1990-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics is an essential building block and an integral part of the gauge theory of unified electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, the so-called standard model. Its failure or breakdown at some level would have a most profound impact on the theoretical foundations of elementary particle physics as a whole. Thus the validity of QED has been the subject of intense experimental tests over more than 40 years of its history. This volume presents an up-to-date review of high precision experimental tests of QED together with comprehensive discussion of required theoretical wor
Molecular quantum electrodynamics
Craig, D P
1998-01-01
This systematic introduction to quantum electrodynamics focuses on the interaction of radiation with outer electrons and nuclei of atoms and molecules, answering the long-standing need of chemists and physicists for a comprehensive text on this highly specialized subject.Geared toward postgraduate students in the chemical sciences who require an understanding of quantum electrodynamics as applied to the interpretation of optical experiments on atoms and molecules, the text offers a detailed explanation of the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. It feat
No drama quantum electrodynamics?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhmeteli, Andrey [LTASolid Inc, Houston, TX (United States)
2013-04-15
This article builds on recent work (Akhmeteli in Int. J. Quantum Inf. 9(Supp01):17, 2011; J. Math. Phys. 52:082303, 2011), providing a theory that is based on spinor electrodynamics, is described by a system of partial differential equations in 3+1 dimensions, but reproduces unitary evolution of a quantum field theory in the Fock space. To this end, after introduction of a complex four-potential of electromagnetic field, which generates the same electromagnetic fields as the initial real four-potential, the spinor field is algebraically eliminated from the equations of spinor electrodynamics. It is proven that the resulting equations for electromagnetic field describe independent evolution of the latter and can be embedded into a quantum field theory using a generalized Carleman linearization procedure. The theory provides a simple and at least reasonably realistic model, valuable for interpretation of quantum theory. The issues related to the Bell theorem are discussed. (orig.)
Timelike Momenta In Quantum Electrodynamics
Brodsky, S. J.; Ting, S. C. C.
1965-12-01
In this note we discuss the possibility of studying the quantum electrodynamics of timelike photon propagators in muon or electron pair production by incident high energy muon or electron beams from presently available proton or electron accelerators.
The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Bacelar Valente
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.
QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS - AN INDIVIDUAL VIEW
1982-01-01
The aim of this report is to describe the development of the quantum electrodynamics in the years from the 1930's to the 1950's. It is based on the way the author saw and participate to this development. Four phases are discussed : preparation (1934 - 1946) ; non-covariant relativistic theory (1947) ; first covariant relativistic theory (1947 - 1948) ; second covariant relativistic theory (1949 - 1950). A detailed technical description is presented. The author shows the influence of quantum e...
Quantum gravitational contributions to quantum electrodynamics.
Toms, David J
2010-11-01
Quantum electrodynamics describes the interactions of electrons and photons. Electric charge (the gauge coupling constant) is energy dependent, and there is a previous claim that charge is affected by gravity (described by general relativity) with the implication that the charge is reduced at high energies. However, that claim has been very controversial and the matter has not been settled. Here I report an analysis (free from the earlier controversies) demonstrating that quantum gravity corrections to quantum electrodynamics have a quadratic energy dependence that result in the electric charge vanishing at high energies, a result known as asymptotic freedom.
PT-Symmetric Quantum Electrodynamics
Bender, C M; Milton, K A; Shajesh, K V; Bender, Carl M.; Cavero-Pelaez, Ines; Milton, Kimball A.
2005-01-01
The Hamiltonian for quantum electrodynamics becomes non-Hermitian if the unrenormalized electric charge $e$ is taken to be imaginary. However, if one also specifies that the potential $A^\\mu$ in such a theory transforms as a pseudovector rather than a vector, then the Hamiltonian becomes PT symmetric. The resulting non-Hermitian theory of electrodynamics is the analog of a spinless quantum field theory in which a pseudoscalar field $\\phi$ has a cubic self-interaction of the form $i\\phi^3$. The Hamiltonian for this cubic scalar field theory has a positive spectrum, and it has recently been demonstrated that the time evolution of this theory is unitary. The proof of unitarity requires the construction of a new operator called C, which is then used to define an inner product with respect to which the Hamiltonian is self-adjoint. In this paper the corresponding C operator for non-Hermitian quantum electrodynamics is constructed perturbatively. This construction demonstrates the unitarity of the theory. Non-Hermit...
Subcycle Quantum Electrodynamics
Riek, Claudius; Seeger, Maximilian; Moskalenko, Andrey S; Burkard, Guido; Seletskiy, Denis V; Leitenstorfer, Alfred
2016-01-01
Besides their stunning physical properties which are unmatched in a classical world, squeezed states of electromagnetic radiation bear advanced application potentials in quantum information systems and precision metrology, including gravitational wave detectors with unprecedented sensitivity. Since the first experiments on such nonclassical light, quantum analysis has been based on homodyning techniques and photon correlation measurements. These methods require a well-defined carrier frequency and photons contained in a quantum state need to be absorbed or amplified. They currently function in the visible to near-infrared and microwave spectral ranges. Quantum nondemolition experiments may be performed at the expense of excess fluctuations in another quadrature. Here we generate mid-infrared time-locked patterns of squeezed vacuum noise. After propagation through free space, the quantum fluctuations of the electric field are studied in the time domain by electro-optic sampling with few-femtosecond laser pulse...
Mesoscopic Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics with Quantum Dots
Childress, L I; Lukin, M D
2003-01-01
We describe an electrodynamic mechanism for coherent, quantum mechanical coupling between spacially separated quantum dots on a microchip. The technique is based on capacitive interactions between the electron charge and a superconducting transmission line resonator, and is closely related to atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics. We investigate several potential applications of this technique which have varying degrees of complexity. In particular, we demonstrate that this mechanism allows design and investigation of an on-chip double-dot microscopic maser. Moreover, the interaction may be extended to couple spatially separated electron spin states while only virtually populating fast-decaying superpositions of charge states. This represents an effective, controllable long-range interaction, which may facilitate implementation of quantum information processing with electron spin qubits and potentially allow coupling to other quantum systems such as atomic or superconducting qubits.
Subcycle quantum electrodynamics.
Riek, C; Sulzer, P; Seeger, M; Moskalenko, A S; Burkard, G; Seletskiy, D V; Leitenstorfer, A
2017-01-18
Squeezed states of electromagnetic radiation have quantum fluctuations below those of the vacuum field. They offer a unique resource for quantum information systems and precision metrology, including gravitational wave detectors, which require unprecedented sensitivity. Since the first experiments on this non-classical form of light, quantum analysis has been based on homodyning techniques and photon correlation measurements. These methods currently function in the visible to near-infrared and microwave spectral ranges. They require a well-defined carrier frequency, and photons contained in a quantum state need to be absorbed or amplified. Quantum non-demolition experiments may be performed to avoid the influence of a measurement in one quadrature, but this procedure comes at the expense of increased uncertainty in another quadrature. Here we generate mid-infrared time-locked patterns of squeezed vacuum noise. After propagation through free space, the quantum fluctuations of the electric field are studied in the time domain using electro-optic sampling with few-femtosecond laser pulses. We directly compare the local noise amplitude to that of bare (that is, unperturbed) vacuum. Our nonlinear approach operates off resonance and, unlike homodyning or photon correlation techniques, without absorption or amplification of the field that is investigated. We find subcycle intervals with noise levels that are substantially less than the amplitude of the vacuum field. As a consequence, there are enhanced fluctuations in adjacent time intervals, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which indicate generation of highly correlated quantum radiation. Together with efforts in the far infrared, this work enables the study of elementary quantum dynamics of light and matter in an energy range at the boundary between vacuum and thermal background conditions.
Quantum Electrodynamics of Nanosystems
Masood, Samina S
2012-01-01
Quantum description of mulitiparticle nano-systems is studied in a hot and dense electromagnetic medium. We use renormalization techniques of quantum field theory to show that the electromagnetic properties like electric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the temperature and density of the media. Casimir force also depends upon the physical properties of the medium and becomes a function of these parameters within the nano-systems. We discuss the effect of the Casimir force on the nanosystems in terms of temperature and density of the system. We present carbon nanotubes and biomolecules as examples.
Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.
PT-Symmetry Quantum Electrodynamics--PTQED
Milton, Kimball A; Parashar, Prachi; Shajesh, K V; Wagner, Jef
2007-01-01
The construction of $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric quantum electrodynamics is reviewed. In particular, the massless version of the theory in 1+1 dimensions (the Schwinger model) is solved. Difficulties with unitarity of the $S$-matrix are discussed.
The fundamental constants and quantum electrodynamics
Taylor, Barry N; Langenberg, D N
1969-01-01
Introduction ; review of experimental data ; least-squares adjustment to obtain values of the constants without QED theory ; implications for quantum electrodynamics ; final recommended set of fundamental constants ; summary and conclusions.
Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.
Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna
2015-12-01
The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Quantum Electrodynamics on background external fields
Marecki, P
2003-01-01
The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.
Quantum electrodynamics on background external fields
2003-01-01
The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.
Quantum mechanics as electrodynamics of curvilinear waves
2002-01-01
The suggested theory is the new quantum mechanics (QM) interpretation.The research proves that QM represents the electrodynamics of the curvilinear closed (non-linear) waves. It is entirely according to the modern interpretation and explains the particularities and the results of the quantum field theory.
Quantum Electrodynamics in a Uniform Magnetic Field
Suzuki, J
2005-01-01
A systematic formalism for quantum electrodynamics in a classical uniform magnetic field is discussed. The first order radiative correction to the ground state energy of an electron is calculated. This then leads to the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron without divergent integrals. Thorough analyses of this problem are given for the weak magnetic field limit. A new expression for the radiative correction to the ground state energy is obtained. This contains only one integral with an additional summation with respect to each Landau level. The importance of this formalism is also addressed in order to deal with quantum electrodynamics in an intense external field.
Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.
Grotch, Howard
1981-01-01
The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)
Quantum electrodynamics and the fundamental constants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter J. Mohr
2000-07-01
Full Text Available the results of critical experiments and the theoretical expressions for these results written in terms of the constants. Many of the theoretical expressions are based on quantum electrodynamics (QED, so the consistency of the comparison provides a critical test of the validity of the theory.
Minimal resonator loss for circuit quantum electrodynamics
Barends, R.; Vercruyssen, N.; Endo, A.; De Visser, P.J.; Zijlstra, T.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Diener, P.; Yates, S.J.C.; Baselmans, J.J.A.
2010-01-01
We report quality factors of up to 500x10³ in superconducting resonators at the single photon levels needed for circuit quantum electrodynamics. This result is achieved by using NbTiN and removing the dielectric from regions with high electric fields. As demonstrated by a comparison with Ta, the cru
Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic bandgap
Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A.
2017-01-01
Photonic crystals are a powerful tool for the manipulation of optical dispersion and density of states, and have thus been used in applications from photon generation to quantum sensing with nitrogen vacancy centres and atoms. The unique control provided by these media makes them a beautiful, if unexplored, playground for strong-coupling quantum electrodynamics, where a single, highly nonlinear emitter hybridizes with the band structure of the crystal. Here we demonstrate that such a hybridization can create localized cavity modes that live within the photonic bandgap, whose localization and spectral properties we explore in detail. We then demonstrate that the coloured vacuum of the photonic crystal can be employed for efficient dissipative state preparation. This work opens exciting prospects for engineering long-range spin models in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, as well as new opportunities for dissipative quantum state engineering.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context.
Mabuchi, H; Doherty, A C
2002-11-15
Modern cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) illuminates the most fundamental aspects of coherence and decoherence in quantum mechanics. Experiments on atoms in cavities can be described by elementary models but reveal intriguing subtleties of the interplay of coherent dynamics with external couplings. Recent activity in this area has pioneered powerful new approaches to the study of quantum coherence and has fueled the growth of quantum information science. In years to come, the purview of cavity QED will continue to grow as researchers build on a rich infrastructure to attack some of the most pressing open questions in micro- and mesoscopic physics.
Quantum-classical crossover in electrodynamics
Polonyi, J
2006-01-01
A classical field theory is proposed for the electric current and the electromagnetic field interpolating between microscopic and macroscopic domains. It represents a generalization of the density functional for the dynamics of the current and the electromagnetic field in the quantum side of the crossover and reproduces standard classical electrodynamics on the other side. The effective action derived in the closed time path formalism and the equations of motion follow from the variational principle. The polarization of the Dirac-see can be taken into account in the quadratic approximation of the action by the introduction of the deplacement field strengths as in conventional classical electrodynamics. Decoherence appears naturally as a simple one-loop effect in this formalism. It is argued that the radiation time arrow is generated from the quantum boundary conditions in time by decoherence at the quantum-classical crossover and the Abraham-Lorentz force arises from the accelerating charge or from other char...
Finite quantum electrodynamics the causal approach
Scharf, Günter
2014-01-01
In this classic text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of physics, author Günter Scharf carefully analyzes the role of causality in quantum electrodynamics. His approach offers full proofs and detailed calculations of scattering processes in a mathematically rigorous manner. This third edition contains Scharf's revisions and corrections plus a brief new Epilogue on gauge invariance of quantum electrodynamics to all orders. The book begins with Dirac's theory, followed by the quantum theory of free fields and causal perturbation theory, a powerful method that avoids ultraviolet divergences and solves the infrared problem by means of the adiabatic limit. Successive chapters explore properties of the S-matrix — such as renormalizability, gauge invariance, and unitarity — the renormalization group, and interactive fields. Additional topics include electromagnetic couplings and the extension of the methods to non-abelian gauge theories. Each chapter is supplemented with problems, and four appe...
Soliton-like solution in quantum electrodynamics
Skoromnik, O D; Keitel, C H
2016-01-01
A novel soliton-like solution in quantum electrodynamics is obtained via a self-consistent field method. By writing the Hamiltonian of quantum electrodynamics in the Coulomb gauge, we separate out a classical component in the density operator of the electron-positron field. Then, by modeling the state vector in analogy with the theory of superconductivity, we minimize the functional for the energy of the system. This results in the equations of the self-consistent field, where the solutions are associated with the collective excitation of the electron-positron field---the soliton-like solution. In addition, the canonical transformation of the variables allowed us to separate out the total momentum of the system and, consequently, to find the relativistic energy dispersion relation for the moving soliton.
Foundations of classical and quantum electrodynamics
Toptygin, Igor N
2014-01-01
This advanced textbook covers many fundamental, traditional and new branches of electrodynamics, as well as the related fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. The book introduces the material at different levels, oriented towards 3rd–4th year bachelor, master, and PhD students. This is so as to describe the whole complexity of physical phenomena. The required mathematical background is collated in Chapter 1, while the necessary physical background is included in the main text of the corresponding chapters and also given in appendices. It contains approximately 800 examples and problems, many of which are described in detail. Some of these problems are designed for students to work on their own with only the answers and descriptions of results, and may be solved selectively. Equally suitable as a reference for researchers specialized in science and engineering.
Time-symmetric electrodynamics and quantum measurement
Pegg, D. T.
The application of the Wheeler-Feynman theory of time-symmetric electrodynamics to obtain definite answers to questions concerning the objective existence of quantum states in an optical EPR type of experiment is discussed. This theory allows the influence of the detector on the system being studied to be taken into account. The result is an entirely fresh understanding of experiments of the Kocher-Commins type.
Discrepancies in quantum electro-dynamics
Chantler, C. T.
2004-10-01
Experimental tests of quantum electro-dynamics (QED) have developed dramatically for simple atomic systems such as hydrogen. However, a range of anomalies has been discovered recently. There has also been significant progress for medium- Z hydrogenic and helium-like atoms. In this area tests are often based on X-ray spectroscopic measurements. Future prospects for critical insight into the nature and convergence of QED in multi-electron systems will be discussed.
Discrepancies in quantum electro-dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chantler, C.T. E-mail: chantler@ph.unimelb.edu.au
2004-11-01
Experimental tests of quantum electro-dynamics (QED) have developed dramatically for simple atomic systems such as hydrogen. However, a range of anomalies has been discovered recently. There has also been significant progress for medium-Z hydrogenic and helium-like atoms. In this area tests are often based on X-ray spectroscopic measurements. Future prospects for critical insight into the nature and convergence of QED in multi-electron systems will be discussed.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics: Beyond strong
Murch, Kater
2017-01-01
When light and matter are strongly coupled, they lose their distinct character and merge into a hybrid state. Three experiments explore this exotic regime using artificial atoms, with promise for quantum technologies.
Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup
In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations...... probability. The Q-factor distributions of Anderson localized modes have been measured in PhC waveguides with articial induced disorder with embedded emitters. The largest Q-factors are found in the sample with the smallest amount of disorder. From a comparison with the waveguide model the localization length...
Investigation on regulators in quantum electrodynamics
Stora, Raymond Félix
We present in this work three models which are able to suppress the divergences of approximate versions of Quantum Electrodynamics.It is indeed argued that, in view of the smallness of the fine structure constant, not only the first terms of a perturbation expansion, or of an expansion according to the number of particles involved in intermediate states, gives a fair approximattonbut furthermore, that it is in these terms that a breakdown of electrodynamics should be sought. Our goal is to connect the high energy behaviour of relevant physical processes with the suppression of the divergences. Our goal is to connect the high energy behaviour of relevant physical processes with the suppression of the divergences. The first model assumes the existence of a photon cut off, whose observable consequences are clearly stated, and of a fermion out off which, although unable to give a satisfactory ...
Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shebeko Alexander
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT, put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED and quantum chromodynamics (QCD. Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR. In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3 when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.
Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a spin qubit.
Petersson, K D; McFaul, L W; Schroer, M D; Jung, M; Taylor, J M; Houck, A A; Petta, J R
2012-10-18
Electron spins trapped in quantum dots have been proposed as basic building blocks of a future quantum processor. Although fast, 180-picosecond, two-quantum-bit (two-qubit) operations can be realized using nearest-neighbour exchange coupling, a scalable, spin-based quantum computing architecture will almost certainly require long-range qubit interactions. Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) allows spatially separated superconducting qubits to interact via a superconducting microwave cavity that acts as a 'quantum bus', making possible two-qubit entanglement and the implementation of simple quantum algorithms. Here we combine the cQED architecture with spin qubits by coupling an indium arsenide nanowire double quantum dot to a superconducting cavity. The architecture allows us to achieve a charge-cavity coupling rate of about 30 megahertz, consistent with coupling rates obtained in gallium arsenide quantum dots. Furthermore, the strong spin-orbit interaction of indium arsenide allows us to drive spin rotations electrically with a local gate electrode, and the charge-cavity interaction provides a measurement of the resulting spin dynamics. Our results demonstrate how the cQED architecture can be used as a sensitive probe of single-spin physics and that a spin-cavity coupling rate of about one megahertz is feasible, presenting the possibility of long-range spin coupling via superconducting microwave cavities.
Off-Shell Quantum Electrodynamics
Land, M. C.; Horwitz, L. P.
1996-01-01
More than twenty years have passed since the threads of the `proper time formalism' in covariant classical and quantum mechanics were brought together to construct a canonical formalism for the relativistic mechanics of many particles. Drawing on the work of Fock, Stueckelberg, Nambu, Schwinger, and Feynman, the formalism was raised from the status of a purely formal mathematical technique to a covariant evolution theory for interacting particles. In the context of this theory, solutions have...
New Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sze Kui Ng
2008-04-01
Full Text Available It is shown that a photon with a specific frequency can be identified with the Dirac magnetic monopole. When a Dirac-Wilson line forms a Dirac-Wilson loop, it is a photon. This loop model of photon is exactly solvable. From the winding numbers of this loop-form of photon, we derive the quantization properties of energy and electric charge. A new QED theory is presented that is free of ultravioletdivergences. The Dirac-Wilson line is as the quantum photon propagator of the new QED theory from which we can derive known QED effects such as the anomalous magnetic moment and the Lamb shift. The one-loop computation of these effects is simpler and is more accurate than that in the conventional QED theory. Furthermore, from the new QED theory, we have derived a new QED effect. A new formulation of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS equation solves the difficulties of the BS equation and gives a modified ground state of the positronium. By the mentioned new QED effect and by the new formulation of the BS equation, a term in the orthopositronium decay rate that is missing in the conventional QED is found, resolving the orthopositronium lifetime puzzle completely. It is also shown that the graviton can be constructed from the photon, yielding a theory of quantum gravity that unifies gravitation and electromagnetism.
New Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sze Kui Ng
2008-04-01
Full Text Available It is shown that a photon with a specific frequency can be identified with the Dirac mag- netic monopole. When a Dirac-Wilson line forms a Dirac-Wilson loop, it is a photon. This loop model of photon is exactly solvable. From the winding numbers of this loop- form of photon, we derive the quantization properties of energy and electric charge. A new QED theory is presented that is free of ultraviolet divergences. The Dirac-Wilson line is as the quantum photon propagator of the new QED theory from which we can derive known QED e ects such as the anomalous magnetic moment and the Lamb shift. The one-loop computation of these e ects is simpler and is more accurate than that in the conventional QED theory. Furthermore, from the new QED theory, we have derived a new QED e ect. A new formulation of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS equation solves the di culties of the BS equation and gives a modified ground state of the positronium. By the mentioned new QED e ect and by the new formulation of the BS equation, a term in the orthopositronium decay rate that is missing in the conventional QED is found, resolving the orthopositronium lifetime puzzle completely. It is also shown that the graviton can be constructed from the photon, yielding a theory of quantum gravity that unifies gravitation and electromagnetism.
Thermal quantum electrodynamics of nonrelativistic charged fluids.
Buenzli, Pascal R; Martin, Philippe A; Ryser, Marc D
2007-04-01
The theory relevant to the study of matter in equilibrium with the radiation field is thermal quantum electrodynamics (TQED). We present a formulation of the theory, suitable for nonrelativistic fluids, based on a joint functional integral representation of matter and field variables. In this formalism cluster expansion techniques of classical statistical mechanics become operative. They provide an alternative to the usual Feynman diagrammatics in many-body problems, which is not perturbative with respect to the coupling constant. As an application we show that the effective Coulomb interaction between quantum charges is partially screened by thermalized photons at large distances. More precisely one observes an exact cancellation of the dipolar electric part of the interaction, so that the asymptotic particle density correlation is now determined by relativistic effects. It still has the r(-6) decay typical for quantum charges, but with an amplitude strongly reduced by a relativistic factor.
Thermal quantum electrodynamics of nonrelativistic charged fluids
Buenzli, Pascal R.; Martin, Philippe A.; Ryser, Marc D.
2007-04-01
The theory relevant to the study of matter in equilibrium with the radiation field is thermal quantum electrodynamics (TQED). We present a formulation of the theory, suitable for nonrelativistic fluids, based on a joint functional integral representation of matter and field variables. In this formalism cluster expansion techniques of classical statistical mechanics become operative. They provide an alternative to the usual Feynman diagrammatics in many-body problems, which is not perturbative with respect to the coupling constant. As an application we show that the effective Coulomb interaction between quantum charges is partially screened by thermalized photons at large distances. More precisely one observes an exact cancellation of the dipolar electric part of the interaction, so that the asymptotic particle density correlation is now determined by relativistic effects. It still has the r-6 decay typical for quantum charges, but with an amplitude strongly reduced by a relativistic factor.
Quantum electrodynamics with arbitrary charge on a noncommutative space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Wan-Ping; CAI Shao-Hong; LONG Zheng-Wen
2009-01-01
Using the Seiberg-Witten map,we obtain a quantum electrodynamics on a noncommutative space,which has arbitrary charge and keep the gauge invariance to at the leading order in theta.The one-loop divergence and Compton scattering are reinvestigated.The uoncommutative effects are larger than those in ordinary noncommutative quantum electrodynamics.
Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum polarization solver
Carneiro, Pedro; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luís
2016-01-01
The self-consistent modeling of vacuum polarization due to virtual electron-positron fluctuations is of relevance for many near term experiments associated with high intensity radiation sources and represents a milestone in describing scenarios of extreme energy density. We present a generalized finite-difference time-domain solver that can incorporate the modifications to Maxwells equations due to virtual vacuum polarization. Our multidimensional solver reproduced in one dimensional configurations the results for which an analytic treatment is possible, yielding vacuum harmonic generation and birefringence. The solver has also been tested for two-dimensional scenarios where finite laser beam spot sizes must be taken into account. We employ this solver to explore different types of counter-propagating configurations that can be relevant for future planned experiments aiming to detect quantum vacuum dynamics at ultra-high electromagnetic field intensities.
Quantum Electrodynamics Theory of Laser Assisted Recombination
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
敖淑艳; 程太旺; 李晓峰; 潘守甫; 傅盘铭
2003-01-01
Using a formal scattering theoretical approach, we develop a nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory to describe laser assisted recombination (LAR), in which an electron initially in the quantized Volkov state recombines with an ion and emits a high-energy photon with frequency defined by energy conservation laws.The transition probability is expressed as an analytic closed form and the spectrum of LAR reflects mainly the properties of general Bessel functions. For the case of a fast electron the LAR spectrum is confined in a well-defined range, while for a slow electron, the LAR spectrum exhibits a double-plateau structure.
Quantum Electrodynamical Shifts in Multivalent Heavy Ions
Tupitsyn, I. I.; Kozlov, M. G.; Safronova, M. S.; Shabaev, V. M.; Dzuba, V. A.
2016-12-01
The quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections are directly incorporated into the most accurate treatment of the correlation corrections for ions with complex electronic structure of interest to metrology and tests of fundamental physics. We compared the performance of four different QED potentials for various systems to access the accuracy of QED calculations and to make a prediction of highly charged ion properties urgently needed for planning future experiments. We find that all four potentials give consistent and reliable results for ions of interest. For the strongly bound electrons, the nonlocal potentials are more accurate than the local potential.
Quantum Electrodynamical Shifts in Multivalent Heavy Ions.
Tupitsyn, I I; Kozlov, M G; Safronova, M S; Shabaev, V M; Dzuba, V A
2016-12-16
The quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections are directly incorporated into the most accurate treatment of the correlation corrections for ions with complex electronic structure of interest to metrology and tests of fundamental physics. We compared the performance of four different QED potentials for various systems to access the accuracy of QED calculations and to make a prediction of highly charged ion properties urgently needed for planning future experiments. We find that all four potentials give consistent and reliable results for ions of interest. For the strongly bound electrons, the nonlocal potentials are more accurate than the local potential.
A minimalist pilot-wave model for quantum electrodynamics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
W Struyve; H Westman
2007-01-01
We present a way to construct a pilot-wave model for quantum electrodynamics. The idea is to introduce beables corresponding only to the bosonic and not to the fermionic degrees of freedom of the quantum state...
Fundamental tests in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
CERN. Geneva
2010-01-01
At the dawn of quantum physics, Einstein and Bohr had the dream to confine a photon in a box and to use this contraption in order to illustrate the strange laws of the quantum world. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics has now made this dream real, allowing us to actually achieve in the laboratory variants of the thought experiments of the founding fathers of quantum theory. In our work at Ecole Normale Supérieure, we use a beam of Rydberg atoms to manipulate and probe non-destructively microwave photons trapped in a very high Q superconducting cavity. We realize ideal quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements of photon numbers, observe the radiation quantum jumps due to cavity relaxation and prepare non-classical fields such as Fock and Schrödinger cat states. Combining QND photon counting with a homodyne mixing method, we reconstruct the Wigner functions of these non-classical states and, by taking snapshots of these functions at increasing times, obtain movies of the decoherence process. These experiments ope...
PT-Symmetric Quantum Electrodynamics and Unitarity
Milton, Kimball A; Parashar, Prachi; Pourtolami, Nima; Wagner, J
2012-01-01
More than 15 years ago, a new approach to quantum mechanics was suggested, in which Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian was to be replaced by invariance under a discrete symmetry, the product of parity and time-reversal symmetry, $\\mathcal{PT}$. It was shown that if $\\mathcal{PT}$ is unbroken, energies were, in fact, positive, and unitarity was satisifed. Since quantum mechanics is quantum field theory in 1 dimension, time, it was natural to extend this idea to higher-dimensional field theory, and in fact an apparently viable version of $\\mathcal{PT}$-invariant quantum electrodynamics was proposed. However, it has proved difficult to establish that the unitarity of the scattering matrix, for example, the K\\"all\\'en spectral representation for the photon propagator, can be maintained in this theory. This has led to questions of whether, in fact, even quantum mechanical systems are consistent with probability conservation when Green's functions are examined, since the latter have to possess physical requirements of ...
PT-symmetric quantum electrodynamics and unitarity.
Milton, Kimball A; Abalo, E K; Parashar, Prachi; Pourtolami, Nima; Wagner, J
2013-04-28
More than 15 years ago, a new approach to quantum mechanics was suggested, in which Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian was to be replaced by invariance under a discrete symmetry, the product of parity and time-reversal symmetry, PT. It was shown that, if PT is unbroken, energies were, in fact, positive, and unitarity was satisfied. Since quantum mechanics is quantum field theory in one dimension--time--it was natural to extend this idea to higher-dimensional field theory, and in fact an apparently viable version of PT-invariant quantum electrodynamics (QED) was proposed. However, it has proved difficult to establish that the unitarity of the scattering matrix, for example, the Källén spectral representation for the photon propagator, can be maintained in this theory. This has led to questions of whether, in fact, even quantum mechanical systems are consistent with probability conservation when Green's functions are examined, since the latter have to possess physical requirements of analyticity. The status of PT QED will be reviewed in this paper, as well as the general issue of unitarity.
Quantum-to-classical transition in cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Fink, J M; Steffen, L; Studer, P; Bishop, Lev S; Baur, M; Bianchetti, R; Bozyigit, D; Lang, C; Filipp, S; Leek, P J; Wallraff, A
2010-10-15
The quantum properties of electromagnetic, mechanical or other harmonic oscillators can be revealed by investigating their strong coherent coupling to a single quantum two level system in an approach known as cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). At temperatures much lower than the characteristic energy level spacing the observation of vacuum Rabi oscillations or mode splittings with one or a few quanta asserts the quantum nature of the oscillator. Here, we study how the classical response of a cavity QED system emerges from the quantum one when its thermal occupation-or effective temperature-is raised gradually over 5 orders of magnitude. In this way we explore in detail the continuous quantum-to-classical crossover and demonstrate how to extract effective cavity field temperatures from both spectroscopic and time-resolved vacuum Rabi measurements.
Does quantum electrodynamics have an arrow of time?
Atkinson, David
Quantum electrodynamics is a time-symmetric theory that is part of the electroweak interaction, which is invariant under a generalized form of this symmetry, the PCT transformation. The thesis is defended that the arrow of time in electrodynamics is a consequence of the assumption of an initial
Does quantum electrodynamics have an arrow of time?
Atkinson, David
2006-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics is a time-symmetric theory that is part of the electroweak interaction, which is invariant under a generalized form of this symmetry, the PCT transformation. The thesis is defended that the arrow of time in electrodynamics is a consequence of the assumption of an initial stat
A new view on quantum electrodynamics
Golovko, V A
2016-01-01
We analyze the equations of quantum electrodynamics and establish that the electron must be described by two bispinors that satisfy two mutually connected Dirac equations. The equations of the electronic and electromagnetic fields are reformulated in terms of c-numbers, which enables one to elucidate the structure of the electron. Although the equations obtained allow only for numerical solution, some characteristics of the electron, in particular its size, can be found at this stage. It is shown also that the Dirac equation should, instead of the mass of the electron, contain a combination involving the electron Compton wavelength. In this case the equations obtained can be used not only for the description of the electron but also for the description of other leptons, which will allow one to find the mass spectrum of leptons.
Thompson's Method applied to Quantum Electrodynamics (QED)
Nassif, C; Nassif, Claudio
2000-01-01
In this work we apply Thompson's method (of the dimensions) to study the quantum electrodynamics (QED). This method can be considered as a simple and alternative way to the renormalisation group (R.G) approach and when applied to QED lagrangian is able to obtain the running coupling constant behavior $\\alpha (\\mu)$, namely the dependence of $\\alpha$ on the energy scale. We also obtain the dependence of the mass on the energy scale. The calculations are evaluated just at $d_c=4$, where $d_c$ is the upper critical dimension of the problem, so that we obtain logarithmic behavior both for the coupling $\\alpha$ and the mass $m$ on the energy scale $\\mu$.
Mechanical momentum in nonequilibrium quantum electrodynamics
de Haan, M
2006-01-01
The reformulation of field theory in which self-energy processes are no longer present [Annals of Physics, {\\bf311} (2004), 314.], [ Progr. Theor. Phys., {\\bf 109} (2003), 881.], [Trends in Statistical Physics {\\bf 3} (2000), 115.] provides an adequate tool to transform Swinger-Dyson equations into a kinetic description outside any approximation scheme. Usual approaches in quantum electrodynamics (QED) are unable to cope with the mechanical momentum of the electron and replace it by the canonical momentum. The use of that unphysical momentum is responsible for the divergences that are removed by the renormalization procedure in the $S$-matrix theory. The connection between distribution functions in terms of the canonical and those in terms of the mechanical momentum is now provided by a dressing operator [Annals of Physics, {\\bf314} (2004), 10] that allows the elimination of the above divergences, as the first steps are illustrated here.
Chun, Sehun
2013-01-01
To provide a unified theoretical framework ranging from a cellular-level excitation mechanism to organic-level geometric propagation, a new theory inspired by quantum electrodynamic theory for light propagation is proposed by describing the cardiac excitation propagation as the continuation of absorption and emission of charged ions by myocardial cells. By the choice of gauge and the membrane current density, a set of Maxwell's equations with a charge density and a current density is constructed in macroscopic bidomain and is shown to be equivalent to the diffusion-reaction system with the B. van der Pol oscillator. The derived Maxwell's equations for the excitation propagation obeys the conservational laws of the number of the cations, energy and momentum, but the total charge is not conserved. The Lagrangian is derived to reveal that the trajectory and wavefront of the excitation propagation are the same as the electrodynamic wave if ion channels work uniformly. From the second quantization, the Hamiltonian...
Large payload quantum steganography based on cavity quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ye Tian-Yu; Jiang Li-Zhen
2013-01-01
A large payload quantum steganography protocol based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is presented in this paper,which effectively uses the evolutionary law of atoms in cavity QED.The protocol builds up a hidden channel to transmit secret messages using entanglement swapping between one GHZ state and one Bell state in cavity QED together with the Hadamard operation.The quantum steganography protocol is insensitive to cavity decay and the thermal field.The capacity,imperceptibility and security against eavesdropping are analyzed in detail in the protocol.It turns out that the protocol not only has good imperceptibility but also possesses good security against eavesdropping.In addition,its capacity for a hidden channel achieves five bits,larger than most of the previous quantum steganography protocols.
A Way to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In conventional theoretical physics and its Standard Model the guiding principle is that the equations are symmetrical. This limitation leads to a number of difficulties, because it does not permit masses for leptons and quarks, the electron tends to “explode” un- der the action of its self-charge, a corresponding photon model has no spin, and such a model cannot account for the “needle radiation” proposed by Einstein and observed in the photoelectric e ff ect and in two-slit experiments. This paper summarizes a revised Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum electrodynamic theory based on a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum and characterized by linear intrinsic broken symmetry. It thus provides an alternative to the Higgs concept of nonlinear spontaneous broken sym- metry, for solving the difficulties of the Standard Model. New results are obtained, such as nonzero and finite lepton rest masses, a point-charge-like behavior of the electron due to a revised renormalization procedure, a magnetic volume force which counteracts the electrostatic eigen-force of the electron, a nonzero spin of the photon and of light beams, needle radiation, and an improved understanding of the photoelectric effect, two-slit ex- periments, electron-positron pair formation, and cork-screw-shaped light beams.
Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2015-02-01
In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)
Implementing quantum electrodynamics with ultracold atomic systems
Kasper, V.; Hebenstreit, F.; Jendrzejewski, F.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Berges, J.
2017-02-01
We discuss the experimental engineering of model systems for the description of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in one spatial dimension via a mixture of bosonic 23Na and fermionic 6Li atoms. The local gauge symmetry is realized in an optical superlattice, using heteronuclear boson–fermion spin-changing interactions which preserve the total spin in every local collision. We consider a large number of bosons residing in the coherent state of a Bose–Einstein condensate on each link between the fermion lattice sites, such that the behavior of lattice QED in the continuum limit can be recovered. The discussion about the range of possible experimental parameters builds, in particular, upon experiences with related setups of fermions interacting with coherent samples of bosonic atoms. We determine the atomic system’s parameters required for the description of fundamental QED processes, such as Schwinger pair production and string breaking. This is achieved by benchmark calculations of the atomic system and of QED itself using functional integral techniques. Our results demonstrate that the dynamics of one-dimensional QED may be realized with ultracold atoms using state-of-the-art experimental resources. The experimental setup proposed may provide a unique access to longstanding open questions for which classical computational methods are no longer applicable.
An Experiment on the Limits of Quantum Electro-dynamics
Barber, W. C.; Richter, B.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; O'Neill, G. K.; Gittelman, B.
1959-06-01
The limitations of previously performed or suggested electrodynamic cutoff experiments are reviewed, and an electron-electron scattering experiment to be performed with storage rings to investigate further the limits of the validity of quantum electrodynamics is described. The foreseen experimental problems are discussed, and the results of the associated calculations are given. The parameters and status of the equipment are summarized. (D.C.W.)
A Toy Model of Quantum Electrodynamics in (1 + 1) Dimensions
Boozer, A. D.
2008-01-01
We present a toy model of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in (1 + 1) dimensions. The QED model is much simpler than QED in (3 + 1) dimensions but exhibits many of the same physical phenomena, and serves as a pedagogical introduction to both QED and quantum field theory in general. We show how the QED model can be derived by quantizing a toy model of…
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren;
2010-01-01
by a factor of 15 on resonance with the Anderson-localized mode, and 94% of the emitted single photons coupled to the mode. Disordered photonic media thus provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering an approach to inherently disorder-robust quantum information devices....
Photon physics: from wave mechanics to quantum electrodynamics
Keller, Ole
2009-05-01
When rewritten in an appropriate manner, the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations appear as a wave-mechanical theory for photons, and their quantum physical interaction with matter. A natural extension leads from photon wave mechanics to quantum electrodynamics (QED). In its modern formulation photon wave mechanics has given us valuable new insight in subjects such as spatial photon localization, near-field photon dynamics, transverse photon mass, photon eikonal theory, photon tunneling, and rim-zone electrodynamics. The present review is based on my plenary lecture at the SPIE-Europe 2009 Optics and Optoelectronics International Symposium in Prague.
Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering
Haeringen, W. van
1960-01-01
The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between
An Extension of Type I Gaugeon Formalism for Quantum Electrodynamics
Endo, R
1993-01-01
By introducing two kinds of gaugeon fields, we extend Yokoyama's Type I gaugeon formalism for quantum electrodynamics. The theory admits a q-number gauge transformation by which we can shift the gauge parameter into arbitrary numerical value; whereas in the original theory we cannot change the sign of the parameter. The relation to the Type II theory is also discussed.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Lellouch, L; Portelli, A; Szabo, K K; Toth, B C
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fodor, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52428 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Hoelbling, C. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Katz, S.D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); MTA-ELTE Lendület Lattice Gauge Theory Research Group, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Lellouch, L., E-mail: lellouch@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [CNRS, Aix-Marseille U., U. de Toulon, CPT, UMR 7332, F-13288, Marseille (France); Portelli, A. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Szabo, K.K. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52428 Jülich (Germany); Toth, B.C. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany)
2016-04-10
Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
Probing Features of the Lee-Wick Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Turcati
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss some aspects concerning the electromagnetic sector of the abelian Lee-Wick (LW quantum electrodynamics (QED. Using the Dirac’s theory of constrained systems, the higher-order canonical quantization of the LW electromagnetism is performed. A quantum bound on the LW heavy mass is also estimated using the best known measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. Finally, it is shown that magnetic monopoles can coexist peacefully in the LW scenario.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Fodor
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann representation of noncommutative quantum electrodynamics
Bufalo, R; Pimentel, B M
2014-01-01
Noncommutative (NC) quantum field theory is the subject of many analyses on formal and general aspects looking for deviations and, therefore, potential noncommutative spacetime effects. Within of this large class, we may now pay some attention to the quantization of NC field theory on lower dimensions and look closely at the issue of dynamical mass generation to the gauge field. This work encompasses the quantization of the two-dimensional massive quantum electrodynamics and three-dimensional topologically massive quantum electrodynamics. We begin by addressing the problem on a general dimensionality making use of the perturbative Seiberg-Witten map to, thus, construct a general action, to only then specify the problem to two and three dimensions. The quantization takes place through the K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann spectral representation and Yang-Feldman-K\\"all\\'en formulation, where we calculate the respective spectral density function to the gauge field. Furthermore, regarding the photon two-point function, we disc...
Path Integral Quantization of Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics
Bufalo, Rodrigo; Zambrano, German Enrique Ramos
2010-01-01
It is shown in this paper a complete covariant quantization of Generalized Electrodynamics by path integral approach. To this goal we first studied the hamiltonian structure of system following Dirac's methodology, and then we follow the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to attain the amplitude transition. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) on correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation on one-loop approximation of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.
Hybrid circuit cavity quantum electrodynamics with a micromechanical resonator.
Pirkkalainen, J-M; Cho, S U; Li, Jian; Paraoanu, G S; Hakonen, P J; Sillanpää, M A
2013-02-14
Hybrid quantum systems with inherently distinct degrees of freedom have a key role in many physical phenomena. Well-known examples include cavity quantum electrodynamics, trapped ions, and electrons and phonons in the solid state. In those systems, strong coupling makes the constituents lose their individual character and form dressed states, which represent a collective form of dynamics. As well as having fundamental importance, hybrid systems also have practical applications, notably in the emerging field of quantum information control. A promising approach is to combine long-lived atomic states with the accessible electrical degrees of freedom in superconducting cavities and quantum bits (qubits). Here we integrate circuit cavity quantum electrodynamics with phonons. Apart from coupling to a microwave cavity, our superconducting transmon qubit, consisting of tunnel junctions and a capacitor, interacts with a phonon mode in a micromechanical resonator, and thus acts like an atom coupled to two different cavities. We measure the phonon Stark shift, as well as the splitting of the qubit spectral line into motional sidebands, which feature transitions between the dressed electromechanical states. In the time domain, we observe coherent conversion of qubit excitation to phonons as sideband Rabi oscillations. This is a model system with potential for a quantum interface, which may allow for storage of quantum information in long-lived phonon states, coupling to optical photons or for investigations of strongly coupled quantum systems near the classical limit.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes.
Sapienza, Luca; Thyrrestrup, Henri; Stobbe, Søren; Garcia, Pedro David; Smolka, Stephan; Lodahl, Peter
2010-03-12
A major challenge in quantum optics and quantum information technology is to enhance the interaction between single photons and single quantum emitters. This requires highly engineered optical cavities that are inherently sensitive to fabrication imperfections. We have demonstrated a fundamentally different approach in which disorder is used as a resource rather than a nuisance. We generated strongly confined Anderson-localized cavity modes by deliberately adding disorder to photonic crystal waveguides. The emission rate of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in the waveguide was enhanced by a factor of 15 on resonance with the Anderson-localized mode, and 94% of the emitted single photons coupled to the mode. Disordered photonic media thus provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering an approach to inherently disorder-robust quantum information devices.
Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic band-gap
Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew
Quantum electrodynamics predicts the localization of light around an atom in photonic band-gap (PBG) medium or photonic crystal. Here we report the first experimental realization of the strong coupling between a single artificial atom and an one dimensional PBG medium using superconducting circuits. In the photonic transport measurement, we observe an anomalous Lamb shift and a large band-edge avoided crossing when the artificial atom frequency is tuned across the band-edge. The persistent peak within the band-gap indicates the single photon bound state. Furthermore, we study the resonance fluorescence of this bound state, again demonstrating the breakdown of the Born-Markov approximation near the band-edge. This novel architecture can be directly generalized to study many-body quantum electrodynamics and to construct more complicated spin chain models.
Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations in Reduced Quantum Electrodynamics
Ahmad, A; Concha-Sánchez, Y; Raya, A
2016-01-01
We derive the Landau-Khalatnikov-Frandkin transformation (LKFT) for the fermion propagator in quantum electrodynamics (QED) described within a brane-world inspired framework where photons are allowed to move in $d_\\gamma$ space-time (bulk) dimensions while electrons remain confined to a $d_e$-dimensional brane, with $d_e < d_\\gamma$, referred to in the literature as Reduced Quantum Electrodynamics, RQED$_{d_\\gamma,d_e}$. Specializing to the case of graphene, namely RQED$_{4,3}$ with massless fermions, we derive the non-perturbative form of the fermion propagator starting from its bare counterpart and then compare its weak coupling expansion to known one- and two-loop perturbative results. The agreement of the gauge dependent terms at order $\\alpha$ and $\\alpha^{2}$ is reminiscent from the structure of LKFT in ordinary QED in arbitrary space-time dimensions and provides strong constraints for the multiplicative renormalizability of RQED$_{d_\\gamma,d_e}$.
Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions
Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.
2013-01-01
Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...
Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions
Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.
2013-01-01
Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...
Quantum electrodynamics of one-photon wave packets
Stobińska, M; Leuchs, G
2010-01-01
In this contribution we investigate quantum electrodynamical many-mode aspects by exploring the simplest possible situation in this context, namely the interaction of a single atom, modeled by a simple two-level system, with many-mode one-photon quantum states of the electromagnetic field. In particular, we concentrate on the question how the engineering of electromagnetic field modes influences the atom-field interaction. An interesting problem in this context is the engineering of ideal one-photon multi-mode quantum states which may excite a single atom perfectly [M. Stobi\\'nska, G. Alber, and G. Leuchs, EPL {\\bf 86}, 14007 (2009)]. For purposes of quantum information processing such one-photon multi-mode states are particularly well suited for transmitting quantum information and for storing it in a material memory again.
Two-body bound states in quantum electrodynamics. [Rate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lepage, G.P.
1978-07-01
Novel formulations of the two-body bound state problem in quantum field theory are examined. While equal in rigor, these have several calculational advantages over the traditional Bethe-Salpeter formalism. In particular there exist exact solutions of the bound state equations for a Coulomb-like interaction in quantum electrodynamics. The corrections to such zeroth-order solutions can be systematically computed in a simple perturbation theory. These methods are illustrated by computing corrections to the orthopositronium decay rate and to the ground state splittings in positronium and muonium.
High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander A. Penin
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result to the analysis of the high-energy processes in quantum chromodynamics is also discussed.
High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Penin, Alexander A., E-mail: penin@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-05-18
We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result to the analysis of the high-energy processes in quantum chromodynamics is also discussed.
Nanoscale electrodynamics of strongly correlated quantum materials
Liu, Mengkun; Sternbach, Aaron J.; Basov, D. N.
2017-01-01
Electronic, magnetic, and structural phase inhomogeneities are ubiquitous in strongly correlated quantum materials. The characteristic length scales of the phase inhomogeneities can range from atomic to mesoscopic, depending on their microscopic origins as well as various sample dependent factors. Therefore, progress with the understanding of correlated phenomena critically depends on the experimental techniques suitable to provide appropriate spatial resolution. This requirement is difficult to meet for some of the most informative methods in condensed matter physics, including infrared and optical spectroscopy. Yet, recent developments in near-field optics and imaging enabled a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic response with a spatial resolution down to 10 nm. Thus it is now feasible to exploit at the nanoscale well-established capabilities of optical methods for characterization of electronic processes and lattice dynamics in diverse classes of correlated quantum systems. This review offers a concise description of the state-of-the-art near-field techniques applied to prototypical correlated quantum materials. We also discuss complementary microscopic and spectroscopic methods which reveal important mesoscopic dynamics of quantum materials at different energy scales.
Quantum Electrodynamics with the Pauli Term
Sastry, R R
1999-01-01
The quantum field theory of extended objects is employed to address the hitherto nonrenormalizable Pauli interaction. This is achieved by quantizing the Dirac field using the infinite dimensional generalization of the extended object formulation. The order $\\alpha$ contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron (and of the muon) arising from the Pauli term is calculated.
Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viehmann, Oliver
2013-09-03
Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a
Modified Maxwell equations in quantum electrodynamics
Harmuth, Henning F; Meffert, Beate
2001-01-01
Divergencies in quantum field theory referred to as "infinite zero-point energy" have been a problem for 70 years. Renormalization has always been considered an unsatisfactory remedy. In 1985 it was found that Maxwell's equations generally do not have solutions that satisfy the causality law. An additional term for magnetic dipole currents corrected this shortcoming. Rotating magnetic dipoles produce magnetic dipole currents, just as rotating electric dipoles in a material like barium titanate produce electric dipole currents. Electric dipole currents were always part of Maxwell's equations. T
Entangling distant resonant exchange qubits via circuit quantum electrodynamics
Srinivasa, V.; Taylor, J. M.; Tahan, Charles
2016-11-01
We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of spatially separated resonant exchange qubits, defined in three-electron semiconductor triple quantum dots, that are coupled via a superconducting transmission line resonator. Drawing on methods from circuit quantum electrodynamics and Hartmann-Hahn double resonance techniques, we analyze three specific approaches for implementing resonator-mediated two-qubit entangling gates in both dispersive and resonant regimes of interaction. We calculate entangling gate fidelities as well as the rate of relaxation via phonons for resonant exchange qubits in silicon triple dots and show that such an implementation is particularly well suited to achieving the strong coupling regime. Our approach combines the favorable coherence properties of encoded spin qubits in silicon with the rapid and robust long-range entanglement provided by circuit QED systems.
Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Alisa
A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... platform for realizing a 1D atom, and are the subject of theoretical and experimental investigations in this thesis. We use _nite element method in 3D to calculate the local density of states (LDOS) in photonic-crystal membranes. The detailed spatial maps show strong inhibition of LDOS in the bandgap...... atom. One of the signatures and functions of a 1D atom is the nonlinear optical response at the single-photon level. A PCW chip is designed to experimentally study the transmission spectrum of an embedded QD. The transmission spectrum is shown to be modi_ed by 30% around the resonance of the QD...
Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Alisa
atom. One of the signatures and functions of a 1D atom is the nonlinear optical response at the single-photon level. A PCW chip is designed to experimentally study the transmission spectrum of an embedded QD. The transmission spectrum is shown to be modi_ed by 30% around the resonance of the QD......A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... platform for realizing a 1D atom, and are the subject of theoretical and experimental investigations in this thesis. We use _nite element method in 3D to calculate the local density of states (LDOS) in photonic-crystal membranes. The detailed spatial maps show strong inhibition of LDOS in the bandgap...
Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media
Lopez, Adrian E Rubio
2014-01-01
In this work we calculate the closed time path (CTP) generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then, we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss and give insights about how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism w...
Infrared multiphoton resummation in quantum electrodynamics
Mati, P
2015-01-01
Infrared singularities in massless gauge theories are known since the foundation of quantum field theories. The root of this problem can be tracked back to the very definition of these long-range interacting theories such as QED. It can be shown that singularities are caused by the massless degrees of freedom (i.e. the photons in the case of QED). In the Bloch-Nordsieck model the absence of the infrared catastrophe can be shown exactly by the complete summation of the radiative corrections. In this paper we will give the idea of the derivation of the Bloch-Nordsieck propagator, that describes the infrared structure of the electron propagation, at zero and finite temperatures. Some ideas of the possible applications are also mentioned.
Collective multiphoton blockade in cavity quantum electrodynamics
Zhu, C. J.; Yang, Y. P.; Agarwal, G. S.
2017-06-01
We present a study of collective multiphoton blockade in coherently driven atoms in a single-mode cavity. Considering two atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity, we show that the two-photon blockade with two-photon antibunching, and the three-photon blockade with three-photon antibunching can be observed simultaneously. The three-photon blockade probes both dressed states in the two-photon and three-photon spaces. The two-photon and three-photon blockades strongly depend on the location of the two atoms in the strong-coupling regime. The asymmetry in the atom-cavity coupling constants opens pathways for multiphoton blockade which is also shown to be sensitive to the atomic decay and pumping strengths. The work presented here predicts many quantum statistical features due to the collective behavior of atoms and can be useful to generate nonclassical photon pairs.
Casimir effect from macroscopic quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2011-06-15
The canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism was recently presented in (Philbin 2010 New J. Phys. 12 123008). This theory is used here to derive the Casimir effect, by considering the special case of thermal and zero-point fields. The stress-energy-momentum tensor of the canonical theory follows from Noether's theorem, and its electromagnetic part in thermal equilibrium gives the Casimir energy density and stress tensor. The results hold for arbitrary inhomogeneous magnetodielectrics and are obtained from a rigorous quantization of electromagnetism in dispersive, dissipative media. Continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz theory as a proper quantum treatment of Casimir forces do not apply to the derivation given here. Moreover, the correct expressions for the Casimir energy density and stress tensor inside media follow automatically from the simple restriction to thermal equilibrium, without the need for complicated thermodynamical or mechanical arguments.
Strong-Field Quantum Electrodynamics and Muonic Hydrogen
Jentschura, U D
2014-01-01
We explore the possibility of a breakdown of perturbative quantum electrodynamics in light muonic bound systems, notably, muonic hydrogen. The average electric field seen by a muon orbiting a proton is shown to be comparable to hydrogenlike Uranium and, notably, larger than the electric field achievable using even the most advanced strong-laser facilities. Following Maltman and Isgur who have shown that fundamental forces such as the meson exchange force may undergo a qualitative change in the strong-coupling regime, we investigate a concomitant possible existence of muon-proton and electron-proton contact interactions, of nonperturbative origin, and their influence on transition frequencies in light one-muon ions.
Single-photon transistor in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Neumeier, Lukas; Leib, Martin; Hartmann, Michael J
2013-08-01
We introduce a circuit quantum electrodynamical setup for a "single-photon" transistor. In our approach photons propagate in two open transmission lines that are coupled via two interacting transmon qubits. The interaction is such that no photons are exchanged between the two transmission lines but a single photon in one line can completely block or enable the propagation of photons in the other line. High on-off ratios can be achieved for feasible experimental parameters. Our approach is inherently scalable as all photon pulses can have the same pulse shape and carrier frequency such that output signals of one transistor can be input signals for a consecutive transistor.
Relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects in the helium pair potential.
Przybytek, M; Cencek, W; Komasa, J; Łach, G; Jeziorski, B; Szalewicz, K
2010-05-01
The helium pair potential was computed including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics contributions as well as improved accuracy adiabatic ones. Accurate asymptotic expansions were used for large distances R. Error estimates show that the present potential is more accurate than any published to date. The computed dissociation energy and the average R for the (4)He(2) bound state are 1.62+/-0.03 mK and 47.1+/-0.5 A. These values can be compared with the measured ones: 1.1(-0.2)(+0.3) mK and 52+/-4 A [R. E. Grisenti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2284 (2000)].
Solvable Models Of Infrared Gupta-Bleuler Quantum Electrodynamics
Zerella, Simone
2010-01-01
Solvable hamiltonian models are employed to investigate the extent and limitations of the procedures adopted in the perturbative treatment of the infrared divergences, occurring in the Feynman-Dyson expansion of Quantum Electrodynamics. Isometric M\\"oller operators are obtained in the presence of an infrared regularization, after the removal of an adiabatic switching, with the aid of a suitable mass renormalization. We gain an hamiltonian control of the Yennie-Frautschi-Suura infrared factors and discuss the implications on the perturbative prescriptions for inclusive cross-sections.
Relativistic quantum transport theory for electrodynamics
Zhuang, P; Zhuang, P; Heinz, U
1995-01-01
We investigate the relationship between the covariant and the three-dimensional (equal-time) formulations of quantum kinetic theory. We show that the three-dimensional approach can be obtained as the energy average of the covariant formulation. We illustrate this statement in scalar and spinor QED. For scalar QED we derive Lorentz covariant transport and constraint equations directly from the Klein-Gordon equation rather than through the previously used Feshbach-Villars representation. We then consider pair production in a spatially homogeneous but time-dependent electric field and show that the pair density is derived much more easily via the energy averaging method than in the equal-time representation. Proceeding to spinor QED, we derive the covariant version of the equal-time equation derived by Bialynicki-Birula et al. We show that it must be supplemented by another self-adjoint equation to obtain a complete description of the covariant spinor Wigner operator. After spinor decomposition and energy averag...
Quantum electrodynamic effects in finite space
Dobiasch, P.; Walther, H.
The modifications of various quantum properties due to a discrete structure of the modes of the vacuum electromagnetic field are discussed. In contrast to the usual case of a continuous spectrum of the free space fluctuations, we consider physical systems in a resonator or in a wave guide. It is shown that the relaxation time of the system can be increased ot decreased, by increasing or decreasing the density of modes with respect to the case of unperturbed vacuum. On the other hand, we predict level shifts due to the reduced mass of the electron and deviations from the Lambshift for hydrogen in a wave guide, which can be detected with the presently feasible high resolution spectroscopy. We propose an experimental set-up. Nous discutons les modifications de diverses propriétés quantiques sous l'influence d'une structure de modes discrets du champ électromagnétique dans le vide. En comparaison du cas habituel d'un spectre continu des fluctuations du vide dans l'espace libre, nous considérons ici des systèmes physiques dans un résonateur ou un guide d'ondes. Il est démontré que le temps de relaxation du système peut être prolongé ou raccourci, ceci en augmentant ou diminuant la densité des modes par rapport à sa valeur dans le vide non-perturbé. D'autre part, nous prédisons des déplacements de niveau dus à la masse réduite de l'électron et des déviations du Lamb shift pour des atomes d'hydrogène dans un guide d'ondes, qui peuvent être détectées grâce à la haute résolution accessible actuellement en spectroscopie. Nous présentons un dispositif expérimental.
Dispersion relations in quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zahn, J.W.
2006-12-15
We study field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space with noncommuting time. The focus lies on dispersion relations in quantized interacting models in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In particular, we compute the two-point correlation function of the field strength in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics to second order. At this, we take into account the covariant coordinates that allow the construction of local gauge invariant quantities (observables). It turns out that this does not remove the well-known severe infrared problem, as one might have hoped. Instead, things become worse, since nonlocal divergences appear. We also show that these cancel in a supersymmetric version of the theory if the covariant coordinates are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, we study the {phi}{sup 3} and the Wess-Zumino model and show that the distortion of the dispersion relations is moderate for parameters typical for the Higgs field. We also discuss the formulation of gauge theories on noncommutative spaces and study classical electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space using covariant coordinates. In particular, we compute the change of the speed of light due to nonlinear effects in the presence of a background field. Finally, we examine the so-called twist approach to quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski space and point out some conceptual problems of this approach. (orig.)
Quantum corrections to the Larmor radiation formula in scalar electrodynamics
Higuchi, A
2009-01-01
We use the semi-classical approximation in perturbative scalar quantum electrodynamics to calculate the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation formula to first order in Planck's constant in the non-relativistic approximation, choosing the initial state of the charged particle to be a momentum eigenstate. We calculate this correction in two cases: in the first case the charged particle is accelerated by a time-dependent but space-independent vector potential whereas in the second case it is accelerated by a time-independent vector potential which is a function of one spatial coordinate. We find that the corrections in these two cases are different even for a charged particle with the same classical motion. The correction in each case turns out to be non-local in time in contrast to the classical approximation.
Dipolar quantum electrodynamics of the two-dimensional electron gas
Todorov, Yanko
2015-03-01
Similarly to a previous work on the homogeneous electron gas [Y. Todorov, Phys. Rev. B 89, 075115 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.075115], we apply the Power-Zienau-Wooley (PZW) formulation of the quantum electrodynamics to the case of an electron gas quantum confined by one-dimensional potential. We provide a microscopic description of all collective plasmon modes of the gas, oscillating both along and perpendicular to the direction of quantum confinement. Furthermore, we study the interaction of the collective modes with a photonic structure, planar metallic waveguide, by using the full expansion of the electromagnetic field into normal modes. We show how the boundary conditions for the electromagnetic field influence both the transverse light-matter coupling and the longitudinal particle-particle interactions. The PZW descriptions appear thus as a convenient tool to study semiconductor quantum optics in geometries where quantum-confined particles interact with strongly confined electromagnetic fields in microresonators, such as the ones used to achieve the ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with quantum interference in a three-level atomic system
Joshi, Amitabh; Serna, Juan D.
2017-06-01
Spontaneously generated coherence and enhanced dispersion in a V-type, three-level atomic system interacting with a single mode field can considerably reduce the radiative and cavity decay rates. This may eliminate the use of high finesse, miniaturized cavities in optical cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments under strong atom-field coupling conditions.
Third emission mechanism in solid-state nanocavity quantum electrodynamics.
Yamaguchi, Makoto; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu
2012-09-01
Photonic crystal (PC) nanocavities have been receiving a great deal of attention recently because of their ability to strongly confine photons in a tiny space with a high quality factor. According to cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED), such confined photons can achieve efficient interactions with excitons in semiconductors, leading to the Purcell effect in the weak coupling regime and vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS) in the strong coupling regime. These features are promising for applications such as quantum information processing, highly efficient single photon sources and ultra-low threshold lasers. In this context, the coupled system of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and a PC nanocavity has been intensively investigated in recent years.Although experimental reports have demonstrated such fundamental features, two anomalous phenomena have also been observed. First, photon emission from the cavity occurs even when it is significantly detuned from the QD. Second, spectral triplets are formed by additional bare-cavity lines between the VRS lines. These features cannot be explained by standard cavity QED theories and have prompted controversy regarding their physical mechanisms. In this review we describe the recent experimental and theoretical progress made in the investigation of these phenomena. Similar mechanisms will also occur in many other coupled quantum systems, and thus the findings are applicable to a wide range of fields.
Quantum electrodynamics and plasmonic resonance of metallic nanostructures
Zhang, Mingliang; Xiang, Hongping; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang
2016-04-01
Plasmonic resonance of a metallic nanostructure results from coherent motion of its conduction electrons driven by incident light. At the resonance, the induced dipole in the nanostructure is proportional to the number of the conduction electrons, hence 107 times larger than that in an atom. The interaction energy between the induced dipole and fluctuating virtual field of the incident light can reach a few tenths of an eV. Therefore, the classical electromagnetism dominating the field may become inadequate. We propose that quantum electrodynamics (QED) may be used as a fundamental theory to describe the interaction between the virtual field and the oscillating electrons. Based on QED, we derive analytic expressions for the plasmon resonant frequency, which depends on three easily accessible material parameters. The analytic theory reproduces very well the experimental data, and can be used in rational design of materials for plasmonic applications.
Quantum electrodynamical corrections to a magnetic dipole in general relativity
Pétri, J
2015-01-01
Magnetized neutron stars are privileged places where strong electromagnetic fields as high as $\\BQ=4.4\\times10^9$~T exist, giving rise to non-linear corrections to Maxwell equations described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). These corrections need to be included to the general relativistic (GR) description of a magnetic dipole supposed to be anchored in the neutron star. In this paper, these QED and GR perturbations to the standard flat space-time dipole are calculated to the lowest order in the fine structure constant~$\\alpha_{\\rm sf}$ and to any order in the ratio $\\Rs/R$ where $R$ is the neutron star radius and $\\Rs$ its Schwarzschild radius. Following our new 3+1~formalism developed in a previous work, we compute the multipolar non-linear corrections to this dipole and demonstrate the presence of a small dipolar~$\\ell=1$ and hexapolar~$\\ell=3$ component.
Quantum electrodynamics and plasmonic resonance of metallic nanostructures.
Zhang, Mingliang; Xiang, Hongping; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang
2016-04-20
Plasmonic resonance of a metallic nanostructure results from coherent motion of its conduction electrons driven by incident light. At the resonance, the induced dipole in the nanostructure is proportional to the number of the conduction electrons, hence 10(7) times larger than that in an atom. The interaction energy between the induced dipole and fluctuating virtual field of the incident light can reach a few tenths of an eV. Therefore, the classical electromagnetism dominating the field may become inadequate. We propose that quantum electrodynamics (QED) may be used as a fundamental theory to describe the interaction between the virtual field and the oscillating electrons. Based on QED, we derive analytic expressions for the plasmon resonant frequency, which depends on three easily accessible material parameters. The analytic theory reproduces very well the experimental data, and can be used in rational design of materials for plasmonic applications.
Quantum Electrodynamics Effects in Rovibrational Spectra of Molecular Hydrogen.
Komasa, Jacek; Piszczatowski, Konrad; Łach, Grzegorz; Przybytek, Michał; Jeziorski, Bogumił; Pachucki, Krzysztof
2011-10-11
The dissociation energies from all rovibrational levels of H2 and D2 in the ground electronic state are calculated with high accuracy by including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in the nonadiabatic treatment of the nuclear motion. For D2, the obtained energies have theoretical uncertainties of 0.001 cm(-1). For H2, similar uncertainties are for the lowest levels, while for the higher ones the uncertainty increases to 0.005 cm(-1). Very good agreement with recent high-resolution measurements of the rotational v = 0 levels of H2, including states with large angular momentum J, is achieved. This agreement would not have been possible without accurate evaluation of the relativistic and QED contributions and may be viewed as the first observation of the QED effects, mainly the electron self-energy, in a molecular spectrum. For several electric quadrupole transitions, we still observe certain disagreement with experimental results, which remains to be explained.
Higgs-Like Particle due to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available A Higgs-like particle having zero net electric charge, zero spin, and a nonzero rest mass can be deduced from an earlier elaborated revised quantum electrodynamical theory which is based on linear symmetry breaking through a nonzero electric ﬁeld divergence in the vacuum state. This special particle is obtained from a composite longitudinal solution based on a zero magnetic ﬁeld strength and on a nonzero divergence but a vanishing curl of the electric ﬁeld strength. The present theory further diﬀers from that of the nonlinear spontaneously broken symmetry by Higgs, in which elementary particles obtain their masses through an interaction with the Higgs ﬁeld. An experimental proof of the basic features of a Higgs-like particle thus supports the present theory, but does not for certain conﬁrm the process which would generate massive particles through a Higgs ﬁeld
Ultra-high-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics
Spillane, S M; Vahala, K J; Goh, K W; Wilcut, E; Kimble, H J
2004-01-01
We investigate the suitability of toroidal microcavities for strong-coupling cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). Numerical modeling of the optical modes demonstrate a significant reduction of modal volume with respect to the whispering gallery modes of dielectric spheres, while retaining the high quality factors representative of spherical cavities. The extra degree of freedom of toroid microcavities can be used to achieve improved cavity QED characteristics. Numerical results for atom-cavity coupling strength, critical atom number N_0 and critical photon number n_0 for cesium are calculated and shown to exceed values currently possible using Fabry-Perot cavities. Modeling predicts coupling rates g/(2*pi) exceeding 700 MHz and critical atom numbers approaching 10^{-7} in optimized structures. Furthermore, preliminary experimental measurements of toroidal cavities at a wavelength of 852 nm indicate that quality factors in excess of 100 million can be obtained in a 50 micron principal diameter cavity, which w...
Quantum electrodynamic corrections for valence electrons in Eka-Hg
Golovko, O. A.; Goidenko, I. A.; Tupitsyn, I. I.
2008-05-01
The quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections to the coupling energy of valence electrons in heavy and superheavy nuclei are calculated in the effective local-potential approximation, as well as by the Hartree-Fock-Dirac self-consistent method. It is clearly shown that the contribution from the QED corrections is within the accuracy of modern calculations, which do not take into account QED effects. It is shown that, in certain cases, to exactly calculate the coupling energy of electrons in heavy and superheavy atoms, it is necessary to take into account the self-consistency, which shows that the inaccuracy of the use of the method of the effective local potential in calculations of QED effects can exceed 10%, which is also within the limits of calculations of the coupling energy without taking into account QED effects.
One-loop renormalization of quantum electrodynamics in curved spacetime
Panangaden, Prakash
1981-04-01
In this paper we discuss the renormalizability of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in a general curved spacetime. A generating functional is introduced and position-space Feynman rules are obtained. Functional techniques are used to show that a form of Ward's identity can be derived in curved spacetime. A local momentum representation for the scalar and vector propagators is introduced. The one-loop diagrams for the electron and photon self-energy are computed and it is shown that there are no divergences that are not present in flat space. It is shown that this latter result depends crucially on the gauge invariance of the theory and is not merely a trivial consequence of renormalizability of QED in flat spacetime.
Renormalization group approach to scalar quantum electrodynamics on de Sitter
González, Francisco Fabián
2016-01-01
We consider the quantum loop effects in scalar electrodynamics on de Sitter space by making use of the functional renormalization group approach. We first integrate out the photon field, which can be done exactly to leading (zeroth) order in the gradients of the scalar field, thereby making this method suitable for investigating the dynamics of the infrared sector of the theory. Assuming that the scalar remains light we then apply the functional renormalization group methods to the resulting effective scalar theory and focus on investigating the effective potential, which is the leading order contribution in the gradient expansion of the effective action. We find symmetry restoration at a critical renormalization scale $\\kappa=\\kappa_{\\rm cr}$ much below the Hubble scale $H$. When compared with the results of Serreau and Guilleux [arXiv:1306.3846 [hep-th], arXiv:1506.06183 [hep-th
On The Origin Of The Classical And Quantum Electrodynamic Arrows Of Time
Leiter, Darryl
2009-01-01
In order to describe the microscopic classical electrodynamic measurement process in an operational, relativistic, observer-participant manner, an Abelian operator symmetry of microscopic observer-participation called Measurement Color (MC) is incorporated into the field theoretic structure of the Classical Electrodynamics (CED) of interacting point charges. The new formalism, called Measurement Color Classical Electrodynamics (MC-CED), is shown to be a nonlocal, time reversal violating, classical field theory of interacting point charges in which a microscopic classical electrodynamic arrow of time emerges dynamically, independent of any external thermodynamic or cosmological assumptions. We then show how the standard canonical quantum field quantization program can be applied to the classical observer-participant MC-CED theory. This leads to the development of a relativistic, observer-participant Measurement Color Quantum Electrodynamic (MC-QED) formalism in the Heisenberg Picture, which contains an intrins...
Single photon delayed feedback: a way to stabilize intrinsic quantum cavity electrodynamics.
Carmele, Alexander; Kabuss, Julia; Schulze, Franz; Reitzenstein, Stephan; Knorr, Andreas
2013-01-01
We propose a scheme to control cavity quantum electrodynamics in the single photon limit by delayed feedback. In our approach a single emitter-cavity system, operating in the weak coupling limit, can be driven into the strong coupling-type regime by an external mirror: The external loop produces Rabi oscillations directly connected to the electron-photon coupling strength. As an expansion of typical cavity quantum electrodynamics, we treat the quantum correlation of external and internal light modes dynamically and demonstrate a possible way to implement a fully quantum mechanical time-delayed feedback. Our theoretical approach proposes a way to experimentally feedback control quantum correlations in the single photon limit.
Measuring the effective phonon density of states of a quantum dot in cavity quantum electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Kreiner-Møller, Asger
2013-01-01
We employ detuning-dependent decay-rate measurements of a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity to study the influence of phonon dephasing in a solid-state quantum-electrodynamics experiment. The experimental data agree with a microscopic non-Markovian model accounting for dephasing from...... longitudinal acoustic phonons, and the analysis explains the difference between nonresonant cavity feeding in different nanocavities. From the comparison between experiment and theory we extract the effective phonon density of states experienced by the quantum dot in the nanocavity. This quantity determines...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that the spontaneous emission decay rate of semiconductor quantum dots can be strongly modified by the coupling to disorder-induced Anderson-localized photonic modes. We experimentally measure, by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, the enhancement...... of the spontaneous emission decay rate by up to a factor 15 and an efficiency of channeling single photons into Anderson-localized modes reaching values as high as 94%. These results prove that disordered photonic media provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering a novel route to quantum...
Quantum Electrodynamics of Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticles Molecules
Ridolfo, A; Fina, N; Saija, R; Savasta, S
2010-01-01
We study theoretically the quantum optical properties of hybrid molecules composed of an individual quantum dot and a metallic nanoparticle. We calculate the resonance fluorescence of this hybrid system. Its incoherent part, the one arising from nonlinear quantum processes, results to be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude as compared to that in the absence of the metallic nanoparticle. Scattering spectra at different excitation powers and nonperturbative calculations of intensity-field correlation functions show that this system can act as a nonlinear ultra-compact two-photon switch for incident photons, where the presence (or absence) of a single incident photon field is sufficient to allow (or prevent) the scattering of subsequent photons. We also find that a small frequency shift of the incident light field may cause changes in the intensity field correlation function of orders of magnitude.
Implementing phase-covariant cloning in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Meng-Zheng [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China); Ye, Liu, E-mail: yeliu@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)
2016-10-15
An efficient scheme is proposed to implement phase-covariant quantum cloning by using a superconducting transmon qubit coupled to a microwave cavity resonator in the strong dispersive limit of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). By solving the master equation numerically, we plot the Wigner function and Poisson distribution of the cavity mode after each operation in the cloning transformation sequence according to two logic circuits proposed. The visualizations of the quasi-probability distribution in phase-space for the cavity mode and the occupation probability distribution in the Fock basis enable us to penetrate the evolution process of cavity mode during the phase-covariant cloning (PCC) transformation. With the help of numerical simulation method, we find out that the present cloning machine is not the isotropic model because its output fidelity depends on the polar angle and the azimuthal angle of the initial input state on the Bloch sphere. The fidelity for the actual output clone of the present scheme is slightly smaller than one in the theoretical case. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical ones. This further corroborates our scheme based on circuit QED can implement efficiently PCC transformation.
Implementing phase-covariant cloning in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Zhu, Meng-Zheng; Ye, Liu
2016-10-01
An efficient scheme is proposed to implement phase-covariant quantum cloning by using a superconducting transmon qubit coupled to a microwave cavity resonator in the strong dispersive limit of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). By solving the master equation numerically, we plot the Wigner function and Poisson distribution of the cavity mode after each operation in the cloning transformation sequence according to two logic circuits proposed. The visualizations of the quasi-probability distribution in phase-space for the cavity mode and the occupation probability distribution in the Fock basis enable us to penetrate the evolution process of cavity mode during the phase-covariant cloning (PCC) transformation. With the help of numerical simulation method, we find out that the present cloning machine is not the isotropic model because its output fidelity depends on the polar angle and the azimuthal angle of the initial input state on the Bloch sphere. The fidelity for the actual output clone of the present scheme is slightly smaller than one in the theoretical case. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical ones. This further corroborates our scheme based on circuit QED can implement efficiently PCC transformation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tang Jing-Wu; Zhao Guan-Xiang; He Xiong-Hui
2011-01-01
Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4)1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Student friendly quantum field theory basic principles & quantum electrodynamics
Klauber, Robert D
2013-01-01
By incorporating extensive student input and innovative teaching methodologies, this book aims to make the process of learning quantum field theory easier, and thus more rapid, profound, and efficient, for both students and instructors. Comprehensive explanations are favored over conciseness, every step in derivations is included, and ‘big picture’ overviews are provided throughout. Typical student responses indicate how well the text achieves its aim.
The quantum Hall's effect:A quantum electrodynamic phenomenon
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.I. Arbab
2012-01-01
We have applied Maxwell's equations to study the physics of quantum Hall's effect.The electromagnetic properties of this system are obtained.The Hall's voltage,VH =2πh2ns/e rn,where ns is the electron number density,for a 2-dimensional system,and h =2πh is the Planck's constant,is found to coincide with the voltage drop across the quantum capacitor.Consideration of the cyclotronic motion of electrons is found to give rise to Hall's resistance.Ohmic resistances in the horizontal and vertical directions have been found to exist before equilibrium state is reached.At a fundamental level,the Hall's effect is found to be equivalent to a resonant LCR circuit with LH =2π m/e2ns and CH =me2/2πh2ns satisfying the resonance condition with resonant frequency equal to the inverse of the scattering (relaxation) time,Ts.The Hall's resistance is found to be RH =√LH/CH.The Hall's resistance may be connected with the impedance that the electron wave experiences when it propagates in the 2-dimeasional gas.
Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meuren, Sebastian
2015-06-24
Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.
Interference control of perfect photon absorption in cavity quantum electrodynamics
Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu; Agarwal, G S
2016-01-01
We propose and analyze a scheme for controlling coherent photon transmission and reflection in a cavity-quantum-electrodynamics (CQED) system consisting of an optical resonator coupled with three-level atoms coherently prepared by a control laser from free space. When the control laser is off and the cavity is excited by two identical light fields from two ends of the cavity, the two input light fields can be completely absorbed by the CQED system and the light energy is converted into the excitation of the polariton states, but no light can escape from the cavity. Two distinct cases of controlling the perfect photon absorption are analyzed: (a) when the control laser is tuned to the atomic resonance and creates electromagnetically induced transparency, the prefect photon absorption is suppressed and the input light fields are nearly completely transmitted through the cavity; (b) when the control laser is tuned to the polariton state resonance and inhibits the polariton state excitation, the perfect photon ab...
Quantum electrodynamic approach to the conductivity of gapped graphene
Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.
2016-11-01
The electrical conductivity of graphene with a nonzero mass-gap parameter is investigated starting from the first principles of quantum electrodynamics in (2+1)-dimensional space time at any temperature. The formalism of the polarization tensor defined over the entire plane of complex frequency is used. At zero temperature we reproduce the results for both real and imaginary parts of the conductivity, obtained previously in the local approximation, and generalize them taking into account the effects of nonlocality. At nonzero temperature the exact analytic expressions for real and imaginary parts of the longitudinal and transverse conductivities of gapped graphene are derived, as well as their local limits and approximate expressions in several asymptotic regimes. Specifically, a simple local result for the real part of conductivity of gapped graphene valid at any temperature is obtained. According to our results, the real part of the conductivity is not equal to zero for frequencies exceeding the width of the gap and goes to the universal conductivity with increasing frequency. The imaginary part of conductivity of gapped graphene varies from infinity at zero frequency to minus infinity at the frequency defined by the gap parameter and then goes to zero with further increase of frequency. The analytic expressions are accompanied by the results of numerical computations. Possible future generalization of the used formalism is discussed.
Quantum Electrodynamics in d=3 from the ε Expansion.
Di Pietro, Lorenzo; Komargodski, Zohar; Shamir, Itamar; Stamou, Emmanuel
2016-04-01
We study quantum electrodynamics in d=3 coupled to N_{f} flavors of fermions. The theory flows to an IR fixed point for N_{f} larger than some critical number N_{f}^{c}. For N_{f}≤N_{f}^{c}, chiral-symmetry breaking is believed to take place. In analogy with the Wilson-Fisher description of the critical O(N) models in d=3, we make use of the existence of a fixed point in d=4-2ε to study the three-dimensional conformal theory. We compute, in perturbation theory, the IR dimensions of fermion bilinear and quadrilinear operators. For small N_{f}, a quadrilinear operator can become relevant in the IR and destabilize the fixed point. Therefore, the epsilon expansion can be used to estimate N_{f}^{c}. An interesting novelty compared to the O(N) models is that the theory in d=3 has an enhanced symmetry due to the structure of 3D spinors. We identify the operators in d=4-2ε that correspond to the additional conserved currents at d=3 and compute their infrared dimensions.
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khanbekyan, Mikayel
2009-10-27
In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khanbekyan, Mikayel
2009-10-27
In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the
A toy model of quantum electrodynamics in (1 + 1) dimensionsB
Boozer, A. D.
2008-01-01
We present a toy model of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in (1 + 1) dimensions. The QED model is much simpler than QED in (3 + 1) dimensions but exhibits many of the same physical phenomena, and serves as a pedagogical introduction to both QED and quantum field theory in general. We show how the QED model can be derived by quantizing a toy model of classical electrodynamics, and we discuss the connections between the classical and quantum models. In addition, we use the QED model to discuss th...
Quantum Electrodynamics Basis of Classical-Field High-Harmonic Generation Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王兵兵; 高靓辉; 傅盘铭; 郭东升; R. R. Freeman
2001-01-01
From the nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory, we derive the Landau-Dykhne formula which represents the quantum-mechanical formulation of the three-step model. These studies provide a basis for the classical-field approaches to high-order harmonic generation and justify some assumptions used in classical-field modelling.
Vacuum photon splitting in Lorentz-violating quantum electrodynamics.
Kostelecký, V Alan; Pickering, Austin G M
2003-07-18
Radiative corrections arising from Lorentz violation in the fermion sector induce a nonzero amplitude for vacuum photon splitting. At one loop, the on-shell amplitude acquires both CPT-even and CPT-odd contributions forbidden in conventional electrodynamics.
Vacuum Photon Splitting in Lorentz-Violating Quantum Electrodynamics
Kostelecky, V A; Kostelecky, Alan; Pickering, Austin
2003-01-01
Radiative corrections arising from Lorentz violation in the fermion sector induce a nonzero amplitude for vacuum photon splitting. At one loop, the on-shell amplitude acquires both CPT-even and CPT-odd contributions forbidden in conventional electrodynamics.
Phenomenology of the vacuum in quantum electrodynamics and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doebrich, Babette
2011-09-30
Determining forces that arise by the restriction of the fluctuation modes of the vacuum by the insertion of boundaries or the observation of altered light propagation in external fields is a versatile means to investigate the vacuum structure of quantum electrodynamics. For these quantum vacuum probes, the vacuum can be understood and effectively modeled as a medium. Investigating the properties of this medium cannot only test and broaden our understanding of known interactions but can also be a valuable tool in the search for particles at low energy scales which arise in extensions of the standard model. In this thesis, we first study the geometry dependence of fluctuation modes in the Dirichlet-scalar analog of Casimir-Polder forces between an atom and a surface with arbitrary uniaxial corrugations. To this end we employ a technique which is fully nonperturbative in the height profile. We parameterize the differences to the distance dependencies in the planar limit in terms of an anomalous dimension quantifying the power-law deviation from the planar case. In numerical studies of experimentally relevant corrugations, we identify a universal regime of the anomalous dimension at larger distances. We argue that this universality arises as the relevant fluctuations average over corrugation structures smaller than the atom-wall distance. Turning to modified light propagation as a probe of the quantum vacuum, we show that a combination of strong, pulsed magnets and gravitational-wave interferometers can not only facilitate the detection of strong-field QED phenomena, but also significantly enlarges the accessible parameter space of hypothetical hidden-sector particles. We identify pulsed magnets as a suitable strong-field source to induce quantum nonlinearities, since their pulse frequency can be perfectly matched with the domain of highest sensitivity of modern gravitational-wave interferometers. Pushing current laboratory field-strengths to their limits, we suggest a
Excess of positrons in cosmic rays: A Lindbladian model of quantum electrodynamics
Campos, Andre G; Bondar, Denys I; Rabitz, Herschel
2015-01-01
The fraction of positrons and electrons in cosmic rays recently observed on the International Space Station unveiled an unexpected excess of the positrons, undermining the current foundations of cosmic rays sources. We provide a quantum electrodynamics phenomenological model explaining the observed data. This model incorporates electroproduction, in which cosmic ray electrons decelerating in the interstellar medium emit photons that turn into electron-positron pairs. These findings not only advance our knowledge of cosmic ray physics, but also pave the way for computationally efficient formulations of quantum electrodynamics, critically needed in physics and chemistry.
Popa, Alexandru
2013-01-01
Applications of Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamical Systems is a reference on the new field of relativistic optics, examining topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles. Based on 30 years of research, this unique book connects the properties of quantum equations to corresponding classical equations used to calculate the energetic values and the symmetry properties of atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems. In addition, it examines applications for these methods, and for the calculation of
Orgiazzi, J.-L.; Deng, C.; Layden, D.; Marchildon, R.; Kitapli, F.; Shen, F.; Bal, M.; Ong, F. R.; Lupascu, A.
2016-03-01
We report experiments on superconducting flux qubits in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) setup. Two qubits, independently biased and controlled, are coupled to a coplanar waveguide resonator. Dispersive qubit state readout reaches a maximum contrast of 72%. We measure energy relaxation times at the symmetry point of 5 and 10 μ s , corresponding to 7 and 20 μ s when relaxation through the resonator due to Purcell effect is subtracted out, and levels of flux noise of 2.6 and 2.7 μ Φ0/√{Hz} at 1 Hz for the two qubits. We discuss the origin of decoherence in the measured devices. The strong coupling between the qubits and the cavity leads to a large, cavity-mediated, qubit-qubit coupling. This coupling, which is characterized spectroscopically, reaches 38 MHz. These results demonstrate the potential of cQED as a platform for fundamental investigations of decoherence and quantum dynamics of flux qubits.
Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Classical Message using Cavity Quantum Electrodynamic System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Lian-Fang; LIU Yi-Min; ZHANG Zhan-Jun
2006-01-01
@@ An experimental feasible scheme of multiparty secret sharing of classical messages is proposed, based on a cavity quantum electrodynamic system. The secret messages are imposed on atomic Bell states initially in the sender's possession by local unitary operations. By swapping quantum entanglement of atomic Bell states, the secret messages are split into several parts and each part is distributed to a separate party. In this case, any subset of the entire party group can not read out the secret message but the entirety via mutual cooperations. In this scheme, to discriminate atomic Bell states, additional classical fields are employed besides the same highly-detuned single-mode cavities used to prepare atomic Bell states. This scheme is insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field, and usual joint Bell-state measurements are unnecessary.
Mode expansions in the quantum electrodynamics of photonic media with disorder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger
2012-01-01
We address two issues in the quantum electrodynamical description of photonic media with some disorder, neglecting material dispersion. When choosing a gauge in which the static potential vanishes, the normal modes of the medium with disorder satisfy another transversality condition than the modes...
Efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Jin; Ye Liu
2004-01-01
We present an efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics.Involved in this scheme are n identical two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. Discussion indicates that this scheme can be realized easily by current technologies.
Fukuda, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Tachibana, Akitomo
2016-01-01
We discuss the method to compute the integrals which appear in the retarded potential term for a real-time simulation based on QED (Quantum Electrodynamics). We show that the oscillatory integrals over the infinite interval involved in them can be efficiently performed by the method developed by Ooura and Mori based on the double exponential (DE) formula.
Vacuum-Induced Abelian and Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张海龙; 梁奇锋; 俞立先; 陈刚
2011-01-01
Gauge potential plays an important role in exploring exotic phenomena in the single- and many-body quantum systems. In this paper, we propose a scheme to create both new Abelian and non-Abelian gauge potentials by adiabatically controlling the degenerate Dicke model in cavity quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that a non-Abelian gauge potential is achieved only for a single atom, whereas an Abelianizen diagonal gauge potential is realized for the atomic ensemble. More importantly, two interesting quantum phenomena such as the geometric phase and the magnetic monopole induced by our created gauge potentials are also predicted. The possible physical realization is presented in the macroscopic circuit quantum electrodynamics with the Cooper pair boxes, which act as the artificial two-level atoms controlled by the gate voltage and the external magnetic flux.
Photon antibunching and bunching in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.
Chen, Zihao; Zhou, Yao; Shen, Jung-Tsung
2016-07-15
We numerically investigate the photonic state generation and its nonclassical correlations in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system. Specifically, we discuss photon antibunching and bunching in various scenarios, including the imperfect resonator with backscattering and dissipations. Our numerical results indicate that an imperfect ring resonator with backscattering can enhance the quality of antibunching. In addition, we also identify the quantum photonic halo phenomenon in the photon scattering dynamics and the shoulder effect in the second-order correlation function.
Teleportation of Atomic States via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
Guerra, E S
2004-01-01
In this article we discuss a scheme of teleportation of atomic states. The experimental realization proposed makes use of cavity Quatum Electrodynamics involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with a micromaser cavity prepared in a coherent state. We start presenting a scheme to prepare atomic Bell states via the interaction of atoms with a cavity. In our scheme the cavity and some atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to achieve the teleportation.
Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics: The Strange Theory of Light in a Box
Dutra, Sergio M.
2004-12-01
What happens to light when it is trapped in a box? Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics addresses a fascinating question in physics: what happens to light, and in particular to its interaction with matter, when it is trapped inside a box? With the aid of a model-building approach, readers discover the answer to this question and come to appreciate its important applications in computing, cryptography, quantum teleportation, and opto-electronics. Instead of taking a traditional approach that requires readers to first master a series of seemingly unconnected mathematical techniques, this book engages the readers' interest and imagination by going straight to the point, introducing the mathematics along the way as needed. Appendices are provided for the additional mathematical theory. Researchers, scientists, and students of modern physics can refer to Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics and examine the field thoroughly. Several key topics covered that readers cannot find in any other quantum optics book include: * Introduction to the problem of the "vacuum catastrophe" and the cosmological constant * Detailed up-to-date account of cavity QED lasers and thresholdless lasing * Examination of cavities with movable walls * First-principles discussion about cavity QED in open cavities * Pedagogical account of microscopic quantization in dielectrics Complementing the coverage of the most advanced theory and techniques, the author provides context by discussing the historical evolution of the field and its discoveries. In that spirit, "recommended reading," provided in each chapter, leads readers to both contemporary literature as well as key historical papers. Despite being one of many specialties within physics, cavity quantum electrodynamics serves as a window to many of the fundamental issues of physics. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics will serve as an excellent resource for advanced undergraduate quantum mechanics courses as well as for graduate students, researchers, and
Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myrzakulov, R. [Department of General & Theoretical Physics and Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Odintsov, S.D. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, ICE/CSIC-IEEC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5-Parell-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUSUR) 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sebastiani, L., E-mail: lorenzo.sebastiani@unitn.it [Department of General & Theoretical Physics and Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)
2016-06-15
We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space–time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and how they influence the bound of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of the primordial acceleration. We demonstrate that the viable inflation maybe successfully realized, so that it turns out to be consistent with last Planck and BICEP2/Keck Array data.
Classical and quantum electrodynamics and the B(3) field
Evans, Myron W
2001-01-01
It is well known that classical electrodynamics is riddled with internal inconsistencies springing from the fact that it is a linear, Abelian theory in which the potentials are unphysical. This volume offers a self-consistent hypothesis which removes some of these problems, as well as builds a framework on which linear and nonlinear optics are treated as a non-Abelian gauge field theory based on the emergence of the fundamental magnetizing field of radiation, the B(3) field. Contents: Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with One Fermion; The Field Equations of Classical O (3) b Electrodyn
Experiments on two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics. A superconducting quantum switch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffmann, Elisabeth Christiane Maria
2013-05-29
The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level. In typical experiments individual natural atoms are interacting with individual photons trapped in three-dimensional cavities. Within the last decade the prospering new field of circuit QED has been developed. Here, the natural atoms are replaced by artificial solid state quantum circuits offering large dipole moments which are coupled to quasi-onedimensional cavities providing a small mode volume and hence a large vacuum field strength. In our experiments Josephson junction based superconducting quantum bits are coupled to superconducting microwave resonators. In circuit QED the number of parameters that can be varied is increased and regimes that are not accessible using natural atoms can be entered and investigated. Apart from design flexibility and tunability of system parameters a particular advantage of circuit QED is the scalability to larger system size enabled by well developed micro- and nanofabrication tools. When scaling up the resonator-qubit systems beyond a few coupled circuits, the rapidly increasing number of interacting subsystems requires an active control and directed transmission of quantum signals. This can, for example, be achieved by implementing switchable coupling between two microwave resonators. To this end, a superconducting flux qubit is used to realize a suitable coupling between two microwave resonators, all working in the Gigahertz regime. The resulting device is called quantum switch. The flux qubit mediates a second order tunable and switchable coupling between the resonators. Depending on the qubit state, this coupling can compensate for the direct geometric coupling of the two resonators. As the qubit may also be in a quantum superposition state, the switch itself can be ''quantum'': it can be a superposition of ''on'' and ''off''. This work
Popa, Alexandru
2013-01-01
Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamic Systems is intended for scientists and graduate students interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics and applied scientists interested in accurate atomic and molecular models. This is a reference to those working in the new field of relativistic optics, in topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles, and is based on 30 years of research. The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and correspon
Baumann, Gerd
2005-01-01
Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, and Fractals This second edition of Baumann's Mathematica® in Theoretical Physics shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Each example and calculation can be evaluated by the reader, and the reader can change the example calculations and adopt the given code to related or similar problems. The second edition has been completely revised and expanded into two volumes: The first volume covers classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. Both topics are the basis of a regular mechanics course. The second volume covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, and fractals and fractional calculus. New examples have been added and the representation has been reworked to provide a more interactive problem-solving presentation. This book can be used as a textbook or as a reference work, by student...
Chen, Xing; Moore, Justin E; Zekarias, Meserret; Jensen, Lasse
2015-11-10
The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with nanometre dimensions exhibit features that cannot be described by classical electrodynamics. In this quantum size regime, the near-field properties are significantly modified and depend strongly on the geometric arrangements. However, simulating realistically sized systems while retaining the atomistic description remains computationally intractable for fully quantum mechanical approaches. Here we introduce an atomistic electrodynamics model where the traditional description of nanoparticles in terms of a macroscopic homogenous dielectric constant is replaced by an atomic representation with dielectric properties that depend on the local chemical environment. This model provides a unified description of bare and ligand-coated nanoparticles, as well as strongly interacting nanoparticle dimer systems. The non-local screening owing to an inhomogeneous ligand layer is shown to drastically modify the near-field properties. This will be important to consider in optimization of plasmonic nanostructures for near-field spectroscopy and sensing applications.
Schatz, George
2008-03-01
This talk will describe the use of electrodynamics and quantum mechanics methods to describe the optical properties of silver and gold nanoparticles and other nanostructures. This work has been done in collaboration with several experimental colleagues, including Chad Mirkin, Rick Van Duyne and Teri Odom. Our recent work has focused on the optical properties of metal nanoparticles that are coated with molecules that are detected either through their influence plasmon resonance excitation, or via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Electrodynamics calculations using either the DDA or FDTD methods provide a quantitative tool for characterizing far field properties, and at a more primitive level estimates of SERS intensities. Quantum mechanics, as developed using time dependent density functional theory, is restricted to small metal clusters, but the same methods of far field spectroscopy and SERS can still be studied.
Multimode circuit quantum electrodynamics with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines.
Egger, D J; Wilhelm, F K
2013-10-18
Quantum transmission lines are central to superconducting and hybrid quantum computing. In this work we show how coupling them to a left-handed transmission line allows circuit QED to reach a new regime: multimode ultrastrong coupling. Out of the many potential applications of this novel device, we discuss the preparation of multipartite entangled states and the simulation of the spin-boson model where a quantum phase transition is reached up to finite size effects.
Dynamical Mass Generation and Confinement in Maxwell-Chern-Simons Planar Quantum Electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez Madrigal, S; Raya, A [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacan 58040 (Mexico); Hofmann, C P, E-mail: saul@ifm.umicri.mx, E-mail: christoph@ucol.mx, E-mail: raya@ifm.umich.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima 28045 (Mexico)
2011-04-01
We study the non-perturbative phenomena of Dynamical Mass Generation and Confinement by truncating at the non-perturbative level the Schwinger-Dyson equations in Maxwell-Chern-Simons planar quantum electrodynamics. We obtain numerical solutions for the fermion propagator in Landau gauge within the so-called rainbow approximation. A comparison with the ordinary theory without the Chern-Simons term is presented.
Ultraviolet finiteness of Chiral Perturbation Theory for two-dimensional Quantum Electrodynamics
Paston, S A; Franke, V A
2003-01-01
We consider the perturbation theory in the fermion mass (chiral perturbation theory) for the two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics. With this aim, we rewrite the theory in the equivalent bosonic form in which the interaction is exponential and the fermion mass becomes the coupling constant. We reformulate the bosonic perturbation theory in the superpropagator language and analyze its ultraviolet behavior. We show that the boson Green's functions without vacuum loops remain finite in all orders of the perturbation theory in the fermion mass.
Preparation of Genuinely Entangled Six-Atom State via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Wen; LIU Yi-Min; YIN Xiao-Feng; ZHANG Zhan-Jun
2011-01-01
A cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme for preparing a genuinely entangled state [A. Borras, et al., J. Phys. A 40 (2007) 13407] on six two-level atoms is proposed. In the scheme, the atom-cavity detuning is much bigger than the atom-cavity coupling strength and the necessary preparation time is much shorter than the Rydberg-atom lifespan. Hence the scheme has two distinct features, i.e., insensitive to the cavity decay and the atom radiation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustavo A. Aucar
2002-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract: A theory for the calculation of self-energy corrections to the nuclear magnetic parameters is given in this paper. It is based on the S-matrix formulation of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED. Explicit expressions for the various terms of the S-matrix are given. The interpretation of the self-energy, one- and two-vertex terms and some perspective for possible future developments are discussed.
Payton, John L; Morton, Seth M; Moore, Justin E; Jensen, Lasse
2014-01-21
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a technique that has broad implications for biological and chemical sensing applications by providing the ability to simultaneously detect and identify a single molecule. The Raman scattering of molecules adsorbed on metal nanoparticles can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. These enhancements stem from a twofold mechanism: an electromagnetic mechanism (EM), which is due to the enhanced local field near the metal surface, and a chemical mechanism (CM), which is due to the adsorbate specific interactions between the metal surface and the molecules. The local field near the metal surface can be significantly enhanced due to the plasmon excitation, and therefore chemists generally accept that the EM provides the majority of the enhancements. While classical electrodynamics simulations can accurately simulate the local electric field around metal nanoparticles, they offer few insights into the spectral changes that occur in SERS. First-principles simulations can directly predict the Raman spectrum but are limited to small metal clusters and therefore are often used for understanding the CM. Thus, there is a need for developing new methods that bridge the electrodynamics simulations of the metal nanoparticle and the first-principles simulations of the molecule to facilitate direct simulations of SERS spectra. In this Account, we discuss our recent work on developing a hybrid atomistic electrodynamics-quantum mechanical approach to simulate SERS. This hybrid method is called the discrete interaction model/quantum mechanics (DIM/QM) method and consists of an atomistic electrodynamics model of the metal nanoparticle and a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) description of the molecule. In contrast to most previous work, the DIM/QM method enables us to retain a detailed atomistic structure of the nanoparticle and provides a natural bridge between the electronic structure methods and the macroscopic
Cavity quantum electrodynamics in the Anderson-localized regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren
2010-01-01
We experimentally measure, by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, a 15-fold enhancement of the spontaneous emission decay rate of single semiconductor quantum dots coupled to disorder-induced Anderson-localized modes with efficiencies reaching 94%.......We experimentally measure, by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, a 15-fold enhancement of the spontaneous emission decay rate of single semiconductor quantum dots coupled to disorder-induced Anderson-localized modes with efficiencies reaching 94%....
A scheme for transferring an unknown atomic entangled state via cavity quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Tao; Ye Liu; Ni Zhi-Xiang
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme for transferring an unknown atomic entangled state via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This scheme, which has a successful probability of 100 percent, does not require Bell-state measurement and performing any operations to reconstruct an initial state. Meanwhile, the scheme only involves atomfield interaction with a large detuning and does not require the transfer of quantum information between the atoms and cavity. Thus the scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. This scheme can also be extended to transfer ring an entangled state of n-atom.
Interference control of nonlinear excitation in a multi-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics system.
Yang, Guoqing; Tan, Zheng; Zou, Bichen; Zhu, Yifu
2014-12-01
We show that by manipulating quantum interference in a multi-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) system, the nonlinear excitation of the cavity-atom polariton can be resonantly enhanced while the linear excitation is suppressed. Under the appropriate conditions, it is possible to selectively enhance or suppress the polariton excitation with two free-pace laser fields. We report on an experiment with cold Rb atoms in an optical cavity and present experimental results that demonstrate such interference control of the CQED excitation and its direct application to studies of all-optical switching and cross-phase modulation of the cavity-transmitted light.
Classical Electrodynamics and the Quantum Nature of Light
De Souza, M M
1996-01-01
A review of old inconsistencies of Classical Electrodynamics (CED) and of some new ideas that solve them is presented. Problems with causality violating solutions of the wave equation and of the electron equation of motion, and problems with the non-integrable singularity of its self-field energy tensor are well known. The correct interpretation of the two (advanced and retarded) Lienard-Wiechert solutions are in terms of creation and annihilation of particles in classical physics. They are both retarded solutions. Previous work on the short distance limit of CED of a spinless point electron are based on a faulty assumption which causes the well known inconsistencies of the theory: a diverging self-energy (the non-integrable singularity of its self-field energy tensor) and a causality-violating third order equation of motion (the Lorentz-Dirac equation). The correct assumption fixes these problems without any change in the Maxwell's equations and let exposed, in the zero-distance limit, the discrete nature of...
The quantum vacuum at the foundations of classical electrodynamics
Leuchs, G; Sánchez-Soto, L L
2010-01-01
In the classical theory of electromagnetism, the permittivity and the permeability of free space are constants whose magnitudes do not seem to possess any deeper physical meaning. By replacing the free space of classical physics with the quantum notion of the vacuum, we speculate that the values of the aforementioned constants could arise from the polarization and magnetization of virtual pairs in vacuum. A classical dispersion model with parameters determined by quantum and particle physics is employed to estimate their values. We find the correct orders of magnitude. Additionally, our simple assumptions yield an independent estimate for the number of charged elementary particles based on the known values of the permittivity and the permeability, and for the volume of a virtual pair. Such interpretation would provide an intriguing connection between the celebrated theory of classical electromagnetism and the quantum theory in the weak field limit.
A scanning transmon qubit for strong coupling circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Shanks, W E; Underwood, D L; Houck, A A
2013-01-01
Like a quantum computer designed for a particular class of problems, a quantum simulator enables quantitative modelling of quantum systems that is computationally intractable with a classical computer. Superconducting circuits have recently been investigated as an alternative system in which microwave photons confined to a lattice of coupled resonators act as the particles under study, with qubits coupled to the resonators producing effective photon-photon interactions. Such a system promises insight into the non-equilibrium physics of interacting bosons, but new tools are needed to understand this complex behaviour. Here we demonstrate the operation of a scanning transmon qubit and propose its use as a local probe of photon number within a superconducting resonator lattice. We map the coupling strength of the qubit to a resonator on a separate chip and show that the system reaches the strong coupling regime over a wide scanning area.
Higuchi, Atsushi; Martin, Giles D. R.
2006-01-01
We extend our previous work [A. Higuchi and G. D. R. Martin, Found. Phys. 35, 1149 (2005)FNDPA40015-901810.1007/s10701-005-6405-0], which compared the predictions of quantum electrodynamics concerning radiation reaction with those of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac theory for a charged particle in linear motion. Specifically, we calculate the predictions for the change in position of a charged-scalar particle, moving in three-dimensional space, due to the effect of radiation reaction in the one-photon-emission process in quantum electrodynamics. The scalar particle is assumed to be accelerated for a finite period of time by a three-dimensional electromagnetic potential dependent only on one of the spacetime coordinates. We perform this calculation in the ℏ→0 limit and show that the change in position agrees with that obtained in classical electrodynamics with the Lorentz-Dirac force treated as a perturbation. We also show for a time-dependent but space-independent electromagnetic potential that the forward-scattering amplitude at order e2 does not contribute to the position change in the ℏ→0 limit after the mass renormalization is taken into account.
Epitaxial lift-off for solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greuter, Lukas; Najer, Daniel; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Starosielec, Sebastian; Warburton, Richard J. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel 4056 (Switzerland); Valentin, Sascha R.; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2015-08-21
We demonstrate an approach to incorporate self-assembled quantum dots into a Fabry-Pérot-like microcavity. Thereby, a 3λ/4 GaAs layer containing quantum dots is epitaxially removed and attached by van der Waals bonding to one of the microcavity mirrors. We reach a finesse as high as 4100 with this configuration limited by the reflectivity of the dielectric mirrors and not by scattering at the semiconductor-mirror interface, demonstrating that the epitaxial lift-off procedure is a promising procedure for cavity quantum electrodynamics in the solid state. As a first step in this direction, we demonstrate a clear cavity-quantum dot interaction in the weak coupling regime with a Purcell factor in the order of 3. Estimations of the coupling strength via the Purcell factor suggest that we are close to the strong coupling regime.
Epitaxial lift-off for solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics
Greuter, Lukas; Kuhlmann, Andreas V; Valentin, Sascha; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Starosielec, Sebastian; Warburton, Richard J
2015-01-01
We present a new approach to incorporate self-assembled quantum dots into a Fabry-P\\'{e}rot-like microcavity. Thereby a 3$\\lambda$/4 GaAs layer containing quantum dots is epitaxially removed and attached by van der Waals bonding to one of the microcavity mirrors. We reach a finesse as high as 4,100 with this configuration limited by the reflectivity of the dielectric mirrors and not by scattering at the semiconductor - mirror interface, demonstrating that the epitaxial lift-off procedure is a promising procedure for cavity quantum electrodynamics in the solid state. As a first step in this direction, we demonstrate a clear cavity-quantum dot interaction in the weak coupling regime with a Purcell factor in the order of 3. Estimations of the coupling strength via the Purcell factor suggests that we are close to the strong coupling regime.
Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel
2017-03-21
In this work, we provide an overview of how well-established concepts in the fields of quantum chemistry and material sciences have to be adapted when the quantum nature of light becomes important in correlated matter-photon problems. We analyze model systems in optical cavities, where the matter-photon interaction is considered from the weak- to the strong-coupling limit and for individual photon modes as well as for the multimode case. We identify fundamental changes in Born-Oppenheimer surfaces, spectroscopic quantities, conical intersections, and efficiency for quantum control. We conclude by applying our recently developed quantum-electrodynamical density-functional theory to spontaneous emission and show how a straightforward approximation accurately describes the correlated electron-photon dynamics. This work paves the way to describe matter-photon interactions from first principles and addresses the emergence of new states of matter in chemistry and material science.
A nanophotonic probe for quantum electrodynamics in random cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huisman, S. R.; Frater, E. H.; Korterik, J. P.;
2011-01-01
Disorder in photonic-crystal slab waveguides can cause localization of light [1, 2]. Sapienza et al. observed that the interaction of localized light with embedded quantum dots is so strong that it yields a considerable Purcell enhancement of the emission rate [3]. This coupling between emitters...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑仕标
2001-01-01
A scheme is proposed for generating the superpositions of several coherent states in a cavity field with dispersive cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In the scheme, a sequence of atoms interacts dispersively with the cavity field, connected with a microwave source, and is manipulated by classical fields, followed by state-selective measurements. In this way, the cavity field is collapsed onto a superposition of several coherent states along a straight line with controllable coefficients. This scheme provides the possibility for quantum state engineering via coherent-state superpositions along a straight line in cavity QED for the first time.
The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlemmer, Jan, E-mail: jan.schlemmer@univie.ac.at [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Zahn, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.zahn@itp.uni-leipzig.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)
2015-08-15
We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac’s method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space–times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress–energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.
Analysis of adiabatic transfer in cavity quantum electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Joyee Ghosh; R Ghosh; Deepak Kumar
2011-10-01
A three-level atom in a conﬁguration trapped in an optical cavity forms a basic unit in a number of proposed protocols for quantum information processing. This system allows for efﬁcient storage of cavity photons into long-lived atomic excitations, and their retrieval with high ﬁdelity, in an adiabatic transfer process through the ‘dark state’ by a slow variation of the control laser intensity. We study the full quantum mechanics of this transfer process with a view to examine the non-adiabatic effects arising from inevitable excitations of the system to states involving the upper level of , which is radiative. We ﬁnd that the ﬁdelity of storage is better, the stronger the control ﬁeld and the slower the rate of its switching off. On the contrary, unlike the adiabatic notion, retrieval is better with faster rates of switching on of an optimal control ﬁeld. Also, for retrieval, the behaviour with dissipation is non-monotonic. These results lend themselves to experimental tests. Our exact computations, when applied to slow variations of the control intensity for strong atom–photon couplings, are in very good agreement with Berry’s superadiabatic transfer results without dissipation.
Quantum Mechanical Probability of Electrodynamic Particle(s)
Zheng-Johansson, J X
2010-01-01
A distribution of electromagnetic fields presents a statistical assembly of a particular type, which is at scale h a quantum statistical assembly itself and has also been instrumental to concretisation of the basic probability assumption of quantum mechanics. Of specific concern in this discussion is an extensive train of radiation fields, of a total wave function \\psi, which are continuously (re)emitted and (re)absorbed by an oscillatory (point) charge of a zero rest mass and yet a finite dynamical mass, with the waves and charge together making up an extensive undulatory IED particle. The IED particle will as any real particle be subject to interactions with the environmental fields and particles, hence to excitations, and therefore will explore all possible states over time; at scale $h$ the states are discrete. On the basis of the principles of statistics and statistical mechanics combined with first principles solutions for the IED particle, we derive for the IED particle the probability functions in pos...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reitzenstein, S.; Schneider, C.; Albert, F.
2011-01-01
, e.g., the large scale fabrication of quantum light sources. As a result, large efforts focus on the growth and the device integration of site-controlled QDs. We present the growth of low density arrays of site-controlled In(Ga)As QDs where shallow etched nanoholes act as nucleation sites......Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are fascinating nanoscopic structures for photonics and future quantum information technology. However, the random position of self-organized QDs inhibits a deterministic coupling in devices relying on cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) effects which complicates....... The nanoholes are located relative to cross markers which allows for a precise spatial alignment of the site-controlled QDs (SCQDs) and the photonic modes of high quality microcavites with an accuracy better than 50 nm. We also address the optical quality of the SCQDs in terms of the single SCQD emission mode...
Jian, Shao-Kai; Maciejko, Joseph; Yao, Hong
2016-01-01
We show that a supersymmetric gauge theory with dynamical gauge bosons and fermionic gauginos emerges naturally at the pair-density-wave (PDW) quantum phase transition on the surface of a correlated topological insulator (TI) hosting three Dirac cones, such as the candidate topological Kondo insulator SmB$_6$. At the tricritical point separating the first- and second-order quantum phase transitions between the surface Dirac semimetal and nematic PDW phases, three massless bosonic Cooper pair fields emerge as the superpartners of three massless surface Dirac fermions. The resulting low-energy effective theory is the supersymmetric XYZ model, which is dual by mirror symmetry to $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED) in 2+1 dimensions. Using supersymmetry, we calculate exactly certain critical exponents and the optical conductivity of the surface states at the tricritical point, which may be measured in future experiments.
Quantum Electrodynamic Modeling of Silicon-Based Active Devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shouyuan Shi
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a time-domain analysis of an active medium based on a coupled quantum mechanical and electromagnetic model to accurately simulate the dynamics of silicon-based photonic devices. To fully account for the nonlinearity of an active medium, the rate equations of a four-level atomic system are introduced into the electromagnetic polarization vector. With these auxiliary differential equations, we solve the time evolution of the electromagnetic waves and atomic population densities using the FDTD method. The developed simulation approach has been used to model light amplification and amplified spontaneous emission in silicon nanocrystals, as well as the lasing dynamics in a novel photonic crystal-based silicon microcavity.
Sound-based analogue of cavity quantum electrodynamics in silicon.
Soykal, Ö O; Ruskov, Rusko; Tahan, Charles
2011-12-01
A quantum mechanical superposition of a long-lived, localized phonon and a matter excitation is described. We identify a realization in strained silicon: a low-lying donor transition (P or Li) driven solely by acoustic phonons at wavelengths where high-Q phonon cavities can be built. This phonon-matter resonance is shown to enter the strongly coupled regime where the "vacuum" Rabi frequency exceeds the spontaneous phonon emission into noncavity modes, phonon leakage from the cavity, and phonon anharmonicity and scattering. We introduce a micropillar distributed Bragg reflector Si/Ge cavity, where Q≃10(5)-10(6) and mode volumes V≲25λ(3) are reachable. These results indicate that single or many-body devices based on these systems are experimentally realizable.
SIMLA: Simulating laser-particle interactions via classical and quantum electrodynamics
Green, D G
2014-01-01
We present the Fortran code SIMLA, which is designed for the study of charged particle dynamics in laser and other background fields. This can be done classically via the Landau-Lifshitz equation, or alternatively, via the simulation of photon emission events determined by strong-field quantum-electrodynamics amplitudes and implemented using Monte-Carlo type routines. Multiple laser fields can be included in the simulation and the propagation direction, beam shape (plane wave, focussed paraxial, constant crossed, or constant magnetic), and time envelope of each can be independently specified.
Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation
Herbut, Igor F
2016-01-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three dimensional ($d=3$) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions $N=N_c$. We discuss the root of universality of $N_c$ in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the $(d,N)$ plane. In particular, it is shown that as $d\\rightarrow 4$, $N_c\\rightarrow 0$ with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that $N_c = 2.89$ in $d=3$.
Nanofiber Fabry-Perot microresonator for non-linear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics
Wuttke, C; Brückner, S; Rothhardt, M; Rauschenbeutel, A
2012-01-01
We experimentally realize a Fabry-Perot-type optical microresonator near the cesium D2 line wavelength based on a tapered optical fiber, equipped with two fiber Bragg gratings which enclose a sub-wavelength diameter waist. Owing to the very low taper losses, the finesse of the resonator reaches F = 86 while the on-resonance transmission is T = 11 %. The characteristics of our resonator fulfill the requirements of non-linear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime. In combination with its demonstrated ease of use and its advantageous mode geometry, it thus opens a realm of applications.
Green, D. G.; Harvey, C. N.
2015-07-01
We present the Fortran program SIMLA, which is designed for the study of charged particle dynamics in laser and other background fields. The dynamics can be determined classically via the Lorentz force and Landau-Lifshitz equations or, alternatively, via the simulation of photon emission events determined by strong-field quantum-electrodynamics amplitudes and implemented using Monte-Carlo routines. Multiple background fields can be included in the simulation and, where applicable, the propagation direction, field type (plane wave, focussed paraxial, constant crossed, or constant magnetic), and time envelope of each can be independently specified.
Quantum electrodynamics corrections to the 2P fine splitting in Li.
Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof
2014-08-15
We consider quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections to the fine splitting E(2P_{3/2})-E(2P_{1/2}) in the Li atom. We derive complete formulas for the mα^{6} and mα^{7}lnα contributions and calculate them numerically using highly optimized, explicitly correlated basis functions. The obtained results are in agreement with the most recent measurement, helping to resolve discrepancies between former ones and lay the foundation for the investigation of QED effects in light, many-electron atoms.
Mesoscopic entangled coherent states implemented with a circuit quantum electrodynamics system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Ying-Yan; Jiang Nian-Quan
2013-01-01
We show a scheme to generate entangled coherent states in a circuit quantum electrodynamics system,which consists of a nanomechanical resonator,a superconducting Cooper-pair box (CPB),and a superconducting transmission line resonator.In the system,the CPB plays the role of a nonlinear medium and can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage including direct-current and alternating-current components.The scheme provides a powerful tool for preparing the multipartite mesoscopic entangled coherent states.
Nanofiber Fabry-Perot microresonator for nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Wuttke, C; Becker, M; Brückner, S; Rothhardt, M; Rauschenbeutel, A
2012-06-01
We experimentally realize a Fabry-Perot-type optical microresonator near the cesium D2 line wavelength based on a tapered optical fiber, equipped with two fiber Bragg gratings that enclose a subwavelength diameter waist. Owing to the very low taper losses, the finesse of the resonator reaches F=86 while the on-resonance transmission is T=11%. The characteristics of our resonator fulfill the requirements of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime. These characteristics, combined with the demonstrated ease of use and advantageous mode geometry, open a realm of applications.
Mross, David F.; Alicea, Jason; Motrunich, Olexei I.
2016-07-01
We explicitly derive the duality between a free electronic Dirac cone and quantum electrodynamics in (2 +1 ) dimensions (QED3 ) with N =1 fermion flavors. The duality proceeds via an exact, nonlocal mapping from electrons to dual fermions with long-range interactions encoded by an emergent gauge field. This mapping allows us to construct parent Hamiltonians for exotic topological-insulator surface phases, derive the particle-hole-symmetric field theory of a half-filled Landau level, and nontrivially constrain QED3 scaling dimensions. We similarly establish duality between bosonic topological insulator surfaces and N =2 QED3 .
Ni, G; Ni, Guang-jiong; Wang, Haibin
1997-01-01
A simple but effective method for regularization-renormalization (R-R) is proposed for handling the Feynman diagram integral (FDI) at one loop level in quantum electrodynamics (QED). The divergence is substituted by some constants to be fixed via experiments. So no counter term, no bare parameter and no arbitrary running mass scale is involved. Then the Lamb Shift in Hydrogen atom can be calculated qualitatively and simply as $\\Delta E(2S_{1/2})- \\Delta E(2P_{1/2})=996.7 MHz$ versus the experimental value $1057.85 MHz$.
Normalizability analysis of the generalized quantum electrodynamics from the causal point of view
Bufalo, R; Soto, D E
2015-01-01
The causal perturbation theory is an axiomatic perturbative theory of the S-matrix. This formalism has as its essence the following axioms: causality, Lorentz invariance and asymptotic conditions. Any other property must be showed via the inductive method order-by-order and, of course, it depends on the particular physical model. In this work we shall study the normalizability of the generalized quantum electrodynamics in the framework of the causal approach. Furthermore, we analyse the implication of the gauge invariance onto the model and obtain the respective Ward-Takahashi-Fradkin identities.
On refractive processes in strong laser field quantum electrodynamics
Di Piazza, A
2013-01-01
Refractive processes in strong-field QED are pure quantum processes, which involve only external photons and the background electromagnetic field. We show analytically that such processes occurring in a plane-wave field are all characterized by a surprisingly modest net exchange of laser photons even at ultrarelativistic laser intensities. We obtain this result by a direct calculation of the transition matrix element of an arbitrary refractive QED process and accounting exactly for the background plane-wave field. A simple physical explanation of this modest net exchange of laser photons is provided, based on the fact that the laser field couples with the external photons only indirectly through virtual electron-positron pairs. For stronger and stronger laser fields, the pairs cover a shorter and shorter distance before they annihilate again, such that the laser can transfer to them an energy corresponding to only a few photons. These results apply to both optical and x-free electron lasers, and are relevant ...
Time Evolution in the external field problem of Quantum Electrodynamics
Lazarovici, Dustin
2013-01-01
A general problem of quantum field theories is the fact that the free vacuum and the vacuum for an interacting theory belong to different, non-equivalent representations of the canonical (anti-)commutation relations. In the external field problem of QED, we encounter this problem in the form that the Dirac time evolution for an external field with non-vanishing magnetic components will not satisfy the Shale-Stinespring condition, known to be necessary and sufficient for the existence of an implementation on the fermionic Fock space. Therefore, a second quantization of the time evolution in the usual way is impossible. In this thesis, we present several rigorous approaches to QED with time-dependent, external fields and analyze in what sense a time evolution can exist in the second quantized theory. We study different constructions of the fermionic Fock space and prove their equivalence. We study and compare the results of Deckert et. al. (2010), where the time evolution is realized as unitary transformations ...
Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED
2003-01-01
The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...
Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana lasing in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Neilinger, P.; Shevchenko, S. N.; Bogár, J.; Rehák, M.; Oelsner, G.; Karpov, D. S.; Hübner, U.; Astafiev, O.; Grajcar, M.; Il'ichev, E.
2016-09-01
We demonstrate amplification (and attenuation) of a probe signal by a driven two-level quantum system in the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana regime by means of an experiment, in which a superconducting qubit was strongly coupled to a microwave cavity, in a conventional arrangement of circuit quantum electrodynamics. Two different types of flux qubit, specifically a conventional Josephson junctions qubit and a phase-slip qubit, show similar results, namely, lasing at the working points where amplification takes place. The experimental data are explained by the interaction of the probe signal with Rabi-like oscillations. The latter are created by constructive interference of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana (LZSM) transitions during the driving period of the qubit. A detailed description of the occurrence of these oscillations and a comparison of obtained data with both analytic and numerical calculations are given.
Fractional charges and fractional spins for composite fermions in quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Yong-Long; Lu Wei-Tao; Jiang Hua; Xu Chang-Tan; Pan Hong-Zhe
2012-01-01
By using the Faddeev-senjanovic path integral quantization method,we quantize the composite fermions in quantum electrodynamics (QED).In the sense of Dirac's conjecture,we deduce all the constraints and give Dirac's gauge transformations (DGT).According to that the effective action is invariant under the DGT,we obtain the Noether theorem at the quantum level,which shows the fractional charges for the composite fermions in QED.This result is better than the one deduced from the equations of motion for the statistical potentials,because this result contains both odd and even fractional numbers.Furthermore,we deduce the Noether theorem from the invariance of the effective action under the rotational transformations in 2-dimensional (x,y) plane.The result shows that the composite fermions have fractional spins and fractional statistics.These anomalous properties are given by the constraints for the statistical gauge potential.
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2012-09-21
Recently, there has been much interest in simulating quantum field theory effects of matter and gauge fields. In a recent work, a method for simulating compact quantum electrodynamics (CQED) using Bose-Einstein condensates has been suggested. We suggest an alternative approach, which relies on single atoms in an optical lattice, carrying 2l + 1 internal levels, which converges rapidly to CQED as l increases. That enables the simulation of CQED in 2 + 1 dimensions in both the weak and the strong coupling regimes, hence, allowing us to probe confinement as well as other nonperturbative effects of the theory. We provide an explicit construction for the case l = 1 which is sufficient for simulating the effect of confinement between two external static charges.
Modelling and fabrication of GaAs photonic-crystal cavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Khankhoje, U K; Kim, S-H; Richards, B C; Hendrickson, J; Sweet, J; Olitzky, J D; Khitrova, G; Gibbs, H M; Scherer, A
2010-02-10
In this paper, we present recent progress in the growth, modelling, fabrication and characterization of gallium arsenide (GaAs) two-dimensional (2D) photonic-crystal slab cavities with embedded indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots (QDs) that are designed for cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) experiments. Photonic-crystal modelling and device fabrication are discussed, followed by a detailed discussion of different failure modes that lead to photon loss. It is found that, along with errors introduced during fabrication, other significant factors such as the presence of a bottom substrate and cavity axis orientation with respect to the crystal axis, can influence the cavity quality factor (Q). A useful diagnostic tool in the form of contour finite-difference time domain (FDTD) is employed to analyse device performance.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with separate photon storage and qubit readout modes.
Leek, P J; Baur, M; Fink, J M; Bianchetti, R; Steffen, L; Filipp, S; Wallraff, A
2010-03-12
We present the realization of a cavity quantum electrodynamics setup in which photons of strongly different lifetimes are engineered in different harmonic modes of the same cavity. We achieve this in a superconducting transmission line resonator with superconducting qubits coupled to the different modes. One cavity mode is strongly coupled to a detection line for qubit state readout, while a second long lifetime mode is used for photon storage and coherent quantum operations. We demonstrate sideband-based measurement of photon coherence, generation of n photon Fock states and the scaling of the sideband Rabi frequency with square root of n using a scheme that may be extended to realize sideband-based two-qubit logic gates.
Controllable cross-Kerr interaction between microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Qin-Qin; Liao Jie-Qiao; Kuang Le-Man
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme to enable a controllable cross-Kerr interaction between microwave photons in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) system. In this scheme we use two transmission-line resonators (TLRs) and one superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) type charge qubit, which acts as an artificial atom. It is shown that in the dispersive regime of the circuit-QED system, a controllable cross-Kerr interaction can be obtained by properly preparing the initial state of the qubit, and a large cross-phase shift between two microwave fields in the two TLRs can then be reached. Based on this cross-Kerr interaction, we show how to create a macroscopic entangled state between the two TLRs.
Applications of the Fokker-Planck equation in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Elliott, Matthew; Ginossar, Eran
2016-10-01
We study exact solutions of the steady-state behavior of several nonlinear open quantum systems which can be applied to the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics. Using Fokker-Planck equations in the generalized P representation, we investigate the analytical solutions of two fundamental models. First, we solve for the steady-state response of a linear cavity that is coupled to an approximate transmon qubit and use this solution to study both the weak and strong driving regimes, using analytical expressions for the moments of both cavity and transmon fields, along with the Husimi Q function for the transmon. Second, we revist exact solutions of a quantum Duffing oscillator, which is driven both coherently and parametrically while also experiencing decoherence by the loss of single photons and pairs of photons. We use this solution to discuss both stabilization of Schrödinger cat states and the generation of squeezed states in parametric amplifiers, in addition to studying the Q functions of the different phases of the quantum system. The field of superconducting circuits, with its strong nonlinearities and couplings, has provided access to parameter regimes in which returning to these exact quantum optics methods can provide valuable insights.
Wang, W -M; Gibbon, P; Li, Y -T
2016-01-01
We develop the particle-in-cell (PIC) code KLAPS to include the photon generation via the Compton scattering and electron-positron creation via the Breit-Wheeler process due to quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects. We compare two sets of existing formulas for the photon generation and different Monte Carlo algorithms. Then we benchmark the PIC simulation results.
Berestetskii, Vladimir B; Pitaevskii, L P
1982-01-01
Several significant additions have been made to the second edition, including the operator method of calculating the bremsstrahlung cross-section, the calcualtion of the probabilities of photon-induced pair production and photon decay in a magneticfield, the asymptotic form of the scattering amplitudes at high energies, inelastic scattering of electrons by hadrons, and the transformation of electron-positron pairs into hadrons.
Reduced Dirac equation and Lamb shift as off-mass-shell effect in quantum electrodynamics
Ni, Guang-Jiong; Xu, Jian-Jun; Lou, Sen-Yue
2011-02-01
Based on the accurate experimental data of energy-level differences in hydrogen-like atoms, especially the 1S—2S transitions of hydrogen and deuterium, the necessity of introducing a reduced Dirac equation with reduced mass as the substitution of original electron mass is stressed. Based on new cognition about the essence of special relativity, we provide a reasonable argument for the reduced Dirac equation to have two symmetries, the invariance under the (newly defined) space-time inversion and that under the pure space inversion, in a noninertial frame. By using the reduced Dirac equation and within the framework of quantum electrodynamics in covariant form, the Lamb shift can be evaluated (at one-loop level) as the radiative correction on a bound electron staying in an off-mass-shell state—-a new approach eliminating the infrared divergence. Hence the whole calculation, though with limited accuracy, is simplified, getting rid of all divergences and free of ambiguity.
Ohsaku, T; Yamaki, D; Yamaguchi, K
2002-01-01
For studying the group theoretical classification of the solutions of the density functional theory in relativistic framework, we propose quantum electrodynamical density-matrix functional theory (QED-DMFT). QED-DMFT gives the energy as a functional of a local one-body $4\\times4$ matrix $Q(x)\\equiv -$, where $\\psi$ and $\\bar{\\psi}$ are 4-component Dirac field and its Dirac conjugate, respectively. We examine some characters of QED-DMFT. After these preparations, by using Q(x), we classify the solutions of QED-DMFT under O(3) rotation, time reversal and spatial inversion. The behavior of Q(x) under nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits are also presented. Finally, we give plans for several extensions and applications of QED-DMFT.
Self-formed cavity quantum electrodynamics in coupled dipole cylindrical-waveguide systems.
Afshar V, S; Henderson, M R; Greentree, A D; Gibson, B C; Monro, T M
2014-05-01
An ideal optical cavity operates by confining light in all three dimensions. We show that a cylindrical waveguide can provide the longitudinal confinement required to form a two dimensional cavity, described here as a self-formed cavity, by locating a dipole, directed along the waveguide, on the interface of the waveguide. The cavity resonance modes lead to peaks in the radiation of the dipole-waveguide system that have no contribution due to the skew rays that exist in longitudinally invariant waveguides and reduce their Q-factor. Using a theoretical model, we evaluate the Q-factor and modal volume of the cavity formed by a dipole-cylindrical-waveguide system and show that such a cavity allows access to both the strong and weak coupling regimes of cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Reduced Dirac Equation and Lamb Shift as an Off-mass-shell effect in Quantum Electrodynamics
Ni, G; Xu, J; Lou, Senyue; Ni, Guang-jiong; Xu, Jianjun
2005-01-01
Based on the precision experimental data of energy-level differences in hydrogenlike atoms, especially the 1S-2S transition of hydrogen and deuterium, the necessity of establishing a reduced Dirac equation (RDE) with reduced mass as the substitution of original electron mass is stressed. The theoretical basis of RDE lies on two symmetries, the invariance under the space-time inversion and that under the pure space inversion. Based on RDE and within the framework of quantum electrodynamics in covariant form, the Lamb shift can be evaluated (at one-loop level) as the radiative correction on a bound electron staying in an off-mass-shell state--a new approach eliminating the infrared divergence. Hence the whole calculation, though with limited accuracy, is simplified, getting rid of all divergences and free of ambiguity.
Zahn, Jochen
2015-01-01
In the framework of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in external potentials, we introduce a method to compute the time-dependence of the expectation value of the current density for time-dependent homogeneous external electric fields. We apply it to the so-called Sauter pulse. For late times, our results agree with the asymptotic value due to electron-positron pair production. For sub-critical peak field strengths, or results agree very well with the general expression derived by Serber for the linearization in the external field. In particular, the expectation value of the current density at intermediate times can be much greater than at asymptotic times. We comment on consequences of these findings for recent proposals to test the Schwinger effect with high intensity lasers using processes at intermediate times.
Dudley, J. M.; Kwan, A. M.
1996-06-01
The subject of quantum electrodynamics (QED) was the subject of QED—The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, the popular book by Richard Feynman which was published by Princeton University Press in 1985. On p. 1, Feynman makes passing reference to the fact that the book is based on a series of general lectures on QED which were, however, first delivered in New Zealand. At Auckland University, these lectures were delivered in 1979, as the Sir Douglas Robb lectures, and videotapes of the lectures are held by the Auckland University Physics Department. We have carried out a detailed examination of these videotapes, and we discuss here the major differences between the original Auckland lectures and the published version. We use selected quotations from the lectures to show that the original lectures provide additional insight into Feynman's character, and have great educational value.
Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Tachibana, Akitomo
2014-01-01
We discuss a method to follow step-by-step time evolution of atomic and molecular systems based on QED (Quantum Electrodynamics). Our strategy includes expanding the electron field operator by localized wavepackets to define creation and annihilation operators and following the time evolution using the equations of motion of the field operator in the Heisenberg picture. We first derive a time evolution equation for the excitation operator, the product of two creation or annihilation operators, which is necessary for constructing operators of physical quantities such as the electronic charge density operator. We then describe our approximation methods to obtain time differential equations of the electronic density matrix, which is defined as the expectation value of the excitation operator. By solving the equations numerically, we show "electron-positron oscillations", the fluctuations originated from virtual electron-positron pair creations and annihilations, appear in the charge density of a hydrogen atom an...
Reduced Dirac equation and Lamb shift as off-mass-shell effect in quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ni Guang-Jiong; Xu Jian-Jun; Lou Sea-Yue
2011-01-01
Based on the accurate experimental data of energy-level differences in hydrogen-like atoms, especially the 1S-2S transitions of hydrogen and deuterium, the necessity of introducing a reduced Dirac equation with reduced mass as the substitution of original electron mass is stressed. Based on new cognition about the essence of special relativity, we provide a reasonable argument for the reduced Dirac equation to have two symmetries, the invariance under the (newly defined) space-time inversion and that under the pure space inversion, in a noninertial frame. By using the reduced Dirac equation and within the framework of quantum electrodynamics in covariant form, the Lamb shift can be evaluated (at one-loop level) as the radiative correction on a bound electron staying in an off-mass-shell state-a new approach eliminating the infrared divergence. Hence the whole calculation, though with limited accuracy, is simplified, getting rid of all divergences and free of ambiguity.
On How the Scalar Propagator Transforms Covariantly in Spinless Quantum Electrodynamics
Sánchez, Yajaira Concha; Villanueva-Sandoval, Victor M; Raya, Alfredo
2013-01-01
Gauge covariance properties of the scalar propagator in spinless/scalar quantum electrodynamics (SQED) are explored in the light of the corresponding Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformation (LKFT). These transformations are non perturbative in nature and describe how each Green function of the gauge theory changes under a variation of the gauge parameter. With a simple strategy, considering the scalar propagator at the tree level in Landau gauge, we derive a non perturbative expression for this propagator in an arbitrary covariant gauge and three as well as four space-time dimensions. Some relevant kinematical limits are discussed. Particularly, we compare our findings in the weak coupling regime with the direct one-loop calculation of the said propagator and observe perfect agreement up to an expected gauge independent term. We further notice that some of the coefficients of the all-order expansion for the propagator are fixed directly from the LKFT, a fact that makes this set of transformations appealing ...
Ding, Xiaobin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Dong, Chenzhong
2017-03-01
The electron correlation effects and Breit interaction as well as Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) effects were expected to have important contribution to the energy level and transition properties of heavy highly charged ions. The ground states [Ne]3 s 23 p 63 d 2 and first excited states [Ne]3 s 23 p 53 d 3 of W54+ ion have been studied by using Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock method with the implementation of Grasp2K package. A restricted active space method was employed to investigate the correlation contribution from different models. The Breit interaction and QED effects were taken into account in the relativistic configuration interaction calculation with the converged wavefunction. It is found that the correlation contribution from 3 s and 3 p orbital have important contribution to the energy level, transition wavelength and probability of the ground and the first excited state of W54+ ion.
Teleportation of two-atom entangled state in resonant cavity quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Zhen-Biao
2007-01-01
An alternative scheme is presented for teleportation of a two-atom entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is based on the resonant atom-cavity field interaction. In the scheme, only one cavity is involved, and the number of the atoms needed to be detected is decreased compared with the previous scheme. Since the resonant atom-cavity field interaction greatly reduces the interaction time, the decoherence effect can be effectively suppressed during the teleportation process. The experimental feasibility of the scheme is discussed. The scheme can easily be generalized to the teleportation of N-atom Greeninger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states. The number of atoms needed to be detected does not increase as the number of the atoms in the GHZ state increases.
Many-body quantum electrodynamics networks: Non-equilibrium condensed matter physics with light
Le Hur, Karyn; Henriet, Loïc; Petrescu, Alexandru; Plekhanov, Kirill; Roux, Guillaume; Schiró, Marco
2016-10-01
We review recent developments regarding the quantum dynamics and many-body physics with light, in superconducting circuits and Josephson analogues, by analogy with atomic physics. We start with quantum impurity models addressing dissipative and driven systems. Both theorists and experimentalists are making efforts towards the characterization of these non-equilibrium quantum systems. We show how Josephson junction systems can implement the equivalent of the Kondo effect with microwave photons. The Kondo effect can be characterized by a renormalized light frequency and a peak in the Rayleigh elastic transmission of a photon. We also address the physics of hybrid systems comprising mesoscopic quantum dot devices coupled with an electromagnetic resonator. Then, we discuss extensions to Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) Networks allowing one to engineer the Jaynes-Cummings lattice and Rabi lattice models through the presence of superconducting qubits in the cavities. This opens the door to novel many-body physics with light out of equilibrium, in relation with the Mott-superfluid transition observed with ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices. Then, we summarize recent theoretical predictions for realizing topological phases with light. Synthetic gauge fields and spin-orbit couplings have been successfully implemented in quantum materials and with ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices - using time-dependent Floquet perturbations periodic in time, for example - as well as in photonic lattice systems. Finally, we discuss the Josephson effect related to Bose-Hubbard models in ladder and two-dimensional geometries, producing phase coherence and Meissner currents. The Bose-Hubbard model is related to the Jaynes-Cummings lattice model in the large detuning limit between light and matter (the superconducting qubits). In the presence of synthetic gauge fields, we show that Meissner currents subsist in an insulating Mott phase. xml:lang="fr"
Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel
2012-08-21
We develop an approach for dynamical (ω > 0) embedding of mixed quantum mechanical (QM)/classical (or more precisely QM/electrodynamics) systems with a quantum sub-region, described by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), within a classical sub-region, modeled here by the recently proposed near-field (NF) method. Both sub-systems are propagated simultaneously and are coupled through a common Coulomb potential. As a first step we implement the method to study the plasmonic response of a metal film which is half jellium-like QM and half classical. The resulting response is in good agreement with both full-scale TDDFT and the purely classical NF method. The embedding method is able to describe the optical response of the whole system while capturing quantum mechanical effects, so it is a promising approach for studying electrodynamics in hybrid molecules-metals nanostructures.
Eremeev, Vitalie; Ciobanu, Nellu; Orszag, Miguel
2014-05-01
We investigate thermal effects on sudden changes and freezing of the quantum and classical correlations of remote qubits in a cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) network with losses. We find that the detrimental effect of thermal reservoirs on the freezing of correlations can be compensated via an efficient coupling of the fiber connecting the two cavities of the system. Furthermore, for certain initial conditions, we find a double sudden transition in the dynamics of Bures geometrical quantum discord. The second transition tends to disappear at a critical temperature, hence freezing the discord. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of the experimental realization of the present proposal.
Weeraddana, Dilusha; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Andrews, David L.
2016-08-01
A fundamental theory is developed for describing laser-driven resonance energy transfer (RET) in dimensionally constrained nanostructures within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. The process of RET communicates electronic excitation between suitably disposed emitter and detector particles in close proximity, activated by the initial excitation of the emitter. Here, we demonstrate that the transfer rate can be significantly increased by propagation of an auxiliary laser beam through a pair of nanostructure particles. This is due to the higher order perturbative contribution to the Förster-type RET, in which laser field is applied to stimulate the energy transfer process. We construct a detailed picture of how excitation energy transfer is affected by an off-resonant radiation field, which includes the derivation of second and fourth order quantum amplitudes. The analysis delivers detailed results for the dependence of the transfer rates on orientational, distance, and laser intensity factor, providing a comprehensive fundamental understanding of laser-driven RET in nanostructures. The results of the derivations demonstrate that the geometry of the system exercises considerable control over the laser-assisted RET mechanism. Thus, under favorable conformational conditions and relative spacing of donor-acceptor nanostructures, the effect of the auxiliary laser beam is shown to produce up to 70% enhancement in the energy migration rate. This degree of control allows optical switching applications to be identified.
Quantum Zeno Effect in the Strong Measurement Regime of Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
2016-05-17
we report the direct observation of theQZE in a superconducting qubit undergoing continuous strongmeasurement with simultaneous qubit driving...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 053031 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/5/053031 PAPER Quantum Zeno effect in the strongmeasurement regime of circuit quantum...of quantum jumps between states for a qubit beingmeasured continuously at rate Gm is the same as that for a qubit undergoing discretemeasurements at
Causal signal transmission by quantum fields. V: Quantum electrodynamics in response representation
Plimak, L I
2011-01-01
Using electromagnetic interaction as an example, response transformations [L.P. and S.S., Ann.Phys. 323, 1963, 1989 (2008), 324, 600 (2009)] are applied to the standard perturbative approach of quantum field theory. This approach is rewritten in the form where the place of field propagators is taken by the retarded Green function of the field. Unlike in conventional quantum-field-theoretical techniques, the concept of space-time propagation of quantized field is built into our techniques.
Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilya D. Feranchuk
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron and it allows one to solve the following problems: i to express the ''primary'' charge $e_0$ and the mass $m_0$ of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of $e$ and $m$ of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii to consider $mu$-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio $m_mu/m$; iii to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass $m$; iv to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge $e ll 1$ corresponds to the strong coupling expansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge $e^{-1}_0 sim e$ when the interaction between the ''physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.
Sarabi, B; Ramanayaka, A N; Burin, A L; Wellstood, F C; Osborn, K D
2016-04-22
Material-based two-level systems (TLSs), appearing as defects in low-temperature devices including superconducting qubits and photon detectors, are difficult to characterize. In this study we apply a uniform dc electric field across a film to tune the energies of TLSs within. The film is embedded in a superconducting resonator such that it forms a circuit quantum electrodynamical system. The energy of individual TLSs is observed as a function of the known tuning field. By studying TLSs for which we can determine the tunneling energy, the actual p_{z}, dipole moments projected along the uniform field direction, are individually obtained. A distribution is created with 60 p_{z}. We describe the distribution using a model with two dipole moment magnitudes, and a fit yields the corresponding values p=p_{1}=2.8±0.2 D and p=p_{2}=8.3±0.4 D. For a strong-coupled TLS the vacuum-Rabi splitting can be obtained with p_{z} and tunneling energy. This allows a measurement of the circuit's zero-point electric-field fluctuations, in a method that does not need the electric-field volume.
Gauged Nambu-Jona Lasinio Studies of the Triviality of Quantum Electrodynamics
Kim, S; Lombardo, M P; Kogut, John B.; Lombardo, Maria-Paola
2002-01-01
By adding a small, irrelevant four fermi interaction to the action of noncompact lattice Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), the theory can be simulated with massless quarks in a vacuum free of lattice monopoles. The lattice theory possesses a second order chiral phase transition which we show is logarithmically trivial, with the same systematics as the Nambu-Jona Lasinio model. The irrelevance of the four fermi coupling is established numerically. The widths of the scaling windows are examined in both the coupling constant and bare fermion mass directions in parameter space. For vanishing fermion mass we find a broad scaling window in coupling. By adding a small bare fermion mass to the action we find that the width of the scaling window in the fermion mass direction is very narrow. Only when a subdominant scaling term is added to the leading term of the equation of state are adequate fits to the data possible. The failure of past studies of lattice QED to produce equation of state fits with adequate confidence l...
Brilliant petawatt gamma-ray pulse generation in quantum electrodynamic laser-plasma interaction
Chang, H. X.; Qiao, B.; Huang, T. W.; Xu, Z.; Zhou, C. T.; Gu, Y. Q.; Yan, X. Q.; Zepf, M.; He, X. T.
2017-03-01
We show a new resonance acceleration scheme for generating ultradense relativistic electron bunches in helical motions and hence emitting brilliant vortical γ-ray pulses in the quantum electrodynamic (QED) regime of circularly-polarized (CP) laser-plasma interactions. Here the combined effects of the radiation reaction recoil force and the self-generated magnetic fields result in not only trapping of a great amount of electrons in laser-produced plasma channel, but also significant broadening of the resonance bandwidth between laser frequency and that of electron betatron oscillation in the channel, which eventually leads to formation of the ultradense electron bunch under resonant helical motion in CP laser fields. Three-dimensional PIC simulations show that a brilliant γ-ray pulse with unprecedented power of 6.7 PW and peak brightness of 1025 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% BW (at 15 MeV) is emitted at laser intensity of 1.9 × 1023 W/cm2.
Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Lodahl, Peter
2013-01-01
We present detuning-dependent spectral and decay-rate measurements to study the difference between the spectral and dynamical properties of single quantum dots embedded in micropillar and photonic crystal cavities. For the micropillar cavity, the dynamics is well described by the dissipative Jaynes......–Cummings model, whereas systematic deviations are observed for the emission spectra. The discrepancy for the spectra is attributed to the coupling of other exciton lines to the cavity and interference of different propagation paths toward the detector of the fields emitted by the quantum dot. In contrast......, quantitative information about the system can readily be extracted from the dynamical measurements. In the case of photonic crystal cavities, we observe an anti-crossing in the spectra when detuning a single quantum dot through resonance, which is the spectral signature of a strong coupling. However, time...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Reitzenstein, S.;
2010-01-01
The coupling between a quantum dot (QD) and a micropillar cavity is experimentally investigated by performing time-resolved, correlation, and two-photon interference measurements. The Jaynes-Cummings model including dissipative Lindblad terms and dephasing is analyzed, and all the parameters...... for the model are experimentally determined allowing for a complete comparison between experiment and theory....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Reitzenstein, S.
2010-01-01
The coupling between a quantum dot (QD) and a micropillar cavity is experimentally investigated by performing time-resolved, correlation, and two-photon interference measurements. The Jaynes-Cummings model including dissipative Lindblad terms and dephasing is analyzed, and all the parameters...
Circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture for gate-defined quantum dots in silicon
Mi, X.; Cady, J. V.; Zajac, D. M.; Stehlik, J.; Edge, L. F.; Petta, J. R.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate a hybrid device architecture where the charge states in a double quantum dot (DQD) formed in a Si/SiGe heterostructure are read out using an on-chip superconducting microwave cavity. A quality factor Q = 5400 is achieved by selectively etching away regions of the quantum well and by reducing photon losses through low-pass filtering of the gate bias lines. Homodyne measurements of the cavity transmission reveal DQD charge stability diagrams and a charge-cavity coupling rate gc/2 π= 23 MHz. These measurements indicate that electrons trapped in a Si DQD can be effectively coupled to microwave photons, potentially enabling coherent electron-photon interactions in silicon.
Bloch-wave engineering of quantum dot-micropillars for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments
Lermer, Matthias; Dunzer, Florian; Reitzenstein, Stephan; Höfling, Sven; Mørk, Jesper; Worschech, Lukas; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred
2011-01-01
We have employed Bloch-wave engineering to realize submicron diameter ultra-high quality factor GaAs/AlAs micropillars (MPs). The design features a tapered cavity in which the fundamental Bloch mode is subject to an adiabatic transition to match the Bragg mirror Bloch mode. The resulting reduced scattering loss leads to record-high visibility of the strong coupling in MPs with modest oscillator strength quantum dots. A quality factor of 13,600 and a Rabi splitting of 85 \\mueV with an estimated visibility v of 0.38 are observed for a small mode volume MP with a diameter dc of 850 nm.
Space-time evolution of ultrarelativistic quantum dipoles in quantum electrodynamics
Blok, B.
2004-09-01
We discuss space-time evolution of ultrarelativistic quantum dipole in QED. We show that the space-time evolution can be described, in a certain approximation, by means of a regularized wave function, whose parameters are determined by the process of the dipole creation by a local current. Using these wave functions, we derive the dipole expansion law that is found to coincide parametrically in the leading order with the one suggested by G. R. Farrar et al. (G. R. Farrar, H. Liu, L. Frankfurt and M. Strikman, Phys. Rev. Lett, Vol.61, p.686, 1988).
Schuster, D I; Fragner, A; Dykman, M I; Lyon, S A; Schoelkopf, R J
2010-07-23
We propose a hybrid architecture in which an on-chip high finesse superconducting cavity is coupled to the lateral motion and spin state of a single electron trapped on the surface of superfluid helium. We estimate the motional coherence times to exceed 15 μs, while energy will be coherently exchanged with the cavity photons in less than 10 ns for charge states and faster than 1 μs for spin states, making the system attractive for quantum information processing and strong coupling cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The cavity is used for nondestructive readout and as a quantum bus mediating interactions between distant electrons or an electron and a superconducting qubit.
Heusler, Stefan
2006-12-01
The main focus of the second, enlarged edition of the book Mathematica for Theoretical Physics is on computational examples using the computer program Mathematica in various areas in physics. It is a notebook rather than a textbook. Indeed, the book is just a printout of the Mathematica notebooks included on the CD. The second edition is divided into two volumes, the first covering classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, the second dealing with examples in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, general relativity and fractal geometry. The second volume is not suited for newcomers because basic and simple physical ideas which lead to complex formulas are not explained in detail. Instead, the computer technology makes it possible to write down and manipulate formulas of practically any length. For researchers with experience in computing, the book contains a lot of interesting and non-trivial examples. Most of the examples discussed are standard textbook problems, but the power of Mathematica opens the path to more sophisticated solutions. For example, the exact solution for the perihelion shift of Mercury within general relativity is worked out in detail using elliptic functions. The virial equation of state for molecules' interaction with Lennard-Jones-like potentials is discussed, including both classical and quantum corrections to the second virial coefficient. Interestingly, closed solutions become available using sophisticated computing methods within Mathematica. In my opinion, the textbook should not show formulas in detail which cover three or more pages—these technical data should just be contained on the CD. Instead, the textbook should focus on more detailed explanation of the physical concepts behind the technicalities. The discussion of the virial equation would benefit much from replacing 15 pages of Mathematica output with 15 pages of further explanation and motivation. In this combination, the power of computing merged with physical intuition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tosi, Guilherme, E-mail: g.tosi@unsw.edu.au; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Morello, Andrea, E-mail: a.morello@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW Australia, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia. (Australia); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, D-80799 Munich, Germany. (Germany)
2014-08-15
Recent advances in silicon nanofabrication have allowed the manipulation of spin qubits that are extremely isolated from noise sources, being therefore the semiconductor equivalent of single atoms in vacuum. We investigate the possibility of directly coupling an electron spin qubit to a superconducting resonator magnetic vacuum field. By using resonators modified to increase the vacuum magnetic field at the qubit location, and isotopically purified {sup 28}Si substrates, it is possible to achieve coupling rates faster than the single spin dephasing. This opens up new avenues for circuit-quantum electrodynamics with spins, and provides a pathway for dispersive read-out of spin qubits via superconducting resonators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radozycki, Tomasz [Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)
2015-09-15
The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a 'meson') this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles ('quarks'), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radożycki, Tomasz, E-mail: t.radozycki@uksw.edu.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, Wóycickiego 1/3, 01-938, Warsaw (Poland)
2015-09-24
The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a ‘meson’) this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles (‘quarks’), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties.
Voisin, G.; Bonazzola, S.; Mottez, F.
2016-12-01
Curvature radiation is a key phenomenon in pulsar and magnetar magnetospheres. It is classically conceptually very close to synchrotron radiation, however we will show that in ultra-relativistic very-high-magnetic-field environments, the same approximations that lead to its use are also leading quickly to a potential quantized regime where the classical theory may fail. We explain in some details these caveats and give an outline of a quantum-electrodynamics treatment. We show that the internal consistency of the theory of curvature radiation is improved, and some interesting effects due to spin-flip transitions may occur.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guilherme Tosi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in silicon nanofabrication have allowed the manipulation of spin qubits that are extremely isolated from noise sources, being therefore the semiconductor equivalent of single atoms in vacuum. We investigate the possibility of directly coupling an electron spin qubit to a superconducting resonator magnetic vacuum field. By using resonators modified to increase the vacuum magnetic field at the qubit location, and isotopically purified 28Si substrates, it is possible to achieve coupling rates faster than the single spin dephasing. This opens up new avenues for circuit-quantum electrodynamics with spins, and provides a pathway for dispersive read-out of spin qubits via superconducting resonators.
Mross, David F; Alicea, Jason; Motrunich, Olexei I
2016-07-01
We explicitly derive the duality between a free electronic Dirac cone and quantum electrodynamics in (2+1) dimensions (QED_{3}) with N=1 fermion flavors. The duality proceeds via an exact, nonlocal mapping from electrons to dual fermions with long-range interactions encoded by an emergent gauge field. This mapping allows us to construct parent Hamiltonians for exotic topological-insulator surface phases, derive the particle-hole-symmetric field theory of a half-filled Landau level, and nontrivially constrain QED_{3} scaling dimensions. We similarly establish duality between bosonic topological insulator surfaces and N=2 QED_{3}.
Bloch-wave engineering of quantum dot micropillars for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.
Lermer, M; Gregersen, N; Dunzer, F; Reitzenstein, S; Höfling, S; Mørk, J; Worschech, L; Kamp, M; Forchel, A
2012-02-01
We have employed Bloch-wave engineering to realize submicron diameter high quality factor GaAs/AlAs micropillars (MPs). The design features a tapered cavity in which the fundamental Bloch mode is subject to an adiabatic transition to match the Bragg mirror Bloch mode. The resulting reduced scattering loss leads to record-high vacuum Rabi splitting of the strong coupling in MPs with modest oscillator strength quantum dots. A quality factor of 13, 600 and a splitting of 85 μeV with an estimated visibility v of 0.41 are observed for a small mode volume MP with a diameter d{c} of 850 nm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rueda, A.
1986-11-11
Further discussions and detailed calculations on the problem of the spontaneous acceleration of free electromagnetically interacting particles by the zero-point field in the light of a quantum version of the Einstein-Hopf model are presented. It is shown that acceleration occurs if the zero-point field is represented in a time-symmetric fashion within the viewpoint of the Wheeler-Feynman radiant-absorber theory. However, if the zero-point field is represented in the time-asymmetric form, the quantum Einstein-Hopf model yields no translational kinetic-energy growth in disagreement with the previous prediction and with the result of the classical version of the zero-point field in stochastic electrodynamics. The calculations are clear and compelling. Despite that the last no-acceleration result is germane to phenomenological thermodynamics expectations and to a more consistent perspective of quantum theory, the second quantization that leads to the time-symmetric zero-point field yields a conceptually more satisfactory view of this background field which is no longer a free virtual field but becomes a real field which is originated in and is associated with particles. The discussion is based on the different boundary conditions for the electromagnetic-field tensor that the zero-point field (asymmetric vs. symmetric) requires in quantum and in classical theory: time symmetry presupposes a universe that is opaque. If this condition does not hold, we are forced to ordinary time asymmetry and, if a correspondence with quantum electrodynamics is desired, some modification of the hypothesis of stochastic electrodynamics would be required to prevent acceleration. The possible form of that modification is suggested.
Kotikov, A V
2013-01-01
We compute the two-loop fermion self-energy in massless reduced quantum electrodynamics for an arbitrary gauge using the method of integration by parts. Focusing on the limit where the photon field is four-dimensional, our formula involves only recursively one-loop integrals and can therefore be evaluated exactly. From this formula, we deduce the anomalous scaling dimension of the fermion field as well as the renormalized fermion propagator up to two loops. The results are then applied to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene and compared with similar results obtained for four-dimensional and three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics.
Quantum electrodynamics and the electron self-energy in a deformed space with a minimal length scale
Silva, Apollo V; Neves, M J
2016-01-01
The main motivation to study models in the presence of a minimal length is to obtain a quantum field theory free of the divergences. In this way, in this paper, we have constructed a new framework for quantum electrodynamics embedded in a minimal length scale background. New operators are introduced and the Green function method was used for the solution of the field equations, i.e., the Maxwell, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We have analyzed specifically the scalar field and its one loop propagator. The mass of the scalar field regularized by the minimal length was obtained. The QED Lagrangian containing a minimal length was also constructed and the divergences were analyzed. The electron and photon propagators, and the electron self-energy at one loop as a function of the minimal length was also obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinmetz, Tilo
2008-04-29
In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to {approx}37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g{sub 0}=2{pi}.300 MHz respectively C{sub 0}=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached. [German] In der vorliegenden Dissertation werden Experimente zur Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip beschrieben. Dabei konnte u. a. erstmals einzelne, in einer Chipfalle gefangene Atome detektiert werden. Hier fuer wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ein neuartiger optischer Mikroresonator entwickelt, der sich dank seiner Miniaturisierung mit der in unserer Arbeitsgruppe
Yoshihara, F.; Fuse, T.; Ashhab, S.; Kakuyanagi, K.; Saito, S.; Semba, K.
2017-05-01
We report on spectra of circuit-quantum-electrodynamics (QED) systems in an intermediate regime that lies between the ultrastrong- and the deep-strong-coupling regimes, which have been reported previously in the literature. Our experimental results, along with numerical simulations, demonstrate that as the coupling strength increases, the spectrum of a circuit-QED system undergoes multiple qualitative transformations, such that several coupling regimes are identified, each with its own unique spectral features. The different spectral transformations can be related to crossings between energy level differences and to changes in the symmetries of the energy eigenstates. These results allow us to use qualitative spectral features to infer certain properties and parameters of the system.
Electrodynamics and quantum capacity: The case of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Craco, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá, MT (Brazil)
2015-11-14
Layered Bi-chalcogenide topological insulators are among the most available energy conversion (thermoelectric) and storage (battery) materials. Motivated by this applied aspect of fundamental importance and the good agreement between theory and key experiments probing spectroscopy and dc transport, we undertake a detailed study of electrodynamic responses of bulk Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator. In particular, we confirm that the interplay between spin-orbit and electron correlations underpins its bulk metallicity. We show the implications of our proposal for the multi-channel nature of galvanostatic, voltage-capacity profiles intrinsic to Li{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} battery material. Supported by a microscopic description of quantum capacity, we predict that layered Bi-based topological insulators are promising candidates for future high-voltage solid-state batteries.
Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel
2015-12-15
The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account.
Reinisch, Gilbert C.; Gazeau, Maxime
2016-07-01
In this paper we consider a basic two-level nonlinear quantum model consisting in a two-particle interacting bound-state system. It is described by means of two different approaches: i) the mean-field stationary nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equation with classical Coulomb interaction and harmonic potential; ii) the linear quantum electrodynamics Hamiltonian of a quantized field coupled to two fixed charges. Computing numerically the ground state and the first excited state about the maximum eigenstate overlap (which is not zero because of eigenstate non-orthogonality), we numerically demonstrate that these two descriptions coincide at first order. As a consequence, a specific definition of the fine-structure constant α is provided within 99.95% accuracy by the present first-order non-relativistic and nonlinear quantum description. This result also means that the internal Coulomb interaction commutes with external particle confinement for the calculation of the ground state. Consequently peculiar nonlinear quantum properties become observable (an experiment with GaAs quantum-dot helium is suggested).
Mullin, Jonathan; Valley, Nicholas; Blaber, Martin G; Schatz, George C
2012-09-27
Multiscale models that combine quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamics are presented, which allow for the evaluation of surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) and hyper-Raman scattering spectra (SEHRS) for both chemical (CHEM) and electrodynamic (EM) enhancement mechanisms. In these models, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for a system consisting of the adsorbed molecule and a metal cluster fragment of the metal particle is coupled to Mie theory for the metal particle, with the surface of the cluster being overlaid with the surface of the metal particle. In model A, the electromagnetic enhancement from plasmon-excitation of the metal particle is combined with the chemical enhancement associated with a static treatment of the molecule-metal structure to determine overall spectra. In model B, the frequency dependence of the Raman spectrum of the isolated molecule is combined with the enhancements determined in model A to refine the enhancement estimate. An equivalent theory at the level of model A is developed for hyper-Raman spectra calculations. Application to pyridine interacting with a 20 nm diameter silver sphere is presented, including comparisons with an earlier model (denoted G), which combines plasmon enhanced fields with gas-phase Raman (or hyper-Raman) spectra. The EM enhancement factor for spherical particles at 357 nm is found to be 10(4) and 10(6) for SERS and SEHRS, respectively. Including both chemical and electromagnetic mechanisms at the level of model A leads to enhancements on the order of 10(4) and 10(9) for SERS and SEHRS.
Many-Body Quantum Electrodynamics Networks: Non-Equilibrium Condensed Matter Physics with Light
Hur, Karyn Le; Henriet, Loïc; Petrescu, Alexandru; Plekhanov, Kirill; Roux, Guillaume; Schiró, Marco
2015-01-01
We review recent developments concerning non-equilibrium quantum dynamics and many-body physics with light, in superconducting circuits and Josephson analogues. We start with quantum impurity models summarizing the effect of dissipation and of driving the system. We mention theoretical and experimental efforts to characterize these non-equilibrium quantum systems. We show how Josephson junction systems can implement the equivalent of the Kondo effect with microwave photons. The Kondo effect i...
Cavity quantum electrodynamics on a nanofiber using a composite photonic crystal cavity.
Yalla, Ramachandrarao; Sadgrove, Mark; Nayak, Kali P; Hakuta, Kohzo
2014-10-01
We demonstrate cavity QED conditions in the Purcell regime for single quantum emitters on the surface of an optical nanofiber. The cavity is formed by combining an optical nanofiber and a nanofabricated grating to create a composite photonic crystal cavity. By using this technique, significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate into the nanofiber guided modes is observed for single quantum dots. Our results pave the way for enhanced on-fiber light-matter interfaces with clear applications to quantum networks.
Francis, C
2006-01-01
A Relational Quantum Theory Incorporating Gravity developed the concept of quantum covariance and argued that this is the correct expression of the fundamental physical principle that the behaviour of matter is everywhere the same in the quantum domain, as well as being the required condition for the unification of general relativity with quantum mechanics for non-interacting particles. This paper considers the interactions of elementary particles. Quantum covariance describes families of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces with an inbuilt cut-off in energy-momentum and using flat space metric (quantum coordinates) between initial and final states. It is shown by direct construction that it is possible to construct a quantum field theory of operators on members of these families, obeying locality, suitable for a description of particle interactions, and leading to a general formulation of particle theoretic field theory incorporating qed. The construction is consistent and effectively identical in the continuum...
Environment-Assisted Speed-up of the Field Evolution in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.
Cimmarusti, A D; Yan, Z; Patterson, B D; Corcos, L P; Orozco, L A; Deffner, S
2015-06-12
We measure the quantum speed of the state evolution of the field in a weakly driven optical cavity QED system. To this end, the mode of the electromagnetic field is considered as a quantum system of interest with a preferential coupling to a tunable environment: the atoms. By controlling the environment, i.e., changing the number of atoms coupled to the optical cavity mode, an environment-assisted speed-up is realized: the quantum speed of the state repopulation in the optical cavity increases with the coupling strength between the optical cavity mode and this non-Markovian environment (the number of atoms).
Efficient transfer of an arbitrary qutrit state in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Liu, Tong; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Cao, Xiao-Zhi; Su, Qi-Ping; Yang, Chui-Ping
2015-12-01
Compared with a qubit, a qutrit (i.e., three-level quantum system) has a larger Hilbert space and thus can be used to encode more information in quantum information processing and communication. Here, we propose a method to transfer an arbitrary quantum state between two flux qutrits coupled to two resonators. This scheme is simple because it only requires two basic operations. The state-transfer operation can be performed fast because only resonant interactions are used. Numerical simulations show that the high-fidelity transfer of quantum states between the two qutrits is feasible with current circuit-QED technology. This scheme is quite general and can be applied to accomplish the same task for other solid-state qutrits coupled to resonators.
Wundt, B J; 10.1103/PhysRevA.80.022505
2009-01-01
We calculate the relativistic corrections of relative order (Z alpha)^2$ to the two-photon decay rate of higher excited S and D states in ionic atomic systems, and we also evaluate the leading radiative corrections of relative order alpha (Z alpha)^2 ln[(Z alpha)^(-2)]. We thus complete the theory of the two-photon decay rates up to relative order alpha^3 ln(alpha). An approach inspired by nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics is used. We find that the corrections of relative order (Z alpha)^2 to the two-photon decay are given by the zitterbewegung, the spin-orbit coupling and by relativistic corrections to the electron mass, and by quadrupole interactions. We show that all corrections are separately gauge-invariant with respect to a "hybrid" transformation from velocity to length gauge, where the gauge transformation of the wave function is neglected. The corrections are evaluated for the two-photon decay from 2S, 3S, 3D, and 4S states in one-electron (hydrogenlike) systems, with 1S and 2S final states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarabi, B.; Ramanayaka, A. N. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Burin, A. L. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Wellstood, F. C. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Osborn, K. D. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2015-04-27
Random tunneling two-level systems (TLSs) in dielectrics have been of interest recently because they adversely affect the performance of superconducting qubits. The coupling of TLSs to qubits has allowed individual TLS characterization, which has previously been limited to TLSs within (thin) Josephson tunneling barriers made from aluminum oxide. Here, we report on the measurement of an individual TLS within the capacitor of a lumped-element LC microwave resonator, which forms a cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) system and allows for individual TLS characterization in a different structure and material than demonstrated with qubits. Due to the reduced volume of the dielectric (80 μm{sup 3}), even with a moderate dielectric thickness (250 nm), we achieve the strong coupling regime as evidenced by the vacuum Rabi splitting observed in the cavity spectrum. A TLS with a coherence time of 3.2 μs was observed in a film of silicon nitride as analyzed with a Jaynes-Cummings spectral model, which is larger than seen from superconducting qubits. As the drive power is increased, we observe an unusual but explicable set of continuous and discrete crossovers from the vacuum Rabi split transitions to the Glauber (coherent) state.
Sarabi, B.; Ramanayaka, A. N.; Burin, A. L.; Wellstood, F. C.; Osborn, K. D.
2015-04-01
Random tunneling two-level systems (TLSs) in dielectrics have been of interest recently because they adversely affect the performance of superconducting qubits. The coupling of TLSs to qubits has allowed individual TLS characterization, which has previously been limited to TLSs within (thin) Josephson tunneling barriers made from aluminum oxide. Here, we report on the measurement of an individual TLS within the capacitor of a lumped-element LC microwave resonator, which forms a cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) system and allows for individual TLS characterization in a different structure and material than demonstrated with qubits. Due to the reduced volume of the dielectric (80 μm3), even with a moderate dielectric thickness (250 nm), we achieve the strong coupling regime as evidenced by the vacuum Rabi splitting observed in the cavity spectrum. A TLS with a coherence time of 3.2 μs was observed in a film of silicon nitride as analyzed with a Jaynes-Cummings spectral model, which is larger than seen from superconducting qubits. As the drive power is increased, we observe an unusual but explicable set of continuous and discrete crossovers from the vacuum Rabi split transitions to the Glauber (coherent) state.
Cross-Kerr-effect induced by coupled Josephson qubits in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu Yong; Ge Guoqin; Chen Shi; Yang Xiaofei; Chen Youling [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2011-07-15
We propose a scheme for implementing cross-Kerr nonlinearity between two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs) via their interactions with a coupler constructed by two superconducting transmon qubits connected to each other through a superconducting quantum interference device. When suitably driven, the coupler can induce very strong cross phase modulation (XPM) between the two TLRs due to its N-type level structure and the consequent electromagnetically induced transparency in its lowest states. The flexibility of our design can lead to various inter-TLR coupling configurations. The obtained cross-Kerr coefficient is large enough to allow many important quantum operations in which only few photons are involved. We further show that this scheme is very robust against fluctuations in solid-state quantum circuits. Our numerical calculations imply that the absorption and the dispersion of the TLRs resulting from the decoherence of the coupler are very small compared with the proposed XPM strength.
Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bronn, Nicholas T., E-mail: ntbronn@us.ibm.com; Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2015-10-26
The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.
On Real and Virtual Photons in the Davies Theory of Time-Symmetric Quantum Electrodynamics
Kastner, R. E.
2013-01-01
This paper explores the distinction between virtual and real photons in the context of the Davies quantum relativistic extension of the Wheeler-Feynman classical electromagnetic theory. An alternative way of understanding this distinction is proposed, based on the transactional model.
Nonlinear optical effects and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in cavity quantum electrodynamics
Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, Steven J.
Pure quantum interference among single photons is one of the key ingredients to perform linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) [C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, (18), 2044-2046 (1987)] i.e. complete destructive interference between two identical and indistinguishable photons simultaneously entering input ports of a 50/50 beam splitter, is a well-known example in this context. In this talk, I'll present our theoretical study of HOMI in a coupled Jaynes-Cummings array. In particular and by applying quantum jump/trajectory formalism, I'll focus on how partial quantum interference between two photons survive both non-linearities produced by two-level emitter and spectral filtering due to optical cavities in our coupled cavity array setup [Imran M. Mirza and Steven J. van Enk, Opt. Comm. 343, 172-177 (2015)]. Along with LOQC, this work is crucial from the perspective of exploiting coupled cavity arrays to store single photons reliably (without altering their temporal and spectral traits) [Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk and Jeff Kimble, JOSA B, 10, 2640-2649, (2013)].
Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran
2016-06-01
We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas.
Smolka, Stephan; Wuester, Wolf; Haupt, Florian; Faelt, Stefan; Wegscheider, Werner; Imamoglu, Ataç
2014-10-17
Light-matter interaction has played a central role in understanding as well as engineering new states of matter. Reversible coupling of excitons and photons enabled groundbreaking results in condensation and superfluidity of nonequilibrium quasiparticles with a photonic component. We investigated such cavity-polaritons in the presence of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas, exhibiting strongly correlated phases. When the cavity was on resonance with the Fermi level, we observed previously unknown many-body physics associated with a dynamical hole-scattering potential. In finite magnetic fields, polaritons show distinct signatures of integer and fractional quantum Hall ground states. Our results lay the groundwork for probing nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum Hall states and exploiting the electron density dependence of polariton splitting so as to obtain ultrastrong optical nonlinearities.
Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran
2016-06-01
We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.
On Real and Virtual Photons in the Davies Theory of Time-Symmetric Quantum Electrodynamics
Kastner, R E
2013-01-01
This paper explores the distinction between virtual and real photons in the context of the Davies quantum relativistic extension of the Wheeler-Feynman classical electromagnetic theory. An alternative way of understanding this distinction is proposed, based on the transactional picture as first proposed by Cramer. It is noted that this proposed account of the relationship between virtual and real photons might have empirically detectable consequences.
BRST Quantisation of Histories Electrodynamics
Noltingk, D.
2001-01-01
This paper is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the the history fields have \\emph{five} components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this paper we quantise the classical theory developed previously by two methods. Firstly we quantise the reduced classical history space, to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Secondly we qu...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horton-Smith, G.A.
1998-07-01
An experiment is described which studied quantum electrodynamic interactions under conditions of extremely high fields, along with a review of the relevant theory. The high fields were created by an intense, tightly-focused pulse of laser light at green or infrared wavelengths, into which was sent an ultra-relativistic electron beam of 46.6-GeV energy. The relevant theory is that of an electron in an electromagnetic wave so intense that the electron's mass is effectively shifted by the transverse momentum imparted to it by the wave, and the electron encounters field strengths comparable to the Schwinger critical field strength of 511 kV per Compton wavelength. An electron in the intense wave may radiate a photon and balance 4-momentum by absorbing multiple photons from the laser, which can lead to real photons with energies above the kinematic limit for conventional Compton scattering. All particles have significant probability of scattering multiple times while in the focus of the laser, including the photons radiated by the electrons, which may convert into electron-positron pairs, again with absorption of multiple photons from the laser. This experiment was able to measure the rates and spectra of positrons, electrons, and photons emerging from the interaction region. Results from both experiment and theoretical simulations are presented and compared. The results from the electron and positron measurements are compatible with the accepted theory, within experimental uncertainties due mainly to the laser intensity measurement. The photon spectrum shows the correct shape, but the ratio of rates in the linear and two-absorbed-photon portions of the spectrum does not vary as expected with the laser intensity, suggesting a disagreement with the accepted theory, with a significance of roughly two standard deviations. A follow-up experiment would be in order.
Local effects of the quantum vacuum in Lorentz-violating electrodynamics
Martín-Ruiz, A
2016-01-01
The Casimir effect is one of the most remarkable consequences of the non-zero vacuum energy predicted by quantum field theory. In this paper we use a local approach to study the Lorentz violation effects of the minimal standard model extension on the Casimir force between two parallel conducting plates in the vacuum. Using a perturbative method similar to that used for obtaining the Born series for the scattering amplitudes in quantum mechanics, we compute, at leading order in the Lorentz-violating coefficients, the relevant Green's function which satisfies given boundary conditions. The standard point-splitting technique allow us to express the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor in terms of the Green's function. We discuss its structure in the region between the plates. We compute the renormalized vacuum stress, which is obtained as the difference between the vacuum stress in the presence of the plates and that of the vacuum. The Casimir force is evaluated in an analytical fashion by two me...
Local effects of the quantum vacuum in Lorentz-violating electrodynamics
Martín-Ruiz, A.; Escobar, C. A.
2017-02-01
The Casimir effect is one of the most remarkable consequences of the nonzero vacuum energy predicted by quantum field theory. In this paper we use a local approach to study the Lorentz violation effects of the minimal standard model extension on the Casimir force between two parallel conducting plates in the vacuum. Using a perturbative method similar to that used for obtaining the Born series for the scattering amplitudes in quantum mechanics, we compute, at leading order in the Lorentz-violating coefficients, the relevant Green's function which satisfies given boundary conditions. The standard point-splitting technique allow us to express the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor in terms of the Green's function. We discuss its structure in the region between the plates. We compute the renormalized vacuum stress, which is obtained as the difference between the vacuum stress in the presence of the plates and that of the vacuum. The Casimir force is evaluated in an analytical fashion by two methods: by differentiating the renormalized global energy density and by computing the normal-normal component of the renormalized vacuum stress. We compute the local Casimir energy, which is found to diverge as approaching the plates, and we demonstrate that it does not contribute to the observable force.
Realizing and characterizing chiral photon flow in a circuit quantum electrodynamics necklace
Wang, Yan-Pu; Wang, Wei; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Yang, Wan-Li; Hu, Yong; Wu, Ying
2015-02-01
Gauge theory plays the central role in modern physics. Here we propose a scheme of implementing artificial Abelian gauge fields via the parametric conversion method in a necklace of superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs) coupled by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The motivation is to synthesize an extremely strong effective magnetic field for charge-neutral bosons which can hardly be achieved in conventional solid-state systems. The dynamic modulations of the SQUIDs can induce effective magnetic fields for the microwave photons in the TLR necklace through the generation of the nontrivial hopping phases of the photon hopping between neighboring TLRs. To demonstrate the synthetic magnetic field, we study the realization and detection of the chiral photon flow dynamics in this architecture under the influence of decoherence. Taking the advantages of its simplicity and flexibility, this parametric scheme is feasible with state-of-the-art technology and may pave an alternative way for investigating the gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits. We further propose a quantitative measure for the chiral property of the photon flow. Beyond the level of qualitative description, the dependence of the chiral flow on external pumping parameters and cavity decay is characterized.
Realizing and characterizing chiral photon flow in a circuit quantum electrodynamics necklace.
Wang, Yan-Pu; Wang, Wei; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Yang, Wan-Li; Hu, Yong; Wu, Ying
2015-02-10
Gauge theory plays the central role in modern physics. Here we propose a scheme of implementing artificial Abelian gauge fields via the parametric conversion method in a necklace of superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs) coupled by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The motivation is to synthesize an extremely strong effective magnetic field for charge-neutral bosons which can hardly be achieved in conventional solid-state systems. The dynamic modulations of the SQUIDs can induce effective magnetic fields for the microwave photons in the TLR necklace through the generation of the nontrivial hopping phases of the photon hopping between neighboring TLRs. To demonstrate the synthetic magnetic field, we study the realization and detection of the chiral photon flow dynamics in this architecture under the influence of decoherence. Taking the advantages of its simplicity and flexibility, this parametric scheme is feasible with state-of-the-art technology and may pave an alternative way for investigating the gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits. We further propose a quantitative measure for the chiral property of the photon flow. Beyond the level of qualitative description, the dependence of the chiral flow on external pumping parameters and cavity decay is characterized.
Schneeweiss, Philipp; Hoinkes, Thomas; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Volz, Jürgen
2016-01-01
We experimentally realize an optical fiber ring resonator that includes a tapered section with subwavelength-diameter waist. In this section, the guided light exhibits a significant evanescent field which allows for efficient interfacing with optical emitters. A commercial tunable fiber beam splitter provides simple and robust coupling to the resonator. Key parameters of the resonator such as its out-coupling rate, free spectral range, and birefringence can be adjusted. Thanks to the low taper- and coupling-losses, the resonator exhibits an unloaded finesse of F=75+/-1, sufficient for reaching the regime of strong coupling for emitters placed in the evanescent field. The system is ideally suited for trapping ensembles of laser-cooled atoms along the nanofiber section. Based on measured parameters, we estimate that the system can serve as a platform for optical multimode strong coupling experiments. Finally, we discuss the possibilities of using the resonator for applications based on chiral quantum optics.
Waveguide quantum electrodynamics - nonlinear physics at the few-photon level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneider, Michael; Sproll, Tobias; Martens, Christoph [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2A, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schmitteckert, Peter [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Busch, Kurt [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2A, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Theoretische Optik und Photonik, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)
2014-07-01
The transport of few photons in 1D structures coupled to a fermionic impurity gives rise to a set of non-linear effects, induced by an effective interaction due to Pauli blocking such as photon bunching and the formation of atom-photon bound states. We analyze a specific example of such systems, namely a 1-D waveguide coupled to a 2-level system, for the case of one and two-photon transport. Therefore we have developed a general theoretical framework, which contains analytic approaches originating in methods of quantum field theory, like path integrals and Feynman diagrams as well as powerful numerical tools based on solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Owing its generality, our approach is also applicable to more involved setups, including disorder and dissipation as well as more complicated impurities such as driven and undriven 3-level systems.
Two-photon gateway in one-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Kubanek, A; Ourjoumtsev, A; Schuster, I; Koch, M; Pinkse, P W H; Murr, K; Rempe, G
2008-11-14
Single atoms absorb and emit light from a resonant laser beam photon by photon. We show that a single atom strongly coupled to an optical cavity can absorb and emit resonant photons in pairs. The effect is observed in a photon correlation experiment on the light transmitted through the cavity. We find that the atom-cavity system transforms a random stream of input photons into a correlated stream of output photons, thereby acting as a two-photon gateway. The phenomenon has its origin in the quantum anharmonicity of the energy structure of the atom-cavity system. Future applications could include the controlled interaction of two photons by means of one atom.
Electrodynamic absorber theory
Deckert, Dirk-André
2010-01-01
This work deals with questions that arise in classical and quantum electrodynamics when describing the phenomena of radiation reaction and pair creation. The two guiding ideas are the absorber idea of Wheeler and Feynman (i.e. all emitted radiation will be again be absorbed by matter) and the electron sea idea of Dirac. In the first part classical dynamics are studied which allow for a description of radiation reaction without the need of renormalization. The starting point are the couple...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, J H [Departement de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire, Universite de Geneve, 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2006-12-15
It is demonstrated how all the mechanical equations of classical electromagnetism (CEM) may be derived from only Coulomb's inverse square force law, special relativity and Hamilton's principle. The instantaneous nature of the Coulomb force in the centre-of-mass frame of two interacting charged objects, mediated by the exchange of space-like virtual photons, is predicted by quantum electrodynamics (QED). The interaction Lagrangian of QED is shown to be identical, in the appropriate limit, to the potential energy term in the Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian of CEM. A comparison is made with the Feynman-Wheeler action-at-a-distance formulation of CEM.
On a modified electrodynamics.
Reiss, H R
2012-09-01
A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S. H. Kim
2006-01-01
We calculate the scattering cross section of an electron with respect to the spontaneously produced laser radiation in the first free-electron laser (FEL) with quantum-wiggler electrodynamics (QWD). The cross section is 1016 times the Thomson cross section, confirming the result obtained by a previous analysis of the experimental data. A QWD calculation show that spontaneous emission in an FEL using only an electric wiggler can be very strong while amplification through net stimulated emission is practically negligible.
Farzanehpour, Mehdi; Tokatly, Ilya; Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group; ETSF Scientific Development Centre Team
2015-03-01
We present a rigorous formulation of the time-dependent density functional theory for interacting lattice electrons strongly coupled to cavity photons. We start with an example of one particle on a Hubbard dimer coupled to a single photonic mode, which is equivalent to the single mode spin-boson model or the quantum Rabi model. For this system we prove that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic density and the expectation value of the photonic coordinate, provided the initial state and the density satisfy a set of well defined conditions. Then we generalize the formalism to many interacting electrons on a lattice coupled to multiple photonic modes and prove the general mapping theorem. We also show that for a system evolving from the ground state of a lattice Hamiltonian any density with a continuous second time derivative is locally v-representable. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Grant No. FIS2013-46159-C3-1-P), Grupos Consolidados UPV/EHU del Gobierno Vasco (Grant No. IT578-13), COST Actions CM1204 (XLIC) and MP1306 (EUSpec).
Chulhai, Dhabih V; Jensen, Lasse
2014-10-01
Raman optical activity has proven to be a powerful tool for probing the geometry of small organic and biomolecules. It has therefore been expected that the same mechanisms responsible for surface-enhanced Raman scattering may allow for similar enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA). However, SEROA has proved to be an experimental challenge and mirror-image SEROA spectra of enantiomers have so far not been measured. There exists a handful of theories to simulate SEROA, all of which treat the perturbed molecule as a point-dipole object. To go beyond these approximations, we present two new methods to simulate SEROA: the first is a dressed-tensors model that treats the molecule as a point-dipole and point-quadrupole object; the second method is the discrete interaction model/quantum mechanical (DIM/QM) model, which considers the entire charge density of the molecule. We show that although the first method is acceptable for small molecules, it fails for a medium-sized one such as 2-bromohexahelicene. We also show that the SEROA mode intensities and signs are highly sensitive to the nature of the local electric field and gradient, the orientation of the molecule, and the surface plasmon frequency width. Our findings give some insight into why experimental SEROA, and in particular observing mirror-image SEROA for enantiomers, has been difficult.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brenner, G.
2007-07-17
High-precision lifetime measurements of the metastable 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} level in boronlike Ar XIV and the 3s{sup 2}2p {sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} level in aluminumlike Fe XIV were performed at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap (HD-EBIT). The lifetimes were inferred by monitoring their optical decay curves resulting from the magnetic dipole (M1) transition 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2}-{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2} and 3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2}-{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2} to the ground state configuration with transition wavelengths of 441.256 nm and 530.29 nm, respectively. Possible systematic error sources were investigated by studying the dependence of the decay times of the curves on various trapping conditions with high statistical significance. A new trapping scheme for lifetime measurements at an EBIT has been applied and allowed to reach an unprecedented precision in the realm of lifetime determinations on highly charged ions. The results of 9.573(4)({sup +12}{sub -5}) ms (stat)(syst) for Ar XIV and 16.726(10)(+17) ms (stat)(syst) for Fe XIV with a relative accuracy of 0.14% and 0.13%, respectively, make these measurements for the first time sensitive to quantum electrodynamic effects like the electron anomalous magnetic moment (EAMM). The results, improving the accuracy of previous measurements by factors of 10 and 6, respectively, show a clear discrepancy of about 3{sigma} and 4{sigma} to the trend of existing theoretical models, which in almost all cases predict a shorter lifetime, when adjusted for the EAMM. The obvious disagreement between experimental results and the predictions points at the incompleteness of the theoretical models used. (orig.)
Cencek, Wojciech; Przybytek, Michał; Komasa, Jacek; Mehl, James B; Jeziorski, Bogumił; Szalewicz, Krzysztof
2012-06-14
The adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamics (QED) contributions to the pair potential of helium were computed, fitted separately, and applied, together with the nonrelativistic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potential, in calculations of thermophysical properties of helium and of the properties of the helium dimer. An analysis of the convergence patterns of the calculations with increasing basis set sizes allowed us to estimate the uncertainties of the total interaction energy to be below 50 ppm for interatomic separations R smaller than 4 bohrs and for the distance R = 5.6 bohrs. For other separations, the relative uncertainties are up to an order of magnitude larger (and obviously still larger near R = 4.8 bohrs where the potential crosses zero) and are dominated by the uncertainties of the nonrelativistic BO component. These estimates also include the contributions from the neglected relativistic and QED terms proportional to the fourth and higher powers of the fine-structure constant α. To obtain such high accuracy, it was necessary to employ explicitly correlated Gaussian expansions containing up to 2400 terms for smaller R (all R in the case of a QED component) and optimized orbital bases up to the cardinal number X = 7 for larger R. Near-exact asymptotic constants were used to describe the large-R behavior of all components. The fitted potential, exhibiting the minimum of -10.996 ± 0.004 K at R = 5.608 0 ± 0.000 1 bohr, was used to determine properties of the very weakly bound (4)He(2) dimer and thermophysical properties of gaseous helium. It is shown that the Casimir-Polder retardation effect, increasing the dimer size by about 2 Å relative to the nonrelativistic BO value, is almost completely accounted for by the inclusion of the Breit-interaction and the Araki-Sucher contributions to the potential, of the order α(2) and α(3), respectively. The remaining retardation effect, of the order of α(4) and higher, is practically negligible for the bound
Nahri, Davoud G.; Mathkoor, Faisal H. A.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond
2017-02-01
A dissipative quantum dot (QD)-cavity system, where the QD is initially prepared in the excited state with no photon in the cavity, coupled to a longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon reservoir is studied using a numerically exact real-time path-integral approach. Three distinct dynamical regimes of weak (WC), strong (SC), and coherent coupling (CC) are discussed and more accurate conditions identifying them are presented. Our results show that to have the CC regime, which is characterized by clear vacuum Rabi oscillation (VRO), vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS) should be larger than the sum of the widths of the corresponding peaks. In order to distinguish between contributions of population decay and impure dephasing, induced by LA phonon bath and the dissipations, we propose a two-part phenomenological expression, corresponding to the population decay and impure dephasing, which fits the QD-cavity decay curves perfectly and is used to calculate the corresponding spectra. We demonstrate that the effective population decay rate (the emission rate) increases from the carrier recombination rate to a maximum value, which is the mean of the QD and cavity dissipation rates, with QD-cavity coupling strength. To study the role of the effective impure dephasing rate on the width of the central peak of the spectra we introduce a quantity that can also be applied in determining the distinct coupling regimes. This quantity enables us to identify the onset of the SC regime as the point where the impure dephasing term begins to contribute to the central band of the spectrum significantly, as a result of the existence of VRO with a very small frequency (unclear VRO) at the corresponding decay curve. Its contribution to the width of the central peak increases with the coupling strength up to the onset of the CC regime, then reduces as a result of the appearance of sidebands in the spectra, which originates from clear VRO. The effective population decay and impure dephasing rate contribute
Zangwill, Andrew
2013-01-01
An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...
Semi-classical Electrodynamics
Lestone, John
2016-03-01
Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. We describe semi-classical approaches that can be used to obtain a more intuitive physical feel for several QED processes including electro-statics, Compton scattering, pair annihilation, the anomalous magnetic moment, and the Lamb shift, that could be taught easily to undergraduate students. Any physicist who brings their laptop to the talk will be able to build spread sheets in less than 10 minutes to calculate g/2 =1.001160 and a Lamb shift of 1057 MHz.
Lazur, V. Yu.; Myhalyna, S. I.; Reity, O. K.
The problem of interaction of two quasimolecular electrons located at an arbitrary distance from each other and near different atoms (nuclei) is solved. The interaction is considered as a second-order effect of quantum electrodynamics in the coordinate representation. It is shown that a consistent account for the natural condition of the interaction symmetry with respect to both electrons leads to an additional contribution to the relativistic interaction of the two quasimolecular electrons compared with both the standard Breit operator and the generalized Breit operator known previously. The generalized Breit-Pauli operator and the operator of electric dipole-dipole interaction of two quasimolecular electrons located at an arbitrary distance from each other are obtained. Modern methods of accounting for the relativistic and correlative effects in the problem of ion-atom interactions are discussed.
Bubin, Sergiy; Komasa, Jacek; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2010-03-01
We present very accurate quantum mechanical calculations of the three lowest S-states [1s22s2(S10), 1s22p2(S10), and 1s22s3s(S10)] of the two stable isotopes of the boron ion, B10+ and B11+. At the nonrelativistic level the calculations have been performed with the Hamiltonian that explicitly includes the finite mass of the nucleus as it was obtained by a rigorous separation of the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory frame Hamiltonian. The spatial part of the nonrelativistic wave function for each state was expanded in terms of 10 000 all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. The nonlinear parameters of the Gaussians were variationally optimized using a procedure involving the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to the nonlinear parameters. The nonrelativistic wave functions of the three states were subsequently used to calculate the leading α2 relativistic corrections (α is the fine structure constant; α =1/c, where c is the speed of light) and the α3 quantum electrodynamics (QED) correction. We also estimated the α4 QED correction by calculating its dominant component. A comparison of the experimental transition frequencies with the frequencies obtained based on the energies calculated in this work shows an excellent agreement. The discrepancy is smaller than 0.4 cm-1.
Bubin, Sergiy; Komasa, Jacek; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2010-03-21
We present very accurate quantum mechanical calculations of the three lowest S-states [1s(2)2s(2)((1)S(0)), 1s(2)2p(2)((1)S(0)), and 1s(2)2s3s((1)S(0))] of the two stable isotopes of the boron ion, (10)B(+) and (11)B(+). At the nonrelativistic level the calculations have been performed with the Hamiltonian that explicitly includes the finite mass of the nucleus as it was obtained by a rigorous separation of the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory frame Hamiltonian. The spatial part of the nonrelativistic wave function for each state was expanded in terms of 10,000 all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. The nonlinear parameters of the Gaussians were variationally optimized using a procedure involving the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to the nonlinear parameters. The nonrelativistic wave functions of the three states were subsequently used to calculate the leading alpha(2) relativistic corrections (alpha is the fine structure constant; alpha=1/c, where c is the speed of light) and the alpha(3) quantum electrodynamics (QED) correction. We also estimated the alpha(4) QED correction by calculating its dominant component. A comparison of the experimental transition frequencies with the frequencies obtained based on the energies calculated in this work shows an excellent agreement. The discrepancy is smaller than 0.4 cm(-1).
Boi, Luciano
2011-01-01
A vacuum, classically understood, contains nothing. The quantum vacuum, on the other hand, is a seething cauldron of nothingness: particle pairs going in and out of existence continuously and rapidly while exerting influence over an enormous range of scales. Acclaimed mathematical physicist and natural philosopher Luciano Boi expounds the quantum vacuum, exploring the meaning of nothingness and its relationship with physical reality. Boi first provides a deep analysis of the interaction between geometry and physics at the quantum level. He next describes the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic structures of the world. In so doing, Boi sheds light on the very nature of the universe, stressing in an original and profound way the relationship between quantum geometry and the internal symmetries underlying the behavior of matter and the interactions of forces. Beyond the physics and mathematics of the quantum vacuum, Boi offers a profoundly philosophical interpretation of the concept. Plato and...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Wen-Xing; ZHAN Zhi-Ming; LI Jia-Hua
2004-01-01
@@ We propose a simple method to generate a practical SU(2)-Schrodinger-cat state of a single trapped-ion vibration mode and the light field state, using the method based on a quantum system, which is composed of the onedimensional trapped-ion motion and a single cavity field mode. Moreover, the method proposed can be used for the generation two-mode maximal quantum entangled state. The detection of such a state is also briefly discussed.
Hu, Zixuan; Ratner, Mark A; Seideman, Tamar
2014-12-14
We develop a numerical approach for simulating light-induced charge transport dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal conductance junction. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the plasmonic response of the metal structures. The Huygens subgridding technique, as adapted to Lorentz media, is used to bridge the vastly disparate length scales of the plasmonic metal electrodes and the molecular system, maintaining accuracy. The charge and current densities calculated with classical electrodynamics are transformed to an electronic wavefunction, which is then propagated through the molecular linker via the Heisenberg equations of motion. We focus mainly on development of the theory and exemplify our approach by a numerical illustration of a simple system consisting of two silver cylinders bridged by a three-site molecular linker. The electronic subsystem exhibits fascinating light driven dynamics, wherein the charge density oscillates at the driving optical frequency, exhibiting also the natural system timescales, and a resonance phenomenon leads to strong conductance enhancement.
Mullin, Jonathan; Schatz, George C
2012-03-01
A multiscale method is presented that allows for evaluation of plasmon-enhanced optical properties of nanoparticle/molecule complexes with no additional cost compared to standard electrodynamics (ED) and linear response quantum mechanics (QM) calculations for the particle and molecule, respectively, but with polarization and orientation effects automatically described. The approach first calculates the total field of the nanoparticle by ED using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The field intensity in the frequency domain as a function of distance from the nanoparticle is calculated via a Fourier transform. The molecular optical properties are then calculated with QM in the frequency domain in the presence of the total field of the nanoparticle. Back-coupling due to dipolar reradiation effects is included in the single-molecule plane wave approximation. The effects of polarization and partial orientation averaging are considered. The QM/ED method is evaluated for the well-characterized test case of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of pyridine bound to silver, as well as for the resonant Raman chromophore rhodamine 6G. The electromagnetic contribution to the enhancement factor is 10(4) for pyridine and 10(2) for rhodamine 6G. © 2012 American Chemical Society
Nanocatalysts by Quantum Electrodynamics Induced Electromagnetic Radiation%量子电动学诱导电磁辐射研究纳米催化剂
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Thomas V. PREVENSLIK
2008-01-01
Gold has been regarded as a poor heterogeneous catalyst because it is generally considered a nonreactive metal. But as nanocatalysts, gold and other metals somehow significantly enhance reactivity. It is generally thought chemical bonds of reactants are weakened by adsorption to nanocatalysts thereby allowing reactions to proceed more rapidly, but how this reaction proceeds to completion is not well understood. Here gold nanocatalysts are treated as unsupported nanoparticles (NPs) in a solution of reactant molecules from which extensions are made to gold NPs supported on titanium dioxide. Whether the NPs are supported or unsupported, enhanced catalytic reactivity depends on absorbed thermal kT (k is Boltzmann′s constant and T is absolute temperature) energy accumulated from prior collisions of reactant molecules. The accumulated kT energy is treated as electromagnetic thereby allowing frequency up-conversion by quantum electrodynamics (QED) to the confinement frequency of the NP, typically beyond the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). By this theory, the chemical reaction of reactant molecules having bonds weakened by adsorption is completed by QED induced VUV photolysis.
Chantler, C T; Kinnane, M N; Gillaspy, J D; Hudson, L T; Payne, A T; Smale, L F; Henins, A; Pomeroy, J M; Tan, J N; Kimpton, J A; Takacs, E; Makonyi, K
2012-10-12
We report a new test of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for the w (1s2p(1)P(1)→1s(2)(1)S(0)) x-ray resonance line transition energy in heliumlike titanium. This measurement is one of few sensitive to two-electron QED contributions. Systematic errors such as Doppler shifts are minimized in our experiment by trapping and stripping Ti atoms in an electron beam ion trap and by applying absolute wavelength standards to calibrate the dispersion function of a curved-crystal spectrometer. We also report a more general systematic discrepancy between QED theory and experiment for the w transition energy in heliumlike ions for Z>20. When all of the data available in the literature for Z=16-92 are taken into account, the divergence is seen to grow as approximately Z(3) with a statistical significance on the coefficient that rises to the level of 5 standard deviations. Our result for titanium alone, 4749.85(7) eV for the w line, deviates from the most recent ab initio prediction by 3 times our experimental uncertainty and by more than 10 times the currently estimated uncertainty in the theoretical prediction.
Dual Quantum Electrodynamics Dyon-Dyon and Charge-Monopole Scattering in a High-Energy Approximation
Gamberg, L P; Gamberg, Leonard; Milton, Kimball A.
2000-01-01
We develop the quantum field theory of electron-point magnetic monopole interactions and more generally, dyon-dyon interactions, based on the original string-dependent ``nonlocal'' action of Dirac and Schwinger. We demonstrate that a viable nonperturbative quantum field theoretic formulation can be constructed that results in a string {\\em independent} cross section for monopole-electron and dyon-dyon scattering. Such calculations can be done only by using nonperturbative approximations such as the eikonal and not by some mutilation of lowest-order perturbation theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey N. Andrianov
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Creation of quantum computer is outstanding fundamental and practical problem. The quantum computer could be used for execution of very complicated tasks which are not solvable with the classical computers. The first prototype of solid state quantum computer was created in 2009 with superconducting qubits. However, it suffers from the decoherent processes and it is desirable to find more practical encoding of qubits with long-lived coherence. It could be single impurity or vacancy centers in solids, but their interaction with electromagnetic radiation is rather weak. So, here, ensembles of atoms were proposed for the qubit encoding by using the dipole blockade mechanism in order to turn multilevel systems in two level ones. But dipole-dipole based blockade introduces an additional decoherence that limits its practical significance. Recently, the collective blockade mechanism has been proposed for the system of three-level atoms by using the different frequency shifts for the Raman transitions between the collective atomic states characterized by a different number of the excited atoms. Here, we propose two qubit gate by using another collective blockade mechanism in the system of two level atoms based on exchange interaction via the virtual photons between the multi-atomic ensembles in the resonator. Also we demonstrate the possibility of three qubit gate (Controlled SWAP gate using a suppression of the swap-process between two multi-atomic ensembles due to dynamical shift of the atomic levels controlled by the states of photon encoded qubit.
Low-energy electrodynamics of novel spin excitations in the quantum spin ice Yb₂Ti₂O₇.
Pan, LiDong; Kim, Se Kwon; Ghosh, A; Morris, Christopher M; Ross, Kate A; Kermarrec, Edwin; Gaulin, Bruce D; Koohpayeh, S M; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Armitage, N P
2014-09-18
In condensed matter systems, formation of long-range order (LRO) is often accompanied by new excitations. However, in many geometrically frustrated magnetic systems, conventional LRO is suppressed, while non-trivial spin correlations are still observed. A natural question to ask is then what is the nature of the excitations in this highly correlated state without broken symmetry? Frequently, applying a symmetry breaking field stabilizes excitations whose properties reflect certain aspects of the anomalous state without LRO. Here we report a THz spectroscopy study of novel excitations in quantum spin ice Yb2Ti2O7 under a directed magnetic field. At large positive fields, both right- and left-handed magnon and two-magnon-like excitations are observed. The g-factors of these excitations are dramatically enhanced in the low-field limit, showing a crossover of these states into features consistent with the quantum string-like excitations proposed to exist in quantum spin ice in small fields.
Srinivasan, S J; Hoffman, A J; Gambetta, J M; Houck, A A
2011-02-25
We introduce a new type of superconducting charge qubit that has a V-shaped energy spectrum and uses quantum interference to provide independently tunable qubit energy and coherent coupling to a superconducting cavity. Dynamic access to the strong coupling regime is demonstrated by tuning the coupling strength from less than 200 kHz to greater than 40 MHz. This tunable coupling can be used to protect the qubit from cavity-induced relaxation and avoid unwanted qubit-qubit interactions in a multiqubit system.
Grange, T.; Somaschi, N.; Antón, C.; De Santis, L.; Coppola, G.; Giesz, V.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Auffèves, A.; Senellart, P.
2017-06-01
Solid-state emitters are excellent candidates for developing integrated sources of single photons. Yet, phonons degrade the photon indistinguishability both through pure dephasing of the zero-phonon line and through phonon-assisted emission. Here, we study theoretically and experimentally the indistinguishability of photons emitted by a semiconductor quantum dot in a microcavity as a function of temperature. We show that a large coupling to a high quality factor cavity can simultaneously reduce the effect of both phonon-induced sources of decoherence. It first limits the effect of pure dephasing on the zero-phonon line with indistinguishabilities above 97% up to 18 K. Moreover, it efficiently redirects the phonon sidebands into the zero-phonon line and brings the indistinguishability of the full emission spectrum from 87% (24%) without cavity effect to more than 99% (76%) at 0K (20K). We provide guidelines for optimal cavity designs that further minimize the phonon-induced decoherence.
von Klitzing, W; Long, R; Ilchenko, V S; Hare, J; Lefèvre-Seguin, V
2001-02-01
We have tuned the whispering-gallery modes of a fused-silica microresonator over nearly 1 nm at 800 nm, i.e., over half a free spectral range, or 10(6) linewidths of the resonator. This result has been achieved by use of a new method based on the stretching of a two-stem microsphere. We describe devices that will permit new cavity QED experiments with this high- Q optical resonator when it is desirable to optimize its coupling to emitters with given transition frequencies. The demonstrated tuning capability is compatible with both UHV and low-temperature operation, which should be useful for future experiments with laser-cooled atoms or single quantum dots.
Dastidar, K R; Dastidar, Krishna Rai
2002-01-01
In a recent work [Mod. Phys. Lett A13, p-1265 (1998)] we expounded a non-local Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) which predicted a linear two-photon absorption by an atom placed in a laser field of appropriate intensity and frequency. In this paper we extend our earlier work to show that the theory allows for linear 2n-photon absorption by gaseous matter where, under suitable conditions, n may literally run upto thousands. The consequences of this extension of the theory are outlined and predictions are made which may be verified in laboratories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fendel, P.
2005-06-01
An optical measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the 2s state in deuterium performed for the first time and the description of the arrangement for the measurement of the 1s-3s frequency in hydrogen by excitation with a frequency combexpect the reader of this thesis. Both experiments have the goal to test the bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED) with high precision. The measurement of the hyperfine splitting serves thereby for the improvement of the accuracy of the so called D{sub 21}=8E{sub HFS}(2s)-E{sub HFS}(1s) difference. Because D{sub 21} is far-reachingly independent on the nuclear structure in spite of not accurately known proton charge radii QED can be tested on a level of 10{sup -7}. In the framework of the thesis present here the error of this quantity was reduced by a factor of three. The result for the 2s hyperfine splitting is: f{sup D}{sub HFS}=40924454(7) Hz. By a new kind of the data acquisition furthermore many systematic errors, especially the nonlinear drift of the reference resonator, could be reduced in comparison to a similar measurement on hydrogen. The second part of the thesis describes the efforts which were and will be taken in order to test QED by means of their perdiction of the 1s Lamb shift. For this the frequency of the 1s-3s transition in hydrogen shall be measured absolutely for the first time. A further novum is that for this a frequency-quadrupled mode-coupled laser shall be come into operation. Especially the construction and the stabilization of a ps laser, the construction of two frequency-doubling stages, the arrangement for the measurement of the absolute frequency of the spectroscopy laser, the alteration of the existing 1s-2s vacuum system, and the development of the measurement software is described. Additionally in this thesis the theory of the two-photon frequency-comb spectroscopy is further developed. Concrete expressions for the expected line shape and the influence of the chirp on the excitation rate are
Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
RAJAGOPAL A K; GHOSE PARTHA
2016-06-01
Classical electrodynamics is reformulated in terms of wave functions in the classical phase space of electrodynamics, following the Koopman–von Neumann–Sudarshan prescription for classical mechanics on Hilbert spaces sans the superselection rule which prohibits interference effects in classical mechanics. This is accomplished by transforming from a set of commutingobservables in one Hilbert space to another set of commuting observables in a larger Hilbert space. This is necessary to clarify the theoretical basis of the much recent work on quantum-like features exhibited by classical optics. Furthermore, following Bondar et al, {\\it Phys. Rev.} A 88, 052108 (2013), it is pointed out that quantum processes that preserve the positivity or nonpositivity of theWigner function can be implemented by classical optics. This may be useful in interpreting quantum information processing in terms of classical optics.
Kumar, Vinay
2016-01-01
The present book entitled Concepts of Electrodynamics meets the demand of students of all engineering, graduate, honours and postgraduate courses in a single volume. This book covers all the topics on electrodynamics as per the new syllabus prescribed by UGC and AICTE and we do hope that this book will revive interest in the study of various topics on electrodynamics which will carries the reader to a high level of understanding. The text is enriched with a large number of solved examples apart from appropriate illustrations and examples in each chapter.
Foundations of electrodynamics
Moon, Parry
2013-01-01
Advanced undergraduate text presupposes some knowledge of electricity and magnetism, making substantial use of vector analysis. A serious development of electrodynamics on a postulational basis that clearly defines each concept. 1960 edition.
Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel
2013-05-14
We show how to obtain the correct electronic response of a large system by embedding; a small region is propagated by TDDFT (time-dependent density functional theory) simultaneously with a classical electrodynamics evolution using the Near-Field method over a larger external region. The propagations are coupled through a combined time-dependent density yielding a common Coulomb potential. We show that the embedding correctly describes the plasmonic response of a Mg(0001) slab and its influence on the dynamical charge transfer between an adsorbed H2O molecule and the substrate, giving the same spectral shape as full TDDFT (similar plasmon peak and molecular-dependent differential spectra) with much less computational effort. The results demonstrate that atomistic embedding electrodynamics is promising for nanoplasmonics and nanopolaritonics.
Radiative corrections in bumblebee electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.V. Maluf
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We investigate some quantum features of the bumblebee electrodynamics in flat spacetimes. The bumblebee field is a vector field that leads to a spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking. For a smooth quadratic potential, the massless excitation (Nambu–Goldstone boson can be identified as the photon, transversal to the vacuum expectation value of the bumblebee field. Besides, there is a massive excitation associated with the longitudinal mode and whose presence leads to instability in the spectrum of the theory. By using the principal-value prescription, we show that no one-loop radiative corrections to the mass term is generated. Moreover, the bumblebee self-energy is not transverse, showing that the propagation of the longitudinal mode cannot be excluded from the effective theory.
Electrodynamics with radiation reaction
Hammond, Richard T
2011-01-01
The self force of electrodynamics is derived from a scalar field. The resulting equation of motion is free of all of the problems that plague the Lorentz Abraham Dirac equation. The age-old problem of a particle in a constant field is solved and the solution has intuitive appeal.
Causality in Classical Electrodynamics
Savage, Craig
2012-01-01
Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…
Space-time orientations, electrodynamics, antiparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tulczyjew, W M [Associated with Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Napoli, Italy Complesso universitario Monte Sant' Angelo Via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)
2007-11-15
Two definitions of orientation in space-time are introduced. One is a standard definition found for examples presented elsewhere. The other is a new definition based on the Minkowski geometry of space-time. Parities of differential forms appearing in electrodynamics are analysed. Parities of differential forms based on the standard concept of orientation are those introduced by de Rham. Parities based on the relativistic concept of orientation are the intrinsic space-time version of parities normally assigned to electromagnetic objects in texts on electrodynamics. Such assignments are made by Jackson [5] and also by Landau and Lifshitz. We present two formulations of the dynamics of charged particles corresponding to the two assignments of parities to electromagnetic objects. One is due to Stueckelberg and Feynman. The other is an attempt to formulate a classical theory corresponding to Dirac's quantum interpretation of antiparticles following the publications listed.
Particles and Events in Classical Off-Shell Electrodynamics
Land, M C
1997-01-01
Despite the many successes of the relativistic quantum theory developed by Horwitz, et. al., certain difficulties persist in the associated covariant classical mechanics. In this paper, we explore these difficulties through an examination of the classical Coulomb problem in the framework of off-shell electrodynamics. As the local gauge theory of a covariant quantum mechanics with evolution parameter $\\tau$, off-shell electrodynamics constitutes a dynamical theory of spacetime events, interacting through five $\\tau$-dependent pre-Maxwell potentials. We present a straightforward solution of the classical equations of motion, which is seen to be unsatisfactory, and reveals the essential difficulties in the formalism at the classical level. We then offer a new model of the particle current -- as a certain distribution of the event currents on the worldline -- which eliminates these difficulties and permits comparison of classical off-shell electrodynamics with the standard Maxwell theory. In this model, the ``fix...
Electrodynamics an intensive course
Chaichian, Masud; Radu, Daniel; Tureanu, Anca
2016-01-01
This book is devoted to the fundamentals of classical electrodynamics, one of the most beautiful and productive theories in physics. A general survey on the applicability of physical theories shows that only few theories can be compared to electrodynamics. Essentially, all electric and electronic devices used around the world are based on the theory of electromagnetism. It was Maxwell who created, for the first time, a unified description of the electric and magnetic phenomena in his electromagnetic field theory. Remarkably, Maxwell’s theory contained in itself also the relativistic invariance of the special relativity, a fact which was discovered only a few decades later. The present book is an outcome of the authors’ teaching experience over many years in different countries and for different students studying diverse fields of physics. The book is intended for students at the level of undergraduate and graduate studies in physics, astronomy, engineering, applied mathematics and for researchers working ...
Introduction to Extended Electrodynamics
Donev, S
1997-01-01
This paper summarizes the motivations and results obtained so far in the frame of a particular non-linearization of Classical Electrodynamics, which was called Extended Electrodynamics. The main purpose pursued with this non-linear extension of the classical Maxwell's equations is to have a reliable field-theoretical approach in describing (3+1) soliton-like electromagnetic formations, in particular, to build an extended and finite field model of free photons and photon complexes. The first chapter gives a corresponding analysis of Maxwell theory and introduces the new equations. The second chapter gives a full account of the results, including the photon-like solutions, in the vacuum case. A new concept, called scale factor, is defined and successfully used. Two ways for describing the intrinsic angular momentum are given. Interference of two photon-like solutions is also considered. The third chapter considers interaction with external fields (continuous media) on the base of establishing correspondence bet...
Theoretical physics 3 electrodynamics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to electrodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series. The first part of the book describes the interaction of electric charges and magnetic moments by introducing electro- and magnetostatics. The second part of the book establishes deeper understanding of electrodynamics with the Maxwell equations, quasistationary fields and electromagnetic fields. All sections are accompanied by a detailed introduction to the math needed. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical and analytical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful Germa...
On generalized logarithmic electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruglov, S.I. [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Mississauga, ON (Canada)
2015-02-01
The generalized logarithmic electrodynamics with two parameters β and γ is considered. The indexes of refraction of light in the external magnetic field are calculated. In the case β = γ we come to results obtained by Gaete and Helayel-Neto (Eur Phys J C 74:2816, 2014). The bound on the values of β, γ was obtained from the Birefringence Magnetique du Vide (BMV) experiment. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. (orig.)
Electrodynamics of pulsar magnetospheres
Cerutti, Benoît
2016-01-01
We review electrodynamics of rotating magnetized neutron stars, from the early vacuum model to recent numerical experiments with plasma-filled magnetospheres. Significant progress became possible due to the development of global particle-in-cell simulations which capture particle acceleration, emission of high-energy photons, and electron-positron pair creation. The numerical experiments show from first principles how and where electric gaps form, and promise to explain the observed pulsar activity from radio waves to gamma-rays.
Electrodynamics of chiral matter
Qiu, Zebin; Cao, Gaoqing; Huang, Xu-Guang
2017-02-01
Many-body systems with chiral fermions can exhibit novel transport phenomena that violate parity and time-reversal symmetries, such as the chiral magnetic effect, the anomalous Hall effect, and the anomalous generation of charge. Based on the Maxwell-Chern-Simons electrodynamics, we examine some electromagnetic and optical properties of such systems including the electrostatics, the magnetostatics, the propagation of electromagnetic waves, the novel optical effects, etc.
Lectures on classical electrodynamics
Englert, Berthold-Georg
2014-01-01
These lecture notes cover classical electrodynamics at the level of advanced undergraduates or postgraduates. There is a strong emphasis on the general features of the electromagnetic field and, in particular, on the properties of electromagnetic radiation. It offers a comprehensive and detailed, as well as self-contained, account of material that can be covered in a one-semester course for students with a solid undergraduate knowledge of basic electricity and magnetism.
Extended symmetrical classical electrodynamics.
Fedorov, A V; Kalashnikov, E G
2008-03-01
In this paper, we discuss a modification of classical electrodynamics in which "ordinary" point charges are absent. The modified equations contain additional terms describing the induced charges and currents. The densities of the induced charges and currents depend on the vector k and the vectors of the electromagnetic field, E and B . It is shown that the vectors E and B can be defined in terms of two four-potentials and the components of k are the components of a four-tensor of the third rank. The Lagrangian of the modified electrodynamics is defined. The conditions are derived at which only one four-potential determines the behavior of the electromagnetic field. It is also shown that static modified electrodynamics can describe the electromagnetic field in the inner region of an electric monopole. In the outer region of the electric monopole the electric field is governed by the Maxwell equations. It follows from boundary conditions at the interface between the inner and outer regions of the monopole that the vector k has a discrete spectrum. The electric and magnetic fields, energy, and angular momentum of the monopole are found for different eigenvalues of k .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martino, Trassinelli
2005-12-15
The object of this thesis is to present a new measurement of the pion mass using pionic nitrogen X-ray spectroscopy and results on helium-like argon and sulphur spectroscopy. The new pion mass has been measured with an accuracy of 1.7 ppm, 30% better that the present world average value, and it is obtained from Bragg spectroscopy of 5 ->4 pionic nitrogen transitions using the theoretical predictions provided by quantum electrodynamics. We have got: m({pi}{sup -}) = (139.571042 {+-} 0.000210 {+-} 0.000110) where the first error is due to the statistics and the second is the systematic error. I present the calculation of the hyperfine structure and recoil corrections for pionic atoms using a new perturbation method for the Klein-Gordon equation. The spectrometer used for this measurement has been characterized with the relativistic M1 transitions from helium-like ions produced with a new device, the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Trap. High statistics spectra from these ions have enabled us to measure transition energies with an accuracy of some ppm which has allowed us to compare theoretical predictions with experiment data. X-ray emission from pionic atoms and multicharged ions can be used to define new types of X-ray standards for energies of a few keV.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵英燕; 高贵龙; 唐龙英; 姜年权
2014-01-01
We proposed a scheme in the paper to produce multi-qubit one-dimensional cluster state via coupling flux qubits to LC circuit in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) system .The LC circuit acted as a quantum data bus (QDB) .The multi-qubit one-dimensional cluster state was produced by choosing appropriate parameters for the time-dependent electromagnetic field (TDEF ) and adjusting the level spacing of the qubits .With the large detuning ,the interaction between the qubits and the QDB can be adjusted via the exchange of virtual rather than real photons .Moreover ,the experimental feasibility of the scheme was also shown .%在电路量子电动力学系统中，本文提出利用磁通比特和 LC 电路间的耦合来制备多比特的一维cluster态的方案。方案中，LC电路作为中间转化器，通过选择恰当电磁场的参数和调节比特间的能级间隔，使磁通比特间发生纠缠从而制备出多比特的一维cluster态。在大失谐的条件下，磁通比特和量子数据总线间的相互作用可通过调节虚光子来转化。此外，该方案的合理性也已在实验上得到了证明。
Wilson fermions and axion electrodynamics in optical lattices.
Bermudez, A; Mazza, L; Rizzi, M; Goldman, N; Lewenstein, M; Martin-Delgado, M A
2010-11-05
We show that ultracold Fermi gases in optical superlattices can be used as quantum simulators of relativistic lattice fermions in 3+1 dimensions. By exploiting laser-assisted tunneling, we find an analogue of the so-called naive Dirac fermions, and thus provide a realization of the fermion doubling problem. Moreover, we show how to implement Wilson fermions, and discuss how their mass can be inverted by tuning the laser intensities. In this regime, our atomic gas corresponds to a phase of matter where Maxwell electrodynamics is replaced by axion electrodynamics: a 3D topological insulator.
Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics and Penning traps
Ding, Yunhua
2016-01-01
The prospects are explored for testing Lorentz- and CPT-violating quantum electrodynamics in experiments with Penning traps. We present the Lagrange density of Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics with operators of mass dimensions up to six, and we discuss some of its properties. The theory is used to derive Lorentz- and CPT-violating perturbative shifts of the energy levels of a particle confined to a Penning trap. Observable signals are discussed for trapped electrons, positrons, protons, and antiprotons. Existing experimental measurements on anomaly frequencies are used to extract new or improved bounds on numerous coefficients for Lorentz and CPT violation, using sidereal variations of observables and comparisons between particles and antiparticles.
Nonlinear electrodynamics with birefringence
Kruglov, S I
2015-01-01
A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with three parameters is suggested. The phenomena of vacuum birefringence takes place when there is the external constant magnetic field. We calculate the indices of refraction for two polarizations of electromagnetic waves, parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic induction field. From the Bir\\'{e}fringence Magn\\'{e}tique du Vide (BMV) experiment one of the coefficients, $\\gamma\\approx 10^{-20}$ T$^{-2}$, was estimated. The canonical, symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensors and dilatation current were obtained. The dilatation symmetry and the dual symmetry are broken in the model considered.
Cosmology and action-at-a-distance electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoyle, F. [102 Admirals Walk, West Cliff Road, West Cliff, Bournemouth, Dorset BH25HF (United Kingdom); Narlikar, J.V. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkind, Pune 411007 (India)
1995-01-01
This article reviews the developments in the electrodynamics of direct interparticle action, emphasizing the achievements in quantum as well as classical electrodynamics. It is shown that the application of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of radiation places stringent requirements on the asymptotic future and past light cones of the universe. All Friedman cosmologies fail to meet these requirements, but the steady-state and the quasi-state-state models have the right kind of structure to make the theory work. Further, it is shown that the working theory is free from the problems of divergence that trouble the classical and quantum field theory. In particular, no renormalization is needed: The bare mass and bare charge of an electron are finite. A few ideas relating to the response of the universe to a local microscopic experiment are presented as well as on possible clues to the outstanding issues of foundations of quantum theory.
Cosmology and action-at-a-distance electrodynamics
Hoyle, F.; Narlikar, J. V.
1995-01-01
This article reviews the developments in the electrodynamics of direct interparticle action, emphasizing the achievements in quantum as well as classical electrodynamics. It is shown that the application of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of radiation places stringent requirements on the asymptotic future and past light cones of the universe. All Friedmann cosmologies fail to meet these requirements, but the steady-state and the quasi-steady-state models have the right kind of structure to make the theory work. Further, it is shown that the working theory is free from the problems of divergence that trouble the classical and quantum field theory. In particular, no renormalization is needed: The bare mass and bare charge of an electron are finite. A few ideas relating to the response of the universe to a local microscopic experiment are presented as well as on possible clues to the outstanding issues of foundations of quantum theory.
Slightly generalized Maxwell classical electrodynamics can be applied to inneratomic phenomena
Simulik, V M
2002-01-01
In order to extend the limits of classical theory application in the microworld some weak generalization of Maxwell electrodynamics is suggested. It is shown that slightly generalized classical Maxwell electrodynamics can describe the intraatomic phenomena with the same success as relativistic quantum mechanics can do. Group-theoretical grounds for the description of fermionic states by bosonic system are presented briefly. The advantages of generalized electrodynamics in intraatomic region in comparison with standard Maxwell electrodynamics are demonstrated on testing example of hydrogen atom. We are able to obtain some results which are impossible in the framework of standard Maxwell electrodynamics. The Sommerfeld - Dirac formula for the fine structure of the hydrogen atom spectrum is obtained on the basis of such Maxwell equations without appealing to the Dirac equation. The Bohr postulates and the Lamb shift are proved to be the consequences of the equations under consideration. The relationship of the n...
Photon propagator in skewon electrodynamics
Itin, Yakov
2015-01-01
Electrodynamics with a local and linear constitutive law is used as a framework for models violating Lorentz covariance. The constitutive tensor of such a construction is irreducibly decomposed into three independent pieces. The principal part is the anisotropic generalisation of the standard electrodynamics. The two other parts, axion and skewon, represent non-classical modifications of electrodynamics. We derive the expression for the photon propagator in the Minkowski spacetime endowed with a skewon field. For a relatively small (antisymmetric) skewon field, a modified Coulom law is exhibited.
Comparison between Weber’s electrodynamics and classical electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K T Assis; H Torres Silva
2000-09-01
We present the main aspects of Weber’s electrodynamics and of Maxwell’s equations. We discuss Maxwell’s point of view related to Weber’s electrodynamics. We compare Weber’s force with Lorentz’s force. We analyse the relation between Weber’s law and Maxwell’s equations. Finally, we discuss some experiments performed and proposed with which we can distinguish Weber’s force from Lorentz’s one.
Electrodynamics of Metallic Superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Dressel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental aspects of the microwave, terahertz, and infrared properties of superconductors are discussed. Electrodynamics can provide information about the superconducting condensate as well as about the quasiparticles. The aim is to understand the frequency dependence of the complex conductivity, the change with temperature and time, and its dependence on material parameters. We confine ourselves to conventional metallic superconductors, in particular, Nb and related nitrides and review the seminal papers but also highlight latest developments and recent experimental achievements. The possibility to produce well-defined thin films of metallic superconductors that can be tuned in their properties allows the exploration of fundamental issues, such as the superconductor-insulator transition; furthermore it provides the basis for the development of novel and advanced applications, for instance, superconducting single-photon detectors.
Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Øyvind Grøn
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.
Electrodynamics classical inconsistencies
De Souza, M M
1995-01-01
The problems of Classical Electrodynamics with the electron equation of motion and with non-integrable singularity of its self-field stress tensor are well known. They are consequences, we show, of neglecting terms that are null off the charge world line but that gives a non null contribution on its world line. The self-field stress tensor of a point classical electron is integrable, there is no causality violation and no conflict with energy conservation in its equation of motion, and there is no need of any kind of renormalization nor of any change in the Maxwell's theory for this. (This is part of the paper hep-th/9510160, stripped , for simplicity, of its non-Minkowskian geometrization of causality and of its discussion about the physical meaning of the Maxwell-Faraday concept of field).
Eringen, A C
1990-01-01
The electrodynamics of continua is a branch ofthe physical sciences concerned with the interaction of electromagnetic fields with deformable bodies. De formable bodies are considered to be continua endowed with continuous distributions of mass and charge. The theory of electromagnetic continua is concerned with the determination of deformations, motions, stress, and elec tromagnetic fields developed in bodies upon the applications of external loads. External loads may be of mechanical origin (e.g., forces, couples, constraints placed on the surface of the body, and initial and boundary conditions arising from thermal and other changes) and/or electromagnetic origin (e.g., electric, magnetic, and current fields). Because bodies of different constitutions respond to external stimuli in a different way, it is imperative to characterize properly the response functions relevant to a given class of continua. This is done by means of the constitutive theory. For example, an elastic dielectric responds to electro...
Roy, C; Hughes, S
2011-06-17
We study the resonance fluorescence spectra of a driven quantum dot placed inside a high-Q semiconductor cavity and interacting with an acoustic phonon bath. The dynamics is calculated using a time-convolutionless master equation in the polaron frame. We predict pronounced spectral broadening of the Mollow sidebands through off-resonant cavity emission which, for small cavity-coupling rates, increases quadratically with the Rabi frequency in direct agreement with recent experiments using semiconductor micropillars [S. M. Ulrich et al., preceding Letter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247402 (2011)]. We also demonstrate that, surprisingly, phonon coupling actually helps resolve signatures of the elusive second rungs of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder states via off-resonant cavity feeding. Both multiphonon and multiphoton effects are shown to play a qualitatively important role on the fluorescence spectra.
Pulsar Electrodynamics: an unsolved problem
Melrose, D B
2016-01-01
Pulsar electrodynamics is reviewed emphasizing the role of the inductive electric field in an oblique rotator and the incomplete screening of its parallel component by charges, leaving `gaps' with $E_\\parallel\
Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes
Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.
Two applications of axion electrodynamics
Wilczek, Frank
1987-01-01
The equations of axion electrodynamics are studied. Variations in the axion field can give rise to peculiar distributions of charge and current. These effects provide a simple understanding of the fractional electric charge on dyons and of some recently discovered oddities in the electrodynamics of antiphase boundaries in PbTe. Some speculations regarding the possible occurrence of related phenomena in other solids are presented.
The absorber hypothesis of electrodynamics
De Luca, Jayme
2008-01-01
We test the absorber hypothesis of the action-at-a-distance electrodynamics for globally-bounded solutions of a finite-particle universe. We find that the absorber hypothesis forbids globally-bounded motions for a universe containing only two charged particles, otherwise the condition alone does not forbid globally-bounded motions. We discuss the implication of our results for the various forms of electrodynamics of point charges.
Electrodynamics of Magnetoactive Media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Browning, P K [Department of Physics, UMIST, PO Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)
2004-11-12
'Electrodynamics of Magnetoactive Media' is an unusual book in that it cuts across conventional physics discipline boundaries. The unifying theme allowing this is, quite simply, the physics of magnetic fields in various media. I believe the authors are correct in stating that the book is unique in specifically covering electrodynamic phenomena associated with magnetic fields, though of course some of the more elementary aspects are covered in the classical textbooks on electromagnetism, which are duly acknowledged. This interdisciplinarity makes the book very interesting to people with a range of backgrounds. For example, as a plasma physicist, I was familiar with most of the material on plasmas, but liquid crystals and superconductors were entirely new territory for me. These chapters were indeed both accessible and interesting, and it was surprising for me to see how much commonality there is in the physics of these various media. The first part of the book covers some fundamentals of electrodynamics and magnetostatics, and of electromagnetic waves. Most of this material is covered in textbooks on electromagnetism, and some of it is very basic (for example, LRC circuit theory, surely covered in most first year physics courses, is included) but it is perhaps a useful prelude for what is to come. The generic topic of charged particle motion in electromagnetic fields is well covered. Three main magnetoactive media are then discussed: plasmas (focusing on waves), liquid crystals and superconductors. It is all too easy to criticise a book on the grounds of omitted material, but I do feel that a chapter on magnetostatics in plasmas would have been very helpful, covering force-free fields and so on. Some interesting analogies could then have been exploited. For example, I was intrigued to discover an equation for magnetic fields in superconductors (equation (9.36)) which, apart from a change of sign, is identical to the Helmholtz equation used to model linear
Families of exact solutions of a 2D gravity model minimally coupled to electrodynamics
Moayedi, S K
2001-01-01
Three families of exact solutions for 2-dimensional gravity minimally coupled to electrodynamics are obtained in the context of ${\\cal R}=T$ theory. It is shown, by supersymmetric formalism of quantum mechanics, that the quantum dynamics of a neutral bosonic particle on static backgrounds with both varying curvature and electric field is exactly solvable.
Time-symmetric electrodynamics and the Kocher-Commins experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pegg, D.T. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)
1982-01-01
A quantised version of Wheeler-Feynman time-symmetric absorber theory sheds new light on an old problem at present experiencing a revival of interest. Some photon correlation experiments, when interpreted in terms of quantum electrodynamics, lead to conceptual difficulties of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type. The results imply that one has to abandon either the concept of strict causality, which would make conventional quantum electrodynamics self-inconsistent, or the concept of an objective reality independent of the observer, which has far-reaching philosophical consequences. In terms of absorber theory, on the other hand, there is no need to abandon objective reality and, in fact, such an experiment is directly interpretable as an example of the manifestation of the future on the past, which is the important distinguishing feature of absorber theory.
Mead, C A
1997-06-10
Standard results of electromagnetic theory are derived from the direct interaction of macroscopic quantum systems; the only assumptions used are the Einstein-deBroglie relations, the discrete nature of charge, the Green's function for the vector potential, and the continuity of the wave function. No reference is needed to Maxwell's equations or to traditional quantum formalism. Correspondence limits based on classical mechanics are shown to be inappropriate.
Near-field Electrodynamics of Atomically Doped Carbon Nanotubes
Bondarev, Igor V.; Lambin, Philippe
2005-01-01
We develop a quantum theory of near-field electrodynamical properties of carbon nanotubes and investigate spontaneous decay dynamics of excited states and van der Waals attraction of the ground state of an atomic system close to a single-wall nanotube surface. Atomic spontaneous decay exhibits vacuum-field Rabi oscillations -- a principal signature of strong atom-vacuum-field coupling. The strongly coupled atomic state is nothing but a 'quasi-1D cavity polariton'. Its stability is mainly dete...
On some applications of Galilean electrodynamics of moving bodies
2006-01-01
We discuss the seminal article in which Le Bellac and L\\'{e}vy-Leblond have identified two Galilean limits of electromagnetism [1], and its modern implications. Recent works have shed a new light on the choice of gauge conditions in classical electromagnetism. We discuss various applications and experiments, such as in quantum mechanics, superconductivity, electrodynamics of continuous media, etc. Much of the current technology, where waves are not taken into account, is actually based on Gal...
Experiments with Electrodynamic Wheels
Gaul, Nathan; Corey, Daniel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian
2015-04-01
Our experiments were involving inductive magnetic levitation. A Halbach array is a system in which a series of magnets is arranged in a manner such that the magnetic field is cancelled on one side of the array while strengthening the field on the other. We constructed two circular Halbach wheels, making the strong magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such system is usually dubbed as an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We demonstrated that these interactions produce both drag and lift forces on the EDW which can theoretically be used for lift and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is determining how to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio by the proper choice of the induction element. We will also describe our experiments with a rotating circular Halbach array having the strong magnetic field of about 1 T on the flat side of the ring, and acting as a hovercraft.
Eringen, A C
1990-01-01
This is the second volume of a two-volume set presenting a unified approach to the electrodynamics of continua, based on the principles of contemporary continuum of physics. The first volume was devoted mainly to the development of the theory and applications to deformable solid media. This volume extends the developments of the first volume to richer and newer grounds. It contains discussions on fluid media, magnetohydrodynamics, eletrohydrodynamics and media with more complicated structures. With the discussion, in the last two chapters, of memory-dependent materials and non-local E-M theory, the authors account for the nonlocal effects arising from motions and fields of material points at past times and at spatially distant points. This discussion is included here to stimulate further research in these important fields, which are presently in development stages. The second volume is self-contained and can be studied without the help of volume I. A section summarizing the constitutive equations and the unde...
In-Depth Development of Classical Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keilman Y.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There is hope that a properly developed Classical Electrodynamics (CED will be able to play a r ˆ ole in a unified field theory explaining electromagnetism, quantum phenomena, and gravitation. There is much work that has to be done in this direction. In this article we propose a move towards this aim by refining the basic principles of an improved CED. Attention is focused on the reinterpretation of the E-M potential. We use these basic principles to obtain solutions that explain the interactions between a con- stant electromagnetic field and a thin layer of material continuum; between a constant electromagnetic field and a spherical configuration of material continuum (for a charged elementary particle; between a transverse electromagnetic wave and a material continuum; between a longitudinal aether wave (dummy wave and a material continuum.
In-Depth Development of Classical Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keilman Y. N.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There is hope that a properly developed Classical Electrodynamics (CED will be able to play a role in a unified field theory explaining electromagnetism, quantum phenomena, and gravitation. There is much work that has to be done in this direction. In this article we propose a move towards this aim by refining the basic principles of an improved CED. Attention is focused on the reinterpretation of the E-M potential. We use these basic principles to obtain solutions that explain the interactions between a constant electromagnetic field and a thin layer of material continuum; between a constant electromagnetic field and a spherical configuration of material continuum (for a charged elementary particle; between a transverse electromagnetic wave and a material continuum; between a longitudinal aether wave (dummy wave and a material continuum.
Optimal Control of Electrodynamic Tethers
2008-06-01
left with ( ) ( ) 1 2 1 2 23 3 3 32 1 2 1 2 3 3 ˆ ˆ 2 2 2 ˆ ˆ 6 6 t t t t t t m m m m m T m L m L M M m LM M M MLm M M... Contract RH4-394049, March 1985, p 31. 9 Pelaez, J. and Lorenzini, E. C., “Libration Control of Electrodynamic Tethers in Inclined Orbit,” Journal of...COVERED (From – To) Aug 2006 – Jul 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimal Control of Electrodynamic Tethers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b
Renormalization of two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casana S, Rodolfo; Dias, Sebastiao A
1997-12-01
The Schwinger model, when quantized in a gauge non-invariant way exhibits a dependence on a parameter {alpha} (the Jackiw-Rajaraman parameter) in a way which is analogous to the case involving chiral fermions (the chiral Schwinger model). For all values of a {alpha}1, there are divergences in the fermionic Green`s functions. We propose a regularization of the generating functional Z [{eta}, {eta}, J] and we use it to renormalize the theory to one loop level, in a semi-perturbative sense. At the end of the renormalization procedure we find an implicit dependence of {alpha} on the renormalization scale {mu}. (author) 26 refs.
Implementing quantum electrodynamics with ultracold atomic systems
Kasper, V; Jendrzejewski, F; Oberthaler, M K; Berges, J
2016-01-01
We discuss the experimental engineering of model systems for the description of QED in one spatial dimension via a mixture of bosonic $^{23}$Na and fermionic $^6$Li atoms. The local gauge symmetry is realized in an optical superlattice, using heteronuclear boson-fermion spin-changing interactions which preserve the total spin in every local collision. We consider a large number of bosons residing in the coherent state of a Bose-Einstein condensate on each link between the fermion lattice sites, such that the behavior of lattice QED in the continuum limit can be recovered. The discussion about the range of possible experimental parameters builds, in particular, upon experiences with related setups of fermions interacting with coherent samples of bosonic atoms. We determine the atomic system's parameters required for the description of fundamental QED processes, such as Schwinger pair production and string breaking. This is achieved by benchmark calculations of the atomic system and of QED itself using function...
Quantum Electrodynamics in Media with Negative Refraction
K"astel, J; Fleischhauer, Michael
2004-01-01
We consider the interaction of atoms with the quantized electromagnetic field in the presence of materials with negative index of refraction. Spontaneous emission of an atom embedded in a negative index material is discussed. It is shown furthermore that the possibility of a vanishing optical path length between two spatially separated points provided by these materials can lead to complete suppression of spontaneous emission of an atom in front of a perfect mirror even if the distance between atom and mirror is large compared to the transition wavelength. Two atoms put in the focal points of a lens formed by a parallel slab of ideal negative index material are shown to exhibit perfect sub- and superradiance. The maximum length scale in both cases is limited only by the propagation distance within the free-space radiative decay time. Limitations of the predicted effects arising from absorption, finite transversal extension and dispersion of the material are analyzed.
Lasing without inversion in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Marthaler, M; Utsumi, Y; Golubev, D S; Shnirman, A; Schön, Gerd
2011-08-26
We study the photon generation in a transmission line oscillator coupled to a driven qubit in the presence of a dissipative electromagnetic environment. It has been demonstrated previously that a population inversion in the qubit can lead to a lasing state of the oscillator. Here we show that the circuit can also exhibit the effect of "lasing without inversion." It arises since the coupling to the dissipative environment enhances photon emission as compared to absorption, similar to the recoil effect predicted for atomic systems. While the recoil effect is very weak, and so far elusive, the effect described here should be observable with realistic circuits. We analyze the requirements for system parameters and environment.
Nonperturbative approach to circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Jonasson, Olafur; Tang, Chi-Shung; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar
2012-10-01
We outline a rigorous method which can be used to solve the many-body Schrödinger equation for a Coulomb interacting electronic system in an external classical magnetic field as well as a quantized electromagnetic field. Effects of the geometry of the electronic system as well as the polarization of the quantized electromagnetic field are explicitly taken into account. We accomplish this by performing repeated truncations of many-body spaces in order to keep the size of the many particle basis on a manageable level. The electron-electron and electron-photon interactions are treated in a nonperturbative manner using "exact numerical diagonalization." Our results demonstrate that including the diamagnetic term in the photon-electron interaction Hamiltonian drastically improves numerical convergence. Additionally, convergence with respect to the number of photon states in the joint photon-electron Fock space basis is fast. However, the convergence with respect to the number of electronic states is slow and is the main bottleneck in calculations.
Nonlinear Electrodynamics and black holes
Breton, N; Breton, Nora; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo
2007-01-01
It is addressed the issue of black holes with nonlinear electromagnetic field, focussing mainly in the Born-Infeld case. The main features of these systems are described, for instance, geodesics, energy conditions, thermodynamics and isolated horizon aspects. Also are revised some black hole solutions of alternative nonlinear electrodynamics and its inconveniences.
Cosmological effects of nonlinear electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novello, M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goulart, E [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Salim, J M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bergliaffa, S E Perez [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Maracana, CEP 20559-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2007-06-07
It will be shown that a given realization of nonlinear electrodynamics, used as a source of Einstein's equations, generates a cosmological model with interesting features, namely a phase of current cosmic acceleration, and the absence of an initial singularity, thus pointing to a way of solving two important problems in cosmology.
Quantum entanglement purification in cavities
Romero, J L; Saavedra, C; Retamal, J C
2002-01-01
A physical implementation of an entanglement purification protocol is studied using a cavity quantum electrodynamic based proposal, where, the quantum information is stored in quantum field sates inside cavities. Also a procedure is given for quantifying the degree of entanglement between quantum fields. (Author)
An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory
Peskin, Michael E
1995-01-01
An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory is a textbook intended for the graduate physics course covering relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, and Feynman diagrams. The authors make these subjects accessible through carefully worked examples illustrating the technical aspects of the subject, and intuitive explanations of what is going on behind the mathematics. After presenting the basics of quantum electrodynamics, the authors discuss the theory of renormalization and its relation to statistical mechanics, and introduce the renormalization group. This discussion sets the sta
Pfeifer, Christian; Siemssen, Daniel
2016-05-01
An axiomatic approach to electrodynamics reveals that Maxwell electrodynamics is just one instance of a variety of theories for which the name electrodynamics is justified. They all have in common that their fundamental input are Maxwell's equations d F =0 (or F =d A ) and d H =J and a constitutive law H =#F which relates the field strength two-form F and the excitation two-form H . A local and linear constitutive law defines what is called local and linear pre-metric electrodynamics whose best known application is the effective description of electrodynamics inside media including, e.g., birefringence. We analyze the classical theory of the electromagnetic potential A before we use methods familiar from mathematical quantum field theory in curved spacetimes to quantize it in a locally covariant way. Our analysis of the classical theory contains the derivation of retarded and advanced propagators, the analysis of the causal structure on the basis of the constitutive law (instead of a metric) and a discussion of the classical phase space. This classical analysis sets the stage for the construction of the quantum field algebra and quantum states. Here one sees, among other things, that a microlocal spectrum condition can be formulated in this more general setting.
Advances in FDTD computational electrodynamics photonics and nanotechnology
Oskooi, Ardavan; Johnson, Steven G
2013-01-01
Advances in photonics and nanotechnology have the potential to revolutionize humanity s ability to communicate and compute. To pursue these advances, it is mandatory to understand and properly model interactions of light with materials such as silicon and gold at the nanoscale, i.e., the span of a few tens of atoms laid side by side. These interactions are governed by the fundamental Maxwell s equations of classical electrodynamics, supplemented by quantum electrodynamics. This book presents the current state-of-the-art in formulating and implementing computational models of these interactions. Maxwell s equations are solved using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, pioneered by the senior editor, whose prior Artech books in this area are among the top ten most-cited in the history of engineering. You discover the most important advances in all areas of FDTD and PSTD computational modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions. This cutting-edge resource helps you understand the latest develo...
Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics and Penning traps
Ding, Yunhua; Kostelecký, V. Alan
2016-09-01
The prospects are explored for testing Lorentz- and C P T -violating quantum electrodynamics in experiments with Penning traps. We present the Lagrange density of Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics with operators of mass dimensions up to 6, and we discuss some of its properties. The theory is used to derive Lorentz- and C P T -violating perturbative shifts of the energy levels of a particle confined to a Penning trap. Observable signals are discussed for trapped electrons, positrons, protons, and antiprotons. Existing experimental measurements on anomaly frequencies are used to extract new or improved bounds on numerous coefficients for Lorentz and C P T violation, using sidereal variations of observables and comparisons between particles and antiparticles.
Dendrimer light-harvesting: intramolecular electrodynamics and mechanisms.
Andrews, David L; Bradshaw, David S; Jenkins, Robert D; Rodríguez, Justo
2009-12-01
In the development of highly efficient materials for harvesting solar energy, there is an increasing focus on purpose-built dendrimers and allied multi-chromophore systems. A proliferation of antenna chromophores is not the only factor determining the sought light-harvesting efficiency; the internal geometry and photophysics of these molecules are also crucially important. In particular, the mechanisms by means of which radiant energy is ultimately trapped depends on an intricate interplay of electronic, structural, energetic and symmetry properties. To better understand these processes a sound theoretical representation of the intramolecular electrodynamics is required. A suitable formalism, based on quantum electrodynamics, readily delivers physical insights into the necessary excitation channelling processes, and it affords a rigorous basis for modelling the intramolecular flow of energy.
Stability of the hydrogen atom of classical electrodynamics
De Luca, J
2004-01-01
We study the stability of the circular orbits of the electromagnetic two-body problem of classical electrodynamics. We introduce the concept of resonant dissipation, i.e. a motion that radiates the center-of-mass energy while the interparticle distance performs bounded oscillations about a metastable orbit. The stability mechanism is established by the existence of a quartic resonant constant generated by the stiff eigenvalues of the linear stability problem. This constant bounds the particles together during the radiative recoil. The condition of resonant dissipation predicts angular momenta for the metastable orbits in reasonable agreement with the Bohr atom. The principal result is that the emission lines agree with the predictions of quantum electrodynamics (QED) with 1 percent average error even up to the $40^{th}$ line. Our angular momenta depend logarithmically on the mass of the heavy body, such that the deuterium and the muonium atoms have essentially the same angular momenta, in agreement with QED. ...
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering
2017-03-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Stochastic electrodynamics simulations for collective atom response in optical cavities
Lee, Mark D.; Jenkins, Stewart D.; Bronstein, Yael; Ruostekoski, Janne
2017-08-01
We study the collective optical response of an atomic ensemble confined within a single-mode optical cavity by stochastic electrodynamics simulations that include the effects of atomic position correlations, internal level structure, and spatial variations in cavity coupling strength and atom density. In the limit of low light intensity, the simulations exactly reproduce the full quantum field-theoretical description for cold stationary atoms and at higher light intensities we introduce semiclassical approximations to atomic saturation that we compare with the exact solution in the case of two atoms. We find that collective subradiant modes of the atoms, with very narrow linewidths, can be coupled to the cavity field by spatial variation of the atomic transition frequency and resolved at low intensities, and show that they can be specifically driven by tailored transverse pumping beams. We show that the cavity optical response, in particular both the subradiant mode profile and the resonance shift of the cavity mode, can be used as a diagnostic tool for the position correlations of the atoms and hence the atomic quantum many-body phase. The quantum effects are found to be most prominent close to the narrow subradiant mode resonances at high light intensities. Although an optical cavity can generally strongly enhance quantum fluctuations via light confinement, we show that the semiclassical approximation to the stochastic electrodynamics model provides at least a qualitative agreement with the exact optical response outside the subradiant mode resonances even in the presence of significant saturation of the atoms.
On spacetime structure and electrodynamics
Ni, Wei-Tou
2016-10-01
Electrodynamics is the most tested fundamental physical theory. Relativity arose from the completion of Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics. Introducing the metric gij as gravitational potential in 1913, versed in general (coordinate-)covariant formalism in 1914 and shortly after the completion of general relativity, Einstein put the Maxwell equations in general covariant form with only the constitutive relation between the excitation and the field dependent on and connected by the metric in 1916. Further clarification and developments by Weyl in 1918, Murnaghan in 1921, Kottler in 1922 and Cartan in 1923 together with the corresponding developments in electrodynamics of continuous media by Bateman in 1910, Tamm in 1924, Laue in 1952 and Post in 1962 established the premetric formalism of electrodynamics. Since almost all phenomena electrodynamics deal with have energy scales much lower than the Higgs mass energy and intermediate boson energy, electrodynamics of continuous media should be applicable and the constitutive relation of spacetime/vacuum should be local and linear. What is the key characteristic of the spacetime/vacuum? It is the Weak Equivalence Principle I (WEP I) for photons/wave packets of light which states that the spacetime trajectory of light in a gravitational field depends only on its initial position and direction of propagation, and does not depend on its frequency (energy) and polarization, i.e. nonbirefringence of light propagation in spacetime/vacuum. With this principle it is proved by the author in 1981 in the weak field limit, and by Lammerzahl and Hehl in 2004 together with Favaro and Bergamin in 2011 without assuming the weak-field condition that the constitutive tensor must be of the core metric form with only two additional degrees of freedom — the pseudoscalar (Abelian axion or EM axion) degree of freedom and the scalar (dilaton) degree of freedom (i.e. metric with axion and dilaton). In this paper, we review this connection and the
Electrodynamics and Time Orientability
Hadley, Mark J.
2017-06-01
On spacetimes that are not time orientable we construct a U(1) bundle to measure the twisting of the time axis. This single assumption, and simple construction, gives rise to Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the Lorentz force law and the Einstein-Maxwell equations for electromagnetism coupled to General relativity. The derivations follow the Kaluza Klein theory, but with the constraints required for connections on a U(1) bundle rather than five spacetime dimensions. The non time orientability is seen to justify and constrain Kaluza Klein theories exactly as required to unify gravitation with electromagnetism. Unlike any other schemes, apparent net electric charges arise naturally because the direction of the electric field reverses along a time reversing path. The boundary of a time reversing region can therefore have a net electric flux and appear exactly as a region containing an electric charge. The treatment is purely classical, but motivated by links between acausal structures and quantum theory.
Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.
Potential Theory in Classical Electrodynamics
Engelhardt, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
In Maxwell's classical theory of electrodynamics the fields are frequently expressed by potentials in order to facilitate the solution of the first order system of equations. This method obscures, however, that there exists an inconsistency between Faraday's law of induction and Maxwell's flux law. As a consequence of this internal contradiction there is neither gauge invariance, nor exist unique solutions in general. It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous wave equations cannot be solved by retarded integrals.
Electrodynamics on extrasolar giant planets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koskinen, T. T.; Yelle, R. V. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Lavvas, P. [Groupe de Spectroscopie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique UMR CNRS 7331, Université Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F-51687 Reims (France); Cho, J. Y-K., E-mail: tommi@lpl.arizona.edu [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2014-11-20
Strong ionization on close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) suggests that their atmospheres may be affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Recent models of ion drag on these planets, however, are based on thermal ionization only and do not include the upper atmosphere above the 1 mbar level. These models are also based on simplified equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics that are not always valid in extrasolar planet atmospheres. We show that photoionization dominates over thermal ionization over much of the dayside atmosphere above the 100 mbar level, creating an upper ionosphere dominated by ionization of H and He and a lower ionosphere dominated by ionization of metals such as Na, K, and Mg. The resulting dayside electron densities on close-in exoplanets are higher than those encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the conductivities are comparable to the chromosphere of the Sun. Based on these results and assumed magnetic fields, we constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in EGPs and use a generalized Ohm's law to study the basic effects of electrodynamics in their atmospheres. We find that ion drag is important above the 10 mbar level where it can also significantly alter the energy balance through resistive heating. Due to frequent collisions of the electrons and ions with the neutral atmosphere, however, ion drag is largely negligible in the lower atmosphere below the 10 mbar level for a reasonable range of planetary magnetic moments. We find that the atmospheric conductivity decreases by several orders of magnitude in the night side of tidally locked planets, leading to a potentially interesting large-scale dichotomy in electrodynamics between the day and night sides. A combined approach that relies on UV observations of the upper atmosphere, phase curve and Doppler measurements of global dynamics, and visual transit observations to probe the alkali metals can potentially
Some problems of classical electrodynamics
Ginzburg, I. F.
2011-12-01
In this lecture, I discuss issues that usually escape attention of students in electrodynamics. These are the questions of (1) what the photon observed in nature "looks like," (2) how an interference pattern arises from a source containing a lot of incoherently emitting atoms, and (3) how light "slows down" in a medium. Answers to these questions, if discussed at all, are scattered over various textbooks. Here, I follow our textbook [1].
Single semiconductor quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michler, Peter (ed.) [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen
2009-07-01
This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapidly growing field of semiconductor quantum dots via contributions from some of the most prominent researchers in the scientific community. Special focus is given to optical, quantum optical, and spin properties of single quantum dots due to their potential applications in devices operating with single electron spins and/or single photons. This includes single and coupled quantum dots in external fields, cavity-quantum electrodynamics, and single and entangled photon pair generation. Single Semiconductor Quantum Dots also addresses growth techniques to allow for a positioned nucleation of dots as well as applications of quantum dots in quantum information technologies. (orig.)
Cavity QED: applications to quantum computation
Xiong, Han; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2004-10-01
Possible schemes to implement the basic quantum gates for quantum computation have been presented based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems. We then discuss schemes to implement several important quantum algorithms such as the discrete quantum fourier transform (QFT) algorithm and Grover's quantum search algorithm based on these quantum gates. Some other applications of cavity QED based systems including the implementations of a quantum disentanglement eraser and an entanglement amplifier are also discussed.
Radiation and matter: Electrodynamics postulates and Lorenz gauge
Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.; van Heijst, G. J.; Schram, P. P.
2016-11-01
In general terms, we have considered matter as the system of charged particles and quantized electromagnetic field. For consistent description of the thermodynamic properties of matter, especially in an extreme state, the problem of quantization of the longitudinal and scalar potentials should be solved. In this connection, we pay attention that the traditional postulates of electrodynamics, which claim that only electric and magnetic fields are observable, is resolved by denial of the statement about validity of the Maxwell equations for microscopic fields. The Maxwell equations, as the generalization of experimental data, are valid only for averaged values. We show that microscopic electrodynamics may be based on postulation of the d'Alembert equations for four-vector of the electromagnetic field potential. The Lorenz gauge is valid for the averages potentials (and provides the implementation of the Maxwell equations for averages). The suggested concept overcomes difficulties under the electromagnetic field quantization procedure being in accordance with the results of quantum electrodynamics. As a result, longitudinal and scalar photons become real rather than virtual and may be observed in principle. The longitudinal and scalar photons provide not only the Coulomb interaction of charged particles, but also allow the electrical Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Lectures on cosmology and action at a distance electrodynamics
Hoyle, Fred
1996-01-01
This book describes the subject of electrodynamics at classical as well as quantum level, developed as an interaction at a distance. Thus it has electric charges interacting with one another directly and not through the medium of a field. In general such an interaction travels forward and backward in time symmetrically, thus apparently violating the principle of causality. It turns out, however, that in such a description the cosmological boundary conditions become very important. The theory therefore works only in a cosmology with the right boundary conditions; but when it does work it is fre
Banks, Tom
2008-09-01
1. Introduction; 2. Quantum theory of free scalar fields; 3. Interacting field theory; 4. Particles of spin one, and gauge invariance; 5. Spin 1/2 particles and Fermi statistics; 6. Massive quantum electrodynamics; 7. Symmetries, Ward identities and Nambu Goldstone bosons; 8. Non-abelian gauge theory; 9. Renormalization and effective field theory; 10. Instantons and solitons; 11. Concluding remarks; Appendices; References; Index.
Multipole Expansion in Generalized Electrodynamics
Bonin, C A; Ortega, P H
2016-01-01
In this article we study some classical aspects of Podolsky Electrodynamics in the static regime. We develop the multipole expansion for the theory in both the electrostatic and the magnetostatic cases. We also address the problem of consistently truncating the infinite series associated with the several kinds of multipoles, yielding approximations for the static Podolskian electromagnetic field to any degree of precision required. Moreover, we apply the general theory of multipole expansion to some specific physical problems. In those problems we identify the first terms of the series with the monopole, dipole and quadrupole terms in the generalized theory. We also propose a situation in which Podolsky theory can be experimentally tested.
The potential in general linear electrodynamics. Causal structure, propagators and quantization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siemssen, Daniel [Department of Mathematical Methods in Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw (Poland); Pfeifer, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), Universitaet Bremen (Germany)
2016-07-01
From an axiomatic point of view, the fundamental input for a theory of electrodynamics are Maxwell's equations dF=0 (or F=dA) and dH=J, and a constitutive law H=F, which relates the field strength 2-form F and the excitation 2-form H. In this talk we consider general linear electrodynamics, the theory of electrodynamics defined by a linear constitutive law. The best known application of this theory is the effective description of electrodynamics inside (linear) media (e.g. birefringence). We analyze the classical theory of the electromagnetic potential A before we use methods familiar from mathematical quantum field theory in curved spacetimes to quantize it. Our analysis of the classical theory contains the derivation of retarded and advanced propagators, the analysis of the causal structure on the basis of the constitutive law (instead of a metric) and a discussion of the classical phase space. This classical analysis sets the stage for the construction of the quantum field algebra and quantum states, including a (generalized) microlocal spectrum condition.
Electrodynamics in Giant Planet Atmospheres
Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J.
2014-12-01
The atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets such as HD209458b are strongly ionized by the UV flux of their host stars. We show that photoionization on such planets creates a dayside ionosphere that extends from the thermosphere to the 100 mbar level. The resulting peak electron density near the 1 mbar level is higher than that encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the model conductivity is in fact comparable to the atmospheres of Sun-like stars. As a result, the momentum and energy balance in the upper atmosphere of HD209458b and similar planets can be strongly affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Despite much weaker ionization, electrodynamics is nevertheless also important on the giant planets of the solar system. We use a generic framework to constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in extrasolar planets, and compare the results with conductivites based on the same approach for Jupiter and Saturn. By using a generalized Ohm's law and assumed magnetic fields, we then demonstrate the basic effects of wind-driven ion drag in giant planet atmospheres. Our results show that ion drag is often significant in the upper atmosphere where it can also substantially alter the energy budget through resistive heating.
On spacetime structure and electrodynamics
Ni, Wei-Tou
2016-01-01
Since almost all phenomena electrodynamics deal with have energy scales much lower than the Higgs mass energy and intermediate boson energy, electrodynamics of continuous media should be applicable and the constitutive relation of spacetime/vacuum should be local and linear. What is the key characteristic of the spacetime/vacuum? It is the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP I) for photons/wave packets of light which states that the spacetime trajectory of light in a gravitational field depends only on its initial position and direction of propagation, and does not depend on its frequency (energy) and polarization, i.e. nonbirefringence of light propagation in spacetime/vacuum. With this principle it is proved by the author in 1981 in the weak field limit, and by Lammerzahl and Hehl in 2004 together with Favaro and Bergamin in 2011 without assuming the weak-field condition that the constitutive tensor must be of the core metric form with only two additional degrees of freedom - the pseudoscalar (Abelian axion or ...
The Potential in General Linear Electrodynamics: Causal Structure, Propagators and Quantization
Pfeifer, Christian
2016-01-01
An axiomatic approach to electrodynamics reveals that Maxwell electrodynamics is just one instance of a variety of theories for which the name electrodynamics is justified. They all have in common that their fundamental input are Maxwell's equations $\\textrm{d} F = 0$ (or $F = \\textrm{d} A$) and $\\textrm{d} H = J$ and a constitutive law $H = \\# F$ which relates the field strength two-form $F$ and the excitation two-form $H$. A local and linear constitutive law defines what is called general linear electrodynamics whose best known application are the effective description of electrodynamics inside media including, e.g., birefringence. We will analyze the classical theory of the electromagnetic potential $A$ before we use methods familiar from mathematical quantum field theory in curved spacetimes to quantize it in a locally covariant way. Our analysis of the classical theory contains the derivation of retarded and advanced propagators, the analysis of the causal structure on the basis of the constitutive law (...
Resummations in hot scalar electrodynamics
Krämmer, U; Schulz, H
1994-01-01
The gauge-boson sector of perturbative scalar electrodynamics is investigated in detail as a testing ground for resummation methods in hot gauge theories. It also serves as a simple non-trivial reference system for the non-Abelian gluon plasma. The complete next-to-leading order contributions to the polarization tensor are obtained within the resummation scheme of Braaten and Pisarski. The simpler scheme proposed recently by Arnold and Espinosa is shown to apply to static quantities only, whereas Braaten-Pisarski resummation turns out to need modification for collective phenomena close to the light-cone. Finally, a recently proposed resummation of quasi-particle damping contributions is assessed critically.
PT-Symmetric Quantum Field Theory
Milton, K A
2003-01-01
In the context of the PT-symmetric version of quantum electrodynamics, it is argued that the C operator introduced in order to define a unitary inner product has nothing to do with charge conjugation.
Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics an explanation
Ball, David W
2012-01-01
Maxwell's Equations of Electrodynamics: An Explanation is a concise discussion of Maxwell's four equations of electrodynamics - the fundamental theory of electricity, magnetism, and light. It guides readers step-by-step through the vector calculus and development of each equation. Pictures and diagrams illustrate what the equations mean in basic terms. The book not only provides a fundamental description of our universe but also explains how these equations predict the fact that light is better described as "electromagnetic radiation."
On the Electrodynamics of Moving Particles in Gravitational Fields
Nassif, Claudio
2007-01-01
We will look for an implementation of new symmetries in the space-time structure, which allows us to find a unified vision for electrodynamics and gravitation. We will atempt to develop a simple model of the electromagnetic nature of the electron such that the influence of the gravitational field over the electrodynamics in subatomic scales leads us to a reformulation in our comprehention of the space-time structure through the elimination of the classical idea of rest. This will lead to a reformulation of the relativistic theory by introducing the idea about a universal minimum limit of speed in the space-time. Such limit, unattainable by the particles, represents a perfect and absolute inertial reference frame associated to a universal background field (a kind of non-local vacuum energy), enabling a fundamental understanding of the quantum uncertainties. The structure of space-time becomes extended due to such vacuum energy density which leads to a negative pressure in cosmological scales like a cosmologica...
Greiner, Walter
1989-01-01
"Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Simulation of the hydrogen ground state in stochastic electrodynamics
Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Liska, Matthew T. P.
2015-10-01
Stochastic electrodynamics is a classical theory which assumes that the physical vacuum consists of classical stochastic fields with average energy \\frac{1}{2}{{\\hslash }}ω in each mode, i.e., the zero-point Planck spectrum. While this classical theory explains many quantum phenomena related to harmonic oscillator problems, hard results on nonlinear systems are still lacking. In this work the hydrogen ground state is studied by numerically solving the Abraham-Lorentz equation in the dipole approximation. First the stochastic Gaussian field is represented by a sum over Gaussian frequency components, next the dynamics is solved numerically using OpenCL. The approach improves on work by Cole and Zou 2003 by treating the full 3d problem and reaching longer simulation times. The results are compared with a conjecture for the ground state phase space density. Though short time results suggest a trend towards confirmation, in all attempted modellings the atom ionises at longer times.
Functional quantization of Generalized Scalar Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau Electrodynamics
Bufalo, R; Nogueira, A A; Pimentel, B M
2015-01-01
The main goal of this work is to study systematically the quantum aspects of the interaction between scalar particles in the framework of Generalized Scalar Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau Electrodynamics (GSDKP). For this purpose the theory is quantized after a constraint analysis following Dirac's methodology by determining the Hamiltonian transition amplitude. In particular, the covariant transition amplitude is established in the generalized non-mixing Lorenz gauge. The complete Green's functions are obtained through functional methods and the theory's renormalizability is also detailed presented. Next, the radiative corrections for the Green's functions at $\\alpha $-order are computed; and, as it turns out, an unexpected $m_{P}$-dependent divergence on the DKP sector of the theory is found. Furthermore, in order to show the effectiveness of the renormalization procedure on the present theory, a diagrammatic discussion on the photon self-energy and vertex part at $\\alpha ^{2}$-order are presented, where it is possib...
Magnetoelectric polarizability and axion electrodynamics in crystalline insulators.
Essin, Andrew M; Moore, Joel E; Vanderbilt, David
2009-04-10
The orbital motion of electrons in a three-dimensional solid can generate a pseudoscalar magnetoelectric coupling theta, a fact we derive for the single-particle case using a recent theory of polarization in weakly inhomogeneous materials. This polarizability theta is the same parameter that appears in the "axion electrodynamics" Lagrangian DeltaL_{EM}=(thetae;{2}/2pih)E.B, which is known to describe the unusual magnetoelectric properties of the three-dimensional topological insulator (theta=pi). We compute theta for a simple model that accesses the topological insulator and discuss its connection to the surface Hall conductivity. The orbital magnetoelectric polarizability can be generalized to the many-particle wave function and defines the 3D topological insulator, like the integer quantum Hall effect, in terms of a topological ground-state response function.
Electrodynamic Casimir effect in a medium-filled wedge.
Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A; Milton, Kimball A
2009-04-01
We re-examine the electrodynamic Casimir effect in a wedge defined by two perfect conductors making dihedral angle alpha=pi/p. This system is analogous to the system defined by a cosmic string. We consider the wedge region as filled with an azimuthally symmetric material, with permittivity and permeability epsilon1, micro1 for distance from the axis ra. The results are closely related to those for a circular-cylindrical geometry, but with noninteger azimuthal quantum number mp. Apart from a zero-mode divergence, which may be removed by choosing periodic boundary conditions on the wedge, and may be made finite if dispersion is included, we obtain finite results for the free energy corresponding to changes in a for the case when the speed of light is the same inside and outside the radius a , and for weak coupling, |epsilon1-epsilon2|cosmic string, situated along the cusp line of the pre-existing wedge.
Strong limitations on allowable gauge transformations in electrodynamics
Reiss, H R
2015-01-01
Conservation principles establish the primacy of potentials over fields in electrodynamics, both classical and quantum. The contrary conclusion that fields are primary is based on the Newtonian concept that forces completely determine dynamics, and electromagnetic forces depend directly on fields. However, physical conservation principles come from symmetries such as those following from Noether's theorem, and these require potentials for their statement. Examples are given of potentials that describe fields correctly but that violate conservation principles, demonstrating that the correct statement of potentials is necessary. An important consequence is that gauge transformations are severely limited when conservation conditions must be satisfied. When transverse and longitudinal fields are present concurrently, the only practical gauge is the radiation gauge.
$\\hbar$ as a Physical Constant of Classical Optics and Electrodynamics
Tremblay, Real; Allen, Claudine Ni
2015-01-01
The Planck constant ($\\hbar$) plays a pivotal role in quantum physics. Historically, it has been proposed as postulate, part of a genius empirical relationship $E=\\hbar \\omega$ in order to explain the intensity spectrum of the blackbody radiation for which classical electrodynamic theory led to an unacceptable prediction: The ultraviolet catastrophe. While the usefulness of the Planck constant in various fields of physics is undisputed, its derivation (or lack of) remains unsatisfactory from a fundamental point of view. In this paper, the analysis of the blackbody problem is performed with a series expansion of the electromagnetic field in terms of TE, TM modes in a metallic cavity with small losses, that leads to developing the electromagnetic fields in a \\textit{complete set of orthonormal functions}. This expansion, based on coupled power theory, maintains both space and time together enabling modeling of the blackbody's evolution toward equilibrium. Reaching equilibrium with a multimodal waveguide analysi...
Renormalizable Electrodynamics of Scalar and Vector Mesons. Part II
Salam, Abdus; Delbourgo, Robert
1964-01-01
The "gauge" technique" for solving theories introduced in an earlier paper is applied to scalar and vector electrodynamics. It is shown that for scalar electrodynamics, there is no {lambda}φ*2φ2 infinity in the theory, while with conventional subtractions vector electrodynamics is completely finite. The essential ideas of the gauge technique are explained in section 3, and a preliminary set of rules for finite computation in vector electrodynamics is set out in Eqs. (7.28) - (7.34).
Electrodynamics of a Cosmic Dark Fluid
Balakin, Alexander B
2016-01-01
Cosmic Dark Fluid is considered as a non-stationary medium, in which electromagnetic waves propagate, and magneto-electric field structures emerge and evolve. A medium - type representation of the Dark Fluid allows us to involve into analysis the concepts and mathematical formalism elaborated in the framework of classical covariant electrodynamics of continua, and to distinguish dark analogs of well-known medium-effects, such as optical activity, pyro-electricity, piezo-magnetism, electro- and magneto-striction and dynamo-optical activity. The Dark Fluid is assumed to be formed by a duet of a Dark Matter (a pseudoscalar axionic constituent) and Dark Energy (a scalar element); respectively, we distinguish electrodynamic effects induced by these two constituents of the Dark Fluid. The review contains discussions of ten models, which describe electrodynamic effects induced by Dark Matter and/or Dark Energy. The models are accompanied by examples of exact solutions to the master equations, correspondingly extende...
Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine
Ali Ü. C. Hardal; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.
2015-01-01
Scientific Reports | 5:12953 | DOI: 10.1038/srep12953 1 www.nature.com/scientificreports Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine Ali Ü. C. Hardal & Özgür E. Müstecaplıoğlu Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop eficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Vitiello
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In electrodynamics there is a mutual exchange of energy and momentum between the matter field and the electromagnetic field and the total energy and momentum are conserved. For a constant magnetic field and harmonic scalar potential, electrodynamics is shown to be isomorph to a system of damped/amplified harmonic oscillators. These can be described by squeezed coherent states which in turn are isomorph to self-similar fractal structures. Under the said conditions of constant magnetic field and harmonic scalar potential, electrodynamics is thus isomorph to fractal self-similar structures and squeezed coherent states. At a quantum level, dissipation induces noncommutative geometry with the squeezing parameter playing a relevant role. Ubiquity of fractals in Nature and relevance of coherent states and electromagnetic interaction point to a unified, integrated vision of Nature.
Topics in Born-Infeld Electrodynamics
Kerner, R; Galtsov, D V
2001-01-01
Classical version of Born-Infeld electrodynamics is recalled and its most important properties discussed. Then we analyze possible abelian and non-abelian generalizations of this theory, and show how certain soliton-like configurations can be obtained. The relationship with the Standard Model of electroweak interactions is also mentioned.
The cosmological origins of nonlinear Electrodynamics
Novello, M
2016-01-01
We present a mechanism that allows to describe any nonlinear theory of Electrodynamics as a consequence of the coupling of the electromagnetic field to gravity in the presence of a vacuum represented by the cosmological constant. We emphasize gravity\\rq s exclusive role of catalysis.
Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
2015-01-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…
Nonlinear electrodynamics in cytoskeletal protein lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hameroff, S.R.; Smith, S.A.; Watt, R.C.
1983-01-01
Cytoskeletal lattice proteins including microtubules are particularly involved in dynamic regulation of intracellular movements and activities. This paper considers possibilities and implications of biological information processing due to coupling of Davydov solitons, Frohlich coherent oscillations and other nonlinear electrodynamic phenomena to conformational states of the grid-like polymer subunits of cytoskeletal microtubules. 39 references.
Electrodynamics in One Dimension: Radiation and Reflection
Asti, G.; Coisson, R.
2011-01-01
Problems involving polarized plane waves and currents on sheets perpendicular to the wavevector involve only one component of the fields, so it is possible to discuss electrodynamics in one dimension. Taking for simplicity linearly polarized sinusoidal waves, we can derive the field emitted by currents (analogous to dipole radiation in three…
On the regularization procedure in classical electrodynamics
Yaremko, Yu
2003-01-01
We consider the self-action problem in classical electrodynamics. A strict geometrical sense of commonly used renormalization of mass is made. A regularization procedure is proposed which relies on energy-momentum and angular momentum balance equations. We correct the expression for angular momentum tensor obtained by us in a previous paper (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 831).
Linear Response Laws and Causality in Electrodynamics
Yuffa, Alex J.; Scales, John A.
2012-01-01
Linear response laws and causality (the effect cannot precede the cause) are of fundamental importance in physics. In the context of classical electrodynamics, students often have a difficult time grasping these concepts because the physics is obscured by the intermingling of the time and frequency domains. In this paper, we analyse the linear…
Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
2015-01-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…
Strong field electrodynamics of a thin foil
Bulanov, S. S.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Rykovanov, S.; Pegoraro, F.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.
2017-03-01
A new one-dimensional analytical model of a thin double layer foil interaction with a laser pulse is presented. It is based on one-dimensional electrodynamics. This model can be used for the study of high intensity laser pulse interactions with overdense plasmas, leading to frequency upshifting, high order harmonic generation, and ion acceleration in different regimes.
Meystre, Pierre
2007-01-01
Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...
Holographic thermalization with a chemical potential from Born-Infeld electrodynamics
Camilo, Giancarlo; Abdalla, Elcio
2014-01-01
The problem of holographic thermalization in the framework of Einstein gravity coupled to Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics is investigated. We use equal time twopoint correlation functions and expectation values of Wilson loop operators in the boundary quantum field theory as probes of thermalization, which have dual gravity descriptions in terms of geodesic lengths and minimal area surfaces in the bulk spacetime. The full range of values of the chemical potential per temperature ratio on the boundary is explored. The numerical results show that the effect of the charge on the thermalization time is similar to the one obtained with Maxwell electrodynamics, namely the larger the charge the later thermalization occurs. The inverse Born-Infeld parameter, on the other hand, has the opposite effect: the more nonlinear the theory is, the sooner it thermalizes. We also study the thermalization velocity and how the parameters affect the phase transition point separating the thermalization process into an acceler...
Classical electrodynamics with vacuum polarization: electron self-energy and radiation reaction
Blinder, S. M.
2001-04-01
The region very close to an electron ( r ⪅ r0 = e2/ mc2 ≈ 2.8 × 10 -13 cm) is, according to quantum electrodynamics, a seething maelstrom of virtual electron-positron pairs flashing in and out of existence. To take account of this well-established physical reality, a phenomenological representation for vacuum polarization is introduced into the framework of classical electrodynamics. Such a model enables a consistent picture of classical point charges with finite electromagnetic self-energy. It is further conjectured that the reaction of a point charge to its own electromagnetic field is tantamount to interaction with its vacuum polarization charge or "aura." This leads to a modification of the Lorentz-Dirac equation for the force on an accelerating electron, a new differential-difference equation which avoids the pathologies of preacceleration and runaway solutions.
On Photon Spin and the Electrodynamic Origin of the charge of the Electron
Fischer, Ulrich C
2016-01-01
We recently performed experiments on the transfer of photon spin to electron orbital angular momentum. For an interpretation of the experimental results we used a classical electrodynamic model of the photon as a propagating electromagnetic solitary wave which is developed in detail here. A linearly polarized monochromatic photon is considered as a propagating solitary electromagnetic wave of finite energy hf which carries an angular momentum h/2pi with the frequency f and Plancks constant h. This model has, apart from being a tool for an interpretation of our experimental results, far reaching consequences of fundamental relevance and guides us to an outline to a unified quantum theory of electromagnetism and gravitation including an explanation of the electrodynamic origin of the quantized charge of an electron.
High energy electrodynamics in matter
Akhiezer, A I
1996-01-01
This study presents an interpretation of classical and quantum theories of fast charged particle radiation in an external field. Various methods describing the process of particle interaction with substance and external fields are analyzed, such as Born approximation, the Schwinger operator method and different versions of the quasi-classical approximation. Such problems as time evolution of an electromagnetic field applied to and emitting electrons, coherence length, radiation in the simplest external fields, Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation and the correspondence of different methods describing the interaction between fast particles and matter are also considered.
Cosmic electrodynamics electrodynamics and magnetic hydrodynamics of cosmic plasmas
Fleishman, Gregory D
2013-01-01
This volume offers a deep and detailed overview of plasma behavior in diverse astrophysical conditions. The presentation is based on a solid science foundation that includes well established physical laws of electromagnetism, hydrodynamics, classical and quantum mechanics and other relevant fields of science. Qualitative ideas and descriptions are followed by quantitative derivations and estimates of key physical quantities, and the results of theories and models are confronted with modern observational data obtained from numerous international science programs. Fundamental astrophysical phenomena, such as charged particle acceleration and magnetic field generation, are presented along with spectacular phenomena, such as stellar winds (including ultra-relativistic pulsar wind), supernova explosions and evolution of its remnants, and solar flares.
Magnetic Levitation Experiments with the Electrodynamic Wheel
Cordrey, Vincent; Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Gaul, Nathan; Majewski, Walerian
Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation using circular Halbach arrays with the strong variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed two Electrodynamic Wheels with different diameters and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW which can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is the direct measurement of lift and drag forces to compare with theoretical models using wheels of two different radii. Supported by Grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.
EMC Test Report Electrodynamic Dust Shield
Carmody, Lynne M.; Boyette, Carl B.
2014-01-01
This report documents the Electromagnetic Interference E M I evaluation performed on the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) which is part of the MISSE-X System under the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. Measurements are performed to document the emissions environment associated with the EDS units. The purpose of this report is to collect all information needed to reproduce the testing performed on the Electrodynamic Dust Shield units, document data gathered during testing, and present the results. This document presents information unique to the measurements performed on the Bioculture Express Rack payload; using test methods prepared to meet SSP 30238 requirements. It includes the information necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer per work order number 1037104. The information presented herein should only be used to meet the requirements for which it was prepared.
Conceptual assessment tool for advanced undergraduate electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Baily
2017-09-01
Full Text Available As part of ongoing investigations into student learning in advanced undergraduate courses, we have developed a conceptual assessment tool for upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II: the Colorado UppeR-division ElectrodyNamics Test (CURrENT. This is a free response, postinstruction diagnostic with 6 multipart questions, an optional 3-question preinstruction test, and accompanying grading rubrics. The instrument’s development was guided by faculty-consensus learning goals and research into common student difficulties. It can be used to gauge the effectiveness of transformed pedagogy, and to gain insights into student thinking in the covered topic areas. We present baseline data representing 500 students across 9 institutions, along with validity, reliability, and discrimination measures of the instrument and scoring rubric.
Neutral Delay and a Generalization of Electrodynamics
De Luca, Jayme
2010-01-01
The equations for the electromagnetic two-body problem are neutral-delay equations that for generic initial data have solutions with discontinuous derivatives. If one wants to use these neutral-delay equations with arbitrary initial data, solutions with discontinuous derivatives must be allowed. Surprisingly, this same neutrality is compatible with the recently developed variational method with mixed-type boundaries for the Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics. We show that two-body electromagnetic orbits with discontinuous velocities are physically necessary by showing that orbits with vanishing far-fields amost everywhere must have some discontinuous velocities on a few points. We generalize the Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics with the variational method to include all continuous trajectories, allowing piecewise-differentiable weak solutions represented by trajectories with fields defined almost everywhere (but on a set of points of zero measure where velocities jump). Along with this generalization we formulate...
Radiative corrections in symmetrized classical electrodynamics
Van Meter JR; Kerman; Chen; Hartemann
2000-12-01
The physics of radiation reaction for a point charge is discussed within the context of classical electrodynamics. The fundamental equations of classical electrodynamics are first symmetrized to include magnetic charges: a double four-potential formalism is introduced, in terms of which the field tensor and its dual are employed to symmetrize Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force equation in covariant form. Within this framework, the symmetrized Dirac-Lorentz equation is derived, including radiation reaction (self-force) for a particle possessing both electric and magnetic charge. The connection with electromagnetic duality is outlined, and an in-depth discussion of nonlocal four-momentum conservation for the wave-particle system is given.
Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.
Segev, Reuven
2016-04-28
The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms.
Modified Nonlinear Model of Arcsin-Electrodynamics
Kruglov, S. I.
2016-07-01
A new modified model of nonlinear arcsin-electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed and analyzed. We obtain the corrections to the Coulomb law. The effect of vacuum birefringence takes place when the external constant magnetic field is present. We calculate indices of refraction for two perpendicular polarizations of electromagnetic waves and estimate bounds on the parameter γ from the BMV and PVLAS experiments. It is shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is finite at the origin. We calculate the finite static electric energy of point-like particles and demonstrate that the electron mass can have the pure electromagnetic nature. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. We show that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the model suggested. We have investigated the gauge covariant quantization of the nonlinear electrodynamics fields as well as the gauge fixing approach based on Dirac's brackets.
Students’ difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurens Bollen
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Understanding Maxwell’s equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell’s equations in electrodynamics.
Octonion wave equation and tachyon electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P S Bisht; O P S Negi
2009-09-01
The octonion wave equation is discussed to formulate the localization spaces for subluminal and superluminal particles. Accordingly, tachyon electrodynamics is established to obtain a consistent and manifestly covariant equation for superluminal electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the true localization space for bradyons (subluminal particles) is 4 - (three space and one time dimensions) space while that for the description of tachyons is 4 - (three time and one space dimensions) space.
Electrodynamics with a Future Conformal Horizon
Ibison, Michael
2010-01-01
We investigate the impact of singularities occurring at future times in solutions of the Friedmann equations expressed in conformal coordinates. We focus on the consequences of extending the time coordinate through the singularity for the physics of matter and radiation occupying just one side. Mostly this involves investigation of the relationship between the metric with line element ds^2 = a^2(t) * (dt^2 - dx^2) and time reversal symmetry within electrodynamics. It turns out compatibility b...
Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics
2015-01-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing ca...
Fundamental properties of devices for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær
This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of the influence of the electronphonon interaction on semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamical systems, specifically a quantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity. We develop a theoretical description of the decay dynamics of the quantum dot ...
Holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition with the nonlinear electrodynamics
Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Huan-Yu; Wu, Meng-Meng
2016-01-01
In the probe limit, we investigate the nonlinear electrodynamical effects of the both exponential form and the logarithmic form on the holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the background of a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole spacetime. Moreover, by comparing the exponential form of nonlinear electrodynamics with the logarithmic form of nonlinear electrodynamics and the Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics which has been presented in Ref.~\\cite{Wu:2016uyj}, we find that the higher nonlinear electrodynamics correction makes the critical temperature smaller and the magnetic moment harder form in the case without external field. Furthermore, the increase of nonlinear parameter b will result in extending the period of the external magnetic field. Especially, the effect of the exponential form of nonlinear electrodynamics on the periodicity of hysteresis loop is more noticeable.
Assimilative Mapping of Interhemispheric Polar Ionospheric Electrodynamics
Matsuo, T.; Richmond, A. D.; Knipp, D. J.; McGranaghan, R. M.
2015-12-01
The Earth's main magnetic field is asymmetric between hemispheres due to its non-dipolar component, leading to various hemispherical differences in the coupling among the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere. Manifestation of the asymmetric coupling through different electrodynamic parameters reported in past studies is considerably diverse. To fill the gap in our current understanding, obtained so far by analyzing individual parameters separately and comparing statistical behaviors of the parameters, we quantify the degree of instantaneous inter-hemispheric imbalance of electromagnetic energy deposition (Poynting flux), field-aligned currents, and convection electric fields though global and self-consistent analysis of electrodynamic variables at both polar regions, by means of data assimilation. Inter-hemispheric assimilative maps of different high-latitude electrodynamical parameters are obtained from simultaneous analysis of multiple types of space-based and ground-based observations made available though the AMPERE, SuperDARN, SuperMAG and DMSP programs with rigorous consideration of the uncertainty associated with each observation.
The ElectroDynamic Delivery Experiment (EDDE)
Pearson, Jerome; Levin, Eugene; Oldson, John; Carroll, Joseph
2001-02-01
The ElectroDynamic Delivery Experiment (EDDE) is proposed for a space demonstration. EDDE consists of an autonomous space vehicle powered by lightweight solar arrays, a bi-directional electrodynamic tether, and batteries for power leveling. The EDDE vehicle can modify its orbit repeatedly without rocket fuel, and can change all six orbital parameters by modulating and reversing the current flow in the conducting tether. The base spacecraft is connected to the service module by a 6-km-long electrodynamic tether, and is designed for 2 kW of power and a total mass of 180 kg. Tether lifetime of several years is achieved with a two-strand caduceus, with the strands connected every few meters. Tether libration is minimized by mass distribution and by active current control. The vehicle and tether system concepts are developed, the operational envelopes are examined, and potential applications are evaluated. The EDDE vehicle is about twice as fast as ion rockets for high-inclination orbital plane changes, and has much higher maximum delta-V capability. A proof-of-concept experiment is proposed for a low-cost space demonstration. This on-orbit experiment could include additional secondary payloads; for example, EDDE could place low-ΔV, free-flying inspectors into arbitrary orbits from which they could approach selected objects without concern for tether dynamics or interference. .
Electrodynamics of a Cosmic Dark Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander B. Balakin
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Cosmic Dark Fluid is considered as a non-stationary medium, in which electromagnetic waves propagate, and magneto-electric field structures emerge and evolve. A medium-type representation of the Dark Fluid allows us to involve in its analysis the concepts and mathematical formalism elaborated in the framework of classical covariant electrodynamics of continua, and to distinguish dark analogs of well-known medium-effects, such as optical activity, pyro-electricity, piezo-magnetism, electro- and magneto-striction and dynamo-optical activity. The Dark Fluid is assumed to be formed by a duet of a Dark Matter (a pseudoscalar axionic constituent and Dark Energy (a scalar element; respectively, we distinguish electrodynamic effects induced by these two constituents of the Dark Fluid. The review contains discussions of 10 models, which describe electrodynamic effects induced by Dark Matter and/or Dark Energy. The models are accompanied by examples of exact solutions to the master equations, correspondingly extended; applications are considered for cosmology and space-times with spherical and pp-wave symmetries. In these applications we focused the attention on three main electromagnetic phenomena induced by the Dark Fluid: first, emergence of Longitudinal Magneto-Electric Clusters; second, generation of anomalous electromagnetic responses; third, formation of Dark Epochs in the Universe history.
Simulating a toy model of electrodynamics in (1 + 1) dimensions
Boozer, A. D.
2009-01-01
We show how to simulate a toy model of electrodynamics in (1+1) dimensions and describe several numerical experiments. The toy model is much simpler than ordinary electrodynamics, but shares many of the same physical features. For example, there are analogs to the electric and magnetic fields, and these fields generate forces between charged particles and support freely propagating radiation. Unlike electrodynamics, however, the toy model is not Lorentz invariant, gives an attractive force be...
The quantum theory of nonlinear optics
Drummond, Peter D
2014-01-01
Playing a prominent role in communications, quantum science and laser physics, quantum nonlinear optics is an increasingly important field. This book presents a self-contained treatment of field quantization and covers topics such as the canonical formalism for fields, phase-space representations and the encompassing problem of quantization of electrodynamics in linear and nonlinear media. Starting with a summary of classical nonlinear optics, it then explains in detail the calculation techniques for quantum nonlinear optical systems and their applications, quantum and classical noise sources in optical fibers and applications of nonlinear optics to quantum information science. Supplemented by end-of-chapter exercises and detailed examples of calculation techniques in different systems, this book is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, condensed matter physics, quantum information and atomic physics. A solid foundation in quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;
2013-01-01
We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods...
Prytz, Kjell
2015-01-01
This book is intended as an undergraduate textbook in electrodynamics at basic or advanced level. The objective is to attain a general understanding of the electrodynamic theory and its basic experiments and phenomena in order to form a foundation for further studies in the engineering sciences as well as in modern quantum physics. The outline of the book is obtained from the following principles: • Base the theory on the concept of force and mutual interaction • Connect the theory to experiments and observations accessible to the student • Treat the electric, magnetic and inductive phenomena cohesively with respect to force, energy, dipoles and material • Present electrodynamics using the same principles as in the preceding mechanics course • Aim at explaining that theory of relativity is based on the magnetic effect • Introduce field theory after the basic phenomena have been explored in terms of forc...
Plasmon-coupled resonance energy transfer: A real-time electrodynamics approach.
Ding, Wendu; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Schatz, George C
2017-02-14
This paper presents a new real-time electrodynamics approach for determining the rate of resonance energy transfer (RET) between two molecules in the presence of plasmonic or other nanostructures (inhomogeneous absorbing and dispersive media). In this approach to plasmon-coupled resonance energy transfer (PC-RET), we develop a classical electrodynamics expression for the energy transfer matrix element which is evaluated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to solve Maxwell's equations for the electric field generated by the molecular donor and evaluated at the position of the molecular acceptor. We demonstrate that this approach yields RET rates in homogeneous media that are in precise agreement with analytical theory based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In the presence of gold nanoparticles, our theory shows that the long-range decay of the RET rates can be significantly modified by plasmon excitation, with rates increased by as much as a factor of 10(6) leading to energy transfer rates over hundreds of nm that are comparable to that over tens of nm in the absence of the nanoparticles. These promising results suggest important future applications of the PC-RET in areas involving light harvesting or sensing, where energy transfer processes involving inhomogeneous absorbing and dispersive media are commonplace.
Zimanyi, Eric N; Silbey, Robert J
2010-10-14
Recent experiments on resonance energy transfer (RET) in photosynthetic systems have found evidence of quantum coherence between the donor and the acceptor. Under these conditions, Förster's theory of RET is no longer applicable and no theory of coherent RET advanced to date rivals the intuitive simplicity of Förster's theory. Here, we develop a framework for understanding RET that is based on classical electrodynamics but still captures the essence of the quantum coherence between the molecules. Our theory requires only a knowledge of the complex polarizabilities of the two molecules participating in the transfer as well as the distance between them. We compare our results to quantum mechanical calculations and show that the results agree quantitatively.
Effects of Interaction Between Gravitation and Nonlinear Electrodynamics On Scalar Field Evolution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ju-Hua; WANG Yong-Jiu
2011-01-01
In this paper we investigate the scalar field evolution in the dyadosphere spacetime by using the third-order WKB approximation.We find that the coupling term between the gravitation and the nonlinear electrodynamics makes the scalar field decay more quickly and it also makes the scalar field oscillate more slowly.On the other words, this coupling term takes effect on the scalar field evolution as a damping factor.At the same time these effects become more obvious for the scalar field with higher angle quantum number.
Electrodynamics in Non-commutative Curved Space Time
Jafari, Abolfazl
2009-01-01
We study the issue of the electrodynamics theory in noncommutative curved space time (NCCST) with a new star-product. In this paper, the motion equation of electrodynamics and canonical energy-momentum tensor in noncommutative curved space time will be found. The most important point is the assumption of the noncommutative parameter ($\\theta$) be $x^{\\m}$-independent.
On the initial value formulation of classical electrodynamics
Deckert, Dirk-André; Hartenstein, Vera
2016-11-01
We describe a seemingly un-noticed feature of the text-book Maxwell–Lorentz system of classical electrodynamics which challenges its formulation in terms of an initial value problem. For point-charges, even after appropriate renormalization, we demonstrate that most of the generic initial data evolves to develop singularities in the electromagnetic fields along the light cones of the initial charge positions. We provide explicit formulas for the corresponding fields, demonstrate how this phenomenon renders the initial value problem ill-posed, and show how such bad initial data can be ruled out by extra conditions in addition to the Maxwell constraints. These extra conditions, however, require knowledge of the history of the solution and, as we discuss, effectively turn the Maxwell–Lorentz system into a system of delay equations much like the Fokker–Schwarzschild–Tetrode equations. For extended charges such singular light fronts persist in a smoothened form and, as we argue, yield physically doubtful solutions. Our results also apply to some extent to expectation values of field operators in quantum field theory.
Chemical Principle and PDE of Variational Electrodynamics
De Luca, Jayme
2016-01-01
We study the problem of selecting a bounded two-body orbit exerting a vanishing electrical force on a third charge located outside a core region. The former infinite-dimensional PDE problem is called here the Chemical principle for the hydrogenoid atom of variational electrodynamics. For orbits with velocity discontinuities satisfying mild conditions at breaking points we introduce the delay and synchronization functions and prove a musical Lemma of synchronization-at-a-distance. We derive the leading PDE of the Chemical principle by removing the accelerations using the equations of motion approximated by keeping only the terms with the most singular denominators.
Equations of motion for variational electrodynamics
De Luca, Jayme
2016-04-01
We extend the variational problem of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics by generalizing the electromagnetic functional to a local space of absolutely continuous trajectories possessing a derivative (velocities) of bounded variation. We show here that the Gateaux derivative of the generalized functional defines two partial Lagrangians for variations in our generalized local space, one for each particle. We prove that the critical-point conditions of the generalized variational problem are: (i) the Euler-Lagrange equations must hold Lebesgue-almost-everywhere and (ii) the momentum of each partial Lagrangian and the Legendre transform of each partial Lagrangian must be absolutely continuous functions, generalizing the Weierstrass-Erdmann conditions.
Limits on Non-Linear Electrodynamics
Fouché, M; Rizzo, C
2016-01-01
In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test non-linear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.
Topics In Gauge Theory (effective Action, Quantum Electrodynamics, Chern Simons)
Hall, T M
1998-01-01
This dissertation will present studies in three distinct areas of gauge theories. In Chern-Simons theories, the fate of the quantized Chern-Simons coupling constant upon renormalization of the theory is investigated. We find the Chern-Simons coupling constant remains quantized in the presence of residual non-abelian gauge symmetry. A two-flavor model of fermions is studied to determine the extent at which the vacuum condensate is locally proportional to the magnetic field. We find the proportionality is local in the limit of large flux. Using resolvent techniques, we find the exact effective action in a single pulsed electric background gauge field $E\\sb1$(t) = Esech $\\sp2$($t\\over r$). We derive the zero and first order derivative expansion for this electric field and compare with our exact results. Dispersion relations between the real and imaginary parts of the exact effective action are derived. In a uniform semi-classical approximation, we find the exact effective action for a spatially homogeneous backg...
Test of quantum-electrodynamical corrections in muonic atoms
Walter, H K; Böhm, F; Engfer, R; Link, R; Michaelsen, R; Petitjean, C; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Schröder, W U; Von Gunten, A H; Vuilleumier, J H; Zehnder, A
1972-01-01
Energies of the 5f-4f muonic X-rays have been measured in /sup nat/Hg and /sup 203/Tl with an accuracy of about 25 eV. They are found to be smaller than theoretical energies including recently revised calculations of higher-order vacuum polarization, by about two standard deviations. (10 refs).
Finiteness of the vacuum energy density in quantum electrodynamics
Manoukian, Edward B.
1983-03-01
Recent interest in the finiteness problem of the vacuum energy density (VED) in finite QED has motivated us to reexamine this problem in the light of an analysis we have carried out earlier. By a loopwise summation procedure, supplemented by a renormalization-group analysis, we study the finiteness of the VED with α, the renormalized fine-structure constant, fixed in the process as the (infinite order) zero of the eigenvalue condition F[1](x)|x=α=0∞, and with the electron mass totally dynamical of origin. We propose a possible finite solution for the VED in QED which may require only one additional eigenvalue condition for α.
Preparation of W state in resonant bimodal cavity quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
A scheme is proposed for generating entangled W states with four cavity modes. In this scheme, we send a Ⅴ-type three-level atom through two identical two-mode cavities in succession. After the atom exits from the second cavity,the four cavity modes are prepared in the W state. On the other hand we can obtain three-atom W states by sending three Ⅴ-type three-level atoms through a two-mode cavity in turn. The present scheme does not require conditional measurement, and it is easily generalized to preparing 2n-mode W states and n-atom W states.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals
Vos, W L
2015-01-01
This paper gives an overview of recent work on three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with a "full and complete" 3D photonic band gap. We review five main aspects: 1) spontaneous emission inhibition, 2) spatial localization of light within a tiny nanoscale volume (aka "a nanobox for light"), 3) the introduction of a gain medium leading to thresholdless lasers, 4) breaking of the weak-coupling approximation of cavity QED, both in the frequency and in the time-domain, 5) decoherence, in particular the shielding of vacuum fluctuations by a 3D photonic bandgap. In addition, we list and evaluate all known photonic crystal structures with a demonstrated 3D band gap.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guerlin, Christine; Brion, Etienne; Esslinger, Tilman
2010-01-01
The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly......> and the collectively excited state |E> with a single Rydberg excitation distributed evenly on all atoms. The collectively enhanced coupling of all atoms to the cavity field with coherent coupling strengths which are much larger than the decay rates in the system leads to the strong coupling regime of the resulting...
The confined hydrogenoid ion in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics
Amour, L
2006-01-01
We consider a system of a nucleus with an electron together with the quantized electromagnetic field. Instead of fixing the nucleus, the system is confined by its center of mass. This model is used in theoretical physics to explain the Lamb-Dicke and the M\\"ossbauer effects (see [CTDRG]). When an ultraviolet cut-off is imposed we initiate the spectral analysis of the Hamiltonian describing the system and we derive the existence of a ground state. This is achieved without conditions on the fine structure constant. [CTDRG] C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc and G. Grynberg. Processus d'interaction entre photons et atomes. Edition du CNRS, 2001.
Ambiguities in the gravitational correction of quantum electrodynamics running coupling
Felipe, J C C; Brito, L C T; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, M C
2012-01-01
We verify that quadratic divergences stemming from gravitational corrections to QED which have been conjectured to lead to asymptotic freedom near Planck scale are arbitrary (regularization dependent) and compatible with zero. Moreover we explicitly show that such arbitrary term contributes to the beta function of QED in a gauge dependent way in the gravitational sector.
Quantum electrodynamics in the squeezed vacuum state Electron mass shift
Putz, V; Putz, Volkmar; Svozil, Karl
2001-01-01
Due to the nonvanishing average photon population of the squeezed vacuum state, finite corrections to the scattering matrix are obtained. The lowest order contribution to the electron mass shift for a one mode squeezed vacuum state is given by $\\delta m(\\Omega, s)/m=\\alpha (2/\\pi)(\\Omega /m)^2\\sinh^2(s)$, where $\\Omega$ and $s$ stand for the mode frequency and the squeeze parameter and $\\alpha$ for the fine structure constant, respectively.
Inducing nonclassical lasing via periodic drivings in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; García-Ripoll, Juan José; Porras, Diego
2014-11-01
We show how a pair of superconducting qubits coupled to a microwave cavity mode can be used to engineer a single-atom laser that emits light into a nonclassical state. Our scheme relies on the dressing of the qubit-field coupling by periodic modulations of the qubit energy. In the dressed basis, the radiative decay of the first qubit becomes an effective incoherent pumping mechanism that injects energy into the system, hence turning dissipation to our advantage. A second, auxiliary qubit is used to shape the decay within the cavity, in such a way that lasing occurs in a squeezed basis of the cavity mode. We characterize the system both by mean-field theory and exact calculations. Our work may find applications in the generation of squeezing and entanglement in circuit QED, as well as in the study of dissipative few- and many-body phase transitions.
Three-qubit Fredkin gate based on cavity quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shao Xiao-Qiang; Chen Li; Zhang Shou
2009-01-01
This paper presents a scheme for implementing a Fredkin gate on three modes of a cavity.The scheme is based on the dispersive atom-cavity interaction.By modulating the cavity frequency and the atomic transition frequency appropriately,it obtains the effective form of nonlinear interaction between photons in the three-mode cavity.This availability is testified via numerical analysis.It also considers both the situations with and without dissipation.
A Note on Polarization Vectors in Quantum Electrodynamics
Lieb, Elliott H.; Loss, Michael
2004-12-01
A photon of momentum k can have only two polarization states, not three. Equivalently, one can say that the magnetic vector potential A must be divergence-free in the Coulomb gauge. These facts are normally taken into account in QED by introducing two polarization vectors ɛλ(k) with λ ∈ {1,2}, which are orthogonal to the wave-vector k. These vectors must be very discontinuous functions of k and, consequently, their Fourier transforms have bad decay properties. Since these vectors have no physical significance there must be a way to eliminate them and their bad decay properties from the theory. We propose such a way here.
The universal expression for the amplitude square in quantum electrodynamics
Karplyuk, K S
2015-01-01
The universal expression for the amplitude square |u_f M u_i|^2 for any matrix of interaction M is derived. It has obvious covariant form. It allows the avoidance of calculation of products of the Dirac's matrices traces and allows easy calculation of cross-sections of any different processes with polarized and unpolarized particles.
Josephson Parametric Amplification for Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory and Implementation
2013-05-01
with greater size than 0.5 micron per cubic foot of air . 4.1 Design and Fabrication 63 G0 G0 G0 F0 E0 E0 D0 C0 B0 A0 G0 G0 G0 F0 E0 E0 D0 C0 B0 A0 G1 G1...for 3 hours at 70 ◦C. Care must be taken to make sure the acetone does not evaporate and expose the chip to air , as liftoff can be difficult or...Third Edition, 2003). [62] M. Göppl, A. Fragner, M. Baur, R. Bianchetti, S. Filipp, J. M. Fink, P. J. Leek, G. Puebla , L. Steffen, and A. Wallraff
A reformulation of mechanics and electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario J. Pinheiro
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Classical mechanics, as commonly taught in engineering and science, are confined to the conventional Newtonian theory. But classical mechanics has not really changed in substance since Newton formulation, describing simultaneous rotation and translation of objects with somewhat complicate drawbacks, risking interpretation of forces in non-inertial frames. In this work we introduce a new variational principle for out-of-equilibrium, rotating systems, obtaining a set of two first order differential equations that introduces a thermodynamic-mechanistic time into Newton's dynamical equation, and revealing the same formal symplectic structure shared by classical mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. The results is a more consistent formulation of dynamics and electrodynamics, explaining natural phenomena as the outcome from a balance between energy and entropy, embedding translational with rotational motion into a single equation, showing centrifugal and Coriolis force as derivatives from the transport of angular momentum, and offering a natural method to handle variational problems, as shown with the brachistochrone problem. In consequence, a new force term appears, the topological torsion current, important for spacecraft dynamics. We describe a set of solved problems showing the potential of a competing technique, with significant interest to electrodynamics as well. We expect this new approach to have impact in a large class of scientific and technological problems.
A reformulation of mechanics and electrodynamics.
Pinheiro, Mario J
2017-07-01
Classical mechanics, as commonly taught in engineering and science, are confined to the conventional Newtonian theory. But classical mechanics has not really changed in substance since Newton formulation, describing simultaneous rotation and translation of objects with somewhat complicate drawbacks, risking interpretation of forces in non-inertial frames. In this work we introduce a new variational principle for out-of-equilibrium, rotating systems, obtaining a set of two first order differential equations that introduces a thermodynamic-mechanistic time into Newton's dynamical equation, and revealing the same formal symplectic structure shared by classical mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. The results is a more consistent formulation of dynamics and electrodynamics, explaining natural phenomena as the outcome from a balance between energy and entropy, embedding translational with rotational motion into a single equation, showing centrifugal and Coriolis force as derivatives from the transport of angular momentum, and offering a natural method to handle variational problems, as shown with the brachistochrone problem. In consequence, a new force term appears, the topological torsion current, important for spacecraft dynamics. We describe a set of solved problems showing the potential of a competing technique, with significant interest to electrodynamics as well. We expect this new approach to have impact in a large class of scientific and technological problems.
Electrodynamics with a Future Conformal Horizon
Ibison, Michael
2010-12-01
We investigate the impact of singularities occurring at future times in the Friedmann equations expressed in conformal coordinates to determine the consequences of extending the time coordinate through the singularity for the physics of matter and radiation occupying just one side. Mostly this involves investigation of the relationship between the metric with line element ds2 = a2(t)(dt2-dx2) and time reversal symmetry within electrodynamics. It turns out compatibility between these two is possible only if there is a singular physical event at the time of the singularity or if the topology is not trivial. In both cases the singularity takes on the appearance of a time-like mirror. We are able to demonstrate a relationship between the broken time symmetry in electrodynamics characterized by retarded radiation and radiation reaction and the absolute conformal time relative to the time of the singularity, i.e. between the Electromagnetic and Cosmological arrows of time. It is determined that the Wheeler-Feynman reasoning but with the future absorber replaced by the Cosmological mirror leads to a conflict with observation unless matter is strongly bound electromagnetically to the environment.
Electrodynamics with a Future Conformal Horizon
Ibison, Michael
2010-01-01
We investigate the impact of singularities occurring at future times in solutions of the Friedmann equations expressed in conformal coordinates. We focus on the consequences of extending the time coordinate through the singularity for the physics of matter and radiation occupying just one side. Mostly this involves investigation of the relationship between the metric with line element ds^2 = a^2(t) * (dt^2 - dx^2) and time reversal symmetry within electrodynamics. It turns out compatibility between these two is possible only if there is a singular physical event at the time of the singularity or if the topology is not trivial. In both cases the singularity takes on the appearance of a time-like mirror. We are able to demonstrate a relationship between the broken time symmetry in electrodynamics characterized by retarded radiation and radiation reaction and the absolute conformal time relative to the time of the singularity, i.e. between the Electromagnetic and Cosmological arrows of time. It is determined tha...
On Frame-Invariance in Electrodynamics
Romano, Giovanni
2012-01-01
The Faraday and Ampere-Maxwell laws of electrodynamics in space-time manifold are formulated in terms of differential forms and exterior and Lie derivatives. Due to their natural behavior with respect to push-pull operations, these geometric objects are the suitable tools to deal with the space-time observer split of the events manifold and with frame-invariance properties. Frame-invariance is investigated in complete generality, referring to any automorphic transformation in space-time, in accord with the spirit of general relativity. A main result of the new geometric theory is the assessment of frame-invariance of space-time electromagnetic differential forms and induction laws and of their spatial counterparts under any change of frame. This target is reached by a suitable extension of the formula governing the correspondence between space-time and spatial differential forms in electrodynamics to take relative motions in due account. The result modifies the statement made by Einstein in the 1905 paper on ...
Quantum Simulator for Transport Phenomena in Fluid Flows
Mezzacapo, A; Lamata, L; Egusquiza, I L; Succi, S; Solano, E
2015-01-01
Transport phenomena are one of the most challenging problems in computational physics. We present a quantum simulator based on pseudospin-boson quantum systems, which is suitable for encoding fluid dynamics problems within a lattice kinetic formalism. This quantum simulator is obtained by exploiting the analogies between Dirac and lattice Boltzmann equations. It is shown that both the streaming and collision processes of lattice Boltzmann dynamics can be implemented with controlled quantum operations, using a heralded quantum protocol to encode non-unitary scattering processes. The proposed simulator is amenable to realization in controlled quantum platforms, such as ion-trap quantum computers or circuit quantum electrodynamics processors.
Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory, the Einstein-Podolski-Rosen paradox, and stochastic electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imaeda, K. (Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland)); Imaeda, M. (IFUP, Dublin (Ireland))
1982-04-04
The classical Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory with a postulate of Lorentz-invariant zero-point electromagnetic radiation is proposed to explain quantum phenomena in a similar manner to that of stochastic electrodynamics. For this purpose, Cramer's model (Phys. Rev.; D22:362 (1980)) of a 'minimum emitter-absorber transaction' is extended to the case where zero-point radiation exists, in the context of the classical Wheeler-Feynman theory. The Einstein-Podolski-Rosen paradox and the quantum levels of a charged simple harmonic oscillator are derived from the theory. It is shown that the condition for a transaction plays an essential role, such as in the radiative balance of a simple harmonic oscillator.
Judge, A C; Sipe, J E; de Sterke, C M
2012-01-01
We present a canonical quantization of macroscopic electrodynamics. The results apply to inhomogeneous media with a broad class of linear magneto-electric responses which are consistent with the Kramers-Kronig and Onsager relations. Through its ability to accommodate strong dispersion and loss, our theory provides a rigorous foundation for the study of quantum optical processes in structures incorporating metamaterials, provided these may be modeled as magneto-electric media. Previous canonical treatments of dielectric and magneto-dielectric media have expressed the electromagnetic field operators in either a Green function or mode expansion representation. Here we present our results in the mode expansion picture with a view to applications in guided wave and cavity quantum optics.
Mignani, R; Cardone, F
2011-01-01
We report and discuss the results of double-slit-like experiments in the infrared range, which evidence an anomalous behaviour of photon systems under particular (energy and space) constraints. These outcomes apparently disagree both with standard quantum mechanics (Copenhagen interpretation) and with classical and quantum electrodynamics. Possible interpretations can be given in terms of either the existence of de Broglie-Bohm pilot waves associated to photons, and/or the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance (LLI). We put forward an intriguing hypothesis about the possible connection between these seemingly unrelated points of view by assuming that the pilot wave of a photon is, in the framework of LLI breakdown, a local deformation of the flat minkowskian spacetime.
Multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing
Brecht, Teresa; Pfaff, Wolfgang; Wang, Chen; Chu, Yiwen; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.
2016-02-01
As experimental quantum information processing (QIP) rapidly advances, an emerging challenge is to design a scalable architecture that combines various quantum elements into a complex device without compromising their performance. In particular, superconducting quantum circuits have successfully demonstrated many of the requirements for quantum computing, including coherence levels that approach the thresholds for scaling. However, it remains challenging to couple a large number of circuit components through controllable channels while suppressing any other interactions. We propose a hardware platform intended to address these challenges, which combines the advantages of integrated circuit fabrication and the long coherence times achievable in three-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics. This multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuit platform provides a path towards the realisation of increasingly complex superconducting devices in pursuit of a scalable quantum computer.
Student difficulties with Boundary Conditions in electrodynamics
Ryan, Qing X; Wilcox, Bethany R
2015-01-01
Boundary conditions (BCs) are considered as an important topic that advanced physics under- graduates are expected to understand and apply. We report findings from an investigation of student difficulties using boundary conditions (BCs) in electrodynamics. Our data sources include student responses to traditional exam questions, conceptual survey questions, and think-aloud interviews. The analysis was guided by an analytical framework that characterizes how students activate, con- struct, execute, and reflect on boundary conditions. Common student difficulties include: activating boundary conditions in appropriate contexts; constructing a complex expression for the E&M waves; mathematically simplifying complex exponentials and checking if the reflection and transmission co- efficient are physical. We also present potential pedagogical implications based on our observations.
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)
2017-04-15
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics. (orig.)
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2017-04-01
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics.
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: New perspectives
Cabral, Francisco
2016-01-01
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and GW have a special relevance since it might open new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provide information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information of the GW which generates them. We also show very briefly the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GW and the implications for astrophysics.
Electrostatics in Stueckelberg-Horwitz-Piron Electrodynamics
Land, Martin
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study fundamental aspects of electrostatics as a special case in Stueckelberg-Horwitz electromagnetic theory. In this theory, spacetime events $x^\\mu(\\tau)$ evolve in an unconstrained 8-dimensional phase space, interacting through five $\\tau$-dependent gauge fields induced by the current densities associated with their evolutions. The chronological time $\\tau$ was introduced as an independent evolution parameter in order to free the laboratory clock $x^0$ to evolve alternately 'forward' and 'backward' in time according to the sign of the energy, thus providing a classical implementation of the Feynman-Stueckelberg interpretation of pair creation/annihilation. The resulting theory differs in its underlying mechanics from conventional electromagnetism, but coincides with Maxwell theory in an equilibrium limit. After a brief review of Stueckelberg-Horwitz electrodynamics, we obtain the field produced by an event in uniform motion and verify that it satisfies the field equations. We study this f...
Electrodynamics of surface-enhanced Raman scattering
Adles, E J; Aspnes, D E
2011-01-01
We examine SERS from two perspectives: as a phenomenon described by the Laplace Equation (the electrostatic or Rayleigh limit) and by the Helmholtz Equation (electrodynamic or Mie limit). We formulate the problem in terms of the scalar potential, which simplifies calculations without introducing approximations. Because scattering is not usually calculated this way, we provide the necessary theoretical justification showing that the scalar-potential description is complete. Additional simplifications result from treating the scatterer as a point charge q instead of a dipole. This allows us to determine the consequences of including the longitudinal (Coulomb) interaction between q and a passive resonator. This interaction suppresses the mathematical singularities that lead to the unphysical resonant infinities in first and second enhancements. It also modifies the effective restoring-force constant of a resonant denominator, which permits us to explore the possibility of dual resonance through a molecular pathw...
Electrodynamics and spacetime geometry I: Foundations
Cabral, Francisco
2016-01-01
We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We briefly review the foundations of electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations which introduce the spacetime metric. We then proceed with the tensor formulation by assuming local, linear, homogeneous and isotropic constitutive relations, and explore the physical, observable consequences of Maxwell's equations in curved spacetime. The field equations, charge conservation and the Lorentz force are explicitly expressed in general (pseudo) Riemanian manifolds. The generalized Gauss and Maxwell-Amp\\`{e}re laws, as well as the wave equations, reveal potentially interesting astrophysical applications. In all cases new ele...
Enhancing nanoparticle electrodynamics with gold nanoplate mirrors.
Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Manna, Uttam; Shah, Raman A; Scherer, Norbert F
2014-05-14
Mirrors and optical cavities can modify and enhance matter-radiation interactions. Here we report that chemically synthesized Au nanoplates can serve as micrometer-size mirrors that enhance electrodynamic interactions. Because of their plasmonic properties, the Au nanoplates enhance the brightness of scattered light from Ag nanoparticles near the nanoplate surface in dark-field microscopy. More importantly, enhanced optical trapping and optical binding of Ag nanoparticles are demonstrated in interferometric optical traps created from a single laser beam and its reflection from individual Au nanoplates. The enhancement of the interparticle force constant is ≈20-fold more than expected from the increased intensity due to standing wave interference. We show that the additional stability for optical binding arises from the restricted axial thermal motion of the nanoparticles that couples to and reduces the fluctuations in the lateral plane. This new mechanism greatly advances the photonic synthesis of ultrastable nanoparticle arrays and investigation of their properties.
Nonlinear electrodynamics is skilled with knots
Goulart, E.
2016-07-01
The aim of this letter is threefold: First is to show that nonlinear generalizations of electrodynamics support various types of knotted solutions in vacuum. The solutions are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the specific Lagrangian density, at least if the latter gives rise to a well-posed theory. Second, is to describe the interaction between probe waves and knotted background configurations. We show that the qualitative behaviour of this interaction may be described in terms of Robinson congruences, which appear explicitly in the causal structure of the theory. Finally, we argue that optical arrangements endowed with intense background fields could be the natural place to look for the knots experimentally.
Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications
Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Olsen, Robert C.; Raines, Matthew G.; Phillips, James R., III; Cox, Rachel E.; Hogue, Michael D.; Pollard, Jacob R. S.; Calle, Carlos I.
2016-01-01
Dust mitigation technology has been highlighted by NASA and the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. Further development is underway to improve the operation and reliability of the EDS as well as to perform material and component testing outside of the International Space Station (ISS) on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). This experiment is designed to verify that the EDS can withstand the harsh environment of space and will look to closely replicate the solar environment experienced on the Moon.
Modified nonlinear model of arcsin-electrodynamics
Kruglov, S I
2015-01-01
A new modified model of nonlinear arcsin-electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed and analyzed. We obtain the corrections to the Coulomb law. The effect of vacuum birefringence takes place when the external constant magnetic field is present. We calculate indices of refraction for two perpendicular polarizations of electromagnetic waves and estimate bounds on the parameter $\\gamma$ from the BMV and PVLAS experiments. It is shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is finite at the origin. We calculate the finite static electric energy of point-like particles and demonstrate that the electron mass can have the pure electromagnetic nature. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. We show that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the model suggested.
Causal structure and electrodynamics on Finsler spacetimes
Pfeifer, Christian; Wohlfarth, Mattias N. R.
2011-08-01
We present a concise new definition of Finsler spacetimes that generalizes Lorentzian metric manifolds and provides consistent backgrounds for physics. Extending standard mathematical constructions known from Finsler spaces, we show that geometric objects like the Cartan nonlinear connection and its curvature are well defined almost everywhere on Finsler spacetimes, including their null structure. This allows us to describe the complete causal structure in terms of timelike and null curves; these are essential to model physical observers and the propagation of light. We prove that the timelike directions form an open convex cone with a null boundary, as is the case in Lorentzian geometry. Moreover, we develop action integrals for physical field theories on Finsler spacetimes, and tools to deduce the corresponding equations of motion. These are applied to construct a theory of electrodynamics that confirms the claimed propagation of light along Finsler null geodesics.
Causal structure and electrodynamics on Finsler spacetimes
Pfeifer, Christian
2011-01-01
We present a concise new definition of Finsler spacetimes that generalize Lorentzian metric manifolds and provide consistent backgrounds for physics. Extending standard mathematical constructions known from Finsler spaces we show that geometric objects like the Cartan non-linear connection and its curvature are well-defined almost everywhere on Finsler spacetimes, also on their null structure. This allows us to describe the complete causal structure in terms of timelike and null curves; these are essential to model physical observers and the propagation of light. We prove that the timelike directions form an open convex cone with null boundary as is the case in Lorentzian geometry. Moreover, we develop action integrals for physical field theories on Finsler spacetimes, and tools to deduce the corresponding equations of motion. These are applied to construct a theory of electrodynamics that confirms the claimed propagation of light along Finsler null geodesics.
Nonlinear electrodynamics is skilled with knots
Goulart, E
2016-01-01
The aims of this letter are three-fold: First is to show that nonlinear generalizations of electrodynamics support various types of knotted solutions in vacuum. The solutions are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the specific Lagrangian density, at least if the latter gives rise to a well-posed theory. Second is to describe the interaction between probe waves and knotted background configurations. We show that the qualitative behaviour of this interaction may be described in terms of Robinson congruences, which appear explicitly in the causal structure of the theory. Finally, we argue that optical arrangements endowed with intense background fields could be the natural place to look for the knots experimentally.
Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics
Bers, Abraham
2016-01-01
Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...
The Earth's ionosphere plasma physics and electrodynamics
Kelley, Michael C
2007-01-01
Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework.
Electrodynamics of ionospheric weather over low latitudes
Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali
2016-12-01
The dynamic state of the ionosphere at low latitudes is largely controlled by electric fields originating from dynamo actions by atmospheric waves propagating from below and the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction from above. These electric fields cause structuring of the ionosphere in wide ranging spatial and temporal scales that impact on space-based communication and navigation systems constituting an important segment of our technology-based day-to-day lives. The largest of the ionosphere structures, the equatorial ionization anomaly, with global maximum of plasma densities can cause propagation delays on the GNSS signals. The sunset electrodynamics is responsible for the generation of plasma bubble wide spectrum irregularities that can cause scintillation or even disruptions of satellite communication/navigation signals. Driven basically by upward propagating tides, these electric fields can suffer significant modulations from perturbation winds due to gravity waves, planetary/Kelvin waves, and non-migrating tides, as recent observational and modeling results have demonstrated. The changing state of the plasma distribution arising from these highly variable electric fields constitutes an important component of the ionospheric weather disturbances. Another, often dominating, component arises from solar disturbances when coronal mass ejection (CME) interaction with the earth's magnetosphere results in energy transport to low latitudes in the form of storm time prompt penetration electric fields and thermospheric disturbance winds. As a result, drastic modifications can occur in the form of layer restructuring (Es-, F3 layers etc.), large total electron content (TEC) enhancements, equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) latitudinal expansion/contraction, anomalous polarization electric fields/vertical drifts, enhanced growth/suppression of plasma structuring, etc. A brief review of our current understanding of the ionospheric weather variations and the
A scheme for implementing quantum game in cavity QED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CaoShuai; Fang Mao-Fa; Liu Jian-Bin; Wang Xin-Wen; Zheng Xiao-juan
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme fot implementing quantum game (QG) in cavity quantum electrodynam-ics(QED). In the scheme, the cavity is only virtually excited and thus the proposal is insensitive to the cavity fields states and cavity decay. So our proposal can be experimentally realized in the range of current cavity QED techniques.
Scheme for implementing quantum secret sharing via cavity QED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Zhi-Hua; Lin Xiu-Min
2005-01-01
An experimentally feasible scheme for implementing quantum secret sharing via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is proposed. The scheme requires the large detuning of the cavity field from the atomic transition, the cavity is only virtually excited, thus the requirement on the quality factor of the cavity is greatly loosened.
Experimenting with Quantum Fields in Curved Spacetime in the Lab
Prémont-Schwarz, Isabeau
2011-01-01
In this paper we will investigate how one can create emergent curved spacetimes by locally tuning the coupling constants of condensed matter systems. In the continuum limit we thus obtain continuous effective quantum fields living on curved spacetimes. In particular, using Stingnet condensates we can obtain effective electromagnetism. We will show for example how we obtain quantum electrodynamics in a blackhole (Schwarzschild) spacetime.
Scheme for Implementation of Quantum Game in Cavity QED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li-Chun; CAO Shu-Ai; WU Yue-Qin; FANG Mao-Fa; LI Huai-Fan; ZHENG Xiao-Juan; ZHAO Ren; WANG Xin-Wen; LI Ze-Hua
2008-01-01
We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to implement two-player quantum game in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). During the process, the cavity is only virtually excited, thus our scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. The scheme can be realized in the range of current cavity QED techniques.
Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots.
Sothmann, Björn; Sánchez, Rafael; Jordan, Andrew N
2015-01-21
We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits
Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R.; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng
2016-07-01
Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present.
Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits.
Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng
2016-07-01
Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present.
Quantum State Transfer between Charge and Flux Qubits in Circuit-QED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Qin-Qin; LIAO Jie-Qiao; KUANG Le-Man
2008-01-01
@@ We propose a scheme to implement quantum state transfer in a hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED)system which consists of a superconducting charge qubit, a flux qubit, and a transmission line resonator (TLR).It is shown that quantum state transfer between the charge qubit and the flux qubit can be realized by using the TLR as the data bus.
Notes on holographic superconductor models with the nonlinear electrodynamics
Zhao, Zixu; Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang
2013-01-01
We investigate systematically the effect of the nonlinear correction to the usual Maxwell electrodynamics on the holographic dual models in the backgrounds of AdS black hole and AdS soliton. Considering three types of typical nonlinear electrodynamics, we observe that in the black hole background the higher nonlinear electrodynamics correction makes the condensation harder to form and changes the expected relation in the gap frequency, which is similar to that caused by the curvature correction. However, in strong contrast to the influence of the curvature correction, we find that in the AdS soliton background the nonlinear electrodynamics correction will not affect the properties of the holographic superconductor and insulator phase transitions, which may be a quite general feature for the s-wave holographic superconductor/insulator system.
Lorentz-violating electrodynamics and the cosmic microwave background.
Kostelecký, V Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2007-07-06
Possible Lorentz-violating effects in the cosmic microwave background are studied. We provide a systematic classification of renormalizable and nonrenormalizable operators for Lorentz violation in electrodynamics and use polarimetric observations to search for the associated violations.
Pulsar radiation in post-Maxwellian vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics
Denisov, V. I.; Shvilkin, B. N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Vasili'ev, M. I.
2016-08-01
The effects of nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics are most clearly pronounced in a strong electromagnetic field close to Schwinger limit. Electromagnetic fields of such intensity can be obtained in laboratory conditions only on very few extreme laser facilities and during a short time interval. At the same time, the astrophysical compact objects with a strong electromagnetic field such as pulsars and magnetars are the best suited to study the effects of nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics. We present analytical calculations for pulsar proper radiation in parametrized post-Maxwellian nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics. Based on the obtained solutions, the effect of nonlinear vacuum corrections to pulsar spin down is being investigated. The analysis of torque functions show that the nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics corrections to the electromagnetic radiation for some pulsars may be comparable to the energy loss by gravitational radiation.
Rapidly rotating pulsar radiation in vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics
Denisov, V I; Pimenov, A B; Sokolov, V A
2016-01-01
In this paper we investigate vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics corrections on rapidly rotating pulsar radiation and spin-down in the perturbative QED approach (post-Maxwellian approximation). An analytical expression for the pulsar's radiation intensity has been obtained and analyzed.
RF electrodynamics in small particles of oxides - a review
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Srinivasu, VV
2008-01-01
Full Text Available RF electrodynamics, particularly, the low field rf absorption in small superconducting and manganite particles is reviewed and compared with their respective bulk counterparts. Experimental and theoretical aspects of the small particle...
Quantum Simulator for Transport Phenomena in Fluid Flows.
Mezzacapo, A; Sanz, M; Lamata, L; Egusquiza, I L; Succi, S; Solano, E
2015-08-17
Transport phenomena still stand as one of the most challenging problems in computational physics. By exploiting the analogies between Dirac and lattice Boltzmann equations, we develop a quantum simulator based on pseudospin-boson quantum systems, which is suitable for encoding fluid dynamics transport phenomena within a lattice kinetic formalism. It is shown that both the streaming and collision processes of lattice Boltzmann dynamics can be implemented with controlled quantum operations, using a heralded quantum protocol to encode non-unitary scattering processes. The proposed simulator is amenable to realization in controlled quantum platforms, such as ion-trap quantum computers or circuit quantum electrodynamics processors.
Acceleration-Induced Nonlocal Electrodynamics in Minkowski Spacetime
Muench, U; Mashhoon, B; Muench, Uwe; Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram
2000-01-01
We discuss two nonlocal models of electrodynamics in which the nonlocality is induced by the acceleration of the observer. Such an observer actually measures an electromagnetic field that exhibits persistent memory effects. We compare Mashhoon's model with a new ansatz developed here in the framework of charge & flux electrodynamics with a constitutive law involving the Levi-Civita connection as seen from the observer's local frame and conclude that they are in partial agreement only for the case of constant acceleration.
Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects
2011-01-01
The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well ...
A conducting surface in Lee-Wick electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barone, F.A. [IFQ, Universidade Federal de Itajuba (Brazil); Nogueira, A.A. [IFT, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2015-07-15
Lee-Wick electrodynamics in the vicinity of a conducting plate is investigated. The propagator for the gauge field is calculated and the interaction between the plate and a point-like electric charge is computed. The boundary condition imposed on the vector field is taken to be the one that makes, on the plate, the normal component of the dual field strength to the plate vanish. It is shown that the image method is not valid in Lee-Wick electrodynamics. (orig.)
Generalized noise terms for the quantized fluctuational electrodynamics
Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka; Oksanen, Jani
2017-03-01
The quantization of optical fields in vacuum has been known for decades, but extending the field quantization to lossy and dispersive media in nonequilibrium conditions has proven to be complicated due to the position-dependent electric and magnetic responses of the media. In fact, consistent position-dependent quantum models for the photon number in resonant structures have only been formulated very recently and only for dielectric media. Here we present a general position-dependent quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that extends the consistent field quantization to describe the photon number also in the presence of magnetic field-matter interactions. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuations provide an additional degree of freedom in media where the magnetic coupling to the field is prominent. Therefore, the field quantization requires an additional independent noise operator that is commuting with the conventional bosonic noise operator describing the polarization current fluctuations in dielectric media. In addition to allowing the detailed description of field fluctuations, our methods provide practical tools for modeling optical energy transfer and the formation of thermal balance in general dielectric and magnetic nanodevices. We use QFED to investigate the magnetic properties of microcavity systems to demonstrate an example geometry in which it is possible to probe fields arising from the electric and magnetic source terms. We show that, as a consequence of the magnetic Purcell effect, the tuning of the position of an emitter layer placed inside a vacuum cavity can make the emissivity of a magnetic emitter to exceed the emissivity of a corresponding electric emitter.
Projected Dipole Model for Quantum Plasmonics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger
2015-01-01
Quantum effects of plasmonic phenomena have been explored through ab initio studies, but only for exceedingly small metallic nanostructures, leaving most experimentally relevant structures too large to handle. We propose instead an effective description with the computationally appealing features...... of classical electrodynamics, while quantum properties are described accurately through an infinitely thin layer of dipoles oriented normally to the metal surface. The nonlocal polarizability of the dipole layer-the only introduced parameter-is mapped from the free-electron distribution near the metal surface...... as obtained with 1D quantum calculations, such as time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), and is determined once and for all. The model can be applied in two and three dimensions to any system size that is tractable within classical electrodynamics, while capturing quantum plasmonic aspects...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheck, Florian [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik, Theoretische Elementarteilchenphysik
2013-11-01
New edition with added sections on nonlinear quantum mechanics and path integral methods in field theory. Contains an encyclopedic coverage from uncertainty relation to many-body systems, from symmetries to electroweak interation. Includes problems, partly with solutions, partly with hints towards solutions. Starting with basic principles and providing the framework all vital elements of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics are explained, even an introduction to quantum electrodynamics is included. Scheck's Quantum Physics presents a comprehensive introductory treatment, ideally suited for a two-semester course. Part One covers the basic principles and prime applications of quantum mechanics, from the uncertainty relations to many-body systems. Part Two introduces to relativistic quantum field theory and ranges from symmetries in quantum physics to electroweak interactions. Numerous worked-out examples as well as exercises, with solutions or hints, enables the book's use as an accompanying text for courses, and also for independent study. For both parts, the necessary mathematical framework is treated in adequate form and detail. The book ends with appendices covering mathematical fundamentals and enrichment topics, plus selected biographical notes on pioneers of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The new edition was thoroughly revised and now includes new sections on quantization using the path integral method and on deriving generalized path integrals for bosonic and fermionic fields.
Holographic thermalization with a chemical potential from Born-Infeld electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camilo, Giancarlo [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,C.P. 66318, CEP: 05315-970, São Paulo (Brazil); Cuadros-Melgar, Bertha [Escola de Engenharia de Lorena, Universidade de São Paulo,Estrada Municipal do Campinho S/N, CEP: 12602-810, Lorena (Brazil); Abdalla, Elcio [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,C.P. 66318, CEP: 05315-970, São Paulo (Brazil)
2015-02-16
The problem of holographic thermalization in the framework of Einstein gravity coupled to Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics is investigated. We use equal time two-point correlation functions and expectation values of Wilson loop operators in the boundary quantum field theory as probes of thermalization, which have dual gravity descriptions in terms of geodesic lengths and minimal area surfaces in the bulk spacetime. The full range of values of the chemical potential per temperature ratio μ/T on the boundary is explored. The numerical results show that the effect of the charge on the thermalization time is similar to the one obtained with Maxwell electrodynamics, namely the larger the charge the later thermalization occurs. The Born-Infeld parameter, on the other hand, has the opposite effect: the more nonlinear the theory is, the sooner it thermalizes. We also study the thermalization velocity and how the parameters affect the phase transition point separating the thermalization process into an accelerating phase and a decelerating phase.
The physical basis of ionospheric electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Vasyliūnas
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The conventional equations of ionospheric electrodynamics, highly succesful in modeling observed phenomena on sufficiently long time scales, can be derived rigorously from the complete plasma and Maxwell's equations, provided that appropriate limits and approximations are assumed. Under the assumption that a quasi-steady-state equilibrium (neglecting local dynamical terms and considering only slow time variations of external or aeronomic-process origin exists, the conventional equations specify how the various quantities must be related numerically. Questions about how the quantities are related causally or how the stress equilibrium is established and on what time scales are not anwered by the conventional equations but require the complete plasma and Maxwell's equations, and these lead to a picture of the underlying physical processes that can be rather different from the commonly presented intuitive or ad hoc explanations. Particular instances include the nature of the ionospheric electric current, the relation between electric field and plasma bulk flow, and the interrelationships among various quantities of neutral-wind dynamo.