms in highly excited (Rydberg) states have a number of unique properties which make them attractive for applications in quantum information. These are large dipole moments, lifetimes and polarizabilities, as well as strong long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms. Experimental methods of laser cooling and precision spectroscopy enable the trapping and manipulation of single Rydberg atoms and applying them for practical implementation of quantum gates over qubits of a quantum computer based on single neutral atoms in optical traps. In this paper, we give a review of the experimental and theoretical work performed by the authors at the Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS and Novosibirsk State University on laser and microwave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap and on their possible applications in quantum information. We also give a brief review of studies done by other groups in this area.
Lorentz covariant reduced-density-operator theory for relativistic quantum information processing
Ahn, D; Hwang, S W; Ahn, Doyeol; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Hwang, Sung Woo
2003-01-01
In this paper, we derived Lorentz covariant quantum Liouville equation for the density operator which describes the relativistic quantum information processing from Tomonaga-Schwinger equation and an exact formal solution for the reduced-density-operator is obtained using the projector operator technique and the functional calculus. When all the members of the family of the hypersurfaces become flat hyperplanes, it is shown that our results agree with those of non-relativistic case which is valid only in some specified reference frame. The formulation presented in this work is general and might be applied to related fields such as quantum electrodynamics and relativistic statistical mechanics.
Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR di Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)
2005-10-01
We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits.
Decoherence-Free Quantum Information Processing with Four-Photon Entangled States
Bourennane, M; Gaertner, S; Kurtsiefer, C; Cabello, A; Weinfurter, H; Bourennane, Mohamed; Eibl, Manfred; Gaertner, Sascha; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Cabello, Adan; Weinfurter, Harald
2004-01-01
Decoherence-free states protect quantum information from collective noise, the predominant cause of decoherence in current implementations of quantum communication and computation. Here we demonstrate that spontaneous parametric down-conversion can be used to generate four-photon states which enable the encoding of one qubit in a decoherence-free subspace. The immunity against noise is verified by quantum state tomography of the encoded qubit. We show that particular states of the encoded qubit can be distinguished by local measurements on the four photons only.
Storage and retrieval of quantum information with a hybrid optomechanics-spin system
Feng, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Yang, Wan-Li; Feng, Mang
2016-08-01
We explore an efficient scheme for transferring the quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and an electron spin of diamond nitrogen-vacancy center. Assisted by a mechanical resonator, quantum information can be controllably stored (retrieved) into (from) the electron spin by adjusting the external field-induced detuning or coupling. Our scheme connects effectively the cavity photon and the electron spin and transfers quantum states between two regimes with large frequency difference. The experimental feasibility of our protocol is justified with accessible laboratory parameters.
Unified meta-theory of information, consciousness, time and the classical-quantum universe
Green, Martin A
2013-01-01
As time advances in our perceived real world, existing information is preserved and new information is added to history. All the information that may ever be encoded in history must be about some fundamental, unique, atemporal and pre-physical structure: the bare world. Scientists invent model worlds to efficiently explain aspects of the real world. This paper explores the features of and relationships between the bare, real, and model worlds. Time -- past, present and future -- is naturally explained. Both quantum uncertainty and state reduction are needed for time to progress, since unpredictable new information must be added to history. Deterministic evolution preserves existing information. Finite, but steadily increasing, information about the bare world is jointly encoded in equally uncertain spacetime geometry and quantum matter. Because geometry holds no information independent of matter, there is no need to quantize gravity. At the origin of time, information goes to zero and geometry and matter fade...
2014-04-25
motivate many applications from sensing to quantum information processing. Still, external electron and nuclear spin sensing are limited by weak...2014. 3. D.D. Awschalom, “Quantum spintronics”, The International Meeting on Spintronics for Integrated Circuit Application and Beyond, Tokyo...Japan, March 13, 2014. 4. D.D. Awschalom, “Mobile electron spin resonance with spins in optically-trapped nanodiamonds ”, Symposium on Exploring the
2012-01-01
The question of how irreversibility can emerge as a generic phenomena when the underlying mechanical theory is reversible has been a long-standing fundamental problem for both classical and quantum mechanics. We describe a mechanism for the appearance of irreversibility that applies to coherent, isolated systems in a pure quantum state. This equilibration mechanism requires only an assumption of sufficiently complex internal dynamics and natural information-theoretic constraints arising from ...
Quantum information processing in localized modes of light within a photonic band-gap material
Vats, N; John, S; Vats, Nipun; Rudolph, Terry; John, Sajeev
1999-01-01
The single photon occupation of a localized field mode within an engineered network of defects in a photonic band-gap (PBG) material is proposed as a unit of quantum information (qubit). Qubit operations are mediated by optically-excited atoms interacting with these localized states of light as the atoms traverse the connected void network of the PBG structure. We describe conditions under which this system can have independent qubits with controllable interactions and very low decoherence, as required for quantum computation.
Khrennikov, A Yu
1999-01-01
We use the system of p-adic numbers for the description of informationprocesses. Basic objects of our models are so called transformers ofinformation, basic processes are information processes, the statistics areinformation statistics (thus we present a model of information reality). Theclassical and quantum mechanical formalisms on information p-adic spaces aredeveloped. It seems that classical and quantum mechanical models on p-adicinformation spaces can be applied for the investigation of flows of informationin cognitive and social systems, since a p-adic metric gives quite naturaldescription of the ability to form associations.
Interacting Photons in Waveguide-QED and Applications in Quantum Information Processing
Zheng, Huaixiu
Strong coupling between light and matter has been demonstrated both in classical cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems and in more recent circuit-QED experiments. This enables the generation of strong nonlinear photon-photon interactions at the single-photon level, which is of great interest for the observation of quantum nonlinear optical phenomena, the control of light quanta in quantum information protocols such as quantum networking, as well as the study of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using light. Recently, strong coupling has also been realized in a variety of one-dimensional (1D) waveguide- QED experimental systems, which in turn makes them promising candidates for quantum information processing. Compared to cavity-QED systems, there are two new features in waveguide-QED: the existence of a continuum of states and the restricted 1D phase space, which together bring in new physical effects, such as the bound-state effects. This thesis consists of two parts: 1) understanding the fundamental interaction between local quantum objects, such as two-level systems and four-level systems, and photons confined in the waveguide; 2) exploring its implications in quantum information processing, in particular photonic quantum computation and quantum key distribution. First, we demonstrate that by coupling a two-level system (TLS) or three/four-level system to a 1D continuum, strongly-correlated photons can be generated inside the waveguide. Photon-photon bound states, which decay exponentially as a function of the relative coordinates of photons, appear in multiphoton scattering processes. As a result, photon bunching and antibunching can be observed in the photon-photon correlation function, and nonclassical light source can be generated on demand. In the case of an N-type four-level system, we show that the effective photon-photon interaction mediated by the four-level system, gives rise to a variety of nonlinear optical phenomena, including
Information Tradeoff Relations for Finite-Strength Quantum Measurements
Fuchs, C; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Jacobs, Kurt
2001-01-01
In this paper we give a new way to quantify the folklore notion that quantum measurements bring a disturbance to the system being measured. We consider two observers who initially assign identical mixed-state density operators to a two-state quantum system. The question we address is to what extent one observer can, by measurement, increase the purity of his density operator without affecting the purity of the other observer's. If there were no restrictions on the first observer's measurements, then he could carry this out trivially by measuring the initial density operator's eigenbasis. If, however, the allowed measurements are those of finite strength---i.e., those measurements strictly within the interior of the convex set of all measurements---then the issue becomes significantly more complex. We find that for a large class of such measurements the first observer's purity increases the most precisely when there is some loss of purity for the second observer. More generally the tradeoff between the two pur...
Quantum-Information Content of Fractional Occupation Probabilities in Nuclei
Chatzisavvas, K C
2004-01-01
Three measures of the information content of a probability distribution are briefly reviewed. They are applied to fractional occupation probabilities in light nuclei, taking into account short-range correlations. The effect of short-range correlations is to increase the information entropy (or disorder) of nuclei, comparing with the independent particle model. It is also indicated that the information entropy can serve as a sensitive index of order and short-range correlations in nuclei. It is concluded that increasing $Z$, the information entropy increases i.e. the disorder of the nucleus increases for all measures of information considered in the present work.
Experimental photon entanglement in 11 x 11 dimensions for quantum information
Dada, Adetunmise C; Buller, Gerald S; Padgett, Miles J; Andersson, Erika
2011-01-01
Quantum entanglement plays a vital role in many quantum information and communication tasks. Entangled states of higher dimensional systems are of great interest due to the extended possibilities they provide. For example, they allow the realisation of new types of quantum information schemes that can offer higher information-density coding and greater resilience to errors than can be achieved with entangled two-dimensional systems. Closing the detection loophole in Bell test experiments is also more experimentally feasible when higher dimensional entangled systems are used. We have measured previously untested correlations between two entangled photons to experimentally demonstrate high-dimensional entangled states. We show violations of Bell-type inequalities for two d-dimensional particles (qudits) with d reaching up to 11. Our experiments use photons entangled in orbital angular momentum (OAM), generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), and manipulated using computer controlled holog...
Information about the state of a charge qubit gained by a weakly coupled quantum point contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashhab, S; You, J Q; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)], E-mail: ashhab@riken.jp
2009-12-15
We analyze the information that one can learn about the state of a quantum two-level system, i.e. a qubit, when probed weakly by a nearby detector. We consider the general case where the qubit Hamiltonian and the qubit's operator probed by the detector do not commute. Because the qubit's state keeps evolving while being probed and the measurement data is mixed with a detector-related background noise, one might expect the detector to fail in this case. We show, however, that under suitable conditions and by proper analysis of the measurement data, useful information about the initial state of the qubit can be extracted. Our approach complements the usual master-equation and quantum-trajectory approaches, which describe the evolution of the qubit's quantum state during the measurement process but do not keep track of the acquired measurement information.
Bidirectional and Asymmetric Controlled Quantum Information Transmission via Five-qubit Brown State
Fang, Sheng-hui; Jiang, Min
2017-02-01
We put forward a new protocol of deterministic controlled bidirectional quantum information transmission, using a five-qubit Brown state. That is to say Alice wants to teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob wants to remotely prepare a known state for Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. In terms of physical implementations, only a CNOT gate, one Bell-state measurement and one qubit measurement are used in our protocol. Compared with previous study for solely bidirectional quantum teleportation and solely bidirectional remote state preparation schemes, our protocol is a kind of hybrid approach of information communication which makes the quantum channel multipurpose, i.e., no matter whether the transmitted state is known or unknown, the state information can be transmitted with each other via a five-qubit Brown state under the control of the third party as a supervisor.
Quantum Information Transfer in Circuit QED with Landau-Zener Tunneling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jun-Wang; WU Chun-Wang; DAI Hong-Yi
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme to implement quantum information transfer between Cooper-pair boxes (CPBs) in a circuit quantum electrodynamic (QED) system with Landau-Zener tunneling. The system consists of two CPB qubits and a one-dimensional transmission line resonator (TLR). By analytically solving the eigenequation and numerically calculating the transition probability, the results show the quantum state transfer from one qubit to another via a fast adiabatic passage. The coupling mechanism is robust against decoherence effects.%@@ We propose a scheme to implement quantum information transfer between Cooper-pair boxes(CPBs)in a circuit quantum electrodynamic(QED)system with Landau-Zener tunneling.The system consists of two CPB qubits and a one-dimensional transmission line resonator(TLR).By analytically solving the eigenequation and numeri-cally calculating the transition probability,the results show the quantum state transfer from one qubit to another via a fast adiabatic passage.The coupling mechanism is robust against decoherence effects.
Quantum teleportation and information splitting via four-qubit cluster state and a Bell state
Ramírez, Marlon David González; Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Cruz-Irisson, M.; Dong, Shi-Hai
2017-10-01
Quantum teleportation provides a "bodiless" way of transmitting the quantum state from one object to another, at a distant location, using a classical communication channel and a previously shared entangled state. In this paper, we present a tripartite scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary single qubit state, without losing the information of the state being teleported, via a fourqubit cluster state of the form | ϕ>1234 = α|0000>+ β|1010>+ γ|0101>- η|1111>, as the quantum channel, where the nonzero real numbers α, β, γ, and η satisfy the relation j αj2 + | β|2 + | γ|2 + | η|2 = 1. With the introduction of an auxiliary qubit with state |0>, using a suitable unitary transformation and a positive-operator valued measure (POVM), the receiver can recreate the state of the original qubit. An important advantage of the teleportation scheme demonstrated here is that, if the teleportation fails, it can be repeated without teleporting copies of the unknown quantum state, if the concerned parties share another pair of entangled qubit. We also present a protocol for quantum information splitting of an arbitrary two-particle system via the aforementioned cluster state and a Bell-state as the quantum channel. Problems related to security attacks were examined for both the cases and it was found that this protocol is secure. This protocol is highly efficient and easy to implement.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
薛飞; 杜江峰; 周先意; 韩荣典; 吴季辉
2003-01-01
We study the discrimination of quantum states from the other way around, i.e. the likeness of two quantum states. The fidelity is used to describe the likeness of two quantum states. Then we present a scheme to obtain the fidelity of two unknown qubits directly from the integral area of the spectra of the assistant qubit (spin) on a nuclear-magnetic-resonance quantum information processor. Finally, we demonstrate the scheme on a three-qubit quantum information processor. The experimental data are consistent with the theoretical expectation with an average error of 0.05, which confirms the scheme.
Tamulis, Arvydas; Majauskaite, Kristina; Kairys, Visvaldas; Zborowski, Krzysztof; Adhikari, Kapil; Krisciukaitis, Sarunas
2016-09-01
Implementation of liquid state quantum information processing based on spatially localized electronic spin in the neurotransmitter stable acetylcholine (ACh) neutral molecular radical is discussed. Using DFT quantum calculations we proved that this molecule possesses stable localized electron spin, which may represent a qubit in quantum information processing. The necessary operating conditions for ACh molecule are formulated in self-assembled dimer and more complex systems. The main quantum mechanical research result of this paper is that the neurotransmitter ACh systems, which were proposed, include the use of quantum molecular spintronics arrays to control the neurotransmission in neural networks.
The Foundations of Quantum Information and Feasible Experiments
Simon, C
2000-01-01
This thesis consists of four parts. In the first part it is shown that optimal universal cloning of photons can be realized with the help of stimulated emission. Possible schemes based on three-level systems and on parametric down-conversion are analyzed in detail. The second part shows that the dynamical rules of quantum physics can be derived from its static properties and the condition that superluminal communication is forbidden. In the third part a very simple form of the Kochen-Specker theorem is presented, which leads to a proposal for a simple experimental test of non-contextual hidden variables. The fourth part shows how hidden-variable theorems can be derived in a completely operational way. In particular a Kochen-Specker theorem is derived that applies to experiments with finite precision.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erol, V. [Department of Computer Engineering, Institute of Science, Okan University, Istanbul (Turkey); Netas Telecommunication Inc., Istanbul (Turkey)
2016-04-21
Entanglement has been studied extensively for understanding the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known monotones for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. The study on these monotones has been a hot topic in quantum information [1-7] in order to understand the role of entanglement in this discipline. It can be observed that from any arbitrary quantum pure state a mixed state can obtained. A natural generalization of this observation would be to consider local operations classical communication (LOCC) transformations between general pure states of two parties. Although this question is a little more difficult, a complete solution has been developed using the mathematical framework of the majorization theory [8]. In this work, we analyze the relation between entanglement monotones concurrence and negativity with respect to majorization for general two-level quantum systems of two particles.
Erol, V.
2016-04-01
Entanglement has been studied extensively for understanding the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known monotones for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. The study on these monotones has been a hot topic in quantum information [1-7] in order to understand the role of entanglement in this discipline. It can be observed that from any arbitrary quantum pure state a mixed state can obtained. A natural generalization of this observation would be to consider local operations classical communication (LOCC) transformations between general pure states of two parties. Although this question is a little more difficult, a complete solution has been developed using the mathematical framework of the majorization theory [8]. In this work, we analyze the relation between entanglement monotones concurrence and negativity with respect to majorization for general two-level quantum systems of two particles.
Quantum Darwinism: Amplification and the Acquisition of Information by Spin Environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zwolak, Michael P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States) Dept. of Physics; Riedel, Jess [IBM, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-07-09
Quantum Darwinism recognizes the role of the environment as a communication channel: Decoherence can amplify select information – information about the pointer states of a system of interest (preventing access to complementary information about superpositions of those states). We examine the amplification process for a spin environment under a variety of conditions. For initially pure environment states, the contribution to decoherence and the partial record deposited in an environment spin are both determined by the overlap of conditional states generated on the spin. For mixed environments, however, decoherence and a partial record are no longer directly related. The partial record, though, is given by a generalized measure of overlap – the quantum Chernoff information. The latter quantity is a measure of distinguishability and gives the efficiency of the amplification process. We calculate the Chernoff information and show explicitly that, except for a set of measure zero, there is always redundant information acquired by the environment.
Allowed region and optimal measurement for information versus disturbance in quantum measurements
Terashima, Hiroaki
2017-10-01
We present graphs of information versus disturbance for general quantum measurements of completely unknown states. Each piece of information and disturbance is quantified by two measures: (i) the Shannon entropy and estimation fidelity for the information and (ii) the operation fidelity and physical reversibility for the disturbance. These measures are calculated for a single outcome based on the general formulas derived by the present author (Terashima in Phys Rev A 93:022104, 2016) and are plotted on four types of information-disturbance planes to show their allowed regions. In addition, we discuss the graphs of these metrics averaged over all possible outcomes and the optimal measurements when saturating the upper bounds on the information for a given disturbance. The results considerably broaden the perspective of trade-offs between information and disturbances in quantum measurements.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAN Zhi-Ming; LI Wei-Bin
2007-01-01
We present a scheme to generate cluster states with many atoms in cavity QED via Raman transition. In this scheme, no transfer of quantum information between the atoms and cavities is required, the cavity fields are only virtually excited and thus the cavity decay is suppressed during the generation of cluster states. The atoms are always populated in the two ground states. Therefore, the scheme is insensitive to the atomic spontaneous emission and cavity decay. We also show how to transfer quantum information from one atom to another.
Splitting of quantum information in travelling wave fields using only linear optical elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardoso, W B; De Almeida, N G; Avelar, A T; Baseia, B [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, 74.001-970, Goiania-GO (Brazil)
2011-02-28
In this paper we present a feasible post-selection scheme to split quantum information in the realm of travelling waves with success probability of 50%. Taking advantage of this scheme we have also proposed the generation of a class of W states useful for perfect teleportation and superdense coding. The scheme employs only linear optical elements as beam splitters (BS) and phase shifters, plus two photon counters and a source of two spontaneous parametric down-conversion photons. It is shown that splitting of quantum information with high fidelity is possible, even when using inefficient detectors and photoabsorption BS.
Chip-scale Photonic Devices for Light-matter Interactions and Quantum Information Processing
Gao, Jie
Chip-scale photonic devices such as microdisks, photonic crystal cavities and slow-light photonic crystal waveguides possess strong light localization and long photon lifetime, which will significantly enhance the light-matter interactions and can be used to implement new functionalities for both classical and quantum information processing, optical computation and optical communication in integrated nanophotonic circuits. This thesis will focus on three topics about light matter interactions and quantum information processing with chip-scale photonic devices, including 1) Design and characterization of asymmetric resonate cavity with radiation directionality and air-slot photonic crystal cavity with ultrasmall effective mode volume, 2) Exciton-photon interactions between quantum dots and photonic crystal devices and non-classical photon source from a single quantum dot, and 3) Quantum controlled phase gate and phase switching based on quantum dots and photonic crystal waveguide. The first topic is engineered control of radiation directionality and effective mode volume for optical mode in chip-scale silicon micro-/nano-cavities. High quality factor (Q), subwavelength mode volume ( V) and controllable radiation directionality are the major properties for optical cavities designs. In Chapter 2, asymmetric resonant cavities with rational caustics are proposed and interior whispering gallery modes in monolithic silicon mesoscopic microcavities are experimentally demonstrated. These microcavities possess unique robustness of cavity quality factor against roughness Rayleigh scattering. In Chapter 3, air-slot mode-gap photonic crystal cavities with quality factor of 104 and effective mode volume ˜ 0.02 cubic wavelengths are experimentally demonstrated. The origin of the high Q air-slot cavity mode is the mode-gap effect from the slotted photonic crystal waveguide mode with negative dispersion. The second topic is exciton-photon coupling between quantum dots and
Rare-earth-doped materials for applications in quantum information storage and signal processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thiel, C.W., E-mail: thiel@physics.montana.ed [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Boettger, Thomas, E-mail: tbottger@usfca.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton St., San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Cone, R.L., E-mail: cone@montana.ed [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)
2011-03-15
Realization of practical quantum memory and optical signal processing systems critically depends on suitable materials that offer specific combinations of properties. Solid-state materials such as rare-earth ions doped into dielectric crystals are one of the most promising candidates for several quantum information storage protocols, including quantum storage of single photons. This article provides an overview of rare-earth-doped material properties and summarizes some of the most promising materials studied in our laboratory and by other groups for applications in quantum information storage and for ultra-wide bandwidth signal processing. Understanding and controlling spectral diffusion in these materials, which ultimately limits the achievable performance of any quantum memory system, is also briefly reviewed. Applications in quantum information impose stringent requirements on laser phase and frequency stability, and employing a narrow spectral hole in the inhomogeneous absorption profile in these materials as a frequency reference can dramatically improve laser stability. We review our work on laser frequency and phase stabilization and report our recent results on using a narrow spectral hole as a passive dynamic spectral filter for laser phase noise suppression, which can dramatically narrow the laser linewidth with or without the requirement of active feedback. - Research highlights: Rare-earth materials offer key properties for quantum memory and signal processing. Physics and properties of rare-earth optical transitions in solids are reviewed. Details of 47 promising optical transitions are tabulated and compared. A new narrow-band dynamic filtering method using spectral hole burning is discussed. Results of successful passive laser phase noise suppression are presented.
Peterson, J. P. S.; Sarthour, R. S.; Souza, A. M.; Oliveira, I. S.; Goold, J.; Modi, K.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Céleri, L. C.
2016-04-01
Landauer's principle sets fundamental thermodynamical constraints for classical and quantum information processing, thus affecting not only various branches of physics, but also of computer science and engineering. Despite its importance, this principle was only recently experimentally considered for classical systems. Here we employ a nuclear magnetic resonance set-up to experimentally address the information to energy conversion in a quantum system. Specifically, we consider a three nuclear spins S =1/2 (qubits) molecule-the system, the reservoir and the ancilla-to measure the heat dissipated during the implementation of a global system-reservoir unitary interaction that changes the information content of the system. By employing an interferometric technique, we were able to reconstruct the heat distribution associated with the unitary interaction. Then, through quantum state tomography, we measured the relative change in the entropy of the system. In this way, we were able to verify that an operation that changes the information content of the system must necessarily generate heat in the reservoir, exactly as predicted by Landauer's principle. The scheme presented here allows for the detailed study of irreversible entropy production in quantum information processors.
Quantum information and the problem of mechanisms of biological evolution.
Melkikh, Alexey V
2014-01-01
One of the most important conditions for replication in early evolution is the de facto elimination of the conformational degrees of freedom of the replicators, the mechanisms of which remain unclear. In addition, realistic evolutionary timescales can be established based only on partially directed evolution, further complicating this issue. A division of the various evolutionary theories into two classes has been proposed based on the presence or absence of a priori information about the evolving system. A priori information plays a key role in solving problems in evolution. Here, a model of partially directed evolution, based on the learning automata theory, which includes a priori information about the fitness space, is proposed. A potential repository of such prior information is the states of biologically important molecules. Thus, the need for extended evolutionary synthesis is discussed. Experiments to test the hypothesis of partially directed evolution are proposed.
Scalable Architecture for a Room Temperature Solid-State Quantum Information Processor
Yao, Norman Y; Gorshkov, Alexey V; Maurer, Peter C; Giedke, Geza; Cirac, J Ignacio; Lukin, Mikhail D
2010-01-01
The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Much progress has been made towards this goal. Indeed, quantum operations have been demonstrated on several trapped ion qubits, and other solid-state systems are approaching similar levels of control. Extending these techniques to achieve fault-tolerant operations in larger systems with more qubits remains an extremely challenging goal, in part, due to the substantial technical complexity of current implementations. Here, we propose and analyze an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at or near room temperature. The architecture is applicable to realistic conditions, which include disorder and relevant decoherence mechanisms, and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Our approach is based upon recent experimental advances involving Nitrogen-Vacancy colo...
Kerman, Andrew J
2012-01-01
Electrical resonators are widely used in quantum information processing with any qubits that are manipulated via electromagnetic interactions. In nearly all examples to date they are engineered to interact with qubits via real or virtual exchange of (typically microwave) photons, and the resonator must therefore have both a high quality factor and strong quantum fluctuations, corresponding to the strong-coupling limit of cavity QED. Although great strides in the control of quantum information have been made using this so-called "circuit QED" architecture, it also comes with some important disadvantages. In this paper, we discuss a new paradigm for coupling qubits electromagnetically via resonators, in which the qubits do not exchange photons with the resonator, but instead where the qubits exert quasi-classical, effective "forces" on it. We show how this type of interaction is similar to that induced between the internal state of a trapped atomic ion and its center-of-mass motion by the photon recoil momentum...
Perez, Alejandro
2014-01-01
In an approach to quantum gravity where space-time arises from coarse graining of fundamentally discrete structures, black hole formation and subsequent evaporation can be described by a unitary evolution without the problems encountered by the standard remnant scenario or the schemes where information is assumed to come out with the radiation while evaporation (firewalls and complementarity). The final state is purified by correlations with the fundamental pre-geometric structures (in the sense of Wheeler) which are available in such approaches, and, like defects in the underlying space-time weave, can carry zero energy.
Beating the Classical Limits of Information Transmission using a Quantum Decoder
Karim, Akib; Huang, Zixin; Chapman, Rob; Tomamichel, Marco; Flammia, Steve; Peruzzo, Alberto
Reliable transmission of information over a noisy channel is a fundamental challenge in communication theory. The emergence of quantum technologies has created a new class of strategies that allow for message recovery greater than purely classical methods. Despite this, for minimal uses of the channel, finding such schemes remains a challenge. We investigate the amplitude damping channel which describes physical systems that suffer energy loss such as in cavity quantum electrodynamics or spin chain excitations. We derive and experimentally demonstrate the fundamental limit for message recovery possible with only classical methods. We then propose a quantum decoder and experimentally demonstrate message recovery past this classical limit. We use polarisation-encoded photonic qubits. The post-amplitude damping states are generated by an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer and entanglement is accomplished with a linear optical probabilistic controlled z gate. Our quantum decoder uses a single entangling gate at the receiver where other similar schemes rely on both the sender and the receiver having quantum devices. Our results present an advance in discovering the quantum capabilities of finite resource communications, with specific regard to the amplitude damping channel.
Quantum information entropies for a squared tangent potential well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Shishan [Information and Engineering College, DaLian University, 116622 (China); Sun, Guo-Hua, E-mail: sunghdb@yahoo.com [Centro Universitario Valle de Chalco, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de México, 56615 (Mexico); Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Edificio 9, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Draayer, J.P., E-mail: draayer@sura.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)
2014-01-10
The particle in a symmetrical squared tangent potential well is studied by examining its Shannon information entropy and standard deviations. The position and momentum information entropy densities ρ{sub s}(x), ρ{sub s}(p) and probability densities ρ(x), ρ(p) are illustrated with different potential range L and potential depth U. We present analytical position information entropies S{sub x} for the lowest two states. We observe that the sum of position and momentum entropies S{sub x} and S{sub p} expressed by Bialynicki-Birula–Mycielski (BBM) inequality is satisfied. Some eigenstates exhibit entropy squeezing in the position. The entropy squeezing in position will be compensated by an increase in momentum entropy. We also note that the S{sub x} increases with the potential range L, while decreases with the potential depth U. The variation of S{sub p} is contrary to that of S{sub x}.
An optimized quantum information splitting scheme with multiple controllers
Jiang, Min
2016-12-01
We propose an efficient scheme for splitting multi-qudit information with cooperative control of multiple agents. Each controller is assigned one controlling qudit, and he can monitor the state sharing of all multi-qudit information. Compared with the existing schemes, our scheme requires less resource consumption and approaches higher communication efficiency. In addition, our proposal involves only generalized Bell-state measurement, single-qudit measurement, one-qudit gates and a unitary-reduction operation, which makes it flexible and achievable for physical implementation.
Quantum entanglement of identical particles by standard information-theoretic notions
Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe
2016-02-01
Quantum entanglement of identical particles is essential in quantum information theory. Yet, its correct determination remains an open issue hindering the general understanding and exploitation of many-particle systems. Operator-based methods have been developed that attempt to overcome the issue. Here we introduce a state-based method which, as second quantization, does not label identical particles and presents conceptual and technical advances compared to the previous ones. It establishes the quantitative role played by arbitrary wave function overlaps, local measurements and particle nature (bosons or fermions) in assessing entanglement by notions commonly used in quantum information theory for distinguishable particles, like partial trace. Our approach furthermore shows that bringing identical particles into the same spatial location functions as an entangling gate, providing fundamental theoretical support to recent experimental observations with ultracold atoms. These results pave the way to set and interpret experiments for utilizing quantum correlations in realistic scenarios where overlap of particles can count, as in Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum dots and biological molecular aggregates.
Montero, M
2011-01-01
We provide a simple argument showing that, in the limit of infinite acceleration, the entanglement in a fermionic field bipartite system must be independent of the choice of Unruh modes. This implies that most tensor product structures used previously to compute field entanglement in relativistic quantum information cannot give rise to physical results.
Microtrap arrays on magnetic film atom chips for quantum information science.
Leung, Y.F.V.; Tauschinsky, A.; van Druten, N.J.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.
2011-01-01
We present two different strategies for developing a quantum information science platform, based on our experimental results with magnetic microtrap arrays on a magnetic-film atom chip. The first strategy aims for mesoscopic ensemble qubits in a lattice of ~5 μm period, so that qubits can be individ
Few-photon Non-linearities in Nanophotonic Devices for Quantum Information Technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders
In this thesis we investigate few-photon non-linearities in all-optical, on-chip circuits, and we discuss their possible applications in devices of interest for quantum information technology, such as conditional two-photon gates and single-photon sources. In order to propose efficient devices...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benatti, Fabio [Trieste Univ., Miramare (Italy). Dipt. Fisica Teorica; Fannes, Mark [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Inst. voor Theoretische Fysica; Floreanini, Roberto [INFN, Trieste (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; Petritis, Dimitri (eds.) [Rennes 1 Univ., 35 (France). Inst. de Recherche Mathematique de Rennes
2010-07-01
This multi-authored textbook addresses graduate students with a background in physics, mathematics or computer science. No research experience is necessary. Consequently, rather than comprehensively reviewing the vast body of knowledge and literature gathered in the past twenty years, this book concentrates on a number of carefully selected aspects of quantum information theory and technology. Given the highly interdisciplinary nature of the subject, the multi-authored approach brings together different points of view from various renowned experts, providing a coherent picture of the subject matter. The book consists of ten chapters and includes examples, problems, and exercises. The first five present the mathematical tools required for a full comprehension of various aspects of quantum mechanics, classical information, and coding theory. Chapter 6 deals with the manipulation and transmission of information in the quantum realm. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss experimental implementations of quantum information ideas using photons and atoms. Finally, chapters 9 and 10 address ground-breaking applications in cryptography and computation. (orig.)