Double-quantum homonuclear correlations of spin I=5/2 nuclei.
Iuga, Dinu
2011-02-01
The challenges associated with acquiring double-quantum homonuclear Nuclear Magnetic Resonance correlation spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei are described. In these experiments the radio-frequency irradiation amplitude is necessarily weak in order to selectively excite the central transition. In this limit only one out of the 25 double-quantum coherences possible for two coupled spin I=5/2 nuclei is excited. An investigation of all the 25 two spins double quantum transitions reveals interesting effects such as a compensation of the first-order quadrupolar interaction between the two single quantum transitions involved in the double quantum coherence. In this paper a full numerical study of a hypothetical two spin I=5/2 system is used to show what happens when the RF amplitude during recoupling is increased. In principle this is advantageous, since the required double quantum coherence should build up faster, but in practice it also induces adiabatic passage transfer of population and coherence which impedes any build up. Finally an optimized rotary resonance recoupling (oR(3)) sequence is introduced in order to decrease these transfers. This sequence consists of a spin locking irradiation whose amplitude is reduced four times during one rotor period, and allows higher RF powers to be used during recoupling. The sequence is used to measure (27)Al DQ dipolar correlation spectra of Y(3)Al(5)O(12) (YAG) and gamma alumina (γAl(2)O(3)). The results prove that aluminium vacancies in gamma alumina mainly occur in the tetrahedral sites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A quantum extended Kalman filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R
2017-01-01
In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)
A quantum extended Kalman filter
Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.
2017-06-01
In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.
Baishya, Bikash; Reddy, G N Manjunatha; Prabhu, Uday Ramesh; Row, T N Guru; Suryaprakash, N
2008-10-23
The proton NMR spectra of fluorine-substituted benzamides are very complex (Figure 1) due to severe overlap of (1)H resonances from the two aromatic rings, in addition to several short and long-range scalar couplings experienced by each proton. With no detectable scalar couplings between the inter-ring spins, the (1)H NMR spectra can be construed as an overlap of spectra from two independent phenyl rings. In the present study we demonstrate that it is possible to separate the individual spectrum for each aromatic ring by spin system filtering employing the multiple-quantum-single-quantum correlation methodology. Furthermore, the two spin states of fluorine are utilized to simplify the spectrum corresponding to each phenyl ring by the spin-state selection. The demonstrated technique reduces spectral complexity by a factor of 4, in addition to permitting the determination of long-range couplings of less than 0.2 Hz and the relative signs of heteronuclear couplings. The technique also aids the judicious choice of the spin-selective double-quantum-single-quantum J-resolved experiment to determine the long-range homonuclear couplings of smaller magnitudes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudder, Stan
2010-01-01
An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.
Quantum Image Filtering in the Frequency Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MANTA, V. I.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we address the emerging field of Quantum Image Processing. We investigate the use of quantum computing systems to represent and manipulate images. In particular, we consider the basic task of image filtering. We prove that a quantum version for this operation can be achieved, even though the quantum convolution of two sequences is physically impossible. In our approach we use the principle of the quantum oracle to implement the filter function. We provide the quantum circuit that implements the filtering task and present the results of several simulation experiments on grayscale images. There are important differences between the classical and the quantum implementations for image filtering. We analyze these differences and show that the major advantage of the quantum approach lies in the exploitation of the efficient implementation of the quantum Fourier transform.
Generalized Hofmann quantum process fidelity bounds for quantum filters
Sedlák, Michal; Fiurášek, Jaromír
2016-04-01
We propose and investigate bounds on the quantum process fidelity of quantum filters, i.e., probabilistic quantum operations represented by a single Kraus operator K . These bounds generalize the Hofmann bounds on the quantum process fidelity of unitary operations [H. F. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160504 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160504] and are based on probing the quantum filter with pure states forming two mutually unbiased bases. Determination of these bounds therefore requires far fewer measurements than full quantum process tomography. We find that it is particularly suitable to construct one of the probe bases from the right eigenstates of K , because in this case the bounds are tight in the sense that if the actual filter coincides with the ideal one, then both the lower and the upper bounds are equal to 1. We theoretically investigate the application of these bounds to a two-qubit optical quantum filter formed by the interference of two photons on a partially polarizing beam splitter. For an experimentally convenient choice of factorized input states and measurements we study the tightness of the bounds. We show that more stringent bounds can be obtained by more sophisticated processing of the data using convex optimization and we compare our methods for different choices of the input probe states.
An Improved Filtering Method for Quantum Color Image in Frequency Domain
Li, Panchi; Xiao, Hong
2018-01-01
In this paper we investigate the use of quantum Fourier transform (QFT) in the field of image processing. We consider QFT-based color image filtering operations and their applications in image smoothing, sharpening, and selective filtering using quantum frequency domain filters. The underlying principle used for constructing the proposed quantum filters is to use the principle of the quantum Oracle to implement the filter function. Compared with the existing methods, our method is not only suitable for color images, but also can flexibly design the notch filters. We provide the quantum circuit that implements the filtering task and present the results of several simulation experiments on color images. The major advantages of the quantum frequency filtering lies in the exploitation of the efficient implementation of the quantum Fourier transform.
Potential-controlled filtering in quantum star graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turek, Ondřej; Cheon, Taksu
2013-01-01
We study the scattering in a quantum star graph with a Fülöp–Tsutsui coupling in its vertex and with external potentials on the lines. We find certain special couplings for which the probability of the transmission between two given lines of the graph is strongly influenced by the potential applied on another line. On the basis of this phenomenon we design a tunable quantum band-pass spectral filter. The transmission from the input to the output line is governed by a potential added on the controlling line. The strength of the potential directly determines the passband position, which allows to control the filter in a macroscopic manner. Generalization of this concept to quantum devices with multiple controlling lines proves possible. It enables the construction of spectral filters with more controllable parameters or with more operation modes. In particular, we design a band-pass filter with independently adjustable multiple passbands. We also address the problem of the physical realization of Fülöp–Tsutsui couplings and demonstrate that the couplings needed for the construction of the proposed quantum devices can be approximated by simple graphs carrying only δ potentials. - Highlights: ► Spectral filtering devices based on quantum graphs are designed theoretically. ► The passband is controlled by the application of macroscopic potentials on lines. ► The filters are built upon special Fulop–Tsutsui type couplings at graph vertices. ► A method of construction of Fulop–Tsutsui vertices from delta potentials is devised.
Quantum demolition filtering and optimal control of unstable systems.
Belavkin, V P
2012-11-28
A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for optimal control of quantum unstable systems is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme, we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects as in the usual case of quantum stable systems with non-demolition observation. This allows us to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation generalized to demolition observations and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. An unstable controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one.
Kakita, Veera Mohana Rao; Rachineni, Kavitha; Hosur, Ramakrishna V
2017-07-21
The present manuscript focuses on fast and simultaneous determination of 1 H- 1 H and 1 H- 19 F scalar couplings in fluorinated complex steroid molecules. Incorporation of broadband PSYCHE homonuclear decoupling in the indirect dimension of zero-quantum filtered diagonal experiments (F1-PSYCHE-DIAG) suppresses 1 H- 1 H scalar couplings; however, it retains 1 H- 19 F scalar couplings (along F1 dimension) for the 19 F coupled protons while preserving the pure-shift nature for 1 H resonances uncoupled to 19 F. In such cases, along the direct dimensions, 1 H- 1 H scalar coupling multiplets deconvolute and they appear as duplicated multiplets for the 19 F coupled protons, which facilitates unambiguous discrimination of 19 F coupled 1 H chemical sites from the others. Further, as an added advantage, data acquisition has been accelerated by invoking the known ideas of spectral aliasing in the F1-PSYCHE-DIAG scheme and experiments demand only ~10 min of spectrometer times. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Measurement-based local quantum filters and their ability to ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Debmalya Das
2017-05-30
May 30, 2017 ... Entanglement; local filters; quantum measurement. PACS No. 03.65 ... ties [4,5], it also plays a key role in quantum computing where it is ... Furthermore, we pro- vide an ..... Corresponding to each of these vectors, we can con-.
Efficient spin filter using multi-terminal quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yokoyama Tomohiro
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We propose a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect (SHE in a quantum dot connected to three leads. We show that the SHE is significantly enhanced by the resonant tunneling if the level spacing in the quantum dot is smaller than the level broadening. We stress that the SHE is tunable by changing the tunnel coupling to the third lead. Next, we perform a numerical simulation for a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures. The spin filter shows an efficiency of more than 50% when the conditions for the enhanced SHE are satisfied. PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc,71.70.Ej,73.63.Kv,85.75.-d
Long-range dispersion interactions. III: Method for two homonuclear atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitroy, J.; Zhang, J.-Y.
2007-01-01
A procedure for systematically evaluating the long-range dispersion interaction between two homonuclear atoms in arbitrary LS coupled states is outlined. The method is then used to generate dispersion coefficients for a number of the low-lying states of the Na and Mg dimers
On-chip single photon filtering and multiplexing in hybrid quantum photonic circuits.
Elshaari, Ali W; Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Fognini, Andreas; Reimer, Michael E; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Zwiller, Val; Jöns, Klaus D
2017-08-30
Quantum light plays a pivotal role in modern science and future photonic applications. Since the advent of integrated quantum nanophotonics different material platforms based on III-V nanostructures-, colour centers-, and nonlinear waveguides as on-chip light sources have been investigated. Each platform has unique advantages and limitations; however, all implementations face major challenges with filtering of individual quantum states, scalable integration, deterministic multiplexing of selected quantum emitters, and on-chip excitation suppression. Here we overcome all of these challenges with a hybrid and scalable approach, where single III-V quantum emitters are positioned and deterministically integrated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible photonic circuit. We demonstrate reconfigurable on-chip single-photon filtering and wavelength division multiplexing with a foot print one million times smaller than similar table-top approaches, while offering excitation suppression of more than 95 dB and efficient routing of single photons over a bandwidth of 40 nm. Our work marks an important step to harvest quantum optical technologies' full potential.Combining different integration platforms on the same chip is currently one of the main challenges for quantum technologies. Here, Elshaari et al. show III-V Quantum Dots embedded in nanowires operating in a CMOS compatible circuit, with controlled on-chip filtering and tunable routing.
Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bronn, Nicholas T., E-mail: ntbronn@us.ibm.com; Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2015-10-26
The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.
Simple and efficient absorption filter for single photons from a cold atom quantum memory.
Stack, Daniel T; Lee, Patricia J; Quraishi, Qudsia
2015-03-09
The ability to filter unwanted light signals is critical to the operation of quantum memories based on neutral atom ensembles. Here we demonstrate an efficient frequency filter which uses a vapor cell filled with (85)Rb and a buffer gas to attenuate both residual laser light and noise photons by nearly two orders of magnitude with little loss to the single photons associated with our cold (87)Rb quantum memory. This simple, passive filter provides an additional 18 dB attenuation of our pump laser and erroneous spontaneous emissions for every 1 dB loss of the single photon signal. We show that the addition of a frequency filter increases the non-classical correlations and the retrieval efficiency of our quantum memory by ≈ 35%.
Stability of continuous-time quantum filters with measurement imperfections
Amini, H.; Pellegrini, C.; Rouchon, P.
2014-07-01
The fidelity between the state of a continuously observed quantum system and the state of its associated quantum filter, is shown to be always a submartingale. The observed system is assumed to be governed by a continuous-time Stochastic Master Equation (SME), driven simultaneously by Wiener and Poisson processes and that takes into account incompleteness and errors in measurements. This stability result is the continuous-time counterpart of a similar stability result already established for discrete-time quantum systems and where the measurement imperfections are modelled by a left stochastic matrix.
Fraunhofer regime of operation for superconducting quantum interference filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shadrin, A.V.; Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.
2008-01-01
Series arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with incommensurate loop areas, so-called superconducting quantum interference filters (SQIFs), are investigated in the kilohertz and the gigahertz frequency range. In SQIFs made of high-T-c bicrystal junctions the flux...... range of more than 60 dB in the kilohertz range. In the 1-2 GHz range the estimated power gain is 20 dB and the magnetic flux noise level is as low as 10(-4)Phi(0)....
High-order noise filtering in nontrivial quantum logic gates.
Green, Todd; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J
2012-07-13
Treating the effects of a time-dependent classical dephasing environment during quantum logic operations poses a theoretical challenge, as the application of noncommuting control operations gives rise to both dephasing and depolarization errors that must be accounted for in order to understand total average error rates. We develop a treatment based on effective Hamiltonian theory that allows us to efficiently model the effect of classical noise on nontrivial single-bit quantum logic operations composed of arbitrary control sequences. We present a general method to calculate the ensemble-averaged entanglement fidelity to arbitrary order in terms of noise filter functions, and provide explicit expressions to fourth order in the noise strength. In the weak noise limit we derive explicit filter functions for a broad class of piecewise-constant control sequences, and use them to study the performance of dynamically corrected gates, yielding good agreement with brute-force numerics.
Quantum neural network-based EEG filtering for a brain-computer interface.
Gandhi, Vaibhav; Prasad, Girijesh; Coyle, Damien; Behera, Laxmidhar; McGinnity, Thomas Martin
2014-02-01
A novel neural information processing architecture inspired by quantum mechanics and incorporating the well-known Schrodinger wave equation is proposed in this paper. The proposed architecture referred to as recurrent quantum neural network (RQNN) can characterize a nonstationary stochastic signal as time-varying wave packets. A robust unsupervised learning algorithm enables the RQNN to effectively capture the statistical behavior of the input signal and facilitates the estimation of signal embedded in noise with unknown characteristics. The results from a number of benchmark tests show that simple signals such as dc, staircase dc, and sinusoidal signals embedded within high noise can be accurately filtered and particle swarm optimization can be employed to select model parameters. The RQNN filtering procedure is applied in a two-class motor imagery-based brain-computer interface where the objective was to filter electroencephalogram (EEG) signals before feature extraction and classification to increase signal separability. A two-step inner-outer fivefold cross-validation approach is utilized to select the algorithm parameters subject-specifically for nine subjects. It is shown that the subject-specific RQNN EEG filtering significantly improves brain-computer interface performance compared to using only the raw EEG or Savitzky-Golay filtered EEG across multiple sessions.
Quantum model for a periodically driven selectivity filter in a K+ ion channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cifuentes, A A; Semião, F L
2014-01-01
In this work, we present a quantum transport model for the selectivity filter in the KcsA potassium ion channel. This model is fully consistent with the fact that two conduction pathways are involved in the translocation of ions through the filter, and we show that the presence of a second path may actually bring advantages for the filter as a result of quantum interference. To highlight interferences and resonances in the model, we consider the selectivity filter to be driven by a controlled time-dependent external field, which changes the free-energy scenario and consequently the conduction of the ions. In particular, we demonstrate that the two-pathway conduction mechanism is more advantageous for the filter when dephasing in the transient configurations is lower than in the main configurations. As a matter of fact, K + ions in the main configurations are highly coordinated by oxygen atoms of the filter backbone, and this increases noise. Moreover, we also show that for a wide range of dephasing rates and driving frequencies, the two-pathway conduction used by the filter leads to higher ionic currents than the single–path model. (paper)
Electron distributions of the first-row homonuclear diatomic molecules, A2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez, B.I.; Bielefeld Univ.
1982-08-01
Electron momentum density contour maps of the first-row homonuclear diatomic molecules, A 2 , are obtained from near Hartree-Fock wave functions. Both the total momentum density and momentum density difference (molecule - isolated atoms) maps present trends that may be related to the binding in the molecules. These results are compared with the corresponding charge density maps in position space (Bader, Henneker and Cade 1967). (author)
Solid-state NMR covariance of homonuclear correlation spectra.
Hu, Bingwen; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Trebosc, Julien; Deschamps, Michael; Tricot, Gregory
2008-04-07
Direct covariance NMR spectroscopy, which does not involve a Fourier transformation along the indirect dimension, is demonstrated to obtain homonuclear correlation two-dimensional (2D) spectra in the solid state. In contrast to the usual 2D Fourier transform (2D-FT) NMR, in a 2D covariance (2D-Cov) spectrum the spectral resolution in the indirect dimension is determined by the resolution along the detection dimension, thereby largely reducing the time-consuming indirect sampling requirement. The covariance method does not need any separate phase correction or apodization along the indirect dimension because it uses those applied in the detection dimension. We compare in detail the specifications obtained with 2D-FT and 2D-Cov, for narrow and broad resonances. The efficiency of the covariance data treatment is demonstrated in organic and inorganic samples that are both well crystallized and amorphous, for spin -1/2 nuclei with 13C, 29Si, and 31P through-space or through-bond homonuclear 2D correlation spectra. In all cases, the experimental time has been reduced by at least a factor of 10, without any loss of resolution and signal to noise ratio, with respect to what is necessary with the 2D-FT NMR. According to this method, we have been able to study the silicate network of glasses by 2D NMR within reasonable experimental time despite the very long relaxation time of the 29Si nucleus. The main limitation of the 2D-Cov data treatment is related to the introduction of autocorrelated peaks onto the diagonal, which does not represent any actual connectivity.
Wang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ding, Xiaoyan; Tian, Fang; Huang, Yuqing; Chen, Zhong; Fu, Riqiang
2018-02-01
The feasibility of using the spin-echo based diagonal peak suppression method in solid-state MAS NMR homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments is demonstrated. A complete phase cycling is designed in such a way that in the indirect dimension only the spin diffused signals are evolved, while all signals not involved in polarization transfer are refocused for cancellation. A data processing procedure is further introduced to reconstruct this acquired spectrum into a conventional two-dimensional homonuclear chemical shift correlation spectrum. A uniformly 13C, 15N labeled Fmoc-valine sample and the transmembrane domain of a human protein, LR11 (sorLA), in native Escherichia coli membranes have been used to illustrate the capability of the proposed method in comparison with standard 13C-13C chemical shift correlation experiments.
Quantum theory of NMR adiabatic pulses and their applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ke, Y.
1993-01-01
Recently explosive developments of in vivo NMR spectroscopy (NMRS) and imaging (NMRI) in biological and medical sciences have resulted in the establishment of NMR as one of the most advanced major technique in life sciences. These developments have created huge demands for a variety of NMR adiabatic pulses with play a very important role in NMR experiments in vivo. In order to develop new NMR adiabatic pulses, a rigorous systematical quantum theory for this kind of pulses is greatly needed. Providing such a theory is one of the important goals of this dissertation. Quantum density matrix theory and product operator method have been used throughout this dissertation. Another goal, which is the major goal of this thesis research, is to use the quantum theory as a guide to develop new NMR adiabatic pulses and their applications. To fill this goal, a technique to construct a new type of adiabatic pulses, narrow band selective adiabatic pulses, has been invented, which is described through the example of constructing an adiabatic DANTE inversion pulse. This new adiabatic pulse is the first narrow band selective adiabatic pulses: Adiabatic homonuclear and heteronuclear spectral editing sequences. Unique to the first pulse sequence is a B 1 -field filter which is built by using two non-refocusing adiabatic full passage pulses to refocus the wanted signal and dephase unwanted signals. This extra filter greatly enhance the editing efficiency. Unlike commonly used heteronuclear spectral editing sequences which depend on the polarization transfer or spectral subtraction by phase cycling techniques, the second pulse sequences accomplishes the editing of heteronuclear J-coupled signals based on the fact that this sequence is transparent to the uncoupled spins and is equivalent a 90 degrees excitation pulse to the heteronuclear J-coupled spins. Experimental results have confirmed the ability of spectral editing with these two new sequences
Quantum Kalman filtering and the Heisenberg limit in atomic magnetometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geremia, J M; Stockton, John K; Doherty, Andrew C; Mabuchi, Hideo [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125 (United States)
2003-12-19
The shot-noise detection limit in current high-precision magnetometry [I. Kominis, T. Kornack, J. Allred, and M. Romalis, Nature (London) 422, 596 (2003)]10.1038/nature01484 is a manifestation of quantum fluctuations that scale as 1/{radical}(N) in an ensemble of N atoms. Here, we develop a procedure that combines continuous measurement and quantum Kalman filtering [V. Belavkin, Rep. Math. Phys. 43, 405 (1999)] to surpass this conventional limit by exploiting conditional spin squeezing to achieve 1/N field sensitivity. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of optimal estimation for high bandwidth precision magnetometry at the Heisenberg limit and also identifies an approximate estimator based on linear regression.
Double Rashba Quantum Dots Ring as a Spin Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi Feng
2008-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWe theoretically propose a double quantum dots (QDs ring to filter the electron spin that works due to the Rashba spin–orbit interaction (RSOI existing inside the QDs, the spin-dependent inter-dot tunneling coupling and the magnetic flux penetrating through the ring. By varying the RSOI-induced phase factor, the magnetic flux and the strength of the spin-dependent inter-dot tunneling coupling, which arises from a constant magnetic field applied on the tunneling junction between the QDs, a 100% spin-polarized conductance can be obtained. We show that both the spin orientations and the magnitude of it can be controlled by adjusting the above-mentioned parameters. The spin filtering effect is robust even in the presence of strong intra-dot Coulomb interactions and arbitrary dot-lead coupling configurations.
External modes in quantum dot light emitting diode with filtered optical feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al Husseini, Hussein B.; Al Naimee, Kais A.; Al-Khursan, Amin H.; Khedir, Ali. H.
2016-01-01
This research reports a theoretical investigation on the role of filtered optical feedback (FOF) in the quantum dot light emitting diode (QD-LED). The underlying dynamics is affected by a sidle node, which returns to an elliptical shape when the wetting layer (WL) is neglected. Both filter width and time delay change the appearance of different dynamics (chaotic and mixed mode oscillations, MMOs). The results agree with the experimental observations. Here, the fixed point analysis for QDs was done for the first time. For QD-LED with FOF, the system transits from the coherence collapse case in conventional optical feedback to a coherent case with a filtered mode in FOF. It was found that the WL washes out the modes which is an unexpected result. This may attributed to the longer capture time of WL compared with that between QD states. Thus, WL reduces the chaotic behavior.
Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution
Gruneisen, Mark T.; Sickmiller, Brett A.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Black, James P.; Stoltenberg, Kurt E.; Duchane, Alexander W.
2014-11-01
The rate of secure key generation (SKG) in quantum key distribution (QKD) is adversely affected by optical noise and loss in the quantum channel. In a free-space atmospheric channel, the scattering of sunlight into the channel can lead to quantum bit error ratios (QBERs) sufficiently large to preclude SKG. Furthermore, atmospheric turbulence limits the degree to which spatial filtering can reduce sky noise without introducing signal losses. A system simulation quantifies the potential benefit of tracking and higher-order adaptive optics (AO) technologies to SKG rates in a daytime satellite engagement scenario. The simulations are performed assuming propagation from a low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellite to a terrestrial receiver that includes an AO system comprised of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (SHWFS) and a continuous-face-sheet deformable mirror (DM). The effects of atmospheric turbulence, tracking, and higher-order AO on the photon capture efficiency are simulated using statistical representations of turbulence and a time-domain waveoptics hardware emulator. Secure key generation rates are then calculated for the decoy state QKD protocol as a function of the receiver field of view (FOV) for various pointing angles. The results show that at FOVs smaller than previously considered, AO technologies can enhance SKG rates in daylight and even enable SKG where it would otherwise be prohibited as a consequence of either background optical noise or signal loss due to turbulence effects.
Rashba-Zeeman-effect-induced spin filtering energy windows in a quantum wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, Xianbo; Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Guanghui; Li, Fei
2014-01-01
We perform a numerical study on the spin-resolved transport in a quantum wire (QW) under the modulation of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a perpendicular magnetic field by using the developed Usuki transfer-matrix method in combination with the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Wide spin filtering energy windows can be achieved in this system for unpolarized spin injection. In addition, both the width of energy window and the magnitude of spin conductance within these energy windows can be tuned by varying Rashba SOC strength, which can be apprehended by analyzing the energy dispersions and spin-polarized density distributions inside the QW, respectively. Further study also demonstrates that these Rashba-SOC-controlled spin filtering energy windows show a strong robustness against disorders. These findings may not only benefit to further understand the spin-dependent transport properties of a QW in the presence of external fields but also provide a theoretical instruction to design a spin filter device.
Rashba-Zeeman-effect-induced spin filtering energy windows in a quantum wire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Xianbo, E-mail: xxb-11@hotmail.com; Nie, Wenjie [School of Computer, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004 (China); Chen, Zhaoxia [School of Mechatronics Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhou, Guanghui [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li, Fei, E-mail: wltlifei@sina.com [Office of Scientific Research, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004 (China)
2014-06-14
We perform a numerical study on the spin-resolved transport in a quantum wire (QW) under the modulation of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a perpendicular magnetic field by using the developed Usuki transfer-matrix method in combination with the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Wide spin filtering energy windows can be achieved in this system for unpolarized spin injection. In addition, both the width of energy window and the magnitude of spin conductance within these energy windows can be tuned by varying Rashba SOC strength, which can be apprehended by analyzing the energy dispersions and spin-polarized density distributions inside the QW, respectively. Further study also demonstrates that these Rashba-SOC-controlled spin filtering energy windows show a strong robustness against disorders. These findings may not only benefit to further understand the spin-dependent transport properties of a QW in the presence of external fields but also provide a theoretical instruction to design a spin filter device.
Dehghan, E.; Sanavi Khoshnoud, D.; Naeimi, A. S.
2018-01-01
The spin-resolved electron transport through a triangular network of quantum nanorings is studied in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and a magnetic flux using quantum waveguide theory. This study illustrates that, by tuning Rashba constant, magnetic flux and incoming electron energy, the triangular network of quantum rings can act as a perfect logical spin-filtering with high efficiency. By changing in the energy of incoming electron, at a proper value of the Rashba constant and magnetic flux, a reverse in the direction of spin can take place in the triangular network of quantum nanorings. Furthermore, the triangular network of quantum nanorings can be designed as a device and shows several simultaneous spintronic properties such as spin-splitter and spin-inverter. This spin-splitting is dependent on the energy of the incoming electron. Additionally, different polarizations can be achieved in the two outgoing leads from an originally incoming spin state that simulates a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.
Brown, Justin; Woolf, David; Hensley, Joel
2016-05-01
Quantum key distribution can provide secure optical data links using the established BB84 protocol, though solar backgrounds severely limit the performance through free space. Several approaches to reduce the solar background include time-gating the photon signal, limiting the field of view through geometrical design of the optical system, and spectral rejection using interference filters. Despite optimization of these parameters, the solar background continues to dominate under daytime atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate an improved spectral filter by replacing the interference filter (Δν ~ 50 GHz) with an atomic line filter (Δν ~ 1 GHz) based on optical rotation of linearly polarized light through a warm Rb vapor. By controlling the magnetic field and the optical depth of the vapor, a spectrally narrow region can be transmitted between crossed polarizers. We find that the transmission is more complex than a single peak and evaluate peak transmission as well as a ratio of peak transmission to average transmission of the local spectrum. We compare filters containing a natural abundance of Rb with those containing isotopically pure 87 Rb and 85 Rb. A filter providing > 95 % transmission and Δν ~ 1.1 GHz is achieved.
Towards Quantum Cybernetics:. Optimal Feedback Control in Quantum Bio Informatics
Belavkin, V. P.
2009-02-01
A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for the purpose of optimal control in quantum cybernetics with convex constraints and cońcave cost and bequest functions of the quantum state is given. Consideration is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme with continuous observations we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects for quantum stochastic micro-dynamics of the total system. This allows to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to only Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. A controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inagaki, F.; Kohda, D.; Kodama, C.; Suzuki, A.
1987-01-01
The authors applied multiple relayed COSY and 2D homonuclear Hartman-Hahn spectroscopy to globoside, a glycolipid purified from human red blood cells. The subspectra corresponding to individual sugar components were extracted even from overlapping proton resonances by taking the cross sections of 2D spectra parallel to the F 2 axis at anomeric proton resonances, so that unambiguous assignments of sugar proton resonances were accomplished. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjaerulff, Louise; Benie, Andrew J.; Hoeck, Casper
2016-01-01
A novel method, Spin-State-Selective (S3) HMBC, for accurate measurement of homonuclear coupling constants is introduced. As characteristic for S3 techniques, S3 HMBC yields independent subspectra corresponding to particular passive spin states and thus allows determination of coupling constants ...... are demonstrated by an application to strychnine where thirteen JHH coupling constants not previously reported could be measured....
Size filtering effect in vertical stacks of In(Ga)As/GaAs self-assembled quantum rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouerghui, W.; Melliti, A.; Maaref, M.A.; Martinez-Pastor, J.; Gomis, J.; Granados, D.; Garcia, J.M.
2006-01-01
We present a systematic study of closely In(Ga)As/InAs quantum rings (QRs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong filtering effect in the ring being stacked and simultaneous linewidth narrowing for the appropriate layer thickness (thinner thickness). If the spacer thickness is further reduced, a strong coupling between the nanostructures is produced and the signal shifts to low energy
Research on Palmprint Identification Method Based on Quantum Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum image recognition is a technology by using quantum algorithm to process the image information. It can obtain better effect than classical algorithm. In this paper, four different quantum algorithms are used in the three stages of palmprint recognition. First, quantum adaptive median filtering algorithm is presented in palmprint filtering processing. Quantum filtering algorithm can get a better filtering result than classical algorithm through the comparison. Next, quantum Fourier transform (QFT is used to extract pattern features by only one operation due to quantum parallelism. The proposed algorithm exhibits an exponential speed-up compared with discrete Fourier transform in the feature extraction. Finally, quantum set operations and Grover algorithm are used in palmprint matching. According to the experimental results, quantum algorithm only needs to apply square of N operations to find out the target palmprint, but the traditional method needs N times of calculation. At the same time, the matching accuracy of quantum algorithm is almost 100%.
Comparison of cryogenic low-pass filters
Thalmann, M.; Pernau, H.-F.; Strunk, C.; Scheer, E.; Pietsch, T.
2017-11-01
Low-temperature electronic transport measurements with high energy resolution require both effective low-pass filtering of high-frequency input noise and an optimized thermalization of the electronic system of the experiment. In recent years, elaborate filter designs have been developed for cryogenic low-level measurements, driven by the growing interest in fundamental quantum-physical phenomena at energy scales corresponding to temperatures in the few millikelvin regime. However, a single filter concept is often insufficient to thermalize the electronic system to the cryogenic bath and eliminate spurious high frequency noise. Moreover, the available concepts often provide inadequate filtering to operate at temperatures below 10 mK, which are routinely available now in dilution cryogenic systems. Herein we provide a comprehensive analysis of commonly used filter types, introduce a novel compact filter type based on ferrite compounds optimized for the frequency range above 20 GHz, and develop an improved filtering scheme providing adaptable broad-band low-pass characteristic for cryogenic low-level and quantum measurement applications at temperatures down to few millikelvin.
Comparison of cryogenic low-pass filters.
Thalmann, M; Pernau, H-F; Strunk, C; Scheer, E; Pietsch, T
2017-11-01
Low-temperature electronic transport measurements with high energy resolution require both effective low-pass filtering of high-frequency input noise and an optimized thermalization of the electronic system of the experiment. In recent years, elaborate filter designs have been developed for cryogenic low-level measurements, driven by the growing interest in fundamental quantum-physical phenomena at energy scales corresponding to temperatures in the few millikelvin regime. However, a single filter concept is often insufficient to thermalize the electronic system to the cryogenic bath and eliminate spurious high frequency noise. Moreover, the available concepts often provide inadequate filtering to operate at temperatures below 10 mK, which are routinely available now in dilution cryogenic systems. Herein we provide a comprehensive analysis of commonly used filter types, introduce a novel compact filter type based on ferrite compounds optimized for the frequency range above 20 GHz, and develop an improved filtering scheme providing adaptable broad-band low-pass characteristic for cryogenic low-level and quantum measurement applications at temperatures down to few millikelvin.
Courtney, Joseph M; Rienstra, Chad M
2016-08-01
We present a systematic study of dipolar double quantum (DQ) filtering in (13)C-labeled organic solids over a range of magic-angle spinning rates, using the SPC-n recoupling sequence element with a range of n symmetry values from 3 to 11. We find that efficient recoupling can be achieved for values n⩾7, provided that the (13)C nutation frequency is on the order of 100kHz or greater. The decoupling-field dependence was investigated and explicit heteronuclear decoupling interference conditions identified. The major determinant of DQ filtering efficiency is the decoupling interference between (13)C and (1)H fields. For (13)C nutation frequencies greater than 75kHz, optimal performance is observed without an applied (1)H field. At spinning rates exceeding 20kHz, symmetry conditions as low as n=3 were found to perform adequately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walsh-synthesized noise filters for quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ball, Harrison; Biercuk, Michael J.
2015-01-01
We study a novel class of open-loop control protocols constructed to perform arbitrary nontrivial single-qubit logic operations robust against time-dependent non-Markovian noise. Amplitude and phase modulation protocols are crafted leveraging insights from functional synthesis and the basis set of Walsh functions. We employ the experimentally validated generalized filter-transfer function formalism in order to find optimized control protocols for target operations in SU(2) by defining a cost function for the filter-transfer function to be minimized through the applied modulation. Our work details the various techniques by which we define and then optimize the filter-synthesis process in the Walsh basis, including the definition of specific analytic design rules which serve to efficiently constrain the available synthesis space. This approach yields modulated-gate constructions consisting of chains of discrete pulse-segments of arbitrary form, whose modulation envelopes possess intrinsic compatibility with digital logic and clocking. We derive novel families of Walsh-modulated noise filters designed to suppress dephasing and coherent amplitude-damping noise, and describe how well-known sequences derived in NMR also fall within the Walsh-synthesis framework. Finally, our work considers the effects of realistic experimental constraints such as limited modulation bandwidth on achievable filter performance. (orig.)
Walsh-synthesized noise filters for quantum logic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ball, Harrison; Biercuk, Michael J. [The University of Sydney, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); National Measurement Institute, Sydney, NSW (Australia)
2015-05-14
We study a novel class of open-loop control protocols constructed to perform arbitrary nontrivial single-qubit logic operations robust against time-dependent non-Markovian noise. Amplitude and phase modulation protocols are crafted leveraging insights from functional synthesis and the basis set of Walsh functions. We employ the experimentally validated generalized filter-transfer function formalism in order to find optimized control protocols for target operations in SU(2) by defining a cost function for the filter-transfer function to be minimized through the applied modulation. Our work details the various techniques by which we define and then optimize the filter-synthesis process in the Walsh basis, including the definition of specific analytic design rules which serve to efficiently constrain the available synthesis space. This approach yields modulated-gate constructions consisting of chains of discrete pulse-segments of arbitrary form, whose modulation envelopes possess intrinsic compatibility with digital logic and clocking. We derive novel families of Walsh-modulated noise filters designed to suppress dephasing and coherent amplitude-damping noise, and describe how well-known sequences derived in NMR also fall within the Walsh-synthesis framework. Finally, our work considers the effects of realistic experimental constraints such as limited modulation bandwidth on achievable filter performance. (orig.)
Schürmann, Michael
2008-01-01
This volume contains the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Potential Theory: Structure and Applications to Physics," held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald from February 26 to March 10, 2007. Quantum potential theory studies noncommutative (or quantum) analogs of classical potential theory. These lectures provide an introduction to this theory, concentrating on probabilistic potential theory and it quantum analogs, i.e. quantum Markov processes and semigroups, quantum random walks, Dirichlet forms on C* and von Neumann algebras, and boundary theory. Applications to quantum physics, in particular the filtering problem in quantum optics, are also presented.
Assignment strategies in homonuclear three-dimensional 1H NMR spectra of proteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vuister, G.W.; Boelens, R.; Padilla, A.; Kleywegt, G.J.; Kaptein, R.
1990-01-01
The increase in dimensionality of three-dimensional (3D) NMR greatly enhances the spectral resolution in comparison to 2D NMR. It alleviates the problem of resonance overlap and may extend the range of molecules amenable to structure determination by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Here, the authors present strategies for the assignment of protein resonances from homonuclear nonselective 3D NOE-HOHAHA spectra. A notation for connectivities between protons, corresponding to cross peaks in 3D spectra, is introduced. They show how spin systems can be identified by tracing cross-peak patterns in cross sections perpendicular to the three frequency axes. The observable 3D sequential connectivities in proteins are tabulated, and estimates for the relative intensities of the corresponding cross peaks are given for α-helical and β-sheet conformations. Intensities of the cross peaks in the 3D spectrum of pike III paravalbumin follow the predictions. The sequential-assignment procedure is illustrated for loop regions, extended and α-helical conformations for the residues Ala 54-Leu 63 of paravalbumin. NOEs that were not previously identified in 2D spectra of paravalbumin due to overlap are found
Rare-earth doped transparent ceramics for spectral filtering and quantum information processing
Kunkel, Nathalie; Ferrier, Alban; Thiel, Charles W.; Ramírez, Mariola O.; Bausá, Luisa E.; Cone, Rufus L.; Ikesue, Akio; Goldner, Philippe
2015-09-01
Homogeneous linewidths below 10 kHz are reported for the first time in high-quality Eu3+ doped Y 2O3 transparent ceramics. This result is obtained on the 7F0→5D0 transition in Eu3+ doped Y 2O3 ceramics and corresponds to an improvement of nearly one order of magnitude compared to previously reported values in transparent ceramics. Furthermore, we observed spectral hole lifetimes of ˜15 min that are long enough to enable efficient optical pumping of the nuclear hyperfine levels. Additionally, different Eu3+ concentrations (up to 1.0%) were studied, resulting in an increase of up to a factor of three in the peak absorption coefficient. These results suggest that transparent ceramics can be useful in applications where narrow and deep spectral holes can be burned into highly absorbing lines, such as quantum information processing and spectral filtering.
Theoretical model for a background noise limited laser-excited optical filter for doubled Nd lasers
Shay, Thomas M.; Garcia, Daniel F.
1990-01-01
A simple theoretical model for the calculation of the dependence of filter quantum efficiency versus laser pump power in an atomic Rb vapor laser-excited optical filter is reported. Calculations for Rb filter transitions that can be used to detect the practical and important frequency-doubled Nd lasers are presented. The results of these calculations show the filter's quantum efficiency versus the laser pump power. The required laser pump powers required range from 2.4 to 60 mW/sq cm of filter aperture.
Anmei, Su; Qingmei, Zhong; Yuye, Chen; Yilin, Wang
2018-09-06
Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with quantum yield of 14% were successfully synthesized via a simple, low-cost, and green hydrothermal treatment using cigarette filters as carbon source for the first time. The obtained CQDs showed a strong emission at the wavelength of 465 nm, with an optimum excitation of 365 nm.Sudan I with maximum absorption wavelength at 477 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of CQDs. Based on this principle, a fluorescence probe was developed for Sudan I determination. Furthermore, the quenching mechanism of the CQDs was elucidated. A linear relationship was found in the range of 2.40-104.0 μmol/L Sudan I with the detection limit (3σ/k) of 0.95 μmol/L. Satisfactory results were achieved when the method was submitted to the determination of Sudan I in food samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rare-earth doped transparent ceramics for spectral filtering and quantum information processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunkel, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.kunkel@chimie-paristech.fr; Goldner, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.goldner@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech–CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Ferrier, Alban [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech–CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonnes Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 75005 Paris (France); Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Ramírez, Mariola O.; Bausá, Luisa E. [Departamento Física de Materiales and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ikesue, Akio [World Laboratory, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-0023 (Japan)
2015-09-01
Homogeneous linewidths below 10 kHz are reported for the first time in high-quality Eu{sup 3+} doped Y {sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramics. This result is obtained on the {sup 7}F{sub 0}→{sup 5}D{sub 0} transition in Eu{sup 3+} doped Y {sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics and corresponds to an improvement of nearly one order of magnitude compared to previously reported values in transparent ceramics. Furthermore, we observed spectral hole lifetimes of ∼15 min that are long enough to enable efficient optical pumping of the nuclear hyperfine levels. Additionally, different Eu{sup 3+} concentrations (up to 1.0%) were studied, resulting in an increase of up to a factor of three in the peak absorption coefficient. These results suggest that transparent ceramics can be useful in applications where narrow and deep spectral holes can be burned into highly absorbing lines, such as quantum information processing and spectral filtering.
Gruneisen, Mark T.; Sickmiller, Brett A.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Black, James P.; Stoltenberg, Kurt E.; Duchane, Alexander W.
2016-02-01
Spatial filtering is an important technique for reducing sky background noise in a satellite quantum key distribution downlink receiver. Atmospheric turbulence limits the extent to which spatial filtering can reduce sky noise without introducing signal losses. Using atmospheric propagation and compensation simulations, the potential benefit of adaptive optics (AO) to secure key generation (SKG) is quantified. Simulations are performed assuming optical propagation from a low-Earth-orbit satellite to a terrestrial receiver that includes AO. Higher-order AO correction is modeled assuming a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a continuous-face-sheet deformable mirror. The effects of atmospheric turbulence, tracking, and higher-order AO on the photon capture efficiency are simulated using statistical representations of turbulence and a time-domain wave-optics hardware emulator. SKG rates are calculated for a decoy-state protocol as a function of the receiver field of view for various strengths of turbulence, sky radiances, and pointing angles. The results show that at fields of view smaller than those discussed by others, AO technologies can enhance SKG rates in daylight and enable SKG where it would otherwise be prohibited as a consequence of background optical noise and signal loss due to propagation and turbulence effects.
Simultaneous Faraday filtering of the Mollow triplet sidebands with the Cs-D1 clock transition.
Portalupi, Simone Luca; Widmann, Matthias; Nawrath, Cornelius; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja
2016-11-25
Hybrid quantum systems integrating semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and atomic vapours become important building blocks for scalable quantum networks due to the complementary strengths of individual parts. QDs provide on-demand single-photon emission with near-unity indistinguishability comprising unprecedented brightness-while atomic vapour systems provide ultra-precise frequency standards and promise long coherence times for the storage of qubits. Spectral filtering is one of the key components for the successful link between QD photons and atoms. Here we present a tailored Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter based on the caesium-D 1 transition for interfacing it with a resonantly pumped QD. The presented Faraday filter enables a narrow-bandwidth (Δω=2π × 1 GHz) simultaneous filtering of both Mollow triplet sidebands. This result opens the way to use QDs as sources of single as well as cascaded photons in photonic quantum networks aligned to the primary frequency standard of the caesium clock transition.
High-performance magnetic field sensor based on superconducting quantum interference filters
Caputo, P.; Oppenländer, J.; Häussler, Ch.; Tomes, J.; Friesch, A.; Träuble, T.; Schopohl, N.
2004-08-01
We have developed an absolute magnetic field sensor using a superconducting quantum interference filter (SQIF) made of high-Tc grain-boundary Josephson junctions. The device shows the typical magnetic-field-dependent voltage response V(B ), which is a sharp deltalike dip in the vicinity of zero-magnetic field. When the SQIF is cooled with magnetic shield, and then the shield is removed, the presence of the ambient magnetic field induces a shift of the dip position from B0≈0 to a value B ≈B1, which is about the average value of the Earth's magnetic field, at our latitude. When the SQIF is cooled in the ambient field without shielding, the dip is first found at B ≈B1, and the further shielding of the SQIF results in a shift of the dip towards B0≈0. The low hysteresis observed in the sequence of experiments (less than 5% of B1) makes SQIFs suitable for high precision measurements of the absolute magnetic field. The experimental results are discussed in view of potential applications of high-Tc SQIFs in magnetometry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farley, David R.
2010-01-01
A model has been developed to calculate the ground-state rotational populations of homonuclear diatomic molecules in kinetic gases, including the effects of electron-impact excitation, wall collisions, and gas feed rate. The equations are exact within the accuracy of the cross sections used and of the assumed equilibrating effect of wall collisions. It is found that the inflow of feed gas and equilibrating wall collisions can significantly affect the rotational distribution in competition with non-equilibrating electron-impact effects. The resulting steady-state rotational distributions are generally Boltzmann for N (ge) 3, with a rotational temperature between the wall and feed gas temperatures. The N = 0,1,2 rotational level populations depend sensitively on the relative rates of electron-impact excitation versus wall collision and gas feed rates.
Restoration of nuclear medicine images using adaptive Wiener filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meinel, G.
1989-01-01
An adaptive Wiener filter implementation for restoration of nuclear medicine images is described. These are considerably disturbed both deterministically (definition) and stochastically (Poisson's quantum noise). After introduction of an image model, description of necessary parameter approximations and information on optimum design methods the implementation is described. The filter operates adaptively as concerns the local signal-to-noise ratio and is based on a filter band concept. To verify the restoration effect size numbers are introduced and the filter is tested against these numbers. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bilguun, Amarsaikhan, E-mail: bilguun@pes.ee.tut.ac.jp; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi, E-mail: takikawa@ee.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Habarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Tanoue, Hideto [Kitakyushu National College of Technology, 5-20-1, Kokuraminami, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan)
2016-02-01
In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.
Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto
2016-02-01
In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto
2016-01-01
In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oezguen, Numan; Adamian, Larisa; Xu Yuan; Rajarathnam, Krishna; Braun, Werner
2002-01-01
The NOAH/DIAMOD suite uses feedback filtering and self-correcting distance geometry to generate 3D structures from unassigned NOESY spectra. In this study we determined the minimum set of experiments needed to generate a high quality structure bundle. Different combinations of 3D 15 N-edited, 13 C-edited HSQC-NOESY and 2D homonuclear 1 H- 1 H NOESY spectra of the 77 amino acid protein, myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1) were used as input for NOAH/DIAMOD calculations. The quality of the assignments of NOESY cross peaks and the accuracy of the automatically generated 3D structures were compared to those obtained with a conventional manual procedure. Combining data from two types of experiments synergistically increased the number of peaks assigned unambiguously in both individual spectra. As a general trend for the accuracy of the structures we observed structural variations in the backbone fold of the final structures of about 2 A for single spectral data, of 1 A to 1.5 A for double spectral data, and of 0.6 A for triple spectral data sets. The quality of the assignments and 3D structures from the optimal data using all three spectra were similar to those obtained from traditional assignment methods with structural variations within the bundle of 0.6 A and 1.3 A for backbone and heavy atoms, respectively. Almost all constraints (97%) of the automatic NOESY cross peak assignments were cross compatible with the structures from the conventional manual assignment procedure, and an even larger proportion (99%) of the manually derived constraints were compatible with the automatically determined 3D structures. The two mean structures determined by both methods differed only by 1.3 A rmsd for the backbone atoms in the well-defined regions of the protein. Thus NOAD/DIAMOD analysis of spectra from labeled proteins provides a reliable method for high throughput analysis of genomic targets
Zero-order filter for diffractive focusing of de Broglie matter waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eder, S. D.; Ravn, A. K.; Samelin, B.
2017-01-01
The manipulation of neutral atoms and molecules via their de Broglie wave properties, also referred to asde Broglie matter wave optics, is relevant for several fields ranging from fundamental quantum mechanics testsand quantum metrology to measurements of interaction potentials and new imaging...... Broglie matter wave diffractive focusing elements. The zero-order filter makes it possible to measure even at low beam intensities. We present measurements of zero-order filtered, focused, neutral helium beams generated at source stagnation pressures between 11 and 81 bars. We show that for certain...
Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference
Zhang, Yingwen; Roux, Filippus S.; Konrad, Thomas; Agnew, Megan; Leach, Jonathan; Forbes, Andrew
2016-01-01
Many protocols in quantum science, for example, linear optical quantum computing, require access to large-scale entangled quantum states. Such systems can be realized through many-particle qubits, but this approach often suffers from scalability problems. An alternative strategy is to consider a lesser number of particles that exist in high-dimensional states. The spatial modes of light are one such candidate that provides access to high-dimensional quantum states, and thus they increase the storage and processing potential of quantum information systems. We demonstrate the controlled engineering of two-photon high-dimensional states entangled in their orbital angular momentum through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. We prepare a large range of high-dimensional entangled states and implement precise quantum state filtering. We characterize the full quantum state before and after the filter, and are thus able to determine that only the antisymmetric component of the initial state remains. This work paves the way for high-dimensional processing and communication of multiphoton quantum states, for example, in teleportation beyond qubits. PMID:26933685
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-12-01
This bibliography contains citations concerning the enhanced analytical techniques of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2-D NMR). Applications to specific molecules, biomolecules, and compounds as well as comparisons of three 2-D NMR techniques: correlated spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser (NOSEY), and homonuclear-correlated spectroscopy (HOMCOR). (Contains 190 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)
Efficient composite broadband polarization retarders and polarization filters
Dimova, E.; Ivanov, S. S.; Popkirov, G.; Vitanov, N. V.
2014-12-01
A new type of broadband polarization half-wave retarder and narrowband polarization filters are described and experimentally tested. Both, the retarders and the filters are designed as composite stacks of standard optical half-wave plates, each of them twisted at specific angles. The theoretical background of the proposed optical devices was obtained by analogy with the method of composite pulses, known from the nuclear and quantum physics. We show that combining two composite filters built from different numbers and types of waveplates, the transmission spectrum is reduced from about 700 nm to about 10 nm width.We experimentally demonstrate that this method can be applied to different types of waveplates (broadband, zero-order, multiple order, etc.).
Imaging Correlations in Heterodyne Spectra for Quantum Displacement Sensing
Pontin, A.; Lang, J. E.; Chowdhury, A.; Vezio, P.; Marino, F.; Morana, B.; Serra, E.; Marin, F.; Monteiro, T. S.
2018-01-01
The extraordinary sensitivity of the output field of an optical cavity to small quantum-scale displacements has led to breakthroughs such as the first detection of gravitational waves and of the motions of quantum ground-state cooled mechanical oscillators. While heterodyne detection of the output optical field of an optomechanical system exhibits asymmetries which provide a key signature that the mechanical oscillator has attained the quantum regime, important quantum correlations are lost. In turn, homodyning can detect quantum squeezing in an optical quadrature but loses the important sideband asymmetries. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a new technique, subjecting the autocorrelators of the output current to filter functions, which restores the lost heterodyne correlations (whether classical or quantum), drastically augmenting the useful information accessible. The filtering even adjusts for moderate errors in the locking phase of the local oscillator. Hence we demonstrate the single-shot measurement of hundreds of different field quadratures allowing the rapid imaging of detailed features from a simple heterodyne trace. We also obtain a spectrum of hybrid homodyne-heterodyne character, with motional sidebands of combined amplitudes comparable to homodyne. Although investigated here in a thermal regime, the method's robustness and generality represents a promising new approach to sensing of quantum-scale displacements.
Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aberle, C; Winslow, L; Li, J J; Weiss, S
2013-01-01
Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO
Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawabata, Shiro; Vasenko, Andrey S.; Ozaeta, Asier; Bergeret, Sebastian F.; Hekking, Frank W.J.
2015-01-01
We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits
Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawabata, Shiro, E-mail: s-kawabata@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Vasenko, Andrey S. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ozaeta, Asier [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Bergeret, Sebastian F. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Hekking, Frank W.J. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)
2015-06-01
We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits.
Energy-filtered cold electron transport at room temperature.
Bhadrachalam, Pradeep; Subramanian, Ramkumar; Ray, Vishva; Ma, Liang-Chieh; Wang, Weichao; Kim, Jiyoung; Cho, Kyeongjae; Koh, Seong Jin
2014-09-10
Fermi-Dirac electron thermal excitation is an intrinsic phenomenon that limits functionality of various electron systems. Efforts to manipulate electron thermal excitation have been successful when the entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures, typically distribution corresponds to an effective electron temperature of ~45 K, can be transported throughout device components without external cooling. This is accomplished using a discrete level of a quantum well, which filters out thermally excited electrons and permits only energy-suppressed electrons to participate in electron transport. The quantum well (~2 nm of Cr2O3) is formed between source (Cr) and tunnelling barrier (SiO2) in a double-barrier-tunnelling-junction structure having a quantum dot as the central island. Cold electron transport is detected from extremely narrow differential conductance peaks in electron tunnelling through CdSe quantum dots, with full widths at half maximum of only ~15 mV at room temperature.
Experimental quantum control landscapes: Inherent monotonicity and artificial structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roslund, Jonathan; Rabitz, Herschel
2009-01-01
Unconstrained searches over quantum control landscapes are theoretically predicted to generally exhibit trap-free monotonic behavior. This paper makes an explicit experimental demonstration of this intrinsic monotonicity for two controlled quantum systems: frequency unfiltered and filtered second-harmonic generation (SHG). For unfiltered SHG, the landscape is randomly sampled and interpolation of the data is found to be devoid of landscape traps up to the level of data noise. In the case of narrow-band-filtered SHG, trajectories are taken on the landscape to reveal a lack of traps. Although the filtered SHG landscape is trap free, it exhibits a rich local structure. A perturbation analysis around the top of these landscapes provides a basis to understand their topology. Despite the inherent trap-free nature of the landscapes, practical constraints placed on the controls can lead to the appearance of artificial structure arising from the resultant forced sampling of the landscape. This circumstance and the likely lack of knowledge about the detailed local landscape structure in most quantum control applications suggests that the a priori identification of globally successful (un)constrained curvilinear control variables may be a challenging task.
High-order noise filtering in nontrivial quantum logic gates
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Green, T
2012-07-01
Full Text Available composed of arbitrary control sequences. We present a general method to calculate the ensemble-averaged entanglement fidelity to arbitrary order in terms of noise filter functions, and provide explicit expressions to fourth order in the noise strength...
X-ray fluoroscopy spatio-temporal filtering with object detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aufrichtig, R.; Wilson, D.L.; University Hospitals of Cleveland, OH
1995-01-01
One potential way to reduce patient and staff x-ray fluoroscopy dose is to reduce the quantum exposure to the detector and compensate the additional noise with digital filtering. A new filtering method, spatio-temporal filtering with object detection, is described that reduces noise while minimizing motion and spatial blur. As compared to some conventional motion-detection filtering schemes, this object-detection method incorporates additional a priori knowledge of image content; i.e. much of the motion occurs in isolated long thin objects (catheters, guide wires, etc.). The authors create object-likelihood images and use these to control spatial and recursive temporal filtering such as to reduce blurring the objects of interest. They use automatically computed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to optimize the object-likelihood enhancement method and determine that oriented matched filter kernels with 4 orientations are appropriate. The matched filter kernels are simple projected cylinders. The authors demonstrate the method on several representative x-ray fluoroscopy sequences to which noise is added to simulate very low dose acquisitions. With processing, they find that noise variance is significantly reduced with slightly less noise reduction near moving objects. They estimate an effective exposure reduction greater than 80%
Selective and extensive 13C labeling of a membrane protein for solid-state NMR investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, M.; Jakes, K.
1999-01-01
The selective and extensive 13C labeling of mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues in a 25 kDa membrane protein, the colicin Ia channel domain, is reported. The novel 13C labeling approach takes advantage of the amino acid biosynthetic pathways in bacteria and suppresses the synthesis of the amino acid products of the citric acid cycle. The selectivity and extensiveness of labeling significantly simplify the solid-state NMR spectra, reduce line broadening, and should permit the simultaneous measurement of multiple structural constraints. We show the assignment of most 13C resonances to specific amino acid types based on the characteristic chemical shifts, the 13C labeling pattern, and the amino acid composition of the protein. The assignment is partly confirmed by a 2D homonuclear double-quantum-filter experiment under magic-angle spinning. The high sensitivity and spectral resolution attained with this 13C-labeling protocol, which is termed TEASE for ten-amino acid selective and extensive labeling, are demonstrated
Lu, Weizhao; Huang, Chunhui; Hou, Kun; Shi, Liting; Zhao, Huihui; Li, Zhengmei; Qiu, Jianfeng
2018-05-01
In continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD), weak signal carrying information transmits from Alice to Bob; during this process it is easily influenced by unknown noise which reduces signal-to-noise ratio, and strongly impacts reliability and stability of the communication. Recurrent quantum neural network (RQNN) is an artificial neural network model which can perform stochastic filtering without any prior knowledge of the signal and noise. In this paper, a modified RQNN algorithm with expectation maximization algorithm is proposed to process the signal in CV-QKD, which follows the basic rule of quantum mechanics. After RQNN, noise power decreases about 15 dBm, coherent signal recognition rate of RQNN is 96%, quantum bit error rate (QBER) drops to 4%, which is 6.9% lower than original QBER, and channel capacity is notably enlarged.
Quantum Biometrics with Retinal Photon Counting
Loulakis, M.; Blatsios, G.; Vrettou, C. S.; Kominis, I. K.
2017-10-01
It is known that the eye's scotopic photodetectors, rhodopsin molecules, and their associated phototransduction mechanism leading to light perception, are efficient single-photon counters. We here use the photon-counting principles of human rod vision to propose a secure quantum biometric identification based on the quantum-statistical properties of retinal photon detection. The photon path along the human eye until its detection by rod cells is modeled as a filter having a specific transmission coefficient. Precisely determining its value from the photodetection statistics registered by the conscious observer is a quantum parameter estimation problem that leads to a quantum secure identification method. The probabilities for false-positive and false-negative identification of this biometric technique can readily approach 10-10 and 10-4, respectively. The security of the biometric method can be further quantified by the physics of quantum measurements. An impostor must be able to perform quantum thermometry and quantum magnetometry with energy resolution better than 10-9ℏ , in order to foil the device by noninvasively monitoring the biometric activity of a user.
Measurement-based local quantum filters and their ability to ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Debmalya Das
Berhampur (Transit Campus), National Highway 59, Berhampur 760 010, India. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: arvind@iisermohali.ac.in. MS received 29 July 2016; revised 21 October 2016; accepted 16 December 2016; published online 30 May 2017. Abstract. We introduce local filters as a means to detect the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ying Jinfa; Chill, Jordan H.; Louis, John M.; Bax, Ad
2007-01-01
A new strategy is demonstrated that simultaneously enhances sensitivity and resolution in three- or higher-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum NMR experiments. The approach, referred to as mixed-time parallel evolution (MT-PARE), utilizes evolution of chemical shifts of the spins participating in the multiple quantum coherence in parallel, thereby reducing signal losses relative to sequential evolution. The signal in a given PARE dimension, t 1 , is of a non-decaying constant-time nature for a duration that depends on the length of t 2 , and vice versa, prior to the onset of conventional exponential decay. Line shape simulations for the 1 H- 15 N PARE indicate that this strategy significantly enhances both sensitivity and resolution in the indirect 1 H dimension, and that the unusual signal decay profile results in acceptable line shapes. Incorporation of the MT-PARE approach into a 3D HMQC-NOESY experiment for measurement of H N -H N NOEs in KcsA in SDS micelles at 50 o C was found to increase the experimental sensitivity by a factor of 1.7±0.3 with a concomitant resolution increase in the indirectly detected 1 H dimension. The method is also demonstrated for a situation in which homonuclear 13 C- 13 C decoupling is required while measuring weak H3'-2'OH NOEs in an RNA oligomer
Entanglement-assisted quantum feedback control
Yamamoto, Naoki; Mikami, Tomoaki
2017-07-01
The main advantage of quantum metrology relies on the effective use of entanglement, which indeed allows us to achieve strictly better estimation performance over the standard quantum limit. In this paper, we propose an analogous method utilizing entanglement for the purpose of feedback control. The system considered is a general linear dynamical quantum system, where the control goal can be systematically formulated as a linear quadratic Gaussian control problem based on the quantum Kalman filtering method; in this setting, an entangled input probe field is effectively used to reduce the estimation error and accordingly the control cost function. In particular, we show that, in the problem of cooling an opto-mechanical oscillator, the entanglement-assisted feedback control can lower the stationary occupation number of the oscillator below the limit attainable by the controller with a coherent probe field and furthermore beats the controller with an optimized squeezed probe field.
B0 insensitive multiple-quantum resolved sodium imaging using a phase-rotation scheme
Fiege, Daniel P.; Romanzetti, Sandro; Tse, Desmond H. Y.; Brenner, Daniel; Celik, Avdo; Felder, Jörg; Jon Shah, N.
2013-03-01
Triple-quantum filtering has been suggested as a mechanism to differentiate signals from different physiological compartments. However, the filtering method is sensitive to static field inhomogeneities because different coherence pathways may interfere destructively. Previously suggested methods employed additional phase-cycles to separately acquire pathways. Whilst this removes the signal dropouts, it reduces the signal-to-noise per unit time. In this work we suggest the use of a phase-rotation scheme to simultaneously acquire all coherence pathways and then separate them via Fourier transform. Hence the method yields single-, double- and triple-quantum filtered images. The phase-rotation requires a minimum of 36 instead of six cycling steps. However, destructive interference is circumvented whilst maintaining full signal-to-noise efficiency for all coherences.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malik, M.; Boyd, R.W.
2014-01-01
Over the past three decades, quantum mechanics has allowed the development of technologies that provide unconditionally secure communication. In parallel, the quantum nature of the transverse electromagnetic field has spawned the field of quantum imaging that encompasses technologies such as quantum lithography, quantum ghost imaging, and high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD). The emergence of such quantum technologies also highlights the need for the development of accurate and efficient methods of measuring and characterizing the elusive quantum state itself. In this paper, we describe new technologies that use the quantum properties of light for security. The first of these is a technique that extends the principles behind QKD to the field of imaging and optical ranging. By applying the polarization-based BB84 protocol to individual photons in an active imaging system, we obtained images that are secure against any interceptresend jamming attacks. The second technology presented in this article is based on an extension of quantum ghost imaging, a technique that uses position-momentum entangled photons to create an image of an object without directly obtaining any spatial information from it. We used a holographic filtering technique to build a quantum ghost image identification system that uses a few pairs of photons to identify an object from a set of known objects. The third technology addressed in this document is a high-dimensional QKD system that uses orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes of light for encoding. Moving to a high-dimensional state space in QKD allows one to impress more information on each photon, as well as introduce higher levels of security. We discuss the development of two OAM-QKD protocols based on the BB84 and Ekert protocols of QKD. The fourth and final technology presented in this article is a relatively new technique called direct measurement that uses sequential weak and strong measurements to characterize a quantum state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalili, F. Ya.
2007-01-01
The intracavity topologies of laser gravitational-wave detectors proposed several years ago are the promising way to obtain sensitivity of these devices significantly better than the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL). In essence, the intracavity detector is a two-stage device where the end mirrors displacement created by the gravitational wave is transferred to the displacement of an additional local mirror by means of the optical rigidity. The local mirror positions have to be monitored by an additional local meter. It is evident that the local meter precision defines the sensitivity of the detector. To overcome the SQL, the quantum variational measurement can be used in the local meter. In this method a frequency-dependent correlation between the meter backaction noise and measurement noise is introduced, which allows us to eliminate the backaction noise component from the meter output signal. This correlation is created by means of an additional filter cavity. In this article the sensitivity limitations of this scheme imposed by the optical losses both in the local meter itself and in the filter cavity are estimated. It is shown that the main sensitivity limitation stems from the filter cavity losses. In order to overcome it, it is necessary to increase the filter cavity length. In a preliminary prototype experiment, an approximate 10 m long filter cavity can be used to obtain sensitivity approximately 2-3 times better than the SQL. For future Quantum Non-Demolition (QND) gravitational-wave detectors with sensitivity about 10 times better than the SQL, the filter cavity length should be within kilometer range
Quantum Interference between Autonomous Single-Photon Sources from Doppler-Broadened Atomic Ensemble
Jeong, Teak; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Park, Jiho; Kim, Heonoh; Moon, Han Seb
2017-01-01
To realize a quantum network based on quantum entanglement swapping, bright and completely autonomous sources are essentially required. Here, we experimentally demonstrate Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) quantum interference between two independent bright photon pairs generated via the spontaneous four-wave mixing in Doppler-broadened ladder-type 87Rb atoms. Bright autonomous heralded single photons are operated in a continuous-wave (CW) mode with no synchronization or supplemental filters. The four-fol...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pieper, Andreas [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald (Germany); Kreutzer, Moritz [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany); Alvermann, Andreas, E-mail: alvermann@physik.uni-greifswald.de [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald (Germany); Galgon, Martin [Bergische Universität Wuppertal (Germany); Fehske, Holger [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald (Germany); Hager, Georg [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany); Lang, Bruno [Bergische Universität Wuppertal (Germany); Wellein, Gerhard [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (Germany)
2016-11-15
We study Chebyshev filter diagonalization as a tool for the computation of many interior eigenvalues of very large sparse symmetric matrices. In this technique the subspace projection onto the target space of wanted eigenvectors is approximated with filter polynomials obtained from Chebyshev expansions of window functions. After the discussion of the conceptual foundations of Chebyshev filter diagonalization we analyze the impact of the choice of the damping kernel, search space size, and filter polynomial degree on the computational accuracy and effort, before we describe the necessary steps towards a parallel high-performance implementation. Because Chebyshev filter diagonalization avoids the need for matrix inversion it can deal with matrices and problem sizes that are presently not accessible with rational function methods based on direct or iterative linear solvers. To demonstrate the potential of Chebyshev filter diagonalization for large-scale problems of this kind we include as an example the computation of the 10{sup 2} innermost eigenpairs of a topological insulator matrix with dimension 10{sup 9} derived from quantum physics applications.
Kim, Hyo-Jun; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Joo
2016-08-01
A new structure for white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays with a patterned quantum dot (QD) film and a long pass filter (LPF) was proposed and evaluated to realize both a high color gamut and high optical efficiency. Since optical efficiency is a critical parameter in white OLED displays with a high color gamut, a red or green QD film as a color-converting component and an LPF as a light-recycling component are introduced to be adjusted via the characteristics of a color filter (CF). Compared with a conventional white OLED without both a QD film and the LPF, it was confirmed experimentally that the optical powers of red and green light in a new white OLED display were increased by 54.1 and 24.7% using a 30 wt % red QD film and a 20 wt % green QD film with the LPF, respectively. In addition, the white OLED with both a QD film and the LPF resulted in an increase in the color gamut from 98 to 107% (NTSC x,y ratio) due to the narrow emission linewidth of the QDs.
Linear dynamical quantum systems analysis, synthesis, and control
Nurdin, Hendra I
2017-01-01
This monograph provides an in-depth treatment of the class of linear-dynamical quantum systems. The monograph presents a detailed account of the mathematical modeling of these systems using linear algebra and quantum stochastic calculus as the main tools for a treatment that emphasizes a system-theoretic point of view and the control-theoretic formulations of quantum versions of familiar problems from the classical (non-quantum) setting, including estimation and filtering, realization theory, and feedback control. Both measurement-based feedback control (i.e., feedback control by a classical system involving a continuous-time measurement process) and coherent feedback control (i.e., feedback control by another quantum system without the intervention of any measurements in the feedback loop) are treated. Researchers and graduates studying systems and control theory, quantum probability and stochastics or stochastic control whether from backgrounds in mechanical or electrical engineering or applied mathematics ...
The sudden death and sudden birth of quantum discord.
Xia, Wei; Hou, Jin-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Si-Yuan
2018-03-28
The interaction of quantum system and its environment brings out abundant quantum phenomenons. The sudden death of quantum resources, including entanglement, quantum discord and coherence, have been studied from the perspective of quantum breaking channels (QBC). QBC of quantum resources reveal the common features of quantum resources. The definition of QBC implies the relationship between quantum resources. However, sudden death of quantum resources can also appear under some other quantum channels. We consider the dynamics of Bell-diagonal states under a stochastic dephasing noise along the z-direction, and the sudden death and sudden birth of quantum discord are investigated. Next we explain this phenomenon from the geometric structure of quantum discord. According to the above results, the states with sudden death and sudden birth can be filtered in three-parameter space. Then we provide two necessary conditions to judge which kind of noise channels can make Bell-diagonal states sudden death and sudden birth. Moreover, the relation between quantum discord and coherence indicates that the sudden death and sudden birth of quantum discord implies the sudden death and sudden birth of coherence in an optimal basis.
Investigating Quantum Modulation States
2016-03-01
Coherent state quantum data encryption is highly interoperable with current classical optical infrastructure in both fiber and free space optical networks...hub’s field of regard has a transmit/receive module that are endpoints of the Lyot filter stage tree within the hub’s backend electro-optics control... mobile airborne and space-borne networking. Just like any laser communication technology, QC links are affected by several sources of distortions
Model of biological quantum logic in DNA.
Mihelic, F Matthew
2013-08-02
The DNA molecule has properties that allow it to act as a quantum logic processor. It has been demonstrated that there is coherent conduction of electrons longitudinally along the DNA molecule through pi stacking interactions of the aromatic nucleotide bases, and it has also been demonstrated that electrons moving longitudinally along the DNA molecule are subject to a very efficient electron spin filtering effect as the helicity of the DNA molecule interacts with the spin of the electron. This means that, in DNA, electrons are coherently conducted along a very efficient spin filter. Coherent electron spin is held in a logically and thermodynamically reversible chiral symmetry between the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers of the deoxyribose moiety in each nucleotide, which enables each nucleotide to function as a quantum gate. The symmetry break that provides for quantum decision in the system is determined by the spin direction of an electron that has an orbital angular momentum that is sufficient to overcome the energy barrier of the double well potential separating the C2-endo and C3-endo enantiomers, and that enantiomeric energy barrier is appropriate to the Landauer limit of the energy necessary to randomize one bit of information.
Yan, Xu; Li, Hongxia; Han, Xiaosong; Su, Xingguang
2015-12-15
In this work, we develop a novel and sensitive sensor for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides based on the inner-filter effect (IFE) between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and ratiometric fluorescent quantum dots (RF-QDs). The RF-QDs has been designed by hybridizing two differently colored CdTe QDs, in which the red emissive QDs entrapped in the silica sphere acting as the reference signal, and the green emissive QDs covalently attached on the silica surface serving as the response signal.The fluorescence of RF-QDs could be quenched by AuNPs based on IFE. Protamine could effectively turn on the fluorescence due to the electrostatic attraction between protamine and AuNPs. Trypsin can easily hydrolyze protamine, leading to the quench of the fluorescence. Then, the fluorescence could be recovered again by the addition of parathion-methyl (PM) which could inhibit the activity of trypsin. By measuring the fluorescence of RF-QDs, the inhibition efficiency of PM to trypsin activity was evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, the inhibition efficiency was proportional to the logarithm of PM concentration in the range of 0.04-400 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.018 ng mL(-1). Furthermore, the simple and convenient method had been used for PM detection in environmental and agricultural samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simulations of Resonant Intraband and Interband Tunneling Spin Filters
Ting, David; Cartoixa-Soler, Xavier; McGill, T. C.; Smith, Darryl L.; Schulman, Joel N.
2001-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews resonant intraband and interband tunneling spin filters It explores the possibility of building a zero-magnetic-field spin polarizer using nonmagnetic III-V semiconductor heterostructures. It reviews the extensive simulations of quantum transport in asymmetric InAs/GaSb/AlSb resonant tunneling structures with Rashba spin splitting and proposes a. new device concept: side-gated asymmetric Resonant Interband Tunneling Diode (a-RITD).
Viewing the proton through ''color'' filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Xiangdong
2004-01-01
While the form factors and parton distributions provide separately the shape of the proton in coordinate and momentum spaces, a more powerful imaging of the proton structure can be obtained through quantum phase-space distributions. Here we introduce the Wigner-type quark and gluon distributions which depict a full-3D proton at every fixed Feynman momentum, like what is seen through momentum(''color'')-filters. After appropriate reductions, the phase-space distributions are related to the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions measurable in high-energy experiments. (orig.)
Spin filtering in a Rashba–Dresselhaus–Aharonov–Bohm double-dot interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matityahu, Shlomi; Aharony, Amnon; Entin-Wohlman, Ora; Tarucha, Seigo
2013-01-01
We study the spin-dependent transport of spin-1/2 electrons through an interferometer made of two elongated quantum dots or quantum nanowires, which are subject to both an Aharonov–Bohm flux and (Rashba and Dresselhaus) spin–orbit interactions. Similar to the diamond interferometer proposed in our previous papers (Aharony et al 2011 Phys. Rev. B 84 035323; Matityahu et al 2013 Phys. Rev. B 87 205438), we show that the double-dot interferometer can serve as a perfect spin filter due to a spin interference effect. By appropriately tuning the external electric and magnetic fields which determine the Aharonov–Casher and Aharonov–Bohm phases, and with some relations between the various hopping amplitudes and site energies, the interferometer blocks electrons with a specific spin polarization, independent of their energy. The blocked polarization and the polarization of the outgoing electrons is controlled solely by the external electric and magnetic fields and do not depend on the energy of the electrons. Furthermore, the spin filtering conditions become simpler in the linear-response regime, in which the electrons have a fixed energy. Unlike the diamond interferometer, spin filtering in the double-dot interferometer does not require high symmetry between the hopping amplitudes and site energies of the two branches of the interferometer and thus may be more appealing from an experimental point of view. (paper)
On the Activation of Quantum Nonlocality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Felipe Ducuara
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We report on some quantum properties of physical systems, namely, entanglement, nonlocality, k-copy nonlocality (superactivation of nonlocality, hidden nonlocality (activation of nonlocality through local filtering and the activation of nonlocality through tensoring and local filtering. The aim of this work is two-fold. First, we provide a review of the numerical procedures that must be followed in order to calculate the aforementioned properties, in particular, for any two-qubit system, and reproduce the bounds for two-qudit Werner states. Second, we use such numerical tools to calculate new bounds of these properties for two-qudit Isotropic states and two-qubit Hirsch states.
Develop of a quantum electromechanical hybrid system
Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; Brito, Frederico; Caldeira, Amir; Irish, Elinor; Lahaye, Matthew
In this poster, we will show our results from measurements of a hybrid quantum system composed of a superconducting transmon qubit-coupled and ultra-high frequency nano-mechanical resonator, embedded in a superconducting cavity. The transmon is capacitively coupled to a 3.4GHz nanoresonator and a T-filter-biased high-Q transmission line cavity. Single-tone and two-tone transmission spectroscopy measurements are used to probe the interactions between the cavity, qubit and mechanical resonator. These measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations based upon a master equation for the tripartite system including dissipation. The results indicate that this system may be developed to serve as a platform for more advanced measurements with nanoresonators, including quantum state measurement, the exploration of nanoresonator quantum noise, and reservoir engineering.
Knubovets, Tatyana; Shinar, Hadassah; Eliav, Uzi; Navon, Gil
1996-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that23Na double-quantum-filtered NMR spectroscopy can be used to detect anisotropic motion of bound sodium ions in biological systems. The technique is based on the formation of the second-rank tensor when the quadrupolar interaction is not averaged to zero. Using this method, anisotropic motion of bound sodium in human and dog red blood cells was detected, and the effect was shown to depend on the integrity of the membrane cytoskeleton. In the present study, multiple-quantum-filtered techniques were applied in combination with a quadrupolar echo to measure the transverse-relaxation times,T2fandT2s. Line fitting was performed to obtain the values of the residual quadrupolar interaction, which was measured for sodium in a variety of mammalian erythrocytes of different size, shape, rheological properties, and sodium concentrations. Human unsealed white ghosts were used to study sodium bound at the anisotropic sites on the inner side of the RBC membrane. Modulations of the conformation of the cytoskeleton by the variation of either the ionic strength or pH of the suspending medium caused drastic changes in both the residual quadrupolar interaction andT2fdue to changes in the fraction of bound sodium ions as well as changes in the structure of the binding sites. By combining the two spectroscopic parameters, structural change can be followed. The changes in the structure of the sodium anisotropic binding sites deduced by this method were found to correlate with known conformational changes of the membrane cytoskeleton. Variations of the medium pH affected both the fraction of bound sodium ions and the structure of the anisotropic binding sites. Sodium and potassium were shown to bind to the anisotropic binding sites with the same affinity.
Quantum interference of electrically generated single photons from a quantum dot.
Patel, Raj B; Bennett, Anthony J; Cooper, Ken; Atkinson, Paola; Nicoll, Christine A; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J
2010-07-09
Quantum interference lies at the foundation of many protocols for scalable quantum computing and communication with linear optics. To observe these effects the light source must emit photons that are indistinguishable. From a technological standpoint, it would be beneficial to have electrical control over the emission. Here we report of an electrically driven single-photon source emitting indistinguishable photons. The device consists of a layer of InAs quantum dots embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode. Indistinguishability of consecutive photons is tested in a two-photon interference experiment under two modes of operation, continuous and pulsed current injection. We also present a complete theory based on the interference of photons with a Lorentzian spectrum which we compare to both our continuous wave and pulsed experiments. In the former case, a visibility was measured limited only by the timing resolution of our detection system. In the case of pulsed injection, we employ a two-pulse voltage sequence which suppresses multi-photon emission and allows us to carry out temporal filtering of photons which have undergone dephasing. The characteristic Hong-Ou-Mandel 'dip' is measured, resulting in a visibility of 64 +/- 4%.
Quantum noise and stochastic reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P
2006-01-01
In standard nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the expectation of the energy is a conserved quantity. It is possible to extend the dynamical law associated with the evolution of a quantum state consistently to include a nonlinear stochastic component, while respecting the conservation law. According to the dynamics thus obtained, referred to as the energy-based stochastic Schroedinger equation, an arbitrary initial state collapses spontaneously to one of the energy eigenstates, thus describing the phenomenon of quantum state reduction. In this paper, two such models are investigated: one that achieves state reduction in infinite time and the other in finite time. The properties of the associated energy expectation process and the energy variance process are worked out in detail. By use of a novel application of a nonlinear filtering method, closed-form solutions-algebraic in character and involving no integration-are obtained of both these models. In each case, the solution is expressed in terms of a random variable representing the terminal energy of the system and an independent noise process. With these solutions at hand it is possible to simulate explicitly the dynamics of the quantum states of complicated physical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eslami, L.; Faizabadi, E.
2014-01-01
The effect of magnetic contacts on spin-dependent electron transport and spin-accumulation in a quantum ring, which is threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. The quantum ring is made up of four quantum dots, where two of them possess magnetic structure and other ones are subjected to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The magnetic quantum dots, referred to as magnetic quantum contacts, are connected to two external leads. Two different configurations of magnetic moments of the quantum contacts are considered; the parallel and the anti-parallel ones. When the magnetic moments are parallel, the degeneracy between the transmission coefficients of spin-up and spin-down electrons is lifted and the system can be adjusted to operate as a spin-filter. In addition, the accumulation of spin-up and spin-down electrons in non-magnetic quantum dots are different in the case of parallel magnetic moments. When the intra-dot Coulomb interaction is taken into account, we find that the electron interactions participate in separation between the accumulations of electrons with different spin directions in non-magnetic quantum dots. Furthermore, the spin-accumulation in non-magnetic quantum dots can be tuned in the both parallel and anti-parallel magnetic moments by adjusting the Rashba spin-orbit strength and the magnetic flux. Thus, the quantum ring with magnetic quantum contacts could be utilized to create tunable local magnetic moments which can be used in designing optimized nanodevices.
Restoration for Noise Removal in Quantum Images
Liu, Kai; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiaoping
2017-09-01
Quantum computation has become increasingly attractive in the past few decades due to its extraordinary performance. As a result, some studies focusing on image representation and processing via quantum mechanics have been done. However, few of them have considered the quantum operations for images restoration. To address this problem, three noise removal algorithms are proposed in this paper based on the novel enhanced quantum representation model, oriented to two kinds of noise pollution (Salt-and-Pepper noise and Gaussian noise). For the first algorithm Q-Mean, it is designed to remove the Salt-and-Pepper noise. The noise points are extracted through comparisons with the adjacent pixel values, after which the restoration operation is finished by mean filtering. As for the second method Q-Gauss, a special mask is applied to weaken the Gaussian noise pollution. The third algorithm Q-Adapt is effective for the source image containing unknown noise. The type of noise can be judged through the quantum statistic operations for the color value of the whole image, and then different noise removal algorithms are used to conduct image restoration respectively. Performance analysis reveals that our methods can offer high restoration quality and achieve significant speedup through inherent parallelism of quantum computation.
Study on spin filtering and switching action in a double-triangular network chain
Zhang, Yongmei
2018-04-01
Spin transport properties of a double-triangular quantum network with local magnetic moment on backbones and magnetic flux penetrating the network plane are studied. Numerical simulation results show that such a quantum network will be a good candidate for spin filter and spin switch. Local dispersion and density of states are considered in the framework of tight-binding approximation. Transmission coefficients are calculated by the method of transfer matrix. Spin transmission is regulated by substrate magnetic moment and magnetic flux piercing those triangles. Experimental realization of such theoretical research will be conducive to designing of new spintronic devices.
Gradient algorithm applied to laboratory quantum control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roslund, Jonathan; Rabitz, Herschel
2009-01-01
The exploration of a quantum control landscape, which is the physical observable as a function of the control variables, is fundamental for understanding the ability to perform observable optimization in the laboratory. For high control variable dimensions, trajectory-based methods provide a means for performing such systematic explorations by exploiting the measured gradient of the observable with respect to the control variables. This paper presents a practical, robust, easily implemented statistical method for obtaining the gradient on a general quantum control landscape in the presence of noise. In order to demonstrate the method's utility, the experimentally measured gradient is utilized as input in steepest-ascent trajectories on the landscapes of three model quantum control problems: spectrally filtered and integrated second harmonic generation as well as excitation of atomic rubidium. The gradient algorithm achieves efficiency gains of up to approximately three times that of the standard genetic algorithm and, as such, is a promising tool for meeting quantum control optimization goals as well as landscape analyses. The landscape trajectories directed by the gradient should aid in the continued investigation and understanding of controlled quantum phenomena.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meksuriyen, D.
1988-01-01
Examination of a chloroform extract of Dracaena loureiri Gagnep (Agavaceae), a Thia medicinal plant possessing antibacterial activity, has led to the isolation of fifteen flavenoids. The biogenic relationships among these flavenoids isolated were briefly discussed. Definition of the skeleton and the unambiguous assignment of all of the protons of the isolates was achieved through extensive 2D-homonuclear chemical shift correlation, nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference spectroscopy and 2D-NOE experiments. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of staurosporine, a potent biologically active agent from Streptomyces staurosporeus, were unambiguously assigned by using 2D homonuclear chemical shift correlation, NOE, 1 H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence via direct coupling and via multiple-bond coupling for resonance assignments of protonated and nonprotonated carbons, respectively. S. Staurosporeus was found to utilize endogenous and exogenous D- and L-isomers of trytophan in the production of staurosporine. The biosynthesis of staurosporine was examined by employing carbon-14, tritium, and carbon-13 labeled precursors
Proton chemical shift tensors determined by 3D ultrafast MAS double-quantum NMR spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy
2015-01-01
Proton NMR spectroscopy in the solid state has recently attracted much attention owing to the significant enhancement in spectral resolution afforded by the remarkable advances in ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) capabilities. In particular, proton chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) has become an important tool for obtaining specific insights into inter/intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. However, even at the highest currently feasible spinning frequencies (110–120 kHz), 1 H MAS NMR spectra of rigid solids still suffer from poor resolution and severe peak overlap caused by the strong 1 H– 1 H homonuclear dipolar couplings and narrow 1 H chemical shift (CS) ranges, which render it difficult to determine the CSA of specific proton sites in the standard CSA/single-quantum (SQ) chemical shift correlation experiment. Herein, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) 1 H double-quantum (DQ) chemical shift/CSA/SQ chemical shift correlation experiment to extract the CS tensors of proton sites whose signals are not well resolved along the single-quantum chemical shift dimension. As extracted from the 3D spectrum, the F1/F3 (DQ/SQ) projection provides valuable information about 1 H– 1 H proximities, which might also reveal the hydrogen-bonding connectivities. In addition, the F2/F3 (CSA/SQ) correlation spectrum, which is similar to the regular 2D CSA/SQ correlation experiment, yields chemical shift anisotropic line shapes at different isotropic chemical shifts. More importantly, since the F2/F1 (CSA/DQ) spectrum correlates the CSA with the DQ signal induced by two neighboring proton sites, the CSA spectrum sliced at a specific DQ chemical shift position contains the CSA information of two neighboring spins indicated by the DQ chemical shift. If these two spins have different CS tensors, both tensors can be extracted by numerical fitting. We believe that this robust and elegant single-channel proton-based 3D experiment provides useful atomistic-level structural and dynamical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proctor, T.R.; Kouri, D.J.; Gerber, R.B.
1984-01-01
In this paper, we present the first formal and computational studies of Δm/sub j/ transitions occurring in homonuclear molecule-corrugated surface collisions. The model potential is a pairwise additive one which correctly incorporates the fact that Δm/sub j/ transitions occur only for corrugated surfaces (provided the quantization axis is chosen to be the average surface normal). The principal results are: (a) Δm/sub j/ transitions are extremely sensitive to lattice symmetry; (b) strong selection rules obtain for specular scattering; (c) the magnitude of Δm/sub j/ -transition probabilities are strongly sensitive to surface corrugation; (d) the Δm/sub j/ transitions depend strongly on diffraction peak; (e) the ratio of molecular length to lattice dimension (r/a) has a strong influence on the magnitude of Δm/sub j/ -transition probabilities [with the probabilities increasing as (r/a) increases]; (f) Δm/sub j/ rainbows are predicted to occur as a function of the (r/a) ratio increases; (g) Δm/sub j/ transitions and the Δm/sub j/ rainbow are expected to accompany Δj-rotational rainbows; (h) such magnetic transition rainbows accompanying Δj rainbows are suggested as an explanation of recent experimental observations of quenching of NO polarization for larger Δj transitions in NO/Ag(111) scattering
Gauvin, Jean-François
2018-03-01
In the early 1960s, a PhD student in physics, Costas Papaliolios, designed a simple—and playful—system of Polaroid polarizer filters with a specific goal in mind: explaining the core principles behind Julian Schwinger's quantum mechanical measurement algebra, developed at Harvard in the late 1940s and based on the Stern-Gerlach experiment confirming the quantization of electron spin. Papaliolios dubbed his invention "quantum toys." This article looks at the origins and function of this amusing pedagogical device, which landed half a century later in the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments at Harvard University. Rendering the abstract tangible was one of Papaliolios's demonstration tactics in reforming basic teaching of quantum mechanics. This article contends that Papaliolios's motivation in creating the quantum toys came from a renowned endeavor aimed, inter alia, at reforming high-school physics training in the United States: Harvard Project Physics. The pedagogical study of these quantum toys, finally, compels us to revisit the central role playful discovery performs in pedagogy, at all levels of training and in all fields of knowledge.
Superconducting Quantum Arrays for Wideband Antennas and Low Noise Amplifiers
Mukhanov, O.; Prokopemko, G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.
2014-01-01
Superconducting Quantum Iinetference Filters (SQIF) consist of a two-dimensional array of niobium Josephson Junctions formed into N loops of incommensurate area. This structure forms a magnetic field (B) to voltage transducer with an impulse like response at B0. In principle, the signal-to-noise ratio scales as the square root of N and the noise can be made arbitrarily small (i.e. The SQIF chips are expected to exhibit quantum limited noise performance). A gain of about 20 dB was recently demonstrated at 10 GHz.
Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.
2008-01-01
by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...
New sesquiterpenes from Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae).
Descoins, Charles; Bazzocchi, Isabel López; Ravelo, Angel Gutiérrez
2002-02-01
A new sesquiterpene evoninate alkaloid (1), and two sesquiterpenes (2, 3) with a dihydro-beta-agarofuran skeleton, along with three known sesquiterpenes (4-6), were isolated from the seeds of Euonymus europaeus. Their structures were elucidated by high resolution mass analysis, and one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR spectroscopy, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation [correlation spectroscopy (COSY), rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC)] experiments.
Diestler, D J; Jia, D; Manz, J; Yang, Y
2018-03-01
The theory of concerted electronic and nuclear flux densities associated with the vibration and dissociation of a multielectron nonrotating homonuclear diatomic molecule (or ion) in an electronic state 2S+1 Σ g,u + (JM = 00) is presented. The electronic population density, nuclear probability density, and nuclear flux density are isotropic. A theorem of Barth , presented in this issue, shows that the electronic flux density (EFD) is also isotropic. Hence, the evolving system appears as a pulsating, or exploding, "quantum bubble". Application of the theory to Na 2 vibrating in the double-minimum potential of the 2 1 Σ u + (JM = 00) excited state reveals that the EFD consists of two antagonistic components. One arises from electrons that flow essentially coherently with the nuclei. The other, which is oppositely directed (i.e., antagonistic) and more intense, is due to the transition in electronic structure from "Rydberg" to "ionic" type as the nuclei traverse the potential barrier between inner and outer potential wells. This "transition" component of the EFD rises and falls sharply as the nuclei cross the barrier.
Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.
2017-08-01
The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.
Guo, Yu; Dong, Daoyi; Shu, Chuan-Cun
2018-04-04
Achieving fast and efficient quantum state transfer is a fundamental task in physics, chemistry and quantum information science. However, the successful implementation of the perfect quantum state transfer also requires robustness under practically inevitable perturbative defects. Here, we demonstrate how an optimal and robust quantum state transfer can be achieved by shaping the spectral phase of an ultrafast laser pulse in the framework of frequency domain quantum optimal control theory. Our numerical simulations of the single dibenzoterrylene molecule as well as in atomic rubidium show that optimal and robust quantum state transfer via spectral phase modulated laser pulses can be achieved by incorporating a filtering function of the frequency into the optimization algorithm, which in turn has potential applications for ultrafast robust control of photochemical reactions.
Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V
1998-01-01
Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.
Superconducting Magnetometry for Cardiovascular Studies and AN Application of Adaptive Filtering.
Leifer, Mark Curtis
Sensitive magnetic detectors utilizing Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) have been developed and used for studying the cardiovascular system. The theory of magnetic detection of cardiac currents is discussed, and new experimental data supporting the validity of the theory is presented. Measurements on both humans and dogs, in both healthy and diseased states, are presented using the new technique, which is termed vector magnetocardiography. In the next section, a new type of superconducting magnetometer with a room temperature pickup is analyzed, and techniques for optimizing its sensitivity to low-frequency sub-microamp currents are presented. Performance of the actual device displays significantly improved sensitivity in this frequency range, and the ability to measure currents in intact, in vivo biological fibers. The final section reviews the theoretical operation of a digital self-optimizing filter, and presents a four-channel software implementation of the system. The application of the adaptive filter to enhancement of geomagnetic signals for earthquake forecasting is discussed, and the adaptive filter is shown to outperform existing techniques in suppressing noise from geomagnetic records.
A perfect spin filtering device through Mach-Zehnder interferometry in a GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, Alexander; Medina, Ernesto [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones CientIficas, Apartado 21874, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); BolIvar, Nelson [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Berche, Bertrand [Statistical Physics Group, P2M, Institut Jean Lamour, Nancy Universite, BP70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)
2010-03-24
A spin filtering device based on quantum spin interference is addressed, for use with a two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas that has both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit (SO) couplings and an applied external magnetic field. We propose an experimentally feasible electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and derive a map, in parameter space, that determines perfect spin filtering conditions. We find two broad spin filtering regimes: one where filtering is achieved in the original incoming quantization basis, that takes advantage of the purely non-Abelian nature of the spin rotations; and another where one needs a tilted preferential axis in order to observe the polarized output spinor. Both solutions apply for arbitrary incoming electron polarization and energy, and are only limited in output amplitude by the randomness of the incoming spinor state. Including a full account of the beam splitter and mirror effects on spin yields solutions only for the tilted basis, but encompasses a broad range of filtering conditions.
A perfect spin filtering device through Mach-Zehnder interferometry in a GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, Alexander; Medina, Ernesto; BolIvar, Nelson; Berche, Bertrand
2010-01-01
A spin filtering device based on quantum spin interference is addressed, for use with a two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas that has both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit (SO) couplings and an applied external magnetic field. We propose an experimentally feasible electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and derive a map, in parameter space, that determines perfect spin filtering conditions. We find two broad spin filtering regimes: one where filtering is achieved in the original incoming quantization basis, that takes advantage of the purely non-Abelian nature of the spin rotations; and another where one needs a tilted preferential axis in order to observe the polarized output spinor. Both solutions apply for arbitrary incoming electron polarization and energy, and are only limited in output amplitude by the randomness of the incoming spinor state. Including a full account of the beam splitter and mirror effects on spin yields solutions only for the tilted basis, but encompasses a broad range of filtering conditions.
A perfect spin filtering device through Mach-Zehnder interferometry in a GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas
López, Alexander; Medina, Ernesto; Bolívar, Nelson; Berche, Bertrand
2010-03-01
A spin filtering device based on quantum spin interference is addressed, for use with a two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs electron gas that has both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit (SO) couplings and an applied external magnetic field. We propose an experimentally feasible electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer and derive a map, in parameter space, that determines perfect spin filtering conditions. We find two broad spin filtering regimes: one where filtering is achieved in the original incoming quantization basis, that takes advantage of the purely non-Abelian nature of the spin rotations; and another where one needs a tilted preferential axis in order to observe the polarized output spinor. Both solutions apply for arbitrary incoming electron polarization and energy, and are only limited in output amplitude by the randomness of the incoming spinor state. Including a full account of the beam splitter and mirror effects on spin yields solutions only for the tilted basis, but encompasses a broad range of filtering conditions.
Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters
Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.
2001-01-01
A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.
Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan G. Gonzalez
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the ÃŽÂ±-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the Ã¢Â€ÂœnormalÃ¢Â€Â equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.
Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.
1977-01-01
A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing
Low Noise Quantum Frequency Conversion from Rb Wavelengths to Telecom O-band
Li, Xiao; Solmeyer, Neal; Stack, Daniel; Quraishi, Qudsia
2015-05-01
Ideal quantum repeaters would be composed of long-lived quantum memories entangled with flying qubits. They are becoming essential elements to achieve quantum communication over long distances in a quantum network. However, quantum memories based on neutral atoms operate at wavelengths in the near infrared, unsuitable for long distance communication. The ability to coherently convert photons entangled with quantum memories into telecom wavelengths reduces the transmission loss in optical fibers and therefore dramatically improves the range of a quantum repeater. Furthermore, quantum frequency conversion (QFC) can enable entanglement and communication between different types of quantum memories, thus creating a versatile hybrid quantum network. A recent experiment has shown the conversion of heralded photons from Rb-based memories to the telecom C-band. We implement a setup using a nonlinear PPLN waveguide for the QFC into a wavelength region where the noise-floor would be limited by dark counts rather than pump photons. Our approach uses a pump laser at a much longer wavelength. It has the advantage that the strong pump itself and the broad background in the PPLN can be nearly completely filtered from the converted signal. Such low background level allows for the conversion to be done on the heralding photon, which enables the generated entanglement to be used in a scalable way to multiple nodes remotely situated and to subsequent protocols.
Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C
Blaha, Stephen
2002-01-01
We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.
An integrated processor for photonic quantum states using a broadband light–matter interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saglamyurek, E; Sinclair, N; Slater, J A; Heshami, K; Oblak, D; Tittel, W
2014-01-01
Faithful storage and coherent manipulation of quantum optical pulses are key for long distance quantum communications and quantum computing. Combining these functions in a light–matter interface that can be integrated on-chip with other photonic quantum technologies, e.g. sources of entangled photons, is an important step towards these applications. To date there have only been a few demonstrations of coherent pulse manipulation utilizing optical storage devices compatible with quantum states, and that only in atomic gas media (making integration difficult) and with limited capabilities. Here we describe how a broadband waveguide quantum memory based on the atomic frequency comb (AFC) protocol can be used as a programmable processor for essentially arbitrary spectral and temporal manipulations of individual quantum optical pulses. Using weak coherent optical pulses at the few photon level, we experimentally demonstrate sequencing, time-to-frequency multiplexing and demultiplexing, splitting, interfering, temporal and spectral filtering, compressing and stretching as well as selective delaying. Our integrated light–matter interface offers high-rate, robust and easily configurable manipulation of quantum optical pulses and brings fully practical optical quantum devices one step closer to reality. Furthermore, as the AFC protocol is suitable for storage of intense light pulses, our processor may also find applications in classical communications. (paper)
Quantum dot lasers: From promise to high-performance devices
Bhattacharya, P.; Mi, Z.; Yang, J.; Basu, D.; Saha, D.
2009-03-01
Ever since self-organized In(Ga)As/Ga(AI)As quantum dots were realized by molecular beam epitaxy, it became evident that these coherently strained nanostructures could be used as the active media in devices. While the expected advantages stemming from three-dimensional quantum confinement were clearly outlined, these were not borne out by the early experiments. It took a very detailed understanding of the unique carrier dynamics in the quantum dots to exploit their full potential. As a result, we now have lasers with emission wavelengths ranging from 0.7 to 1.54 μm, on GaAs, which demonstrate ultra-low threshold currents, near-zero chip and α-factor and large modulation bandwidth. State-of-the-art performance characteristics of these lasers are briefly reviewed. The growth, fabrication and characteristics of quantum dot lasers on silicon substrates are also described. With the incorporation of multiple quantum dot layers as a dislocation filter, we demonstrate lasers with Jth=900 A/cm 2. The monolithic integration of the lasers with guided wave modulators on silicon is also described. Finally, the properties of spin-polarized lasers with quantum dot active regions are described. Spin injection of electrons is done with a MnAs/GaAs tunnel barrier. Laser operation at 200 K is demonstrated, with the possibility of room temperature operation in the near future.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abram, I [Centre National d' Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 196 Avenue Henri Ravera, F-92220 Bagneux (France)
1999-02-01
Two of the most remarkable properties of light - squeezing and solitons - are being combined in a new generation of experiments that could revolutionize optics and communications. One area of application concerns the transmission and processing of classical (binary) information, in which the presence or absence of a soliton in a time-window corresponds to a ''1'' or ''0'', as in traditional optical-fibre communications. However, since solitons occur at fixed power levels, we do not have the luxury of being able to crank up the input power to improve the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving end. Nevertheless, the exploitation of quantum effects such as squeezing could help to reduce noise and improve fidelity. In long-distance communications, where the signal is amplified every 50-100 kilometres or so, the soliton pulse is strongest just after the amplifier. Luckily this is where the bulk of the nonlinear interaction needed to maintain the soliton shape occurs. However, the pulse gets weaker as it propagates along the fibre, so the nonlinear interaction also becomes weakerand weaker. This means that dispersive effects become dominant until the next stage of amplification, where the nonlinearity takes over again. One problem is that quantum fluctuations in the amplifiers lead to random jumps in the central wavelength of the individual solitons, and this results in a random variation of the speed of individual solitons in the fibre. Several schemes have been devised to remove this excess noise and bring the train of solitons back to the orderly behaviour characteristic of a stable coherent state (e.g. the solitons could be passed through a spectral filter). Photon-number squeezing could also play a key role in solving this problem. For example, if the solitons are number-squeezed immediately after amplification, there will be a smaller uncertainty in the nonlinearity that keeps the soliton in shape and, therefore, there will also be less noise in the soliton. This
Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning of uniformly labeled solids.
Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong
2015-07-01
Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning are investigated for uniformly (13)C and (15)N labeled solids. In particular, the interferences from chemical shift anisotropy, and (1)H heteronuclear and (13)C homonuclear dipolar couplings are identified. The physical origin of these interferences provides guidelines for selecting the best (13)C and (15)N polarization transfer rf fields. Optimal settings for both the zero- and double-quantum cross-polarization transfer mechanisms are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleem, M.
2009-01-01
Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-03-12
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO_{2}, and NaNO_{3}) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.
Escalante, George
2017-05-01
Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.
Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations
Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.
2017-09-01
Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.
Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isnaeni,; Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha
2016-01-01
We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.
Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isnaeni,, E-mail: isnaeni@lipi.go.id; Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Building 442, Kawasan Puspiptek, South Tangerang,Banten 15314 Indonesia (Indonesia)
2016-03-11
We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.
Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language
Blaha, Stephen
2002-01-01
We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, Markus; Brown, Alex
2009-01-01
We present a modified version of a previously published algorithm (Gollub et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett.101 073002) for obtaining an optimized laser field with more general restrictions on the search space of the optimal field. The modification leads to enforcement of the constraints on the optimal field while maintaining good convergence behaviour in most cases. We demonstrate the general applicability of the algorithm by imposing constraints on the temporal symmetry of the optimal fields. The temporal symmetry is used to reduce the number of transitions that have to be optimized for quantum gate operations that involve inversion (NOT gate) or partial inversion (Hadamard gate) of the qubits in a three-dimensional model of ammonia.
Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability
2016-06-29
has a history going back some 50 years, to the birth of modern control theory with Kalman’s foundational work on filtering and LQG optimal control...realizability conditions. DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 8 Shi Wang, Matthew R James H- Infinity control of...physical model for a quantum measurement-based feedback control system with time delay is presented for the H- infinity control. Luis Augusto
Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.
2007-01-01
The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included
Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.
1979-03-01
Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)
The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karlsson Rickard
2010-01-01
Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coghetto Roland
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.
Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise
Poor, H; Scully, Marlan
2012-01-01
David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...
Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering
Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.
1994-01-01
None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.
Are the program packages for molecular structure calculations really black boxes?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANA MRAKOVIC
2007-12-01
Full Text Available In this communication it is shown that the widely held opinion that compact program packages for quantum–mechanical calculations of molecular structure can safely be used as black boxes is completely wrong. In order to illustrate this, the results of computations of equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies for all homonuclear diatomic molecules involving the atoms from the first two rows of the Periodic Table, performed using the Gaussian program package are presented. It is demonstrated that the sensible use of the program requires a solid knowledge of quantum chemistry.
Noncommutative Gröbner bases and filtered-graded transfer
Li, Huishi
2002-01-01
This self-contained monograph is the first to feature the intersection of the structure theory of noncommutative associative algebras and the algorithmic aspect of Groebner basis theory. A double filtered-graded transfer of data in using noncommutative Groebner bases leads to effective exploitation of the solutions to several structural-computational problems, e.g., an algorithmic recognition of quadric solvable polynomial algebras, computation of GK-dimension and multiplicity for modules, and elimination of variables in noncommutative setting. All topics included deal with algebras of (q-)differential operators as well as some other operator algebras, enveloping algebras of Lie algebras, typical quantum algebras, and many of their deformations.
A Study of Parallel Operation of an active Filter and passive Filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim
2002-01-01
This paper reports investigations of the parallel operations of a current controlled active filter and passive filters in a system with current harmonic sources. The task of reactive power and harmonic compensation is shared by the active filter and passive filters. The passive filters are used...... arrangements of the active and passive filters can operate relatively independently, also the compensation flexibility of the active filter can be fully exploited, such as one active filter for several harmonic sources.The simulation studies on various systems have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness...... of the systems. The results show that the power factor is corrected by the passive filters, harmonics are minimized by both active and passive filters and overloading of the filter system can be avoided....
Künzi, R.
2015-06-15
Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.
Tang, Dandan; Zhang, Jinyi; Zhou, Rongxin; Xie, Ya-Ni; Hou, Xiandeng; Xu, Kailai; Wu, Peng
2018-05-10
Overexpression and crystallization of uric acid have been recognized as the course of hyperuricemia and gout, which is produced via xanthine oxidase (XOD)-catalyzed oxidation of xanthine. Therefore, the medicinal therapy of hyperuricemia and gout is majorly based on the inhibition of the XOD enzymatic pathway. The spectroscopic nature of xanthine and uric acid, namely both absorption (near the ultraviolet region) and emission (non-fluorescent) characteristics, hinders optical assay development for XOD analysis. Therefore, the state-of-the-art analysis of XOD and the screening of XOD inhibitors are majorly based on chromatography. Here, we found the near ultraviolet absorption of uric acid overlapped well with the absorption of a large bandgap semiconductor quantum dots, ZnS. On the other hand, the intrinsic weak fluorescence of ZnS QDs can be substantially improved via transition metal ion doping. Therefore, herein, we developed an inner filter effect-based assay for XOD analysis and inhibitor screening with Mn-doped ZnS QDs. The phosphorescence of Mn-doped ZnS QDs could be quenched by uric acid generated from xanthine catabolism by XOD, leading to the phosphorescence turn-off detection of XOD with a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.02 U L-1. Furthermore, the existence of XOD inhibitors could inhibit the XOD enzymatic reaction, resulting in weakened phosphorescence quenching. Therefore, the proposed assay could also be explored for the facile screening analysis of XOD inhibitors, which is important for the potential medicinal therapy of hyperuricemia and gout.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarkar, Sunandan; Pramanik, Anup; Sarkar, Pranab, E-mail: pranab.sarkar@visva-bharati.ac.in
2016-10-20
Highlights: • Quantum transport properties of some Ni-based dinuclear complexes are investigated. • The materials show various spin dependent properties like NDR, spin filtering, etc. • These are occurred by the influence of edge states of zGNR. • Proper tuning of these materials can alter these phenomena. - Abstract: Quantum transport properties of some Ni-based dinuclear complexes with different polydentate organic ligands have been studied by applying abinitio density functional theory along with nonequilibrium Green’s function formulations. It is demonstrated that these materials are capable of showing multifunctional spin dependent properties by the influence of edge states of zigzag edged graphene nanoribbons. The current–voltage characteristics of these materials show spin dependent negative differential resistance behavior, spin filtering effect, and also voltage rectifying property. Proper tuning of these materials can alter these effects which may be utilized in various spintronic devices.
Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei; Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users
Local quantum control of Heisenberg spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heule, Rahel; Bruder, C.; Stojanovic, Vladimir M.; Burgarth, Daniel
2010-01-01
Motivated by some recent results of quantum control theory, we discuss the feasibility of local operator control in arrays of interacting qubits modeled as isotropic Heisenberg spin chains. Acting on one of the end spins, we aim at finding piecewise-constant control pulses that lead to optimal fidelities for a chosen set of quantum gates. We analyze the robustness of the obtained results for the gate fidelities to random errors in the control fields, finding that with faster switching between piecewise-constant controls the system is less susceptible to these errors. The observed behavior falls into a generic class of physical phenomena that are related to a competition between resonance- and relaxation-type behavior, exemplified by motional narrowing in NMR experiments. Finally, we discuss how the obtained optimal gate fidelities are altered when the corresponding rapidly varying piecewise-constant control fields are smoothened through spectral filtering.
I, Quantum Robot: Quantum Mind control on a Quantum Computer
Zizzi, Paola
2008-01-01
The logic which describes quantum robots is not orthodox quantum logic, but a deductive calculus which reproduces the quantum tasks (computational processes, and actions) taking into account quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. A way toward the realization of intelligent quantum robots is to adopt a quantum metalanguage to control quantum robots. A physical implementation of a quantum metalanguage might be the use of coherent states in brain signals.
Effects of Rashba spin–orbit coupling and a magnetic field on a polygonal quantum ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Han-Zhao; Zhai, Li-Xue; Shen, Man; Liu, Jian-Jun
2014-01-01
Using standard quantum network method, we analytically investigate the effect of Rashba spin–orbit coupling (RSOC) and a magnetic field on the spin transport properties of a polygonal quantum ring. Using Landauer–Büttiker formula, we have found that the polarization direction and phase of transmitted electrons can be controlled by both the magnetic field and RSOC. A device to generate a spin-polarized conductance in a polygon with an arbitrary number of sides is discussed. This device would permit precise control of spin and selectively provide spin filtering for either spin up or spin down simply by interchanging the source and drain. - Highlights: • Spin conductance of polygon with RSOC and magnetic field is calculated analytically. • We show how the RSOC and a magnetic field control the phase of electron in polygon. • The AB oscillation and shape-dependent conductance are studied in a polygonal ring. • Our model can provide spin filtering simply by interchanging the source and drain
Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Bayesian Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters*
Hoteit, Ibrahim
2012-02-01
This paper investigates an approximation scheme of the optimal nonlinear Bayesian filter based on the Gaussian mixture representation of the state probability distribution function. The resulting filter is similar to the particle filter, but is different from it in that the standard weight-type correction in the particle filter is complemented by the Kalman-type correction with the associated covariance matrices in the Gaussian mixture. The authors show that this filter is an algorithm in between the Kalman filter and the particle filter, and therefore is referred to as the particle Kalman filter (PKF). In the PKF, the solution of a nonlinear filtering problem is expressed as the weighted average of an “ensemble of Kalman filters” operating in parallel. Running an ensemble of Kalman filters is, however, computationally prohibitive for realistic atmospheric and oceanic data assimilation problems. For this reason, the authors consider the construction of the PKF through an “ensemble” of ensemble Kalman filters (EnKFs) instead, and call the implementation the particle EnKF (PEnKF). It is shown that different types of the EnKFs can be considered as special cases of the PEnKF. Similar to the situation in the particle filter, the authors also introduce a resampling step to the PEnKF in order to reduce the risk of weights collapse and improve the performance of the filter. Numerical experiments with the strongly nonlinear Lorenz-96 model are presented and discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. A. Bladyko
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters.
Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien
2018-07-01
This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...
Line-narrowing in proton-detected nitrogen-14 NMR
Cavadini, Simone; Vitzthum, Veronika; Ulzega, Simone; Abraham, Anuji; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2010-01-01
In solids spinning at the magic angle, the indirect detection of single-quantum (SQ) and double-quantum (DQ) 14N spectra ( I = 1) via spy nuclei S = 1/2 such as protons can be achieved in the manner of heteronuclear single- or multiple-quantum correlation (HSQC or HMQC) spectroscopy. The HMQC method relies on the excitation of two-spin coherences of the type T11IT11S and T21IT11S at the beginning of the evolution interval t1. The spectra obtained by Fourier transformation from t1 to ω1 may be broadened by the homogenous decay of the transverse terms of the spy nuclei S. This broadening is mostly due to homonuclear dipolar S- S' interactions between the proton spy nuclei. In this work we have investigated the possibility of inserting rotor-synchronized symmetry-based C or R sequences and decoupling schemes such as Phase-Modulated Lee-Goldburg (PMLG) sequences in the evolution period. These schemes reduce the homonuclear proton-proton interactions and lead to an enhancement of the resolution of both SQ and DQ proton-detected 14N HMQC spectra. In addition, we have investigated the combination of HSQC with symmetry-based sequences and PMLG and shown that the highest resolution in the 14N dimension is achieved by using HSQC in combination with symmetry-based sequences of the R-type. We show improvements in resolution in samples of L-alanine and the tripeptide ala-ala-gly (AAG). In particular, for L-alanine the width of the 14N SQ peak is reduced from 2 to 1.2 kHz, in agreement with simulations. We report accurate measurements of quadrupolar coupling constants and asymmetry parameters for amide 14N in AAG peptide bonds.
Braile vena cava filter and greenfield filter in terms of centralization.
de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; Menezes da Silva, Adinaldo A; Reis, Luis Fernando; Miquelin, Daniel; Torati, José Luis Simon
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate complications experienced during implantation of the Braile Vena Cava filter (VCF) and the efficacy of the centralization mechanism of the filter. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all Braile Biomédica VCFs implanted from 2004 to 2009 in Hospital de Base Medicine School in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. Of particular concern was the filter's symmetry during implantation and complications experienced during the procedure. All the angiographic examinations performed during the implantation of the filters were analyzed in respect to the following parameters: migration of the filter, non-opening or difficulties in the implantation and centralization of the filter. A total of 112 Braile CVFs were implanted and there were no reports of filter opening difficulties or in respect to migration. Asymmetry was observed in 1/112 (0.9%) cases. A statistically significant difference was seen on comparing historical data on decentralization of the Greenfield filter with the data of this study. The Braile Biomédico filter is an evolution of the Greenfield filter providing improved embolus capture and better implantation symmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neklyudov, I.M.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Dikiy, N.P.; Ledenyov, O.P.; Lyashko, Yu.V.
2013-01-01
The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 in the forced-exhaust ventilation at the nuclear power plant. The ?-activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU-1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU-1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed by the irradiation of bremsstrahlung gamma-quantum producing by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127 I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granules of the type of SKT-3, in the AU-1500 iodine air filter are also researched. The possible influences by the standing wave of air pressure in the iodine air filter on the spatial distribution of the chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of obtained research results on the distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber of iodine air filter is performed.
Quantum control of optomechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofer, S.
2015-01-01
This thesis explores the prospects of entanglement-enhanced quantum control of optomechanical systems. We first discuss several pulsed schemes in which the radiation-pressure interaction is used to generate EPR entanglement between the mechanical mode of a cavity-optomechanical system and a travelling-wave light pulse. The entanglement created in this way can be used as a resource for mechanical state preparation. On the basis of this protocol, we introduce an optomechanical teleportation scheme to transfer an arbitrary light state onto the mechanical system. Furthermore, we describe how one can create a mechanical non-classical state (i.e., a state with a negative Wigner function) by single-photon detection, and, in a similar protocol, how optomechanical systems can be used to demonstrate the violation of a Bell inequality. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to time-continuous quantum control protocols. Making use of optimal-control techniques, we analyse measurement-based feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator and demonstrate that ground-state cooling is achievable in the sideband-resolved, blue-detuned regime. We then extend this homodyne-detection based setup and introduce the notion of a time-continuous Bell measurement---a generalisation of the standard continuous variable Bell measurement to a continuous measurement setting. Combining this concept with continuous feedback we analyse the generation of a squeezed mechanical steady state via time-continuous teleportation, and the creation of bipartite mechanical entanglement by entanglement swapping. Finally we discuss an experiment demonstrating the evaluation of the conditional optomechanical quantum state by Kalman filtering, constituting a important step towards time-continuous quantum control of optomechanical systems and the possible realisation of the protocols presented in this thesis. (author) [de
Quantum Erasure: Quantum Interference Revisited
Walborn, Stephen P.; Cunha, Marcelo O. Terra; Pádua, Sebastião; Monken, Carlos H.
2005-01-01
Recent experiments in quantum optics have shed light on the foundations of quantum physics. Quantum erasers - modified quantum interference experiments - show that quantum entanglement is responsible for the complementarity principle.
Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran
2018-01-01
This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...
Quantum Monte Carlo tunneling from quantum chemistry to quantum annealing
Mazzola, Guglielmo; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Troyer, Matthias
2017-10-01
Quantum tunneling is ubiquitous across different fields, from quantum chemical reactions and magnetic materials to quantum simulators and quantum computers. While simulating the real-time quantum dynamics of tunneling is infeasible for high-dimensional systems, quantum tunneling also shows up in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations, which aim to simulate quantum statistics with resources growing only polynomially with the system size. Here we extend the recent results obtained for quantum spin models [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 180402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.180402], and we study continuous-variable models for proton transfer reactions. We demonstrate that QMC simulations efficiently recover the scaling of ground-state tunneling rates due to the existence of an instanton path, which always connects the reactant state with the product. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of quantum chemical reactions and quantum annealing, where quantum tunneling is expected to be a valuable resource for solving combinatorial optimization problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amini, Nina H. [Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States); CNRS, Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S) CentraleSupelec, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miao, Zibo; Pan, Yu; James, Matthew R. [Australian National University, ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Mabuchi, Hideo [Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)
2015-12-15
The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of generalizing the Belavkin-Kalman filter to the case where the classical measurement signal is replaced by a fully quantum non-commutative output signal. We formulate a least mean squares estimation problem that involves a non-commutative system as the filter processing the non-commutative output signal. We solve this estimation problem within the framework of non-commutative probability. Also, we find the necessary and sufficient conditions which make these non-commutative estimators physically realizable. These conditions are restrictive in practice. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.
1988-01-01
Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)
Filter replacement lifetime prediction
Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.
2017-10-25
Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.
Brown, Erik P.
2015-05-19
An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.
Selection vector filter framework
Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.
2003-10-01
We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Dongxing; Wu, Jiarui; Gu, Ying; Gong, Qihuang
2014-01-01
We propose tailoring of the double Fano profiles via plasmon-assisted quantum interference in a hybrid exciton-plasmon system. Tailoring is performed by the interference between two exciton channels interacting with a common localized surface plasmon. Using an applied field of low intensity, the absorption spectrum of the hybrid system reveals a double Fano lineshape with four peaks. For relatively large field intensity, a broad flat window in the absorption spectrum appears which results from the destructive interference between excitons. Because of strong constructive interference, this window vanishes as intensity is further increased. We have designed a nanometer bandpass optical filter for visible light based on tailoring of the optical spectrum. This study provides a platform for quantum interference that may have potential applications in ultracompact tunable quantum devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narducci, Dario, E-mail: dario.narducci@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Selezneva, Ekaterina [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cerofolini, Gianfranco [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Frabboni, Stefano; Ottaviani, Giampiero [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)
2012-09-15
Energy filtering has been widely considered as a suitable tool to increase the thermoelectric performances of several classes of materials. In its essence, energy filtering provides a way to increase the Seebeck coefficient by introducing a strongly energy-dependent scattering mechanism. Under certain conditions, however, potential barriers may lead to carrier localization, that may also affect the thermoelectric properties of a material. A model is proposed, actually showing that randomly distributed potential barriers (as those found, e.g., in polycrystalline films) may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of energy filtering and carrier localization. Localization is shown to cause a decrease of the actual carrier density that, along with the quantum tunneling of carriers, may result in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. The model is corroborated toward experimental data gathered by several authors on degenerate polycrystalline silicon and lead telluride. - Graphical abstract: In heavily doped semiconductors potential barriers may lead to both carrier energy filtering and localization. This may lead to an enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the material, resulting in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential barriers are shown to lead to carrier localization in thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence is put forward of the formation of a mobility edge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy filtering and localization may explain the enhancement of power factor in degenerate semiconductors.
Henderson, Gregory Newell
Semiconductor device dimensions are rapidly approaching a fundamental limit where drift-diffusion equations and the depletion approximation are no longer valid. In this regime, quantum effects can dominate device response. To increase further device density and speed, new devices must be designed that use these phenomena to positive advantage. In addition, quantum effects provide opportunities for a new class of devices which can perform functions previously unattainable with "conventional" semiconductor devices. This thesis has described research in the analysis of electron wave effects in semiconductors and the development of methods for the design, fabrication, and characterization of quantum devices based on these effects. First, an exact set of quantitative analogies are presented which allow the use of well understood optical design and analysis tools for the development of electron wave semiconductor devices. Motivated by these analogies, methods are presented for modeling electron wave grating diffraction using both an exact rigorous coupled-wave analysis and approximate analyses which are useful for grating design. Example electron wave grating switch and multiplexer designs are presented. In analogy to thin-film optics, the design and analysis of electron wave Fabry-Perot interference filters are also discussed. An innovative technique has been developed for testing these (and other) electron wave structures using Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM). This technique uses a liquid-helium temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to perform spectroscopy of the electron transmittance as a function of electron energy. Experimental results show that BEEM can resolve even weak quantum effects, such as the reflectivity of a single interface between materials. Finally, methods are discussed for incorporating asymmetric electron wave Fabry-Perot filters into optoelectronic devices. Theoretical and experimental results show that such structures could
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hackney, S.
1980-01-01
A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)
Quantum games as quantum types
Delbecque, Yannick
In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other
Device for automatic filter changing. Einrichtung zum selbsttaetigen Wechseln eines Filters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matschoss, V; Naschwitz, A; Wild, H
1984-01-05
A filter is moved from a store to an aerosol pipe by a lifting device and is clamped there. At the end of the operating period, the lifting device moves a new filter to a parking place. Control is from limit switches of the lifting, clamping and thrust devices and the position control of the store is by the limit switches. The filter changing device is enclosed in a gastight case, prevents blockage of a filter and makes it possible to set a certain operating period, to change the filter without interrupting the aerosol flow and to measure each filter in the sequence of operation outside the aerosol flow.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo
2009-01-01
filter and three modifications of a bag-type fiberglass combination filter: the "Heavy" corresponded to a commercially available filter containing 400 g of carbon per square meter of filter area, the "Medium" contained half as much carbon (200 g/m(2)), and the "Light" contained a quarter as much carbon...
A Differential Geometric Approach to Nonlinear Filtering: The Projection Filter
Brigo, D.; Hanzon, B.; LeGland, F.
1998-01-01
This paper presents a new and systematic method of approximating exact nonlinear filters with finite dimensional filters, using the differential geometric approach to statistics. The projection filter is defined rigorously in the case of exponential families. A convenient exponential family is
Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randen, Trygve
1997-12-31
The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.
HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
GUSTAVSON, R.D.
2000-01-01
This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection
Time reversal mirror and perfect inverse filter in a microscopic model for sound propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvo, Hernan L.; Danieli, Ernesto P.; Pastawski, Horacio M.
2007-01-01
Time reversal of quantum dynamics can be achieved by a global change of the Hamiltonian sign (a hasty Loschmidt daemon), as in the Loschmidt Echo experiments in NMR, or by a local but persistent procedure (a stubborn daemon) as in the time reversal mirror (TRM) used in ultrasound acoustics. While the first is limited by chaos and disorder, the last procedure seems to benefit from it. As a first step to quantify such stability we develop a procedure, the perfect inverse filter (PIF), that accounts for memory effects, and we apply it to a system of coupled oscillators. In order to ensure a numerical many-body dynamics intrinsically reversible, we develop an algorithm, the pair partitioning, based on the Trotter strategy used for quantum dynamics. We analyze situations where the PIF gives substantial improvements over the TRM
Quantum information. Teleporation - cryptography - quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breuer, Reinhard
2010-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Potential for HEPA filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Fretthold, J.K. [Rocky Flats Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States); Slawski, J.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)
1997-08-01
The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for BEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. A fire in a four-stage, BEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of BEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenums, additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk. 22 refs., 15 figs.
Laverick, Kiarn T.; Wiseman, Howard M.; Dinani, Hossein T.; Berry, Dominic W.
2018-04-01
The problem of measuring a time-varying phase, even when the statistics of the variation is known, is considerably harder than that of measuring a constant phase. In particular, the usual bounds on accuracy, such as the 1 /(4 n ¯) standard quantum limit with coherent states, do not apply. Here, by restricting to coherent states, we are able to analytically obtain the achievable accuracy, the equivalent of the standard quantum limit, for a wide class of phase variation. In particular, we consider the case where the phase has Gaussian statistics and a power-law spectrum equal to κp -1/|ω| p for large ω , for some p >1 . For coherent states with mean photon flux N , we give the quantum Cramér-Rao bound on the mean-square phase error as [psin(π /p ) ] -1(4N /κ ) -(p -1 )/p . Next, we consider whether the bound can be achieved by an adaptive homodyne measurement in the limit N /κ ≫1 , which allows the photocurrent to be linearized. Applying the optimal filtering for the resultant linear Gaussian system, we find the same scaling with N , but with a prefactor larger by a factor of p . By contrast, if we employ optimal smoothing we can exactly obtain the quantum Cramér-Rao bound. That is, contrary to previously considered (p =2 ) cases of phase estimation, here the improvement offered by smoothing over filtering is not limited to a factor of 2 but rather can be unbounded by a factor of p . We also study numerically the performance of these estimators for an adaptive measurement in the limit where N /κ is not large and find a more complicated picture.
Modeling the neutron spin-flip process in a time-of-flight spin-resonance energy filter
Parizzi, A A; Klose, F
2002-01-01
A computer program for modeling the neutron spin-flip process in a novel time-of-flight (TOF) spin-resonance energy filter has been developed. The software allows studying the applicability of the device in various areas of spallation neutron scattering instrumentation, for example as a dynamic TOF monochromator. The program uses a quantum-mechanical approach to calculate the local spin-dependent spectra and is essential for optimizing the magnetic field profiles along the resonator axis. (orig.)
Quantum space and quantum completeness
Jurić, Tajron
2018-05-01
Motivated by the question whether quantum gravity can "smear out" the classical singularity we analyze a certain quantum space and its quantum-mechanical completeness. Classical singularity is understood as a geodesic incompleteness, while quantum completeness requires a unique unitary time evolution for test fields propagating on an underlying background. Here the crucial point is that quantum completeness renders the Hamiltonian (or spatial part of the wave operator) to be essentially self-adjoint in order to generate a unique time evolution. We examine a model of quantum space which consists of a noncommutative BTZ black hole probed by a test scalar field. We show that the quantum gravity (noncommutative) effect is to enlarge the domain of BTZ parameters for which the relevant wave operator is essentially self-adjoint. This means that the corresponding quantum space is quantum complete for a larger range of BTZ parameters rendering the conclusion that in the quantum space one observes the effect of "smearing out" the singularity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adib, M.
2011-01-01
The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.
Quantum correlations in multipartite quantum systems
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Heshmati, A.; Karimi, N.; Yahyavi, M.
2018-03-01
Quantum entanglement is the most famous type of quantum correlation between elements of a quantum system that has a basic role in quantum communication protocols like quantum cryptography, teleportation and Bell inequality detection. However, it has already been shown that various applications in quantum information theory do not require entanglement. Quantum discord as a new kind of quantum correlations beyond entanglement, is the most popular candidate for general quantum correlations. In this paper, first we find the entanglement witness in a particular multipartite quantum system which consists of a N-partite system in 2 n -dimensional space. Then we give an exact analytical formula for the quantum discord of this system. At the end of the paper, we investigate the additivity relation of the quantum correlation and show that this relation is satisfied for a N-partite system with 2 n -dimensional space.
Renormalisation in Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Instantons and Quantum Chaos
Jirari, H.; Kröger, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Moriarty, K. J. M.
2001-01-01
We suggest how to construct non-perturbatively a renormalized action in quantum mechanics. We discuss similarties and differences with the standard effective action. We propose that the new quantum action is suitable to define and compute quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters
Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC
2016-01-01
Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.
Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.
Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T
2015-08-25
The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.
Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary
2012-01-01
Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of
Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons
Kröger, H.
2003-01-01
We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, A.I.; Bondarenko, I.V.; Balashov, S.N.; Geltenbort, P.; Hoghoj, P.; Kozlov, A.V.; Masalovich, S.V.; Toperverg, B.P.
2004-01-01
With the aim to test experimentally the dispersion law validity for very slow neutrons a spectrum of ultracold neutrons (UCN) under the condition of resonance tunneling through the moving Neutron Interference Filter was investigated. The neutron spectrum in this case has a narrow width resonance, whose parameters depend on the filter characteristics and dispersion law of neutron waves in matter. For a number of samples a noticeable shift of the resonance position when the filter moved parallel to its surface was detected. This shift is in strong contradiction with the commonly accepted dispersion law. Further investigations have shown that the spectrum of tunneling neutrons is not exactly defined by the solution of one-dimensional quantum problem, but substantially affected by neutron scattering from filter imperfections. The cross section of this scattering depends on the neutron wave number and increases dramatically in resonance conditions. Experimental results as well as comprehensive theoretical analysis have led us to the unambiguous conclusion that observed phenomena of the resonance shift in a moving sample are caused by scattering of neutron tunneling states rather than by a deviation from the commonly accepted dispersion law. (author)
Prospects for Studies of the Free Fall and Gravitational Quantum States of Antimatter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Dufour
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Different experiments are ongoing to measure the effect of gravity on cold neutral antimatter atoms such as positronium, muonium, and antihydrogen. Among those, the project GBAR at CERN aims to measure precisely the gravitational fall of ultracold antihydrogen atoms. In the ultracold regime, the interaction of antihydrogen atoms with a surface is governed by the phenomenon of quantum reflection which results in bouncing of antihydrogen atoms on matter surfaces. This allows the application of a filtering scheme to increase the precision of the free fall measurement. In the ultimate limit of smallest vertical velocities, antihydrogen atoms are settled in gravitational quantum states in close analogy to ultracold neutrons (UCNs. Positronium is another neutral system involving antimatter for which free fall under gravity is currently being investigated at UCL. Building on the experimental techniques under development for the free fall measurement, gravitational quantum states could also be observed in positronium. In this contribution, we report on the status of the ongoing experiments and discuss the prospects of observing gravitational quantum states of antimatter and their implications.
Quantum dynamics of quantum bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Bich Ha
2011-01-01
The theory of coherent oscillations of the matrix elements of the density matrix of the two-state system as a quantum bit is presented. Different calculation methods are elaborated in the case of a free quantum bit. Then the most appropriate methods are applied to the study of the density matrices of the quantum bits interacting with a classical pumping radiation field as well as with the quantum electromagnetic field in a single-mode microcavity. The theory of decoherence of a quantum bit in Markovian approximation is presented. The decoherence of a quantum bit interacting with monoenergetic photons in a microcavity is also discussed. The content of the present work can be considered as an introduction to the study of the quantum dynamics of quantum bits. (review)
A study of quantum mechanical probabilities in the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model.
Moradi, N; Scholkmann, F; Salari, V
2015-03-01
The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model is a powerful model to explain different aspects of spike generation in excitable cells. However, the HH model was proposed in 1952 when the real structure of the ion channel was unknown. It is now common knowledge that in many ion-channel proteins the flow of ions through the pore is governed by a gate, comprising a so-called "selectivity filter" inside the ion channel, which can be controlled by electrical interactions. The selectivity filter (SF) is believed to be responsible for the selection and fast conduction of particular ions across the membrane of an excitable cell. Other (generally larger) parts of the molecule such as the pore-domain gate control the access of ions to the channel protein. In fact, two types of gates are considered here for ion channels: the "external gate", which is the voltage sensitive gate, and the "internal gate" which is the selectivity filter gate (SFG). Some quantum effects are expected in the SFG due to its small dimensions, which may play an important role in the operation of an ion channel. Here, we examine parameters in a generalized model of HH to see whether any parameter affects the spike generation. Our results indicate that the previously suggested semi-quantum-classical equation proposed by Bernroider and Summhammer (BS) agrees strongly with the HH equation under different conditions and may even provide a better explanation in some cases. We conclude that the BS model can refine the classical HH model substantially.
Quantum symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
1993-02-01
Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry
Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenneker, Carsten
2012-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics
Li, Nan; Luo, Shunlong; Mao, Yuanyuan
2018-04-01
We study quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics, where quantumness refers to the noncommutativity between the initial state and the evolving state. In terms of the commutator of the square roots of the initial state and the evolving state, we define a measure to quantify the quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics with respect to initial states. Quantumness-generating capability is absent in classical dynamics and hence is a fundamental characteristic of quantum dynamics. For qubit systems, we present an analytical form for this measure, by virtue of which we analyze several prototypical dynamics such as unitary dynamics, phase damping dynamics, amplitude damping dynamics, and random unitary dynamics (Pauli channels). Necessary and sufficient conditions for the monotonicity of quantumness-generating capability are also identified. Finally, we compare these conditions for the monotonicity of quantumness-generating capability with those for various Markovianities and illustrate that quantumness-generating capability and quantum Markovianity are closely related, although they capture different aspects of quantum dynamics.
Sampled data CT system including analog filter and compensating digital filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glover, G. H.; DallaPiazza, D. G.; Pelc, N. J.
1985-01-01
A CT scanner in which the amount of x-ray information acquired per unit time is substantially increased by using a continuous-on x-ray source and a sampled data system with the detector. An analog filter is used in the sampling system for band limiting the detector signal below the highest frequency of interest, but is a practically realizable filter and is therefore non-ideal. A digital filter is applied to the detector data after digitization to compensate for the characteristics of the analog filter, and to provide an overall filter characteristic more nearly like the ideal
Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.
1995-01-01
A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.
Quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shih, Y.H.
2001-01-01
One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. The ''ghost'' interference and the ''ghost'' image experiments demonstrated the astonishing nonlocal behavior of an entangled photon pair. Even though we still have questions in regard to fundamental issues of the entangled quantum systems, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in quantum information and quantum computation. Quantum teleportation is one of the hot topics. We have demonstrated a quantum teleportation experiment recently. The experimental results proved the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that the complete set of Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a quantum state can thus occur with certainty in principle. (orig.)
Quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers.
Schuld, Maria; Petruccione, Francesco
2018-02-09
Quantum machine learning witnesses an increasing amount of quantum algorithms for data-driven decision making, a problem with potential applications ranging from automated image recognition to medical diagnosis. Many of those algorithms are implementations of quantum classifiers, or models for the classification of data inputs with a quantum computer. Following the success of collective decision making with ensembles in classical machine learning, this paper introduces the concept of quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers. Creating the ensemble corresponds to a state preparation routine, after which the quantum classifiers are evaluated in parallel and their combined decision is accessed by a single-qubit measurement. This framework naturally allows for exponentially large ensembles in which - similar to Bayesian learning - the individual classifiers do not have to be trained. As an example, we analyse an exponentially large quantum ensemble in which each classifier is weighed according to its performance in classifying the training data, leading to new results for quantum as well as classical machine learning.
Quantum computer games: quantum minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-07-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical minesweeper the goal of the game is to discover all the mines laid out on a board without triggering them, in the quantum version there are several classical boards in superposition. The goal is to know the exact quantum state, i.e. the precise layout of all the mines in all the superposed classical boards. The player can perform three types of measurement: a classical measurement that probabilistically collapses the superposition; a quantum interaction-free measurement that can detect a mine without triggering it; and an entanglement measurement that provides non-local information. The application of the concepts taught by quantum minesweeper to one-way quantum computing are also presented.
Proceedings of quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodonov, V.V.; Man; ko, V.I.
1991-01-01
This book contains papers presented at the XVIII International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics held in Moscow on June 4-9, 1990. Topics covered include; applications of algebraic methods in quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, quantum optics, spectrum generating groups, quantum algebras, symmetries of equations, quantum physics, coherent states, group representations and space groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, K.M.; Marshall, A.G.
1987-01-01
Base-pair sequences for 5S and 5.8S RNAs are not readily extracted from proton homonuclear nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) connectivity experiments alone, due to extensive peak overlap in the downfield (11-15 ppm) proton NMR spectrum. In this paper, we introduce a new method for base-pair proton peak assignment for ribosomal RNAs, based upon the distance-dependent broadening of the resonances of base-pair protons spatially proximal to a paramagnetic group. Introduction of a nitroxide spin-label covalently attached to the 3'-terminal ribose provides an unequivocal starting point for base-pair hydrogen-bond proton NMR assignment. Subsequent NOE connectivities then establish the base-pair sequence for the terminal stem of a 5S RNA. Periodate oxidation of yeast 5S RNA, followed by reaction with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO-NH2) and sodium borohydride reduction, produces yeast 5S RNA specifically labeled with a paramagnetic nitroxide group at the 3'-terminal ribose. Comparison of the 500-MHz 1H NMR spectra of native and 3'-terminal spin-labeled yeast 5S RNA serves to identify the terminal base pair (G1 . C120) and its adjacent base pair (G2 . U119) on the basis of their proximity to the 3'-terminal spin-label. From that starting point, we have then identified (G . C, A . U, or G . U) and sequenced eight of the nine base pairs in the terminal helix via primary and secondary NOE's
Improved Kalman Filter-Based Speech Enhancement with Perceptual Post-Filtering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEIJianqiang; DULimin; YANZhaoli; ZENGHui
2004-01-01
In this paper, a Kalman filter-based speech enhancement algorithm with some improvements of previous work is presented. A new technique based on spectral subtraction is used for separation speech and noise characteristics from noisy speech and for the computation of speech and noise Autoregressive (AR) parameters. In order to obtain a Kalman filter output with high audible quality, a perceptual post-filter is placed at the output of the Kalman filter to smooth the enhanced speech spectra.Extensive experiments indicate that this newly proposed method works well.
Quantum control limited by quantum decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue, Fei; Sun, C. P.; Yu, S. X.
2006-01-01
We describe quantum controllability under the influences of the quantum decoherence induced by the quantum control itself. It is shown that, when the controller is considered as a quantum system, it will entangle with its controlled system and then cause quantum decoherence in the controlled system. In competition with this induced decoherence, the controllability will be limited by some uncertainty relation in a well-armed quantum control process. In association with the phase uncertainty and the standard quantum limit, a general model is studied to demonstrate the possibility of realizing a decoherence-free quantum control with a finite energy within a finite time. It is also shown that if the operations of quantum control are to be determined by the initial state of the controller, then due to the decoherence which results from the quantum control itself, there exists a low bound for quantum controllability
Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey
2012-06-01
Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The
Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peloso, Matthew P; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ho, Caleb; Lamas-Linares, AntIa; Kurtsiefer, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)], E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com
2009-04-15
Many quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations using a free space transmission path are restricted to operation at night time in order to distinguish the signal photons used for a secure key establishment from the background light. Here, we present a lean entanglement-based QKD system overcoming that limitation. By implementing spectral, spatial and temporal filtering techniques, we establish a secure key continuously over several days under varying light and weather conditions.
From quantum coherence to quantum correlations
Sun, Yuan; Mao, Yuanyuan; Luo, Shunlong
2017-06-01
In quantum mechanics, quantum coherence of a state relative to a quantum measurement can be identified with the quantumness that has to be destroyed by the measurement. In particular, quantum coherence of a bipartite state relative to a local quantum measurement encodes quantum correlations in the state. If one takes minimization with respect to the local measurements, then one is led to quantifiers which capture quantum correlations from the perspective of coherence. In this vein, quantum discord, which quantifies the minimal correlations that have to be destroyed by quantum measurements, can be identified as the minimal coherence, with the coherence measured by the relative entropy of coherence. To advocate and formulate this idea in a general context, we first review coherence relative to Lüders measurements which extends the notion of coherence relative to von Neumann measurements (or equivalently, orthonomal bases), and highlight the observation that quantum discord arises as minimal coherence through two prototypical examples. Then, we introduce some novel measures of quantum correlations in terms of coherence, illustrate them through examples, investigate their fundamental properties and implications, and indicate their applications to quantum metrology.
Method for cleaning the filter pockets of dust gas filter systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margraf, A
1975-05-07
The invention deals with a method to clean filter pockets filled with dust gas. By a periodic to and fro air jet attached to a scavenging blower, a pulsed fluttering movement of the filter surface is obtained which releases the outer layers of dust. The charging of the filter pockets with scavenging air to clean the filter material can be carried out immediately on the pulsed admission with suitable time control.
A Digital Image Denoising Algorithm Based on Gaussian Filtering and Bilateral Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piao Weiying
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Bilateral filtering has been applied in the area of digital image processing widely, but in the high gradient region of the image, bilateral filtering may generate staircase effect. Bilateral filtering can be regarded as one particular form of local mode filtering, according to above analysis, an mixed image de-noising algorithm is proposed based on Gaussian filter and bilateral filtering. First of all, it uses Gaussian filter to filtrate the noise image and get the reference image, then to take both the reference image and noise image as the input for range kernel function of bilateral filter. The reference image can provide the image’s low frequency information, and noise image can provide image’s high frequency information. Through the competitive experiment on both the method in this paper and traditional bilateral filtering, the experimental result showed that the mixed de-noising algorithm can effectively overcome staircase effect, and the filtrated image was more smooth, its textural features was also more close to the original image, and it can achieve higher PSNR value, but the amount of calculation of above two algorithms are basically the same.
Quantum Instantons and Quantum Chaos
Jirari, H.; Kröger, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Moriarty, K. J. M.; Rubin, S. G.
1999-01-01
Based on a closed form expression for the path integral of quantum transition amplitudes, we suggest rigorous definitions of both, quantum instantons and quantum chaos. As an example we compute the quantum instanton of the double well potential.
Duality Quantum Information and Duality Quantum Communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, C. Y.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, C.; Song, S. Y.; Long, G. L.
2011-01-01
Quantum mechanical systems exhibit particle wave duality property. This duality property has been exploited for information processing. A duality quantum computer is a quantum computer on the move and passing through a multi-slits. It offers quantum wave divider and quantum wave combiner operations in addition to those allowed in an ordinary quantum computer. It has been shown that all linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and a duality quantum computer with n qubits and d-slits can be realized in an ordinary quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit in the so-called duality quantum computing mode. The quantum particle-wave duality can be used in providing secure communication. In this paper, we will review duality quantum computing and duality quantum key distribution.
Filtering Photogrammetric Point Clouds Using Standard LIDAR Filters Towards DTM Generation
Zhang, Z.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.; Yang, M. Y.
2018-05-01
Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) can be generated from point clouds acquired by laser scanning or photogrammetric dense matching. During the last two decades, much effort has been paid to developing robust filtering algorithms for the airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. With the point cloud quality from dense image matching (DIM) getting better and better, the research question that arises is whether those standard Lidar filters can be used to filter photogrammetric point clouds as well. Experiments are implemented to filter two dense matching point clouds with different noise levels. Results show that the standard Lidar filter is robust to random noise. However, artefacts and blunders in the DIM points often appear due to low contrast or poor texture in the images. Filtering will be erroneous in these locations. Filtering the DIM points pre-processed by a ranking filter will bring higher Type II error (i.e. non-ground points actually labelled as ground points) but much lower Type I error (i.e. bare ground points labelled as non-ground points). Finally, the potential DTM accuracy that can be achieved by DIM points is evaluated. Two DIM point clouds derived by Pix4Dmapper and SURE are compared. On grassland dense matching generates points higher than the true terrain surface, which will result in incorrectly elevated DTMs. The application of the ranking filter leads to a reduced bias in the DTM height, but a slightly increased noise level.
Quantum computers and quantum computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiev, Kamil' A
2005-01-01
This review outlines the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements. The theory of ideal computers that do not interact with the environment and are immune to quantum decohering processes is presented. Decohering processes in quantum computers are investigated. The review considers methods for correcting quantum computing errors arising from the decoherence of the state of the quantum computer, as well as possible methods for the suppression of the decohering processes. A brief enumeration of proposed quantum computer realizations concludes the review. (reviews of topical problems)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan
2006-01-01
This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.
1959-01-01
This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators
Numerical Study on Self-Cleaning Canister Filter With Add-On Filter Cap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Akmal Nizam
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Filtration in a turbo machinery system such as a gas turbine will ensure that the air entering the inlet is free from contaminants that could bring damage to the main system. Self-cleaning filter systems for gas turbines are designed for continuously efficient flow filtration. A good filter would be able to maintain its effectiveness over a longer time period, prolonging the duration between filter replacements and providing lower pressure drop over its operating lifetime. With this goal in mind, the current study is focused on the difference in pressure loss of the benchmark Salutary Avenue Self-cleaning filter in comparison to a new design with an add-on filter cap. Geometry for the add-on filter cap will be based from Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn.Bhd. SOLIDWORKS software was used to model the geometry of the filter, while simulation analysis on the flow through the filter was done using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD software. The simulations are based on a low velocity condition, in which the parameter for the inlet velocity are set at 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s respectively. From the simulation data obtained for the inlet velocities considered, the pressure drop reduction of the modified filter compared to the benchmark was found to be between 7.59% and 30.18%. All in all, the modification of the filter cap produced a lower pressure drop in comparison with the benchmark filter; an improvement of 27.02% for the total pressure drop was obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paluch, W.
1987-07-01
Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.
Quantum Computation and Quantum Spin Dynamics
Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel; Hams, Anthony; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji
2001-01-01
We analyze the stability of quantum computations on physically realizable quantum computers by simulating quantum spin models representing quantum computer hardware. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum
From quantum physics to digital communication: Single sideband continuous phase modulation
Farès, Haïfa; Christian Glattli, D.; Louët, Yves; Palicot, Jacques; Moy, Christophe; Roulleau, Preden
2018-01-01
In the present paper, we propose a new frequency-shift keying continuous phase modulation (FSK-CPM) scheme having, by essence, the interesting feature of single-sideband (SSB) spectrum providing a very compact frequency occupation. First, the original principle, inspired from quantum physics (levitons), is presented. Besides, we address the problem of low-complexity coherent detection of this new waveform, based on orthonormal wave functions used to perform matched filtering for efficient demodulation. Consequently, this shows that the proposed modulation can operate using existing digital communication technology, since only well-known operations are performed (e.g., filtering, integration). This SSB property can be exploited to allow large bit rates transmissions at low carrier frequency without caring about image frequency degradation effects typical of ordinary double-sideband signals. xml:lang="fr"
Tanoto, Yusak; Limantara, Limboto; Khandy Lestanto, Khristian
2005-01-01
This paper describe about simulation of Passive Filter in analysis to reduce harmonics that happened in a load such as vacuum casting induction furnace 9 kW, 13.8 kVA, 200V, 3 Ph, 50/60 Hz, also gives comparison with Hybrid Active Filter and Active Filter which made satisfaction result on the previous research. The best result achieved on the use of Hybrid Active Filter on %ITHD for 4.27 % and %VTHD for 3.83%, while Active Filter gave on %ITHD for 5.14 % and %VTHD for 3.82%. There ...
Thermal and quantum depinning of a fractional Josephson vortex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldobin, Edward; Gaber, Tobias; Buckenmaier, Kai; Kienzle, Uta; Sickinger, Hanna; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalische Institut, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Meckbach, Max; Kaiser, Christoph; Il' in, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, University of Karlsruhe, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2011-07-01
We investigate the bias current induced depinning of a fractional Josephson vortex in a 0-{kappa} Josephson junction, where the {kappa}-discontinuity of the phase is induced by current injectors. At high temperatures T>or similar 100 mK the depinning is governed by thermal fluctuations. By measuring a depinning current histogram and extracting the effective barrier height vs. {kappa}, one can see the signatures of fractional vortex escape. At low T
What is quantum in quantum randomness?
Grangier, P; Auffèves, A
2018-07-13
It is often said that quantum and classical randomness are of different nature, the former being ontological and the latter epistemological. However, so far the question of 'What is quantum in quantum randomness?', i.e. what is the impact of quantization and discreteness on the nature of randomness, remains to be answered. In a first part, we make explicit the differences between quantum and classical randomness within a recently proposed ontology for quantum mechanics based on contextual objectivity. In this view, quantum randomness is the result of contextuality and quantization. We show that this approach strongly impacts the purposes of quantum theory as well as its areas of application. In particular, it challenges current programmes inspired by classical reductionism, aiming at the emergence of the classical world from a large number of quantum systems. In a second part, we analyse quantum physics and thermodynamics as theories of randomness, unveiling their mutual influences. We finally consider new technological applications of quantum randomness that have opened up in the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.
1996-01-01
The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this speed is a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band, i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit or rather an islanding. It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms. We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth to the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band stop filter, it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman'a theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a while noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. The digital simulations we made and the tests we carried out with the Electricite de France Micro Network laboratory show the advantages of the rotation speed filter we designed using Kalman's theory. With the proposed filter, the speed measure filtering is better in terms of reduction and phase shift. the result is that there are less untimely solicitations of the fast valving system. Consequently, this device improves the power systems stability by minimizing the risks of deep perturbations due to a temporary lack of generation and the risks of under-speed loss
Demonstration of a mid-infrared NO molecular Faraday optical filter.
Wu, Kuijun; Feng, Yutao; Li, Juan; Yu, Guangbao; Liu, Linmei; Xiong, Yuanhui; Li, Faquan
2017-12-11
A molecular Faraday optical filter (MFOF) working in the mid-infrared region is realized for the first time. NO molecule was used as the working material of the MFOF for potential applications in atmospheric remote sensing and combustion diagnosis. We develop a complete theory to describe the performance of MFOF by taking both Zeeman absorption and Faraday rotation into account. We also record the Faraday rotation transmission (FRT) signal using a quantum cascade laser over the range of 1,820 cm -1 to 1,922 cm -1 and calibrate it by using a 101.6 mm long solid germanium etalon with a free spectral range of 0.012 cm -1 . Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data is achieved. The NO-MFOF's transmission characteristics as a function of magnetic field and pressure are studied in detail. Both Comb-like FRT spectrum and single branch transmission spectrum are obtained by changing the magnetic field. The diversity of FRT spectrum expands the range of potential applications in infrared optical remote sensing. This filtering method can also be extended to the lines of other paramagnetic molecules.
The dry filter method for passive filtered venting of the containment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freis, Daniel; Tietsch, Wolfgang; Obenland, Ralf; Kroes, Bert; Martinsteg, Hans
2013-01-01
Filtered Venting is a mitigative emergency measure to protect the containment from pressure failure in case of a severe accident. Filtered vent systems which are based on the Dry Filter Method (DFM) are proven technology, work completely passive, meet all functional requirements and show excellent performance with respect to filter efficiency. With such a system the release of radioactive fission products to the environment can be effectively minimized. Short and long term land contaminations can be avoided. (orig.)
Quantum robots and quantum computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benioff, P.
1998-07-01
Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.
Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing
Zielnicki, Kevin
Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on
Quantum relativity theory and quantum space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banai, M.
1984-01-01
A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is shown that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in another paper is formulated in terms of Davis's quantum relativity. The recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce, in a consistent way, the quantum space-time model (the quantum substitute of Minkowski space) of Banai proposed in the paper mentioned. The goal of quantum mechanics of quantum relativistic particles living in this model of space-time is to predict the rest mass system properties of classically relativistic (massive) quantum particles (''elementary particles''). The main new aspect of this quantum mechanics is that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem, and that the excited mass states of quantum relativistic particles can be interpreted as elementary particles. The question of field theory over quantum relativistic model of space-time is also discussed. Finally it is suggested that ''quarks'' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)
Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rastislav Lukac
2004-09-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.
Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.
1995-11-01
The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this sped a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band. i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit (to contribute to the stability) or after an islanding (to quickly reach a balance with the house load). It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms; We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth of the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band-stop filter (for instance a Butterworth, a Chebyshev or an elliptic band-stop filter),it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman's theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a white noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band-stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. (authors). 13 refs., 12 figs
Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can
2017-01-01
It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)
Quantum Secure Dialogue with Quantum Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Tian-Yu
2014-01-01
How to solve the information leakage problem has become the research focus of quantum dialogue. In this paper, in order to overcome the information leakage problem in quantum dialogue, a novel approach for sharing the initial quantum state privately between communicators, i.e., quantum encryption sharing, is proposed by utilizing the idea of quantum encryption. The proposed protocol uses EPR pairs as the private quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the traveling photons, which can be repeatedly used after rotation. Due to quantum encryption sharing, the public announcement on the state of the initial quantum state is omitted, thus the information leakage problem is overcome. The information-theoretical efficiency of the proposed protocol is nearly 100%, much higher than previous information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocols. Moreover, the proposed protocol only needs single-photon measurements and nearly uses single photons as quantum resource so that it is convenient to implement in practice. (general)
Optimization of filter loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)
1985-01-01
The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized
Quantum group and quantum symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Zhe.
1994-05-01
This is a self-contained review on the theory of quantum group and its applications to modern physics. A brief introduction is given to the Yang-Baxter equation in integrable quantum field theory and lattice statistical physics. The quantum group is primarily introduced as a systematic method for solving the Yang-Baxter equation. Quantum group theory is presented within the framework of quantum double through quantizing Lie bi-algebra. Both the highest weight and the cyclic representations are investigated for the quantum group and emphasis is laid on the new features of representations for q being a root of unity. Quantum symmetries are explored in selected topics of modern physics. For a Hamiltonian system the quantum symmetry is an enlarged symmetry that maintains invariance of equations of motion and allows a deformation of the Hamiltonian and symplectic form. The configuration space of the integrable lattice model is analyzed in terms of the representation theory of quantum group. By means of constructing the Young operators of quantum group, the Schroedinger equation of the model is transformed to be a set of coupled linear equations that can be solved by the standard method. Quantum symmetry of the minimal model and the WZNW model in conformal field theory is a hidden symmetry expressed in terms of screened vertex operators, and has a deep interplay with the Virasoro algebra. In quantum group approach a complete description for vibrating and rotating diatomic molecules is given. The exact selection rules and wave functions are obtained. The Taylor expansion of the analytic formulas of the approach reproduces the famous Dunham expansion. (author). 133 refs, 20 figs
Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.
Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun
2017-05-10
Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Quantum Chess: Making Quantum Phenomena Accessible
Cantwell, Christopher
Quantum phenomena have remained largely inaccessible to the general public. There tends to be a scare factor associated with the word ``Quantum''. This is in large part due to the alien nature of phenomena such as superposition and entanglement. However, Quantum Computing is a very active area of research and one day we will have games that run on those quantum computers. Quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement will seem as normal as gravity. Is it possible to create such games today? Can we make games that are built on top of a realistic quantum simulation and introduce players of any background to quantum concepts in a fun and mentally stimulating way? One of the difficulties with any quantum simulation run on a classical computer is that the Hilbert space grows exponentially, making simulations of an appreciable size physically impossible due largely to memory restrictions. Here we will discuss the conception and development of Quantum Chess, and how to overcome some of the difficulties faced. We can then ask the question, ``What's next?'' What are some of the difficulties Quantum Chess still faces, and what is the future of quantum games?
Retrievable Vena Cava Filters in Major Trauma Patients: Prevalence of Thrombus Within the Filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahrer, Arie; Zippel, Douglas; Garniek, Alexander; Golan, Gil; Bensaid, Paul; Simon, Daniel; Rimon, Uri
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of thrombus within a retrievable vena cava filter inserted prophylactically in major trauma patients referred for filter extraction. Between November 2002 and August 2005, 80 retrievable inferior vena cava filters (68 Optease and 12 Gunther-Tulip) were inserted into critically injured trauma patients (mean injury severity score 33.5). The filters were inserted within 1 to 6 (mean 2) days of injury. Thirty-seven patients were referred for filter removal (32 with Optease and 5 with Gunther-Tulip). The indwelling time was 7 to 22 (mean 13) days. All patients underwent inferior vena cavography prior to filter removal. There were no insertion-related complications and all filters were successfully deployed. Forty-three (54%) of the 80 patients were not referred for filter removal, as these patients continued to have contraindications to anticoagulation. Thirty-seven patients (46%) were referred for filter removal. In eight of them (22%) a large thrombus was seen within the filters and they were left in place, all with the Optease device. The other 29 filters (36%) were removed uneventfully.We conclude that the relatively high prevalence of intrafilter thrombi with the Optease filter may be explained by either spontaneous thrombus formation or captured emboli.
Quantum group gauge theory on quantum spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzezinski, T.; Majid, S.
1993-01-01
We construct quantum group-valued canonical connections on quantum homogeneous spaces, including a q-deformed Dirac monopole on the quantum sphere of Podles quantum differential coming from the 3-D calculus of Woronowicz on SU q (2). The construction is presented within the setting of a general theory of quantum principal bundles with quantum group (Hopf algebra) fiber, associated quantum vector bundles and connection one-forms. Both the base space (spacetime) and the total space are non-commutative algebras (quantum spaces). (orig.)
Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook
2015-01-01
When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)
Physical characteristics of the paper filter and low cafestol content filter coffee brews.
Rendón, Mery Yovana; Dos Santos Scholz, Maria Brígida; Bragagnolo, Neura
2018-06-01
The results found in the literature concerning the effect of consuming filter coffee brews on increasing the blood cholesterol levels due to the presence of diterpenes, are divergent. Thus the present research evaluated the diterpene (cafestol and kahweol) concentrations in filter coffee brews prepared with paper filters of different sizes, colors and origins (Brazil, Japan, The United States of America, Germany, France and the Netherlands), with and without micro perforations. This is the first study that reports the physical characteristics of paper filter and its importance to obtain filter coffee brew with low cafestol content. Thus, a sample of Catuai cultivar coffee with high cafestol content was roasted to a medium-light degree and used to prepare the brews in a 1:10 ratio (coffee powder to water). The diterpenes were extracted by direct saponification and quantified and identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The paper filters were physically characterized by measuring their grammage, and the fat permeation rate calculated in order to better understand the differences between the filters which allow one to obtain higher or lower diterpene contents. The cafestol and kahweol concentrations in the brews varied from 1.62 to 2.98 mg/L and from 0.73 to 1.96 mg/L, respectively. The highest cafestol and kahweol concentrations were obtained using paper filters with micro perforations, considering similar sized paper filters. The paper filters showed high fat permeability and grammages between 50.46 and 67.48 g/m 2 . The diterpene retention capacities of the filters produced in the different countries were similar. The results showed that the porosity of the paper filter and the particle size of the ground roasted coffee were determinant factors in obtaining filter coffee brews with lower cafestol contents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks
Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng
2015-07-01
Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks.
Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation
Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying
2017-04-01
Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.
Quantum memory for images: A quantum hologram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Polzik, Eugene S.
2008-01-01
Matter-light quantum interface and quantum memory for light are important ingredients of quantum information protocols, such as quantum networks, distributed quantum computation, etc. [P. Zoller et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203 (2005)]. In this paper we present a spatially multimode scheme for quantum memory for light, which we call a quantum hologram. Our approach uses a multiatom ensemble which has been shown to be efficient for a single spatial mode quantum memory. Due to the multiatom nature of the ensemble and to the optical parallelism it is capable of storing many spatial modes, a feature critical for the present proposal. A quantum hologram with the fidelity exceeding that of classical hologram will be able to store quantum features of an image, such as multimode superposition and entangled quantum states, something that a standard hologram is unable to achieve
statistical fluid theory for associating fluids containing alternating ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Statistical associating fluid theory of homonuclear dimerized chain fluids and homonuclear ... The proposed models account for the appropriate .... where gHNM(1,1) is the expression for the contact value of the correlation func- tion of two ...
Design, control, and implementation of LCL-filter-based shunt active power filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tang, Yi; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng
2011-01-01
This paper concentrates on the design, control and implementation of an LCL-filter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF), which can effectively compensate harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads in a three-phase three-wire power system. The use of LCL-filter at the output end of SAPF offer......-loop control system, and active damping implemented with fewer current sensors are all addressed here. An analytical design example is finally presented, being supported with experimental results, to verify its effectiveness and practicality.......This paper concentrates on the design, control and implementation of an LCL-filter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF), which can effectively compensate harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads in a three-phase three-wire power system. The use of LCL-filter at the output end of SAPF offers...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloísa Berbel Manaia
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.
Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters
Hoteit, Ibrahim
2010-09-19
Optimal nonlinear filtering consists of sequentially determining the conditional probability distribution functions (pdf) of the system state, given the information of the dynamical and measurement processes and the previous measurements. Once the pdfs are obtained, one can determine different estimates, for instance, the minimum variance estimate, or the maximum a posteriori estimate, of the system state. It can be shown that, many filters, including the Kalman filter (KF) and the particle filter (PF), can be derived based on this sequential Bayesian estimation framework. In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spehner, Dominique [Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Fourier, F-38000 Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique et Modélisation des Milieux Condensés, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2014-07-15
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spehner, Dominique
2014-01-01
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature
Evidence-Based Evaluation of Inferior Vena Cava Filter Complications Based on Filter Type
Deso, Steven E.; Idakoji, Ibrahim A.; Kuo, William T.
2016-01-01
Many inferior vena cava (IVC) filter types, along with their specific risks and complications, are not recognized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the various FDA-approved IVC filter types to determine device-specific risks, as a way to help identify patients who may benefit from ongoing follow-up versus prompt filter retrieval. An evidence-based electronic search (FDA Premarket Notification, MEDLINE, FDA MAUDE) was performed to identify all IVC filter types and device-specific complications from 1980 to 2014. Twenty-three IVC filter types (14 retrievable, 9 permanent) were identified. The devices were categorized as follows: conical (n = 14), conical with umbrella (n = 1), conical with cylindrical element (n = 2), biconical with cylindrical element (n = 2), helical (n = 1), spiral (n = 1), and complex (n = 1). Purely conical filters were associated with the highest reported risks of penetration (90–100%). Filters with cylindrical or umbrella elements were associated with the highest reported risk of IVC thrombosis (30–50%). Conical Bard filters were associated with the highest reported risks of fracture (40%). The various FDA-approved IVC filter types were evaluated for device-specific complications based on best current evidence. This information can be used to guide and optimize clinical management in patients with indwelling IVC filters. PMID:27247477
Higher safety and saving of filter material with multi-way sorption filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohlmeyer, M.; Benzel, M.
1978-01-01
The multi-way filter 'Nuclear Karlsruhe' satisfies the requirements of operational safety, high utilisation of the filter material and low pressure drop. An important factor contributing to increased operational safety is due to the fact that the nearly total utilisation of the filter material eliminates the need for optimisation weighing costs against safety. The reduction in filter material consumption reduces not only the direct procurement costs but also the costs of nuclear plants, is radioactive. This contributes in several respects towards a better protection of the environment. The MWS filter can also be used, and presents the same advantages, in non-nuclear plants. (orig.) [de
Quantum dynamics in open quantum-classical systems.
Kapral, Raymond
2015-02-25
Often quantum systems are not isolated and interactions with their environments must be taken into account. In such open quantum systems these environmental interactions can lead to decoherence and dissipation, which have a marked influence on the properties of the quantum system. In many instances the environment is well-approximated by classical mechanics, so that one is led to consider the dynamics of open quantum-classical systems. Since a full quantum dynamical description of large many-body systems is not currently feasible, mixed quantum-classical methods can provide accurate and computationally tractable ways to follow the dynamics of both the system and its environment. This review focuses on quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, one of several quantum-classical descriptions, and discusses the problems that arise when one attempts to combine quantum and classical mechanics, coherence and decoherence in quantum-classical systems, nonadiabatic dynamics, surface-hopping and mean-field theories and their relation to quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, as well as methods for simulating the dynamics.
Quantum machine learning for quantum anomaly detection
Liu, Nana; Rebentrost, Patrick
2018-04-01
Anomaly detection is used for identifying data that deviate from "normal" data patterns. Its usage on classical data finds diverse applications in many important areas such as finance, fraud detection, medical diagnoses, data cleaning, and surveillance. With the advent of quantum technologies, anomaly detection of quantum data, in the form of quantum states, may become an important component of quantum applications. Machine-learning algorithms are playing pivotal roles in anomaly detection using classical data. Two widely used algorithms are the kernel principal component analysis and the one-class support vector machine. We find corresponding quantum algorithms to detect anomalies in quantum states. We show that these two quantum algorithms can be performed using resources that are logarithmic in the dimensionality of quantum states. For pure quantum states, these resources can also be logarithmic in the number of quantum states used for training the machine-learning algorithm. This makes these algorithms potentially applicable to big quantum data applications.
Quantum quincunx in cavity quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Tregenna, Ben; Knight, Peter L.
2003-01-01
We introduce the quantum quincunx, which physically demonstrates the quantum walk and is analogous to Galton's quincunx for demonstrating the random walk by employing gravity to draw pellets through pegs on a board, thereby yielding a binomial distribution of final peg locations. In contradistinction to the theoretical studies of quantum walks over orthogonal lattice states, we introduce quantum walks over nonorthogonal lattice states (specifically, coherent states on a circle) to demonstrate that the key features of a quantum walk are observable albeit for strict parameter ranges. A quantum quincunx may be realized with current cavity quantum electrodynamics capabilities, and precise control over decoherence in such experiments allows a remarkable decrease in the position noise, or spread, with increasing decoherence
Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires
Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A
2002-01-01
The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)
Combination of Wiener filtering and singular value decomposition filtering for volume imaging PET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao, L.; Lewitt, R.M.; Karp, J.S.
1995-01-01
Although the three-dimensional (3D) multi-slice rebinning (MSRB) algorithm in PET is fast and practical, and provides an accurate reconstruction, the MSRB image, in general, suffers from the noise amplified by its singular value decomposition (SVD) filtering operation in the axial direction. Their aim in this study is to combine the use of the Wiener filter (WF) with the SVD to decrease the noise and improve the image quality. The SVD filtering ''deconvolves'' the spatially variant axial response function while the WF suppresses the noise and reduces the blurring not modeled by the axial SVD filter but included in the system modulation transfer function. Therefore, the synthesis of these two techniques combines the advantages of both filters. The authors applied this approach to the volume imaging HEAD PENN-PET brain scanner with an axial extent of 256 mm. This combined filter was evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio with several phantoms, such as a cold sphere phantom and 3D brain phantom. Specifically, the authors studied both the SVD filter with an axial Wiener filter and the SVD filter with a 3D Wiener filter, and compared the filtered images to those from the 3D reprojection (3DRP) reconstruction algorithm. Their results indicate that the Wiener filter increases the signal-to-noise ratio and also improves the contrast. For the MSRB images of the 3D brain phantom, after 3D WF, both the Gray/White and Gray/Ventricle ratios were improved from 1.8 to 2.8 and 2.1 to 4.1, respectively. In addition, the image quality with the MSRB algorithm is close to that of the 3DRP algorithm with 3D WF applied to both image reconstructions
Quantum key distribution via quantum encryption
Yong Sheng Zhang; Guang Can Guo
2001-01-01
A quantum key distribution protocol based on quantum encryption is presented in this Brief Report. In this protocol, the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs act as the quantum key to encode and decode the classical cryptography key. The quantum key is reusable and the eavesdropper cannot elicit any information from the particle Alice sends to Bob. The concept of quantum encryption is also discussed. (21 refs).
Choosing and using astronomical filters
Griffiths, Martin
2014-01-01
As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take
Robust Ensemble Filtering and Its Relation to Covariance Inflation in the Ensemble Kalman Filter
Luo, Xiaodong
2011-12-01
A robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the H∞ filtering theory is proposed. The optimal H∞ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used in the Kalman filter. By design, the H∞ filter is more robust than the Kalman filter, in the sense that the estimation error in the H∞ filter in general has a finite growth rate with respect to the uncertainties in assimilation, except for a special case that corresponds to the Kalman filter. The original form of the H∞ filter contains global constraints in time, which may be inconvenient for sequential data assimilation problems. Therefore a variant is introduced that solves some time-local constraints instead, and hence it is called the time-local H∞ filter (TLHF). By analogy to the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the concept of ensemble time-local H∞ filter (EnTLHF) is also proposed. The general form of the EnTLHF is outlined, and some of its special cases are discussed. In particular, it is shown that an EnKF with certain covariance inflation is essentially an EnTLHF. In this sense, the EnTLHF provides a general framework for conducting covariance inflation in the EnKF-based methods. Some numerical examples are used to assess the relative robustness of the TLHF–EnTLHF in comparison with the corresponding KF–EnKF method.
OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert
1998-04-30
Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench
Geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in an N-partite quantum state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Ali Saif M; Joag, Pramod S
2012-01-01
Quantum discord, as introduced by Ollivier and Zurek (2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 017901), is a measure of the discrepancy between quantum versions of two classically equivalent expressions for mutual information and is found to be useful in quantification and application of quantum correlations in mixed states. It is viewed as a key resource present in certain quantum communication tasks and quantum computational models without containing much entanglement. An early step toward the quantification of quantum discord in a quantum state was by Dakic et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 190502) who introduced a geometric measure of quantum discord and derived an explicit formula for any two-qubit state. Recently, Luo and Fu (2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 034302) introduced a generic form of the geometric measure of quantum discord for a bipartite quantum state. We extend these results and find generic forms of the geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in a general N-partite quantum state. Further, we obtain computable exact formulas for the geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in an N-qubit quantum state. The exact formulas for the N-qubit quantum state can be used to get experimental estimates of the quantum discord and the total quantum correlation. (paper)
Quantum demultiplexer of quantum parameter-estimation information in quantum networks
Xie, Yanqing; Huang, Yumeng; Wu, Yinzhong; Hao, Xiang
2018-05-01
The quantum demultiplexer is constructed by a series of unitary operators and multipartite entangled states. It is used to realize information broadcasting from an input node to multiple output nodes in quantum networks. The scheme of quantum network communication with respect to phase estimation is put forward through the demultiplexer subjected to amplitude damping noises. The generalized partial measurements can be applied to protect the transferring efficiency from environmental noises in the protocol. It is found out that there are some optimal coherent states which can be prepared to enhance the transmission of phase estimation. The dynamics of state fidelity and quantum Fisher information are investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the network communication. While the state fidelity deteriorates rapidly, the quantum Fisher information can be enhanced to a maximum value and then decreases slowly. The memory effect of the environment induces the oscillations of fidelity and quantum Fisher information. The adjustment of the strength of partial measurements is helpful to increase quantum Fisher information.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Friston
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.
Research progress on quantum informatics and quantum computation
Zhao, Yusheng
2018-03-01
Quantum informatics is an emerging interdisciplinary subject developed by the combination of quantum mechanics, information science, and computer science in the 1980s. The birth and development of quantum information science has far-reaching significance in science and technology. At present, the application of quantum information technology has become the direction of people’s efforts. The preparation, storage, purification and regulation, transmission, quantum coding and decoding of quantum state have become the hotspot of scientists and technicians, which have a profound impact on the national economy and the people’s livelihood, technology and defense technology. This paper first summarizes the background of quantum information science and quantum computer and the current situation of domestic and foreign research, and then introduces the basic knowledge and basic concepts of quantum computing. Finally, several quantum algorithms are introduced in detail, including Quantum Fourier transform, Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, Shor’s quantum algorithm, quantum phase estimation.
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,
Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL
2009-10-13
Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.
Efficient quantum circuit implementation of quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, B. L.; Wang, J. B.
2009-01-01
Quantum walks, being the quantum analog of classical random walks, are expected to provide a fruitful source of quantum algorithms. A few such algorithms have already been developed, including the 'glued trees' algorithm, which provides an exponential speedup over classical methods, relative to a particular quantum oracle. Here, we discuss the possibility of a quantum walk algorithm yielding such an exponential speedup over possible classical algorithms, without the use of an oracle. We provide examples of some highly symmetric graphs on which efficient quantum circuits implementing quantum walks can be constructed and discuss potential applications to quantum search for marked vertices along these graphs.
Ming, Fei; Wang, Dong; Shi, Wei-Nan; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu
2018-04-01
The uncertainty principle is recognized as an elementary ingredient of quantum theory and sets up a significant bound to predict outcome of measurement for a couple of incompatible observables. In this work, we develop dynamical features of quantum memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (QMA-EUR) in a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ spin chain with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. We specifically derive the dynamical evolutions of the entropic uncertainty with respect to the measurement in the Heisenberg XXZ model when spin A is initially correlated with quantum memory B. It has been found that the larger coupling strength J of the ferromagnetism ( J 0 ) chains can effectively degrade the measuring uncertainty. Besides, it turns out that the higher temperature can induce the inflation of the uncertainty because the thermal entanglement becomes relatively weak in this scenario, and there exists a distinct dynamical behavior of the uncertainty when an inhomogeneous magnetic field emerges. With the growing magnetic field | B | , the variation of the entropic uncertainty will be non-monotonic. Meanwhile, we compare several different optimized bounds existing with the initial bound proposed by Berta et al. and consequently conclude Adabi et al.'s result is optimal. Moreover, we also investigate the mixedness of the system of interest, dramatically associated with the uncertainty. Remarkably, we put forward a possible physical interpretation to explain the evolutionary phenomenon of the uncertainty. Finally, we take advantage of a local filtering operation to steer the magnitude of the uncertainty. Therefore, our explorations may shed light on the entropic uncertainty under the Heisenberg XXZ model and hence be of importance to quantum precision measurement over solid state-based quantum information processing.
Is Quantum Gravity a Super-Quantum Theory?
Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu
2013-01-01
We argue that quantum gravity should be a super-quantum theory, that is, a theory whose non-local correlations are stronger than those of canonical quantum theory. As a super-quantum theory, quantum gravity should display distinct experimentally observable super-correlations of entangled stringy states.
Recirculating electric air filter
Bergman, W.
1985-01-09
An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiang Guo-Yong; Guo Guang-Can
2013-01-01
The statistical error is ineluctable in any measurement. Quantum techniques, especially with the development of quantum information, can help us squeeze the statistical error and enhance the precision of measurement. In a quantum system, there are some quantum parameters, such as the quantum state, quantum operator, and quantum dimension, which have no classical counterparts. So quantum metrology deals with not only the traditional parameters, but also the quantum parameters. Quantum metrology includes two important parts: measuring the physical parameters with a precision beating the classical physics limit and measuring the quantum parameters precisely. In this review, we will introduce how quantum characters (e.g., squeezed state and quantum entanglement) yield a higher precision, what the research areas are scientists most interesting in, and what the development status of quantum metrology and its perspectives are. (topical review - quantum information)
Quantum probability and quantum decision-making.
Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D
2016-01-13
A rigorous general definition of quantum probability is given, which is valid not only for elementary events but also for composite events, for operationally testable measurements as well as for inconclusive measurements, and also for non-commuting observables in addition to commutative observables. Our proposed definition of quantum probability makes it possible to describe quantum measurements and quantum decision-making on the same common mathematical footing. Conditions are formulated for the case when quantum decision theory reduces to its classical counterpart and for the situation where the use of quantum decision theory is necessary. © 2015 The Author(s).
Constructing quantum dynamics from mixed quantum-classical descriptions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barsegov, V.; Rossky, P.J.
2004-01-01
The influence of quantum bath effects on the dynamics of a quantum two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic bath is studied when the coupling is both diagonal and off-diagonal. It is shown that the pure dephasing kernel and the non-adiabatic quantum transition rate between Born-Oppenheimer states of the subsystem can be decomposed into a contribution from thermally excited bath modes plus a zero point energy contribution. This quantum rate can be modewise factorized exactly into a product of a mixed quantum subsystem-classical bath transition rate and a quantum correction factor. This factor determines dynamics of quantum bath correlations. Quantum bath corrections to both the transition rate and the pure dephasing kernel are shown to be readily evaluated via a mixed quantum-classical simulation. Hence, quantum dynamics can be recovered from a mixed quantum-classical counterpart by incorporating the missing quantum bath corrections. Within a mixed quantum-classical framework, a simple approach for evaluating quantum bath corrections in calculation of the non-adiabatic transition rate is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNabb, J.
2001-01-01
The analysis of data from CLAS is a multi-step process. After the detectors for a given running period have been calibrated, the data is processed in the so called pass-1 cooking. During the pass-1 cooking each event is reconstructed by the program a1c which finds particle tracks and computes momenta from the raw data. The results are then passed on to several data monitoring and filtering utilities. In CLAS software, a filter is a parameterless function which returns an integer indicating whether an event should be kept by that filter or not. There is a main filter program called g1-filter which controls several specific filters and outputs several files, one for each filter. These files may then be analyzed separately, allowing individuals interested in one reaction channel to work from smaller files than using the whole data set would require. There are several constraints on what the filter functions should do. Obviously, the filtered files should be as small as possible, however the filter should also not reject any events that might be used in the later analysis for which the filter was intended
Fermionic entanglement via quantum walks in quantum dots
Melnikov, Alexey A.; Fedichkin, Leonid E.
2018-02-01
Quantum walks are fundamentally different from random walks due to the quantum superposition property of quantum objects. Quantum walk process was found to be very useful for quantum information and quantum computation applications. In this paper we demonstrate how to use quantum walks as a tool to generate high-dimensional two-particle fermionic entanglement. The generated entanglement can survive longer in the presence of depolorazing noise due to the periodicity of quantum walk dynamics. The possibility to create two distinguishable qudits in a system of tunnel-coupled semiconductor quantum dots is discussed.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
Emergent mechanics, quantum and un-quantum
Ralston, John P.
2013-10-01
There is great interest in quantum mechanics as an "emergent" phenomenon. The program holds that nonobvious patterns and laws can emerge from complicated physical systems operating by more fundamental rules. We find a new approach where quantum mechanics itself should be viewed as an information management tool not derived from physics nor depending on physics. The main accomplishment of quantum-style theory comes in expanding the notion of probability. We construct a map from macroscopic information as data" to quantum probability. The map allows a hidden variable description for quantum states, and efficient use of the helpful tools of quantum mechanics in unlimited circumstances. Quantum dynamics via the time-dependent Shroedinger equation or operator methods actually represents a restricted class of classical Hamiltonian or Lagrangian dynamics, albeit with different numbers of degrees of freedom. We show that under wide circumstances such dynamics emerges from structureless dynamical systems. The uses of the quantum information management tools are illustrated by numerical experiments and practical applications
From Microwave Filter to Digital Filter and Back Again
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalby, Arne Brejning
1989-01-01
A new very simple state variable flow graph representation for interdigital transmission line bandpass filters is presented, which has led to two important results: 1) A new type of digital filter with properties, that surpass the properties of most other (all pole) digital filtertypes. 2) The st...
Roy, M; Lee, R W; Kaarsholm, N C; Thøgersen, H; Brange, J; Dunn, M F
1990-06-12
The aromatic region of the 1H-FT-NMR spectrum of the biologically fully-potent, monomeric human insulin mutant, B9 Ser----Asp, B27 Thr----Glu has been investigated in D2O. At 1 to 5 mM concentrations, this mutant insulin is monomeric above pH 7.5. Coupling and amino acid classification of all aromatic signals is established via a combination of homonuclear one- and two-dimensional methods, including COSY, multiple quantum filters, selective spin decoupling and pH titrations. By comparisons with other insulin mutants and with chemically modified native insulins, all resonances in the aromatic region are given sequence-specific assignments without any reliance on the various crystal structures reported for insulin. These comparisons also give the sequence-specific assignments of most of the aromatic resonances of the mutant insulins B16 Tyr----Glu, B27 Thr----Glu and B25 Phe----Asp and the chemically modified species des-(B23-B30) insulin and monoiodo-Tyr A14 insulin. Chemical dispersion of the assigned resonances, ring current perturbations and comparisons at high pH have made possible the assignment of the aromatic resonances of human insulin, and these studies indicate that the major structural features of the human insulin monomer (including those critical to biological function) are also present in the monomeric mutant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butterworth, D.J.
1980-01-01
This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)
Fristedt, B; Krylov, N
2007-01-01
Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...
Electric-field-controlled spin reversal in a quantum dot with ferromagnetic contacts
Hauptmann, J. R.; Paaske, J.; Lindelof, P. E.
2008-05-01
Manipulation of the spin states of a quantum dot by purely electrical means is a highly desirable property of fundamental importance for the development of spintronic devices such as spin filters, spin transistors and single spin memories as well as for solid-state qubits. An electrically gated quantum dot in the Coulomb blockade regime can be tuned to hold a single unpaired spin-1/2, which is routinely spin polarized by an applied magnetic field. Using ferromagnetic electrodes, however, the quantum dot becomes spin polarized by the local exchange field. Here, we report on the experimental realization of this tunnelling-induced spin splitting in a carbon-nanotube quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic nickel electrodes with a strong tunnel coupling ensuring a sizeable exchange field. As charge transport in this regime is dominated by the Kondo effect, we can use this sharp many-body resonance to read off the local spin polarization from the measured bias spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the exchange field can be compensated by an external magnetic field, thus restoring a zero-bias Kondo resonance, and we demonstrate that the exchange field itself, and hence the local spin polarization, can be tuned and reversed merely by tuning the gate voltage.
The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.
Harris, Bradford
2011-05-01
When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate
Electron quantum optics as quantum signal processing
Roussel, B.; Cabart, C.; Fève, G.; Thibierge, E.; Degiovanni, P.
2016-01-01
The recent developments of electron quantum optics in quantum Hall edge channels have given us new ways to probe the behavior of electrons in quantum conductors. It has brought new quantities called electronic coherences under the spotlight. In this paper, we explore the relations between electron quantum optics and signal processing through a global review of the various methods for accessing single- and two-electron coherences in electron quantum optics. We interpret electron quantum optics...
Bowtie filters for dedicated breast CT: Analysis of bowtie filter material selection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kontson, Kimberly, E-mail: Kimberly.Kontson@fda.hhs.gov; Jennings, Robert J. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 and Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)
2015-09-15
Purpose: For a given bowtie filter design, both the selection of material and the physical design control the energy fluence, and consequently the dose distribution, in the object. Using three previously described bowtie filter designs, the goal of this work is to demonstrate the effect that different materials have on the bowtie filter performance measures. Methods: Three bowtie filter designs that compensate for one or more aspects of the beam-modifying effects due to the differences in path length in a projection have been designed. The nature of the designs allows for their realization using a variety of materials. The designs were based on a phantom, 14 cm in diameter, composed of 40% fibroglandular and 60% adipose tissue. Bowtie design #1 is based on single material spectral matching and produces nearly uniform spectral shape for radiation incident upon the detector. Bowtie design #2 uses the idea of basis-material decomposition to produce the same spectral shape and intensity at the detector, using two different materials. With bowtie design #3, it is possible to eliminate the beam hardening effect in the reconstructed image by adjusting the bowtie filter thickness so that the effective attenuation coefficient for every ray is the same. Seven different materials were chosen to represent a range of chemical compositions and densities. After calculation of construction parameters for each bowtie filter design, a bowtie filter was created using each of these materials (assuming reasonable construction parameters were obtained), resulting in a total of 26 bowtie filters modeled analytically and in the PENELOPE Monte Carlo simulation environment. Using the analytical model of each bowtie filter, design profiles were obtained and energy fluence as a function of fan-angle was calculated. Projection images with and without each bowtie filter design were also generated using PENELOPE and reconstructed using FBP. Parameters such as dose distribution, noise uniformity
Bowtie filters for dedicated breast CT: Analysis of bowtie filter material selection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kontson, Kimberly; Jennings, Robert J.
2015-01-01
Purpose: For a given bowtie filter design, both the selection of material and the physical design control the energy fluence, and consequently the dose distribution, in the object. Using three previously described bowtie filter designs, the goal of this work is to demonstrate the effect that different materials have on the bowtie filter performance measures. Methods: Three bowtie filter designs that compensate for one or more aspects of the beam-modifying effects due to the differences in path length in a projection have been designed. The nature of the designs allows for their realization using a variety of materials. The designs were based on a phantom, 14 cm in diameter, composed of 40% fibroglandular and 60% adipose tissue. Bowtie design #1 is based on single material spectral matching and produces nearly uniform spectral shape for radiation incident upon the detector. Bowtie design #2 uses the idea of basis-material decomposition to produce the same spectral shape and intensity at the detector, using two different materials. With bowtie design #3, it is possible to eliminate the beam hardening effect in the reconstructed image by adjusting the bowtie filter thickness so that the effective attenuation coefficient for every ray is the same. Seven different materials were chosen to represent a range of chemical compositions and densities. After calculation of construction parameters for each bowtie filter design, a bowtie filter was created using each of these materials (assuming reasonable construction parameters were obtained), resulting in a total of 26 bowtie filters modeled analytically and in the PENELOPE Monte Carlo simulation environment. Using the analytical model of each bowtie filter, design profiles were obtained and energy fluence as a function of fan-angle was calculated. Projection images with and without each bowtie filter design were also generated using PENELOPE and reconstructed using FBP. Parameters such as dose distribution, noise uniformity
Quantum thermodynamic cycles and quantum heat engines. II.
Quan, H T
2009-04-01
We study the quantum-mechanical generalization of force or pressure, and then we extend the classical thermodynamic isobaric process to quantum-mechanical systems. Based on these efforts, we are able to study the quantum version of thermodynamic cycles that consist of quantum isobaric processes, such as the quantum Brayton cycle and quantum Diesel cycle. We also consider the implementation of the quantum Brayton cycle and quantum Diesel cycle with some model systems, such as single particle in a one-dimensional box and single-mode radiation field in a cavity. These studies lay the microscopic (quantum-mechanical) foundation for Szilard-Zurek single-molecule engine.
Quantum random oracle model for quantum digital signature
Shang, Tao; Lei, Qi; Liu, Jianwei
2016-10-01
The goal of this work is to provide a general security analysis tool, namely, the quantum random oracle (QRO), for facilitating the security analysis of quantum cryptographic protocols, especially protocols based on quantum one-way function. QRO is used to model quantum one-way function and different queries to QRO are used to model quantum attacks. A typical application of quantum one-way function is the quantum digital signature, whose progress has been hampered by the slow pace of the experimental realization. Alternatively, we use the QRO model to analyze the provable security of a quantum digital signature scheme and elaborate the analysis procedure. The QRO model differs from the prior quantum-accessible random oracle in that it can output quantum states as public keys and give responses to different queries. This tool can be a test bed for the cryptanalysis of more quantum cryptographic protocols based on the quantum one-way function.
A model of quantum communication device for quantum hashing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasiliev, A
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider a model of quantum communications between classical computers aided with quantum processors, connected by a classical and a quantum channel. This type of communications implying both classical and quantum messages with moderate use of quantum processing is implicitly used in many quantum protocols, such as quantum key distribution or quantum digital signature. We show that using the model of a quantum processor on multiatomic ensembles in the common QED cavity we can speed up quantum hashing, which can be the basis of quantum digital signature and other communication protocols. (paper)
Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.
Rotationally invariant correlation filtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.
1985-01-01
A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired
Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters
Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY
2014-01-01
Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.
New approach for the electronic energies of the hydrogen molecular ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, Tony C.; Aubert-Frecon, Monique; Grotendorst, Johannes
2006-01-01
Herein, we present analytical solutions for the electronic energy eigenvalues of the hydrogen molecular ion H 2 + , namely the one-electron two-fixed-center problem. These are given for the homonuclear case for the countable infinity of discrete states when the magnetic quantum number m is zero, i.e., for 2 Σ + states. In this case, these solutions are the roots of a set of two coupled three-term recurrence relations. The eigensolutions are obtained from an application of experimental mathematics using Computer Algebra as its principal tool and are vindicated by numerical and algebraic demonstrations. Finally, the mathematical nature of the eigenenergies is identified
Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters
ŞENGÜL, Metin
2013-01-01
This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...
Detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes, quantum error designs, and quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alber, G.; Mussinger, M.; Beth, Th.; Charnes, Ch.; Delgado, A.; Grassl, M.
2003-01-01
The recently introduced detected-jump-correcting quantum codes are capable of stabilizing qubit systems against spontaneous decay processes arising from couplings to statistically independent reservoirs. These embedded quantum codes exploit classical information about which qubit has emitted spontaneously and correspond to an active error-correcting code embedded in a passive error-correcting code. The construction of a family of one-detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes is shown and the optimal redundancy, encoding, and recovery as well as general properties of detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes are discussed. By the use of design theory, multiple-jump-error-correcting quantum codes can be constructed. The performance of one-jump-error-correcting quantum codes under nonideal conditions is studied numerically by simulating a quantum memory and Grover's algorithm
Examination of cryogenic filters for multistage RF filtering in ultralow temperature experiments
Zavyalov, V. V.; Chernyaev, S. A.; Shein, K. V.; Shukaleva, A. G.; Arutyunov, K. Yu
2018-03-01
Cryo-filters are essential while studying electronic properties of nanoscale structures at very low temperatures. In this report we present the simple measuring methodology and experimental impedance characteristics of customized lumped filters cooled down to 4.2K in the 10 Hz-500 MHz frequency range. In particular, we tested the home-made permalloy-core RL filters, the MurataTMChip Ferrite Bead filter, and the ToshibaTMAmobeadsTMcores. We use the high-frequency generalization of four-terminal sensing method to account for the wiring retardation effects, which are important when working with ultralow temperature systems.
Quantum technology past, present, future: quantum energetics (Conference Presentation)
Choi, Sang H.
2017-04-01
Since the development of quantum physics in the early part of the 1900s, this field of study has made remarkable contributions to our civilization. Some of these advances include lasers, light-emitting diodes (LED), sensors, spectroscopy, quantum dots, quantum gravity and quantum entanglements. In 1998, the NASA Langley Research Center established a quantum technology committee to monitor the progress in this area and initiated research to determine the potential of quantum technology for future NASA missions. The areas of interest in quantum technology at NASA included fundamental quantum-optics materials associated with quantum dots and quantum wells, device-oriented photonic crystals, smart optics, quantum conductors, quantum information and computing, teleportation theorem, and quantum energetics. A brief review of the work performed, the progress made in advancing these technologies, and the potential NASA applications of quantum technology will be presented.
Flexible time-varying filter banks
Tuncer, Temel E.; Nguyen, Truong Q.
1993-09-01
Linear phase maximally flat FIR Butterworth filter approximations are discussed and a new filter design method is introduced. This variable cutoff filter design method uses the cosine modulated versions of a prototype filter. The design procedure is simple and different variants of this procedure can be used to obtain close to optimum linear phase filters. Using this method, flexible time-varying filter banks with good reconstruction error are introduced. These types of oversampled filter banks have small magnitude error which can be easily controlled by the appropriate choice of modulation frequency. This error can be further decreased by magnitude equalization without increasing the computational complexity considerably. Two dimensional design examples are also given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilic, Tomislav; Milun, Stanko; Petrovic, Goran [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Machine Engineering and Naval Architecture, R. Boskovica bb, 21000, Split (Croatia)
2007-02-15
The shunt active power filters are used to attenuate the harmonic currents in power systems by injecting equal but opposite compensating currents. Successful control of the active filters requires an accurate current reference. In this paper the current reference determination based on predictive filtering structure is presented. Current reference was obtained by taking the difference of load current and its fundamental harmonic. For fundamental harmonic determination with no time delay a combination of digital predictive filter and low pass filter is used. The proposed method was implemented on a laboratory prototype of a three-phase active power filter. The algorithm for current reference determination was adapted and implemented on DSP controller. Simulation and experimental results show that the active power filter with implemented predictive filtering structure gives satisfactory performance in power system harmonic attenuation. (author)
Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver
2004-01-01
A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots
Quantum teleportation of propagating quantum microwaves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Candia, R.; Felicetti, S.; Sanz, M. [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Fedorov, K.G.; Menzel, E.P. [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meissner-Institut, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Zhong, L.; Deppe, F.; Gross, R. [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meissner-Institut, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Marx, A. [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meissner-Institut, Garching (Germany); Solano, E. [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Basque Foundation for Science, IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain)
2015-12-15
Propagating quantum microwaves have been proposed and successfully implemented to generate entanglement, thereby establishing a promising platform for the realisation of a quantum communication channel. However, the implementation of quantum teleportation with photons in the microwave regime is still absent. At the same time, recent developments in the field show that this key protocol could be feasible with current technology, which would pave the way to boost the field of microwave quantum communication. Here, we discuss the feasibility of a possible implementation of microwave quantum teleportation in a realistic scenario with losses. Furthermore, we propose how to implement quantum repeaters in the microwave regime without using photodetection, a key prerequisite to achieve long distance entanglement distribution. (orig.)
Quantum teleportation of propagating quantum microwaves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Candia, R.; Felicetti, S.; Sanz, M.; Fedorov, K.G.; Menzel, E.P.; Zhong, L.; Deppe, F.; Gross, R.; Marx, A.; Solano, E.
2015-01-01
Propagating quantum microwaves have been proposed and successfully implemented to generate entanglement, thereby establishing a promising platform for the realisation of a quantum communication channel. However, the implementation of quantum teleportation with photons in the microwave regime is still absent. At the same time, recent developments in the field show that this key protocol could be feasible with current technology, which would pave the way to boost the field of microwave quantum communication. Here, we discuss the feasibility of a possible implementation of microwave quantum teleportation in a realistic scenario with losses. Furthermore, we propose how to implement quantum repeaters in the microwave regime without using photodetection, a key prerequisite to achieve long distance entanglement distribution. (orig.)
From quantum dots to quantum circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ensslin, K.
2008-01-01
Full text: Quantum dots, or artificial atoms, confine charge carriers in three-dimensional islands in a semiconductor environment. Detailed understanding and exquisite control of the charge and spin state of the electrically tunable charge occupancy have been demonstrated over the years. Quantum dots with best quality for transport experiments are usually realized in n-type AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. Novel material systems, such as graphene, nanowires and p-type heterostructures offer unexplored parameter regimes in view of spin-orbit interactions, carrier-carrier interactions and hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins, which might be relevant for future spin qubits realized in quantum dots. With more sophisticated nanotechnology it has become possible to fabricate coupled quantum systems where classical and quantum mechanical coupling and back action is experimentally investigated. A narrow constriction, or quantum point contact, in vicinity to a quantum dot has been shown to serve as a minimally invasive sensor of the charge state of the dot. If charge transport through the quantum dot is slow enough (kHz), the charge sensor allows the detection of time-resolved transport through quantum-confined structures. This has allowed us to measure extremely small currents not detectable with conventional electronics. In addition the full statistics of current fluctuations becomes experimentally accessible. This way correlations between electrons which influence the current flow can be analyzed by measuring the noise and higher moments of the distribution of current fluctuations. Mesoscopic conductors driven out of equilibrium can emit photons which may be detected by another nearby quantum system with suitably tuned energy levels. This way an on-chip microwave single photon detector has been realized. In a ring geometry containing a tunable double quantum dot it has been possible to measure the self-interference of individual electrons as they traverse
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-06-02
Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.
Quantifying quantum coherence with quantum Fisher information.
Feng, X N; Wei, L F
2017-11-14
Quantum coherence is one of the old but always important concepts in quantum mechanics, and now it has been regarded as a necessary resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. However, the question of how to quantify the quantum coherence has just been paid the attention recently (see, e.g., Baumgratz et al. PRL, 113. 140401 (2014)). In this paper we verify that the well-known quantum Fisher information (QFI) can be utilized to quantify the quantum coherence, as it satisfies the monotonicity under the typical incoherent operations and the convexity under the mixing of the quantum states. Differing from most of the pure axiomatic methods, quantifying quantum coherence by QFI could be experimentally testable, as the bound of the QFI is practically measurable. The validity of our proposal is specifically demonstrated with the typical phase-damping and depolarizing evolution processes of a generic single-qubit state, and also by comparing it with the other quantifying methods proposed previously.
Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet
Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go
2017-09-01
The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.
Design and control of LCL-filter with active damping for Active Power Filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeng, Guohong; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Ma, L
2010-01-01
of LCL-filter for APF is introduced, which is aimed for simplified the implementation. To suppress the resonance that may be excited in the system, which brings in stability problems, an active damping control strategy using the current feed-back of the filter capacitor is adopted. By selecting two equal......In the application of shunt Active Power Filter (APF) to compensate nonlinear load's harmonic, reactive and negative sequence current, it is more effective to use a LCL-filter than an L-filter as an interface between the Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and grid. In this paper, a designing procedure...... or similar inductances, the filter designing become more simple and effective, meanwhile the capacitance requirement is minimized. A pole-zero automatic cancellation phenomenon is discussed in this paper, which can be applied to simplify the current regulator designing. The tuning method is presented, based...
Quantum Chaos via the Quantum Action
Kröger, H.
2002-01-01
We discuss the concept of the quantum action with the purpose to characterize and quantitatively compute quantum chaos. As an example we consider in quantum mechanics a 2-D Hamiltonian system - harmonic oscillators with anharmonic coupling - which is classically a chaotic system. We compare Poincar\\'e sections obtained from the quantum action with those from the classical action.
Quantum capacity of quantum black holes
Adami, Chris; Bradler, Kamil
2014-03-01
The fate of quantum entanglement interacting with a black hole has been an enduring mystery, not the least because standard curved space field theory does not address the interaction of black holes with matter. We discuss an effective Hamiltonian of matter interacting with a black hole that has a precise analogue in quantum optics and correctly reproduces both spontaneous and stimulated Hawking radiation with grey-body factors. We calculate the quantum capacity of this channel in the limit of perfect absorption, as well as in the limit of a perfectly reflecting black hole (a white hole). We find that the white hole is an optimal quantum cloner, and is isomorphic to the Unruh channel with positive quantum capacity. The complementary channel (across the horizon) is entanglement-breaking with zero capacity, avoiding a violation of the quantum no-cloning theorem. The black hole channel on the contrary has vanishing capacity, while its complement has positive capacity instead. Thus, quantum states can be reconstructed faithfully behind the black hole horizon, but not outside. This work sheds new light on black hole complementarity because it shows that black holes can both reflect and absorb quantum states without violating the no-cloning theorem, and makes quantum firewalls obsolete.
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-01-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855
Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per
2001-01-01
Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...
Vectorization of linear discrete filtering algorithms
Schiess, J. R.
1977-01-01
Linear filters, including the conventional Kalman filter and versions of square root filters devised by Potter and Carlson, are studied for potential application on streaming computers. The square root filters are known to maintain a positive definite covariance matrix in cases in which the Kalman filter diverges due to ill-conditioning of the matrix. Vectorization of the filters is discussed, and comparisons are made of the number of operations and storage locations required by each filter. The Carlson filter is shown to be the most efficient of the filters on the Control Data STAR-100 computer.
Filtered-X Affine Projection Algorithms for Active Noise Control Using Volterra Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sicuranza Giovanni L
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the use of adaptive Volterra filters, implemented in the form of multichannel filter banks, as nonlinear active noise controllers. In particular, we discuss the derivation of filtered-X affine projection algorithms for homogeneous quadratic filters. According to the multichannel approach, it is then easy to pass from these algorithms to those of a generic Volterra filter. It is shown in the paper that the AP technique offers better convergence and tracking capabilities than the classical LMS and NLMS algorithms usually applied in nonlinear active noise controllers, with a limited complexity increase. This paper extends in two ways the content of a previous contribution published in Proc. IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03, Grado, Italy, June 2003. First of all, a general adaptation algorithm valid for any order of affine projections is presented. Secondly, a more complete set of experiments is reported. In particular, the effects of using multichannel filter banks with a reduced number of channels are investigated and relevant results are shown.
Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio A Lagana
Full Text Available We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.
Device for filtering gaseous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benzel, M.
1978-01-01
The air filter system for gaseous radioactive substances consists of a vertical chamber with filter material (charcoal, e.g. impregnated). On one side of the chamber there is an inlet compartment and an outlet compartment. On the other side a guiding compartment turns the gas flow coming from the natural-air side through the lower part of filter chamber to the upper part of the filter. The gas flow leaves the upper part through the outlet conpartment as cleaned-air flow. The filter material may be filled into the chamber from above and drawn off below. For better utilization of the filter material the filter chamber is separated by means of a wall between the inlet and outlet compartment. This partition wall consist of two sheets arranged one above the other provided with slots which may be superposed in alignment. In this case filter material is tickling from the upper part of the chamber into the lower part avoiding to form a crater in the filter bed. (DG) [de
DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...
Quantum reference frames and quantum transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toller, M.
1997-01-01
A quantum frame is defined by a material object following the laws of quantum mechanics. The present paper studies the relations between quantum frames, which are described by some generalization of the Poincare' group. The possibility of using a suitable quantum group is examined, but some arguments are given which show that a different mathematical structure is necessary. Some simple examples in lower-dimensional space-times are treated. They indicate the necessity of taking into account some ''internal'' degrees of freedom of the quantum frames, that can be disregarded in a classical treatment
Half-metal phases in a quantum wire with modulated spin-orbit interaction
Cabra, D. C.; Rossini, G. L.; Ferraz, A.; Japaridze, G. I.; Johannesson, H.
2017-11-01
We propose a spin filter device based on the interplay of a modulated spin-orbit interaction and a uniform external magnetic field acting on a quantum wire. Half-metal phases, where electrons with only a selected spin polarization exhibit ballistic conductance, can be tuned by varying the magnetic field. These half-metal phases are proven to be robust against electron-electron repulsive interactions. Our results arise from a combination of explicit band diagonalization, bosonization techniques, and extensive density matrix renormalization group computations.
Abstract quantum computing machines and quantum computational logics
Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe; Leporini, Roberto
2016-06-01
Classical and quantum parallelism are deeply different, although it is sometimes claimed that quantum Turing machines are nothing but special examples of classical probabilistic machines. We introduce the concepts of deterministic state machine, classical probabilistic state machine and quantum state machine. On this basis, we discuss the question: To what extent can quantum state machines be simulated by classical probabilistic state machines? Each state machine is devoted to a single task determined by its program. Real computers, however, behave differently, being able to solve different kinds of problems. This capacity can be modeled, in the quantum case, by the mathematical notion of abstract quantum computing machine, whose different programs determine different quantum state machines. The computations of abstract quantum computing machines can be linguistically described by the formulas of a particular form of quantum logic, termed quantum computational logic.
Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.
Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders
2017-08-29
Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.
Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jin-Mok, E-mail: jmkim@kriss.re.kr; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong [Brain Cognition Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-12-15
We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.
Ceramic fiber reinforced filter
Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.
1991-01-01
A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.
Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system
Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795
Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh
2011-01-01
We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.
Quantum Computing: a Quantum Group Approach
Wang, Zhenghan
2013-01-01
There is compelling theoretical evidence that quantum physics will change the face of information science. Exciting progress has been made during the last two decades towards the building of a large scale quantum computer. A quantum group approach stands out as a promising route to this holy grail, and provides hope that we may have quantum computers in our future.
Iterative quantum-classical path integral with dynamically consistent state hopping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walters, Peter L.; Makri, Nancy [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2016-01-28
We investigate the convergence of iterative quantum-classical path integral calculations in sluggish environments strongly coupled to a quantum system. The number of classical trajectories, thus the computational cost, grows rapidly (exponentially, unless filtering techniques are employed) with the memory length included in the calculation. We argue that the choice of the (single) trajectory branch during the time preceding the memory interval can significantly affect the memory length required for convergence. At short times, the trajectory branch associated with the reactant state improves convergence by eliminating spurious memory. We also introduce an instantaneous population-based probabilistic scheme which introduces state-to-state hops in the retained pre-memory trajectory branch, and which is designed to choose primarily the trajectory branch associated with the reactant at early times, but to favor the product state more as the reaction progresses to completion. Test calculations show that the dynamically consistent state hopping scheme leads to accelerated convergence and a dramatic reduction of computational effort.
Ullah Manzoor, Habib; Manzoor, Tareq; Hussain, Masroor; Manzoor, Sanaullah; Nazar, Kashif
2018-04-01
Surface electromagnetic waves are the solution of Maxwell’s frequency domain equations at the interface of two dissimilar materials. In this article, two canonical boundary-value problems have been formulated to analyze the multiplicity of electromagnetic surface waves at the interface between two dissimilar materials in the visible region of light. In the first problem, the interface between two semi-infinite rugate filters having symmetric refractive index profiles is considered and in the second problem, to enhance the multiplicity of surface electromagnetic waves, a homogeneous dielectric slab of 400 nm is included between two semi-infinite symmetric rugate filters. Numerical results show that multiple Bloch surface waves of different phase speeds, different polarization states, different degrees of localization and different field profiles are propagated at the interface between two semi-infinite rugate filters. Having two interfaces when a homogeneous dielectric layer is placed between two semi-infinite rugate filters has increased the multiplicity of electromagnetic surface waves.
Chang, Mou-Hsiung
2015-01-01
The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...
Active RC filter based implementation analysis part of two channel hybrid filter bank
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stojanović Vidosav
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, a new design method for continuous-time powersymmetric active RC filters for Hybrid Filter Bank (HFB is proposed. Some theoretical properties of continious-time power-symmetric filters bank in a more general perspective are studied. This includes the derivation of a new general analytical form, and a study of poles and zeros locations in s-plane. In the proposed design method the analytic solution of filter coefficients is solved in sdomain using only one nonlinear equation Finally, the proposed approximation is compared to standard approximations. It was shown that attenuation and group delay characteristic of the proposed filter lie between Butterworth and elliptic characteristics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 32009TR
Analog filters in nanometer CMOS
Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst
2014-01-01
Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...
Study of InGaN/GaN quantum dot systems by TEM techniques and photoluminescence spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashtiban, R J; Bangert, U; Harvey, A J; Sherliker, B; Halsall, M P
2010-01-01
InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dot structures produced by MOCVD techniques on c-plane sapphire were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Indium fluctuations ranging from 1-4 nm were observed with both energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning TEM. The existence of V-shaped defects with nucleation centres at the termination of threading dislocation were observed in HAADF images. There was also evidence of the formation of large quantum dots at low densities from lattice HRTEM images. This was further confirmed by PL measurements through the observation of a single sharp line at low power with the typical saturation behaviour at higher power excitation.
Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.
2016-01-01
We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus
Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Un Cig, E-mail: uncigji@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Mathematics, Research Institute of Mathematical Finance, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644 (Korea, Republic of); Sinha, Kalyan B., E-mail: kbs-jaya@yahoo.co.in [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore-64, India and Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-12 (India)
2016-02-15
We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.
Quantumness beyond quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanz, Ángel S
2012-01-01
Bohmian mechanics allows us to understand quantum systems in the light of other quantum traits than the well-known ones (coherence, diffraction, interference, tunnelling, discreteness, entanglement, etc.). Here the discussion focusses precisely on two of these interesting aspects, which arise when quantum mechanics is thought within this theoretical framework: the non-crossing property, which allows for distinguishability without erasing interference patterns, and the possibility to define quantum probability tubes, along which the probability remains constant all the way. Furthermore, taking into account this hydrodynamic-like description as a link, it is also shown how this knowledge (concepts and ideas) can be straightforwardly transferred to other fields of physics (for example, the transmission of light along waveguides).
Quantum Communication Scheme Using Non-symmetric Quantum Channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Haijing; Chen Zhonghua; Song Heshan
2008-01-01
A theoretical quantum communication scheme based on entanglement swapping and superdense coding is proposed with a 3-dimensional Bell state and 2-dimensional Bell state function as quantum channel. quantum key distribution and quantum secure direct communication can be simultaneously accomplished in the scheme. The scheme is secure and has high source capacity. At last, we generalize the quantum communication scheme to d-dimensional quantum channel
Quantum chemistry on a superconducting quantum processor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaicher, Michael P.; Wilhelm, Frank K. [Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Love, Peter J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2016-07-01
Quantum chemistry is the most promising civilian application for quantum processors to date. We study its adaptation to superconducting (sc) quantum systems, computing the ground state energy of LiH through a variational hybrid quantum classical algorithm. We demonstrate how interactions native to sc qubits further reduce the amount of quantum resources needed, pushing sc architectures as a near-term candidate for simulations of more complex atoms/molecules.
Quantum groups and quantum homogeneous spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulish, P.P.
1994-01-01
The usefulness of the R-matrix formalism and the reflection equations is demonstrated on examples of the quantum group covariant algebras (quantum homogeneous spaces): quantum Minkowski space-time, quantum sphere and super-sphere. The irreducible representations of some covariant algebras are constructed. The generalization of the reflection equation to super case is given and the existence of the quasiclassical limits is pointed out. (orig.)
Quantum signatures of chaos or quantum chaos?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunakov, V. E.
2016-01-01
A critical analysis of the present-day concept of chaos in quantum systems as nothing but a “quantum signature” of chaos in classical mechanics is given. In contrast to the existing semi-intuitive guesses, a definition of classical and quantum chaos is proposed on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem: a quantum chaotic system featuring N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) specified by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian of the system. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos that, in the classical limit, go over to the Lyapunov exponent and the classical stability parameter are proposed. The proposed criteria of quantum chaos are applied to solving standard problems of modern dynamical chaos theory.
Quantum signatures of chaos or quantum chaos?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bunakov, V. E., E-mail: bunakov@VB13190.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
A critical analysis of the present-day concept of chaos in quantum systems as nothing but a “quantum signature” of chaos in classical mechanics is given. In contrast to the existing semi-intuitive guesses, a definition of classical and quantum chaos is proposed on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem: a quantum chaotic system featuring N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) specified by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian of the system. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos that, in the classical limit, go over to the Lyapunov exponent and the classical stability parameter are proposed. The proposed criteria of quantum chaos are applied to solving standard problems of modern dynamical chaos theory.
Ventilation filters as sources of air pollution – Processes occurring on surfaces of used filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bekö, Gabriel; Halás, Oto; Clausen, Geo
2004-01-01
Ozone concentrations were monitored upstream and downstream of used filter samples following 24hours of ventilation with ozone- filtered air. The ozone concentration in the air upstream of the filters was maintained at ~75 ppb while the concentration downstream of the filters was initially betwee...
Spatial filtering with photonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)
2015-03-15
Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.
Quantum optics and fundamentals of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dusek, M.
1997-01-01
Quantum optics has opened up new opportunities for experimental verification of the basic principles of quantum mechanics, particularly in the field of quantum interference and so-called non-local phenomena. The results of the experiments described provide unambiguous support to quantum mechanics. (Z.J.)
Quantum Statistical Mechanics on a Quantum Computer
Raedt, H. De; Hams, A.H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S.; Saito, K.; Saito, E.
2000-01-01
We describe a simulation method for a quantum spin model of a generic, general purpose quantum computer. The use of this quantum computer simulator is illustrated through several implementations of Grover’s database search algorithm. Some preliminary results on the stability of quantum algorithms
Quantum simulations with noisy quantum computers
Gambetta, Jay
Quantum computing is a new computational paradigm that is expected to lie beyond the standard model of computation. This implies a quantum computer can solve problems that can't be solved by a conventional computer with tractable overhead. To fully harness this power we need a universal fault-tolerant quantum computer. However the overhead in building such a machine is high and a full solution appears to be many years away. Nevertheless, we believe that we can build machines in the near term that cannot be emulated by a conventional computer. It is then interesting to ask what these can be used for. In this talk we will present our advances in simulating complex quantum systems with noisy quantum computers. We will show experimental implementations of this on some small quantum computers.
Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes.
Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John
2015-03-01
Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics.
Design and Analysis of Robust Active Damping for LCL Filters using Digital Notch Filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin
2017-01-01
Resonant poles of LCL filters may challenge the entire system stability especially in digital-controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverters. In order to tackle the resonance issues, many active damping solutions have been reported. For instance, a notch filter can be employed to damp the reso......Resonant poles of LCL filters may challenge the entire system stability especially in digital-controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverters. In order to tackle the resonance issues, many active damping solutions have been reported. For instance, a notch filter can be employed to damp...... the resonance, where the notch frequency should be aligned exactly to the resonant frequency of the LCL filter. However, parameter variations of the LCL filter as well as the time delay appearing in digital control systems will induce resonance drifting, and thus break this alignment, possibly deteriorating...... the original damping. In this paper, the effectiveness of the notch filter based active damping is firstly explored, considering the drifts of the resonant frequency. It is revealed that, when the resonant frequency drifts away from its nominal value, the phase lead or lag introduced by the notch filter may...
FULL SCALE REGENERABLE HEPA FILTER DESIGN USING SINTERED METAL FILTER ELEMENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gil Ramos; Kenneth Rubow; Ronald Sekellick
2002-01-01
A Department of Energy funded contract involved the development of porous metal as a HEPA filter, and the subsequent design of a full-scale regenerable HEPA filtration system (RHFS). This RHFS could replace the glass fiber HEPA filters currently being used on the high level waste (HLW) tank ventilation system with a system that would be moisture tolerant, durable, and cleanable in place. The origins of the contract are a 1996 investigation at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) regarding the use of porous metal as a HEPA filter material. This contract was divided into Phases I, IIA and IIB. Phase I of the contract evaluated simple filter cylinders in a simulated High Level Waste (HLW) environment and the ability to clean and regenerate the filter media after fouling. Upon the successful completion of Phase I, Phase IIA was conducted, which included lab scale prototype testing and design of a full-scale system. The work completed under Phase IIA included development of a full-scale system design, development of a filter media meeting the HEPA filtration efficiency that would also be regenerable using prescribed cleaning procedures, and the testing of a single element system prototype at Savannah River. All contract objectives were met. The filter media selected was a nickel material already under development at Mott, which met the HEPA filtration efficiency standard. The Mott nickel media met and exceeded the HEPA requirement, providing 99.99% removal against a requirement of 99.97%. Double open-ended elements of this media were provided to the Savannah River Test Center for HLW simulation testing in the single element prototype filter. These elements performed well and further demonstrated the practicality of a metallic media regenerable HEPA filter system. An evaluation of the manufacturing method on many elements demonstrated the reproducibility to meet the HEPA filtration requirement. The full-scale design of the Mott RHFS incorporated several important
Relationship between quantum repeating devices and quantum seals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Guangping
2009-01-01
It is revealed that quantum repeating devices and quantum seals have a very close relationship, thus the theory in one field can be applied to the other. Consequently, it is shown that the fidelity bounds and optimality of quantum repeating devices for decoding quantum information can be violated when they are used for decoding classical information from quantum states and the security bounds for protocols sealing quantum data exist.
Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....
Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!
Zeps, Dainis
2009-01-01
10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...
Filter Paper: Solution to High Self-Attenuation Corrections in HEPA Filter Measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberer, R.B.; Harold, N.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Brummett, M.; Chaing, L.G.
2005-01-01
An 8 by 8 by 6 inch High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter was measured as part of a uranium holdup survey in June of 2005 as it has been routinely measured every two months since 1998. Although the survey relies on gross gamma count measurements, this was one of a few measurements that had been converted to a quantitative measurement in 1998. The measurement was analyzed using the traditional Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) approach, using HMS3 software, with an area calibration and self-attenuation corrected with an empirical correction factor of 1.06. A result of 172 grams of 235 U was reported. The actual quantity of 235 U in the filter was approximately 1700g. Because of this unusually large discrepancy, the measurement of HEPA filters will be discussed. Various techniques for measuring HEPA filters will be described using the measurement of a 24 by 24 by 12 inch HEPA filter as an example. A new method to correct for self attenuation will be proposed for this measurement Following the discussion of the 24 by 24 by 12 inch HEPA filter, the measurement of the 8 by 8 by 6 inch will be discussed in detail
Opportunistic quantum network coding based on quantum teleportation
Shang, Tao; Du, Gang; Liu, Jian-wei
2016-04-01
It seems impossible to endow opportunistic characteristic to quantum network on the basis that quantum channel cannot be overheard without disturbance. In this paper, we propose an opportunistic quantum network coding scheme by taking full advantage of channel characteristic of quantum teleportation. Concretely, it utilizes quantum channel for secure transmission of quantum states and can detect eavesdroppers by means of quantum channel verification. What is more, it utilizes classical channel for both opportunistic listening to neighbor states and opportunistic coding by broadcasting measurement outcome. Analysis results show that our scheme can reduce the times of transmissions over classical channels for relay nodes and can effectively defend against classical passive attack and quantum active attack.
Exploiting Locality in Quantum Computation for Quantum Chemistry.
McClean, Jarrod R; Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-12-18
Accurate prediction of chemical and material properties from first-principles quantum chemistry is a challenging task on traditional computers. Recent developments in quantum computation offer a route toward highly accurate solutions with polynomial cost; however, this solution still carries a large overhead. In this Perspective, we aim to bring together known results about the locality of physical interactions from quantum chemistry with ideas from quantum computation. We show that the utilization of spatial locality combined with the Bravyi-Kitaev transformation offers an improvement in the scaling of known quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry and provides numerical examples to help illustrate this point. We combine these developments to improve the outlook for the future of quantum chemistry on quantum computers.
High flow ceramic pot filters.
van Halem, D; van der Laan, H; Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J
2017-11-01
Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6-19 L h -1 ), but initial LRVs for E. coli of high flow filters was slightly lower than for regular ceramic pot filters. This disadvantage was, however, only temporarily as the clogging in high flow filters had a positive effect on the LRV for E. coli (from below 1 to 2-3 after clogging). Therefore, it can be carefully concluded that regular ceramic pot filters perform better initially, but after clogging, the high flow filters have a higher flow rate as well as a higher LRV for E. coli. To improve the initial performance of new high flow filters, it is recommended to further utilize residence time of the water in the receptacle, since additional E. coli inactivation was observed during overnight storage. Although a relationship was observed between flow rate and LRV of MS2 bacteriophages, both regular and high flow filters were unable to reach over 2 LRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter
2014-01-01
The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berg, K.H.; Wilhelm, J.G.
1985-01-01
The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.) [de
Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants
2009-01-01
With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.
The Third Life of Quantum Logic: Quantum Logic Inspired by Quantum Computing
Dunn, J. Michael; Moss, Lawrence S.; Wang, Zhenghan
2013-01-01
We begin by discussing the history of quantum logic, dividing it into three eras or lives. The first life has to do with Birkhoff and von Neumann's algebraic approach in the 1930's. The second life has to do with attempt to understand quantum logic as logic that began in the late 1950's and blossomed in the 1970's. And the third life has to do with recent developments in quantum logic coming from its connections to quantum computation. We discuss our own work connecting quantum logic to quant...
Efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loke, T.; Wang, J.B.
2017-01-01
A major advantage in using Szegedy’s formalism over discrete-time and continuous-time quantum walks lies in its ability to define a unitary quantum walk by quantizing a Markov chain on a directed or weighted graph. In this paper, we present a general scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks that correspond to classical Markov chains possessing transformational symmetry in the columns of the transition matrix. In particular, the transformational symmetry criteria do not necessarily depend on the sparsity of the transition matrix, so this scheme can be applied to non-sparse Markov chains. Two classes of Markov chains that are amenable to this construction are cyclic permutations and complete bipartite graphs, for which we provide explicit efficient quantum circuit implementations. We also prove that our scheme can be applied to Markov chains formed by a tensor product. We also briefly discuss the implementation of Markov chains based on weighted interdependent networks. In addition, we apply this scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits simulating the Szegedy walks used in the quantum Pagerank algorithm for some classes of non-trivial graphs, providing a necessary tool for experimental demonstration of the quantum Pagerank algorithm. - Highlights: • A general theoretical framework for implementing Szegedy walks using quantum circuits. • Explicit efficient quantum circuit implementation of the Szegedy walk for several classes of graphs. • Efficient implementation of Szegedy walks for quantum page-ranking of a certain class of graphs.
Quantum cluster algebra structures on quantum nilpotent algebras
Goodearl, K R
2017-01-01
All algebras in a very large, axiomatically defined class of quantum nilpotent algebras are proved to possess quantum cluster algebra structures under mild conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that these quantum cluster algebras always equal the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. Previous approaches to these problems for the construction of (quantum) cluster algebra structures on (quantized) coordinate rings arising in Lie theory were done on a case by case basis relying on the combinatorics of each concrete family. The results of the paper have a broad range of applications to these problems, including the construction of quantum cluster algebra structures on quantum unipotent groups and quantum double Bruhat cells (the Berenstein-Zelevinsky conjecture), and treat these problems from a unified perspective. All such applications also establish equality between the constructed quantum cluster algebras and their upper counterparts.
Single-server blind quantum computation with quantum circuit model
Zhang, Xiaoqian; Weng, Jian; Li, Xiaochun; Luo, Weiqi; Tan, Xiaoqing; Song, Tingting
2018-06-01
Blind quantum computation (BQC) enables the client, who has few quantum technologies, to delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has strong quantum computabilities and learns nothing about the client's quantum inputs, outputs and algorithms. In this article, we propose a single-server BQC protocol with quantum circuit model by replacing any quantum gate with the combination of rotation operators. The trap quantum circuits are introduced, together with the combination of rotation operators, such that the server is unknown about quantum algorithms. The client only needs to perform operations X and Z, while the server honestly performs rotation operators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed
Kim, Jeremie S; Senol Cali, Damla; Xin, Hongyi; Lee, Donghyuk; Ghose, Saugata; Alser, Mohammed; Hassan, Hasan; Ergin, Oguz; Alkan, Can; Mutlu, Onur
2018-05-09
Seed location filtering is critical in DNA read mapping, a process where billions of DNA fragments (reads) sampled from a donor are mapped onto a reference genome to identify genomic variants of the donor. State-of-the-art read mappers 1) quickly generate possible mapping locations for seeds (i.e., smaller segments) within each read, 2) extract reference sequences at each of the mapping locations, and 3) check similarity between each read and its associated reference sequences with a computationally-expensive algorithm (i.e., sequence alignment) to determine the origin of the read. A seed location filter comes into play before alignment, discarding seed locations that alignment would deem a poor match. The ideal seed location filter would discard all poor match locations prior to alignment such that there is no wasted computation on unnecessary alignments. We propose a novel seed location filtering algorithm, GRIM-Filter, optimized to exploit 3D-stacked memory systems that integrate computation within a logic layer stacked under memory layers, to perform processing-in-memory (PIM). GRIM-Filter quickly filters seed locations by 1) introducing a new representation of coarse-grained segments of the reference genome, and 2) using massively-parallel in-memory operations to identify read presence within each coarse-grained segment. Our evaluations show that for a sequence alignment error tolerance of 0.05, GRIM-Filter 1) reduces the false negative rate of filtering by 5.59x-6.41x, and 2) provides an end-to-end read mapper speedup of 1.81x-3.65x, compared to a state-of-the-art read mapper employing the best previous seed location filtering algorithm. GRIM-Filter exploits 3D-stacked memory, which enables the efficient use of processing-in-memory, to overcome the memory bandwidth bottleneck in seed location filtering. We show that GRIM-Filter significantly improves the performance of a state-of-the-art read mapper. GRIM-Filter is a universal seed location filter that can be
Quantum chemistry simulation on quantum computers: theories and experiments.
Lu, Dawei; Xu, Boruo; Xu, Nanyang; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Peng, Xinhua; Xu, Ruixue; Du, Jiangfeng
2012-07-14
It has been claimed that quantum computers can mimic quantum systems efficiently in the polynomial scale. Traditionally, those simulations are carried out numerically on classical computers, which are inevitably confronted with the exponential growth of required resources, with the increasing size of quantum systems. Quantum computers avoid this problem, and thus provide a possible solution for large quantum systems. In this paper, we first discuss the ideas of quantum simulation, the background of quantum simulators, their categories, and the development in both theories and experiments. We then present a brief introduction to quantum chemistry evaluated via classical computers followed by typical procedures of quantum simulation towards quantum chemistry. Reviewed are not only theoretical proposals but also proof-of-principle experimental implementations, via a small quantum computer, which include the evaluation of the static molecular eigenenergy and the simulation of chemical reaction dynamics. Although the experimental development is still behind the theory, we give prospects and suggestions for future experiments. We anticipate that in the near future quantum simulation will become a powerful tool for quantum chemistry over classical computations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)
2004-07-01
Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)
Quantum logic using correlated one-dimensional quantum walks
Lahini, Yoav; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Bookatz, Adam D.; Englund, Dirk
2018-01-01
Quantum Walks are unitary processes describing the evolution of an initially localized wavefunction on a lattice potential. The complexity of the dynamics increases significantly when several indistinguishable quantum walkers propagate on the same lattice simultaneously, as these develop non-trivial spatial correlations that depend on the particle's quantum statistics, mutual interactions, initial positions, and the lattice potential. We show that even in the simplest case of a quantum walk on a one dimensional graph, these correlations can be shaped to yield a complete set of compact quantum logic operations. We provide detailed recipes for implementing quantum logic on one-dimensional quantum walks in two general cases. For non-interacting bosons—such as photons in waveguide lattices—we find high-fidelity probabilistic quantum gates that could be integrated into linear optics quantum computation schemes. For interacting quantum-walkers on a one-dimensional lattice—a situation that has recently been demonstrated using ultra-cold atoms—we find deterministic logic operations that are universal for quantum information processing. The suggested implementation requires minimal resources and a level of control that is within reach using recently demonstrated techniques. Further work is required to address error-correction.
Quadra-quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules:
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called ‘‘Droplet Epitaxy” has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390°C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7–8×10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200°C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or , which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Nanophotonic quantum computer based on atomic quantum transistor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrianov, S N; Moiseev, S A
2015-01-01
We propose a scheme of a quantum computer based on nanophotonic elements: two buses in the form of nanowaveguide resonators, two nanosized units of multiatom multiqubit quantum memory and a set of nanoprocessors in the form of photonic quantum transistors, each containing a pair of nanowaveguide ring resonators coupled via a quantum dot. The operation modes of nanoprocessor photonic quantum transistors are theoretically studied and the execution of main logical operations by means of them is demonstrated. We also discuss the prospects of the proposed nanophotonic quantum computer for operating in high-speed optical fibre networks. (quantum computations)
Nanophotonic quantum computer based on atomic quantum transistor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrianov, S N [Institute of Advanced Research, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan (Russian Federation); Moiseev, S A [Kazan E. K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan (Russian Federation)
2015-10-31
We propose a scheme of a quantum computer based on nanophotonic elements: two buses in the form of nanowaveguide resonators, two nanosized units of multiatom multiqubit quantum memory and a set of nanoprocessors in the form of photonic quantum transistors, each containing a pair of nanowaveguide ring resonators coupled via a quantum dot. The operation modes of nanoprocessor photonic quantum transistors are theoretically studied and the execution of main logical operations by means of them is demonstrated. We also discuss the prospects of the proposed nanophotonic quantum computer for operating in high-speed optical fibre networks. (quantum computations)
Two-dimensional filtering of SPECT images using the Metz and Wiener filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Penney, B.C.; Doherty, P.W.
1984-01-01
Presently, single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images are usually reconstructed by arbitrarily selecting a one-dimensional ''window'' function for use in reconstruction. A better method would be to automatically choose among a family of two-dimensional image restoration filters in such a way as to produce ''optimum'' image quality. Two-dimensional image processing techniques offer the advantages of a larger statistical sampling of the data for better noise reduction, and two-dimensional image deconvolution to correct for blurring during acquisition. An investigation of two such ''optimal'' digital image restoration techniques (the count-dependent Metz filter and the Wiener filter) was made. They were applied both as two-dimensional ''window'' functions for preprocessing SPECT images, and for filtering reconstructed images. Their performance was compared by measuring image contrast and per cent fractional standard deviation (% FSD) in multiple-acquisitions of the Jaszczak SPECT phantom at two different count levels. A statistically significant increase in image contrast and decrease in % FSD was observed with these techniques when compared to the results of reconstruction with a ramp filter. The adaptability of the techniques was manifested in a lesser % reduction in % FSD at the high count level coupled with a greater enhancement in image contrast. Using an array processor, processing time was 0.2 sec per image for the Metz filter and 3 sec for the Wiener filter. It is concluded that two-dimensional digital image restoration with these techniques can produce a significant increase in SPECT image quality
Remotely operated top loading filter housing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, M.J.; Carter, J.A.
1989-01-01
A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system was developed for the Fuel Processing Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The system utilizes commercially available HEPA filters and allows in-cell filters to be maintained using operator-controlled remote handling equipment. The remote handling tasks include transport of filters before and after replacement, removal and replacement of the filter from the housing, and filter containment
Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neelofer Afzal
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.
The statistical bandwidth of Butterworth filters
Davy, J. L.; Dunn, I. P.
1987-06-01
The precision of standard architectural acoustic measurements is a function of the statistical bandwidth of the band pass filters used in the measurements. The International and United States Standards on octave and fractional octave-band filters which specify the band pass filters used in architectural acoustics measurements give the effective bandwidth, but unfortunately not the statistical bandwidth of the filters. Both these Standards are currently being revised and both revisions require the use of Butterworth filter characteristics. In this paper it is shown theoretically that the ratio of statistical bandwidth to effective bandwidth for an nth order Butterworth band pass filter is {2n}/{(2n-1)}. This is verified experimentally for third-octave third-order Butterworth band pass filters. It is also shown experimentally that this formula is approximately correct for some non-Butterworth third-octave third-order band pass filters. Because of the importance of Butterworth filters in the revised Standards, the theory of Butterworth filters is reviewed and the formulae for Butterworth filters given in both revised Standards are derived.
Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee
2011-01-01
With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised
Quantum Link Models and Quantum Simulation of Gauge Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiese, U.J.
2015-01-01
This lecture is about Quantum Link Models and Quantum Simulation of Gauge Theories. The lecture consists out of 4 parts. The first part gives a brief history of Computing and Pioneers of Quantum Computing and Quantum Simulations of Quantum Spin Systems are introduced. The 2nd lecture is about High-Temperature Superconductors versus QCD, Wilson’s Lattice QCD and Abelian Quantum Link Models. The 3rd lecture deals with Quantum Simulators for Abelian Lattice Gauge Theories and Non-Abelian Quantum Link Models. The last part of the lecture discusses Quantum Simulators mimicking ‘Nuclear’ physics and the continuum limit of D-Theorie models. (nowak)
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filters. 211.72 Section 211.72 Food and Drugs FOOD... shall not release fibers into such products. Fiber-releasing filters may be used when it is not possible to manufacture such products without the use of these filters. If use of a fiber-releasing filter is...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luís BRAVO PEREIRA
2010-09-01
Full Text Available For many years filters like the Kodak Wratten E series, or the equivalent Schneider B+W 415, were used as standard UV cut filters, necessary to obtain good quality on UV Fluorescence photography. The only problem with the use of these filters is that, when they receive the UV radiation that they should remove, they present themselves an internal fluorescence as side effect, that usually reduce contrast and quality on the final image. This article presents the results of our experiences on using some innovative filters, that appeared available on the market in recent years, projected to adsorb UV radiation even more efficiently than with the mentioned above pigment based standard filters: the interference filters for UV rejection (and, usually, for IR rejection too manufactured using interference layers, that present better results than the pigment based filters. The only problem with interference filters type is that they are sensitive to the rays direction and, because of that, they are not adequate to wide-angle lenses. The internal fluorescence for three filters: the B+W 415 UV cut (equivalent to the Kodak Wratten 2E, pigment based, the B+W 486 UV IR cut (an interference type filter, used frequently on digital cameras to remove IR or UV and the Baader UVIR rejection filter (two versions of this interference filter were used had been tested and compared. The final quality of the UV fluorescence images seems to be of a superior quality when compared to the images obtained with classic filters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eslami, Leila; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi
2014-01-01
Spin-dependent electron transport in an open double quantum ring, when each ring is made up of four quantum dots and threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. Two independent and tunable gate voltages are applied to induce Rashba spin-orbit effect in the quantum rings. Using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effects of electron-electron interaction on spin-dependent electron transport and show that although the electron-electron interaction induces an energy gap, it has no considerable effect when the bias voltage is sufficiently high. We also show that the double quantum ring can operate as a spin-filter for both spin up and spin down electrons. The spin-polarization of transmitted electrons can be tuned from −1 (pure spin-down current) to +1 (pure spin-up current) by changing the magnetic flux and/or the gates voltage. Also, the double quantum ring can act as AND and NOR gates when the system parameters such as Rashba coefficient are properly adjusted
Quantum ballistic evolution in quantum mechanics: Application to quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benioff, P.
1996-01-01
Quantum computers are important examples of processes whose evolution can be described in terms of iterations of single-step operators or their adjoints. Based on this, Hamiltonian evolution of processes with associated step operators T is investigated here. The main limitation of this paper is to processes which evolve quantum ballistically, i.e., motion restricted to a collection of nonintersecting or distinct paths on an arbitrary basis. The main goal of this paper is proof of a theorem which gives necessary and sufficient conditions that T must satisfy so that there exists a Hamiltonian description of quantum ballistic evolution for the process, namely, that T is a partial isometry and is orthogonality preserving and stable on some basis. Simple examples of quantum ballistic evolution for quantum Turing machines with one and with more than one type of elementary step are discussed. It is seen that for nondeterministic machines the basis set can be quite complex with much entanglement present. It is also proven that, given a step operator T for an arbitrary deterministic quantum Turing machine, it is decidable if T is stable and orthogonality preserving, and if quantum ballistic evolution is possible. The proof fails if T is a step operator for a nondeterministic machine. It is an open question if such a decision procedure exists for nondeterministic machines. This problem does not occur in classical mechanics. Also the definition of quantum Turing machines used here is compared with that used by other authors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Reliable quantum communication over a quantum relay channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gyongyosi, Laszlo, E-mail: gyongyosi@hit.bme.hu [Quantum Technologies Laboratory, Department of Telecommunications, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2 Magyar tudosok krt, Budapest, H-1117, Hungary and Information Systems Research Group, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hungarian Ac (Hungary); Imre, Sandor [Quantum Technologies Laboratory, Department of Telecommunications, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2 Magyar tudosok krt, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary)
2014-12-04
We show that reliable quantum communication over an unreliable quantum relay channels is possible. The coding scheme combines the results on the superadditivity of quantum channels and the efficient quantum coding approaches.
Novel Simplex Unscented Transform and Filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wan-Chun Li; Ping Wei; Xian-Ci Xiao
2008-01-01
In this paper, a new simplex unscented transform (UT) based Schmidt orthogonal algorithm and a new filter method based on this transform are proposed. This filter has less computation consumption than UKF (unscented Kalman filter), SUKF (simplex unscented Kalman filter) and EKF (extended Kalman filter). Computer simulation shows that this filter has the same performance as UKF and SUKF, and according to the analysis of the computational requirements of EKF, UKF and SUKF, this filter has preferable practicality value. Finally, the appendix shows the efficiency for this UT.
Quantum random walks using quantum accelerator modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Z.-Y.; Burnett, K.; D'Arcy, M. B.; Gardiner, S. A.
2006-01-01
We discuss the use of high-order quantum accelerator modes to achieve an atom optical realization of a biased quantum random walk. We first discuss how one can create coexistent quantum accelerator modes, and hence how momentum transfer that depends on the atoms' internal state can be achieved. When combined with microwave driving of the transition between the states, a different type of atomic beam splitter results. This permits the realization of a biased quantum random walk through quantum accelerator modes
Robust Ensemble Filtering and Its Relation to Covariance Inflation in the Ensemble Kalman Filter
Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2011-01-01
A robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the H∞ filtering theory is proposed. The optimal H∞ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used
Universal quantum computation by discontinuous quantum walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Underwood, Michael S.; Feder, David L.
2010-01-01
Quantum walks are the quantum-mechanical analog of random walks, in which a quantum ''walker'' evolves between initial and final states by traversing the edges of a graph, either in discrete steps from node to node or via continuous evolution under the Hamiltonian furnished by the adjacency matrix of the graph. We present a hybrid scheme for universal quantum computation in which a quantum walker takes discrete steps of continuous evolution. This ''discontinuous'' quantum walk employs perfect quantum-state transfer between two nodes of specific subgraphs chosen to implement a universal gate set, thereby ensuring unitary evolution without requiring the introduction of an ancillary coin space. The run time is linear in the number of simulated qubits and gates. The scheme allows multiple runs of the algorithm to be executed almost simultaneously by starting walkers one time step apart.
OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert
1998-01-01
Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based
Cost/benefit evaluation of electrofibrous air filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, W.; Kuhl, W.; Biermann, A.; Lum, B.
1986-01-01
Experimental electric air filters based on the principle of superimposing an electric field over conventional fibrous air filters have been developed. The different experimental electric filters described in this report include prefilters for use in glove boxes and in ventilation systems, re-circulating air filters, electric HEPA filters, and high efficiency, high temperature air filters. In each case the large improvement in filter efficiency that occurs when a mechanical filter is electrified is demonstrated. Also a significant increase in the particle loading capacity of filters in many of our evaluations is demonstrated. Both laboratory and field test results are presented. This paper also demonstrates that the performance of all of our electric filter designs, except one, can be matched by conventional mechanical air filters and usually at a lower cost. The one exception is the high temperature, high efficiency electric air filter. In that case there is no mechanical filter media that can match the performance of the electric air filter. Our findings show that electric air filters are only cost effective compared to mechanical air filters when the performance of the mechanical air filter cannot be further improved by mechanical means. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.
1978-01-01
Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)
Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games
Kobayashi, Naoki
2007-01-01
A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneo...
Auditory filters at low-frequencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik
2009-01-01
-ear transfer function), the asymmetry of the auditory filter changed from steeper high-frequency slopes at 1000 Hz to steeper low-frequency slopes below 100 Hz. Increasing steepness at low-frequencies of the middle-ear high-pass filter is thought to cause this effect. The dynamic range of the auditory filter...... was found to steadily decrease with decreasing center frequency. Although the observed decrease in filter bandwidth with decreasing center frequency was only approximately monotonic, the preliminary data indicates the filter bandwidth does not stabilize around 100 Hz, e.g. it still decreases below...
The history of ceramic filters.
Fujishima, S
2000-01-01
The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly, a major emphasis has involved mass production technology, leading to low-priced devices. A typical ceramic filter includes monolithic resonators and capacitors packaged in unique configurations.
Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.
The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltukov, Y M; Greshnov, A A
2014-01-01
It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given
Zero-phonon-line emission of single molecules for applications in quantum information processing
Kiraz, Alper; Ehrl, M.; Mustecaplioglu, O. E.; Hellerer, T.; Brauchle, C.; Zumbusch, A.
2005-07-01
A single photon source which generates transform limited single photons is highly desirable for applications in quantum optics. Transform limited emission guarantees the indistinguishability of the emitted single photons. This, in turn brings groundbreaking applications in linear optics quantum information processing within an experimental reach. Recently, self-assembled InAs quantum dots and trapped atoms have successfully been demonstrated as such sources for highly indistinguishable single photons. Here, we demonstrate that nearly transform limited zero-phonon-line (ZPL) emission from single molecules can be obtained by using vibronic excitation. Furthermore we report the results of coincidence detection experiments at the output of a Michelson-type interferometer. These experiments reveal Hong-Ou-Mandel correlations as a proof of the indistinguishability of the single photons emitted consecutively from a single molecule. Therefore, single molecules constitute an attractive alternative to single InAs quantum dots and trapped atoms for applications in linear optics quantum information processing. Experiments were performed with a home-built confocal microscope keeping the sample in a superfluid liquid Helium bath at 1.4K. We investigated terrylenediimide (TDI) molecules highly diluted in hexadecane (Shpol'skii matrix). A continuous wave single mode dye laser was used for excitation of vibronic transitions of individual molecules. From the integral fluorescence, the ZPL of single molecules was selected with a spectrally narrow interference filter. The ZPL emission was then sent to a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for linewidth measurements or a Michelson-type interferometer for coincidence detection.
Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barthelemy, Pierre; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulations can be used to overcome this problem: complex quantum problems can be solved by studying experimentally an artificial quantum system operated to simulate the desired hamiltonian. Quantum dot systems have shown to be widely tunable quantum systems, that can be efficiently controlled electrically. This tunability and the versatility of their design makes them very promising quantum simulators. This paper reviews the progress towards digital quantum simulations with individually controlled quantum dots, as well as the analog quantum simulations that have been performed with these systems. The possibility to use large arrays of quantum dots to simulate the low-temperature Hubbard model is also discussed. The main issues along that path are presented and new ideas to overcome them are proposed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Xu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Cosine-modulated filter banks play a major role in digital signal processing. Sparse FIR filter banks have lower implementation complexity than full filter banks, while keeping a good performance level. This paper presents a fast design paradigm for sparse nearly perfect-reconstruction (NPR cosine-modulated filter banks. First, an approximation function is introduced to reduce the non-convex quadratically constrained optimization problem to a linearly constrained optimization problem. Then, the desired sparse linear phase FIR prototype filter is derived through the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP performed under the weighted l 2 norm. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is an effective paradigm to design sparse NPR cosine-modulated filter banks.
Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications
Chui, Charles K
2009-01-01
Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachelriess, Marc; Watzke, Oliver; Kalender, Willi A.
2001-01-01
In modern computed tomography (CT) there is a strong desire to reduce patient dose and/or to improve image quality by increasing spatial resolution and decreasing image noise. These are conflicting demands since increasing resolution at a constant noise level or decreasing noise at a constant resolution level implies a higher demand on x-ray power and an increase of patient dose. X-ray tube power is limited due to technical reasons. We therefore developed a generalized multi-dimensional adaptive filtering approach that applies nonlinear filters in up to three dimensions in the raw data domain. This new method differs from approaches in the literature since our nonlinear filters are applied not only in the detector row direction but also in the view and in the z-direction. This true three-dimensional filtering improves the quantum statistics of a measured projection value proportional to the third power of the filter size. Resolution tradeoffs are shared among these three dimensions and thus are considerably smaller as compared to one-dimensional smoothing approaches. Patient data of spiral and sequential single- and multi-slice CT scans as well as simulated spiral cone-beam data were processed to evaluate these new approaches. Image quality was assessed by evaluation of difference images, by measuring the image noise and the noise reduction, and by calculating the image resolution using point spread functions. The use of generalized adaptive filters helps to reduce image noise or, alternatively, patient dose. Image noise structures, typically along the direction of the highest attenuation, are effectively reduced. Noise reduction values of typically 30%-60% can be achieved in noncylindrical body regions like the shoulder. The loss in image resolution remains below 5% for all cases. In addition, the new method has a great potential to reduce metal artifacts, e.g., in the hip region
In-situ testing of HEPA filters in the nuclear Karlsruhe filter system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohlmeyer, M.; Stotz, W.
1977-01-01
Nuclear plant operators and filter manufacturers are endeavouring to improve environmental protection by intensifying process control and/or improving filter quality. In-situ testing is an important element in these efforts since it represents a direct means of checking the success or otherwise of a particular development. The arrangements for in-situ testing should satisfy the following minimum requirements: the staff should not be exposed to risk during the test; the test method should be objective and reproducible as well as being as sensitive as possible; the test method should permit detection of individual leaks in the filter system so that they can be remedied as efficiently as possible; the test equipment should not necessitate modifications to the extract systems or plant construction; the test should be simple and capable of being carried out with a minimum of effort and equipment. GfK has developed the 'Nuclear-Karlsruhe' filter housing in accordance with these principles. This housing permits in-situ testing similar to the DIN 24184 visual oil-fog test or the DOP test. External visual checks on the general condition of the filter is also possible. A safe system of filter changing with a specially designed plastic bag attachment at an accessible height considerably increases the degree of protection of operating personnel
Regenerative-filter-incinerator device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosebrock, T.L.
1977-10-18
A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.
Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki
2007-01-01
Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view
Kellnerová, E.; Večeřa, Z.; Kellner, J.; Zeman, T.; Navrátil, J.
2018-03-01
The paper evaluates the filtration and sorption efficiency of selected types of military combined filters and protective filters. The testing was carried out with the use of ultra-fine aerosol containing cupric oxide nanoparticles ranging in size from 7.6 nm to 299.6 nm. The measurements of nanoparticles were carried out using a scanning mobility particle sizer before and after the passage through the filter and a developed sampling device at the level of particle number concentration approximately 750000 particles·cm-3. The basic parameters of permeability of ultra-fine aerosol passing through the tested material were evaluated, in particular particle size, efficiency of nanoparticle capture by filter, permeability coefficient and overall filtration efficiency. Results indicate that the military filter and particle filters exhibited the highest aerosol permeability especially in the nanoparticle size range between 100–200 nm, while the MOF filters had the highest permeability in the range of 200 to 300 nm. The Filter Nuclear and the Health and Safety filter had 100% nanoparticle capture efficiency and were therefore the most effective. The obtained measurement results have shown that the filtration efficiency over the entire measured range of nanoparticles was sufficient; however, it was different for particular particle sizes.
Quantum arithmetic with the Quantum Fourier Transform
Ruiz-Perez, Lidia; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2014-01-01
The Quantum Fourier Transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing Quantum Fourier Transform adders and multipliers and propose some modifications that extend their capabilities. Among the new circuits, we propose a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain.
Degenerate quantum codes and the quantum Hamming bound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Klappenecker, Andreas
2010-01-01
The parameters of a nondegenerate quantum code must obey the Hamming bound. An important open problem in quantum coding theory is whether the parameters of a degenerate quantum code can violate this bound for nondegenerate quantum codes. In this article we show that Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes, over a prime power alphabet q≥5, cannot beat the quantum Hamming bound. We prove a quantum version of the Griesmer bound for the CSS codes, which allows us to strengthen the Rains' bound that an [[n,k,d
Preparation of freezing quantum state for quantum coherence
Yang, Lian-Wu; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Feng; Du, Shao-jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie
2018-06-01
We provide a method to prepare the freezing quantum state for quantum coherence via unitary operations. The initial product state consists of the control qubit and target qubit; when it satisfies certain conditions, the initial product state converts into the particular Bell diagonal state under the unitary operations, which have the property of freezing of quantum coherence under quantum channels. We calculate the frozen quantum coherence and corresponding quantum correlations, and find that the quantities are determined by the control qubit only when the freezing phenomena occur.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Quantum groups, quantum categories and quantum field theory
Fröhlich, Jürg
1993-01-01
This book reviews recent results on low-dimensional quantum field theories and their connection with quantum group theory and the theory of braided, balanced tensor categories. It presents detailed, mathematically precise introductions to these subjects and then continues with new results. Among the main results are a detailed analysis of the representation theory of U (sl ), for q a primitive root of unity, and a semi-simple quotient thereof, a classfication of braided tensor categories generated by an object of q-dimension less than two, and an application of these results to the theory of sectors in algebraic quantum field theory. This clarifies the notion of "quantized symmetries" in quantum fieldtheory. The reader is expected to be familiar with basic notions and resultsin algebra. The book is intended for research mathematicians, mathematical physicists and graduate students.
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-10-29
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-01-01
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Changyun Liu; Penglang Shui; Gang Wei; Song Li
2014-01-01
To improve the low tracking precision caused by lagged filter gain or imprecise state noise when the target highly maneu-vers, a modified unscented Kalman filter algorithm based on the improved filter gain and adaptive scale factor of state noise is pre-sented. In every filter process, the estimated scale factor is used to update the state noise covariance Qk, and the improved filter gain is obtained in the filter process of unscented Kalman filter (UKF) via predicted variance Pk|k-1, which is similar to the standard Kalman filter. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides better accuracy and ability to adapt to the highly maneu-vering target compared with the standard UKF.
Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Lirong; Yu Yi; Tian Peng; Huang Dexiu
2009-01-01
The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viholainen Ari
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The recently introduced exponentially modulated filter bank (EMFB is a -channel uniform, orthogonal, critically sampled, and frequency-selective complex modulated filter bank that satisfies the perfect reconstruction (PR property if the prototype filter of an -channel PR cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB is used. The purpose of this paper is to present various implementation structures for the EMFBs in a unified framework. The key idea is to use cosine and sine modulated filter banks as building blocks and, therefore, polyphase, lattice, and extended lapped transform (ELT type of implementation solutions are studied. The ELT-based EMFBs are observed to be very competitive with the existing modified discrete Fourier transform filter banks (MDFT-FBs when comparing the number of multiplications/additions and the structural simplicity. In addition, EMFB provides an alternative channel stacking arrangement that could be more natural in certain subband processing applications and data transmission systems.
Quantum Physics Without Quantum Philosophy
Dürr, Detlef; Zanghì, Nino
2013-01-01
It has often been claimed that without drastic conceptual innovations a genuine explanation of quantum interference effects and quantum randomness is impossible. This book concerns Bohmian mechanics, a simple particle theory that is a counterexample to such claims. The gentle introduction and other contributions collected here show how the phenomena of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to non-commuting observables, emerge from the Bohmian motion of particles, the natural particle motion associated with Schrödinger's equation. This book will be of value to all students and researchers in physics with an interest in the meaning of quantum theory as well as to philosophers of science.
Quantum measurement in quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimble, H.J.
1993-01-01
Recent progress in the generation and application of manifestly quantum or nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field is reviewed with emphasis on the research of the Quantum Optics Group at Caltech. In particular, the possibilities for spectroscopy with non-classical light are discussed both in terms of improved quantitative measurement capabilities and for the fundamental alteration of atomic radiative processes. Quantum correlations for spatially extended systems are investigated in a variety of experiments which utilize nondegenerate parametric down conversion. Finally, the prospects for measurement of the position of a free mass with precision beyond the standard quantum limit are briefly considered. (author). 38 refs., 1 fig
Quantum Darwinism in Quantum Brownian Motion
Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2008-12-01
Quantum Darwinism—the redundant encoding of information about a decohering system in its environment—was proposed to reconcile the quantum nature of our Universe with apparent classicality. We report the first study of the dynamics of quantum Darwinism in a realistic model of decoherence, quantum Brownian motion. Prepared in a highly squeezed state—a macroscopic superposition—the system leaves records whose redundancy increases rapidly with initial delocalization. Redundancy appears rapidly (on the decoherence time scale) and persists for a long time.
A bag adapted for the handling of a filtering element or filter unit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshall, D.A.G.
1980-01-01
The invention relates to a transparent, flexible, synthetic plastics bag adapted to contain a filter element or filter unit so that the latter can be inserted into or removed from a filter casing or duct while being contained in the bag. The bag has a neck portion which is capable of being removably secured in an air-tight manner on to a part of the casing, and gloves or glove portions are provided in, or are formed in, the wall of the bag to permit handles on the filter element or unit to be grasped. (author)
Lanzagorta, Marco
2011-01-01
This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w
Quantum Quasi-Paradoxes and Quantum Sorites Paradoxes
Smarandache, F
1997-01-01
There can be generated many paradoxes or quasi-paradoxes that may occur from the combination of quantum and non-quantum worlds in physics. Even the passage from the micro-cosmos to the macro-cosmos, and reciprocally, can generate unsolved questions or counter-intuitive ideas. We define a quasi-paradox as a statement which has a prima facie self-contradictory support or an explicit contradiction, but which is not completely proven as a paradox. We present herein four elementary quantum quasi-paradoxes and their corresponding quantum Sorites paradoxes, which form a class of quantum quasi-paradoxes.
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vuglar, Shanon L; Amini, Hadis
2014-01-01
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H ∞ optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs. (paper)
The magnetic centrifugal mass filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-01-01
Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.
The magnetic centrifugal mass filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2011-09-15
Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mekhov, Igor B; Ritsch, Helmut
2012-01-01
Although the study of ultracold quantum gases trapped by light is a prominent direction of modern research, the quantum properties of light were widely neglected in this field. Quantum optics with quantum gases closes this gap and addresses phenomena where the quantum statistical natures of both light and ultracold matter play equally important roles. First, light can serve as a quantum nondemolition probe of the quantum dynamics of various ultracold particles from ultracold atomic and molecular gases to nanoparticles and nanomechanical systems. Second, due to the dynamic light-matter entanglement, projective measurement-based preparation of the many-body states is possible, where the class of emerging atomic states can be designed via optical geometry. Light scattering constitutes such a quantum measurement with controllable measurement back-action. As in cavity-based spin squeezing, the atom number squeezed and Schrödinger cat states can be prepared. Third, trapping atoms inside an optical cavity, one creates optical potentials and forces, which are not prescribed but quantized and dynamical variables themselves. Ultimately, cavity quantum electrodynamics with quantum gases requires a self-consistent solution for light and particles, which enriches the picture of quantum many-body states of atoms trapped in quantum potentials. This will allow quantum simulations of phenomena related to the physics of phonons, polarons, polaritons and other quantum quasiparticles. (topical review)
Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Salim, Najeh [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Clothier, Brent, E-mail: brent.clothier@plantandfood.co.nz [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Malone, Louise [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Weir, Graham [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)
2011-08-01
Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: {yields} Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. {yields} Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants
Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter
Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.
2015-01-01
A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693
The foundation of quantum theory and noncommutative spectral theory: Part 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kummer, H.
1991-01-01
The present paper comprises Sects. 5-8 of a work which proposes an axiomatic approach to quantum mechanics in which the concept of a filter is the central primitive concept. Having laid down the foundations in the first part of this work, the author arrived at a dual pair left-angle Y,M right-angle consisting of a base norm space Y and an order unit space M, being in order and norm duality with respect to each other. This is precisely the setting of noncommutative spectral theory, a theory which has been developed during the late nineteen seventies by Alfsen and Shultz. In this part he added to the four axioms (Axioms S, DP, R, SP) of Sect. 3 three further axioms (Axioms E, O, L). These axioms are suggested by the work of Alfsen and Shultz and and enable him to derive the JB-algebra structure of quantum mechanics (cf. Theorem 8.9)
Quantum qubit measurement by a quantum point contact with a quantum Langevin equation approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Bing; Lei, X.L.; Horing, N.J.M.; Cui, H.L.
2007-01-01
We employ a microscopic quantum Heisenberg-Langevin equation approach to establish a set of quantum Bloch equations for a two-level system (coupled quantum dots) capacitively coupled to a quantum point contact (QPC). The resulting Bloch equations facilitate our analysis of qubit relaxation and decoherence in coupled quantum dots induced by measurement processes at arbitrary bias-voltage and temperature. We also examine the noise spectrum of the meter output current for a symmetric qubit. These results help resolve a recent debate about a quantum oscillation peak in the noise spectrum. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Randomized Filtering Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal
2008-01-01
of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...
Comparison of robust H∞ filter and Kalman filter for initial alignment of inertial navigation system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAO Yan-ling; CHEN Ming-hui; LI Liang-jun; XU Bo
2008-01-01
There are many filtering methods that can be used for the initial alignment of an integrated inertial navigation system.This paper discussed the use of GPS,but focused on two kinds of filters for the initial alignment of an integrated strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS).One method is based on the Kalman filter (KF),and the other is based on the robust filter.Simulation results showed that the filter provides a quick transient response and a little more accurate estimate than KF,given substantial process noise or unknown noise statistics.So the robust filter is an effective and useful method for initial alignment of SINS.This research should make the use of SINS more popular,and is also a step for further research.
Tunable electro-optic filter stack
Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa
2017-09-05
A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Agarwal, G. S
2013-01-01
.... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...
The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’
2011-01-01
Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette
Avoiding the Use of Exhausted Drinking Water Filters: A Filter-Clock Based on Rusting Iron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnaud Igor Ndé-Tchoupé
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Efficient but affordable water treatment technologies are currently sought to solve the prevalent shortage of safe drinking water. Adsorption-based technologies are in the front-line of these efforts. Upon proper design, universally applied materials (e.g., activated carbons, bone chars, metal oxides are able to quantitatively remove inorganic and organic pollutants as well as pathogens from water. Each water filter has a defined removal capacity and must be replaced when this capacity is exhausted. Operational experience has shown that it may be difficult to convince some low-skilled users to buy new filters after a predicted service life. This communication describes the quest to develop a filter-clock to encourage all users to change their filters after the designed service life. A brief discussion on such a filter-clock based on rusting of metallic iron (Fe0 is presented. Integrating such filter-clocks in the design of water filters is regarded as essential for safeguarding public health.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Changliang; Hofmann, Holger F.
2011-01-01
To fully utilize the energy-time degree of freedom of photons for optical quantum-information processes, it is necessary to control and characterize the temporal quantum states of the photons at extremely short time scales. For measurements of the temporal coherence of the quantum states beyond the time resolution of available detectors, two-photon interference with a photon in a short-time reference pulse may be a viable alternative. In this paper, we derive the temporal measurement operators for the bunching statistics of a single-photon input state with a photon from a weak coherent reference pulse. It is shown that the effects of the pulse shape of the reference pulse can be expressed in terms of a spectral filter selecting the bandwidth within which the measurement can be treated as an ideal projection on eigenstates of time. For full quantum tomography, temporal coherence can be determined by using superpositions of reference pulses at two different times. Moreover, energy-time entanglement can be evaluated based on the two-by-two entanglement observed in the coherences between pairs of detection times.
Quantum signature scheme based on a quantum search algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Chun Seok; Kang, Min Sung; Lim, Jong In; Yang, Hyung Jin
2015-01-01
We present a quantum signature scheme based on a two-qubit quantum search algorithm. For secure transmission of signatures, we use a quantum search algorithm that has not been used in previous quantum signature schemes. A two-step protocol secures the quantum channel, and a trusted center guarantees non-repudiation that is similar to other quantum signature schemes. We discuss the security of our protocol. (paper)
Heterogeneous counting on filter support media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, E.; Kohler, V.; Kelly, M.J.
1976-01-01
Many investigators in the biomedical research area have used filter paper as the support for radioactive samples. This means that a heterogeneous counting of sample sometimes results. The count rate of a sample on a filter will be affected by positioning, degree of dryness, sample application procedure, the type of filter, and the type of cocktail used. Positioning of the filter (up or down) in the counting vial can cause a variation of 35% or more when counting tritiated samples on filter paper. Samples of varying degrees of dryness when added to the counting cocktail can cause nonreproducible counts if handled improperly. Count rates starting at 2400 CPM initially can become 10,000 CPM in 24 hours for 3 H-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) samples dried on standard cellulose acetate membrane filters. Data on cellulose nitrate filters show a similar trend. Sample application procedures in which the sample is applied to the filter in a small spot or on a large amount of the surface area can cause nonreproducible or very low counting rates. A tritiated DNA sample, when applied topically, gives a count rate of 4,000 CPM. When the sample is spread over the whole filter, 13,400 CPM are obtained with a much better coefficient of variation (5% versus 20%). Adding protein carrier (bovine serum albumin-BSA) to the sample to trap more of the tritiated DNA on the filter during the filtration process causes a serious beta absorption problem. Count rates which are one-fourth the count rate applied to the filter are obtained on calibrated runs. Many of the problems encountered can be alleviated by a proper choice of filter and the use of a liquid scintillation cocktail which dissolves the filter. Filter-Solv has been used to dissolve cellulose nitrate filters and filters which are a combination of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate. Count rates obtained for these dissolved samples are very reproducible and highly efficient
Evaluation of self-contained HEPA filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arndt, T.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)
1995-02-01
This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a self-contained high-efficiency particulate air filter (SHEPA) used in nuclear applications. A SCHEPA consists of filter medium encapsulated in a casing that is part of the system boundary. The SCHEPA filter serves as a combination of filter housing and filter. The filter medium is attached directly to the casing using adhesive as a bonding agent. A cylindrical connection in the middle of the end caps connects the filter assembly to adjoining ductwork. The SCHEPA must perform the functions of a filter housing, filter frame, and filter. It was recognized that the codes and standards do not address the SCHEPA specifically. Therefore, the investigation evaluated the SCHEPA against current codes and standards related to the functional requirements of an air-cleaning system. The specific standards used are required by DOE Order 6430.1A{sup 1} and include ASME N509{sup 3}, ASME N510{sup 4}, ERDA 76-21{sup 5}, MIL-F-51068F{sup 6}, NFPA 90A, {sup 7} and NFPA 91{sup 8}. The evaluation does not address whether the SCHEPA as a standard (off-the-shelf) filter could be upgraded to meet the current code requirements for an air-cleaning unit. The evaluation also did not consider how the SCHEPA was used in a system (e.g., whether it was under positive or negative pressure or whether it served as an air inlet filter to prevent contamination releases under system pressurization). The results of the evaluation show that, the SCHEPA filter does not meet design, fabrication, testing, and documentation requirements of ASME N509{sup 3} and ASME N510{sup 4}. The paper will identify these deficiencies. Specific exhaust system requirements and application should be considered when an evaluation of the SCHEPA filter is being performed in existing systems. When new designs are being comtemplated, other types of HEPA filter housings can be used in lieu of the SCHEPA filter.
Tartakovskii, Alexander
2012-07-01
Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by
Introduction to topological quantum matter & quantum computation
Stanescu, Tudor D
2017-01-01
What is -topological- about topological quantum states? How many types of topological quantum phases are there? What is a zero-energy Majorana mode, how can it be realized in a solid state system, and how can it be used as a platform for topological quantum computation? What is quantum computation and what makes it different from classical computation? Addressing these and other related questions, Introduction to Topological Quantum Matter & Quantum Computation provides an introduction to and a synthesis of a fascinating and rapidly expanding research field emerging at the crossroads of condensed matter physics, mathematics, and computer science. Providing the big picture, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers entering this field as it allows for the fruitful transfer of paradigms and ideas amongst different areas, and includes many specific examples to help the reader understand abstract and sometimes challenging concepts. It explores the topological quantum world beyond the well-know...
Quantum simulation of a quantum stochastic walk
Govia, Luke C. G.; Taketani, Bruno G.; Schuhmacher, Peter K.; Wilhelm, Frank K.
2017-03-01
The study of quantum walks has been shown to have a wide range of applications in areas such as artificial intelligence, the study of biological processes, and quantum transport. The quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which allows for incoherent movement of the walker, and therefore, directionality, is a generalization on the fully coherent quantum walk. While a QSW can always be described in Lindblad formalism, this does not mean that it can be microscopically derived in the standard weak-coupling limit under the Born-Markov approximation. This restricts the class of QSWs that can be experimentally realized in a simple manner. To circumvent this restriction, we introduce a technique to simulate open system evolution on a fully coherent quantum computer, using a quantum trajectories style approach. We apply this technique to a broad class of QSWs, and show that they can be simulated with minimal experimental resources. Our work opens the path towards the experimental realization of QSWs on large graphs with existing quantum technologies.
Approximate Quantum Adders with Genetic Algorithms: An IBM Quantum Experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Rui
2017-07-01
Full Text Available It has been proven that quantum adders are forbidden by the laws of quantum mechanics. We analyze theoretical proposals for the implementation of approximate quantum adders and optimize them by means of genetic algorithms, improving previous protocols in terms of efficiency and fidelity. Furthermore, we experimentally realize a suitable approximate quantum adder with the cloud quantum computing facilities provided by IBM Quantum Experience. The development of approximate quantum adders enhances the toolbox of quantum information protocols, paving the way for novel applications in quantum technologies.
Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped ...
Experience with three percutaneous vena cava filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCowan, T.C.; Ferris, E.J.; Harshfield, D.L.; Hassell, D.R.; Baker, M.L.
1987-01-01
Twenty-one Kimray-Greenfield, 33 bird's nest, and 19 Amplatz vena cava filters were placed percutaneously. The Kimray-Greenfield filter was the most difficult to insert. The major problem was the insertion site, which required venipuncture with a 24-F catheter. Minor hemorrhage was frequent, and femoral vein thrombosis occurred in four patients. No migration, caval thrombosis, or pulmonary emboli were seen after Kimray-Greenfield filter placement. The bird's nest filter was relatively easy to insert, although in two cases the filter prongs could not be adequately seated in the wall of the inferior vena cava. Three patients with bird's nest filters had thrombosis below the filter, and three filters migrated to the heart. One migrated filter could not be removed. One patient had multiple small pulmonary emboli at autopsy. No other pulmonary emboli after filter placement were noted. The Amplatz filter was the easiest of the three filters to insert. Only one patient with an Amplatz filter had thrombosis of the vena cava below the filter. No filter migrations were documented, and no recurrent pulmonary emboli were found on clinical or radiologic follow-up. The Amplatz vena cava filter is easier to place than percutaneous Kimray-Greenfield or bird's nest filters, has a low complication rate, and has proven to be clinically effective in preventing pulmonary emboli
Hybrid quantum-classical modeling of quantum dot devices
Kantner, Markus; Mittnenzweig, Markus; Koprucki, Thomas
2017-11-01
The design of electrically driven quantum dot devices for quantum optical applications asks for modeling approaches combining classical device physics with quantum mechanics. We connect the well-established fields of semiclassical semiconductor transport theory and the theory of open quantum systems to meet this requirement. By coupling the van Roosbroeck system with a quantum master equation in Lindblad form, we introduce a new hybrid quantum-classical modeling approach, which provides a comprehensive description of quantum dot devices on multiple scales: it enables the calculation of quantum optical figures of merit and the spatially resolved simulation of the current flow in realistic semiconductor device geometries in a unified way. We construct the interface between both theories in such a way, that the resulting hybrid system obeys the fundamental axioms of (non)equilibrium thermodynamics. We show that our approach guarantees the conservation of charge, consistency with the thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by numerical simulations of an electrically driven single-photon source based on a single quantum dot in the stationary and transient operation regime.
The classicality and quantumness of a quantum ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Xuanmin; Pang Shengshi; Wu Shengjun; Liu Quanhui
2011-01-01
In this Letter, we investigate the classicality and quantumness of a quantum ensemble. We define a quantity called ensemble classicality based on classical cloning strategy (ECCC) to characterize how classical a quantum ensemble is. An ensemble of commuting states has a unit ECCC, while a general ensemble can have a ECCC less than 1. We also study how quantum an ensemble is by defining a related quantity called quantumness. We find that the classicality of an ensemble is closely related to how perfectly the ensemble can be cloned, and that the quantumness of the ensemble used in a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol is exactly the attainable lower bound of the error rate in the sifted key. - Highlights: → A quantity is defined to characterize how classical a quantum ensemble is. → The classicality of an ensemble is closely related to the cloning performance. → Another quantity is also defined to investigate how quantum an ensemble is. → This quantity gives the lower bound of the error rate in a QKD protocol.
Scarani, Valerio
1998-01-01
The aim of this thesis was to explain what quantum computing is. The information for the thesis was gathered from books, scientific publications, and news articles. The analysis of the information revealed that quantum computing can be broken down to three areas: theories behind quantum computing explaining the structure of a quantum computer, known quantum algorithms, and the actual physical realizations of a quantum computer. The thesis reveals that moving from classical memor...
Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel A.
2005-01-01
When quantum communication networks proliferate they will likely be subject to a new type of attack: by hackers, virus makers, and other malicious intruders. Here we introduce the concept of "quantum malware" to describe such human-made intrusions. We offer a simple solution for storage of quantum information in a manner which protects quantum networks from quantum malware. This solution involves swapping the quantum information at random times between the network and isolated, distributed an...
Noise reduction with complex bilateral filter.
Matsumoto, Mitsuharu
2017-12-01
This study introduces a noise reduction technique that uses a complex bilateral filter. A bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter originally developed for images that can reduce noise while preserving edge information. It is an attractive filter and has been used in many applications in image processing. When it is applied to an acoustical signal, small-amplitude noise is reduced while the speech signal is preserved. However, a bilateral filter cannot handle noise with relatively large amplitudes owing to its innate characteristics. In this study, the noisy signal is transformed into the time-frequency domain and the filter is improved to handle complex spectra. The high-amplitude noise is reduced in the time-frequency domain via the proposed filter. The features and the potential of the proposed filter are also confirmed through experiments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jenssen, Petter D.; Krogstad, T.; Paruch, A.M.
2010-01-01
Nine filter beds have been constructed in the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Filter beds consist of a septic tank followed by an aerobic pre-treatment biofilter and a subsequent saturated flow grass-covered filter. Thus, filter beds are similar to subsurface flow construct...
DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.
2005-01-01
Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...... active filter. Simulation and experimental results obtained in laboratory confirmed the validity and effectiveness of the control....
Efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks
Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.
2017-07-01
A major advantage in using Szegedy's formalism over discrete-time and continuous-time quantum walks lies in its ability to define a unitary quantum walk by quantizing a Markov chain on a directed or weighted graph. In this paper, we present a general scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks that correspond to classical Markov chains possessing transformational symmetry in the columns of the transition matrix. In particular, the transformational symmetry criteria do not necessarily depend on the sparsity of the transition matrix, so this scheme can be applied to non-sparse Markov chains. Two classes of Markov chains that are amenable to this construction are cyclic permutations and complete bipartite graphs, for which we provide explicit efficient quantum circuit implementations. We also prove that our scheme can be applied to Markov chains formed by a tensor product. We also briefly discuss the implementation of Markov chains based on weighted interdependent networks. In addition, we apply this scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits simulating the Szegedy walks used in the quantum Pagerank algorithm for some classes of non-trivial graphs, providing a necessary tool for experimental demonstration of the quantum Pagerank algorithm.
Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides
Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu
2018-03-01
This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.
Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Donghui Li; Li Guo
2006-01-01
@@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.
Filtering Performance Comparison of Kernel and Wavelet Filters for Reactivity Signal Noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Moon Ghu; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Yong Kwan; You, Skin
2006-01-01
Nuclear reactor power deviation from the critical state is a parameter of specific interest defined by the reactivity measuring neutron population. Reactivity is an extremely important quantity used to define many of the reactor startup physics parameters. The time dependent reactivity is normally determined by solving the using inverse neutron kinetics equation. The reactivity computer is a device to provide an on-line solution of the inverse kinetics equation. The measurement signal of the neutron density is normally noise corrupted and the control rods movement typically gives reactivity variation with edge signals like saw teeth. Those edge regions should be precisely preserved since the measured signal is used to estimate the reactivity wroth which is a crucial parameter to assure the safety of the nuclear reactors. In this paper, three kind of edge preserving noise filters are proposed and their performance is demonstrated using stepwise signals. The tested filters are based on the unilateral, bilateral kernel and wavelet filters which are known to be effective in edge preservation. The bilateral filter shows a remarkable improvement compared with unilateral kernel and wavelet filters
Quantum jumps are more quantum than quantum diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daryanoosh, Shakib; M Wiseman, Howard
2014-01-01
It was recently argued (Wiseman and Gambetta 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 220402) that the stochastic dynamics (jumps or diffusion) of an open quantum system are not inherent to the system, but rather depend on the existence and nature of a distant detector. The proposed experimental tests involved homodyne detection, giving rise to quantum diffusion, and required efficiencies η of well over 50%. Here we prove that this requirement (η>0.5) is universal for diffusive-type detection, even if the system is coupled to multiple baths. However, this no-go theorem does not apply to quantum jumps, and we propose a test involving a qubit with jump-type detectors, with a threshold efficiency of only 37%. That is, quantum jumps are ‘more quantum’, and open the way to practical experimental tests. Our scheme involves a novel sort of adaptive monitoring scheme on a system coupled to two baths. (paper)
One-way quantum repeaters with quantum Reed-Solomon codes
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Zou, Chang-Ling; Li, Linshu; Jiang, Liang
2018-05-01
We show that quantum Reed-Solomon codes constructed from classical Reed-Solomon codes can approach the capacity on the quantum erasure channel of d -level systems for large dimension d . We study the performance of one-way quantum repeaters with these codes and obtain a significant improvement in key generation rate compared to previously investigated encoding schemes with quantum parity codes and quantum polynomial codes. We also compare the three generations of quantum repeaters using quantum Reed-Solomon codes and identify parameter regimes where each generation performs the best.
Buyel, Johannes F; Gruchow, Hannah M; Fischer, Rainer
2015-01-01
The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m(-2) when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre-coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m(-2) with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johannes Felix Buyel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g. when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m-2 when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m-2 with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.
Quantum discord and quantum phase transition in spin chains
Dillenschneider, Raoul
2008-01-01
Quantum phase transitions of the transverse Ising and antiferromagnetic XXZ spin S=1/2 chains are studied using quantum discord. Quantum discord allows the measure of quantum correlations present in many-body quantum systems. It is shown that the amount of quantum correlations increases close to the critical points. The observations are in agreement with the information provided by the concurrence which measures the entanglement of the many-body system.
Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn; Li, Song; Zhang, Chi [China University of Mining and Technology, School of Sciences (China); Ye, Bin [China University of Mining and Technology, School of Information and Electrical Engineering (China)
2015-01-15
We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained.
Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang; Li, Song; Zhang, Chi; Ye, Bin
2015-01-01
We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained
Layered Architectures for Quantum Computers and Quantum Repeaters
Jones, Nathan C.
This chapter examines how to organize quantum computers and repeaters using a systematic framework known as layered architecture, where machine control is organized in layers associated with specialized tasks. The framework is flexible and could be used for analysis and comparison of quantum information systems. To demonstrate the design principles in practice, we develop architectures for quantum computers and quantum repeaters based on optically controlled quantum dots, showing how a myriad of technologies must operate synchronously to achieve fault-tolerance. Optical control makes information processing in this system very fast, scalable to large problem sizes, and extendable to quantum communication.
Architectures for Quantum Simulation Showing a Quantum Speedup
Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Hangleiter, Dominik; Schwarz, Martin; Raussendorf, Robert; Eisert, Jens
2018-04-01
One of the main aims in the field of quantum simulation is to achieve a quantum speedup, often referred to as "quantum computational supremacy," referring to the experimental realization of a quantum device that computationally outperforms classical computers. In this work, we show that one can devise versatile and feasible schemes of two-dimensional, dynamical, quantum simulators showing such a quantum speedup, building on intermediate problems involving nonadaptive, measurement-based, quantum computation. In each of the schemes, an initial product state is prepared, potentially involving an element of randomness as in disordered models, followed by a short-time evolution under a basic translationally invariant Hamiltonian with simple nearest-neighbor interactions and a mere sampling measurement in a fixed basis. The correctness of the final-state preparation in each scheme is fully efficiently certifiable. We discuss experimental necessities and possible physical architectures, inspired by platforms of cold atoms in optical lattices and a number of others, as well as specific assumptions that enter the complexity-theoretic arguments. This work shows that benchmark settings exhibiting a quantum speedup may require little control, in contrast to universal quantum computing. Thus, our proposal puts a convincing experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup within reach in the near term.
Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin
2015-01-01
. In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...... in the z-domain. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed active damping method. Both results have confirmed that the notch filter based active damping can ensure the entire system stability in the case of resonances with a good system performance....
Quantum Quasi-Paradoxes and Quantum Sorites Paradoxes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smarandache F.
2005-04-01
Full Text Available There can be generated many paradoxes or quasi-paradoxes that may occur from the combination of quantum and non-quantum worlds in physics. Even the passage from the micro-cosmos to the macro-cosmos, and reciprocally, can generate unsolved questions or counter-intuitive ideas. We define a quasi-paradox as a statement which has a prima facie self-contradictory support or an explicit contradiction, but which is not completely proven as a paradox. We present herein four elementary quantum quasi-paradoxes and their corresponding quantum Sorites paradoxes, which form a class of quantum quasi-paradoxes.
Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and the quantum Turing machine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, M.
2007-08-31
The purpose of this thesis is to give a formal definition of quantum Kolmogorov complexity and rigorous mathematical proofs of its basic properties. Classical Kolmogorov complexity is a well-known and useful measure of randomness for binary strings. In recent years, several different quantum generalizations of Kolmogorov complexity have been proposed. The most natural generalization is due to A. Berthiaume et al. (2001), defining the complexity of a quantum bit (qubit) string as the length of the shortest quantum input for a universal quantum computer that outputs the desired string. Except for slight modifications, it is this definition of quantum Kolmogorov complexity that we study in this thesis. We start by analyzing certain aspects of the underlying quantum Turing machine (QTM) model in a more detailed formal rigour than was done previously. Afterwards, we apply these results to quantum Kolmogorov complexity. Our first result is a proof of the existence of a universal QTM which simulates every other QTM for an arbitrary number of time steps and than halts with probability one. In addition, we show that every input that makes a QTM almost halt can be modified to make the universal QTM halt entirely, by adding at most a constant number of qubits. It follows that quantum Kolmogorov complexity has the invariance property, i.e. it depends on the choice of the universal QTM only up to an additive constant. Moreover, the quantum complexity of classical strings agrees with classical complexity, again up to an additive constant. The proofs are based on several analytic estimates. Furthermore, we prove several incompressibility theorems for quantum Kolmogorov complexity. Finally, we show that for ergodic quantum information sources, complexity rate and entropy rate coincide with probability one. The thesis is finished with an outlook on a possible application of quantum Kolmogorov complexity in statistical mechanics. (orig.)
Implicit LES using adaptive filtering
Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.
2018-04-01
In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.
Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mable P. Fok
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.
Holistic Entropy Reduction for Collaborative Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szwabe Andrzej
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We propose a collaborative filtering (CF method that uses behavioral data provided as propositions having the RDF-compliant form of (user X, likes, item Y triples. The method involves the application of a novel self-configuration technique for the generation of vector-space representations optimized from the information-theoretic perspective. The method, referred to as Holistic Probabilistic Modus Ponendo Ponens (HPMPP, enables reasoning about the likelihood of unknown facts. The proposed vector-space graph representation model is based on the probabilistic apparatus of quantum Information Retrieval and on the compatibility of all operators representing subjects, predicates, objects and facts. The dual graph-vector representation of the available propositional data enables the entropy-reducing transformation and supports the compositionality of mutually compatible representations. As shown in the experiments presented in the paper, the compositionality of the vector-space representations allows an HPMPP-based recommendation system to identify which of the unknown facts having the triple form (user X, likes, item Y are the most likely to be true in a way that is both effective and, in contrast to methods proposed so far, fully automatic.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenneker, Carsten (comp.)
2012-11-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Relationship between quantum walks and relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandrashekar, C. M.; Banerjee, Subhashish; Srikanth, R.
2010-01-01
Quantum walk models have been used as an algorithmic tool for quantum computation and to describe various physical processes. This article revisits the relationship between relativistic quantum mechanics and the quantum walks. We show the similarities of the mathematical structure of the decoupled and coupled forms of the discrete-time quantum walk to that of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, respectively. In the latter case, the coin emerges as an analog of the spinor degree of freedom. Discrete-time quantum walk as a coupled form of the continuous-time quantum walk is also shown by transforming the decoupled form of the discrete-time quantum walk to the Schroedinger form. By showing the coin to be a means to make the walk reversible and that the Dirac-like structure is a consequence of the coin use, our work suggests that the relativistic causal structure is a consequence of conservation of information. However, decoherence (modeled by projective measurements on position space) generates entropy that increases with time, making the walk irreversible and thereby producing an arrow of time. The Lieb-Robinson bound is used to highlight the causal structure of the quantum walk to put in perspective the relativistic structure of the quantum walk, the maximum speed of walk propagation, and earlier findings related to the finite spread of the walk probability distribution. We also present a two-dimensional quantum walk model on a two-state system to which the study can be extended.
PSpice for filters and transmission lines
Tobin, Paul
2007-01-01
In this book, PSpice for Filters and Transmission Lines, we examine a range of active and passive filters where each design is simulated using the latest Cadence Orcad V10.5 PSpice capture software. These filters cannot match the very high order digital signal processing (DSP) filters considered in PSpice for Digital Signal Processing, but nevertheless these filters have many uses. The active filters considered were designed using Butterworth and Chebychev approximation loss functions rather than using the 'cookbook approach' so that the final design will meet a given specification in an exact
Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wendland, W.G.
1983-01-01
This invention relates to equipment for filtering liquids and more particularly to filter assemblies for use with radioactive by-products of nuclear power plants. The invention provides a compact, bottom-loaded filter assembly that can be quickly and safely loaded and unloaded without the use of complex remote equipment. The assembly is integrally shielded and does not require external shielding. The closure hatch may be automatically aligned to facilitate quick sealing attachment after replacement of the filter cartridge, and the filter cartridge may be automatically positioned within the filter housing during the replacement operation
Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits
Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey
2014-08-26
A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.
In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.
2002-01-01
The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of
Quantum mechanics and quantum information a guide through the quantum world
Fayngold, Moses
2013-01-01
Alongside a thorough definition of the basic concepts and their interrelations, backed by numerous examples, this textbook features a rare discussion of the quantum information theory. It also deals with other important topics hardly found in the literature, including the Robertson-Schrodinger-relation, angle and angular momentum uncertainties, interaction-free measurements, and the limitations of the no-cloning theorem With its interpretations of quantum mechanics and its discussions of quantum computing, this book is poised to become the standard textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate quantum mechanics courses and as an essential reference for physics students and physics professionals.
Modelling modulation perception : modulation low-pass filter or modulation filter bank?
Dau, T.; Kollmeier, B.; Kohlrausch, A.G.
1995-01-01
In current models of modulation perception, the stimuli are first filtered and nonlinearly transformed (mostly half-wave rectified). In order to model the low-pass characteristic of measured modulation transfer functions, the next stage in the models is a first-order low-pass filter with a typical
Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.
2001-01-01
We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)
Quantum features of semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lozada-Cassou, M.; Dong Shihai; Yu Jiang
2004-01-01
The exact solutions of the two-dimensional Schrodinger equation with the position-dependent mass for the square well potential in the semiconductor quantum dots system are obtained. The eigenvalues, which are closely related to the position-dependent masses μ1 and μ2, the potential well depth V0 and the radius of the quantum dots r0, can be calculated from two boundary conditions. We generalize this quantum system to three-dimensional case. The special cases for the angular momentum quantum number l=0, 1, 2 are studied in some detail. We find that the energy levels are proportional to the parameters μ2, V0 and r0 for l=0. The relations between them for l=1, 2 become very complicated. The scattering states of this quantum system are mentioned briefly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steane, Andrew
1998-01-01
The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steane, Andrew [Department of Atomic and Laser Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom)
1998-02-01
The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from
Spin-based quantum computation in multielectron quantum dots
Hu, Xuedong; Sarma, S. Das
2001-01-01
In a quantum computer the hardware and software are intrinsically connected because the quantum Hamiltonian (or more precisely its time development) is the code that runs the computer. We demonstrate this subtle and crucial relationship by considering the example of electron-spin-based solid state quantum computer in semiconductor quantum dots. We show that multielectron quantum dots with one valence electron in the outermost shell do not behave simply as an effective single spin system unles...
Quantum Mechanics on the h-deformed Quantum Plane
Cho, Sunggoo
1998-01-01
We find the covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra and the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the extended $h$-deformed quantum plane and solve the Schr\\"odinger equations explicitly for some physical systems on the quantum plane. In the commutative limit the behaviour of a quantum particle on the quantum plane becomes that of the quantum particle on the Poincar\\'e half-plane, a surface of constant negative Gaussian curvature. We show the bound state energy spectra for particles under specific poten...
One way quantum repeaters with quantum Reed-Solomon codes
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Zou, Chang-Ling; Li, Linshu; Jiang, Liang
2018-01-01
We show that quantum Reed-Solomon codes constructed from classical Reed-Solomon codes can approach the capacity on the quantum erasure channel of $d$-level systems for large dimension $d$. We study the performance of one-way quantum repeaters with these codes and obtain a significant improvement in key generation rate compared to previously investigated encoding schemes with quantum parity codes and quantum polynomial codes. We also compare the three generation of quantum repeaters using quan...
Frequency Domain Image Filtering Using CUDA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Awais Rajput
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA?s CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture. In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA?s parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butterworth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output image quality on both the processing architectures
Frequency domain image filtering using cuda
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajput, M.A.; Khan, U.A.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA's CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA's parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butter worth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output) image quality on both the processing architectures. (author)
Ordered quantum-ring chains grown on a quantum-dot superlattice template
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Holmes, Kyland; Marega, Euclydes; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.
2012-01-01
One-dimensional ordered quantum-ring chains are fabricated on a quantum-dot superlattice template by molecular beam epitaxy. The quantum-dot superlattice template is prepared by stacking multiple quantum-dot layers and quantum-ring chains are formed by partially capping quantum dots. Partially capping InAs quantum dots with a thin layer of GaAs introduces a morphological change from quantum dots to quantum rings. The lateral ordering is introduced by engineering the strain field of a multi-layer InGaAs quantum-dot superlattice.
Quantum copying and simplification of the quantum Fourier transform
Niu, Chi-Sheng
Theoretical studies of quantum computation and quantum information theory are presented in this thesis. Three topics are considered: simplification of the quantum Fourier transform in Shor's algorithm, optimal eavesdropping in the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol, and quantum copying of one qubit. The quantum Fourier transform preceding the final measurement in Shor's algorithm is simplified by replacing a network of quantum gates with one that has fewer and simpler gates controlled by classical signals. This simplification results from an analysis of the network using the consistent history approach to quantum mechanics. The optimal amount of information which an eavesdropper can gain, for a given level of noise in the communication channel, is worked out for the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. The optimal eavesdropping strategy is expressed in terms of various quantum networks. A consistent history analysis of these networks using two conjugate quantum bases shows how the information gain in one basis influences the noise level in the conjugate basis. The no-cloning property of quantum systems, which is the physics behind quantum cryptography, is studied by considering copying machines that generate two imperfect copies of one qubit. The best qualities these copies can have are worked out with the help of the Bloch sphere representation for one qubit, and a quantum network is worked out for an optimal copying machine. If the copying machine does not have additional ancillary qubits, the copying process can be viewed using a 2-dimensional subspace in a product space of two qubits. A special representation of such a two-dimensional subspace makes possible a complete characterization of this type of copying. This characterization in turn leads to simplified eavesdropping strategies in the BB84 and the B92 quantum cryptographic protocols.
Ultrafast probing of core hole localization in N2.
Schöffler, M S; Titze, J; Petridis, N; Jahnke, T; Cole, K; Schmidt, L Ph H; Czasch, A; Akoury, D; Jagutzki, O; Williams, J B; Cherepkov, N A; Semenov, S K; McCurdy, C W; Rescigno, T N; Cocke, C L; Osipov, T; Lee, S; Prior, M H; Belkacem, A; Landers, A L; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Weber, Th; Dörner, R
2008-05-16
Although valence electrons are clearly delocalized in molecular bonding frameworks, chemists and physicists have long debated the question of whether the core vacancy created in a homonuclear diatomic molecule by absorption of a single x-ray photon is localized on one atom or delocalized over both. We have been able to clarify this question with an experiment that uses Auger electron angular emission patterns from molecular nitrogen after inner-shell ionization as an ultrafast probe of hole localization. The experiment, along with the accompanying theory, shows that observation of symmetry breaking (localization) or preservation (delocalization) depends on how the quantum entangled Bell state created by Auger decay is detected by the measurement.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Nonequilibrium quantum mechanics: A "hot quantum soup" of paramagnons
Scammell, H. D.; Sushkov, O. P.
2017-01-01
Motivated by recent measurements of the lifetime (decay width) of paramagnons in quantum antiferromagnet TlCuCl3, we investigate paramagnon decay in a heat bath and formulate an appropriate quantum theory. Our formulation can be split into two regimes: (i) a nonperturbative, "hot quantum soup" regime where the paramagnon width is comparable to its energy; (ii) a usual perturbative regime where the paramagnon width is significantly lower than its energy. Close to the Neel temperature, the paramagnon width becomes comparable to its energy and falls into the hot quantum soup regime. To describe this regime, we develop a new finite frequency, finite temperature technique for a nonlinear quantum field theory; the "golden rule of quantum kinetics." The formulation is generic and applicable to any three-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet in the vicinity of a quantum critical point. Specifically, we apply our results to TlCuCl3 and find agreement with experimental data. Additionally, we show that logarithmic running of the coupling constant in the upper critical dimension changes the commonly accepted picture of the quantum disordered and quantum critical regimes.
Free-Space Quantum Communication with a Portable Quantum Memory
Namazi, Mehdi; Vallone, Giuseppe; Jordaan, Bertus; Goham, Connor; Shahrokhshahi, Reihaneh; Villoresi, Paolo; Figueroa, Eden
2017-12-01
The realization of an elementary quantum network that is intrinsically secure and operates over long distances requires the interconnection of several quantum modules performing different tasks. In this work, we report the realization of a communication network functioning in a quantum regime, consisting of four different quantum modules: (i) a random polarization qubit generator, (ii) a free-space quantum-communication channel, (iii) an ultralow-noise portable quantum memory, and (iv) a qubit decoder, in a functional elementary quantum network possessing all capabilities needed for quantum-information distribution protocols. We create weak coherent pulses at the single-photon level encoding polarization states |H ⟩ , |V ⟩, |D ⟩, and |A ⟩ in a randomized sequence. The random qubits are sent over a free-space link and coupled into a dual-rail room-temperature quantum memory and after storage and retrieval are analyzed in a four-detector polarization analysis akin to the requirements of the BB84 protocol. We also show ultralow noise and fully portable operation, paving the way towards memory-assisted all-environment free-space quantum cryptographic networks.
Kalman filtering with real-time applications
Chui, Charles K
2017-01-01
This new edition presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering. Over 100 exercises and problems with solutions help de...
Rudno-Rudziński, W.; Biegańska, D.; Misiewicz, J.; Lelarge, F.; Rousseau, B.; Sek, G.
2018-01-01
We investigate the diffusion of photo-generated carriers (excitons) in hybrid two dimensional-zero dimensional tunnel injection structures, based on strongly elongated InAs quantum dots (called quantum dashes, QDashes) of various heights, designed for emission at around 1.5 μm, separated by a 3.5 nm wide barrier from an 8 nm wide In0.64Ga0.36As0.78P0.22 quantum well (QW). By measuring the spectrally filtered real space images of the photoluminescence patterns with high resolution, we probe the spatial extent of the emission from QDashes. Deconvolution with the exciting light spot shape allows us to extract the carrier/exciton diffusion lengths. For the non-resonant excitation case, the diffusion length depends strongly on excitation power, pointing at carrier interactions and phonons as its main driving mechanisms. For the case of excitation resonant with absorption in the adjacent QW, the diffusion length does not depend on excitation power for low excitation levels since the generated carriers do not have sufficient excess kinetic energy. It is also found that the diffusion length depends on the quantum-mechanical coupling strength between QW and QDashes, controlled by changing the dash size. It influences the energy difference between the QDash ground state of the system and the quantum well levels, which affects the tunneling rates. When that QW-QDash level separation decreases, the probability of capturing excitons generated in the QW by QDashes increases, which is reflected by the decreased diffusion length from approx. 5 down to 3 μm.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Agarwal, G. S
2013-01-01
..., quantum metrology, spin squeezing, control of decoherence and many other key topics. Readers are guided through the principles of quantum optics and their uses in a wide variety of areas including quantum information science and quantum mechanics...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza Filho, J D; Silva, L.G. Fonseca e; Oliveira, A Braga de; Alves, R Jose [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lukacs, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Chimie des Substances Naturelles
1992-12-31
The discovery of ramified sugars as various antibiotics constituents, leads to the development of various preparation technologies. In the framework of hexapiranose analogues synthesis, the alcohol-7 was the intermediary on which functional group interconversion reactions were performed. The carbonyl group reduction with Na B H{sub 4} in MeOH{sup 5} was performed, for obtaining the ethyl alcohol-6 a (99%). Later on, the reaction of stereoselective reduction of the double binding between C-2 and C-3 was conducted in presence of Ni-Ra in Ac O Et, allowing to obtain the two epimer 7 and 7 a alcohols, with 86.9 and 7.5% yield respectively. The 7 {sup 1} H NMR signals were easily assigned by analysing the extended spectrum obtained by narrowing the spectral line. In accordance with predictable multiplicity and H-6{alpha} (Triplet at 3.7 ppm) patterns, the triple doublet H-5, at 4.1 ppm has been assigned. The assignments were confirmed by a chemical shift homonuclear correlation experiment (COSY H-H). H-7, H-7{sup `} and H-4 have been assigned through the H-3. The use of hydroxyl proton as reference (d d, 2.72 ppm) allowed the confirmation of the chemical shift assigned to H-7 and H-7{sup `} 5 refs., 6 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zhenni; Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui
2011-01-01
We present schemes for a type of one-parameter bipartite quantum state to probe quantum entanglement, quantum discord, the classical correlation, and the quantum state based on cavity QED. It is shown that our detection does not influence all these measured quantities. We also discuss how the spontaneous emission introduced by our probe atom influences our detection.
Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy
2012-01-01
This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...
Switching non-local vector median filter
Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji
2016-04-01
This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.
Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penin, Alexander A.
2009-01-01
We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted
Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-05-22
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.