DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter;
2010-01-01
treatments. A pronounced consequence is the emergence of a phonon induced spectral asymmetry when detuning the cavity from the quantum-dot resonance. The asymmetry can only be explained when considering the polaritonic quasiparticle nature of the quantum-dot-cavity system. Furthermore, a temperature induced......We investigate the influence of electron-phonon interactions on the dynamical properties of a quantum-dot-cavity QED system. We show that non-Markovian effects in the phonon reservoir lead to strong changes in the dynamics, arising from photon-assisted dephasing processes, not present in Markovian...
Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System
Tang, Jing; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay $g^{(2)}(0)$ in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum in...
Reducing dephasing in coupled quantum dot-cavity systems by engineering the carrier wavefunctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper
2012-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically how photon-assisted dephasing by the electron-phonon interaction in a coupled cavity-quantum dot system can be significantly reduced for specific QD-cavity detunings. Our starting point is a recently published theory,1 which considers longitudinal acoustic phonons, de...
Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot-cavity systems
Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, Alfred; Gregersen, Niels; Mørk, Jesper; Höfling, Sven; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin
2014-01-01
We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation...
Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot-cavity systems.
Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, Alfred; Gregersen, Niels; Mørk, Jesper; Höfling, Sven; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin
2014-04-01
We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g(2)(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission. PMID:24718190
Quantum Dot Cavity-QED in the Presence of Strong Electron-Phonon Interactions
Wilson-Rae, I
2001-01-01
A quantum dot strongly coupled to a single high finesse optical microcavity mode constitutes a new fundamental system for quantum optics. Here, the effect of exciton-phonon interactions on reversible quantum-dot cavity coupling is analysed without making Born-Markov approximation. The analysis is based on techniques that have been used to study the ``spin boson'' Hamiltonian. Observability of vacuum-Rabi splitting depends on the strength and the frequency dependence of the spectral density function characterizing the interactions with phonons, both of which can be influenced by phonon confinement.
Coupling and single-photon purity of a quantum dot-cavity system studied using hydrostatic pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, P. Y.; Wu, X. F.; Ding, K.; Dou, X. M.; Zha, G. W.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.; Zhu, H. J.; Jiang, D. S. [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, C. L. [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China); Sun, B. Q., E-mail: bqsun@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Information, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China)
2015-01-07
We propose an approach to tune the emission of a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD) to couple with a planar cavity using hydrostatic pressure without inducing temperature variation during the process of measurement. Based on this approach, we studied the influence of cavity mode on the single-photon purity of an InAs/GaAs QD. Our measurement demonstrates that the single-photon purity degrades when the QD emission resonates with the cavity mode. This negative influence of the planar cavity is mainly caused by the cavity feeding effect.
Zhou, Ben-yuan; Li, Gao-xiang
2016-09-01
We propose a rapid ground-state optomechanical cooling scheme in a hybrid system, where a two-level quantum dot (QD) is placed in a single-mode cavity and a nanomechanical resonator (NMR) is also coupled to the cavity via radiation pressure. The cavity is driven by a weak laser field while the QD is driven by another weak laser field. Due to the quantum destructive interference arisen from different transition channels induced by simultaneously driving the QD-cavity system in terms of the two different lasers, two-photon absorption for the cavity field can be effectively eliminated by performing an optimal quantum interference condition. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the QD-cavity system can be unbalancedly prepared in two single-polariton states with different eigenenergies. If the frequency of the NMR is tuned to be resonant with transition between two single-polariton states, it is found that a fast ground-state cooling for the NMR can also be achieved, even when the QD-cavity system is originally in the moderate-coupling regime. Thus the present ground-state cooling scheme for the NMR may be realized with currently available experimental technology.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;
2013-01-01
We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods...
All-optical tailoring of single-photon spectra in a quantum-dot microcavity system
Breddermann, Dominik; Heinze, Dirk; Binder, Rolf; Zrenner, Artur; Schumacher, Stefan
2016-01-01
Semiconductor quantum-dot cavity systems are promising sources for solid-state based on-demand generation of single photons for quantum communication. Commonly, the spectral characteristics of the emitted single photon are fixed by system properties such as electronic transition energies and spectral properties of the cavity. In the present work we study single-photon generation from the quantum-dot biexciton through a partly stimulated non-degenerate two-photon emission. We show that frequen...
All-optical tailoring of single-photon spectra in a quantum-dot microcavity system
Breddermann, Dominik; Binder, Rolf; Zrenner, Artur; Schumacher, Stefan
2016-01-01
Semiconductor quantum-dot cavity systems are promising sources for solid-state based on-demand generation of single photons for quantum communication. Commonly, the spectral characteristics of the emitted single photon are fixed by system properties such as electronic transition energies and spectral properties of the cavity. In the present work we study single-photon generation from the quantum-dot biexciton through a partly stimulated non-degenerate two-photon emission. We show that frequency and linewidth of the single photon can be fully controlled by the stimulating laser pulse, ultimately allowing for efficient all-optical spectral shaping of the single photon.
Fundamental properties of devices for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær
of the system, the effect of the phonon interaction is very pronounced. A simple approximate analytical expression for the quantum dot decay rate is derived, which predicts a strong asymmetry with respect to the quantum dot-cavity detuning at low temperatures, and allows for a clear interpretation...
Hughes, S
2011-01-01
The input/output characteristics of coherent photon transport through a semiconductor cavity system containing a single quantum dot is presented. The nonlinear quantum optics formalism uses a master equation approach and focuses on a waveguide-cavity system containing a semiconductor quantum dot; our general technique also applies to studying coherent reflection from a micropillar cavity. We investigate the effects of light propagation and show the need for quantized multiphoton effects for various dot-cavity systems, including weakly-coupled, intermediately-coupled, and strongly-coupled regimes. We demonstrate that for mean photon numbers much less than 0.1, the commonly adopted weak excitation (single quantum) approximation breaks down---even in the weak coupling regime. As a measure of the photon correlations, we compute the Fano factor and the error associated with making a semiclassical approximation. We also investigate the role of electron--acoustic-phonon scattering and show that phonon-mediated scatt...
Complete Coherent Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nanocavity
Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Vučković, Jelena
2016-04-01
Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in good agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms.
Complete Coherent Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nanocavity
Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Vučković, Jelena
2016-01-01
Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in good agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms. PMID:27112420
Ren, Bao-Cang; Wei, Hai-Rui; Hua, Ming; Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2012-10-22
Bell-state analysis (BSA) is essential in quantum communication, but it is impossible to distinguish unambiguously the four Bell states in the polarization degree of freedom (DOF) of two-photon systems with only linear optical elements, except for the case in which the BSA is assisted with hyperentangled states, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one DOF. Here, we propose a scheme to distinguish completely the 16 hyperentangled Bell states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode DOFs of two-photon systems, by using the giant nonlinear optics in quantum dot-cavity systems. This scheme can be applied to increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication based on hyperentanglement, such as entanglement swapping, teleportation, and superdense coding. We use hyperentanglement swapping as an example to show the application of this HBSA. PMID:23187229
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Mørk, Jesper
2013-01-01
We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods. An important finding is that short-time non-Markovian effects limit the maximal attainable indistinguishability. The results are explained using a polariton picture that yields valuable insight into the phonon...
Controlled Quantum Open Systems
Alicki, R
2003-01-01
The theory of controlled quantum open systems describes quantum systems interacting with quantum environments and influenced by external forces varying according to given algorithms. It is aimed, for instance, to model quantum devices which can find applications in the future technology based on quantum information processing. One of the main problems making difficult the practical implementations of quantum information theory is the fragility of quantum states under external perturbations. The aim of this note is to present the relevant results concerning ergodic properties of open quantum systems which are useful for the optimization of quantum devices and noise (errors) reduction. In particular we present mathematical characterization of the so-called "decoherence-free subspaces" for discrete and continuous-time quantum dynamical semigroups in terms of $C^*$-algebras and group representations. We analyze the non-Markovian models also, presenting the formulas for errors in the Born approximation. The obtain...
Characterization of strong light-matter coupling in semiconductor quantum-dot microcavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneebeli, L.; Kira, M.; Koch, S.W. [Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-University, Marburg (Germany)
2009-02-15
Maxwell-Bloch and luminescence equations are presented which describe vacuum Rabi splitting and the quantum rungs on the Jaynes-Cummings ladder for strongly-coupled dot-cavity systems. Resonance fluorescence conditions are considered where an optical pump is exciting the dot-cavity system while the re-emitted light is detected. An analytical formula for the vacuum Rabi splitting is derived and a pumping mechanism for the direct generation of the second rung is presented and analyzed. An optimum pumping frequency and optimum pumping intensity are identified for the generation of the second rung. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Sorting quantum systems efficiently
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-05-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.
Solenov, Dmitry; Economou, Sophia E.; Reinecke, T. L.
2013-01-01
Implementations for quantum computing require fast single- and multiqubit quantum gate operations. In the case of optically controlled quantum dot qubits, theoretical designs for long-range two- or multiqubit operations satisfying all the requirements in quantum computing are not yet available. We have developed a design for a fast, long-range two-qubit gate mediated by a photonic microcavity mode using excited states of the quantum-dot-cavity system that addresses these needs. This design does not require identical qubits, it is compatible with available optically induced single-qubit operations, and it advances opportunities for scalable architectures. We show that the gate fidelity can exceed 90% in experimentally accessible systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rivasseau, Vincent [Paris-Sud Univ. Orsay (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Seiringer, Robert [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics; Solovej, Jan Philip [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Mathematics; Spencer, Thomas [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Mathematics
2012-11-01
The book is based on the lectures given at the CIME school ''Quantum many body systems'' held in the summer of 2010. It provides a tutorial introduction to recent advances in the mathematics of interacting systems, written by four leading experts in the field: V. Rivasseau illustrates the applications of constructive Quantum Field Theory to 2D interacting electrons and their relation to quantum gravity; R. Seiringer describes a proof of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gross-Pitaevski limit and explains the effects of rotating traps and the emergence of lattices of quantized vortices; J.-P. Solovej gives an introduction to the theory of quantum Coulomb systems and to the functional analytic methods used to prove their thermodynamic stability; finally, T. Spencer explains the supersymmetric approach to Anderson localization and its relation to the theory of random matrices. All the lectures are characterized by their mathematical rigor combined with physical insights.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danilov, Viatcheslav; /Oak Ridge; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab
2011-11-01
Many quantum integrable systems are obtained using an accelerator physics technique known as Ermakov (or normalized variables) transformation. This technique was used to create classical nonlinear integrable lattices for accelerators and nonlinear integrable plasma traps. Now, all classical results are carried over to a nonrelativistic quantum case. In this paper we have described an extension of the Ermakov-like transformation to the Schroedinger and Pauli equations. It is shown that these newly found transformations create a vast variety of time dependent quantum equations that can be solved in analytic functions, or, at least, can be reduced to time-independent ones.
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
V. I. YUKALOV; Sornette, D.
2009-01-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of p...
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
Quantum iterated function systems.
Łoziński, Artur; Zyczkowski, Karol; Słomczyński, Wojciech
2003-10-01
An iterated function system (IFS) is defined by specifying a set of functions in a classical phase space, which act randomly on an initial point. In an analogous way, we define a quantum IFS (QIFS), where functions act randomly with prescribed probabilities in the Hilbert space. In a more general setting, a QIFS consists of completely positive maps acting in the space of density operators. This formalism is designed to describe certain problems of nonunitary quantum dynamics. We present exemplary classical IFSs, the invariant measure of which exhibits fractal structure, and study properties of the corresponding QIFSs and their invariant states.
Quantum Iterated Function Systems
Lozinski, A; Slomczynski, W; Lozinski, Artur; Zyczkowski, Karol; Slomczynski, Wojciech
2003-01-01
Iterated functions system (IFS) is defined by specifying a set of functions in a classical phase space, which act randomly on the initial point. In an analogous way, we define quantum iterated functions system (QIFS), where functions act randomly with prescribed probabilities in the Hilbert space. In a more general setting a QIFS consists of completely positive maps acting in the space of density operators. We present exemplary classical IFSs, the invariant measure of which exhibits fractal structure, and study properties of the corresponding QIFSs and their invariant state.
Quantum information science as an approach to complex quantum systems
Nielsen, M A
2003-01-01
What makes quantum information science a science? These notes explore the idea that quantum information science may offer a powerful approach to the study of complex quantum systems. We discuss how to quantify complexity in quantum systems, and argue that there are two qualitatively different types of complex quantum system. We also explore ways of understanding complex quantum dynamics by quantifying the strength of a quantum dynamical operation as a physical resource. This is the text for a talk at the ``Sixth International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement and Computing'', held at MIT, July 2002. Viewgraphs for the talk may be found at http://www.qinfo.org/talks/.
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
2016-01-01
Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...
Iqbal, A.; Toor, A. H.
2002-03-01
We investigate the role of quantum mechanical effects in the central stability concept of evolutionary game theory, i.e., an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). Using two and three-player symmetric quantum games we show how the presence of quantum phenomenon of entanglement can be crucial to decide the course of evolutionary dynamics in a population of interacting individuals.
Feedback control of quantum system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Dao-yi; CHEN Zong-hai; ZHANG Chen-bin; CHEN Chun-lin
2006-01-01
Feedback is a significant strategy for the control of quantum system.Information acquisition is the greatest difficulty in quantum feedback applications.After discussing several basic methods for information acquisition,we review three kinds of quantum feedback control strategies:quantum feedback control with measurement,coherent quantum feedback,and quantum feedback control based on cloning and recognition.The first feedback strategy can effectively acquire information,but it destroys the coherence in feedback loop.On the contrary,coherent quantum feedback does not destroy the coherence,but the capability of information acquisition is limited.However,the third feedback scheme gives a compromise between information acquisition and measurement disturbance.
Open quantum systems recent developments
Joye, Alain; Pillet, Claude-Alain
2006-01-01
Understanding dissipative dynamics of open quantum systems remains a challenge in mathematical physics. This problem is relevant in various areas of fundamental and applied physics. From a mathematical point of view, it involves a large body of knowledge. Significant progress in the understanding of such systems has been made during the last decade. These books present in a self-contained way the mathematical theories involved in the modeling of such phenomena. They describe physically relevant models, develop their mathematical analysis and derive their physical implications. In Volume I the Hamiltonian description of quantum open systems is discussed. This includes an introduction to quantum statistical mechanics and its operator algebraic formulation, modular theory, spectral analysis and their applications to quantum dynamical systems. Volume II is dedicated to the Markovian formalism of classical and quantum open systems. A complete exposition of noise theory, Markov processes and stochastic differential...
Noncommutative mathematics for quantum systems
Franz, Uwe
2016-01-01
Noncommutative mathematics is a significant new trend of mathematics. Initially motivated by the development of quantum physics, the idea of 'making theory noncommutative' has been extended to many areas of pure and applied mathematics. This book is divided into two parts. The first part provides an introduction to quantum probability, focusing on the notion of independence in quantum probability and on the theory of quantum stochastic processes with independent and stationary increments. The second part provides an introduction to quantum dynamical systems, discussing analogies with fundamental problems studied in classical dynamics. The desire to build an extension of the classical theory provides new, original ways to understand well-known 'commutative' results. On the other hand the richness of the quantum mathematical world presents completely novel phenomena, never encountered in the classical setting. This book will be useful to students and researchers in noncommutative probability, mathematical physi...
Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations
Barthelemy, P.J.C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulati
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-07-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm.
Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2011-09-15
We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.
Quantum variance: A measure of quantum coherence and quantum correlations for many-body systems
Frérot, Irénée; Roscilde, Tommaso
2016-08-01
Quantum coherence is a fundamental common trait of quantum phenomena, from the interference of matter waves to quantum degeneracy of identical particles. Despite its importance, estimating and measuring quantum coherence in generic, mixed many-body quantum states remains a formidable challenge, with fundamental implications in areas as broad as quantum condensed matter, quantum information, quantum metrology, and quantum biology. Here, we provide a quantitative definition of the variance of quantum coherent fluctuations (the quantum variance) of any observable on generic quantum states. The quantum variance generalizes the concept of thermal de Broglie wavelength (for the position of a free quantum particle) to the space of eigenvalues of any observable, quantifying the degree of coherent delocalization in that space. The quantum variance is generically measurable and computable as the difference between the static fluctuations and the static susceptibility of the observable; despite its simplicity, it is found to provide a tight lower bound to most widely accepted estimators of "quantumness" of observables (both as a feature as well as a resource), such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information and the quantum Fisher information. When considering bipartite fluctuations in an extended quantum system, the quantum variance expresses genuine quantum correlations among the two parts. In the case of many-body systems, it is found to obey an area law at finite temperature, extending therefore area laws of entanglement and quantum fluctuations of pure states to the mixed-state context. Hence the quantum variance paves the way to the measurement of macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum correlations in most complex quantum systems.
Quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems
Yao, Yao; Gao, Ming; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian
2016-08-01
With the advent of physical unclonable functions (PUFs), PUF-based quantum authentication systems have been proposed for security purposes, and recently, proof-of-principle experiment has been demonstrated. As a further step toward completing the security analysis, we investigate quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems and prove that quantum cloning attacks outperform the so-called challenge-estimation attacks. We present the analytical expression of the false-accept probability by use of the corresponding optimal quantum cloning machines and extend the previous results in the literature. In light of these findings, an explicit comparison is made between PUF-based quantum authentication systems and quantum key distribution protocols in the context of cloning attacks. Moreover, from an experimental perspective, a trade-off between the average photon number and the detection efficiency is discussed in detail.
Quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems
Yao, Yao; Gao, Ming; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian
2016-05-01
With the advent of physical unclonable functions (PUFs), PUF-based quantum authentication systems have been proposed for security purposes, and recently, proof-of-principle experiment has been demonstrated. As a further step toward completing the security analysis, we investigate quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems and prove that quantum cloning attacks outperform the so-called challenge-estimation attacks. We present the analytical expression of the false-accept probability by use of the corresponding optimal quantum cloning machines and extend the previous results in the literature. In light of these findings, an explicit comparison is made between PUF-based quantum authentication systems and quantum key distribution protocols in the context of cloning attacks. Moreover, from an experimental perspective, a trade-off between the average photon number and the detection efficiency is discussed in detail.
Dynamics of complex quantum systems
Akulin, Vladimir M
2014-01-01
This book gathers together a range of similar problems that can be encountered in different fields of modern quantum physics and that have common features with regard to multilevel quantum systems. The main motivation was to examine from a uniform standpoint various models and approaches that have been developed in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, chemical, laser and nuclear physics in various contexts. The book should help senior-level undergraduate, graduate students and researchers putting particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby taking advantage of well-established techniques used in adjacent fields. This second edition has been expanded to include substantial new material (e.g. new sections on Dynamic Localization and on Euclidean Random Matrices and new chapters on Entanglement, Open Quantum Systems, and Coherence Protection). It is based on the author’s lectures at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, at the CNRS Aimé Cotton Laboratory, and on ...
Quantum Indeterminacy of Cosmic Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogan, Craig J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-12-30
It is shown that quantum uncertainty of motion in systems controlled mainly by gravity generally grows with orbital timescale $H^{-1}$, and dominates classical motion for trajectories separated by distances less than $\\approx H^{-3/5}$ in Planck units. For example, the cosmological metric today becomes indeterminate at macroscopic separations, $H_0^{-3/5}\\approx 60$ meters. Estimates suggest that entangled non-localized quantum states of geometry and matter may significantly affect fluctuations during inflation, and connect the scale of dark energy to that of strong interactions.
Polygamy of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems
Kim, Jeong San
2009-08-01
We show that bipartite entanglement distribution (or entanglement of assistance) in multipartite quantum systems is by nature polygamous. We first provide an analytical upper bound for the concurrence of assistance in bipartite quantum systems and derive a polygamy inequality of multipartite entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems.
Quantum phase transitions in constrained Bose systems
Bonnes, Lars
2011-01-01
This doctoral thesis studies low dimensional quantum systems that can be realized in recent cold atom experiments. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the main emphasis is on the detailed study of the different quantum and thermal phases and their transitions using numerical methods, such as quantum Monte Carlo and the Tensor Network Renormalization Group. The first part of this work deals with a lattice Boson model subject to strong three-body losses. In a quantum-Zeno li...
QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL CORRELATIONS IN GAUSSIAN OPEN QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurelian ISAR
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum correlations (quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We solve the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation for the time evolution of the considered system and describe the entanglement and discord in terms of the covariance matrix for Gaussian input states. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. We study the time evolution of logarithmic negativity, which characterizes the degree of entanglement, and show that in the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression takes place for all temperatures of the environment, including zero temperature. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that it decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath. This is in contrast with the sudden death of entanglement. Before the suppression of the entanglement, the qualitative evolution of quantum discord is very similar to that of the entanglement. We describe also the time evolution of the degree of classical correlations and of quantum mutual information, which measures the total correlations of the quantum system.
Overview of progress in quantum systems control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CONG Shuang; ZHENG Yisong; JI Beichen; DAI Yi
2007-01-01
The development of the theory on quantum systems control in the last 20 years is reviewed in detail.The research on the controllability of quantum systems is first introduced,then the study on the quantum open-loop control methods often used for controlling simple quantum systems is analyzed briefly.The learning control method and the feedback control method are mainly discussed for they are two important methods in quantum systems control and their advantages and disadvantages are presented.According to the trends in quantum systems control development,the paper predicts the future trends of its development and applications.A complete design procedure necessary for the quantum control system is presented.Finally,several vital problems hindering the advancement of quantum control are pointed out.
Applications of Feedback Control in Quantum Systems
Jacobs, Kurt
2006-01-01
We give an introduction to feedback control in quantum systems, as well as an overview of the variety of applications which have been explored to date. This introductory review is aimed primarily at control theorists unfamiliar with quantum mechanics, but should also be useful to quantum physicists interested in applications of feedback control. We explain how feedback in quantum systems differs from that in traditional classical systems, and how in certain cases the results from modern optim...
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baecker, Arnd
2007-07-01
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Supersymmetric Biorthogonal Quantum Systems
Curtright, T; Schuster, D; Curtright, Thomas; Mezincescu, Luca; Schuster, David
2006-01-01
We discuss supersymmetric biorthogonal systems, with emphasis given to the periodic solutions that occur at spectral singularities of PT symmetric models. For these periodic solutions, the dual functions are associated polynomials that obey inhomogeneous equations. We construct in detail some explicit examples for the supersymmetric pairs of potentials V_{+/-}(z) = -U(z)^2 +/- z(d/(dz))U(z) where U(z) = \\sum_{k>0}u_{k}z^{k}. In particular, we consider the cases generated by U(z) = z and z/(1-z). We also briefly consider the effects of magnetic vector potentials on the partition functions of these systems.
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
Optimal protocols for slowly driven quantum systems.
Zulkowski, Patrick R; DeWeese, Michael R
2015-09-01
The design of efficient quantum information processing will rely on optimal nonequilibrium transitions of driven quantum systems. Building on a recently developed geometric framework for computing optimal protocols for classical systems driven in finite time, we construct a general framework for optimizing the average information entropy for driven quantum systems. Geodesics on the parameter manifold endowed with a positive semidefinite metric correspond to protocols that minimize the average information entropy production in finite time. We use this framework to explicitly compute the optimal entropy production for a simple two-state quantum system coupled to a heat bath of bosonic oscillators, which has applications to quantum annealing. PMID:26465432
Repeated interactions in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium
Repeated interactions in open quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)
2014-07-15
Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.
2016-04-01
We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. III. Quantum operations
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2007-05-01
During the last decade, several quantum information protocols, such as quantum key distribution, teleportation or quantum computation, have attracted a lot of interest. Despite the recent success and research efforts in quantum information processing, however, we are just at the beginning of understanding the role of entanglement and the behavior of quantum systems in noisy environments, i.e. for nonideal implementations. Therefore, in order to facilitate the investigation of entanglement and decoherence in n-qubit quantum registers, here we present a revised version of the FEYNMAN program for working with quantum operations and their associated (Jamiołkowski) dual states. Based on the implementation of several popular decoherence models, we provide tools especially for the quantitative analysis of quantum operations. Apart from the implementation of different noise models, the current program extension may help investigate the fragility of many quantum states, one of the main obstacles in realizing quantum information protocols today. Program summaryTitle of program: Feynman Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v3_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Operating systems: Any system that supports MAPLE; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, SuSe Linux 10 Program language used:MAPLE 10 Typical time and memory requirements: Most commands that act upon quantum registers with five or less qubits take ⩽10 seconds of processor time (on a Pentium 4 processor with ⩾2 GHz or equivalent) and 5-20 MB of memory. Especially when working with symbolic expressions, however, the memory and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits in the quantum registers, owing to the exponential dimension growth of the associated Hilbert space. For example, complex (symbolic) noise models (with several Kraus operators) for multi-qubit systems
Quantum chaos in nanoelectromechanical systems
Gusso, André; da Luz, M. G. E.; Rego, Luis G. C.
2006-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the electron-phonon coupling in suspended nanoelectromechanical systems and investigate the resulting quantum chaotic behavior. The phonons are associated with the vibrational modes of a suspended rectangular dielectric plate, with free or clamped boundary conditions, whereas the electrons are confined to a large quantum dot (QD) on the plate’s surface. The deformation potential and piezoelectric interactions are considered. By performing standard energy-level statistics we demonstrate that the spectral fluctuations exhibit the same distributions as those of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble or the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), therefore evidencing the emergence of quantum chaos. That is verified for a large range of material and geometry parameters. In particular, the GUE statistics occurs only in the case of a circular QD. It represents an anomalous phenomenon, previously reported for just a small number of systems, since the problem is time-reversal invariant. The obtained results are explained through a detailed analysis of the Hamiltonian matrix structure.
Classical equations for quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gell-Mann, M. (Theoretical Astrophysics Group (T-6), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545) (United States) (Santa Fe Institute, 1660 Old Pecos Trail, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501); Hartle, J.B. (Department of Physics, University of California enSanta Barbara, Santa Barbara, (California) 93106)
1993-04-15
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that [ital decohere], which means that there is negligible quantum interference between the individual histories in the set. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e., such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of the noise consisting of the fluctuations that typical mechanisms of decoherence produce. We describe the derivation of phenomenological equations of motion explicitly for a particular class of models.
Quantum Simulation of Tunneling in Small Systems
Andrew T Sornborger
2012-01-01
A number of quantum algorithms have been performed on small quantum computers; these include Shor's prime factorization algorithm, error correction, Grover's search algorithm and a number of analog and digital quantum simulations. Because of the number of gates and qubits necessary, however, digital quantum particle simulations remain untested. A contributing factor to the system size required is the number of ancillary qubits needed to implement matrix exponentials of the potential operator....
Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems.
Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro
2016-02-26
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics. PMID:26967399
Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions
Zipkes, Christoph; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael
2010-01-01
In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ...
Macroscopic quantum systems and gravitational phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low-energy quantum systems are studied theoretically in light of possible experiments to test the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity. The research focus in this thesis is on quantum systems which can be controlled with very high precision and which allow for tests of quantum theory at novel scales in terms of mass and size. The pulsed regime of opto-mechanics is explored and it is shown how short optical pulses can be used to prepare and characterize quantum states of a massive mechanical resonator, and how some phenomenological models of quantum gravity can be probed. In addition, quantum interferometry with photons and matter-waves in the presence of gravitational time dilation is considered. It is shown that time dilation causes entanglement between internal states and the center-of-mass position and that it leads to decoherence of all composite quantum systems. The results of the thesis show that the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity affects even low-energy quantum systems and that it offers novel phenomena which can be probed in experiments. (author)
Quantum mechanics in complex systems
Hoehn, Ross Douglas
This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown
Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems
Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"
2007-01-01
The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...
Quantum field theory of relic nonequilibrium systems
Underwood, Nicolas G
2014-01-01
In terms of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, we develop field-theoretical models of quantum nonequilibrium systems which could exist today as relics from the very early universe. We consider relic excited states generated by inflaton decay, as well as relic vacuum modes, for particle species that decoupled close to the Planck temperature. Simple estimates suggest that, at least in principle, quantum nonequilibrium could survive to the present day for some relic systems. The main focus of this paper is to describe the behaviour of such systems in terms of field theory, with the aim of understanding how relic quantum nonequilibrium might manifest experimentally. We show by explicit calculation that simple perturbative couplings will transfer quantum nonequilibrium from one field to another (for example from the inflaton field to its decay products). We also show that fields in a state of quantum nonequilibrium will generate anomalous spectra for standard energy measurements. Possibl...
Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems
Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H.; Evers, Jörg
2016-03-01
Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This “reverse engineering” of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems.
Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems.
Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H; Evers, Jörg
2016-03-24
Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This "reverse engineering" of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems.
Adiabatic Quantum Search in Open Systems
Wild, Dominik S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Yao, Norman Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2016-10-01
Adiabatic quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to universal quantum computation. In isolated systems, a key limitation to such algorithms is the presence of avoided level crossings, where gaps become extremely small. In open quantum systems, the fundamental robustness of adiabatic algorithms remains unresolved. Here, we study the dynamics near an avoided level crossing associated with the adiabatic quantum search algorithm, when the system is coupled to a generic environment. At zero temperature, we find that the algorithm remains scalable provided the noise spectral density of the environment decays sufficiently fast at low frequencies. By contrast, higher order scattering processes render the algorithm inefficient at any finite temperature regardless of the spectral density, implying that no quantum speedup can be achieved. Extensions and implications for other adiabatic quantum algorithms will be discussed.
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1993-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of t...
Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems
Akulin, Vladimir M
2006-01-01
A large number of modern problems in physics, chemistry, and quantum electronics require a consideration of population dynamics in complex multilevel quantum systems. The purpose of this book is to provide a systematic treatment of these questions and to present a number of exactly solvable problems. It considers the different dynamical problems frequently encountered in different areas of physics from the same perspective, based mainly on the fundamental ideas of group theory and on the idea of ensemble average. Also treated are concepts of complete quantum control and correction of decoherence induced errors that are complementary to the idea of ensemble average. "Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems" is aimed at senior-level undergraduate students in the areas of Atomic, Molecular, and Laser Physics, Physical Chemistry, Quantum Optics and Quantum Informatics. It should help them put particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby take advantage of the well-elabora...
Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots
Ciftja, Orion
2013-11-01
Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron-electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes.
Logic of infinite quantum systems
Mundici, Daniele
1993-10-01
Limits of sequences of finite-dimensional (AF) C *-algebras, such as the CAR algebra for the ideal Fermi gas, are a standard mathematical tool to describe quantum statistical systems arising as thermodynamic limits of finite spin systems. Only in the infinite-volume limit one can, for instance, describe phase transitions as singularities in the thermodynamic potentials, and handle the proliferation of physically inequivalent Hilbert space representations of a system with infinitely many degrees of freedom. As is well known, commutative AF C *-algebras correspond to countable Boolean algebras, i.e., algebras of propositions in the classical two-valued calculus. We investigate the noncommutative logic properties of general AF C *-algebras, and their corresponding systems. We stress the interplay between Gödel incompleteness and quotient structures in the light of the “nature does not have ideals” program, stating that there are no quotient structures in physics. We interpret AF C *-algebras as algebras of the infinite-valued calculus of Lukasiewicz, i.e., algebras of propositions in Ulam's “ twenty questions” game with lies.
Slightly anharmonic systems in quantum optics
Klimov, Andrey B.; Chumakov, Sergey M.
1995-01-01
We consider an arbitrary atomic system (n-level atom or many such atoms) interacting with a strong resonant quantum field. The approximate evolution operator for a quantum field case can be produced from the atomic evolution operator in an external classical field by a 'quantization prescription', passing the operator arguments to Wigner D-functions. Many important phenomena arising from the quantum nature of the field can be described by such a way.
Quantum entanglement in photoactive prebiotic systems
Tamulis, Arvydas; Grigalavicius, Mantas
2014-01-01
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modelled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. We define our modelled self-assembled supramolecular photoactive centres, composed of one or more sensitizer molecules, precursors of fatty acids and a number of water molecules, as a photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. We propose that life first emerged in the form of such minimal photoactive prebiotic kernel systems and lat...
Limit cycles in quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niemann, Patrick
2015-04-27
In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.
Level shift operators for open quantum systems
Merkli, Marco
2006-01-01
Level shift operators describe the second order displacement of eigenvalues under perturbation. They play a central role in resonance theory and ergodic theory of open quantum systems at positive temperatures. We exhibit intrinsic properties of level shift operators, properties which stem from the structure of open quantum systems at positive temperatures and which are common to all such systems. They determine the geometry of resonances bifurcating from eigenvalues of positive temperature Ha...
Nonclassical light from an incoherently pumped quantum dot in a microcavity
Teuber, L.; Grünwald, P.; Vogel, W.
2015-11-01
Semiconductor microcavities with artificial single-photon emitters have become one of the backbones of semiconductor quantum optics. In many cases, however, technical and physical issues limit the study of optical fields to incoherently excited systems. We analyze the model of an incoherently driven two-level system in a single-mode cavity. The specific structure of the applied master equation yields a recurrence relation for the steady-state values of correlations of the intracavity field and the emitter. We provide boundary conditions that permit a systematic solution which is numerically less demanding than standard methods. The method allows us to directly infer reasonable cutoff conditions from the system parameters. Different cavity systems from previous experiments are analyzed in terms of field correlation functions which can be measured via homodyne correlation measurements. We find that nonclassical correlations occur in systems of moderate quantum-dot-cavity coupling rather than strong coupling. Our boundary conditions also allow us to derive analytical results for the overall quantum state and its higher-order moments. We obtain very good approximations for the full quantum state of the field in terms of the characteristic functions. It turns out that for every physically reasonable set of system parameters, the state of the intracavity field is nonclassical.
Chapter 2 A Single Quantum System
Toschek, Peter E.
The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of "gedanken" experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory--thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: (1) The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, (2) the system's temporal evolution, and (3) the emergence of macroscopic reality out of the microcosmos. A well-known calculation shows the evolution of a quantum system being slowed down, or even obstructed, when the system is merely observed. An experiment designed to demonstrate this "quantum Zeno effect" and performed in the late eighties on an ensemble of identical atomic ions confirmed its quantum description, but turned out inconclusive with respect to the very origin of the impediment of evolution. During the past years, experiments on individual electrodynamically stored and laser-cooled ions have been performed that unequivocally demonstrate the observed system's quantum evolution being impeded. Strategy and results exclude any physical reaction on the measured object, but reveal the effect of the gain of information as put forward by the particular correlation of the ion state with the detected signal. They shed light on the process of measurement as well as on the quantum evolution and allow an epistemological interpretation.
Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems
Laflorencie, Nicolas
2016-08-01
This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial information can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated Rényi entropies are now well recognized to contain key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the underlying entanglement Hamiltonian. All these powerful tools can be further applied to shed some light on disordered quantum systems where impurity/disorder can conspire with quantum fluctuations to induce non-trivial effects. Disordered quantum spin systems, the Kondo effect, or the many-body localization problem, which have all been successfully (re)visited through the prism of quantum entanglement, will be discussed in detail. Finally, the issue of experimental access to entanglement measurement will be addressed, together with its most recent developments.
Quantum dynamics of complex molecular systems
Miller, William H.
2005-01-01
This Perspective presents a broad overview of the present status of theoretical capabilities for describing quantum dynamics in molecular systems with many degrees of freedom, e.g., chemical reactions in solution, clusters, solids, or biomolecular environments.
An Application of Quantum Finite Automata to Interactive Proof Systems
Nishimura, H; Nishimura, Harumichi; Yamakami, Tomoyuki
2004-01-01
Quantum finite automata have been studied intensively since their introduction in late 1990s as a natural model of a quantum computer with finite-dimensional quantum memory space. This paper seeks their direct application to interactive proof systems in which a mighty quantum prover communicates with a quantum-automaton verifier through a common communication cell. Our quantum interactive proof systems are juxtaposed to Dwork-Stockmeyer's classical interactive proof systems whose verifiers are two-way probabilistic automata. We demonstrate strengths and weaknesses of our systems and further study how various restrictions on the behaviors of quantum-automaton verifiers affect the power of quantum interactive proof systems.
Teleportation in an indivisible quantum system
Kiktenko E.O.; Fedorov A.K.; Man’ko V.I.
2016-01-01
Teleportation protocol is conventionally treated as a method for quantum state transfer between two spatially separated physical carriers. Recent experimental progress in manipulation with high-dimensional quantum systems opens a new framework for implementation of teleportation protocols. We show that the one-qubit teleportation can be considered as a state transfer between subspaces of the whole Hilbert space of an indivisible eight-dimensional system. We explicitly show all corresponding o...
Spectrum analysis with quantum dynamical systems
Ng, Shilin; Ang, Shan Zheng; Wheatley, Trevor A.; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira; Huntington, Elanor H.; Tsang, Mankei
2016-04-01
Measuring the power spectral density of a stochastic process, such as a stochastic force or magnetic field, is a fundamental task in many sensing applications. Quantum noise is becoming a major limiting factor to such a task in future technology, especially in optomechanics for temperature, stochastic gravitational wave, and decoherence measurements. Motivated by this concern, here we prove a measurement-independent quantum limit to the accuracy of estimating the spectrum parameters of a classical stochastic process coupled to a quantum dynamical system. We demonstrate our results by analyzing the data from a continuous-optical-phase-estimation experiment and showing that the experimental performance with homodyne detection is close to the quantum limit. We further propose a spectral photon-counting method that can attain quantum-optimal performance for weak modulation and a coherent-state input, with an error scaling superior to that of homodyne detection at low signal-to-noise ratios.
Measurement, Filtering and Control in Quantum Open Dynamical Systems
Belavkin, V. P.
2002-01-01
A Markovian model for a quantum automata, i.e. an open quantum dynamical discrete-time system with input and output channels and a feedback, is described. A dynamical theory of quantum discrete-time adaptive measurements and multi-stage quantum statistical decisions is developed and applied to the optimal feedback control problem for the quantum dynamical objects. Quantum analogies of Stratonovich non-stationary filtering, and Bellman quantum dynamical programming in the discrete time are der...
CIME School on Quantum Many Body Systems
Rivasseau, Vincent; Solovej, Jan Philip; Spencer, Thomas
2012-01-01
The book is based on the lectures given at the CIME school "Quantum many body systems" held in the summer of 2010. It provides a tutorial introduction to recent advances in the mathematics of interacting systems, written by four leading experts in the field: V. Rivasseau illustrates the applications of constructive Quantum Field Theory to 2D interacting electrons and their relation to quantum gravity; R. Seiringer describes a proof of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gross-Pitaevski limit and explains the effects of rotating traps and the emergence of lattices of quantized vortices; J.-P. Solovej gives an introduction to the theory of quantum Coulomb systems and to the functional analytic methods used to prove their thermodynamic stability; finally, T. Spencer explains the supersymmetric approach to Anderson localization and its relation to the theory of random matrices. All the lectures are characterized by their mathematical rigor combined with physical insights.
Exotic Quantum Order in Low-Dimensional Systems
Girvin, Steven M.
1997-01-01
Strongly correlated quantum systems in low dimensions often exhibit novel quantum ordering. This ordering is sometimes hidden and can be revealed only by examining new `dual' types of correlations. Such ordering leads to novel collective modes and fractional quantum numbers. Examples will be presented from quantum spin chains and the quantum Hall effect.
Note on quantum groups and integrable systems
Popolitov, A.
2016-01-01
The free-field formalism for quantum groups [preprint ITEP-M3/94, CRM-2202 hep-th/9409093] provides a special choice of coordinates on a quantum group. In these coordinates the construction of associated integrable system [arXiv:1207.1869] is especially simple. This choice also fits into general framework of cluster varieties [math.AG/0311245]—natural changes in coordinates are cluster mutations.
Quantum hacking: attacking practical quantum key distribution systems
Qi, Bing; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2007-09-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) can, in principle, provide unconditional security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Unfortunately, a practical QKD system may contain overlooked imperfections and violate some of the assumptions in a security proof. Here, we report two types of eavesdropping attacks against a practical QKD system. The first one is "time-shift" attack, which is applicable to QKD systems with gated single photon detectors (SPDs). In this attack, the eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the time mismatch between the open windows of the two SPDs. She can acquire a significant amount of information on the final key by simply shifting the quantum signals forwards or backwards in time domain. Our experimental results in [9] with a commercial QKD system demonstrate that, under this attack, the original QKD system is breakable. This is the first experimental demonstration of a feasible attack against a commercial QKD system. This is a surprising result. The second one is "phase-remapping" attack [10]. Here, Eve exploits the fact that a practical phase modulator has a finite response time. In principle, Eve could change the encoded phase value by time-shifting the signal pulse relative to the reference pulse.
Computational quantum-classical boundary of complex and noisy quantum systems
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2014-01-01
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on...
Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.
Quantum Dynamics of Nonlinear Cavity Systems
Nation, Paul D
2010-01-01
We investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. To begin, we carry out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprised of a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing a flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we make use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. This setup allows for quan...
Quantum scaling in many-body systems
Continentino, Mucio A
2001-01-01
This book on quantum phase transitions has been written by one of the pioneers in the application of scaling ideas to many-body systems - a new and exciting subject that has relevance to many areas of condensed matter and theoretical physics. One of the few books on the subject, it emphasizes strongly correlated electronic systems. Although dealing with complex problems in statistical mechanics, it does not lose sight of the experiments and the actual physical systems which motivate the theoretical work. The book starts by presenting the scaling theory of quantum critical phenomena. Critical e
Quantum Systems and Alternative Unitary Descriptions
Marmo, G; Ventriglia, F
2003-01-01
Motivated by the existence of bi-Hamiltonian classical systems and the correspondence principle, in this paper we analyze the problem of finding Hermitian scalar products which turn a given flow on a Hilbert space into a unitary one. We show how different invariant Hermitian scalar products give rise to different descriptions of a quantum system in the Ehrenfest and Heisenberg picture.
Quantum Aharonov-Bohm Billiard System
Chuu, D S; Chuu, Der-San; Lin, De-Hone
1999-01-01
The Green's functions of the two and three-dimensional relativistic Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) systems are given by the path integral approach. In addition the exact radial Green's functions of the spherical A-B quantum billiard system in two and three-dimensional are obtained via the perturbation techanique of $\\delta $-function.
Coherent polulation trapping in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A coherent popualation trapping is a recently developed tool for high resolution spectroscopy. This method if based on a linear coherent interaction betwen the atomic system and the electromagnetic radiaiton falling upon and a registration of medium responses for a subsequent analysis of their fine structure which contains information about spectral characteristics of a quantum system
Quantum Algorithm for the Toeplitz Systems
Wan, Lin-Chun; Pan, Shi-Jie; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2016-01-01
Solving the Toeplitz systems, which is to find the vector $x$ such that $T_nx = b$ given a $n\\times n$ Toeplitz matrix $T_n$ and a vector $b$, has a variety of applications in mathematics and engineering. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm for solving the Toeplitz systems, in which a quantum state encoding the solution with error $\\epsilon$ is generated. It is shown that our algorithm's complexity is nearly linear in the condition number, and polylog in the dimensions $n$ and in the inverse error $\\epsilon^{-1}$. This implies our algorithm is exponentially faster than the best classical algorithm for the same problem if the condition number of $T_n$ is $O(\\textrm{poly}(\\textrm{log}\\,n))$. Since no assumption on the sparseness of $T_n$ is demanded in our algorithm, the algorithm can serve as an example of quantum algorithms for solving non-sparse linear systems.
Current in open quantum systems.
Gebauer, Ralph; Car, Roberto
2004-10-15
We show that a dissipative current component is present in the dynamics generated by a Liouville-master equation, in addition to the usual component associated with Hamiltonian evolution. The dissipative component originates from coarse graining in time, implicit in a master equation, and needs to be included to preserve current continuity. We derive an explicit expression for the dissipative current in the context of the Markov approximation. Finally, we illustrate our approach with a simple numerical example, in which a quantum particle is coupled to a harmonic phonon bath and dissipation is described by the Pauli master equation. PMID:15524960
Teleportation in an indivisible quantum system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kiktenko E.O.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Teleportation protocol is conventionally treated as a method for quantum state transfer between two spatially separated physical carriers. Recent experimental progress in manipulation with high-dimensional quantum systems opens a new framework for implementation of teleportation protocols. We show that the one-qubit teleportation can be considered as a state transfer between subspaces of the whole Hilbert space of an indivisible eight-dimensional system. We explicitly show all corresponding operations and discuss an alternative way of implementation of similar tasks.
Constraint algebra for interacting quantum systems
Fubini, S.; Roncadelli, M.
1988-04-01
We consider relativistic constrained systems interacting with external fields. We provide physical arguments to support the idea that the quantum constraint algebra should be the same as in the free quantum case. For systems with ordering ambiguities this principle is essential to obtain a unique quantization. This is shown explicitly in the case of a relativistic spinning particle, where our assumption about the constraint algebra plus invariance under general coordinate transformations leads to a unique S-matrix. On leave from Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Università di Pavia and INFN, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
Quantum GIS (QGIS) Geographic Information System Tutorial
Urrutia Fernández, M. Àngels
2014-01-01
The goal of the present Master’s Thesis is to develop a learning tutorial for Lisboa Quantum GIS v.1.8.0 Geographic Information System. The resulting document is intended as a learning tool. This document should be useful to those people who wish to acquire basic skills in the use of Quantum GIS and, at the same time, should provide the user with a picture of what Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are. The skills that this tutorial aims to teach are how to locate and down...
Storage of energy in confined quantum systems
Malbouisson, A. P. C.
2002-01-01
Using the non-perturbative method of {\\it dressed} states introduced in previous publications [N.P.Andion, A.P.C. Malbouisson and A. Mattos Neto, J.Phys.{\\bf A34}, 3735, (2001); G. Flores-Hidalgo, A.P.C. Malbouisson, Y.W. Milla, Phys. Rev. A, {\\bf 65}, 063314 (2002)], we study the evolution of a confined quantum mechanical system embedded in a {\\it ohmic} environment. Our approach furnishes a theoretical mechanism to control inhibition of the decay of excited quantum systems in cavities, in b...
Nonequilibrium quantum dynamics in optomechanical systems
Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Shaffer, Airlia; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund
2016-05-01
The thermalization dynamics of isolated quantum systems has so far been explored in the context of cold atomic systems containing a large number of particles and modes. Quantum optomechanical systems offer prospects of studying such dynamics in a qualitatively different regime - with few individually addressable modes amenable to continuous quantum measurement and thermalization times that vastly exceed those observed in cold atomic systems. We have experimentally realized a dynamical continuous phase transition in a quantum compatible nondegenerate mechanical parametric oscillator. This system is formally equivalent to the optical parametric amplifiers whose dynamics have been a subject of intense theoretical study. We experimentally verify its phase diagram and observe nonequilibrium behavior that was only theorized, but never directly observed, in the context of optical parametric amplifiers. We discuss prospects of using nonequilibrium protocols such as quenches in optomechanical systems to amplify weak nonclassical correlations and to realize macroscopic nonclassical states. This work was supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO and the ARO MURI on non-equilibrium manybody dynamics.
Enhancing the capability of controlling quantum systems via ancillary systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Ming; Gao Da-Yuan; Dai Hong-Yi; Xie Hong-Wei; Hu De-Wen
2007-01-01
This paper explores the potential of controlling quantum systems by introducing ancillary systems and then performing unitary operation on the resulting composite systems. It generalizes the concept of pure state controllability for quantum systems and establishes the link between the operator controllability of the composite system and the generalized pure state controllability of its subsystem. It is constructively demonstrated that if a composite quantum system can be transferred between any pair of orthonormal pure vectors, then its subsystem is generalized pure-state controllable. Furthermore, the unitary operation and the coherent control can be concretely given to transfer the system from an initial state to the target state. Therefore, these properties may be potentially applied in quantum information,such as manipulating multiple quantum bits and creating entangled pure states. A concrete example has been given to illustrate that a maximally entangled pure state of a quantum system can be generated by introducing an ancillary system and performing open-loop coherent control on the resulting composite system.
Quantum statistical ensemble for emissive correlated systems
Shakirov, Alexey M.; Shchadilova, Yulia E.; Rubtsov, Alexey N.
2016-06-01
Relaxation dynamics of complex quantum systems with strong interactions towards the steady state is a fundamental problem in statistical mechanics. The steady state of subsystems weakly interacting with their environment is described by the canonical ensemble which assumes the probability distribution for energy to be of the Boltzmann form. The emergence of this probability distribution is ensured by the detailed balance of the transitions induced by the interaction with the environment. Here we consider relaxation of an open correlated quantum system brought into contact with a reservoir in the vacuum state. We refer to such a system as emissive since particles irreversibly evaporate into the vacuum. The steady state of the system is a statistical mixture of the stable eigenstates. We found that, despite the absence of the detailed balance, the stationary probability distribution over these eigenstates is of the Boltzmann form in each N -particle sector. A quantum statistical ensemble corresponding to the steady state is characterized by different temperatures in the different sectors, in contrast to the Gibbs ensemble. We investigate the transition rates between the eigenstates to understand the emergence of the Boltzmann distribution and find their exponential dependence on the transition energy. We argue that this property of transition rates is generic for a wide class of emissive quantum many-body systems.
Exact and non-smooth control of quantum spin systems
Ciaramella, Gabriele
2015-01-01
An efficient and accurate computational framework for solving control problems governed by quantum spin systems is presented. Spin systems are extremely important in modern quantum technologies such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, quantum imaging and quantum computing. In these applications, two classes of quantum control problems arise: optimal control problems and exact-controllability problems, with a bilinear con- trol structure. These models correspond to the Schrödinger-Paul...
EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems
Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.
2010-09-01
Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit
Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium
Kasztelan, Christian
2010-01-01
The main topic of this thesis is the study of many-body effects in strongly correlated one- or quasi one-dimensional condensed matter systems. These systems are characterized by strong quantum and thermal fluctuations, which make mean-field methods fail and demand for a fully numerical approach. Fortunately, a numerical method exist, which allows to treat unusually large one -dimensional system at very high precision. This method is the density-matrix renormalization group method (DMRG), in...
Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism
Fields, Chris
Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.
Quantum mechanics classical results, modern systems, and visualized examples
Robinett, Richard W
2006-01-01
`Quantum Mechanics'' is a comprehensive introduction to quantum mechanics for advanced undergraduate students in physics. It provides the reader with a strong conceptual background in the subject, extensive experience with the necessary mathematical background, as well as numerous visualizations of quantum concepts and phenomena. - ;Quantum Mechanics: Classical Results, Modern Systems, and Visualized Examples is a comprehensive introduction to non-relativistic quantum mechanics for advanced undergraduate students in physics and related fields. It provides students with a strong conceptual background in the most important theoretical aspects of quantum mechanics, extensive experience with the mathematical tools required to solve problems, the opportunity to use quantum ideas to confront modern experimental. realizations of quantum systems, and numerous visualizations of quantum concepts and phenomena. Changes from the First Edition include many new discussions of modern quantum systems (such as Bose-Einstein c...
Cui, Ping
The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ≡ trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO
System and method for making quantum dots
Bakr, Osman M.
2015-05-28
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments, the QDs produced using embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in solar photovoltaic cells, bio-imaging, IR emitters, or LEDs.
Quantum field theory and multiparticle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The use of quantum field theory methods for the investigation of the physical characteristics of the MANY-BODY SYSTEMS is discussed. Mainly discussed is the method of second quantization and the method of the Green functions. Briefly discussed is the method of calculating the Green functions at finite temperatures. (Z.J.)
Quantum chromatic numbers via operator systems
Paulsen, Vern I.; Todorov, Ivan G.
2013-01-01
We define several new types of quantum chromatic numbers of a graph and characterise them in terms of operator system tensor products. We establish inequalities between these chromatic numbers and other parameters of graphs studied in the literature and exhibit a link between them and non-signalling correlation boxes.
Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System
Leviatan, A
2006-01-01
A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.
Optimal control of complex atomic quantum systems
van Frank, S.; Bonneau, M.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Hild, S.; Gross, C.; Cheneau, M.; Bloch, I.; Pichler, T.; Negretti, A.; Calarco, T.; Montangero, S.
2016-10-01
Quantum technologies will ultimately require manipulating many-body quantum systems with high precision. Cold atom experiments represent a stepping stone in that direction: a high degree of control has been achieved on systems of increasing complexity. However, this control is still sub-optimal. In many scenarios, achieving a fast transformation is crucial to fight against decoherence and imperfection effects. Optimal control theory is believed to be the ideal candidate to bridge the gap between early stage proof-of-principle demonstrations and experimental protocols suitable for practical applications. Indeed, it can engineer protocols at the quantum speed limit – the fastest achievable timescale of the transformation. Here, we demonstrate such potential by computing theoretically and verifying experimentally the optimal transformations in two very different interacting systems: the coherent manipulation of motional states of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate and the crossing of a quantum phase transition in small systems of cold atoms in optical lattices. We also show that such processes are robust with respect to perturbations, including temperature and atom number fluctuations.
Connectivity analysis of controlled quantum systems
Wu, Rong; Rabitz, Herschel; Turinici, Gabriel; Sola, Ignacio
2004-11-01
A connectivity analysis of controlled quantum systems assesses the feasibility of a field existing that can transfer at least some amplitude between any specified pair of states. Although Hamiltonians with special structure or symmetry may not produce full connectivity, it is argued and demonstrated that virtually any Hamiltonian is expected to be connected. The connectivity of any particular system is generally revealed in the quantum evolution over a single or at most a few time steps. A connectivity analysis is inexpensive to perform and it can also identify statistically significant intermediate states linking a specified initial and final state. These points are illustrated with several simple systems. The likelihood of an arbitrary system being connected implies that at least some product yield can be expected in the laboratory for virtually all systems subjected to a suitable control.
Quantum-mechanical aspects of classically chaotic driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper treats atoms and molecules in laser fields as periodically driven quantum systems. The paper concludes by determining that stochastic excitation is possible in quantum systems with quasiperiodic driving. 17 refs
Global canonical symmetry in a quantum system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李子平
1996-01-01
Based on the phase-space path integral for a system with a regular or singular Lagrangian the generalized canonical Ward identities under the global symmetry transformation in extended phase space are deduced respectively, thus the relations among Green functions can be found. The connection between canonical symmetries and conservation laws at the quantum level is established. It is pointed out that this connection in classical theories, in general, is no longer always preserved in quantum theories. The advantage of our formulation is that we do not need to carry out the integration over the canonical momenta in phase-space generating functional as usually performed. A precise discussion of quantization for a nonlinear sigma model with Hopf and Chern-Simons terms is reexamined. The property of fractional spin at quantum level has been clarified.
Simple quantum systems in the momentum representation
Núñez-Yépez, H N; Martínez y Romero, R P; Salas-Brito, A L
2000-01-01
The momentum representation is seldom used in quantum mechanics courses. Some students are thence surprised by the change in viewpoint when, in doing advanced work, they have to use the momentum rather than the coordinate representation. In this work, we give an introduction to quantum mechanics in momentum space, where the Schrödinger equation becomes an integral equation. To this end we discuss standard problems, namely, the free particle, the quantum motion under a constant potential, a particle interacting with a potential step, and the motion of a particle under a harmonic potential. What is not so standard is that they are all conceived from momentum space and hence they, with the exception of the free particle, are not equivalent to the coordinate space ones with the same names. All the problems are solved within the momentum representation making no reference to the systems they correspond to in the coordinate representation.
Non-Equilibrium Quantum Entanglement in Biological Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Hong-Rong; ZHANG Pei; GAO Hong; BI Wen-Ting; ALAMRI M. D.; LI Fu-Li
2012-01-01
A non-equilibrium model of a classically driven quantum harmonic oscillator is proposed to explain persistent quantum entanglement in biological systems at ambient temperature. The conditions for periodic entanglement generation are derived. Our results support the evidence that biological systems may have quantum entanglement at biological temperatures.%A non-equilibrium model of a classically driven quantum harmonic oscillator is proposed to explain persistent quantum entanglement in biological systems at ambient temperature.The conditions for periodic entanglement generation are derived.Our results support the evidence that biological systems may have quantum entanglement at biological temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum-cryptography key distribution (QCKD) experiments have been recently reported using polarization-entangled photons. However, in any practical realization, quantum systems suffer from either unwanted or induced interactions with the environment and the quantum measurement system, showing up as quantum and, ultimately, statistical noise. In this paper, we investigate how an ideal polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) suffers quantum noise in its practical implementation as a secure quantum system, yielding errors in the transmitted bit sequence. Since all SPDC-based QCKD schemes rely on the measurement of coincidence to assert the bit transmission between the two parties, we bundle up the overall quantum and statistical noise in an exhaustive model to calculate the accidental coincidences. This model predicts the quantum-bit error rate and the sifted key and allows comparisons between different security criteria of the hitherto proposed QCKD protocols, resulting in an objective assessment of performances and advantages of different systems
Periodic thermodynamics of open quantum systems
Brandner, Kay; Seifert, Udo
2016-06-01
The thermodynamics of quantum systems coupled to periodically modulated heat baths and work reservoirs is developed. By identifying affinities and fluxes, the first and the second law are formulated consistently. In the linear response regime, entropy production becomes a quadratic form in the affinities. Specializing to Lindblad dynamics, we identify the corresponding kinetic coefficients in terms of correlation functions of the unperturbed dynamics. Reciprocity relations follow from symmetries with respect to time reversal. The kinetic coefficients can be split into a classical and a quantum contribution subject to an additional constraint, which follows from a natural detailed balance condition. This constraint implies universal bounds on efficiency and power of quantum heat engines. In particular, we show that Carnot efficiency cannot be reached whenever quantum coherence effects are present, i.e., when the Hamiltonian used for work extraction does not commute with the bare system Hamiltonian. For illustration, we specialize our universal results to a driven two-level system in contact with a heat bath of sinusoidally modulated temperature.
Security of practical quantum key distribution systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Nitin
2015-02-24
This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.
Compact quantum systems and the Pauli data problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bracken, A.J. (Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)); Fawcett, R.J.B. (Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia))
1993-02-01
Compact quantum systems have underlying compact kinematical Lie algebras, in contrast to familiar noncompact quantum systems built on the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. Pauli asked in the latter case: to what extent does knowledge of the probability distributions in coordinate and momentum space determine the state vector The analogous questions for compact quantum system is raised, and some preliminary results are obtained.
Kinetic and thermodynamic temperatures in quantum systems
Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Aldo
2013-01-01
In this work we present a formalism to describe non equilibrium conditions in systems with a discretized energy spectrum, such as quantum systems. We develop a formalism based on a combination of Gibbs-Shannon entropy and information thermodynamics that arrives to a generalization of the De-Brujin identity applicable to discrete and non-symmetric distributions. This allows to define the concept of a thermodynamic temperature with a different, albeit complementary meaning to the equilibrium ki...
Quantum mechanics in general quantum systems (II): Perturbation theory
Wang, A M
2006-01-01
We propose an improved scheme of perturbation theory based on our exact solution [See: An Min Wang, quant-ph/0611217] in general quantum systems independent of time. Our elementary start-point is to introduce the perturbing parameter as late as possible. Our main skills are Hamiltonian redivision so as to overcome a flaw of the usual perturbation theory, and the perturbing Hamiltonian matrix product decomposition in order to separate the contraction and anti-contraction terms. Our calculational technology is the limit process for eliminating apparent divergences. Our central idea is ``dynamical rearrangement and summation" for the sake of the partial contributions from the high order even all order approximations absorbed in our perturbed solution. Consequently, we obtain the improved forms of the zeroth, first, second and third order perturbed solutions absorbing the partial contributions from the high order even all order approximations of perturbation. Then we deduce the improved transition probability. In...
Decoherence and Localization in Quantum Two-Level Systems
Yu, Ting
1996-01-01
We study and compare the decoherent histories approach, the environment-induced decoherence and the localization properties of thesolutions to the stochastic Schr\\"{o}dinger equation in quantum jump simulationand quantum state diffusion approaches, for a quantum two-level system model. We show, in particular, that there is a close connection between the decoherent histories and the quantum jump simulation, complementing a connection with the quantum state diffusion approach noted earlier by D...
Notions of controllability for quantum mechanical systems
Albertini, F
2001-01-01
In this paper, we define four different notions of controllability of physical interest for multilevel quantum mechanical systems. These notions involve the possibility of driving the evolution operator as well as the state of the system. We establish the connections among these different notions as well as methods to verify controllability. The paper also contains results on the relation between the controllability in arbitrary small time of a system varying on a compact transformation Lie group and the corresponding system on the associated homogeneous space. As an application, we prove that, for the system of two interacting spin 1/2 particles, not every state transfer can be obtained in arbitrary small time.
Mathematical Structure in Quantum Systems and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This volume contains most of the contributions presented at the Conference 'Mathematical Structures in Quantum Systems and applications', held at the Centro de Ciencias de Benasque 'Pedro Pascual', Benasque (Spain) from 8-14 July 2012. The aim of the Conference was to bring together physicists working on different applications of mathematical methods to quantum systems in order to enable the different communities to become acquainted with other approaches and techniques that could be used in their own fields of expertise. We concentrated on three main subjects: – the geometrical description of Quantum Mechanics; – the Casimir effect and its mathematical implications; – the Quantum Zeno Effect and Open system dynamics. Each of these topics had a set of general lectures, aimed at presenting a global view on the subject, and other more technical seminars. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to creating a wonderful scientific atmosphere during the Conference. We would especially like to thank the speakers and the authors of the papers contained in this volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and, of course, the referees for their generous work. Special thanks are also due to the staff of the Centro de Ciencias de Benasque 'Pedro Pascual' who made this successful meeting possible. On behalf of the organising committee and the authors we would also like to acknowledge the partial support provided by the ESF-CASIMIR network ('New Trends and Applications of the Casimir Effect'), the QUITEMAD research Project (“Quantum technologies at Madrid”, Ref. Comunidad de Madrid P2009/ESP-1594), the MICINN Project (MTM2011-16027-E) and the Government from Arag´on (DGA) (DGA, Department of Industry and Innovation and the European Social Fund, DGA-Grant 24/1) who made the Conference and this Proceedings volume possible.
Quantum Annealing and Quantum Fluctuation Effect in Frustrated Ising Systems
Tanaka, Shu; Tamura, Ryo
2012-01-01
Quantum annealing method has been widely attracted attention in statistical physics and information science since it is expected to be a powerful method to obtain the best solution of optimization problem as well as simulated annealing. The quantum annealing method was incubated in quantum statistical physics. This is an alternative method of the simulated annealing which is well-adopted for many optimization problems. In the simulated annealing, we obtain a solution of optimization problem b...
Quantum Systems based upon Galois Fields: from Sub-quantum to Super-quantum Correlations
Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu
2013-01-01
In this talk we describe our recent work on discrete quantum theory based on Galois fields. In particular, we discuss how discrete quantum theory sheds new light on the foundations of quantum theory and we review an explicit model of super-quantum correlations we have constructed in this context. We also discuss the larger questions of the origins and foundations of quantum theory, as well as the relevance of super-quantum theory for the quantum theory of gravity.
Inversion of Quantum Jumps in Quantum Optical Systems under Continuous Observation
Mabuchi, H.; Zoller, P.
1996-04-01
We formulate conditions for invertibility of quantum jumps in systems that decay by emission of quanta into a continuously monitored reservoir. We propose proof-of-principle experiments using techniques from cavity quantum electrodynamics and ion trapping, and briefly discuss the relevance of such methods for error correction in quantum computation.
Formulation and Application of Quantum Monte Carlo Method to Fractional Quantum Hall Systems
Suzuki, Sei; Nakajima, Tatsuya
2003-01-01
Quantum Monte Carlo method is applied to fractional quantum Hall systems. The use of the linear programming method enables us to avoid the negative-sign problem in the Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The formulation of this method and the technique for avoiding the sign problem are described. Some numerical results on static physical quantities are also reported.
Multimode optomechanical system in the quantum regime
Nielsen, William H P; Møller, Christoffer B; Polzik, Eugene S; Schliesser, Albert
2016-01-01
We realise a simple and robust optomechanical system with a multitude of long-lived ($Q>10^7$) mechanical modes in a phononic-bandgap shielded membrane resonator. An optical mode of a compact Fabry-Perot resonator detects these modes' motion with a measurement rate ($96~\\mathrm{kHz}$) that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rates already at moderate cryogenic temperatures ($10\\,\\mathrm{K}$). Reaching this quantum regime entails, i.~a., quantum measurement backaction exceeding thermal forces, and thus detectable optomechanical quantum correlations. In particular, we observe ponderomotive squeezing of the output light mediated by a multitude of mechanical resonator modes, with quantum noise suppression up to -2.4 dB (-3.6 dB if corrected for detection losses) and bandwidths $\\lesssim 90\\,\\mathrm{ kHz}$. The multi-mode nature of the employed membrane and Fabry-Perot resonators lends itself to hybrid entanglement schemes involving multiple electromagnetic, mechanical, and spin degrees of freedom.
Path integrals for dimerized quantum spin systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foussats, Adriana, E-mail: afoussats@gmail.co [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura and Instituto de Fisica Rosario (UNR-CONICET), Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Greco, Andres [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura and Instituto de Fisica Rosario (UNR-CONICET), Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Muramatsu, Alejandro [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)
2011-01-11
Dimerized quantum spin systems may appear under several circumstances, e.g. by a modulation of the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in space, or in frustrated quantum antiferromagnets. In general, such systems display a quantum phase transition to a Neel state as a function of a suitable coupling constant. We present here two path-integral formulations appropriate for spin S=1/2 dimerized systems. The first one deals with a description of the dimers degrees of freedom in an SO(4) manifold, while the second one provides a path-integral for the bond-operators introduced by Sachdev and Bhatt. The path-integral quantization is performed using the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic formalism for constrained systems, such that the measures and constraints that result from the algebra of the operators is provided in both cases. As an example we consider a spin-Peierls chain, and show how to arrive at the corresponding field-theory, starting with both an SO(4) formulation and bond-operators.
Nonequilibrium representative ensembles for isolated quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An isolated quantum system is considered, prepared in a nonequilibrium initial state. In order to uniquely define the system dynamics, one has to construct a representative statistical ensemble. From the principle of least action it follows that the role of the evolution generator is played by a grand Hamiltonian, but not merely by its energy part. A theorem is proved expressing the commutators of field operators with operator products through variational derivatives of these products. A consequence of this theorem is the equivalence of the variational equations for field operators with the Heisenberg equations for the latter. A finite quantum system cannot equilibrate in the strict sense. But it can tend to a quasi-stationary state characterized by ergodic averages and the appropriate representative ensemble depending on initial conditions. Microcanonical ensemble, arising in the eigenstate thermalization, is just a particular case of representative ensembles. Quasi-stationary representative ensembles are defined by the principle of minimal information. The latter also implies the minimization of an effective thermodynamic potential. -- Highlights: → The evolution of a nonequilibrium isolated quantum system is considered. → The grand Hamiltonian is shown to be the evolution generator. → A theorem is proved connecting operator commutators with variational derivatives. → Quasi-stationary states are described by representative ensembles. → These ensembles, generally, depend on initial conditions.
One-Way Quantum Deficit for 2 ⊗ d Systems
Ye, Biao-Liang; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-08-01
We investigate one-way quantum deficit for 2 ⊗ d systems. Analytical expressions of one-way quantum deficit under both von Neumann measurement and weak measurement are presented. As an illustration, qubit-qutrit systems are studied in detail. It is shown that there exists non-zero one-way quantum deficit even quantum entanglement vanishes. Moreover, one-way quantum deficit via weak measurement turns out to be weaker than that via von Neumann measurement. The dynamics of entanglement and one-way quantum deficit under dephasing channels is also investigated.
Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems: Spin-Pseudospin Symmetry Breaking and Quantum Phase Transitions
Sarma, Sankar Das; Demler, Eugene
2000-01-01
We discuss and review recent advances in our understaning of quantum Hall systems where additional quantum numbers associated with spin and/or layer (pseudospin) indices play crucial roles in creating exotic quantum phases. Among the novel quantum phases we discuss are the recently discovered canted antiferromagnetic phase, the spontaneous interlayer coherent phase, and various spin Bose glass phases. We describe the theoretical models used in studying these novel phases and the various exper...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ji Ying-Hua; Hu Ju-Ju; Hu Yan
2012-01-01
We investigate the influence of environmental decoherence on the dynamics of a coupled qubit system and quantum correlation.We analyse the relationship between concurrence and the degree of initial entanglement or the purity of initial quantum state,and also their relationship with quantum discord.The results show that the decrease of the purity of an initial quantum state can induce the attenuation of concurrence or quantum discord,but the attenuation of quantum discord is obviously slower than the concurrence's,correspondingly the survival time of quantum discord is longer.Further investigation reveals that the robustness of quantum discord and concurrence relies on the entanglement degree of the initial quantum state.The higher the degree of entanglement,the more robust the quantum discord is than concurrence.And the reverse is equally true.Birth and death happen to quantum discord periodically and a newborn quantum discord comes into being under a certain condition,so does the concurrence.
The Quantum as an Emergent System
Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.
2012-05-01
Double slit interference is explained with the aid of what we call "21st century classical physics". We model a particle as an oscillator ("bouncer") in a thermal context, which is given by some assumed "zero-point" field of the vacuum. In this way, the quantum is understood as an emergent system, i.e., a steady-state system maintained by a constant throughput of (vacuum) energy. To account for the particle's thermal environment, we introduce a "path excitation field", which derives from the thermodynamics of the zero-point vacuum and which represents all possible paths a particle can take via thermal path fluctuations. The intensity distribution on a screen behind a double slit is calculated, as well as the corresponding trajectories and the probability density current. Further, particular features of the relative phase are shown to be responsible for nonlocal effects not only in ordinary quantum theory, but also in our classical approach.
The Quantum as an Emergent System
Groessing, Gerhard; Pascasio, Johannes Mesa; Schwabl, Herbert; 10.1088/1742-6596/361/1/012008
2012-01-01
Double slit interference is explained with the aid of what we call "21stcentury classical physics". We model a particle as an oscillator ("bouncer") in a thermal context, which is given by some assumed "zero-point" field of the vacuum. In this way, the quantum is understood as an emergent system, i.e., a steady-state system maintained by a constant throughput of (vacuum) energy. To account for the particle's thermal environment, we introduce a "path excitation field", which derives from the thermodynamics of the zero-point vacuum and which represents all possible paths a particle can take via thermal path fluctuations. The intensity distribution on a screen behind a double slit is calculated, as well as the corresponding trajectories and the probability density current. Further, particular features of the relative phase are shown to be responsible for nonlocal effects not only in ordinary quantum theory, but also in our classical approach.
Li, Jun; Lu, Dawei; Luo, Zhihuang; Laflamme, Raymond; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng
2016-07-01
Precisely characterizing and controlling realistic quantum systems under noises is a challenging frontier in quantum sciences and technologies. In developing reliable controls for open quantum systems, one is often confronted with the problem of the lack of knowledge on the system controllability. The purpose of this paper is to give a numerical approach to this problem, that is, to approximately compute the reachable set of states for coherently controlled quantum Markovian systems. The approximation consists of setting both upper and lower bounds for system's reachable region of states. Furthermore, we apply our reachability analysis to the control of the relaxation dynamics of a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. We implement some experimental tasks of quantum state engineering in this open system at a near optimal performance in view of purity: e.g., increasing polarization and preparing pseudopure states. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our theory and show interesting and promising applications of environment-assisted quantum dynamics.
Randomized control of open quantum systems
Viola, L
2006-01-01
The problem of open-loop dynamical control of generic open quantum systems is addressed. In particular, I focus on the task of effectively switching off environmental couplings responsible for unwanted decoherence and dissipation effects. After revisiting the standard framework for dynamical decoupling via deterministic controls, I describe a different approach whereby the controller intentionally acquires a random component. An explicit error bound on worst-case performance of stochastic decoupling is presented.
Experimental quantum teleportation of a two-qubit composite system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
@@ Quantum teleportation, a way to state transfer the of a quantum system from one location to another, is central to quantum communication and plays an important role in a number of quantum computation protocols.Although significant experimental advances have been made in teleportation of single qubits (photons and ions), large scale applications require the transfer of composite systems containing two or more qubits, which has remained a real experimental challenge.
Huge Quantum Gravity Effects in the Solar System
Page, Don N.
2010-01-01
Normally one thinks of the motion of the planets around the Sun as a highly classical phenomenon, so that one can neglect quantum gravity in the Solar System. However, classical chaos in the planetary motion amplifies quantum uncertainties so that they become very large, giving huge quantum gravity effects. For example, evidence suggests that Uranus may eventually be ejected from the Solar System, but quantum uncertainties would make the direction at which it leaves almost entirely uncertain,...
Quantum phase transition and entanglement in Li atom system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
By use of the exact diagonalization method, the quantum phase transition and en- tanglement in a 6-Li atom system are studied. It is found that entanglement appears before the quantum phase transition and disappears after it in this exactly solvable quantum system. The present results show that the von Neumann entropy, as a measure of entanglement, may reveal the quantum phase transition in this model.
Quantum Information Biology: From Theory of Open Quantum Systems to Adaptive Dynamics
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
This chapter reviews quantum(-like) information biology (QIB). Here biology is treated widely as even covering cognition and its derivatives: psychology and decision making, sociology, and behavioral economics and finances. QIB provides an integrative description of information processing by bio-systems at all scales of life: from proteins and cells to cognition, ecological and social systems. Mathematically QIB is based on the theory of adaptive quantum systems (which covers also open quantum systems). Ideologically QIB is based on the quantum-like (QL) paradigm: complex bio-systems process information in accordance with the laws of quantum information and probability. This paradigm is supported by plenty of statistical bio-data collected at all bio-scales. QIB re ects the two fundamental principles: a) adaptivity; and, b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). In addition, quantum adaptive dynamics provides the most generally possible mathematical representation of these principles.
Ultracold Quantum Gases and Lattice Systems: Quantum Simulation of Lattice Gauge Theories
Wiese, U -J
2013-01-01
Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories are of central importance in many areas of physics. In condensed matter physics, Abelian U(1) lattice gauge theories arise in the description of certain quantum spin liquids. In quantum information theory, Kitaev's toric code is a Z(2) lattice gauge theory. In particle physics, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the non-Abelian SU(3) gauge theory of the strong interactions between quarks and gluons, is non-perturbatively regularized on a lattice. Quantum link models extend the concept of lattice gauge theories beyond the Wilson formulation, and are well suited for both digital and analog quantum simulation using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices. Since quantum simulators do not suffer from the notorious sign problem, they open the door to studies of the real-time evolution of strongly coupled quantum systems, which are impossible with classical simulation methods. A plethora of interesting lattice gauge theories suggests itself for quantum simulation, which should al...
Quantum statistical gravity: time dilation due to local information in many-body quantum systems
Sels, Dries; Wouters, Michiel
2016-01-01
We propose a generic mechanism for the emergence of a gravitational potential that acts on all classical objects in a quantum system. Our conjecture is based on the analysis of mutual information in many-body quantum systems. Since measurements in quantum systems affect the surroundings through entanglement, a measurement at one position reduces the entropy in its neighbourhood. This reduction in entropy can be described by a local temperature, that is directly related to the gravitational po...
Colloquium: Non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems
Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Laine, Elsi-Mari; Piilo, Jyrki; Vacchini, Bassano
2016-04-01
The dynamical behavior of open quantum systems plays a key role in many applications of quantum mechanics, examples ranging from fundamental problems, such as the environment-induced decay of quantum coherence and relaxation in many-body systems, to applications in condensed matter theory, quantum transport, quantum chemistry, and quantum information. In close analogy to a classical Markovian stochastic process, the interaction of an open quantum system with a noisy environment is often modeled phenomenologically by means of a dynamical semigroup with a corresponding time-independent generator in Lindblad form, which describes a memoryless dynamics of the open system typically leading to an irreversible loss of characteristic quantum features. However, in many applications open systems exhibit pronounced memory effects and a revival of genuine quantum properties such as quantum coherence, correlations, and entanglement. Here recent theoretical results on the rich non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems are discussed, paying particular attention to the rigorous mathematical definition, to the physical interpretation and classification, as well as to the quantification of quantum memory effects. The general theory is illustrated by a series of physical examples. The analysis reveals that memory effects of the open system dynamics reflect characteristic features of the environment which opens a new perspective for applications, namely, to exploit a small open system as a quantum probe signifying nontrivial features of the environment it is interacting with. This Colloquium further explores the various physical sources of non-Markovian quantum dynamics, such as structured environmental spectral densities, nonlocal correlations between environmental degrees of freedom, and correlations in the initial system-environment state, in addition to developing schemes for their local detection. Recent experiments addressing the detection, quantification, and control of
Statistical Mechanics of Quantum Integrable Systems
Wadati, Miki; Kato, Go; Iida, Toshiaki
Recent developments in statistical mechanics of quantum integrable systems are reviewed. Those studies are fundamental and have a renewed interest related to newly developing fields such as atomic Bose-Einstein condensations, photonic crystals and quantum computations. After a brief summary of the basic concepts and methods, the following three topics are discussed. First, by the thermal Bethe ansatz (TBA), a hard-core Bose gas is exactly solved. The model includes fully the effect of excluded volume and is identified to be a c=1 conformal field theory. Second, the cluster expansion method based on the periodic boundary condition for the Bethe wave function, which we call the Bethe ansatz cluster expansion (BACE) method, is developed for a δ-function gas and the XXX Heisenberg chain. This directly proves the TBA and reveals intrinsic properties of quantum integrable systems. Third, for a δ-function gas, the integral equations for the distribution functions of the quasi-momentum and the quasi-particle energy are solved in the form of power series. In the weak coupling case, the results reproduce those of Bogoliubov theory.
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
Iqbal, Azhar
2009-01-01
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses well known criticism of quantum games.
Parallel decoherence in composite quantum systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Dugići; J Jeknić-Dugić
2012-08-01
For the standard quantum Brownian motion (QBM) model, we point out the occurrence of simultaneous (parallel), mutually irreducible and autonomous decoherence processes. Besides the standard Brownian particle, we show that there is at least another system undergoing the dynamics described by the QBM model. We do this by selecting the two mutually irreducible, global structures (decompositions into subsystems) of the composite system of the QBM model. The generalization of this observation is a new, challenging task in the foundations of the decoherence theory. We do not place our findings in any interpretational context.
A kicked quantum system including the continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The behaviour of a quantum particle in a separable one-term potential with three-dimensional form factor is investigated under the influence of an external force which alters the potential strength periodically or quasiperiodically. The unperturbed system possesses one bound state and a continuum of scattering states which has treated almost analytically. First numerical results, fully including the emission channel, indicate, for certain parameter combinations with commensurate or incommensurate frequency ratios, either a regular or an irregular dynamical behaviour of the system. 17 refs.; 3 figs
Twisted CFT and bilayer Quantum Hall systems
Cristofano, G; Naddeo, A
2003-01-01
We identify the impurity interactions of the recently proposed CFT description of a bilayer Quantum Hall system at filling nu =m/(pm+2) in Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679. Such a CFT is obtained by m-reduction on the one layer system, with a resulting pairing symmetry and presence of quasi-holes. For the m=2 case boundary terms are shown to describe an impurity interaction which allows for a localized tunnel of the Kondo problem type. The presence of an anomalous fixed point is evidenced at finite coupling which is unstable with respect to unbalance and flows to a vacuum state with no quasi-holes.
Effective operator formalism for open quantum systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg
2012-01-01
We present an effective operator formalism for open quantum systems. Employing perturbation theory and adiabatic elimination of excited states for a weakly driven system, we derive an effective master equation which reduces the evolution to the ground-state dynamics. The effective evolution...... involves a single effective Hamiltonian and one effective Lindblad operator for each naturally occurring decay process. Simple expressions are derived for the effective operators which can be directly applied to reach effective equations of motion for the ground states. We compare our method...
Quantum Rotational Effects in Nanomagnetic Systems
O'Keeffe, Michael F.
Quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a nanomagnet must conserve the total angular momentum. For a nanomagnet embedded in a rigid body, reversal of the magnetic moment will cause the body to rotate as a whole. When embedded in an elastic environment, tunneling of the magnetic moment will cause local elastic twists of the crystal structure. In this thesis, I will present a theoretical study of the interplay between magnetization and rotations in a variety of nanomagnetic systems which have some degree of rotational freedom. We investigate the effect of rotational freedom on the tunnel splitting of a nanomagnet which is free to rotate about its easy axis. Calculating the exact instanton of the coupled equations of motion shows that mechanical freedom of the particle renormalizes the easy axis anisotropy, increasing the tunnel splitting. To understand magnetization dynamics in free particles, we study a quantum mechanical model of a tunneling spin embedded in a rigid rotor. The exact energy levels for a symmetric rotor exhibit first and second order quantum phase transitions between states with different values the magnetic moment. A quantum phase diagram is obtained in which the magnetic moment depends strongly on the moments of inertia. An intrinsic contribution to decoherence of current oscillations of a flux qubit must come from the angular momentum it transfers to the surrounding body. Within exactly solvable models of a qubit embedded in a rigid body and an elastic medium, we show that slow decoherence is permitted if the solid is macroscopically large. The spin-boson model is one of the simplest representations of a two-level system interacting with a quantum harmonic oscillator, yet has eluded a closed-form solution. I investigate some possible approaches to understanding its spectrum. The Landau-Zener dynamics of a tunneling spin coupled to a torsional resonator show that for certain parameter ranges the system exhibits multiple Landau-Zener transitions
Topological entanglement entropy in bilayer quantum Hall systems
Chung, Myung-Hoon
2013-01-01
We calculate the topological entanglement entropy in bilayer quantum Hall systems, dividing the set of quantum numbers into four parts. This topological entanglement entropy allows us to draw a phase diagram in the parameter space of layer separation and tunneling amplitude. We perform the finite size scaling analysis of the topological entanglement entropy in order to see the quantum phase transition clearly.
Propagation of Disturbances in Degenerate Quantum Systems
Chancellor, Nicholas
2011-01-01
Disturbances in gapless quantum many-body models are known to travel an unlimited distance throughout the system. Here, we explore this phenomenon in finite clusters with degenerate ground states. The specific model studied here is the one-dimensional J1-J2 Heisenberg Hamiltonian at and close to the Majumdar-Ghosh point. Both open and periodic boundary conditions are considered. Quenches are performed using a local magnetic field. The degenerate Majumdar-Ghosh ground state allows disturbances which carry quantum entanglement to propagate throughout the system, and thus dephase the entire system within the degenerate subspace. These disturbances can also carry polarization, but not energy, as all energy is stored locally. The local evolution of the part of the system where energy is stored drives the rest of the system through long-range entanglement. We also examine approximations for the ground state of this Hamiltonian in the strong field limit, and study how couplings away from the Majumdar-Ghosh point aff...
Advanced Topic: Quasi-Hermitian Quantum Systems
Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.
2014-11-01
So far, the discussion has limited itself to hermitian operators and systems. However, superficially non-hermitian Hamiltonian quantum systems are also of considerable current interest, especially in the context of PT symmetric models [Ben07, Mos05], although many of the main ideas appeared earlier [SGH92, XA96]. For such systems, the Hilbert space structure is at first sight very different from that for hermitian Hamiltonian systems, inasmuch as the dual wavefunctions are not just the complex conjugates of the wavefunctions, or, equivalently, the Hilbert space metric is not the usual one. While it is possible to keep most of the compact Dirac notation in analyzing such systems, here we work with explicit functions and avoid abstract notation, in the hope to fully expose all the structure, rather than to hide it...
Characterizing and Quantifying Frustration in Quantum Many-Body Systems
Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; A. Monras; Illuminati, F.
2011-01-01
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical...
Control of non-controllable quantum systems: A quantum control algorithm based on Grover iteration
Zhang, Chen-Bin; Dong, Dao-Yi; Chen, Zong-Hai
2005-01-01
A new notion of controllability, eigenstate controllability, is defined for finite-dimensional bilinear quantum mechanical systems which are neither strongly completely controllably nor completely controllable. And a quantum control algorithm based on Grover iteration is designed to perform a quantum control task of steering a system, which is eigenstate controllable but may not be (strongly) completely controllable, from an arbitrary state to a target state.
The transition to chaos conservative classical systems and quantum manifestations
Reichl, Linda E
2004-01-01
This book provides a thorough and comprehensive discussion of classical and quantum chaos theory for bounded systems and for scattering processes Specific discussions include • Noether’s theorem, integrability, KAM theory, and a definition of chaotic behavior • Area-preserving maps, quantum billiards, semiclassical quantization, chaotic scattering, scaling in classical and quantum dynamics, dynamic localization, dynamic tunneling, effects of chaos in periodically driven systems and stochastic systems • Random matrix theory and supersymmetry The book is divided into several parts Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the dynamics of nonlinear conservative classical systems Chapter 5 and several appendices give a thorough grounding in random matrix theory and supersymmetry techniques Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the manifestations of chaos in bounded quantum systems and open quantum systems respectively Chapter 8 focuses on the semiclassical description of quantum systems with underlying classical chaos, and Chapt...
Complex flows in granular and quantum systems
Herrera, Mark Richard
In this thesis we investigate three problems involving complex flows in granular and quantum systems. (a) We first study the dynamics of granular particles in a split-bottom shear cell experiment. We utilize network theory to quantify the dynamics of the granular system at the mesoscopic scale. We find an apparent phase transition in the formation of a giant component of broken links as a function of applied shear. These results are compared to a numerical model where breakages are based on the amount of local stretching in the granular pile. (b) Moving to quantum mechanical systems, we study revival and echo phenomena in systems of anharmonically confined atoms, and find a novel phenomena we call the "pre-revival echo". We study the effect of size and symmetry of the perturbations on the various echoes and revivals, and form a perturbative model to describe the phenomena. We then model the effect of interactions using the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation and study interactions' effect on the revivals. (c) Lastly, we continue to study the effect of interactions on particles in weakly anharmonic traps. We numerically observe a "dynamical localization" phenomena in the presence of both anharmonicity and interactions. States may remain localized or become spread out in the potential depending on the strength and sign of the anharmonicity and interactions. We formulate a model for this phenomena in terms of a classical phase space.
Quantum MIMO n-Systems and Conditions for Stability
Mansourbeigi, Seyed M H
2009-01-01
In this paper we present some conditions for the (strong) stabilizability of an n-D Quantum MIMO system P(X). It contains two parts. The first part is to introduce the n-D Quantum MIMO systems where the coefficients vary in the algebra of Q-meromorphic functions. Then we introduce some conditions for the stabilizability of these systems. The second part is to show that this Quantum system has the n-D system as its quantum limit and the results for the SISO,SIMO,MISO,MIMO are obtained again as special cases.
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems.
Negentropy in Many-Body Quantum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piero Quarati
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Negentropy (negative entropy is the negative contribution to the total entropy of correlated many-body environments. Negentropy can play a role in transferring its related stored mobilizable energy to colliding nuclei that participate in spontaneous or induced nuclear fusions in solid or liquid metals or in stellar plasmas. This energy transfer mechanism can explain the observed increase of nuclear fusion rates relative to the standard Salpeter screening. The importance of negentropy in these specific many-body quantum systems and its relation to many-body correlation entropy are discussed.
Limit theorems for dilute quantum systems leading to quantum poisson processes
Alicki, Robert; Rudnicki, Sławomir; Sadowski, Sławomir
1993-12-01
The limit theorems for sums of independent or correlated operators representing observables of dilute quantum systems and leading to quantum Poisson processes are proved. Examples of systems of unstable particles and a Fermi lattice gas are discussed. For the latter, relations between low density limit and central limit are given.
Quantum revivals and magnetization tunneling in effective spin systems
Krizanac, M.; Altwein, D.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Wiesendanger, R.
2016-03-01
Quantum mechanical objects or nano-objects have been proposed as bits for information storage. While time-averaged properties of magnetic, quantum-mechanical particles have been extensively studied experimentally and theoretically, experimental investigations of the real time evolution of magnetization in the quantum regime were not possible until recent developments in pump-probe techniques. Here we investigate the quantum dynamics of effective spin systems by means of analytical and numerical treatments. Particular attention is paid to the quantum revival time and its relation to the magnetization tunneling. The quantum revival time has been initially defined as the recurrence time of a total wave-function. Here we show that the quantum revivals of wave-functions and expectation values in spin systems may be quite different which gives rise to a more sophisticated definition of the quantum revival within the realm of experimental research. Particularly, the revival times for integer spins coincide which is not the case for half-integer spins. Furthermore, the quantum revival is found to be shortest for integer ratios between the on-site anisotropy and an external magnetic field paving the way to novel methods of anisotropy measurements. We show that the quantum tunneling of magnetization at avoided level crossing is coherent to the quantum revival time of expectation values, leading to a connection between these two fundamental properties of quantum mechanical spins.
Characterizing and quantifying frustration in quantum many-body systems.
Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Monras, A; Illuminati, F
2011-12-23
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration. PMID:22243147
Quantum Integrable Systems from Conformal Blocks
Chen, Heng-Yu
2016-01-01
In this note, we extend the striking connections between quantum integrable systems and conformal blocks recently found in http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.01858 in several directions. First, we explicitly demonstrate that the action of quartic conformal Casimir operator on general d-dimensional scalar conformal blocks, can be expressed in terms of certain combinations of commuting integrals of motions of the two particle hyperbolic BC2 Calogero-Sutherland system. The permutation and reflection properties of the underlying Dunkl operators play crucial roles in establishing such a connection. Next, we show that the scalar superconformal blocks in SCFTs with four and eight supercharges and suitable chirality constraints can also be identified with the eigenfunctions of the same Calogero-Sutherland system, this demonstrates the universality of such a connection. Finally, we observe that the so-called "seed" conformal blocks for constructing four point functions for operators with arbitrary space-time spins in four dime...
Spin systems and long-range interactions for quantum memories and quantum computing
Pedrocchi, Fabio Luigi
2013-01-01
Since the seminal work by Shor who proposed a quantum algorithm factorizing integers into prime factors, it has become manifest that the laws of quantum mechanics provide resources for computation that overpower classical physics. The computational advantages that quantum physics offers have stimulated a tremendous amount of theoretical and experimental research. In this context, spin systems have played a major role, given that the spin degree of freedom -- with the paradigmatic case of the ...
Deformed oscillator algebras for two dimensional quantum superintegrable systems
Bonatsos, Dennis; Kokkotas, K D; Bonatsos, Dennis
1994-01-01
Quantum superintegrable systems in two dimensions are obtained from their classical counterparts, the quantum integrals of motion being obtained from the corresponding classical integrals by a symmetrization procedure. For each quantum superintegrable systema deformed oscillator algebra, characterized by a structure function specific for each system, is constructed, the generators of the algebra being functions of the quantum integrals of motion. The energy eigenvalues corresponding to a state with finite dimensional degeneracy can then be obtained in an economical way from solving a system of two equations satisfied by the structure function, the results being in agreement to the ones obtained from the solution of the relevant Schrodinger equation. The method shows how quantum algebraic techniques can simplify the study of quantum superintegrable systems, especially in two dimensions.
Holonomic Quantum Control with Continuous Variable Systems
Albert, Victor V.; Shu, Chi; Krastanov, Stefan; Shen, Chao; Liu, Ren-Bao; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.; Jiang, Liang
2016-04-01
Universal computation of a quantum system consisting of superpositions of well-separated coherent states of multiple harmonic oscillators can be achieved by three families of adiabatic holonomic gates. The first gate consists of moving a coherent state around a closed path in phase space, resulting in a relative Berry phase between that state and the other states. The second gate consists of "colliding" two coherent states of the same oscillator, resulting in coherent population transfer between them. The third gate is an effective controlled-phase gate on coherent states of two different oscillators. Such gates should be realizable via reservoir engineering of systems that support tunable nonlinearities, such as trapped ions and circuit QED.
On the kinetic theory of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The contents of this thesis which deals with transport phenomena of specific gases, plasmas and fluids, can be separated into two distinct parts. In the first part a statistical way is suggested to estimate the neutrino mass. Herefore use is made of the fact that massive neutrinos possess a non-zero volume viscosity in contrast with massless neutrinos. The second part deals with kinetic theory of strongly condensed quantum systems of which examples in nature are: liquid Helium, heavy nuclei, electrons in a metal and the interior of stars. In degenerate systems fermions in general interact strongly so that ordinary kinetic theory is not directly applicable. For such cases Landau-Fermi-liquid theory, in which the strongly interacting particles are replaced by much weaker interacting quasiparticles, proved to be very useful. A method is developed in this theory to calculate transport coefficients. Applications of this method on liquid 3Helium yield surprisingly good agreement with experimental results for thermal conductivities. (Auth.)
Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Dan
2007-01-01
In the past decade there has been a trend towards studying ever smaller devices. Improved experimental techniques have made new experiments possible, one class of which is electron transport through molecules and artificially manufactured structures like quantum dots. In this type of systems...... spinless resonant 7 site chain, studying the effect of repulsive interaction inside the chain. We demonstrate that both weak and strong interactions inside the chain lead to Coulomb blockade renormalization of the resonances in the conductance spectrum. Additionally the strongly interacting case sharpens...... the resonances significantly, such that strong interaction inside the chain tends to suppress the off-resonance transport. Next we consider interacting resonant level models, studying the effect of repulsive interaction on the contact links. We demonstrate that even a small leak of the interaction in the system...
Quantum Correlations Reduce Classical Correlations with Ancillary Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Shun-Long; LI Nan
2010-01-01
@@ We illustrate the dichotomy of classical/quantum correlations by virtue of monogamy.More precisely,we show that correlations in a bipartite state are classical if and only if each party of the state can be perfectly correlated with other ancillary systems.In particular,this means that if there are quantum correlations between two parties,then the classical(as well as quantum)correlating capabilities of the two parties with other systems have to be strictly reduced.
Hybrid quantum systems with ultracold spins and optomechanics
Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Date, Aditya; Schwab, Keith; Meystre, Pierre; Vengalattore, Mukund
2016-05-01
Linear cavity optomechanics has enabled radiation pressure cooling and sensing of mechanical resonators at the quantum limits. However, exciting and unrealized avenues such as generating massive macroscopic nonclassical states, quantum signal transduction, and phonon-based manybody physics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. In our group, we are exploring three approaches to realizing strong optomechanical nonlinearities - i. using atomically thin graphene membranes, ii. coupling optomechanical systems with ultracold atomic spins, and iii. using microtoroidal optomechanical resonators strongly coupled to atoms trapped in their evanescent fields. We describe our progress in each of these efforts and discuss ongoing studies on various aspects of quantum enhanced metrology, nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum transduction using these novel hybrid quantum systems. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.
Software Systems for High-performance Quantum Computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Britt, Keith A [ORNL
2016-01-01
Quantum computing promises new opportunities for solving hard computational problems, but harnessing this novelty requires breakthrough concepts in the design, operation, and application of computing systems. We define some of the challenges facing the development of quantum computing systems as well as software-based approaches that can be used to overcome these challenges. Following a brief overview of the state of the art, we present models for the quantum programming and execution models, the development of architectures for hybrid high-performance computing systems, and the realization of software stacks for quantum networking. This leads to a discussion of the role that conventional computing plays in the quantum paradigm and how some of the current challenges for exascale computing overlap with those facing quantum computing.
Correlation Functions in Open Quantum-Classical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang-Yu Hsieh
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum time correlation functions are often the principal objects of interest in experimental investigations of the dynamics of quantum systems. For instance, transport properties, such as diffusion and reaction rate coefficients, can be obtained by integrating these functions. The evaluation of such correlation functions entails sampling from quantum equilibrium density operators and quantum time evolution of operators. For condensed phase and complex systems, where quantum dynamics is difficult to carry out, approximations must often be made to compute these functions. We present a general scheme for the computation of correlation functions, which preserves the full quantum equilibrium structure of the system and approximates the time evolution with quantum-classical Liouville dynamics. Several aspects of the scheme are discussed, including a practical and general approach to sample the quantum equilibrium density, the properties of the quantum-classical Liouville equation in the context of correlation function computations, simulation schemes for the approximate dynamics and their interpretation and connections to other approximate quantum dynamical methods.
Towards the experimental realization of hybrid quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the main interests of quantum physics in this new millennium is the exploitation of quantum mechanical principles in technical applications. One approach here is to use entanglement and superpositions of states to realize powerful algorithms capable of solving challenging computational tasks on a much faster time scale than a classical computer ever could. To find the quantum analogue of a classical bit one needs a quantum mechanical two level system that can be used to store and process quantum information. Most of the current approaches to find such a 'qubit' have the intention to find a single system that is able to fulfill all desirable tasks. But actually most quantum systems are only favorable for very specific tasks (e.g storage, processing, data exchange,..), similar as it is in classical computing. For some qubits the main disadvantages is that their quantum state is very fragile. Those systems loose their 'quantum information' (that is the possibility to store superpositions of their states coherently) easily. They 'decohere' on a timescale that is much shorter then any more involving algorithm. Other systems can keep those superposition states for quite a while, but are so difficult to address that the number of operations that can be made is very limited. The task of a so called hybrid quantum system is now to combine the strengths of these different systems, using e.g. one for manipulation and an other system for storage. Similar to a processor/memory architecture in conventional computers these systems could use a kind of bus system to couple between them. The main task of this thesis was to make steps towards the realization of such a system using two different combinations of quantum systems. Both are planned to use superconducting qubits (transmons) as processor qubit and either atoms (ultra cold rubidium 87 ensembles) or solid state spin systems (Nitrogen Vacancies in diamonds - NV centers) as memory. (author)
Orbits of hybrid systems as qualitative indicators of quantum dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burić, N., E-mail: buric@ipb.ac.rs; Popović, D.B.; Radonjić, M.; Prvanović, S.
2014-03-01
Hamiltonian theory of hybrid quantum–classical systems is used to study dynamics of the classical subsystem coupled to different types of quantum systems. It is shown that the qualitative properties of orbits of the classical subsystem clearly indicate if the quantum subsystem does or does not have additional conserved observables.
Quantum Discrete Fourier Transform in an Ion Trap System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Shi-Biao
2007-01-01
We propose two schemes for the implementation of quantum discrete Fourier transform in the ion trap system. In each scheme we design a tunable two-qubit phase gate as the main ingredient. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward complex quantum computation in the ion trap system.
Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels
Stampoultzis, M.; Sinatkas, J.; Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.
2014-03-01
The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system.
Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system
Measures of quantum synchronization in continuous variable systems.
Mari, A; Farace, A; Didier, N; Giovannetti, V; Fazio, R
2013-09-01
We introduce and characterize two different measures which quantify the level of synchronization of coupled continuous variable quantum systems. The two measures allow us to extend to the quantum domain the notions of complete and phase synchronization. The Heisenberg principle sets a universal bound to complete synchronization. The measure of phase synchronization is, in principle, unbounded; however, in the absence of quantum resources (e.g., squeezing) the synchronization level is bounded below a certain threshold. We elucidate some interesting connections between entanglement and synchronization and, finally, discuss an application based on quantum optomechanical systems. PMID:25166668
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi [Department of Chemical System Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, JST, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2015-12-31
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.
Measures of Quantum Synchronization in Continuous Variable Systems
Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Didier, N.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.
2013-09-01
We introduce and characterize two different measures which quantify the level of synchronization of coupled continuous variable quantum systems. The two measures allow us to extend to the quantum domain the notions of complete and phase synchronization. The Heisenberg principle sets a universal bound to complete synchronization. The measure of phase synchronization is, in principle, unbounded; however, in the absence of quantum resources (e.g., squeezing) the synchronization level is bounded below a certain threshold. We elucidate some interesting connections between entanglement and synchronization and, finally, discuss an application based on quantum optomechanical systems.
Slow scrambling in disordered quantum systems
Swingle, Brian
2016-01-01
Recent work has studied the growth of commutators as a probe of chaos and information scrambling in quantum many-body systems. In this work we study the effect of static disorder on the growth of commutators in a variety of contexts. We find generically that disorder slows the onset of scrambling, and, in the case of a many-body localized state, partially halts it. We access the many-body localized state using a standard fixed point Hamiltonian, and we show that operators exhibit slow logarithmic growth under time evolution. We compare the result with the expected growth of commutators in both localized and delocalized non-interacting disordered models. Finally, based on a scaling argument, we state a conjecture about the effect of weak interactions on the growth of commutators in an interacting diffusive metal.
Quantum integrable systems. Quantitative methods in biology
Feverati, Giovanni
2011-01-01
Quantum integrable systems have very strong mathematical properties that allow an exact description of their energetic spectrum. From the Bethe equations, I formulate the Baxter "T-Q" relation, that is the starting point of two complementary approaches based on nonlinear integral equations. The first one is known as thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the second one as Kl\\"umper-Batchelor-Pearce-Destri- de Vega. I show the steps toward the derivation of the equations for some of the models concerned. I study the infrared and ultraviolet limits and discuss the numerical approach. Higher rank integrals of motion can be obtained, so gaining some control on the eigenvectors. After, I discuss the Hubbard model in relation to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. The Hubbard model describes hopping electrons on a lattice. In the second part, I present an evolutionary model based on Turing machines. The goal is to describe aspects of the real biological evolution, or Darwinism, by letting evolve populations of algorithms. ...
Schmidt information and entanglement in quantum systems
Bogdanov, A Y; Valiev, K A; Bogdanov, Yu.I.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study entanglement of quantum states by means of Schmidt decomposition. The notion of Schmidt information which characterizes the non-randomness of correlations between two observers that conduct measurements of EPR-states is proposed. In two important particular cases - a finite number of Schmidt modes with equal probabilities and Gaussian correlations- Schmidt information is equal to Shannon information. A universal measure of a dependence of two variables is proposed. It is based on Schmidt number and it generalizes the classical Pearson correlation coefficient. It is demonstrated that the analytical model obtained can be applied to testing the numerical algorithm of Schmidt modes extraction. A thermodynamic interpretation of Schmidt information is given. It describes the level of entanglement and correlations of micro-system with its environment
Thermalization and pseudolocality in extended quantum systems
Doyon, Benjamin
2015-01-01
Recently, it was understood that extended concepts of locality played important roles in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by response functions. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states: clustering states connected to the infinite-temperature state by paths whose tangents are actions of pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to ...
Quantum correlations in non-inertial cavity systems
Harsij, Zeynab; Mirza, Behrouz
2016-10-01
Non-inertial cavities are utilized to store and send Quantum Information between mode pairs. A two-cavity system is considered where one is inertial and the other accelerated in a finite time. Maclaurian series are applied to expand the related Bogoliubov coefficients and the problem is treated perturbatively. It is shown that Quantum Discord, which is a measure of quantumness of correlations, is degraded periodically. This is almost in agreement with previous results reached in accelerated systems where increment of acceleration decreases the degree of quantum correlations. As another finding of the study, it is explicitly shown that degradation of Quantum Discord disappears when the state is in a single cavity which is accelerated for a finite time. This feature makes accelerating cavities useful instruments in Quantum Information Theory.
Fate of classical solitons in one-dimensional quantum systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pustilnik, M.; Matveev, K. A.
2015-11-23
We study one-dimensional quantum systems near the classical limit described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The excitations near this limit are the well-known solitons and phonons. The classical description breaks down at long wavelengths, where quantum effects become dominant. Focusing on the spectra of the elementary excitations, we describe analytically the entire classical-to-quantum crossover. We show that the ultimate quantum fate of the classical KdV excitations is to become fermionic quasiparticles and quasiholes. We discuss in detail two exactly solvable models exhibiting such crossover, the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with weak contact repulsion and the quantum Toda model, and argue that the results obtained for these models are universally applicable to all quantum one-dimensional systems with a well-defined classical limit described by the KdV equation.
Strong polygamy of quantum correlations in multi-party quantum systems
San Kim, Jeong
2014-10-01
We propose a new type of polygamy inequality for multi-party quantum entanglement. We first consider the possible amount of bipartite entanglement distributed between a fixed party and any subset of the rest parties in a multi-party quantum system. By using the summation of these distributed entanglements, we provide an upper bound of the distributed entanglement between a party and the rest in multi-party quantum systems. We then show that this upper bound also plays as a lower bound of the usual polygamy inequality, therefore the strong polygamy of multi-party quantum entanglement. For the case of multi-party pure states, we further show that the strong polygamy of entanglement implies the strong polygamy of quantum discord.
Quantum Knots and Lattices, or a Blueprint for Quantum Systems that Do Rope Tricks
Lomonaco, Samuel J
2009-01-01
Using the cubic honeycomb (cubic tessellation) of Euclidean 3-space, we define a quantum system whose states, called quantum knots, represent a closed knotted piece of rope, i.e., represent the particular spatial configuration of a knot tied in a rope in 3-space. This quantum system, called a quantum knot system, is physically implementable in the same sense as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm is implementable. To define a quantum knot system, we replace the standard three Reidemeister knot moves with an equivalent set of three moves, called respectively wiggle, wag, and tug, so named because they mimic how a dog might wag its tail. We argue that these moves are in fact more "physics friendly" because, unlike the Reidemeister moves, they respect the differential geometry of 3-space, and moreover they can be transformed into infinitesimal moves. These three moves wiggle, wag, and tug generate a unitary group, called the lattice ambient group, which acts on the state space of the quantum system. The lattice a...
Approach to Equilibrium for Quantum Systems with Continuous Spectrum
Laura, Roberto
Considering quantum states as functionals acting on observables to give their mean values, it is possible to deal with quantum systems with continuous spectrum, generalizing the concept of trace. Generalized observables and states are defined for a quantum oscillator linearly coupled to a scalar field, and the analytic expression for time evolution is obtained. The "final" state (t → ∞) is presented as a weak limit. Finite and infinite number of exited modes of the field are considered.
Quantum Hysteresis in Coupled Light-Matter Systems
Gómez-Ruiz, F. J.; Acevedo, O. L.; Quiroga, L.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Johnson, N. F.
2016-01-01
We investigate the non-equilibrium quantum dynamics of a canonical light-matter system, namely the Dicke model, when the light-matter interaction is ramped up and down through a cycle across the quantum phase transition. Our calculations reveal a rich set of dynamical behaviors determined by the cycle times, ranging from the slow, near adiabatic regime through to the fast, sudden quench regime. As the cycle time decreases, we uncover a crossover from an oscillatory exchange of quantum informa...
Measures of quantum synchronization in continuous variable systems
Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Didier, N.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.
2013-01-01
We introduce and characterize two different measures which quantify the level of synchronization of interacting continuous variable quantum systems. The two measures allow to extend to the quantum domain the notions of complete and phase synchronization. The Heisenberg principle sets a universal bound to complete synchronization. The measure of phase synchronization is in principle unbounded, however in the absence of quantum resources (e.g. squeezing) the synchronization level is bounded bel...
The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The discovery of the geometric phase is one of the most interesting and intriguing findings of the last few decades. It led to a deeper understanding of the concept of phase in quantum mechanics and motivated a surge of interest in fundamental quantum mechanical issues, disclosing unexpected applications in very diverse fields of physics. Although the key ideas underlying the existence of a purely geometrical phase had already been proposed in 1956 by Pancharatnam, it was Michael Berry who revived this issue 30 years later. The clarity of Berry's seminal paper, in 1984, was extraordinary. Research on the topic flourished at such a pace that it became difficult for non-experts to follow the many different theoretical ideas and experimental proposals which ensued. Diverse concepts in independent areas of mathematics, physics and chemistry were being applied, for what was (and can still be considered) a nascent arena for theory, experiments and technology. Although collections of papers by different authors appeared in the literature, sometimes with ample introductions, surprisingly, to the best of my knowledge, no specific and exhaustive book has ever been written on this subject. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems is the first thorough book on geometric phases and fills an important gap in the physical literature. Other books on the subject will undoubtedly follow. But it will take a fairly long time before other authors can cover that same variety of concepts in such a comprehensive manner. The book is enjoyable. The choice of topics presented is well balanced and appropriate. The appendices are well written, understandable and exhaustive - three rare qualities. I also find it praiseworthy that the authors decided to explicitly carry out most of the calculations, avoiding, as much as possible, the use of the joke 'after a straightforward calculation, one finds...' This was one of the sentences I used to dislike most during my undergraduate studies. A student is
Theory of quantum control of spin-photon dynamics and spin decoherence in semiconductors
Yao, Wang
Single electron spin in a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and single photon wavepacket propagating in an optical waveguide are investigated as carriers of quantum bit (qubit) for information processing. Cavity quantum electrodynamics of the coupled system composed of charged QD, microcavity and waveguide provides a quantum interface for the interplay of stationary spin qubits and flying photon qubits via cavity assisted optical control. This interface forms the basis for a wide range of essential functions of a quantum network, including transferring, swapping, and entangling qubits at distributed quantum nodes as well as a deterministic source and an efficient detector of a single photon wavepacket with arbitrarily specified shape. The cavity assisted optical process also made possible ultrafast initialization and QND readout of the spin qubit in QD. In addition, the strong optical nonlinearity of dot-cavity-waveguide coupled system enables phase gate and entanglement operation for flying single photon qubits in waveguides. The coherence of the electron spin is the wellspring of these quantum applications being investigated. At low temperature and strong magnetic field, the dominant cause of electron spin decoherence is the coupling with the interacting lattice nuclear spins. We present a quantum solution to the coupled dynamics of the electron with the nuclear spin bath. The decoherence is treated in terms of quantum entanglement of the electron with the nuclear pair-flip excitations driven by the various nuclear interactions. A novel nuclear interaction, mediated by virtue spin-flips of the single electron, plays an important role in single spin free-induction decay (FID). The spin echo not only refocuses the dephasing by inhomogeneous broadening in ensemble dynamics but also eliminates the decoherence by electron-mediated nuclear interaction. Thus, the decoherence times for single spin FID and ensemble spin echo are significantly different. The quantum theory of
Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murg, Valentin
2008-04-07
This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new 'analog' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Wavefunction controllability for finite-dimensional bilinear quantum systems
Turinici, G
2003-01-01
We present controllability results for quantum systems interacting with lasers. Exact controllability for the wavefunction in these bilinear systems is proved in the finite-dimensional case under very natural hypotheses.
Wavefunction controllability for finite-dimensional bilinear quantum systems
Turinici, Gabriel; Rabitz, Herschel
2003-03-01
We present controllability results for quantum systems interacting with lasers. Exact controllability for the wavefunction in these bilinear systems is proved in the finite-dimensional case under very natural hypotheses.
Wavefunction controllability for finite-dimensional bilinear quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turinici, Gabriel [INRIA Rocquencourt, Domaine de Voluceau, Rocquencourt, BP 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France); Rabitz, Herschel [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1009 (United States)
2003-03-14
We present controllability results for quantum systems interacting with lasers. Exact controllability for the wavefunction in these bilinear systems is proved in the finite-dimensional case under very natural hypotheses.
Quantum narrowing effect in a spin-Peierls system with quantum lattice fluctuation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate a one-dimensional S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model coupled to quantum lattice vibration using a quantum Monte Carlo method. We study the ground-state lattice fluctuation where the system shows a characteristic structure factor. We also study the mass dependence of magnetic properties such as the magnetic susceptibility and the magnetic excitation spectrum. For heavy mass, the system shows the same behavior as the case of classical lattice vibration. On the other hand, for light mass, magnetic properties coincide with those of the static uniform chain. We investigate the physical mechanism of this behavior and propose the picture of quantum narrowing. (author)
Trojan Horse attacks on Quantum Key Distribution systems
Gisin, Nicolas; Fasel, Sylvain; Kraus, Barbara; Zbinden, Hugo; Ribordy, Grégoire
2005-01-01
General Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems, i.e., attacks on Alice or Bob’s system via the quantum channel, are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today’s technology and conclude that all systems must implement active counter measures. In particular, all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter measures can be efficient, provided that enough additional privacy amplification is applied to th...
Inequalities detecting quantum entanglement for 2 x d systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a set of inequalities for detecting quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states. For 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems, the inequalities give rise to sufficient and necessary separability conditions for both pure and mixed states. For the case of d>3, these inequalities are necessary conditions for separability, which detect all entangled states that are not positive under partial transposition and even some entangled states with positive partial transposition. These inequalities are given by mean values of local observables and present an experimental way of detecting the quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states and even multiqubit pure states.
The Rabi Oscillation in Subdynamic System for Quantum Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bi Qiao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A quantum computation for the Rabi oscillation based on quantum dots in the subdynamic system is presented. The working states of the original Rabi oscillation are transformed to the eigenvectors of subdynamic system. Then the dissipation and decoherence of the system are only shown in the change of the eigenvalues as phase errors since the eigenvectors are fixed. This allows both dissipation and decoherence controlling to be easier by only correcting relevant phase errors. This method can be extended to general quantum computation systems.
Dynamics of genuine multipartite correlations in open quantum systems
Grimsmo, Arne L; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture K
2012-01-01
We propose a measure for genuine multipartite correlations suited for the study of dynamics in open quantum systems. This measure is contextual in the sense that it depends on how information is read from the environment. It is used to study an interacting collective system of atoms undergoing phase transitions as external parameters are varied. We show that the steady state of the system can have a significant degree of genuine multipartite quantum and classical correlations, and that the proposed measure can serve as a witness of critical behavior in quantum systems.
Quantum correlations in B and K meson systems
Banerjee, Subhashish; MacKenzie, Richard
2014-01-01
We study quantum correlations in meson-antimeson systems, as provided for example in meson factories used mainly to probe physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. We use a semigroup formalism to compute a trace-preserving density matrix for these systems, in spite of the fact that the particles are unstable. This is used to compute the time evolution of several measures of quantum correlations for three meson systems (KKbar, BdBdbar and BsBsbar). We find that the quantum correlations for these systems can be non-trivially different from their stable counterparts.
Quantum Arnol'd Diffusion in a Simple Nonlinear System
Demikhovskii, V Y; Malyshev, A I
2002-01-01
We study the fingerprint of the Arnol'd diffusion in a quantum system of two coupled nonlinear oscillators with a two-frequency external force. In the classical description, this peculiar diffusion is due to the onset of a weak chaos in a narrow stochastic layer near the separatrix of the coupling resonance. We have found that global dependence of the quantum diffusion coefficient on model parameters mimics, to some extent, the classical data. However, the quantum diffusion happens to be slower that the classical one. Another result is the dynamical localization that leads to a saturation of the diffusion after some characteristic time. We show that this effect has the same nature as for the studied earlier dynamical localization in the presence of global chaos. The quantum Arnol'd diffusion represents a new type of quantum dynamics and can be observed, for example, in 2D semiconductor structures (quantum billiards) perturbed by time-periodic external fields.
Using a quantum dot system to realize perfect state transfer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Ji; Wu Shi-Hai; Zhang Wen-Wen; Xi Xiao-Qiang
2011-01-01
There are some disadvantages to Nikolopoulos et al.'s protocol [Nikolopoulos G M,Petrosyan D and Lambropoulos P 2004 Europhys.Lett.65 297] where a quantum dot system is used to realize quantum communication.To overcome these disadvantages,we propose a protocol that uses a quantum dot array to construct a four-qubit spin chain to realize perfect quantum state transfer (PQST).First,we calculate the interaction relation for PQST in the spin chain.Second,we review the interaction between the quantum dots in the Heitler-London approach.Third,we present a detailed program for designing the proper parameters of a quantum dot array to realize PQST.
Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system
Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee
2016-06-01
We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).
Alternative Hamiltonian description for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The existence of time-invariant Kahler structures is analyzed in both Classical and Quantum Mechanics. In Quantum Mechanics, a family of such Kahler structures is found, in the finite-dimensional case it is proven that this family is complete
Quantum correlations in B and K meson systems
Banerjee, Subhashish; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar; MacKenzie, Richard
2016-05-01
The interplay between the various measures of quantum correlations is well known in stable optical and electronic systems. Here we study such foundational issues in unstable quantum systems. Specifically we study meson-antimeson systems ( Kbar{K}, Bd bar{B}d and Bsbar{B}s, which are produced copiously in meson factories. In particular, the nonclassicality of quantum correlations which can be characterized in terms of nonlocality (which is the strongest condition), entanglement, teleportation fidelity or weaker nonclassicality measures like quantum discord are analyzed. We also study the impact of decoherence on these measures of quantum correlations, using the semigroup formalism. A comparison of these measures brings out the fact that the relations between them can be nontrivially different from those of their stable counterparts such as neutrinos.
Alternative Algebraic Structures from Bi-Hamiltonian Quantum Systems
Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F
2005-01-01
We discuss the alternative algebraic structures on the manifold of quantum states arising from alternative Hermitian structures associated with quantum bi-Hamiltonian systems. We also consider the consequences at the level of the Heisenberg picture in terms of deformations of the associative product on the space of observables.
Classical and thermodynamic limits for generalised quantum spin systems
Duffield, N. G.
1990-01-01
We prove that the rescaled upper and lower symbols for arbitrary generalised quantum spin systems converge in the classical limit. For a large class of models this enables us to derive the asyptotics of quantum free energies in the classical and in the thermodynamic limit.
Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems
Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup
2011-01-01
The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…
Achieving high visibility in subcarrier wave quantum key distribution system
Chistyakov, V. V.; Smirnov, S. V.; Nazarov, Yu V.; Kynev, S. M.; Gleim, A. V.
2016-08-01
We study influence of quantum signal polarization distortions in the optical fiber on the interference pattern visibility in a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution system. An optical scheme of the polarization compensation unit is suggested, and dynamics of the QBER depending on the unit architecture is explored.
Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography.
Mérolla, J M; Mazurenko, Y; Goedgebuer, J P; Porte, H; Rhodes, W T
1999-01-15
We describe a new method for quantum key distribution that utilizes phase modulation of sidebands of modulation by use of integrated electro-optic modulators at the transmitting and receiving modules. The system is shown to produce constructive or destructive interference with unity visibility, which should allow quantum cryptography to be carried out with high flexibility by use of conventional devices.
Spectroscopic studies in open quantum systems
Rotter; Persson; Pichugin; Seba
2000-07-01
The Hamiltonian H of an open quantum system is non-Hermitian. Its complex eigenvalues E(R) are the poles of the S matrix and provide both the energies and widths of the states. We illustrate the interplay between Re(H) and Im(H) by means of the different interference phenomena between two neighboring resonance states. Level repulsion may occur along the real or imaginary axis (the latter is called resonance trapping). In any case, the eigenvalues of the two states avoid crossing in the complex plane. We then calculate the poles of the S matrix and the corresponding wave functions for a rectangular microwave resonator with a scatter as a function of the area of the resonator as well as of the degree of opening to a waveguide. The calculations are performed by using the method of exterior complex scaling. Re(H) and Im(H) cause changes in the structure of the wave functions which are permanent, as a rule. The resonance picture obtained from the microwave resonator shows all the characteristic features known from the study of many-body systems in spite of the absence of two-body forces. The effects arising from the interplay between resonance trapping and level repulsion along the real axis are not involved in the statistical theory (random matrix theory).
Random matrix description of decaying quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes a statistical model for decaying quantum systems (e.g. photo-dissociation or -ionization). It takes the interference between direct and indirect decay processes explicitly into account. The resulting expressions for the partial decay amplitudes and the corresponding cross sections may be considered a many-channel many-resonance generalization of Fano's original work on resonance lineshapes (Fano 1961 Phys. Rev. 124 1866). A statistical (random matrix) model is then introduced. It allows to describe chaotic scattering systems with tunable couplings to the decay channels. We focus on the autocorrelation function of the total (photo) cross section, and we find that it depends on the same combination of parameters, as the Fano-parameter distribution. These combinations are statistical variants of the one-channel Fano parameter. It is thus possible to study the Fano interference (i.e. the interference between direct and indirect decay paths) on the basis of the autocorrelation function, and thereby in the regime of overlapping resonances. It allows us to study the Fano interference in the limit of strongly overlapping resonances, where we find a persisting effect on the level of the weak localization correction
Multiple System-Decomposition Method for Avoiding Quantum Decoherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.Jekni(c)-Dugi(c); M.Dugi(c)
2008-01-01
Decomposition of a composite system C into different subsystems,A+B or D+ε,may help in avoiding decoherence.For example,the environment-induced decoherence for an A+B system need not destroy entanglement present in the D+ε system(A+B=C=D+ε).This new approach opens some questions also in the foundations of the quantum computation theory that might eventually lead to a new model of quantum computation.
Quantum Measurement Problem and Systems Selfdescription in Operators Algebras Formalism
Mayburov, S.
2002-01-01
Quantum Measurement problem studied in Information Theory approach of systems selfdescription which exploits the information acquisition incompleteness for the arbitrary information system. The studied model of measuring system (MS) consist of measured state S environment E and observer $O$ processing input S signal. $O$ considered as the quantum object which interaction with S,E obeys to Schrodinger equation (SE). MS incomplete or restricted states for $O$ derived by the algebraic QM formali...
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwager, Heike
2012-07-04
In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with
Detecting quantum speedup in closed and open systems
Xu, Zhen-Yu
2016-07-01
We construct a general measure for detecting the quantum speedup in both closed and open systems. The speed measure is based on the changing rate of the position of quantum states on a manifold with appropriate monotone Riemannian metrics. Any increase in speed is a clear signature of dynamical speedup. To clarify the mechanisms for quantum speedup, we first introduce the concept of longitudinal and transverse types of speedup: the former stems from the time evolution process itself with fixed initial conditions, while the latter is a result of adjusting initial conditions. We then apply the proposed measure to several typical closed and open quantum systems, illustrating that quantum coherence (or entanglement) and the memory effect of the environment together can become resources for longitudinally or transversely accelerating dynamical evolution under specific conditions and assumptions.
Contextuality without nonlocality in a superconducting quantum system
Jerger, Markus; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Oppliger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Mondal, Mintu; Wallraff, Andreas; Goodenough, Kenneth; Wehner, Stephanie; Juliusson, Kristinn; Langford, Nathan K.; Fedorov, Arkady
2016-10-01
Classical realism demands that system properties exist independently of whether they are measured, while noncontextuality demands that the results of measurements do not depend on what other measurements are performed in conjunction with them. The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual realism cannot reproduce the measurement statistics of a single three-level quantum system (qutrit). Noncontextual realistic models may thus be tested using a single qutrit without relying on the notion of quantum entanglement in contrast to Bell inequality tests. It is challenging to refute such models experimentally, since imperfections may introduce loopholes that enable a realist interpretation. Here we use a superconducting qutrit with deterministic, binary-outcome readouts to violate a noncontextuality inequality while addressing the detection, individual-existence and compatibility loopholes. This evidence of state-dependent contextuality also demonstrates the fitness of superconducting quantum circuits for fault-tolerant quantum computation in surface-code architectures, currently the most promising route to scalable quantum computing.
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld L; Bakken, Vebjørn; Bast, Radovan; Boman, Linus; Christiansen, Ove; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Coriani, Sonia; Dahle, Pål; Dalskov, Erik K; Ekström, Ulf; Enevoldsen, Thomas; Eriksen, Janus J; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Fernández, Berta; Ferrighi, Lara; Fliegl, Heike; Frediani, Luca; Hald, Kasper; Halkier, Asger; Hättig, Christof; Heiberg, Hanne; Helgaker, Trygve; Hennum, Alf Christian; Hettema, Hinne; Hjertenæs, Eirik; Høst, Stinne; Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Jansík, Branislav; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Jonsson, Dan; Jørgensen, Poul; Kauczor, Joanna; Kirpekar, Sheela; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Klopper, Wim; Knecht, Stefan; Kobayashi, Rika; Koch, Henrik; Kongsted, Jacob; Krapp, Andreas; Kristensen, Kasper; Ligabue, Andrea; Lutnæs, Ola B; Melo, Juan I; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Myhre, Rolf H; Neiss, Christian; Nielsen, Christian B; Norman, Patrick; Olsen, Jeppe; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H; Osted, Anders; Packer, Martin J; Pawlowski, Filip; Pedersen, Thomas B; Provasi, Patricio F; Reine, Simen; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ruden, Torgeir A; Ruud, Kenneth; Rybkin, Vladimir V; Sałek, Pawel; Samson, Claire C M; de Merás, Alfredo Sánchez; Saue, Trond; Sauer, Stephan P A; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Sneskov, Kristian; Steindal, Arnfinn H; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O; Taylor, Peter R; Teale, Andrew M; Tellgren, Erik I; Tew, David P; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J; Thøgersen, Lea; Vahtras, Olav; Watson, Mark A; Wilson, David J D; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Ågren, Hans
2014-01-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller–Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. PMID:25309629
PT phase transition in multidimensional quantum systems
Bender, Carl M
2012-01-01
Non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians generally exhibit a phase transition that separates two parametric regions, (i) a region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the eigenvalues are all real, and (ii) a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. This transition has recently been observed experimentally in a variety of physical systems. Until now, theoretical studies of the PT phase transition have generally been limited to one-dimensional models. Here, four nontrivial coupled PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+r^2/2+z^2/2+igxyz$, and $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+r^2/2+3z^2/2+igxyz$ are examined. Based on extensive numerical studies, this paper conjectures that all four models exhibit a phase transition. The transitions are found to occur at $g\\approx 0.1$, $g\\approx 0.04$, $g\\approx 0.1$, and $g\\approx 0.05$. These results suggest that the PT phase transition is a robust phen...
Does an onlooker stop an evolving quantum system?
Toschek, P. E.
2007-10-01
The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of "gedanken" experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory - thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: 1. The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, 2. the system's temporal evolution, and 3. the emergence of macroscopic reality out of the microcosmos. A well-known calculation shows the evolution of a quantum system being slowed down, or even obstructed, when the system is merely observed.An experiment designed to demonstrate this "quantum Zeno effect" and performed in the late eighties on an ensemble of identical atomic ions confirmed its quantum description, but turned out inconclusive with respect to the very origin of the impediment of evolution. During the past years, experiments on individualelectrodynamically stored and laser-cooled ions have been performed that unequivocally demonstrate the observed system's quantum evolution being impeded. Strategy and results exclude any physical reaction on the measured object, but reveal the effect of the gain of information as put forward by the particular correlation of the ion state with the detected signal. They shed light on the process of measurement as well as on the quantum evolution and allow an epistemological interpretation.
Does an onlooker stop an evolving quantum system?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of 'gedanken' experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory - thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: 1. The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, 2. the system's temporal evolution, and 3. the emergence of macroscopic reality out of the microcosmos. A well-known calculation shows the evolution of a quantum system being slowed down, or even obstructed, when the system is merely observed.An experiment designed to demonstrate this 'quantum Zeno effect' and performed in the late eighties on an ensemble of identical atomic ions confirmed its quantum description, but turned out inconclusive with respect to the very origin of the impediment of evolution. During the past years, experiments on individualelectrodynamically stored and laser-cooled ions have been performed that unequivocally demonstrate the observed system's quantum evolution being impeded. Strategy and results exclude any physical reaction on the measured object, but reveal the effect of the gain of information as put forward by the particular correlation of the ion state with the detected signal. They shed light on the process of measurement as well as on the quantum evolution and allow an epistemological interpretation
Dressed excitonic states and quantum interference in a three-level quantum dot ladder system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerardot, B D; Brunner, D; Dalgarno, P A; Warburton, R J [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Karrai, K [Center for NanoScience and Department fuer Physik der LMU, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany); Badolato, A [Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Petroff, P M [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)], E-mail: b.d.gerardot@hw.ac.uk
2009-01-15
We observe dressed states and quantum interference effects in a strongly driven three-level quantum dot ladder system. The effect of a strong coupling field on one dipole transition is measured by a weak probe field on the second dipole transition using differential reflection. When the coupling energy is much larger than both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths an Autler-Townes splitting is observed. Significant differences are observed when the transitions resonant with the strong and weak fields are swapped, particularly when the coupling energy is nearly equal to the measured linewidth. This result is attributed to quantum interference: destructive or constructive interference with modest visibility is observed depending on the pump/probe geometry. The data demonstrate that coherence of both the bi-exciton and the exciton is maintained in this solid-state system, even under intense illumination, which is crucial for prospects in quantum information processing and nonlinear optical devices.
Quantum systems that follow classical dynamics
Manfredi, G; Feix, M R
1993-01-01
For a special class of potentials, the dynamical evolution of any quantum wavepacket is entirely determined by the laws of classical mechanics. Here, the properties of this class are investigated both from the viewpoint of the Ehrenfest theorem (which provides the evolution of the average position and momentum), and the Wigner representation (which expresses quantum mechanics in a phase space formalism). Finally, these results are extended to the case of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. (author)
Lu, Yun-Gang
1995-01-01
The present article is devoted to the explanation of the irreversible behavior of quantum systems as a limiting case (in a sense to be made precise) of usual quantum dynamics. One starts with a system, whose Hamiltonian has a continuous spectrum, interacting with a reservoir and studies the limits of quantities related to the whole compound system. A macroscopic equation is obtained for the limit of the compound system, which is a quantum stochastic differential equation of Poisson type on some Hilbert module (no longer a space) and whose coefficients are uniquely determined by the one-particle Hamiltonian of the original system and whose driving noises are the creation, annihilation, and number (or gauge) processes living on the Fock module over this module.
Cooperative phenomena in open quantum systems subject to external control
Schmidt, Rebecca
2014-01-01
Subject of this cumulative thesis is the optimal control of open quantum systems. The cooperative interplay between strong driving and a dissipative medium is investigated, resulting in cooling and entanglement generation.
Entanglement Concentration for Higher-Dimensional Quantum Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚春梅; 顾永建; 叶柳; 郭光灿
2002-01-01
Using local operations and classicalcommunication, we present two schemes for realizing entanglement concentration from pure entangled pairs of qutrits. These methods can be easily generalized to d-dimensional (d ＞ 3)quantum systems.
Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit
Fractional quantum Hall states in charge-imbalanced bilayer systems
Thiebaut, N.; Regnault, N.; Goerbig, M. O.
2013-01-01
We study the fractional quantum Hall effect in a bilayer with charge-distribution imbalance induced, for instance, by a bias gate voltage. The bilayer can either be intrinsic or it can be formed spontaneously in wide quantum wells, due to the Coulomb repulsion between electrons. We focus on fractional quantum Hall effect in asymmetric bilayer systems at filling factor nu=4/11 and show that an asymmetric Halperin-like trial wavefunction gives a valid description of the ground state of the system.
Wave-Packet Revivals for Quantum Systems with Nondegenerate Energies
Bluhm, R; Tudose, B; Bluhm, Robert; Kostelecky, Alan; Tudose, Bogdan
1996-01-01
The revival structure of wave packets is examined for quantum systems having energies that depend on two nondegenerate quantum numbers. For such systems, the evolution of the wave packet is controlled by two classical periods and three revival times. These wave packets exhibit quantum beats in the initial motion as well as new types of long-term revivals. The issue of whether fractional revivals can form is addressed. We present an analytical proof showing that at certain times equal to rational fractions of the revival times the wave packet can reform as a sum of subsidiary waves and that both conventional and new types of fractional revivals can occur.
Quantum Brayton cycle with coupled systems as working substance
Huang, X. L.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.
2013-01-01
We explore the quantum version of the Brayton cycle with a composite system as the working substance. The actual Brayton cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isobaric processes. Two pressures can be defined in our isobaric process; one corresponds to the external magnetic field (characterized by Fx) exerted on the system, while the other corresponds to the coupling constant between the subsystems (characterized by Fy). As a consequence, we can define two types of quantum Brayton cycle for the composite system. We find that the subsystem experiences a quantum Brayton cycle in one quantum Brayton cycle (characterized by Fx), whereas the subsystem's cycle is quantum Otto cycle in another Brayton cycle (characterized by Fy). The efficiency for the composite system equals to that for the subsystem in both cases, but the work done by the total system is usually larger than the sum of the work done by the two subsystems. The other interesting finding is that for the cycle characterized by Fy, the subsystem can be a refrigerator, while the total system is a heat engine. The result in this paper can be generalized to a quantum Brayton cycle with a general coupled system as the working substance.
Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan [Sharif University of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-05-15
The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)
Alonso, Daniel; de Vega, Inés
The dynamics of a system in interaction with another system, the later considered as a reservoir, is studied in many different domains in physics. This approach is useful not only to address fundamental questions like quantum decoherence decoherence and the measurement problem [1] but also to deal with practical and theoretical problems appearing in the emerging fields of nanotechnology nanotechnology [2, 3] and quantum computing quantum computing as well as in systems of ultracold atoms [7]. In many of these cases, the basic approximation is the Markov assumption in which there is a clear separation of the typical timescales associated with the system and the reservoir or environment. This separation of timescales, together with other assumptions like the weak coupling between the system and the reservoir, has been central in the development of several fields, in particular in quantum optics [8, 9]. However, in
The static hyperpolarizability of space-fractional quantum systems
Dawson, Nathan J
2016-01-01
The nonlinear response is investigated for a space-fractional quantum mechanical system subject to a static electric field. Expressions for the polarizability and hyperpolarizability are derived from the fractional Schrodinger equation in the particle-centric view under the three-level ansatz. Two types of asymmetric single-particle quantum systems are studied and both the linear and first nonlinear response to the perturbing field are analyzed with respect to the space-fractional parameter.
Entropies and correlations in classical and quantum systems
Man'ko, Margarita A.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.; Marmo, Giuseppe
2016-09-01
We present a review of entropy properties for classical and quantum systems including Shannon entropy, von Neumann entropy, Rényi entropy, and Tsallis entropy. We discuss known and new entropic and information inequalities for classical and quantum systems, both composite and noncomposite. We demonstrate matrix inequalities associated with the entropic subadditivity and strong subadditivity conditions and give a new inequality for matrix elements of unitary matrices.
Classical interventions in quantum systems; 1, The measuring process
Peres, A
2000-01-01
The measuring process is an external intervention in the dynamics of a quantum system. It involves a unitary interaction of that system with a measuring apparatus, a further interaction of both with an unknown environment causing decoherence, and then the deletion of a subsystem. No ancilla is needed. The final result is represented by a completely positive map of the quantum state $\\rho$ (possibly with a change of the dimensions of $\\rho$). A continuous limit of this process leads to the Lindblad equation.
Energy gaps and interaction blockade in confined quantum systems
Capelle, K.; Borgh, M.; Kärkkäinen, K.; Reimann, S. M.
2007-01-01
Many-body effects in confined quantum systems pose a challenging problem due to the simultaneous presence of particle-particle interactions and spatial inhomogeneity. Here we investigate universal properties of strongly confined particles that turn out to be dramatically different from what is observed for electrons in atoms and molecules. We show that for a large class of harmonically confined systems, including small quantum dots and optically trapped atoms, many-body particle addition and ...
Contexts, Systems and Modalities: A New Ontology for Quantum Mechanics
Auffèves, Alexia; Grangier, Philippe
2016-02-01
In this article we present a possible way to make usual quantum mechanics fully compatible with physical realism, defined as the statement that the goal of physics is to study entities of the natural world, existing independently from any particular observer's perception, and obeying universal and intelligible rules. Rather than elaborating on the quantum formalism itself, we propose a new quantum ontology, where physical properties are attributed jointly to the system, and to the context in which it is embedded. In combination with a quantization principle, this non-classical definition of physical reality sheds new light on counter-intuitive features of quantum mechanics such as the origin of probabilities, non-locality, and the quantum-classical boundary.
Dynamics of quantum correlation of four qubits system
Gebremariam, Tesfay; Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong
2016-09-01
In the present report, we investigate the dynamics of quantum correlation of four qubits system, and we characterize this kind of dynamics by quantum consonance and concurrence as measurement of quantum correlation and entanglement, respectively. By this measurement, one can easily study if non-entangled quantum correlation can transfer to entanglement. In our model, we find that this case cannot be realized. In addition, we constructed a four qubits swapping gate, which is made up of two bipartite swapping gates. Under this composite gate the quantum correlation is exchanged between two entangled pairs. The influence of the physical parameters like the purity and the amount of entanglement of the initial states is also examined.
The entropy power inequality for quantum systems
Koenig, Robert
2012-01-01
When two independent analog signals, X and Y are added together giving Z=X+Y, the entropy of Z, H(Z), is not a simple function of the entropies H(X) and H(Y), but rather depends on the details of X and Y's distributions. Nevertheless, the entropy power inequality (EPI), which states that exp [2H(Z)] \\geq exp[2H(X) + exp[2H(Y)], gives a very tight restriction on the entropy of Z. This inequality has found many applications in information theory and statistics. The quantum analogue of adding two random variables is the combination of two independent bosonic modes at a beam splitter. The purpose of this work is to give a detailed outline of the proof of two separate generalizations of the entropy power inequality to the quantum regime. Our proofs are similar in spirit to standard classical proofs of the EPI, but some new quantities and ideas are needed in the quantum setting. Specifically, we find a new quantum de Bruijin identity relating entropy production under diffusion to a divergence-based quantum Fisher i...
Controllable multiple-quantum transitions in a T-shaped small quantum dot-ring system
Chen, Xiongwen; Chen, Baoju; Song, Kehui; Zhou, Guanghui
2016-05-01
Based on the tight-binding model and the slave boson mean field approximation, we investigate the electron transport properties in a small quantum dot (QD)-ring system. Namely, a strongly correlated QD not only attaches directly to two normal metallic electrodes, but also forms a magnetic control Aharonov-Bohm quantum ring with a few noninteracting QDs. We show that the parity effect, the Kondo effect, and the multiple Fano effects coexist in our system. Moreover, the parities, defined by the odd- and even-numbered energy levels in this system, can be switched by adjusting magnetic flux phase ϕ located at the center of the quantum ring, which induces multiple controllable Fano-interference energy pathways. Therefore, the constructive and destructive multi-Fano interference transition, the Kondo and Fano resonance transition at the Fermi level, the Fano resonance and ani-resonance transition are realized in the even parity system. They can also be observed in the odd parity system when one adjusts the phase ϕ and the gate voltage Vg applied to the noninteracting QDs. The multi-quantum transitions determine some interesting transport properties such as the current switch and its multi-flatsteps, the differential conductance switch at zero bias voltage and its oscillation or quantization at the low bias voltage. These results may be useful for the observation of multiple quantum effect interplays experimentally and the design of controllable QD-based device.
Alekseev, K N; Perina, J; Alekseev, Kirill N.; Alekseeva, Natasha V.; Perina, Jan
1999-01-01
We develop a semiclassical method for the determination of the nonlinear dynamics of dissipative quantum optical systems in the limit of large number of photons N, based on the 1/N-expansion and the quantum-classical correspondence. The method has been used to tackle two problems: to study the dynamics of nonclassical state generation in higher-order anharmonic dissipative oscillators and to establish the difference between the quantum and classical dynamics of the second-harmonic generation in a self-pulsing regime. In addressing the first problem, we have obtained an explicit time dependence of the squeezing and the Fano factor for an arbitrary degree of anharmonism in the short-time approximation. For the second problem, we have established analytically a characteristic time scale when the quantum dynamics differs insignificantly from the classical one.
Quantum statistical gravity: time dilation due to local information in many-body quantum systems
Sels, Dries
2016-01-01
We propose a generic mechanism for the emergence of a gravitational potential that acts on all classical objects in a quantum system. Our conjecture is based on the analysis of mutual information in many-body quantum systems. Since measurements in quantum systems affect the surroundings through entanglement, a measurement at one position reduces the entropy in its neighbourhood. This reduction in entropy can be described by a local temperature, that is directly related to the gravitational potential. A crucial ingredient in our argument is that ideal classical mechanical motion occurs at constant probability. This definition is motivated by the analysis of entropic forces in classical systems, which can be formally rewritten in terms of a gravitational potential.
Nanoscale thermal imaging of dissipation in quantum systems
Halbertal, Dorri; Shalom, Moshe Ben; Embon, Lior; Shadmi, Nitzan; Anahory, Yonathan; Naren, HR; Sarkar, Jayanta; Uri, Aviram; Ronen, Yuval; Myasoedov, Yury; Levitov, Leonid; Joselevich, Ernesto; Geim, Andre Konstantin; Zeldov, Eli
2016-01-01
Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical, and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics distinguishing quantum and classical phenomena. In condensed matter physics, in particular, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information, or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Despite its vital importance the microscopic behavior of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because the latter is not a readily measureable quantity on the microscale. Although nanoscale thermometry is gaining much recent interest, the existing thermal imaging methods lack the necessary sensitivity and are unsuitable for low temperature operation required for study of quantum systems. Here we report a superconducting quantum interference nano-thermometer device with sub 50 nm diameter that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette and provides scanning cryogenic thermal se...
Approximate locality for quantum systems on graphs.
Osborne, Tobias J
2008-10-01
In this Letter we make progress on a long-standing open problem of Aaronson and Ambainis [Theory Comput. 1, 47 (2005)]: we show that if U is a sparse unitary operator with a gap Delta in its spectrum, then there exists an approximate logarithm H of U which is also sparse. The sparsity pattern of H gets more dense as 1/Delta increases. This result can be interpreted as a way to convert between local continuous-time and local discrete-time quantum processes. As an example we show that the discrete-time coined quantum walk can be realized stroboscopically from an approximately local continuous-time quantum walk. PMID:18851512
Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)
2011-12-13
The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.
Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems
Humble, Travis S.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Grice, Warren P.
2011-12-13
The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.
Asymmetric de Finetti Theorem for Infinite-dimensional Quantum Systems
Niu, Murphy Yuezhen
2016-01-01
The de Finetti representation theorem for continuous variable quantum system is first developed to approximate an N-partite continuous variable quantum state with a convex combination of independent and identical subsystems, which requires the original state to obey permutation symmetry conditioned on successful experimental verification on k of N subsystems. We generalize the de Finetti theorem to include asymmetric bounds on the variance of canonical observables and biased basis selection during the verification step. Our result thereby enables application of infinite-dimensional de Finetti theorem to situations where two conjugate measurements obey different statistics, such as the security analysis of quantum key distribution protocols based on squeezed state against coherent attack.
Quantum Chaos in Physical Systems from Super Conductors to Quarks
Bittner, E; Pullirsch, R; Bittner, Elmar; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer
2001-01-01
This article is the written version of a talk delivered at the Bexbach Colloquium of Science 2000 and starts with an introduction into quantum chaos and its relationship to classical chaos. The Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture is formulated and evaluated within random-matrix theory. Several examples of physical systems exhibiting quantum chaos ranging from nuclear to solid state physics are presented. The presentation concludes with recent research work on quantum chromodynamics and the quark-gluon plasma. In the case of a chemical potential the eigenvalue spectrum becomes complex and one has to deal with non-Hermitian random-matrix theory.
Teleportation of general finite dimensional quantum systems
Albeverio, Sergio; Fei, Shao-Ming
2000-01-01
Teleportation of finite dimensional quantum states by a non-local entangled state is studied. For a generally given entangled state, an explicit equation that governs the teleportation is presented. Detailed examples and the roles played by the dimensions of the Hilbert spaces related to the sender, receiver and the auxiliary space are discussed.
Reversal of Thermal Rectification in Quantum Systems
Zhang, Lifa; Yan, Yonghong; Wu, Chang-Qin; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen
2009-01-01
We study thermal transport in anisotropic Heisenberg spin chains using the quantum master equation. It is found that thermal rectification changes sign when the external homogeneous magnetic field is varied. This reversal also occurs when the magnetic field becomes inhomogeneous. Moreover, we can tune the reversal of rectification by temperatures of the heat baths, the anisotropy and size of the spin chains.
Manifestation of the Arnol'd Diffusion in Quantum Systems
Demikhovskii, V Y; Malyshev, A I
2002-01-01
We study an analog of the classical Arnol'd diffusion in a quantum system of two coupled non-linear oscillators one of which is governed by an external periodic force with two frequencies. In the classical model this very weak diffusion happens in a narrow stochastic layer along the coupling resonance, and leads to an increase of total energy of the system. We show that the quantum dynamics of wave packets mimics, up to some extent, global properties of the classical Arnol'd diffusion. This specific diffusion represents a new type of quantum dynamics, and may be observed, for example, in 2D semiconductor structures (quantum billiards) perturbed by time-periodic external fields.
Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations
Koch, Christiane P.
2016-06-01
The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions.
Relativistic quantum Darwinism in Dirac fermion and graphene systems
Ni, Xuan; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Pecora, Louis
2012-02-01
We solve the Dirac equation in two spatial dimensions in the setting of resonant tunneling, where the system consists of two symmetric cavities connected by a finite potential barrier. The shape of the cavities can be chosen to yield both regular and chaotic dynamics in the classical limit. We find that certain pointer states about classical periodic orbits can exist, which are signatures of relativistic quantum Darwinism (RQD). These localized states suppress quantum tunneling, and the effect becomes less severe as the underlying classical dynamics in the cavity is chaotic, leading to regularization of quantum tunneling. Qualitatively similar phenomena have been observed in graphene. A physical theory is developed to explain relativistic quantum Darwinism and its effects based on the spectrum of complex eigenenergies of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian describing the open cavity system.
Emulating a mesoscopic system using superconducting quantum circuits
Chen, Yu; Barends, R.; Bochmann, J.; Campbell, B.; Chiaro, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Ohya, S.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.
2013-03-01
We demonstrate an emulation of a mesoscopic system using superconducting quantum circuits. Taking advantage of our ReZQu-architectured quantum processor, we controllably splitted a microwave photon and manipulated the splitted photons before they recombined for detection. In this way, we were able to simulate the weak localization effect in mesoscopic systems - a coherent backscattering process due to quantum interference. The influence of the phase coherence was investigated by tuning the coherence time of the quantum circuit, which in turn mimics the temperature effect on the weak localization process. At the end, we demonstrated an effect resembling universal conductance fluctuations, which arises from the frequency beating between different coherent backscattering processes. The universality of the observed fluctuation was shown as the independence of the fluctuation amplitude on detailed experimental conditions.
Scalar material reference systems and loop quantum gravity
Giesel, K.; Thiemann, T.
2015-07-01
In the past, the possibility to employ (scalar) material reference systems in order to describe classical and quantum gravity directly in terms of gauge invariant (Dirac) observables has been emphasized frequently. This idea has been picked up more recently in loop quantum gravity with the aim to perform a reduced phase space quantization of the theory, thus possibly avoiding problems with the (Dirac) operator constraint quantization method for a constrained system. In this work, we review the models that have been studied on the classical and/or the quantum level and parametrize the space of theories considered so far. We then describe the quantum theory of a model that, to the best of our knowledge, has only been considered classically so far. This model could arguably be called the optimal one in this class of models considered as it displays the simplest possible true Hamiltonian, while at the same time reducing all constraints of general relativity.
Enhancing quantum effects via periodic modulations in optomechanical systems
Farace, Alessandro; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2012-07-01
Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over time. We first apply a sinusoidal modulation of the mechanical frequency and characterize the optimal regime in which the visibility of purely quantum effects is maximal. We then introduce a second modulation on the input laser intensity and analyze the interplay between the two. We find that an interference pattern shows up, so that different choices of the relative phase between the two modulations can either enhance or cancel the desired quantum effects, opening new possibilities for optimal quantum control strategies.
Experimental quantum computing to solve systems of linear equations.
Cai, X-D; Weedbrook, C; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Gu, Mile; Zhu, M-J; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-06-01
Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2×2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm.
Microscopic Properties of Quantum Annealing -- Application to Fully Frustrated Ising Systems
Tanaka, Shu
2011-01-01
In this paper we show quantum fluctuation effect of fully frustrated Ising spin systems. Quantum annealing has been expected to be an efficient method to find ground state of optimization problems. However it is not clear when to use the quantum annealing. In order to clarify when the quantum annealing works well, we have to study microscopic properties of quantum annealing. In fully frustrated Ising spin systems, there are macroscopically degenerated ground states. When we apply quantum anne...
Kamleitner, Ingo
2010-01-01
We employ the theoretical framework of positive operator valued measures, to study Markovian open quantum systems. In particular, we discuss how a quantum system influences its environment. Using the theory of indirect measurements, we then draw conclusions about the information we could hypothetically obtain about the system by observing the environment. Although the environment is not actually observed, we can use these results to describe the change of the quantum system due to its interaction with the environment. We apply this technique to two different problems. In the first part, we study the coherently driven dynamics of a particle on a rail of quantum dots. This tunnelling between adjacent quantum dots can be controlled externally. We employ an adiabatic scheme similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, to transfer the particle between different quantum dots. We compare two fundamentally different sources of decoherence. In the second part, we study the dynamics of a free quantum particle, which ...
Conductance distributions in disordered quantum spin-Hall systems
Kobayashi, K; Ohtsuki, T.; Obuse, H.; Slevin, K.
2010-01-01
We study numerically the charge conductance distributions of disordered quantum spin-Hall (QSH) systems using a quantum network model. We have found that the conductance distribution at the metal-QSH insulator transition is clearly different from that at the metal-ordinary insulator transition. Thus the critical conductance distribution is sensitive not only to the boundary condition but also to the presence of edge states in the adjacent insulating phase. We have also calculated the point-co...
Hierarchy of stochastic pure states for open quantum system dynamics
Süß, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.
2014-01-01
We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) to efficiently solve open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. From this hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) the exact reduced density operator is obtained as an ensemble average. We demonstrate the power of HOPS by applying it to the Spin-Boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein comp...
Quantum Hall effect in bilayer system with array of antidots
Pagnossin, I. R.; Gusev, G. M.; Sotomayor, N. M.; Seabra, A. C.; Quivy, A. A.; Lamas, T. E.; Portal, J. C.
2007-04-01
We have studied the Quantum Hall effect in a bilayer system modulated by gate-controlled antidot lattice potential. The Hall resistance shows plateaus which are quantized to anomalous multiplies of h/e2. We suggest that this complex behavior is due to the nature of the edge-states in double quantum well (DQW) structures coupled to an array of antidots: these plateaus may be originated from the coexistence of normal and counter-rotating edge-states in different layers.
Quantum information transfer between topological and spin qubit systems
Leijnse, Martin; Flensberg, Karsten
2011-01-01
We propose a method to coherently transfer quantum information, and to create entanglement, between topological qubits and conventional spin qubits. Our suggestion uses gated control to transfer an electron (spin qubit) between a quantum dot and edge Majorana modes in adjacent topological superconductors. Because of the spin polarization of the Majorana modes, the electron transfer translates spin superposition states into superposition states of the Majorana system, and vice versa. Furthermo...
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND STATIONARY STATES OF QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Thus, it is proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves
Quantum mechanics of rapidly and periodically driven systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Malay Bandyopadhyay; Sushanta Dattagupta
2008-03-01
This review deals with the dynamics of quantum systems that are subject to high frequency external perturbations. Though the problem may look hopelessly time-dependent, and poised on the extreme opposite side of adiabaticity, there exists a `Kapitza Window' over which the dynamics can be treated in terms of effective time-independent Hamiltonians. The consequent results are important in the context of atomic traps as well as quantum optic properties of atoms in intense and high-frequency electromagnetic fields.
Nuclear magnetometry studies of spin dynamics in quantum Hall systems
Fauzi, M. H.; Watanabe, S.; Hirayama, Y.
2014-12-01
We performed a nuclear magnetometry study on quantum Hall ferromagnet with a bilayer total filling factor of νtot=2 . We found not only a rapid nuclear relaxation but also a sudden change in the nuclear-spin polarization distribution after a one-second interaction with a canted antiferromagnetic phase. We discuss the possibility of observing cooperative phenomena coming from nuclear-spin ensemble triggered by hyperfine interaction in quantum Hall system.
Far from equilibrium energy flow in quantum critical systems
Bhaseen, M J; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad
2013-01-01
We investigate far from equilibrium energy transport in strongly coupled quantum critical systems. Combining results from gauge-gravity duality, relativistic hydrodynamics, and quantum field theory, we argue that long-time energy transport occurs via a universal steady-state for any spatial dimensionality. This is described by a boosted thermal state. We determine the transport properties of this emergent steady state, including the average energy flow and its long-time fluctuations.
Quantum demolition filtering and optimal control of unstable systems.
Belavkin, V P
2012-11-28
A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for optimal control of quantum unstable systems is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme, we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects as in the usual case of quantum stable systems with non-demolition observation. This allows us to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation generalized to demolition observations and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. An unstable controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one. PMID:23091216
Measures of correlations in infinite-dimensional quantum systems
Shirokov, M. E.
2016-05-01
Several important measures of correlations of the state of a finite-dimensional composite quantum system are defined as linear combinations of marginal entropies of this state. This paper is devoted to infinite-dimensional generalizations of such quantities and to an analysis of their properties. We introduce the notion of faithful extension of a linear combination of marginal entropies and consider several concrete examples, the simplest of which are quantum mutual information and quantum conditional entropy. Then we show that quantum conditional mutual information can be defined uniquely as a lower semicontinuous function on the set of all states of a tripartite infinite-dimensional system possessing all the basic properties valid in finite dimensions. Infinite-dimensional generalizations of some other measures of correlations in multipartite quantum systems are also considered. Applications of the results to the theory of infinite-dimensional quantum channels and their capacities are considered. The existence of a Fawzi-Renner recovery channel reproducing marginal states for all tripartite states (including states with infinite marginal entropies) is shown. Bibliography: 47 titles.
Born-Oppenheimer approximation for open quantum systems within the quantum trajectory approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the quantum trajectory approach, we extend the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation from closed to open quantum systems, where the open quantum system is described by a master equation in Lindblad form. The BO approximation is defined and the validity condition is derived. We find that the dissipation in fast variables improves the BO approximation, unlike the dissipation in slow variables. A detailed comparison is presented between this extension and our previous approximation based on the effective Hamiltonian approach [X. L. Huang and X. X. Yi, Phys. Rev. A 80, 032108 (2009)]. Several additional features and advantages are analyzed, which show that the two approximations are complementary to each other. Two examples are described to illustrate our method.
A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraus, Christina V.
2009-11-02
In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS
A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS known for spin systems, and they
Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and
Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, Gerald
2008-11-03
In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and
Classical and quantum pumping in closed systems
Cohen, Doron
2002-01-01
Pumping of charge (Q) in a closed ring geometry is not quantized even in the strict adiabatic limit. The deviation form exact quantization can be related to the Thouless conductance. We use Kubo formalism as a starting point for the calculation of both the dissipative and the adiabatic contributions to Q. As an application we bring examples for classical dissipative pumping, classical adiabatic pumping, and in particular we make an explicit calculation for quantum pumping in case of the simpl...
Topological Excitations in Quantum Spin Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranjan Chaudhury
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The origin and significance of topological excitations in quantum spin models in low dimensions are presented in detail. Besides a general review, our own work in this area is described in great depth. Apart from theoretical analysis of the existence and properties of spin vortices and antivortices, the possible experimental consequences and signatures are also highlighted. In particular, the distinguishing features between the even and odd charged topological excitations are brought out through a detailed analysis of the topological term in the quantum action. Moreover, an interesting symmetry property is predicted between the excitations from a ferromagnetic model and an antiferromagnetic model. Through a novel approach of ours, a bridge is established between field theoretical formalism and the well-known statistical mechanical treatment of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT transition involving these topological excitations. Furthermore, a detailed phenomenological analysis of the experimentally observed static and dynamic magnetic properties of the layered magnetic materials, possessing XY anisotropy in the in-plane spin-spin couplings, is undertaken to test the theoretical predictions regarding the behaviour of these excitations. The importance and the crucial role of quantum spin fluctuations in these studies are also brought out very clearly by our analysis.
Communication theory of quantum systems. Ph.D. Thesis, 1970
Yuen, H. P. H.
1971-01-01
Communication theory problems incorporating quantum effects for optical-frequency applications are discussed. Under suitable conditions, a unique quantum channel model corresponding to a given classical space-time varying linear random channel is established. A procedure is described by which a proper density-operator representation applicable to any receiver configuration can be constructed directly from the channel output field. Some examples illustrating the application of our methods to the development of optical quantum channel representations are given. Optimizations of communication system performance under different criteria are considered. In particular, certain necessary and sufficient conditions on the optimal detector in M-ary quantum signal detection are derived. Some examples are presented. Parameter estimation and channel capacity are discussed briefly.
Hidden symmetries enhance quantum transport in Light Harvesting systems
Zech, Tobias; Wellens, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas
2012-01-01
For more than 50 years we have known that photosynthetic systems harvest solar energy with almost unit {\\it quantum efficiency}. However, recent experimental evidence of {\\it quantum coherence} during the excitonic energy transport in photosynthetic organisms challenges our understanding of this fundamental biological function. Currently, and despite numerous efforts, the causal connection between coherence and efficiency is still a matter of debate. We show, through the study of extensive simulations of quantum coherent transport on networks, that three dimensional structures characterized by centro-symmetric Hamiltonians are statistically more efficient than random arrangements. Moreover, we demonstrate that the experimental data available for the electronic Hamiltonians of the Fenna-Mathew-Olson (FMO) complex of sulfur bacteria and of the crypophyte PC645 complex of marine algae are consistent with this strong correlation of centro-symmetry with quantum efficiency. These results show that what appears to b...
Nexus: A modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes
Krogel, Jaron T.
2016-01-01
The management of simulation workflows represents a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantum chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.
Autonomous quantum thermal machines in atom-cavity systems
Mitchison, Mark T; Prior, Javier; Woods, Mischa P; Plenio, Martin B
2016-01-01
An autonomous quantum thermal machine comprising a trapped atom or ion placed inside an optical cavity is proposed and analysed. Such a machine can operate as a heat engine whose working medium is the quantised atomic motion, or as an absorption refrigerator which cools without any work input. Focusing on the refrigerator mode, we predict that it is possible with state-of-the-art technology to cool a trapped ion almost to its motional ground state using a thermal light source such as sunlight. We nonetheless find that a laser or similar reference system is necessary to stabilise the cavity frequencies. Furthermore, we establish a direct and heretofore unacknowledged connection between the abstract theory of quantum absorption refrigerators and practical sideband cooling techniques. We also highlight and clarify some assumptions underlying several recent theoretical studies on self-contained quantum engines and refrigerators. Our work indicates that cavity quantum electrodynamics is a promising and versatile e...
Effect of Noise on Practical Quantum Communication Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vishal Sharma
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Entanglement is an important resource for various applications of quantum computation. Another important endeavor is to establish the role of entanglement in practical implementation where system of interest is affected by various kinds of noisy channels. Here, a single classical bit is used to send information under the influence of a noisy quantum channel. The entanglement content of quantum states is computed under noisy channels such as amplitude damping, phase damping, squeesed generalised amplitude damping, Pauli channels and various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp. 186-192, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9771
RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Zwicknagl, G. [Institut für Mathematische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schuh, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Zürich, Schafmattstr. 16, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland and Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regens (Germany)
2013-12-04
The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.
Quantum and Classical Behavior in Interacting Bosonic Systems
Hertzberg, Mark P
2016-01-01
It is understood that in free bosonic theories, the classical field theory accurately describes the full quantum theory when the occupancy numbers of systems are very large. However, the situation is less understood in interacting theories, especially on time scales longer than the dynamical relaxation time. Recently there have been claims that the quantum theory deviates spectacularly from the classical theory on this time scale, even if the occupancy numbers are extremely large. Furthermore, it is claimed that the quantum theory quickly thermalizes while the classical theory does not. The evidence for these claims comes from noticing a spectacular difference in the time evolution of expectation values of quantum operators compared to the classical micro-state evolution. If true, this would have dramatic consequences for many important phenomena, including laboratory studies of interacting BECs, dark matter axions, preheating after inflation, etc. In this work we critically examine these claims. We show that...
Quantum computing with collective ensembles of multilevel systems.
Brion, E; Mølmer, K; Saffman, M
2007-12-31
We propose a new physical approach for encoding and processing of quantum information in ensembles of multilevel quantum systems, where the different bits are not carried by individual particles but associated with the collective population of different internal levels. One- and two-bit gates are implemented by collective internal state transitions taking place in the presence of an excitation blockade mechanism, which restricts the population of each internal state to the values zero and unity. Quantum computers with 10-20 bits can be built via this scheme in single trapped clouds of ground state atoms subject to the Rydberg excitation blockade mechanism, and the linear dependence between register size and the number of internal quantum states in atoms offers realistic means to reach larger registers.
Applications of fidelity measures to complex quantum systems.
Wimberger, Sandro
2016-06-13
We revisit fidelity as a measure for the stability and the complexity of the quantum motion of single-and many-body systems. Within the context of cold atoms, we present an overview of applications of two fidelities, which we call static and dynamical fidelity, respectively. The static fidelity applies to quantum problems which can be diagonalized since it is defined via the eigenfunctions. In particular, we show that the static fidelity is a highly effective practical detector of avoided crossings characterizing the complexity of the systems and their evolutions. The dynamical fidelity is defined via the time-dependent wave functions. Focusing on the quantum kicked rotor system, we highlight a few practical applications of fidelity measurements in order to better understand the large variety of dynamical regimes of this paradigm of a low-dimensional system with mixed regular-chaotic phase space. PMID:27140967
Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications
Dehesa, J S; Sánchez-Moreno, P S; Yáñez, R J
2010-01-01
The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density. First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.
Fluorescence from a quantum dot and metallic nanosphere hybrid system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schindel, Daniel G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2E9 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)
2014-03-31
We present energy absorption and interference in a quantum dot-metallic nanosphere system embedded on a dielectric substrate. A control field is applied to induce dipole moments in the nanosphere and the quantum dot, and a probe field is applied to monitor absorption. Dipole moments in the quantum dot or the metal nanosphere are induced, both by the external fields and by each other's dipole fields. Thus, in addition to direct polarization, the metal nanosphere and the quantum dot will sense one another via the dipole-dipole interaction. The density matrix method was used to show that the absorption spectrum can be split from one peak to two peaks by the control field, and this can also be done by placing the metal sphere close to the quantum dot. When the two are extremely close together, a self-interaction in the quantum dot produces an asymmetry in the absorption peaks. In addition, the fluorescence efficiency can be quenched by the addition of a metal nanosphere. This hybrid system could be used to create ultra-fast switching and sensing nanodevices.
Equivalence of the Symbol Grounding and Quantum System Identification Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris Fields
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The symbol grounding problem is the problem of specifying a semantics for the representations employed by a physical symbol system in a way that is neither circular nor regressive. The quantum system identification problem is the problem of relating observational outcomes to specific collections of physical degrees of freedom, i.e., to specific Hilbert spaces. It is shown that with reasonable physical assumptions these problems are equivalent. As the quantum system identification problem is demonstrably unsolvable by finite means, the symbol grounding problem is similarly unsolvable.
An Online Banking System Based on Quantum Cryptography Communication
Zhou, Ri-gui; Li, Wei; Huan, Tian-tian; Shen, Chen-yi; Li, Hai-sheng
2014-07-01
In this paper, an online banking system has been built. Based on quantum cryptography communication, this system is proved unconditional secure. Two sets of GHZ states are applied, which can ensure the safety of purchase and payment, respectively. In another word, three trading participants in each triplet state group form an interdependent and interactive relationship. In the meantime, trading authorization and blind signature is introduced by means of controllable quantum teleportation. Thus, an effective monitor is practiced on the premise that the privacy of trading partners is guaranteed. If there is a dispute or deceptive behavior, the system will find out the deceiver immediately according to the relationship mentioned above.
Work and its fluctuations in a driven quantum system
Solinas, Paolo; AVERIN, Dmitri V.; Pekola, Jukka P.
2013-01-01
We analyze work done on a quantum system driven by a control field. The average work depends on the whole dynamics of the system, and is obtained as the integral of the average power operator. As a specific example we focus on a superconducting Cooper-pair box forming a two-level system. We obtain expressions for the average work and work distribution in a closed system, and discuss control field and environment contributions to the average work for an open system.
On the Physical Realizability of a Class of Nonlinear Quantum Systems
Maalouf, Aline I.; Petersen, Ian R.
2012-01-01
In this paper, the physical realizability property is investigated for a class of nonlinear quantum systems. This property determines whether a given set of nonlinear quantum stochastic differential equations corresponds to a physical nonlinear quantum system satisfying the laws of quantum mechanics.
Quantum sweeps, synchronization, and Kibble-Zurek physics in dissipative quantum spin systems
Henriet, Loïc; Le Hur, Karyn
2016-02-01
We address dissipation effects on the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics of an ensemble of spins-1/2 coupled via an Ising interaction. Dissipation is modeled by a (Ohmic) bath of harmonic oscillators at zero temperature and correspond either to the sound modes of a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein (quasi-)condensate or to the zero-point fluctuations of a long transmission line. We consider the dimer comprising two spins and the quantum Ising chain with long-range interactions and develop an (mathematically and numerically) exact stochastic approach to address nonequilibrium protocols in the presence of an environment. For the two-spin case, we first investigate the dissipative quantum phase transition induced by the environment through quantum quenches and study the effect of the environment on the synchronization properties. Then we address Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana protocols for two spins and for the spin array. In this latter case, we adopt a stochastic mean-field point of view and present a Kibble-Zurek-type argument to account for interaction effects in the lattice. Such dissipative quantum spin arrays can be realized in ultracold atoms, trapped ions, and mesoscopic systems and are related to Kondo lattice models.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND EMERGENCE PARAMETER OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available It was established that the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Bose-Einstein and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution can be described by a single equation, which follows from Einstein's equations for systems with central symmetry. Emergence parameter of classical and quantum systems composed by the rays of gravitational waves interacting with gravitational field of the universe has been computed
Dissipation and entropy production in open quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majima, H; Suzuki, A, E-mail: majima@rs.kagu.tus.ac.j, E-mail: asuzuki@rs.kagu.tus.ac.j [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 Japan (Japan)
2010-11-01
A microscopic description of an open system is generally expressed by the Hamiltonian of the form: H{sub tot} = H{sub sys} + H{sub environ} + H{sub sys-environ}. We developed a microscopic theory of entropy and derived a general formula, so-called 'entropy-Hamiltonian relation' (EHR), that connects the entropy of the system to the interaction Hamiltonian represented by H{sub sys-environ} for a nonequilibrium open quantum system. To derive the EHR formula, we mapped the open quantum system to the representation space of the Liouville-space formulation or thermo field dynamics (TFD), and thus worked on the representation space L := H x H-tilde, where H denotes the ordinary Hilbert space while H-tilde the tilde Hilbert space conjugates to H. We show that the natural transformation (mapping) of nonequilibrium open quantum systems is accomplished within the theoretical structure of TFD. By using the obtained EHR formula, we also derived the equation of motion for the distribution function of the system. We demonstrated that by knowing the microscopic description of the interaction, namely, the specific form of H{sub sys-environ} on the representation space L, the EHR formulas enable us to evaluate the entropy of the system and to gain some information about entropy for nonequilibrium open quantum systems.
Dissipation and entropy production in open quantum systems
Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.
2010-11-01
A microscopic description of an open system is generally expressed by the Hamiltonian of the form: Htot = Hsys + Henviron + Hsys-environ. We developed a microscopic theory of entropy and derived a general formula, so-called "entropy-Hamiltonian relation" (EHR), that connects the entropy of the system to the interaction Hamiltonian represented by Hsys-environ for a nonequilibrium open quantum system. To derive the EHR formula, we mapped the open quantum system to the representation space of the Liouville-space formulation or thermo field dynamics (TFD), and thus worked on the representation space Script L := Script H otimes , where Script H denotes the ordinary Hilbert space while the tilde Hilbert space conjugates to Script H. We show that the natural transformation (mapping) of nonequilibrium open quantum systems is accomplished within the theoretical structure of TFD. By using the obtained EHR formula, we also derived the equation of motion for the distribution function of the system. We demonstrated that by knowing the microscopic description of the interaction, namely, the specific form of Hsys-environ on the representation space Script L, the EHR formulas enable us to evaluate the entropy of the system and to gain some information about entropy for nonequilibrium open quantum systems.
Hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuzentsov, Vadim b
1996-01-01
The hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system with an inverse-square potential is algebraically demonstrated making use of Dunkl's operators. We find the underlying algebra explaining the super-integrability phenomenon for this system. Applications to related multi-variable Bessel...
van Wezel, Jasper
2007-01-01
In this thesis the connection between Quantum Mechanics and the Classical World, which we see around us every day, is investigated. The quantum origin of large systems turns out to continuously influence their behaviour. One of the consequences discussed in this thesis, is that qubits (the basic building blocks of a future quantum computer) can hold on to their stored quantum information only for a given time. After that time the qubit will be effectively reduced to just an ordinary bit.Another important connection between quantum mechanics and classical physics is the way in which gravity cou
Controllable quantum information network with a superconducting system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a controllable and scalable architecture for quantum information processing using a superconducting system network, which is composed of current-biased Josephson junctions (CBJJs) as tunable couplers between the two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), each coupling to multiple superconducting qubits (SQs). We explicitly demonstrate that the entangled state, the phase gate, and the information transfer between any two selected SQs can be implemented, respectively. Lastly, numerical simulation shows that our scheme is robust against the decoherence of the system. -- Highlights: •An architecture for quantum information processing is proposed. •The quantum information transfer between any two selected SQs is implemented. •This proposal is robust against the decoherence of the system. •This architecture can be fabricated on a chip down to the micrometer scale
Continuity of the entropy of macroscopic quantum systems.
Swendsen, Robert H
2015-11-01
The proper definition of entropy is fundamental to the relationship between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. It also plays a major role in the recent debate about the validity of the concept of negative temperature. In this paper, I analyze and calculate the thermodynamic entropy for large but finite quantum mechanical systems. A special feature of this analysis is that the thermodynamic energy of a quantum system is shown to be a continuous variable, rather than being associated with discrete energy eigenvalues. Calculations of the entropy as a function of energy can be carried out with a Legendre transform of thermodynamic potentials obtained from a canonical ensemble. The resultant expressions for the entropy are able to describe equilibrium between quantum systems having incommensurate energy-level spacings. This definition of entropy preserves all required thermodynamic properties, including satisfaction of all postulates and laws of thermodynamics. It demonstrates the consistency of the concept of negative temperature with the principles of thermodynamics. PMID:26651650
Locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system
Xu, Guang-Bao; Yang, Ying-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei
2016-08-01
As we know, unextendible product basis (UPB) is an incomplete basis whose members cannot be perfectly distinguished by local operations and classical communication. However, very little is known about those incomplete and locally indistinguishable product bases that are not UPBs. In this paper, we first construct a series of orthogonal product bases that are completable but not locally distinguishable in a general m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3) quantum system. In particular, we give so far the smallest number of locally indistinguishable states of a completable orthogonal product basis in arbitrary quantum systems. Furthermore, we construct a series of small and locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3). All the results lead to a better understanding of the structures of locally indistinguishable product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system.
Emergent hydrodynamics in integrable quantum systems out of equilibrium
Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla A; Yoshimura, Takato
2016-01-01
Understanding the general principles underlying strongly interacting quantum states out of equilibrium is one of the most important tasks of current theoretical physics. With experiments now able to access the intricate dynamics of many-body quantum systems, it is paramount to develop powerful and widely applicable methods that encode the emergent physics. Up to now, the strong dichotomy observed between integrable and non-integrable evolutions made an overarching theory difficult to build, especially for transport phenomena where space-time profiles show drastically different behaviours. We present a novel framework for studying transport in integrable systems: that of emergent hydrodynamics with infinitely-many conservation laws. This method bridges the conceptual gap between integrable and non-integrable quantum dynamics. We apply it to the description of energy transport between heat baths in interacting integrable systems. We provide for the first time a full description of the current-carrying non-equil...
Lower bound of local quantum uncertainty for high-dimensional bipartite quantum systems
Wang, Shuhao; LI Hui; Lu, Xian; Chen, Bin; Long, Gui Lu
2013-01-01
Quantum correlations are of fundamental importance in quantum phenomena and quantum information processing studies. The measure of quantum correlations is one central issue. The recently proposed measure of quantum correlations, the local quantum uncertainty (LQU), satisfies the full physical requirements of a measure of quantum correlations. In this work, by using operator relaxation, a closed form lower bound of the LQU for arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum states is derived. We have ...
Novel optical probe for quantum Hall system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Biswajit Karmakar; Brij Mohan Arora
2006-07-01
Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy has been used for the first time to explore Landau levels of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in modulation doped InP/InGaAs/InP QW in the quantum Hall regime. The technique gives spectroscopically distinct signals from the bulk Landau levels and the edge states. Evolution of the bulk Landau levels and the edge electronic states is investigated at 2.0 K for magnetic field up to 8 T using SPV spectroscopy.
Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, Zaiping; Garoufalis, Christos S.; Baskoutas, Sotirios, E-mail: bask@upatras.gr
2014-07-18
Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system have been theoretically studied. In general, we find that the structure parameters of the coupled system significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. The enhancement of the coupling effects between the dot and ring is found to increase considerably the optical susceptibilities and redshift drastically the transition energies. Comparing to the linear susceptibility, the nonlinear optical susceptibility is found to be more sensitive to the variation of the structure parameters. A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement with respect to the modification of the structure parameters is provided, which offers a unique perspective of the ground-state localization. - Highlights: • Optical susceptibilities in a quantum-dot–quantum-ring system are studied. • The structure parameters significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. • The enhancement of the coupling effects increases the optical susceptibilities. • The nonlinear susceptibility is more sensitive to the change in structure parameters. • A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement is provided.
Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems.
Sieberer, L M; Buchhold, M; Diehl, S
2016-09-01
Recent experimental developments in diverse areas-ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays-move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems. PMID:27482736
Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems
Sieberer, L. M.; Buchhold, M.; Diehl, S.
2016-09-01
Recent experimental developments in diverse areas—ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays—move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.
Quantum Theory of Large Systems of Non-Relativistic Matter
Froehlich, J.; Studer, U. M.; Thiran, E.
1995-01-01
1. Introduction 2. The Pauli Equation and its Symmetries {2.1} Gauge-Invariant Form of the Pauli Equation {2.2} Aharonov-Bohm Effect {2.3} Aharonov-Casher Effect 3. Gauge Invariance in Non-Relativistic Quantum Many-Particle Systems {3.1} Differential Geometry of the Background {3.2} Systems of Spinning Particles Coupled to External Electromagnetic and Geometric Fields {3.3} Moving Coordinates and Quantum-Mechanical Larmor Theorem 4. Some Key Effects Related to the $U(1) \\times SU(2)$ Gauge In...
Andreev Tunneling Through a Ferromagnet/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
RAO Hong-Hu; ZHU Yu; LIN Tsung-Han
2002-01-01
We study Andreev tunneling through a ferromagnet/quantum-dot (QD)/superconductor system. By usingnonequilibrum Green function method, the averaged occupation of electrons in QD and the Andreev tunneling currentare studied. Comparing to the norma-metal/quantum-dot/superconductor, the system shows significant changes: (i)The averaged occupations of spin-up and spin-down electrons are not equal. (ii) With the increase of the polarizationof ferromagnetic lead, the Andreev reflection current decreases. (iii) However, even the ferromagnetic lead reaches fullpolarization, the averaged occupation of spin-down electrons is not zero. The physics of these changes is discussed.
Entanglement in algebraic quantum mechanics: Majorana fermion systems
Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.
2016-07-01
Many-body entanglement is studied within the algebraic approach to quantum physics in systems made of Majorana fermions. In this framework, the notion of separability stems from partitions of the algebra of observables and properties of the associated correlation functions, rather than on particle tensor products. This allows a complete characterization of non-separable Majorana fermion states to be obtained. These results may have direct application in quantum metrology: using Majorana systems, sub-shot-noise accuracy in parameter estimations can be achieved without preliminary resource-consuming, state entanglement operations.
Entanglement in Algebraic Quantum Mechanics: Majorana fermion systems
Benatti, F
2016-01-01
Many-body entanglement is studied within the algebraic approach to quantum physics in systems made of Majorana fermions. In this framework, the notion of separability stems from partitions of the algebra of observables and properties of the associated correlation functions, rather than on particle tensor products. This allows obtaining a complete characterization of non-separable Majorana fermion states. These results may find direct applications in quantum metrology: using Majorana systems, sub-shot noise accuracy in parameter estimations can be achieved without preliminary, resource consuming, state entanglement operations.
Arbitrarily Accurate Dynamical Control in Open Quantum Systems
Khodjasteh, Kaveh; Viola, Lorenza
2009-01-01
We show that open-loop dynamical control techniques may be used to synthesize unitary transformations in open quantum systems in such a way that decoherence is perturbatively compensated for to a desired (in principle arbitrarily high) level of accuracy, which depends only on the strength of the relevant errors, and the achievable rate of control modulation. Our constructive and fully analytical solution employs concatenated dynamically corrected gates, and is applicable independently of detailed knowledge of the system-environment interactions and environment dynamics. Explicit implications for boosting quantum gate fidelities are addressed.
Optimized pulse sequences for suppressing unwanted transitions in quantum systems
Schroeder, C A
2010-01-01
We investigate the nature of the pulse sequence so that unwanted transitions in quantum systems can be inhibited optimally. For this purpose we show that the sequence of pulses proposed by Uhrig [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{98}, 100504 (2007)] in the context of inhibition of environmental dephasing effects is optimal. We derive exact results for inhibiting the transitions and confirm the results numerically. We posit a very significant improvement by usage of the Uhrig sequence over an equidistant sequence in decoupling a quantum system from unwanted transitions. The physics of inhibition is the destructive interference between transition amplitudes before and after each pulse.
A Quantum Spin System with Random Interactions I
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Stephen Dias Barreto
2000-11-01
We study a quantum spin glass as a quantum spin system with random interactions and establish the existence of a family of evolution groups $\\{\\mathcal{T}_t()\\}_{\\in}$ of the spin system. The notion of ergodicity of a measure preserving group of automorphisms of the probability space , is used to prove the almost sure independence of the Arveson spectrum $\\mathrm{Sp}(\\mathcal{T}())$ of $\\mathcal{T}_t()$. As a consequence, for any family of $(\\mathcal{T}(), )$-KMS states {ρ()}, the spectrum of the generator of the group of unitaries which implement $\\mathcal{T}()$ in the GNS representation is also almost surely independent of .
A simple derivation of mean field limits for quantum systems
Pickl, Peter
2009-01-01
We shall present a new strategy for handling mean field limits of quantum mechanical systems. The new method is simple and effective. It is simple, because it translates the idea behind the mean field description of a many particle quantum system directly into a mathematical algorithm. It is effective because the strategy yields with lesser effort better results than previously achieved. As an instructional example we treat a simple model for the time dependent Hartree equation which we derive under more general conditions than what has been considered so far. Other mean field scalings leading e.g. to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation can also be treated.
Topology and quantum states: The electron-monopole system
Di Cosmo, F.; Marmo, G.; Zampini, A.
2016-09-01
This paper starts by describing the dynamics of the electron-monopole system at both classical and quantum level by a suitable reduction procedure. This suggests, in order to realise the space of states for quantum systems which are classically described on topologically non-trivial configuration spaces, to consider Hilbert spaces of exterior differential forms. Among the advantages of this formulation, we present--in the case of the group SU(2) , how it is possible to obtain all unitary irreducible representations on such a Hilbert space, and how it is possible to write scalar Dirac-type operators, following an idea by Kähler.
Quantum statistical mechanics in infinitely extended systems ($C^*$ algebraic approach)
Tasaki, Shuichi; Barra, Felipe
2011-01-01
The derivation of macroscopic irreversible dynamics of nonequilibrium systems from microscopic equations was recently revisited from the point of view of infinitely extended quantum systems. Here we have briefly reviewed the $C^*$ algebra and its application to equilibrium systems as well as introduced some recent results on NESS. In addition, we have demonstrated the derivation of Landauer formula rigorously for quadratic systems but using a more physical presentation.
Classical simulation of quantum many-body systems
Huang, Yichen
Classical simulation of quantum many-body systems is in general a challenging problem for the simple reason that the dimension of the Hilbert space grows exponentially with the system size. In particular, merely encoding a generic quantum many-body state requires an exponential number of bits. However, condensed matter physicists are mostly interested in local Hamiltonians and especially their ground states, which are highly non-generic. Thus, we might hope that at least some physical systems allow efficient classical simulation. Starting with one-dimensional (1D) quantum systems (i.e., the simplest nontrivial case), the first basic question is: Which classes of states have efficient classical representations? It turns out that this question is quantitatively related to the amount of entanglement in the state, for states with "little entanglement'' are well approximated by matrix product states (a data structure that can be manipulated efficiently on a classical computer). At a technical level, the mathematical notion for "little entanglement'' is area law, which has been proved for unique ground states in 1D gapped systems. We establish an area law for constant-fold degenerate ground states in 1D gapped systems and thus explain the effectiveness of matrix-product-state methods in (e.g.) symmetry breaking phases. This result might not be intuitively trivial as degenerate ground states in gapped systems can be long-range correlated. Suppose an efficient classical representation exists. How can one find it efficiently? The density matrix renormalization group is the leading numerical method for computing ground states in 1D quantum systems. However, it is a heuristic algorithm and the possibility that it may fail in some cases cannot be completely ruled out. Recently, a provably efficient variant of the density matrix renormalization group has been developed for frustration-free 1D gapped systems. We generalize this algorithm to all (i.e., possibly frustrated) 1D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An initial assumption in quantum mechanics is that particles (or subsystems) can be isolated from the physical world but still behave in a realistic fashion. This paper shows that the above assumption is not only naive but it has far reaching consequences. In particular, time-reversibility, microscopic reversibility and time-energy principles must be reinterpreted for real non-isolated systems. Moreover the new interpretation is far more consistent than that presently accepted for isolated systems. (author)
Quantum algorithm for obtaining the eigenstates of a physical system
Wang, Hefeng
2016-05-01
We propose a quantum algorithm for solving the following problem: given the Hamiltonian of a physical system and one of its eigenvalues, how do we obtain the corresponding eigenstate? The algorithm is based on the resonance phenomenon. For a probe qubit coupled to a quantum system, the system exhibits resonance dynamics when the frequency of the probe qubit matches a transition frequency in the system. Therefore the system can be guided to evolve to the eigenstate with a known eigenvalue by inducing the resonance between the probe qubit and a designed transition in the system. This algorithm can also be used to obtain the energy spectrum of a physical system and can achieve even quadratic speedup over the phase estimation algorithm.
Topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems
Oreshkov, Ognyan
2008-01-01
This thesis examines seven topics in the areas of deterministic open-quantum-system dynamics, quantum measurements, and quantum error correction (QEC). The first topic concerns weak measurements and their universality as a means of generating quantum operations. It is shown that every generalized measurement can be implemented as a sequence of weak (infinitesimal) measurements. The second topic is an application of this result to the theory of entanglement. Necessary and sufficient differential conditions for entanglement monotones are derived and are used to find a new entanglement monotone for three-qubit states. The third topic is a study of the performance of different master equations for the description of non-Markovian dynamics. The system studied is a qubit coupled to a spin bath via the Ising interaction. The fourth topic investigates continuous QEC in the presence of non-Markovian noise. It is shown that due to the existence of a Zeno regime in non-Markovian dynamics, the performance of continuous Q...
Quantum teleportation of dynamics and effective interactions between remote systems.
Muschik, Christine A; Hammerer, Klemens; Polzik, Eugene S; Cirac, Ignacio J
2013-07-12
Most protocols for quantum information processing consist of a series of quantum gates, which are applied sequentially. In contrast, interactions between matter and fields, for example, as well as measurements such as homodyne detection of light are typically continuous in time. We show how the ability to perform quantum operations continuously and deterministically can be leveraged for inducing nonlocal dynamics between two separate parties. We introduce a scheme for the engineering of an interaction between two remote systems and present a protocol that induces a dynamics in one of the parties that is controlled by the other one. Both schemes apply to continuous variable systems, run continuously in time, and are based on real-time feedback. PMID:23889374
Universality of spectra for interacting quantum chaotic systems
Bruzda, Wojciech; Cappellini, Valerio; Sommers, Hans-Juergen; Zyczkowski, Karol
2010-01-01
We analyze a model quantum dynamical system subjected to periodic interaction with an environment, which can describe quantum measurements. Under the condition of strong classical chaos and strong decoherence due to large coupling with the measurement device, the spectra of the evolution operator exhibit an universal behavior. A generic spectrum consists of a single eigenvalue equal to unity, which corresponds to the invariant state of the system, while all other eigenvalues are contained in a disk in the complex plane. Its radius depends on the number of the Kraus measurement operators, and determines the speed with which an arbitrary initial state converges to the unique invariant state. These spectral properties are characteristic of an ensemble of random quantum maps, which in turn can be described by an ensemble of real random Ginibre matrices. This will be proven in the limit of large dimension.
Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination
Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim
2010-10-01
The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to communicate a private, secret key, which is protected from eavesdropping by the laws of physics. So-called quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of single photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote-controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to tracelessly acquire the full secret key; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built from off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes to detect single photons. We believe that our findings are crucial for strengthening the security of practical QKD, by identifying and patching technological deficiencies.
Natural Light Harvesting Systems: Unraveling the quantum puzzles
Thilagam, A
2013-01-01
In natural light harvesting systems, the sequential quantum events of photon absorption by specialized biological antenna complexes, charge separation, exciton formation and energy transfer to localized reaction centers culminates in the conversion of solar to chemical energy. A notable feature in these processes is the exceptionally high efficiencies (> 95 %) at which excitation is transferred from the illuminated protein complex site to the reaction centers. Such high exciton propagation rates within a system of interwoven biomolecular network structures, is yet to be replicated in artificial light harvesting complexes. A clue to unraveling the quantum puzzles of nature may lie in the observation of long lived coherences lasting several picoseconds in the electronic spectra of photosynthetic complexes, even in noisy environmental baths. A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been devoted to unlocking the links between quantum processes and information protocols, in the hope of finding answers...
Enhancing Quantum Effects via Periodic Modulations in Optomechanical Systems
Farace, Alessandro
2012-01-01
Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this new modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over time. We first apply a sinusoidal modulation of the mechanical frequency and characterize the optimal regime in which the visibility of purely quantum effects is maximal. We then introduce a second modulation on the input laser intensity and analyze the interplay between the two. We find that an interference pattern shows up, so that different choices of the relative phase between the two modulations can either enhance or cancel the desired quantum effects.
TRIQS: A toolbox for research on interacting quantum systems
Parcollet, Olivier; Ferrero, Michel; Ayral, Thomas; Hafermann, Hartmut; Krivenko, Igor; Messio, Laura; Seth, Priyanka
2015-11-01
We present the TRIQS library, a Toolbox for Research on Interacting Quantum Systems. It is an open-source, computational physics library providing a framework for the quick development of applications in the field of many-body quantum physics, and in particular, strongly-correlated electronic systems. It supplies components to develop codes in a modern, concise and efficient way: e.g. Green's function containers, a generic Monte Carlo class, and simple interfaces to HDF5. TRIQS is a C++/Python library that can be used from either language. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPLv3). State-of-the-art applications based on the library, such as modern quantum many-body solvers and interfaces between density-functional-theory codes and dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) codes are distributed along with it.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Li-Bing; Lu Hong; Jin Rui-Bo
2007-01-01
We present a systematic simple method to implement a generalized quantum control-NOT (CNOT) gate on two d-dimensional distributed systems. First, we show how the nonlocal generalized quantum CNOT gate can be implemented with unity fidelity and unity probability by using a maximally entangled pair of qudits as a quantum channel. We also put forward a scheme for probabilistically implementing the nonlocal operation with unity fidelity by employing a partially entangled qudit pair as a quantum channel. Analysis of the scheme indicates that the use of partially entangled quantum channel for implementing the nonlocal generalized quantum CNOT gate leads to the CNOT gate can be used in the entanglement swapping between particles belonging to distant users in a communication network and distributed quantum computer.
Contextuality without nonlocality in a superconducting quantum system
Jerger, Markus; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Oppliger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Mondal, Mintu; Wallraff, Andreas; Goodenough, Kenneth; Wehner, Stephanie; Juliusson, Kristinn; Langford, Nathan K.; Fedorov, Arkady
2016-01-01
Classical realism demands that system properties exist independently of whether they are measured, while noncontextuality demands that the results of measurements do not depend on what other measurements are performed in conjunction with them. The Bell–Kochen–Specker theorem states that noncontextual realism cannot reproduce the measurement statistics of a single three-level quantum system (qutrit). Noncontextual realistic models may thus be tested using a single qutrit without relying on the notion of quantum entanglement in contrast to Bell inequality tests. It is challenging to refute such models experimentally, since imperfections may introduce loopholes that enable a realist interpretation. Here we use a superconducting qutrit with deterministic, binary-outcome readouts to violate a noncontextuality inequality while addressing the detection, individual-existence and compatibility loopholes. This evidence of state-dependent contextuality also demonstrates the fitness of superconducting quantum circuits for fault-tolerant quantum computation in surface-code architectures, currently the most promising route to scalable quantum computing. PMID:27698351
Integrated System Technologies for Modular Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing
Crain, Stephen G.
Although trapped ion technology is well-suited for quantum information science, scalability of the system remains one of the main challenges. One of the challenges associated with scaling the ion trap quantum computer is the ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, laser beams are focused on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Multiple single qubit gates are demonstrated on trapped 171Yb+ qubits and the gate performance is characterized using quantum state tomography. The system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (detectors (SNSPD), which provide a higher detector efficiency (69%) compared to traditional photomultiplier tubes (35%). The total system photon collection efficiency is increased from 2.2% to 3.4%, which allows for fast state detection of the qubit. For a detection beam intensity of 11 mW/cm 2, the average detection time is 23.7 mus with 99.885(7)% detection fidelity. The technologies demonstrated in this thesis can be integrated to form a single quantum register with all of the necessary resources to perform local gates as well as high fidelity readout and provide a photon link to other systems.
Quantum rotor theory of systems of spin-2 bosons
Payrits, Matjaž; Barnett, Ryan
2016-08-01
We consider quantum phases of tightly confined spin-2 bosons in an external field under the presence of rotationally invariant interactions. Generalizing previous treatments, we show how this system can be mapped onto a quantum rotor model. Within the rotor framework, low-energy excitations about fragmented states, which cannot be accessed within standard Bogoliubov theory, can be obtained. In the spatially extended system in the thermodynamic limit there exists a mean field ground-state degeneracy between a family of nematic states for appropriate interaction parameters. It has been established that quantum fluctuations lift this degeneracy through the mechanism of order by disorder and select either a uniaxial or square-biaxial ground state. On the other hand, in the full quantum treatment of the analogous single-spatial-mode problem with finite-particle number, it is known that, due to symmetry-restoring fluctuations, there is a unique ground state across the entire nematic region of the phase diagram. Within the established rotor framework, we investigate the possible quantum phases under the presence of a quadratic Zeeman field, a problem which has previously received little attention. By investigating wave-function overlaps, we do not find any signatures of the order-by-disorder phenomenon which is present in the continuum case. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative external potential which breaks less symmetry than the quadratic Zeeman field. For this case, we do find the phenomenon of order by disorder in the fully quantum system. This is established within the rotor framework and with exact diagonalization.
Optimal control of quantum systems by chirped pulses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amstrup, Bjarne; Doll, J. D.; Sauerbrey, R. A.;
1993-01-01
Research on optimal control of quantum systems has been severely restricted by the lack of experimentally feasible control pulses. Here, to overcome this obstacle, optimal control is considered with the help of chirped pulses. Simulated annealing is used as the optimizing procedure. The examples...
Construction of the Gibbs states of quantum lattice systems.
Глоба, Сергей Александрович
2013-01-01
A scheme for construction of temperature states of quantum lattice systems in terms of a functional integral has been proposed. Existence of such states for a concrete class of models with one-particle has been proved with the help of the indicated scheme.
Instantaneous Spreading Versus Space Localization for Nonrelativistic Quantum Systems
Coutinho, F. A. B.; Wreszinski, W. F.
2016-08-01
A theorem of Hegerfeldt (Kielanowski et al. 1998) establishes, for a class of quantum systems, a dichotomy between those which are permanently localized in a bounded region of space, and those exhibiting instantaneous spreading. We analyze in some detail the physical inconsistencies which follow from both of these options, and formulate which, in our view, are the basic open problems.
Simulating quantum many-body systems subject to measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren
We demonstrate how to simulate both discrete and continuous stochastic evolutions of a quantum many-body system subject to measurements using matrix product states. A particular, but generally applicable, measurement model is analyzed and a simple representation in terms of matrix product operators...
Simuluating quantum many-body systems subject to measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren
We demonstrate how to simulate both discrete and continuous stochastic evolutions of a quantum many-body system subject to measurements using matrix product states. A particular, but generally applicable, measurement model is analyzed and a simple representation in terms of matrix product operators...
Crossover from coherent to incoherent dynamics in damped quantum systems
Egger, Reinhold; Grabert, Hermann; Weiss, Ulrich
1997-01-01
The destruction of quantum coherence by environmental influences is investigated taking the damped harmonic oscillator and the dissipative two-state system as prototypical examples. It is shown that the location of the coherent-incoherent transition depends to a large degree on the dynamical quantity under consideration.
A note on Borromean correlations in multipartite quantum systems
Zapatrin, Roman R.
2001-01-01
If a pure state of a multipartite quantum system is Borromean, that is, its density matrix becomes product after tracing out any its component then the initial state is product itself. This shows the essentially classical nature of Borromean correlations which can not be achieved by entangled pure states.
Existence of the thermodynamic limit for disordered quantum Coulomb systems
Blanc, Xavier
2012-01-01
Following a recent method introduced by C. Hainzl, J.P. Solovej and the second author of this article, we prove the existence of the thermodynamic limit for a system made of quantum electrons, and classical nuclei whose positions and charges are randomly perturbed in an ergodic fashion. All the particles interact through Coulomb forces.
Performance of Photon-Pair Quantum Key Distribution Systems
Walton, Z D; Atatüre, M; Saleh, B E A; Teich, M C
2001-01-01
We analyze the quantitative improvement in performance provided by a novel quantum key distribution (QKD) system that employs a correlated photon source (CPS) and a photon-number resolving detector (PNR). Our calculations suggest that given current technology, the CPR implementation offers an improvement of several orders of magnitude in secure bit rate over previously described implementations.
Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations.
Perfect Parallel Repetition Theorem for Quantum Xor Proof Systems
Unger, F.P.; Cleve, R.E.; Slofstra, W.; Upadhyay, S.
2008-01-01
We consider a class of two-prover interactive proof systems where each prover returns a single bit to the verifier and the verifier's verdict is a function of the XOR of the two bits received. We show that, when the provers are allowed to coordinate their behavior using a shared entangled quantum st
Perfect parallel repetition theorem for quantum XOR proof systems
R. Cleve; W. Slofstra; F. Unger; S. Upadhyay
2008-01-01
We consider a class of two-prover interactive proof systems where each prover returns a single bit to the verifier and the verifier’s verdict is a function of the XOR of the two bits received. We show that, when the provers are allowed to coordinate their behavior using a shared entangled quantum st
Quantum hysteresis in coupled qubit-radiation systems
Acevedo, O. L.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Quiroga, L.; Johnson, N. F.
2012-02-01
We study theoretically the dynamical response of a set of solid-state qubits arbitrarily coupled to a radiation field which is confined in a cavity. Driving the coupling strength in round trips, between weak and strong values, we quantify the hysteresis or irreversible quantum dynamics. The matter-radiation system is modeled as a finite-size Dicke model which has previously been used to describe equilibrium (including quantum phase transition) properties of systems such as quantum dots in a microcavity, and superconducting circuit QED. Here we extend this model to address non-equilibrium situations. Analyzing the system's quantum fidelity, we find that the near-adiabatic regime exhibits the richest phenomena, with a strong asymmetry in the internal collective dynamics depending on which phase is chosen as the starting point. We identify significant deviations from the conventional Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg formulae, in particular from cycles starting in the superradiant phase. In the diabatic or impulsive regime, the system remains quenched and there is little hysteresis. By contrast, depending on the specifications of the cycle, the radiation subsystem can exhibit the emergence of non-classicality, complexity and sub-Planckian structures as evidenced by its Wigner function.
Transport of quantum states of periodically driven systems
Breuer, H. P.; Dietz, K.; Holthaus, M.
1990-01-01
We discuss the transport of quantum states on quasi-energy surfaces of periodically driven systems and establish their non-trivial structure. The latter is shown to be caused by diabatic transitions at lines of narrow avoided crossings. Some experimental consequences pertaining to adiabatic transport and Landau-Zener transitions among Floquet states are briefly sketched.
Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sodano, Pasquale
2011-10-01
In ( d + 1) dimensional Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) networks, tensors are connected so as to reproduce the discrete, ( d + 2) holographic geometry of Anti de Sitter space (AdS d+2) with the original system lying at the boundary. We analyze the MERA renormalization flow that arises when computing the quantum correlations between two disjoint blocks of a quantum critical system, to show that the structure of the causal cones characteristic of MERA, requires a transition between two different regimes attainable by changing the ratio between the size and the separation of the two disjoint blocks. We argue that this transition in the MERA causal developments of the blocks may be easily accounted by an AdS d+2 black hole geometry when the mutual information is computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. As an explicit example, we use a BTZ AdS3 black hole to compute the MI and the quantum correlations between two disjoint intervals of a one dimensional boundary critical system. Our results for this low dimensional system not only show the existence of a phase transition emerging when the conformal four point ratio reaches a critical value but also provide an intuitive entropic argument accounting for the source of this instability. We discuss the robustness of this transition when finite temperature and finite size effects are taken into account.
Hall Drag in Correlated Double Layer Quantum Hall Systems
Yang, Kun
1998-01-01
We show that in the limit of zero temperature, double layer quantum Hall systems exhibit a novel phenomena called Hall drag, namely a current driven in one layer induces a voltage drop in the other layer, in the direction perpendicular to the driving current. The two-by-two Hall resistivity tensor is quantized and proportional to the ${\\bf K}$ matrix that describes the topological order of the quantum Hall state, even when the ${\\bf K}$ matrix contains a zero eigenvalue, in which case the Hal...
Quantum phase transitions in Bose-Fermi systems
Petrellis, D; Iachello, F
2011-01-01
Quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons with angular momentum L=0,2 (s,d) and a single fermion with angular momentum j are investigated both classically and quantum mechanically. It is shown that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially the critical value of the control parameter at which the phase transition occurs. Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) (spherical to axially-deformed) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented.
Transforming quantum operations: quantum supermaps
Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.
2008-01-01
We introduce the concept of quantum supermap, describing the most general transformation that maps an input quantum operation into an output quantum operation. Since quantum operations include as special cases quantum states, effects, and measurements, quantum supermaps describe all possible transformations between elementary quantum objects (quantum systems as well as quantum devices). After giving the axiomatic definition of supermap, we prove a realization theorem, which shows that any sup...
Quantum Trilogy: Discrete Toda, Y-System and Chaos
Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-01-01
We discuss a discretization of the quantum Toda field theory associated with a semisimple finite-dimensional Lie algebra or a tamely-laced infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody algebra $G$, generalizing the previous construction of discrete quantum Liouville theory for the case $G=A_1$. The model is defined on a discrete two-dimensional lattice, whose spatial direction is of length $L$. In addition we also find a "discretized extra dimension" whose width is given by the rank $r$ of $G$, which decompactifies in the large $r$ limit. For the case of $G=A_N$ or $A_{N-1}^{(1)}$, we find a symmetry exchanging $L$ and $N$ under appropriate spatial boundary conditions. The dynamical time evolution rule of the model is a quantizations of the so-called Y-system, and the theory can be well-described by the quantum cluster algebra. We discuss possible implications for recent discussions of quantum chaos, and comment on the relation with the quantum higher Teichmuller theory of type $A_N$.
Quantum information entropy for one-dimensional system undergoing quantum phase transition
Xu-Dong, Song; Shi-Hai, Dong; Yu, Zhang
2016-05-01
Calculations of the quantum information entropy have been extended to a non-analytically solvable situation. Specifically, we have investigated the information entropy for a one-dimensional system with a schematic “Landau” potential in a numerical way. Particularly, it is found that the phase transitional behavior of the system can be well expressed by the evolution of quantum information entropy. The calculated results also indicate that the position entropy Sx and the momentum entropy Sp at the critical point of phase transition may vary with the mass parameter M but their sum remains as a constant independent of M for a given excited state. In addition, the entropy uncertainty relation is proven to be robust during the whole process of the phase transition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375005) and partially by 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico.
Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack
Huang, Jing-Zheng; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2013-06-01
The security proofs of continuous-variable quantum key distribution are based on the assumptions that the eavesdropper can neither act on the local oscillator nor control Bob's beam splitter. These assumptions may be invalid in practice due to potential imperfections in the implementations of such protocols. In this paper, we consider the problem of transmitting the local oscillator in a public channel and propose a wavelength attack which allows the eavesdropper to control the intensity transmission of Bob's beam splitter by switching the wavelength of the input light. Specifically we target continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems that use the heterodyne detection protocol using either direct or reverse reconciliation. Our attack is proved to be feasible and renders all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure, even if they have monitored the intensity of the local oscillator. To prevent our attack on commercial systems, a simple wavelength filter should be randomly added before performing monitoring detection.
Coherent control of quantum systems as a resource theory
Matera, J. M.; Egloff, D.; Killoran, N.; Plenio, M. B.
2016-08-01
Control at the interface between the classical and the quantum world is fundamental in quantum physics. In particular, how classical control is enhanced by coherence effects is an important question both from a theoretical as well as from a technological point of view. In this work, we establish a resource theory describing this setting and explore relations to the theory of coherence, entanglement and information processing. Specifically, for the coherent control of quantum systems, the relevant resources of entanglement and coherence are found to be equivalent and closely related to a measure of discord. The results are then applied to the DQC1 protocol and the precision of the final measurement is expressed in terms of the available resources.
Practical Entanglement Estimation for Spin-System Quantum Simulators.
Marty, O; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B
2016-03-11
We present practical methods to measure entanglement for quantum simulators that can be realized with trapped ions, cold atoms, and superconducting qubits. Focusing on long- and short-range Ising-type Hamiltonians, we introduce schemes that are applicable under realistic experimental conditions including mixedness due to, e.g., noise or temperature. In particular, we identify a single observable whose expectation value serves as a lower bound to entanglement and that may be obtained by a simple quantum circuit. As such circuits are not (yet) available for every platform, we investigate the performance of routinely measured observables as quantitative entanglement witnesses. Possible applications include experimental studies of entanglement scaling in critical systems and the reliable benchmarking of quantum simulators.
Quantum Entanglement of Matter and Geometry in Large Systems
Hogan, Craig J
2014-01-01
Standard quantum mechanics and gravity are used to estimate the mass and size of idealized gravitating systems where position states of matter and geometry become indeterminate. It is proposed that well-known inconsistencies of standard quantum field theory with general relativity on macroscopic scales can be reconciled by nonstandard, nonlocal entanglement of field states with quantum states of geometry. Wave functions of particle world lines are used to estimate scales of geometrical entanglement and emergent locality. Simple models of entanglement predict coherent fluctuations in position of massive bodies, of Planck scale origin, measurable on a laboratory scale, and may account for the fact that the information density of long lived position states in Standard Model fields, which is determined by the strong interactions, is the same as that determined holographically by the cosmological constant.
Dissipation-driven quantum phase transitions in collective spin systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrison, S [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Parkins, A S [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)], E-mail: smor161@aucklanduni.ac.nz
2008-10-14
We consider two different collective spin systems subjected to strong dissipation-on the same scale as interaction strengths and external fields-and show that either continuous or discontinuous dissipative quantum phase transitions can occur as the dissipation strength is varied. First, we consider a well-known model of cooperative resonance fluorescence that can exhibit a second-order quantum phase transition, and analyse the entanglement properties near the critical point. Next, we examine a dissipative version of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick interacting collective spin model, where we find that either first- or second-order quantum phase transitions can occur, depending only on the ratio of the interaction and external field parameters. We give detailed results and interpretation for the steady-state entanglement in the vicinity of the critical point, where it reaches a maximum. For the first-order transition we find that the semiclassical steady states exhibit a region of bistability. (fast track communication)
Zippilli, S.; Johanning, M.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Wunderlich, Ch.; Illuminati, F.
2013-01-01
We investigate theoretically systems of ions in segmented linear Paul traps for the quantum simulation of quantum spin models with tunable interactions. The scheme is entirely general and can be applied to the realization of arbitrary spin-spin interactions. As a specific application we discuss in detail the quantum simulation of models that exhibit long-distance entanglement in the ground state. We show how tailoring of the axial trapping potential allows for generating spin-spin coupling pa...
Aspelmeyer, Markus; Schwab, Keith
2008-09-01
The last five years have witnessed an amazing development in the field of nano- and micromechanics. What was widely considered fantasy ten years ago is about to become an experimental reality: the quantum regime of mechanical systems is within reach of current experiments. Two factors (among many) have contributed significantly to this situation. As part of the widespread effort into nanoscience and nanofabrication, it is now possible to produce high-quality nanomechanical and micromechanical resonators, spanning length scales of millimetres to nanometres, and frequencies from kilohertz to gigahertz. Researchers coupled these mechanical elements to high-sensitivity actuation and readout systems such as single-electron transistors, quantum dots, atomic point contacts, SQUID loops, high-finesse optical or microwave-cavities etc. Some of these ultra-sensitive readout schemes are in principle capable of detection at the quantum limit and a large part of the experimental effort is at present devoted to achieving this. On the other hand, the fact that the groups working in the field come from various different physics backgrounds—the authors of this editorial are a representative sample—has been a constant source of inspiration for helpful theoretical and experimental tools that have been adapted from other fields to the mechanical realm. To name just one example: ideas from quantum optics have led to the recent demonstration (both in theory and experiment) that coupling a mechanical resonator to a high-finesse optical cavity can be fully analogous to the well-known sideband-resolved laser cooling of ions and hence is capable in principle of cooling a mechanical mode into its quantum ground state. There is no doubt that such interdisciplinarity has been a crucial element for the development of the field. It is interesting to note that a very similar sociological phenomenon occurred earlier in the quantum information community, an area which is deeply enriched by the
Special entangled quantum systems and the Freudenthal construction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vrana, Peter; Levay, Peter [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)
2009-07-17
We consider special quantum systems containing both distinguishable and identical constituents. It is shown that for these systems the Freudenthal construction based on cubic Jordan algebras naturally defines entanglement measures invariant under the group of stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). For this type of multipartite entanglement the SLOCC classes can be explicitly given. These results enable further explicit constructions of multiqubit entanglement measures for distinguishable constituents by embedding them into identical fermionic ones. We also prove that the Pluecker relations for the embedding system provide a sufficient and necessary condition for the separability of the embedded one. We argue that this embedding procedure can be regarded as a convenient representation for quantum systems of particles which are really indistinguishable but for some reason they are not in the same state of some inner degree of freedom.
Locality and the classical limit of quantum systems
Banks, T
2009-01-01
I argue that conventional estimates of the criterion for classical behavior of a macroscopic body are incorrect in most circumstances,because they do not take into account the locality of interactions, which characterizes the behavior of all systems described approximately by local quantum field theory. The deviations from classical behavior of a macroscopic body, except for those that can be described as classical uncertainties in the initial values of macroscopic variables,are {\\it exponentially} small as a function of the volume of the macro-system in microscopic units. Conventional estimates are correct only when the internal degrees of freedom of the macrosystem are in their ground state, and the classical motion of collective coordinates is adiabatic. Otherwise, the system acts as its own environment and washes out quantum phase correlations between different classical states of its collective coordinates. I suggest that it is likely that we can only achieve meso-scopic superpositions, for systems which...
Toward engineered quantum many-body phonon systems
Soykal, Ö. O.; Tahan, Charles
2013-01-01
Arrays of coupled phonon cavities each including an impurity qubit in silicon are considered. We study experimentally feasible architectures that can exhibit quantum many-body phase transitions of phonons, e.g. Mott insulator and superfluid states, due to a strong phonon-phonon interaction (which is mediated by the impurity qubit-cavity phonon coupling). We investigate closed equilibrium systems as well as driven dissipative non-equilibrium systems at zero and non-zero temperatures. Our resul...
Optimal discrimination of multiple quantum systems: controllability analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turinici, Gabriel [INRIA Rocquencourt, BP 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France); Ramakhrishna, Viswanath [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Signals, Systems and Communications, University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Li Baiqing [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rabitz, Herschel [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2004-01-09
A theoretical study is presented concerning the ability to dynamically discriminate between members of a set of different (but possibly similar) quantum systems. This discrimination is analysed in terms of independently and simultaneously steering about the wavefunction of each component system to a target state of interest using a tailored control (i.e. laser) field. Controllability criteria are revealed and their applicability is demonstrated in simple cases. Discussion is also presented in some uncontrollable cases.
Optimal discrimination of multiple quantum systems: controllability analysis
Turinici, Gabriel; Ramakhrishna, Viswanath; Li, Baiqing; Rabitz, Herschel
2004-01-01
A theoretical study is presented concerning the ability to dynamically discriminate between members of a set of different (but possibly similar) quantum systems. This discrimination is analysed in terms of independently and simultaneously steering about the wavefunction of each component system to a target state of interest using a tailored control (i.e. laser) field. Controllability criteria are revealed and their applicability is demonstrated in simple cases. Discussion is also presented in some uncontrollable cases.
Entanglement of 2xK quantum systems
Lozinski, A; Zyczkowski, K; Wellens, T; Lozinski, Artur; Buchleitner, Andreas; Zyczkowski, Karol; Wellens, Thomas
2003-01-01
We derive an analytical expression for the lower bound of the concurrence of mixed quantum states of composite 2xK systems. In contrast to other, implicitly defined entanglement measures, the numerical evaluation of our bound is straightforward. We explicitly evaluate its tightness for general mixed states of 2x3 systems, and identify a large class of states where our expression gives the exact value of the concurrence.
Geometry of adiabatic Hamiltonians for two-level quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the formulation of the problem of the coherent dynamics of quantum mechanical two-level systems in the adiabatic region in terms of the differential geometry of plane curves. We show that there is a natural plane curve corresponding to the Hamiltonian of the system for which the geometrical quantities have a simple physical interpretation. In particular, the curvature of the curve has the role of the nonadiabatic coupling. (paper)
A Model for a Quantum Level System-Apparatus Interaction
Bracken, Paul
2016-01-01
A quantum system is investigated which consists of a two-state spin which interacts with a model apparatus consisting of a large number of bosons. The Hamiltonian which describes the interaction of system and apparatus is defined and the evolution of an initial state of the two by means of an evolution operator over time is calculated. Some insights into the nature of such measurement processes can be made.
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems
Giampaolo, S. M.; Adesso, G.; Illuminati, F.
2008-01-01
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows to determine rigorously existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally non-exactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary ...
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range. PMID:18518481
Enhancing Quantum Effects via Periodic Modulations in Optomechanical Systems
Farace, Alessandro; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2012-01-01
Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this new modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over tim...
Classical and Quantum Vibration in a Nonseparable, Nonharmonic System
McDonald, Karen Marie
Studies of vibrational dynamics have been performed on a two-dimensional model potential surface V(x,z; R), adapted from the ab initio surface previously used in this laboratory to analyze dynamics of the bifluoride ion (FHF) ^-. The model potential has C _{2v} symmetry, but is strongly anharmonic and nonseparable in the dynamical variables (x,z); its character changes as the parameter R is varied. Quantum and classical descriptions of vibrational states in this system are compared with corresponding Self-Consistent Field (SCF) approximations. Insights provided by each approach are assessed. Systematic Fermi resonances appear in the quantum mechanical states (at energies up to approximately 10,000 cm^{-1}) arising from crossings of quantum SCF levels with two quanta of vibration exchanged between x and z modes. The lowest quantum states of each symmetry are well described by the SCF approximation except near such crossings. Calculations using Configuration Interaction were done to obtain accurate eigenstates and examine correlations in the quantum mechanics. The Classical Self-Consistent Field (CSCF) method provides a description of the mechanics similar to that given by its quantum counterpart. Classical bound state methods based on semiclassical quantization of quasiperiodic trajectories are unable to give a corresponding description. At energies as low as the quantum ground state, the true classical dynamics is strongly disturbed by resonant interactions. At higher energies the number and strength of these disruptions is so great that the motion is largely irregular. The most prominent effect is a 1:1 frequency resonance associated with strong reorganization of the classical motion along pronounced valleys of the potential surface lying at +/-26^circ to the x-axis. This phenomenon has been studied by analysis of the true dynamics and by application of classical canonical perturbation theory to the zero-order CSCF description. It is found that the latter gives a
Quantum diffusion dynamics in nonlinear systems: A modified kicked-rotor model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using a simple method analogous to a quantum rephasing technique, a simple modification to a paradigm of classical and quantum chaos is proposed. The interesting quantum maps thus obtained display remarkably rich quantum dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the destruction of dynamical localization without breaking periodicity, unbounded quantum anomalous diffusion in integrable systems, and transient dynamical localization. Experimental realizations of this work are also discussed
Work and its fluctuations in a driven quantum system
Solinas, Paolo; AVERIN, Dmitri V.; Pekola, Jukka P.
2013-01-01
We analyze work done on a quantum system driven by a control field. The average work depends on the whole dynamics of the system, and is obtained as the integral of the average power operator. As a specific example we focus on a superconducting Cooper-pair box forming a two-level system. We obtain expressions for the average work and work distribution in a closed system, and discuss control field and environment contributions to the average work for an open system. Peer reviewed
Kepler-16 Circumbinary System Validates Quantum Celestial Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Potter F.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We report the application of quantum celestial mechanics (QCM to the Kepler-16 cir- cumbinary system which has a single planet orbiting binary stars with the important system parameters known to within one percent. Other gravitationally bound systems such as the Solar System of planets and the Jovian satellite systems have large uncertain- ties in their total angular momentum. Therefore, Kepler-16 allows us for the first time to determine whether the QCM predicted angular momentum per mass quantization is valid.
Characterization of decohering quantum systems: Machine learning approach
Stenberg, Markku P. V.; Köhn, Oliver; Wilhelm, Frank K.
2016-01-01
Adaptive data collection and analysis, where data are being fed back to update the measurement settings, can greatly increase speed, precision, and reliability of the characterization of quantum systems. However, decoherence tends to make adaptive characterization difficult. As an example, we consider two coupled discrete quantum systems. When one of the systems can be controlled and measured, the standard method to characterize another, with an unknown frequency ωr, is swap spectroscopy. Here, adapting measurements can provide estimates whose error decreases exponentially in the number of measurement shots rather than as a power law in conventional swap spectroscopy. However, when the decoherence time is so short that an excitation oscillating between the two systems can only undergo less than a few tens of vacuum Rabi oscillations, this approach can be marred by a severe limit on accuracy unless carefully designed. We adopt machine learning techniques to search for efficient policies for the characterization of decohering quantum systems. We find, for instance, that when the system undergoes more than 2 Rabi oscillations during its relaxation time T1, O (103) measurement shots are sufficient to reduce the squared error of the Bayesian initial prior of the unknown frequency ωr by a factor O (104) or larger. We also develop policies optimized for extreme initial parameter uncertainty and for the presence of imperfections in the readout.
Classical Information Storage in an n-Level Quantum System
Frenkel, Péter E.; Weiner, Mihály
2015-12-01
A game is played by a team of two—say Alice and Bob—in which the value of a random variable x is revealed to Alice only, who cannot freely communicate with Bob. Instead, she is given a quantum n-level system, respectively a classical n-state system, which she can put in possession of Bob in any state she wishes. We evaluate how successfully they managed to store and recover the value of x by requiring Bob to specify a value z and giving a reward of value f ( x, z) to the team. We show that whatever the probability distribution of x and the reward function f are, when using a quantum n-level system, the maximum expected reward obtainable with the best possible team strategy is equal to that obtainable with the use of a classical n-state system. The proof relies on mixed discriminants of positive matrices and—perhaps surprisingly—an application of the Supply-Demand Theorem for bipartite graphs. As a corollary, we get an infinite set of new, dimension dependent inequalities regarding positive operator valued measures and density operators on complex n-space. As a further corollary, we see that the greatest value, with respect to a given distribution of x, of the mutual information I ( x; z) that is obtainable using an n-level quantum system equals the analogous maximum for a classical n-state system.
Universal EFT for strongly interacting quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effective field theories provide a powerful framework to exploit a separation of scales in physical systems. I will discuss the application of this method to resonant few-body systems with large scattering length. Such systems show universal behavior and can display the Efimov effect and log-periodic scaling. Finally, I will discuss some applications ranging from nuclear and particle physics to the physics of ultracold atoms. (author)
Asymptotically Optimal Quantum Circuits for d-level Systems
Bullock, S S; O'Leary, D P; Brennen, Gavin K.; Bullock, Stephen S.; Leary, Dianne P. O'
2004-01-01
As a qubit is a two-level quantum system whose state space is spanned by |0>, |1>, so a qudit is a d-level quantum system whose state space is spanned by |0>,...,|d-1>. Quantum computation has stimulated much recent interest in algorithms factoring unitary evolutions of an n-qubit state space into component two-particle unitary evolutions. In the absence of symmetry, Shende, Markov and Bullock use Sard's theorem to prove that at least C 4^n two-qubit unitary evolutions are required, while Vartiainen, Moettoenen, and Salomaa (VMS) use the QR matrix factorization and Gray codes in an optimal order construction involving two-particle evolutions. In this work, we note that Sard's theorem demands C d^{2n} two-qudit unitary evolutions to construct a generic (symmetry-less) n-qudit evolution. However, the VMS result applied to virtual-qubits only recovers optimal order in the case that d is a power of two. We further construct a QR decomposition for d-multi-level quantum logics, proving a sharp asymptotic of Theta(d...
Arvesons entanglement measure in finite dimensional quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sokoli, Florian; Alber, Gernot [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Theoretical Quantum Physics Group
2012-07-01
The problem of understanding entanglement is crucial for quantum information theory and applications. However, entanglement is poorly understood at least for multipartite and mixed quantum states. In 2008, the mathematician William Arveson proposed a powerful and elegant way of quantifying entanglement which applies to arbitrary N-partite quantum states and reduces to the so called ''projective norm'' of density operators in finite dimensional systems. However, in general its computation is difficult. We propose a new technique which can be interpreted as a generalized Schmidt decomposition for multipartite systems. With its help the computation of the projective norm of a large class of quantum states can be reduced to the determination of eigenvalues. These so called gsd-states are characterized by having support on certain subspaces of the underlying Hilbert space. In particular, mixed states are included and this class of states is stable under mixing. We derive a formula for the quantification of the amount of entanglement for multipartite states that arise by tracing out arbitrary subsystems of a special type of gsd-states.
Dynamics of open quantum spin systems: An assessment of the quantum master equation approach.
Zhao, P; De Raedt, H; Miyashita, S; Jin, F; Michielsen, K
2016-08-01
Data of the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a system containing one spin-1/2 particle interacting with a bath of up to 32 spin-1/2 particles is used to construct a Markovian quantum master equation describing the dynamics of the system spin. The procedure of obtaining this quantum master equation, which takes the form of a Bloch equation with time-independent coefficients, accounts for all non-Markovian effects inasmuch the general structure of the quantum master equation allows. Our simulation results show that, with a few rather exotic exceptions, the Bloch-type equation with time-independent coefficients provides a simple and accurate description of the dynamics of a spin-1/2 particle in contact with a thermal bath. A calculation of the coefficients that appear in the Redfield master equation in the Markovian limit shows that this perturbatively derived equation quantitatively differs from the numerically estimated Markovian master equation, the results of which agree very well with the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. PMID:27627265
Dynamics of open quantum spin systems: An assessment of the quantum master equation approach
Zhao, P.; De Raedt, H.; Miyashita, S.; Jin, F.; Michielsen, K.
2016-08-01
Data of the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a system containing one spin-1/2 particle interacting with a bath of up to 32 spin-1/2 particles is used to construct a Markovian quantum master equation describing the dynamics of the system spin. The procedure of obtaining this quantum master equation, which takes the form of a Bloch equation with time-independent coefficients, accounts for all non-Markovian effects inasmuch the general structure of the quantum master equation allows. Our simulation results show that, with a few rather exotic exceptions, the Bloch-type equation with time-independent coefficients provides a simple and accurate description of the dynamics of a spin-1/2 particle in contact with a thermal bath. A calculation of the coefficients that appear in the Redfield master equation in the Markovian limit shows that this perturbatively derived equation quantitatively differs from the numerically estimated Markovian master equation, the results of which agree very well with the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.
Quantum tomography of near-unitary processes in high-dimensional quantum systems
Lysne, Nathan; Sosa Martinez, Hector; Jessen, Poul; Baldwin, Charles; Kalev, Amir; Deutsch, Ivan
2016-05-01
Quantum Tomography (QT) is often considered the ideal tool for experimental debugging of quantum devices, capable of delivering complete information about quantum states (QST) or processes (QPT). In practice, the protocols used for QT are resource intensive and scale poorly with system size. In this situation, a well behaved model system with access to large state spaces (qudits) can serve as a useful platform for examining the tradeoffs between resource cost and accuracy inherent in QT. In past years we have developed one such experimental testbed, consisting of the electron-nuclear spins in the electronic ground state of individual Cs atoms. Our available toolkit includes high fidelity state preparation, complete unitary control, arbitrary orthogonal measurements, and accurate and efficient QST in Hilbert space dimensions up to d = 16. Using these tools, we have recently completed a comprehensive study of QPT in 4, 7 and 16 dimensions. Our results show that QPT of near-unitary processes is quite feasible if one chooses optimal input states and efficient QST on the outputs. We further show that for unitary processes in high dimensional spaces, one can use informationally incomplete QPT to achieve high-fidelity process reconstruction (90% in d = 16) with greatly reduced resource requirements.
Dynamics of open quantum spin systems: An assessment of the quantum master equation approach
Zhao, P; Miyashita, S; Jin, F; Michielsen, K
2016-01-01
Data of the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation of a system containing one spin-1/2 particle interacting with a bath of up to 32 spin-1/2 particles is used to construct a Markovian quantum master equation describing the dynamics of the system spin. The procedure of obtaining this quantum master equation, which takes the form of a Bloch equation with time-independent coefficients, accounts for all non-Markovian effects in as much the general structure of the quantum master equation allows. Our simulation results show that, with a few rather exotic exceptions, the Bloch-like equation with time-independent coefficients provides a simple and accurate description of the dynamics of a spin-1/2 particle in contact with a thermal bath. A calculation of the coefficients that appear in the Redfield master equation in the Markovian limit shows that this equation yields a rather poor description of the original data.
Magneto-optical cavity quantum electrodynamics effects in quantum dot - micropillar systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on magneto-optical studies of strongly coupled quantum dot - micropillar cavity systems. Large In0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots (QDs) in the active layer of the micropillar facilitate the observation of strong coupling. In addition, they exhibit a particular large diamagnetic response which is exploited to demonstrate magneto-optical resonance tuning in the strong coupling regime. The magnetic field employed in Faraday configuration induces a transition from strong coupling towards the critical coupling regime which is explained in terms of a magnetic field dependent oscillator strength of the In0.3Ga0.7As QDs. We further study the coherent interaction between spin resolved states of the QDs and microcavity photon modes. A detailed oscillator model is used to extract the associated coupling parameters of the individual spin and cavity modes and reveals an effective coupling between photon modes that is mediated by the exciton spin states.
Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Classical Message using Cavity Quantum Electrodynamic System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Lian-Fang; LIU Yi-Min; ZHANG Zhan-Jun
2006-01-01
@@ An experimental feasible scheme of multiparty secret sharing of classical messages is proposed, based on a cavity quantum electrodynamic system. The secret messages are imposed on atomic Bell states initially in the sender's possession by local unitary operations. By swapping quantum entanglement of atomic Bell states, the secret messages are split into several parts and each part is distributed to a separate party. In this case, any subset of the entire party group can not read out the secret message but the entirety via mutual cooperations. In this scheme, to discriminate atomic Bell states, additional classical fields are employed besides the same highly-detuned single-mode cavities used to prepare atomic Bell states. This scheme is insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field, and usual joint Bell-state measurements are unnecessary.
Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems
Nation, P D
2015-01-01
We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterat...
Gauge nonlocality in planar quantum-coherent systems
Moulopoulos, K
2014-01-01
It is shown that a system with quantum coherence can be nontrivially affected by adjacent magnetic or adjacent time-varying electric field regions, with this proximity (or remote) influence having a gauge origin. This is implicit (although overlooked) in numerous works on extended systems with inhomogeneous magnetic fields (with either conventional or Dirac materials) but is generally plagued with an apparent gauge ambiguity. The origin of this annoying feature is explained and it is shown how it can be theoretically removed, leading to macroscopic quantizations (quantized Dirac monopoles, integral quantum Hall effect, quantized magnetoelectric phenomena in topological insulators). Apart however from serving as a theoretical probe of macroscopic quantizations, there are cases (experimental conditions, clarified here) when this "gauge nonlocality" does not really suffer from any ambiguity: an apparently innocent gauge transformation corresponds to real change in physics of a companion system in higher dimensio...
Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities.
Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul
2016-01-01
Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384
Optimal Control for Generating Quantum Gates in Open Dissipative Systems
Schulte-Herbrueggen, T; Khaneja, N; Glaser, S J
2006-01-01
Optimal control methods for implementing quantum modules with least amount of dissipation are devised to give best approximations to unitary gates under explicit relaxation. They are the methods of choice to govern quantum systems within decoherence-poor subspaces whenever the drift Hamiltonian would otherwise sweep the system through decoherence-rich states of the embedding larger Liouville space. Superoperator GRAPE derived controls outperform Trotter-type approaches significantly: in a standard model system encoding two logical qubits by four physical ones, one obtains a CNOT with fidelities beyond 95 % instead of at most 15 % in the Trotter limit with the additional benefit of the former requiring control fields orders of magnitude lower than the latter.
Quantum Hall effect in a system with an electron reservoir
Dorozhkin, S. I.
2016-04-01
Precise measurements of the magnetic-field and gate-voltage dependences of the capacitance of a field-effect transistor with an electron system in a wide GaAs quantum well have been carried out. It has been found that the capacitance minima caused by the gaps in the Landau spectrum of the electron system become anomalously wide when two size-quantization subbands are occupied. The effect is explained by retention of the chemical potential in the gap between the Landau levels of one of the subbands owing to redistribution of electrons between the subbands under a change in the magnetic field. The calculation taking into account this redistribution has been performed in a model of the electron system formed by two two-dimensional electron layers. The calculation results describe both the wide capacitance features and the observed disappearance of certain quantum Hall effect states.
Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities
Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul
2016-07-01
Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.
Quench dynamics in long-range interacting quantum systems
Gong, Zhexuan
2016-05-01
A distinctive feature of atomic, molecular, and optical systems is that interactions between particles are often long-ranged. Control techniques from quantum optics often allow one to tune the pattern of these long-range interactions, creating an entirely new degree of freedom, absent in typical condensed matter systems. These tunable long-range interactions can result in very different far-from-equilibrium dynamics compared to systems with only short-range interactions. In the first half of the talk, I will describe how very general types of long-range interactions can qualitatively change the entanglement and correlation growth shortly after a quantum quench. In the second half of the talk I will show that, at longer times, long-range interactions can lead to exotic quasi-stationary states and dynamical phase transitions. These theoretical ideas have been explored in recent trapped-ion experiments, and connections to these experiments will be emphasized in both parts of the talk.
Establishing formal state space models via quantization for quantum control systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Daoyi; Chen Zonghai
2005-01-01
Formal state space models of quantum control systems are deduced and a scheme to establish formal state space models via quantization could been obtained for quantum control systems is proposed. State evolution of quantum control systems must accord with Schrodinger equations, so it is foremost to obtain Hamiltonian operators of systems. There are corresponding relations between operators of quantum systems and corresponding physical quantities of classical systems,such as momentum, energy and Hamiltonian, so Schrodinger equation models of corresponding quantum control systems via quantization could been obtained from classical control systems, and then establish formal state space models through the suitable transformation from Schrodinger equations for these quantum control systems. This method provides a new kind of path for modeling in quantum control.
Stochastic quantum molecular dynamics for finite and extended systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graphical abstract: The figure illustrates the time-evolution as generated by the quantum jump algorithm. The lower track represents the piecewise deterministic propagation of the physical state which is intercepted at instances in time where the bath operator S-circumflex acts on the state. The points in time where this takes place are determined by sampling a waiting-time distribution. The sampling is performed by propagating an auxiliary state (represented in the upper track) with a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. Uniformly distributed random numbers are drawn and once the norm of the auxiliary state drops below the current random number the propagation of the physical and the auxiliary state is suspended. At this point in time the action of the bath operator on the physical state results in a new state which is then also used to initialize the auxiliary state for the evolution. The simulation of both states is then resumed again. Highlights: ►In this study we present a detailed account of the technical aspects of stochastic quantum molecular dynamics. ► We consider both finite systems with and without ionic motion, as well as describe its applicability to extended systems. ► We give prospects of applying the method to decoherence and energy relaxation in the presence of time-dependent fields. - Abstract: We present a detailed account of the technical aspects of stochastic quantum molecular dynamics, an approach introduced recently by the authors [H. Appel, M. Di Ventra, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 212303] to describe coupled electron–ion dynamics in open quantum systems. As example applications of the method we consider both finite systems with and without ionic motion, as well as describe its applicability to extended systems in the limit of classical ions. The latter formulation allows the study of important phenomena such as decoherence and energy relaxation in bulk systems and surfaces in the presence of time-dependent fields.
Eigenstate Gibbs Ensemble in Integrable Quantum Systems
Nandy, Sourav; Das, Arnab; Dhar, Abhishek
2016-01-01
The Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis implies that for a thermodynamically large system in one of its eigenstates, the reduced density matrix describing any finite subsystem is determined solely by a set of {\\it relevant} conserved quantities. In a generic system, only the energy plays that role and hence eigenstates appear locally thermal. Integrable systems, on the other hand, possess an extensive number of such conserved quantities and hence the reduced density matrix requires specification of an infinite number of parameters (Generalized Gibbs Ensemble). However, here we show by unbiased statistical sampling of the individual eigenstates with a given finite energy density, that the local description of an overwhelming majority of these states of even such an integrable system is actually Gibbs-like, i.e. requires only the energy density of the eigenstate. Rare eigenstates that cannot be represented by the Gibbs ensemble can also be sampled efficiently by our method and their local properties are then s...
Hopping Wave Function in Quantum Kicked Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
A model of a kicked particle in an infinite potential well is studied. We presented the wave functions of the system applying a direct perturbation method. Theoretical analyses and numerical calculations show that the wave function is discontinuous across each kicking instant. As an extension of this result, we find that the wave function of any periodically kicked system usually has this property. Therefore, at each kicking instant, the wave function chooses randomly between the limits on either side and may be hopping.
Georgescu, I. M.; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco
2013-01-01
Simulating quantum mechanics is known to be a difficult computational problem, especially when dealing with large systems. However, this difficulty may be overcome by using some controllable quantum system to study another less controllable or accessible quantum system, i.e., quantum simulation. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry and cosmology. Quantum simulat...
Cosmology emerging as the gauge structure of a nonlinear quantum system
Kam, Chon-Fai
2016-01-01
Berry phases and gauge structures in parameter spaces of quantum systems are the foundation of a broad range of quantum effects such as quantum Hall effects and topological insulators. The gauge structures of interacting many-body systems, which often present exotic features, are particularly interesting. While quantum systems are intrinsically linear due to the superposition principle, nonlinear quantum mechanics can arise as an effective theory for interacting systems (such as condensates of interacting bosons). Here we show that gauge structures similar to curved spacetime can arise in nonlinear quantum systems where the superposition principle breaks down. In the canonical formalism of the nonlinear quantum mechanics, the geometric phases of quantum evolutions can be formulated as the classical geometric phases of a harmonic oscillator that represents the Bogoliubov excitations. We find that the classical geometric phase can be described by a de Sitter universe. The fundamental frequency of the harmonic o...
N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories and quantum integrable systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Yuan; Tan, Meng-Chwan [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore 2 Science Drive 3, 117551 (Singapore); Yagi, Junya [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore 2 Science Drive 3, 117551 (Singapore); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) Via Bonomea, 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste Via Valerio, 2, 34149 Trieste (Italy)
2014-03-20
We study N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories on the product of a two-sphere and a cylinder. We show that the low-energy dynamics of a BPS sector of such a theory is described by a quantum integrable system, with the Planck constant set by the inverse of the radius of the sphere. If the sphere is replaced with a hemisphere, then our system reduces to an integrable system of the type studied by Nekrasov and Shatashvili. In this case we establish a correspondence between the effective prepotential of the gauge theory and the Yang-Yang function of the integrable system.
N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories and quantum integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories on the product of a two-sphere and a cylinder. We show that the low-energy dynamics of a BPS sector of such a theory is described by a quantum integrable system, with the Planck constant set by the inverse of the radius of the sphere. If the sphere is replaced with a hemisphere, then our system reduces to an integrable system of the type studied by Nekrasov and Shatashvili. In this case we establish a correspondence between the effective prepotential of the gauge theory and the Yang-Yang function of the integrable system
Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications
Ren, Ting
2010-01-01
In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems.rn rnIn the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stöber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2 - 24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the ...
Topological superconductivity in quantum Hall-superconductor hybrid systems
Zocher, Björn; Rosenow, Bernd
2016-06-01
We develop a scenario to engineer a topological phase with Majorana edge states based on an integer quantum Hall (QH) system proximity coupled to a superconductor (SC). Due to the vortices in the SC order parameter, the SC-QH hybrid system is described by a Bloch problem with ten unpaired momenta, corresponding to the maxima and saddle points of the SC order parameter. For external potentials respecting the symmetry of the vortex lattice, the states with unpaired momenta have degeneracies such that the system always is in a trivial phase. However, an incommensurate potential can lift the degeneracies and drive the system into a topologically nontrivial phase.
Quantum feedback in a non-resonant cavity QED system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Photon correlation measurements reveal the response of the conditional evolution of the cavity QED system to a novel quantum feedback protocol. A photodetection collapses the state of the system and triggers a feedback pulse with an adjustable delay and amplitude that alters the intensity driving the system. The conditional evolution of the system freezes into a new steady state where it resides until, after an amount of time determined by the experimenter, it re-equilibrates into the original steady state. We carry out a sensitivity analysis using a theoretical model with atomic detuning and make quantitative comparisons with measured results
Implementing quantum electrodynamics with ultracold atomic systems
Kasper, V; Jendrzejewski, F; Oberthaler, M K; Berges, J
2016-01-01
We discuss the experimental engineering of model systems for the description of QED in one spatial dimension via a mixture of bosonic $^{23}$Na and fermionic $^6$Li atoms. The local gauge symmetry is realized in an optical superlattice, using heteronuclear boson-fermion spin-changing interactions which preserve the total spin in every local collision. We consider a large number of bosons residing in the coherent state of a Bose-Einstein condensate on each link between the fermion lattice sites, such that the behavior of lattice QED in the continuum limit can be recovered. The discussion about the range of possible experimental parameters builds, in particular, upon experiences with related setups of fermions interacting with coherent samples of bosonic atoms. We determine the atomic system's parameters required for the description of fundamental QED processes, such as Schwinger pair production and string breaking. This is achieved by benchmark calculations of the atomic system and of QED itself using function...
Local decoherence-resistant quantum states of large systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, Utkarsh; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwal@hri.res.in
2015-02-06
We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states, each of which consists of a “minuscule” and a “large” sector, against local noise. In particular, the content of entanglement and other quantum correlations in the minuscule to large partition is independent of the number of particles in their large sectors, when all the particles suffer passage through local amplitude and phase damping channels. The states of the large sectors are distinct in terms of markedly different amounts of violation of Bell inequality. In case the large sector is macroscopic, such states are akin to the Schrödinger cat. - Highlights: • We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states of large systems. • We work with local noise models. • Decay of entanglement as well as information-theoretic quantum correlations considered. • The states are of the form of the Schrödinger cats, with minuscule and large sectors. • The states of the large sector are distinguishable by their violation of Bell inequality.
Complex Critical Exponents in Diluted Systems of Quantum Rotors
Fernandes, Rafael; Schmalian, Jörg
2011-03-01
In this work, we investigate the effects of the Berry phase 2 πρ on the critical properties of XY quantum-rotors that undergo a percolation transition. This model describes a variety of randomly-diluted quantum systems, such as interacting bosons coupled to a particle reservoir, quantum planar antiferromagnets under a perpendicular magnetic field, and Josephson-junction arrays with an external bias-voltage. Focusing on the quantum critical point at the percolation threshold, we find that, for rational ρ , one recovers the power-law behavior with the same critical exponents as in the case with no Berry phase. However, for irrational ρ , the low-energy excitations change completely and are given by emergent spinless fermions with fractal spectrum. As a result, critical properties that cannot be described by the usual Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson theory of phase transitions emerge, such as complex critical exponents, log-periodic oscillations, and dynamically-broken scale invariance. Research supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of BES, Materials Science and Engineering Division.
Multi-scale analysis for random quantum systems with interaction
Chulaevsky, Victor
2014-01-01
The study of quantum disorder has generated considerable research activity in mathematics and physics over past 40 years. While single-particle models have been extensively studied at a rigorous mathematical level, little was known about systems of several interacting particles, let alone systems with positive spatial particle density. Creating a consistent theory of disorder in multi-particle quantum systems is an important and challenging problem that largely remains open. Multi-scale Analysis for Random Quantum Systems with Interaction presents the progress that had been recently achieved in this area. The main focus of the book is on a rigorous derivation of the multi-particle localization in a strong random external potential field. To make the presentation accessible to a wider audience, the authors restrict attention to a relatively simple tight-binding Anderson model on a cubic lattice Zd. This book includes the following cutting-edge features: * an introduction to the state-of-the-art single-...
Quantum chaos and thermalization in isolated systems of interacting particles
Borgonovi, F.; Izrailev, F. M.; Santos, L. F.; Zelevinsky, V. G.
2016-04-01
This review is devoted to the problem of thermalization in a small isolated conglomerate of interacting constituents. A variety of physically important systems of intensive current interest belong to this category: complex atoms, molecules (including biological molecules), nuclei, small devices of condensed matter and quantum optics on nano- and micro-scale, cold atoms in optical lattices, ion traps. Physical implementations of quantum computers, where there are many interacting qubits, also fall into this group. Statistical regularities come into play through inter-particle interactions, which have two fundamental components: mean field, that along with external conditions, forms the regular component of the dynamics, and residual interactions responsible for the complex structure of the actual stationary states. At sufficiently high level density, the stationary states become exceedingly complicated superpositions of simple quasiparticle excitations. At this stage, regularities typical of quantum chaos emerge and bring in signatures of thermalization. We describe all the stages and the results of the processes leading to thermalization, using analytical and massive numerical examples for realistic atomic, nuclear, and spin systems, as well as for models with random parameters. The structure of stationary states, strength functions of simple configurations, and concepts of entropy and temperature in application to isolated mesoscopic systems are discussed in detail. We conclude with a schematic discussion of the time evolution of such systems to equilibrium.
The thermodynamic cost of driving quantum systems by their boundaries
Barra, Felipe
2015-10-01
The laws of thermodynamics put limits to the efficiencies of thermal machines. Analogues of these laws are now established for quantum engines weakly and passively coupled to the environment providing a framework to find improvements to their performance. Systems whose interaction with the environment is actively controlled do not fall in that framework. Here we consider systems actively and locally coupled to the environment, evolving with a so-called boundary-driven Lindblad equation. Starting from a unitary description of the system plus the environment we simultaneously obtain the Lindblad equation and the appropriate expressions for heat, work and entropy-production of the system extending the framework for the analysis of new, and some already proposed, quantum heat engines. We illustrate our findings in spin 1/2 chains and explain why an XX chain coupled in this way to a single heat bath relaxes to thermodynamic-equilibrium while and XY chain does not. Additionally, we show that an XX chain coupled to a left and a right heat baths behaves as a quantum engine, a heater or refrigerator depending on the parameters, with efficiencies bounded by Carnot efficiencies.
A pseudospectral method for optimal control of open quantum systems.
Li, Jr-Shin; Ruths, Justin; Stefanatos, Dionisis
2009-10-28
In this paper, we present a unified computational method based on pseudospectral approximations for the design of optimal pulse sequences in open quantum systems. The proposed method transforms the problem of optimal pulse design, which is formulated as a continuous-time optimal control problem, to a finite-dimensional constrained nonlinear programming problem. This resulting optimization problem can then be solved using existing numerical optimization suites. We apply the Legendre pseudospectral method to a series of optimal control problems on open quantum systems that arise in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in liquids. These problems have been well studied in previous literature and analytical optimal controls have been found. We find an excellent agreement between the maximum transfer efficiency produced by our computational method and the analytical expressions. Moreover, our method permits us to extend the analysis and address practical concerns, including smoothing discontinuous controls as well as deriving minimum-energy and time-optimal controls. The method is not restricted to the systems studied in this article and is applicable to optimal manipulation of both closed and open quantum systems. PMID:19894930
Generalized entropy production fluctuation theorems for quantum systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Subhashis Rana; Sourabh Lahiri; A M Jayannavar
2013-02-01
Based on trajectory-dependent path probability formalism in state space, we derive generalized entropy production fluctuation relations for a quantum system in the presence of measurement and feedback. We have obtained these results for three different cases: (i) the system is evolving in isolation from its surroundings; (ii) the system being weakly coupled to a heat bath; and (iii) system in contact with reservoir using quantum Crooks fluctuation theorem. In Case (iii), we build on the treatment carried out by H T Quan and H Dong [arXiv/cond-mat:0812.4955], where a quantum trajectory has been defined as a sequence of alternating work and heat steps. The obtained entropy production fluctuation theorems (FTs) retain the same form as in the classical case. The inequality of second law of thermodynamics gets modified in the presence of information. These FTs are robust against intermediate measurements of any observable performed with respect to von Neumann projective measurements as well as weak or positive operator-valued measurements.
Quantum optical feedback control for creating strong correlations in many-body systems
Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Ivanov, Denis A; Mekhov, Igor B
2016-01-01
Light enables manipulating many-body states of matter, and atoms trapped in optical lattices is a prominent example. However, quantum properties of light are completely neglected in all quantum gas experiments. Extending methods of quantum optics to many-body physics will enable phenomena unobtainable in classical optical setups. We show how using the quantum optical feedback creates strong correlations in bosonic and fermionic systems. It balances two competing processes, originating from different fields: quantum backaction of weak optical measurement and many-body dynamics, resulting in stabilized density waves, antiferromagnetic and NOON states. Our approach is extendable to other systems promising for quantum technologies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Bagmutov
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate two 2D quantum systems, each consisting of a waveguide and a resonator, connected through narrow holes. Systems features are studied by the solution of scattering problem. We use zero-width slits model, where the finite radius is changed by infinitely-small one. In the framework of the proposed model, exact solutions are found and scattering problem is solved for both systems using the theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators. Obtained results are then used to calculate current-voltage characteristics of suggested systems. We show that obtained characteristics have steplike kinks disappearing with the temperature growth or increase of system sizes. Parameters are calculated with the effect still observable. The results may be useful in the design of electronic devices such as nanoelectronic transistor based on resistance control in a waveguide.
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld Lars;
2014-01-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller–Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide vari...
Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing.
Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof
2016-07-01
Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform-an essential building block for many quantum algorithms-is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer.
Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing
Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S.; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof
2016-01-01
Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform—an essential building block for many quantum algorithms—is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer. PMID:27419233
Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing.
Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof
2016-07-01
Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform-an essential building block for many quantum algorithms-is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer. PMID:27419233
Entanglement dynamics of two-qubit systems in different quantum noises
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pan Chang-Ning; Li-Fei; Fang Jian-Shu; Fang Mao-Fa
2011-01-01
The entanglement dynamics of two-qubit systems in different quantum noises are investigated by means of the operator-sum representation method. We find that, except for the amplitude damping and phase damping quantum noise, the sudden death of entanglement is always observed in different two-qubit systems with generalized amplitude damping and depolarizing quantum noise.
A formula for the Bloch vector of some Lindblad quantum systems
Salgado, D; Sanchez-Gomez, J. L.
2003-01-01
Using the Bloch representation of an N-dimensional quantum system and immediate results from quantum stochastic calculus, we establish a closed formula for the Bloch vector, hence also for the density operator, of a quantum system following a Lindblad evolution with selfadjoint Lindblad operators.
A formula for the Bloch vector of some Lindblad quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the Bloch representation of an N-dimensional quantum system and immediate results from quantum stochastic calculus, we establish a closed formula for the Bloch vector, hence also for the density operator, of a quantum system following a Lindblad evolution with selfadjoint Lindblad operators
Energy Exchange in Driven Open Quantum Systems at Strong Coupling
Carrega, Matteo; Solinas, Paolo; Sassetti, Maura; Weiss, Ulrich
2016-06-01
The time-dependent energy transfer in a driven quantum system strongly coupled to a heat bath is studied within an influence functional approach. Exact formal expressions for the statistics of energy dissipation into the different channels are derived. The general method is applied to the driven dissipative two-state system. It is shown that the energy flows obey a balance relation, and that, for strong coupling, the interaction may constitute the major dissipative channel. Results in analytic form are presented for the particular value K =1/2 of strong Ohmic dissipation. The energy flows show interesting behaviors including driving-induced coherences and quantum stochastic resonances. It is found that the general characteristics persists for K near 1/2 .
Geometrical effects on energy transfer in disordered open quantum systems
Mohseni, M; Lloyd, S; Omar, Y; Rabitz, H
2013-01-01
We explore various design principles for efficient excitation energy transport in complex quantum systems. We investigate energy transfer efficiency in randomly disordered geometries consisting of up to 20 chromophores to explore spatial and spectral properties of small natural/artificial Light-Harvesting Complexes (LHC). We find significant statistical correlations among highly efficient random structures with respect to ground state properties, excitonic energy gaps, multichromophoric spatial connectivity, and path strengths. These correlations can even exist beyond the optimal regime of environment-assisted quantum transport. For random configurations embedded in spatial dimensions of 30 A and 50 A, we observe that the transport efficiency saturates to its maximum value if the systems contain 7 and 14 chromophores respectively. Remarkably, these optimum values coincide with the number of chlorophylls in (Fenna-Matthews-Olson) FMO protein complex and LHC II monomers, respectively, suggesting a potential nat...
Fluctuations assisted stationary entanglement in driven quantum systems
Angelakis, Dimitris G
2011-01-01
We analyze the possible quantum correlations between two coupled dimer systems in the presence of independent losses and driven by a fluctuating field. For the case of the interaction being of a Heisenberg exchange type, we first analytically show the possibility for robust stationary entanglement for realistic values of the dissipation rates and then analyze its robustness as a function of the noise to signal ratio of the pump. We find that for a common fluctuating driving field, a stochastic resonance effect appears as function of the ratio between field strength and noise strength. The effect disappears in the case of uncorrelated or separate pumps. Our result is general and could be applied to different quantum systems ranging from electron spins in solid state, to ions trap technologies and cold atom set ups.
Constraints on the mixing of states on bipartite quantum systems
Chen, H
2002-01-01
We give necessary conditions for the mixing problem in bipartite case, which are independent of eigenvalues and based on algebraic-geometric invariants of the bipartite states. One implication of our results is that for some special bipartite mixed states, only special mixed states in a measure zero set can be used to mix to get them. The results indicate for many physical problems on composite quantum systems the description based on majorization of eigenvalues is not sufficient
Dynamical suppression of unwanted transition paths in multistate quantum systems
Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2012-01-01
We introduce a method to suppress unwanted transition channels, even without knowing their couplings, and achieve perfect population transfer in multistate quantum systems by the application of composite pulse sequences. Unwanted transition paths may be present due to imperfect light polarization, stray electromagnetic fields, misalignment of quantization axis, spatial inhomogeneity of trapping fields, off-resonant couplings, etc. Compensation of simultaneous deviations in polarization, pulse...
Quarkonium above deconfinement as an open quantum system
Young, Clint; Dusling, Kevin
2010-01-01
Quarkonium at temperatures above deconfinement is modeled as an open quantum system, whose dynamics is determined not just by a potential energy and mass, but also by a drag coefficient which characterizes its interaction with the medium. The reduced density matrix for a heavy particle experiencing dissipative forces is expressed as an integral over paths in imaginary time and evaluated numerically. We demonstrate that dissipation could affect the Euclidean heavy-heavy correlators calculated ...
Decoherence in quantum systems in a static gravitational field
Shariati, Ahmad; Loran, Farhang
2016-01-01
A small quantum system is studied which is a superposition of states localized in different positions in a static gravitational field. The time evolution of the correlation between different positions is investigated, and it is seen that there are two time scales for such an evolution (decoherence). Both time scales are inversely proportional to the red shift difference between the two points. These time scales correspond to decoherences which are linear and quadratic, respectively, in time.
Covariance in models of loop quantum gravity: Gowdy systems
Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa
2015-09-01
Recent results in the construction of anomaly-free models of loop quantum gravity have shown obstacles when local physical degrees of freedom are present. Here, a set of no-go properties is derived in polarized Gowdy models, raising the question of whether these systems can be covariant beyond a background treatment. As a side product, it is shown that normal deformations in classical polarized Gowdy models can be Abelianized.
Molina-Vilaplana, Javier
2011-01-01
We exploit the Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) to explicitly build the bulk AdSd+2 space associated to a (d+1) dimensional conformal field theory describing a critical system lying at the boundary of the AdS space. We show that, when computing the quantum correlations between two disjoint blocks of the boundary critical system, the structure of the causal cones characteristic of MERA requires a transition between two different regimes attainable by changing the ratio between the size and the separation of the two disjoint blocks. We argue that this transition may be easily accounted for if the metric of the MERA induced holographic dual bulk spacetime is described by an AdSd+2 black hole and the mutual information is computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. As an explicit example, we use a BTZ AdS3 black hole to compute the MI and the quantum correlations between two disjoint intervals of a one dimensional boundary critical system. Our results for this low dimensional system not only s...
Quantum fluctuations, mean field methods and the simulation of continuous quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadar, Zoltan; Keyl, Michael; Zimboras, Zoltan [ISI Foundation, Torino (Italy)
2012-07-01
The fluctuations of a discrete quantum system behave in the infinite particle limit like a continuous system. This fact can be used to simulate a continuous system in terms of finitely many qubits. Experimental applications of this observation include the implementation of ''quantum memory'', which can be used to store the state of (one mode) of a light field in an atomic ensemble at room temperature. A very convenient tool to treat such models is mean field theory, where the fluctuations around a mean field observable are described in terms of ''fluctuation operators''. In this context we will show how products of the latter converge in a weak sense to polynomials of position and momentum of the continuous system. Based on that the relation between discreet and continuous dynamics will be analyzed, and quadratic Hamiltonians are discussed in greater detail. Finally we will have a particular look at cases where the continuous Hamiltonian is a Schroedinger operator which does not admit a selfadjoint extension.
Dissipation equation of motion approach to open quantum systems
Yan, YiJing; Jin, Jinshuang; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao
2016-08-01
This paper presents a comprehensive account of the dissipaton-equation-of-motion (DEOM) theory for open quantum systems. This newly developed theory treats not only the quantum dissipative systems of primary interest, but also the hybrid environment dynamics that are also experimentally measurable. Despite the fact that DEOM recovers the celebrated hierarchical-equations-of-motion (HEOM) formalism, these two approaches have some fundamental differences. To show these differences, we also scrutinize the HEOM construction via its root at the influence functional path integral formalism. We conclude that many unique features of DEOM are beyond the reach of the HEOM framework. The new DEOM approach renders a statistical quasi-particle picture to account for the environment, which can be either bosonic or fermionic. The review covers the DEOM construction, the physical meanings of dynamical variables, the underlying theorems and dissipaton algebra, and recent numerical advancements for efficient DEOM evaluations of various problems. We also address the issue of high-order many-dissipaton truncations with respect to the invariance principle of quantum mechanics of Schrödinger versus Heisenberg prescriptions. DEOM serves as a universal tool for characterizing of stationary and dynamic properties of system-and-bath interferences, as highlighted with its real-time evaluation of both linear and nonlinear current noise spectra of nonequilibrium electronic transport.
Applications of quantum Monte Carlo methods in condensed systems
Kolorenc, Jindrich
2010-01-01
The quantum Monte Carlo methods represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solutions of the stationary Schroedinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. The algorithms are intrinsically parallel and are able to take full advantage of the present-day high-performance computing systems. This review article concentrates on the fixed-node/fixed-phase diffusion Monte Carlo method with emphasis on its applications to electronic structure of solids and other extended many-particle systems.
Trojan Horse attacks on Quantum Key Distribution systems
Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, B; Zbinden, H; Ribordy, G
2005-01-01
General Trojan horse attacks on quantum key distribution systems are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today's technology and conclude that all system must implement active counter-measures. In particular all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter-measures can be efficient, provided enough additional privacy amplification is applied to the data. We present a practical way to reduce the maximal information gain that an adversary can gain using Trojan horse attacks.
Fourier's law for quasi-one-dimensional chaotic quantum systems
Seligman, Thomas H.; Weidenmüller, Hans A.
2011-05-01
We derive Fourier's law for a completely coherent quasi-one-dimensional chaotic quantum system coupled locally to two heat baths at different temperatures. We solve the master equation to first order in the temperature difference. We show that the heat conductance can be expressed as a thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient taken at some intermediate temperature. We use that expression to show that for temperatures large compared to the mean level spacing of the system, the heat conductance is inversely proportional to the level density and, thus, inversely proportional to the length of the system.
Wigner distributions for finite dimensional quantum systems: An algebraic approach
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Chaturvedi; E Ercolessi; G Marmo; G Morandi; N Mukunbda; R Simon
2005-12-01
We discuss questions pertaining to the definition of `momentum', `momentum space', `phase space' and `Wigner distributions'; for finite dimensional quantum systems. For such systems, where traditional concepts of `momenta' established for continuum situations offer little help, we propose a physically reasonable and mathematically tangible definition and use it for the purpose of setting up Wigner distributions in a purely algebraic manner. It is found that the point of view adopted here is limited to odd dimensional systems only. The mathematical reasons which force this situation are examined in detail.
Quantum theory of many-particle systems
Fetter, Alexander L
2003-01-01
""Singlemindedly devoted to its job of educating potential many-particle theorists…deserves to become the standard text in the field."" - Physics Today""The most comprehensive textbook yet published in its field and every postgraduate student or teacher in this field should own or have access to a copy."" - EndeavorA self-contained, unified treatment of nonrelativistic many-particle systems, this text offers a solid introduction to procedures in a manner that enables students to adopt techniques for their own use. Its discussions of formalism and applications move easily between general theo
Asano, Masanari; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Yamato, Ichiro
2011-01-01
There exist several phenomena (systems) breaking the classical probability laws. Such systems are contextual dependent adaptive systems. In this paper, we present a new mathematical formula to compute the probability in those systems by using the concepts of the adaptive dynamics and quantum information theory -- quantum channels and the lifting. The basic examples of the contextual dependent phenomena can be found in quantum physics. And recently similar examples were found in biological and psychological sciences. Our novel approach is motivated by traditional quantum probability, but it is general enough to describe aforementioned phenomena outside of quantum physics.
Kong Wan, K
2006-01-01
Traditional quantum theory has a very rigid structure, making it difficult to accommodate new properties emerging from novel systems. This book presents a flexible and unified theory for physical systems, from micro and macro quantum to classical. This is achieved by incorporating superselection rules and maximal symmetric operators into the theory. The resulting theory is applicable to classical, microscopic quantum and non-orthodox mixed quantum systems of which macroscopic quantum systems are examples. A unified formalism also greatly facilitates the discussion of interactions between these
Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleine, Adrian
2010-11-08
In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Product-States provide a polynomial-sized representation of one-dimensional quantum systems, thus allowing an efficient simulation of one-dimensional quantum system on classical computers. Matrix-Product-States form the conceptual framework of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). After a general introduction in the first chapter of this thesis, the second chapter deals with Matrix-Product-States, focusing on the development of fast and stable algorithms. To obtain algorithms to efficiently calculate ground states, the density-matrix renormalization group is reformulated using the Matrix-Product-States framework. Further, time-dependent problems are considered. Two different algorithms are presented, one based on a Trotter decomposition of the time-evolution operator, the other one on Krylov subspaces. Finally, the evaluation of dynamical spectral functions is discussed, and a correction vector-based method is presented. In the following chapters, the methods presented in the second chapter, are applied to a number of different physical problems. The third chapter deals with the existence of chiral phases in isotropic one-dimensional quantum spin systems. A preceding analytical study based on a mean-field approach indicated the possible existence of those phases in an isotropic Heisenberg model with a frustrating zig-zag interaction and a magnetic field. In this thesis, the existence of the chiral phases is shown numerically by using Matrix-Product-States-based algorithms. In the fourth chapter, we propose an experiment using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices, which allows a well controlled observation of the spin-charge separation (of
Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo
2016-06-01
We investigate the quantum phase transition of an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-mode optical cavity via the geometric phase and quantum Fisher information of an extra probe atom which is injected into the optical cavity and interacts with the cavity field. We also find that the geometric quantum correlation between two probe atoms exhibits a double sudden transition phenomenon and show this double sudden transition phenomenon is closely associated with the quantum phase transition of the atomic ensemble. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical scheme to prolong the frozen time during which the geometric quantum correlation remains constant by applying time-dependent electromagnetic field.
Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo
2016-09-01
We investigate the quantum phase transition of an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-mode optical cavity via the geometric phase and quantum Fisher information of an extra probe atom which is injected into the optical cavity and interacts with the cavity field. We also find that the geometric quantum correlation between two probe atoms exhibits a double sudden transition phenomenon and show this double sudden transition phenomenon is closely associated with the quantum phase transition of the atomic ensemble. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical scheme to prolong the frozen time during which the geometric quantum correlation remains constant by applying time-dependent electromagnetic field.
Controlling Atomic, Solid-State and Hybrid Systems for Quantum Information Processing
Gullans, Michael John
Quantum information science involves the use of precise control over quantum systems to explore new technologies. However, as quantum systems are scaled up they require an ever deeper understanding of many-body physics to achieve the required degree of control. Current experiments are entering a regime which requires active control of a mesoscopic number of coupled quantum systems or quantum bits (qubits). This thesis describes several approaches to this goal and shows how mesoscopic quantum systems can be controlled and utilized for quantum information tasks. The first system we consider is the nuclear spin environment of GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. We show that the through appropriate control of dynamic nuclear polarization one can prepare the nuclear spin environment in three distinct collective quantum states which are useful for quantum information processing with electron spin qubits. We then investigate a hybrid system in which an optical lattice is formed in the near field scattering off an array of metallic nanoparticles by utilizing the plasmonic resonance of the nanoparticles. We show that such a system would realize new regimes of dense, ultra-cold quantum matter and can be used to create a quantum network of atoms and plasmons. Finally we investigate quantum nonlinear optical systems. We show that the intrinsic nonlinearity for plasmons in graphene can be large enough to make a quantum gate for single photons. We also consider two nonlinear optical systems based on ultracold gases of atoms. In one case, we demonstrate an all-optical single photon switch using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) and slow light. In the second case, we study few photon physics in strongly interacting Rydberg polariton systems, where we demonstrate the existence of two and three photon bound states and study their properties.
Enhancements to cavity quantum electrodynamics system
Cimmarusti, A D; Norris, D G; Orozco, L A
2011-01-01
We show the planned upgrade of a cavity QED experimental apparatus. The system consists of an optical cavity and an ensemble of ultracold $^{85}$Rb atoms coupled to its mode. We propose enhancements to both. First, we document the building process for a new cavity, with a planned finesse of $\\sim$20000. We address problems of maintaining mirror integrity during mounting and improving vibration isolation. Second, we propose improvements to the cold atom source in order to achieve better optical pumping and control over the flux of atoms. We consider a 2-D optical molasses for atomic beam deflection, and show computer simulation results for evaluating the design. We also examine the possibility of all-optical atomic beam focusing, but find that it requires unreasonable experimental parameters.
Quantum Fourier Transform and Phase Estimation in Qudit System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Ye; PENG Shi-Guo; ZHENG Chao; LONG Gui-Lu
2011-01-01
The quantum Fourier transform and quantum phase estimation are the key components for many quantum algorithms, such as order-finding, factoring, and etc.In this article, the general procedure of quantum Fourier transform and phase estimation are investigated for high dimensional case.They can be seen as subroutines in a main program run in a qudit quantum computer, and the quantum circuits are given.
Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits
Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim
2016-08-01
RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.
Quantum gas microscopy of the interacting Harper-Hofstadter system
Tai, M. Eric; Lukin, Alex; Preiss, Philipp; Rispoli, Matthew; Schittko, Robert; Kaufman, Adam; Greiner, Markus
2016-05-01
At the heart of many topological states is the underlying gauge field. One example of a gauge field is the magnetic field which causes the deflection of a moving charged particle. This behavior can be understood through the Aharonov-Bohm phase that a particle acquires upon traversing a closed path. Gauge fields give rise to novel states of matter that cannot be described with symmetry breaking. Instead, these states, e.g. fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states, are characterized by topological invariants, such as the Chern number. In this talk, we report on experimental results upon introducing a gauge field in a system of strongly-interacting ultracold Rb87 atoms confined to a 2D optical lattice. With single-site resolution afforded by a quantum gas microscope, we can prepare a fixed atom number and project hard walls. With an artificial gauge field, this quantum simulator realizes the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian. We can independently control the two tunneling strengths as well as dynamically change the flux. This flexibility enables studies of topological phenomena from many perspectives, e.g. site-resolved images of edge currents. With the strong on-site interactions possible in our system, these experiments will pave the way to observing FQH-like states in a lattice.
Quantum tomography meets dynamical systems and bifurcations theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goyeneche, D., E-mail: dardo.goyeneche@cefop.udec.cl [Departamento de Fisíca, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile and Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 4012, Concepción (Chile); Torre, A. C. de la [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, IFIMAR-CONICET, Dean Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2014-06-01
A powerful tool for studying geometrical problems in Hilbert spaces is developed. We demonstrate the convergence and robustness of our method in every dimension by considering dynamical systems theory. This method provides numerical solutions to hard problems involving many coupled nonlinear equations in low and high dimensions (e.g., quantum tomography problem, existence and classification of Pauli partners, mutually unbiased bases, complex Hadamard matrices, equiangular tight frames, etc.). Additionally, this tool can be used to find analytical solutions and also to implicitly prove the existence of solutions. Here, we develop the theory for the quantum pure state tomography problem in finite dimensions but this approach is straightforwardly extended to the rest of the problems. We prove that solutions are always attractive fixed points of a nonlinear operator explicitly given. As an application, we show that the statistics collected from three random orthonormal bases is enough to reconstruct pure states from experimental (noisy) data in every dimension d ⩽ 32.
Extended space expectation values in quantum dynamical system evolutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demiralp, Metin [Istanbul Technical University, Informatics Institute, Maslak, 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)
2014-10-06
The time variant power series expansion for the expectation value of a given quantum dynamical operator is well-known and well-investigated issue in quantum dynamics. However, depending on the operator and Hamiltonian singularities this expansion either may not exist or may not converge for all time instances except the beginning of the evolution. This work focuses on this issue and seeks certain cures for the negativities. We work in the extended space obtained by adding all images of the initial wave function under the system Hamiltonian’s positive integer powers. This requires the introduction of certain appropriately defined weight operators. The resulting better convergence in the temporal power series urges us to call the new defined entities “extended space expectation values” even though they are constructed over certain weight operators and are somehow pseudo expectation values.
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices simulating quantum many-body systems
Lewenstein, Maciej; Ahufinger, Verònica
2012-01-01
Quantum computers, though not yet available on the market, will revolutionize the future of information processing. Quantum computers for special purposes like quantum simulators are already within reach. The physics of ultracold atoms, ions and molecules offer unprecedented possibilities of control of quantum many body systems and novel possibilities of applications to quantum information processing and quantum metrology. Particularly fascinating is the possibility of usingultracold atoms in lattices to simulate condensed matter or even high energy physics.This book provides a complete and co
Dissipative preparation of entanglement in quantum optical and solid state systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reiter, Florentin
, quantum entanglement is a correlation predicted by quantum mechanics, but not by classical physics. As an observable property it is indispensable for our understanding of nature. In addition, entangled states are important in quantum computation, quantum communication and quantum measurement protocols....... Entangled states are, however, sensitive to interactions with the environment, which are present in any open system. Here, in particular decoherence, i.e. loss of coherence, and dissipation, i.e. loss of energy, destroy the desired correlations. The novel approach of “dissipative quantum computing...
Zhao, Yi; Fung, Chi-Hang F.; Qi, Bing; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2009-03-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems can send signals over more than 100 km standard optical fiber and are widely believed to be secure. Here, we show experimentally for the first time a technologically feasible attack, namely the time-shift attack, against a commercial QKD system. Our result shows that, contrary to popular belief, an eavesdropper, Eve, has a non-negligible probability (˜4%) to break the security of the system. Eve's success is due to the well-known detection efficiency loophole in the experimental testing of Bell inequalities. Therefore, the detection efficiency loophole plays a key role not only in fundamental physics, but also in technological applications such as QKD. Our work is published in [1]. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A, 78:042333 (2008).
Quantum Process Tomography for Energy Transfer Systems via Ultrafast Spectroscopy
Yuen-Zhou, Joel
2012-02-01
The description of excited state dynamics in energy transfer systems constitutes a theoretical and experimental challenge in modern chemical physics. A spectroscopic protocol that systematically characterizes both coherent and dissipative processes of the probed chromophores is desired [1,2]. In this talk, I show that a set of two-color photon-echo experiments performs quantum state tomography (QST) of the one-exciton manifold of a dimer by reconstructing its density matrix in real time. This possibility in turn allows for a complete description of excited state dynamics via quantum process tomography (QPT). Simulations of a noisy QPT experiment for an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of model excitonic dimers show that the protocol distills rich information about dissipative excitonic dynamics, which appears nontrivially hidden in the signal monitored in single realizations of four-wave mixing experiments Progress on the experimental side will be discussed, as well as new insights that QPT has offered on the understanding of 2D electronic and vibrational spectroscopy. [1] J. Yuen-Zhou, J. J. Krich, A. Aspuru-Guzik, Quantum state and process tomography of energy transfer systems via ultrafast spectroscopy Joel Yuen-Zhou, Jacob J. Krich, Masoud Mohseni and Al'an Aspuru-Guzik Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, Early Edition (2011). [2] J. Yuen-Zhou, A. Aspuru-Guzik, Quantum process tomography of molecular dimers from two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy I: General theory and application to homodimers Joel Yuen-Zhou and Al'an Aspuru-Guzik . Chem. Phys. 134, 134505 (2011).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XING Yong-Zhong; XU Gon-gOu; LI Jun-Qing
2001-01-01
The properties of the eigenspace of nonintegrable quantum systems are explored in detail in the light of the viewpoint of quantum-classical completely correspondence proposed recently by Xu et al. The changes of the topological structure in the state space of autonomous quantum system due to the nonlinear resonance are displayed numerically with the uncertainty measure ofa special initial state ρα(λ) and the transformation matrix U ( λ + δλ, λ - δλ). The statistical behavior of the subspace occupied by the state in eigenspace of quantum nonintegrable system is discussed carefully with the help of a special renormalization method. The results show that the randomness of effective Hamiltonian matrix, the transition matrix and the nearest level spacings in this region can be described by random matrix theory. And the extent of agreement of our calculation with the prediction of GOE is in correspondence to the extent of the classical torus violation.
Dynamics of mixed classical-quantum systems, geometric quantization and coherent states
Jauslin, H R
2011-01-01
We describe quantum and classical Hamiltonian dynamics in a common Hilbert space framework, that allows the treatment of mixed quantum-classical systems. The analysis of some examples illustrates the possibility of entanglement between classical and quantum systems. We give a summary of the main tools of Berezin-Toeplitz and geometric quantization, that provide a relation between the classical and the quantum models, based essentially on the selection of a subspace of the classical Hilbert space. Coherent states provide a systematic tool for the inverse process, called dequantization, that associates a classical Hamiltonian system to a given quantum dynamics through the choice of a complete set of coherent states.
FPGA based digital phase-coding quantum key distribution system
Lu, XiaoMing; Zhang, LiJun; Wang, YongGang; Chen, Wei; Huang, DaJun; Li, Deng; Wang, Shuang; He, DeYong; Yin, ZhenQiang; Zhou, Yu; Hui, Cong; Han, ZhengFu
2015-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology with the potential capability to achieve information-theoretic security. Phasecoding is an important approach to develop practical QKD systems in fiber channel. In order to improve the phase-coding modulation rate, we proposed a new digital-modulation method in this paper and constructed a compact and robust prototype of QKD system using currently available components in our lab to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The system was deployed in laboratory environment over a 50 km fiber and continuously operated during 87 h without manual interaction. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system was stable with an average value of 3.22% and the secure key generation rate is 8.91 kbps. Although the modulation rate of the photon in the demo system was only 200 MHz, which was limited by the Faraday-Michelson interferometer (FMI) structure, the proposed method and the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronics scheme have a great potential for high speed QKD systems with Giga-bits/second modulation rate.
Quantum control of d-dimensional quantum systems with application to alkali atomic spins
Merkel, Seth
In this dissertation I analyze Hamiltonian control of d-dimensional quantum systems as realized in alkali atomic spins. Alkali atoms provide an ideal platform for studies of quantum control due to the extreme precision with which the control fields are characterized as well as their isolation from their environment. In many cases, studies into the control of atomic spins restrict attention to a 2-dimesional subspace in order to consider qubit control. The geometry of quantum 2-level systems is much simpler than for any larger dimensional Hilbert space, and so control techniques for qubits often are not applicable to larger systems. In reality, atoms have many internal levels. It seems a shame to throw away most of our Hilbert space when it could in principle be used for encoding information and performing error correction. This work develops some of the tools necessary to control these large atomic spins. Quantum control theory has some very generic properties that have previously been explored in the literature, notably in the work from the Rabitz group. I provide a review of this literature, showing that while the landscape topology of quantum control problems is relatively independent of physical platform, different optimization techniques are required to find optimal controls depending on the particular control task. To this end I have developed two optimal control algorithms for finding unitary maps for the problems of: "state preparation" where we require only that a single fiducial state us taken to a particular target state and "unitary construction" where the entire map is specified. State mapping turns out to be a simple problem to solve and is amenable to a gradient search method. This protocol is not feasible for the task of finding full unitary maps, but I show how we can weave state mappings together to form full unitary maps. This construction of unitary maps is efficient in the dimension of the Hilbert space. The particular system I have used for
Entropy Production in Isolated Quantum Many-Body Systems
Solano Carrillo, Edgardo; Millis, Andrew
2015-03-01
Beginning with the Liouville-von Neumann equation for the density matrix of an isolated quantum many-body system, and applying well-known projection-operator techniques, we derive an equation of motion for the rate of change of the thermodynamic entropy, valid to arbitrary order in the perturbation deviating the system from equilibrium. To lowest order, a balance equation is obtained which coincides with the one defining the entropy production in irreversible thermodynamics. A connection with fluctuation theorems is mentioned, as well as an application of the results to clarify the ``thermalization problem'' in the Jaynes-Cummings model. This work was supported by the Fulbright-Colciencias fellowship.
Time-evolution of quantum systems via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation. II. Dissipative systems
Cruz, Hans; Schuch, Dieter; Castaños, Octavio; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar
2016-10-01
In our former contribution (Cruz et al., 2015), we have shown the sensitivity to the choice of initial conditions in the evolution of Gaussian wave packets via the nonlinear Riccati equation. The formalism developed in the previous work is extended to effective approaches for the description of dissipative quantum systems. By means of simple examples we show the effects of the environment on the quantum uncertainties, correlation function, quantum energy contribution and tunnelling currents. We prove that the environmental parameter γ is strongly related with the sensitivity to the choice of initial conditions.
Optimal state encoding for quantum walks and quantum communication over spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent work has shown that a simple chain of interacting spins can be used as a medium for high-fidelity quantum communication. We describe a scheme for quantum communication using a spin system that conserves z spin, but otherwise is arbitrary. The sender and receiver are assumed to directly control several spins each, with the sender encoding the message state onto the larger state space of her control spins. Given that the encoding for the 'zero' message basis state is chosen to be the all-spin-down state, we show how to find the encoding for the 'one' basis state that maximizes the fidelity of communication, using a simple method based on the singular-value decomposition. Also, we show that this solution can be used to increase communication fidelity in a rather different circumstance: where no encoding of initial states is used, but where the sender and receiver control exactly two spins each and vary the interactions on those spins over time. The methods presented are computationally efficient, and numerical examples are given for systems having up to 300 spins
Javadi, Alisa; Sapienza, Luca; Thyrrestrup, Henri; Lodahl, Peter
2013-01-01
Optical nanostructures have proven to be meritorious for tailoring the emission properties of quantum emitters. However, unavoidable fabrication imperfections may represent a nuisance. Quite remarkably, disorder offers new opportunities since light can be efficiently confined by random multiple scattering leading to Anderson localization. Here we investigate the effect of such disorder-induced cavities on the emission dynamics of single quantum dots embedded in disordered photonic-crystal waveguides. We present time-resolved measurements of both the total emission from Anderson-localized cavities and from single emitters that are coupled to the cavities. We observe both strongly inhibited and enhanced decay rates relative to the rate of spontaneous emission in a homogeneous medium. From a statistical analysis, we report an average Purcell factor of 2 in without any control on the quantum dot - cavity detuning. By spectrally tuning individual quantum dots into resonance with Anderson-localized modes, a maximum...
Modified stochastic variational approach to non-Hermitian quantum systems
Kraft, Daniel; Plessas, Willibald
2016-08-01
The stochastic variational method has proven to be a very efficient and accurate tool to calculate especially bound states of quantum-mechanical few-body systems. It relies on the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle for minimizing real eigenenergies of Hermitian Hamiltonians. From molecular to atomic, nuclear, and particle physics there is actually a great demand of describing also resonant states to a high degree of reliance. This is especially true with regard to hadron resonances, which have to be treated in a relativistic framework. So far standard methods of dealing with quantum chromodynamics have not yet succeeded in describing hadron resonances in a realistic manner. Resonant states can be handled by non-Hermitian quantum Hamiltonians. These states correspond to poles in the lower half of the unphysical sheet of the complex energy plane and are therefore intimately connected with complex eigenvalues. Consequently the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle cannot be employed in the usual manner. We have studied alternative selection principles for the choice of test functions to treat resonances along the stochastic variational method. We have found that a stationarity principle for the complex energy eigenvalues provides a viable method for selecting test functions for resonant states in a constructive manner. We discuss several variants thereof and exemplify their practical efficiencies.
Authentication in Online Banking Systems through Quantum Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anand Sharma
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The new information technology is becoming an important factor in the future development of financial services industry, and especially banking industry. Growing international trading and problems in transferring money have motivated researchers to introduce a new structure. Online banking is the newest delivery channel for retail banking services. Online banking facilitated by various Electronic Commerce technologies, has helped commercial banks to stay competitive through productivity gains, transaction cost reduction and customer service improvement. Security for online banking has changed considerably during the relatively short period that online banking has been in use. In particular, authentication in the early implementations was, and sometimes still is, vulnerable to various attacks such as phishing. It is known that the quantum cryptography protocols are able to detect immediately any attempt to attack the key exchange and the authentication process. This paper presentsan introduction of online banking and quantum cryptography. In this paper we are proposing a model for authentication in online banking system with quantum cryptography.
Macroscopic Quantum-Type Potentials in Theoretical Systems Biology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurent Nottale
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We review in this paper the use of the theory of scale relativity and fractal space-time as a tool particularly well adapted to the possible development of a future genuine systems theoretical biology. We emphasize in particular the concept of quantum-type potentials, since, in many situations, the effect of the fractality of space—or of the underlying medium—can be reduced to the addition of such a potential energy to the classical equations of motion. Various equivalent representations—geodesic, quantum-like, fluid mechanical, stochastic—of these equations are given, as well as several forms of generalized quantum potentials. Examples of their possible intervention in high critical temperature superconductivity and in turbulence are also described, since some biological processes may be similar in some aspects to these physical phenomena. These potential extra energy contributions could have emerged in biology from the very fractal nature of the medium, or from an evolutive advantage, since they involve spontaneous properties of self-organization, morphogenesis, structuration and multi-scale integration. Finally, some examples of applications of the theory to actual biological-like processes and functions are also provided.
Maximal suppression of decoherence in Markovian quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we design an optimal control law to suppress decoherence effects in Markovian open quantum systems. The optimal control law is subject to the tracking precision of the trajectory governed by the free system, which is ideally free from decoherence. We observe from numerical simulation that the undesired decohering dynamics can be partially squeezed out in most systems. Moreover, we observe the existence of sinusoidally oscillating resonant modes that play dominant roles in the controlled trajectory, which can be easily realized by continuous wave pulses. These key features are strictly demonstrated in subsequent analysis under proper assumptions. For systems in which the coherent control does not work, we suggest a feedback control strategy to extend the applicability of control to wider class of systems
Tensor networks and graphical calculus for open quantum systems
Wood, Christopher J; Cory, David G
2011-01-01
We develop a graphical calculus for completely positive maps and in doing so cast the theory of open quantum systems into the language of tensor networks. We tailor the theory of tensor networks to pictographically represent the Liouville-superoperator, Choi-matrix, process-matrix, Kraus, and system-environment representations for the evolution of open-system states, to expose how these representations interrelate, and to concisely transform between them. Several of these transformations have succinct depictions as wire bending dualities in our graphical calculus --- reshuffling, vectorization, and the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism. The reshuffling duality between the Choi-matrix and superoperator is bi-directional, while the vectorization and Choi-Jamiolkowski dualities, from the Kraus and system-environment representations to the superoperator and Choi-matrix respectively, are single directional due to the non-uniqueness of the Kraus and system-environment representations. The remaining transformations are ...
Nonlinear Supersymmetry, Quantum Anomaly and Quasi-Exactly Solvable Systems
Klishevich, S M; Klishevich, Sergey; Plyushchay, Mikhail
2001-01-01
The nonlinear supersymmetry of one-dimensional systems is investigated in the context of the quantum anomaly problem. Any classical supersymmetric system characterized by the nonlinear in the Hamiltonian superalgebra is symplectomorphic to a supersymmetric canonical system with the holomorphic form of the supercharges. Depending on the behaviour of the superpotential, the canonical supersymmetric systems are separated into the three classes. In one of them the parameter specifying the supersymmetry order is subject to some sort of classical quantization, whereas the supersymmetry of another extreme class has a rather fictive nature since its fermion degrees of freedom are decoupled completely by a canonical transformation. The nonlinear supersymmetry with polynomial in momentum supercharges is analysed, and the most general one-parametric Calogero-like solution with the second order supercharges is found. Quantization of the systems of the canonical form reveals the two anomaly-free classes, one of which give...
Crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional quantum Hall systems
Hou, Zhe; Xing, Yanxia; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng
2016-08-01
We study the crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional conductor/superconductor hybrid systems under a perpendicular magnetic field. Both a graphene/superconductor hybrid system and an electron gas/superconductor one are considered. It is shown that an exclusive crossed Andreev reflection, with other Andreev reflections being completely suppressed, is obtained in a high magnetic field because of the chiral edge states in the quantum Hall regime. Importantly, the exclusive crossed Andreev reflection not only holds for a wide range of system parameters, e.g., the size of system, the width of central superconductor, and the quality of coupling between the graphene and the superconductor, but also is very robust against disorder. When the applied bias is within the superconductor gap, a robust Cooper-pair splitting process with high-efficiency can be realized in this system.
Sarkar, Sujit; Hu, C. D.
2008-01-01
We study the quantum spin pumping of an antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain with competing exchange interactions. We show that spatially periodic potential modulated in space and time acts as a quantum spin pump. In our model system, an applied electric field causes a spin gap to its critical ground state by introducing bond-alternation exchange interactions. We study quantum spin pumping at different quantized magnetization states and also explain physically the presence and absence of quantum ...
Exact propagation of open quantum systems in a system-reservoir context
Stockburger, Jürgen T
2016-01-01
A stochastic representation of the dynamics of open quantum systems, suitable for non-perturbative system-reservoir interaction, non-Markovian effects and arbitrarily driven systems is presented. It includes the case of driving on timescales comparable to or shorter than the reservoir correlation time, a notoriously difficult but relevant case in the context of quantum information processing and quantum thermodynamics. A previous stochastic approach is re-formulated for the case of finite reservoir correlation and response times, resulting in a numerical simulation strategy exceeding previous ones by orders of magnitude in efficiency. Although the approach is based on a memory formalism, the dynamical equations propagated in the simulations are time-local. This leaves a wide range of choices in selecting the system to be studied and the numerical method used for propagation. For a series of tests, the dynamics of the spin-boson system is computed in various settings including strong external driving and Landa...
Vladimirov, Igor G
2012-01-01
The paper is concerned with open quantum systems whose Heisenberg dynamics are described by quantum stochastic differential equations driven by external boson fields. The system-field coupling operators are assumed to be quadratic polynomials of the system observables, with the latter satisfying canonical commutation relations. In combination with a cubic system Hamiltonian, this leads to a class of quasilinear quantum stochastic systems which retain algebraic closedness in the evolution of mixed moments of the observables. Although such a system is nonlinear and its quantum state is no longer Gaussian, the dynamics of the moments of any order are amenable to exact analysis, including the computation of their steady-state values. In particular, a generalized criterion is developed for quadratic stability of the quasilinear systems. The results of the paper are applicable to the generation of non-Gaussian quantum states with manageable moments and an optimal design of linear quantum controllers for quasilinear...
Extending scientific computing system with structural quantum programming capabilities
Gawron, P.; Klamka, J.; Miszczak, J. A.; Winiarczyk, R.
2010-01-01
We present a basic high-level structures used for developing quantum programming languages. The presented structures are commonly used in many existing quantum programming languages and we use quantum pseudo-code based on QCL quantum programming language to describe them. We also present the implementation of introduced structures in GNU Octave language for scientific computing. Procedures used in the implementation are available as a package quantum-octave, providing a library of functions, ...
Temperature of a small quantum system as an internal property
Wang, Jiaozi; Wang, Wenge
Equilibration of small quantum systems is a topic of current interest both theoretically and experimentally. In this work, we study the extent to which a temperature can be assigned to a small quantum (chaotic) system as an internal property, but not as a property of any large environment. Specifically, we study a total system, which is composed of an Ising chain in a nonhomogeneous transverse field and an additional spin coupled to one of the spins in the chain. The additional spin can be used as a probe to detect local temperature of the chain. The total system lies in a pure state under unitary evolution and initial state of the chain is prepared in a typical state within an energy shell. Our numerical simulations show that the reduced density matrix of the probe spin approaches canonical states with similar temperatures at different locations of the chain beyond a relaxation time, and the results are close to the theoretical prediction given by the statistical mechanics in the thermodynamic limit, namely β =∂lnρ/(E) ∂E with ρ (E) being the density of states. We also study effects due to finite size of the chain, including the dependence on initial state of the probe and difference of numerically-obtain temperature from theoretical results.
Hocker, David Lance
The control of quantum systems occurs across a broad range of length and energy scales in modern science, and efforts have demonstrated that locating suitable controls to perform a range of objectives has been widely successful. The justification for this success arises from a favorable topology of a quantum control landscape, defined as a mapping of the controls to a cost function measuring the success of the operation. This is summarized in the landscape principle that no suboptimal extrema exist on the landscape for well-suited control problems, explaining a trend of successful optimizations in both theory and experiment. This dissertation explores what additional lessons may be gleaned from the quantum control landscape through numerical and theoretical studies. The first topic examines the experimentally relevant problem of assessing and reducing disturbances due to noise. The local curvature of the landscape is found to play an important role on noise effects in the control of targeted quantum unitary operations, and provides a conceptual framework for assessing robustness to noise. Software for assessing noise effects in quantum computing architectures was also developed and applied to survey the performance of current quantum control techniques for quantum computing. A lack of competition between robustness and perfect unitary control operation was discovered to fundamentally limit noise effects, and highlights a renewed focus upon system engineering for reducing noise. This convergent behavior generally arises for any secondary objective in the situation of high primary objective fidelity. The other dissertation topic examines the utility of quantum control for a class of nonlinear Hamiltonians not previously considered under the landscape principle. Nonlinear Schrodinger equations are commonly used to model the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), one of the largest known quantum objects. Optimizations of BEC dynamics were performed in which the
Milburn, T J; Vanner, M R
2016-01-01
Non-classical state generation is an important component throughout experimental quantum science for quantum information applications and probing the fundamentals of physics. Here, we investigate permutations of quantum measurements of discrete and continuous degrees-of-freedom to prepare quantum superposition states in bosonic systems. Our approach is ideally suited for implementation in light-matter systems such as quantum optomechanics and atomic spin ensembles, and offers considerable robustness to initial thermal occupation. The performance of each measurement permutation is quantified and compared using several different non-classicality criteria.
Correlations of the Time Dependent Signal and the State of a Continuously Monitored Quantum System
Foroozani, N.; Naghiloo, M.; Tan, D.; Mølmer, K.; Murch, K. W.
2016-03-01
In quantum physics, measurements give random results and yield a corresponding random backaction on the state of the system subject to measurement. If a quantum system is probed continuously over time, its state evolves along a stochastic quantum trajectory. To investigate the characteristic properties of such dynamics, we perform weak continuous measurements on a superconducting qubit that is driven to undergo Rabi oscillations. From the data we observe a number of striking temporal correlations within the time dependent signals and the quantum trajectories of the qubit, and we discuss their explanation in terms of quantum measurement and photodetection theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on magneto-optical studies of strongly coupled quantum dot - micropillar cavity systems. Laterally extended In0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots (QDs) in the active layer of a micropillar cavity facilitate the observation of strong coupling. These QDs are characterized by large oscillator strength and they exhibit a large diamagnetic response, which is exploited to demonstrate magneto-optical resonance tuning. In addition, the coherent interaction between spin resolved states of the QDs and microcavity photon modes is studied. We access the spin degree of freedom by applying a non-zero magnetic field in Faraday configuration, so that the spin degeneracy of the QD exciton is lifted, while the resonance tuning of the Zeeman split exciton lines is achieved by temperature variation. A detailed oscillator model is used to extract coupling parameters of the individual spin and cavity modes. Our results demonstrate an effective coupling between photon modes that is mediated by the exciton spin states. We further show simulations of the photon-photon coupling in dependence of the coupling parameters.
Information dynamics and open systems classical and quantum approach
Ingarden, R S; Ohya, M
1997-01-01
This book aims to present an information-theoretical approach to thermodynamics and its generalisations On the one hand, it generalises the concept of `information thermodynamics' to that of `information dynamics' in order to stress applications outside thermal phenomena On the other hand, it is a synthesis of the dynamics of state change and the theory of complexity, which provide a common framework to treat both physical and nonphysical systems together Both classical and quantum systems are discussed, and two appendices are included to explain principal definitions and some important aspects of the theory of Hilbert spaces and operator algebras The concept of higher-order temperatures is explained and applied to biological and linguistic systems The theory of open systems is presented in a new, much more general form Audience This volume is intended mainly for theoretical and mathematical physicists, but also for mathematicians, experimental physicists, physical chemists, theoretical biologists, communicat...
Periodically driven ergodic and many-body localized quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems whose Hamiltonian is switched between two different operators periodically in time. The eigenvalue problem of the associated Floquet operator maps onto an effective hopping problem. Using the effective model, we establish conditions on the spectral properties of the two Hamiltonians for the system to localize in energy space. We find that ergodic systems always delocalize in energy space and heat up to infinite temperature, for both local and global driving. In contrast, many-body localized systems with quenched disorder remain localized at finite energy. We support our conclusions by numerical simulations of disordered spin chains. We argue that our results hold for general driving protocols, and discuss their experimental implications
Periodically driven ergodic and many-body localized quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponte, Pedro [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Chandran, Anushya [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Papić, Z., E-mail: zpapic@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Abanin, Dmitry A. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2015-02-15
We study dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems whose Hamiltonian is switched between two different operators periodically in time. The eigenvalue problem of the associated Floquet operator maps onto an effective hopping problem. Using the effective model, we establish conditions on the spectral properties of the two Hamiltonians for the system to localize in energy space. We find that ergodic systems always delocalize in energy space and heat up to infinite temperature, for both local and global driving. In contrast, many-body localized systems with quenched disorder remain localized at finite energy. We support our conclusions by numerical simulations of disordered spin chains. We argue that our results hold for general driving protocols, and discuss their experimental implications.
Quantum mechanics of non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems
Tarasov, Vasily
2008-01-01
Quantum Mechanics of Non-Hamiltonian and Dissipative Systems is self-contained and can be used by students without a previous course in modern mathematics and physics. The book describes the modern structure of the theory, and covers the fundamental results of last 15 years. The book has been recommended by Russian Ministry of Education as the textbook for graduate students and has been used for graduate student lectures from 1998 to 2006. Requires no preliminary knowledge of graduate and advanced mathematics Discusses the fundamental results of last 15 years in this theory Suitable for cours
Covariant effective action for a Galilean invariant quantum Hall system
Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.
2016-09-01
We construct effective field theories for gapped quantum Hall systems coupled to background geometries with local Galilean invariance i.e. Bargmann spacetimes. Along with an electromagnetic field, these backgrounds include the effects of curved Galilean spacetimes, including torsion and a gravitational field, allowing us to study charge, energy, stress and mass currents within a unified framework. A shift symmetry specific to single constituent theories constraints the effective action to couple to an effective background gauge field and spin connection that is solved for by a self-consistent equation, providing a manifestly covariant extension of Hoyos and Son's improvement terms to arbitrary order in m.
Polariton dispersion of a quantum wire superlattice system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, K. S. Joseph; Revathy, V. [Department of Physics, Arul Anandar College (Autonomous) Karumathur, Madurai – 625514 (India); Amalanathan, M.; Lenin, S. Maria, E-mail: nathan.amalphysics@gmail.com [Department of physics, Annai Velankanni College, Tholayavattam. Kanyakumari District-629157 (India)
2015-06-24
Superlattices have drawn considerable attention in the recent years. In this work, the behaviour of polaritons in a quantum wire superlattice is analysed both at the brillouin zone edge and at centre of the brillouin zone using LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 as an example. The significance of the polariton modes in both the cases are analysed. New modes on the polaritonic gap, where the propagation of electromagnetic wave is forbidden, is obtained in the system as suggested by some recent literature. The effect on nonlinear interactions of phonon polaritons in LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 superlattices is also discussed.
Polariton dispersion of a quantum wire superlattice system
Wilson, K. S. Joseph; Amalanathan, M.; Revathy, V.; Lenin, S. Maria
2015-06-01
Superlattices have drawn considerable attention in the recent years. In this work, the behaviour of polaritons in a quantum wire superlattice is analysed both at the brillouin zone edge and at centre of the brillouin zone using LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 as an example. The significance of the polariton modes in both the cases are analysed. New modes on the polaritonic gap, where the propagation of electromagnetic wave is forbidden, is obtained in the system as suggested by some recent literature. The effect on nonlinear interactions of phonon polaritons in LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 superlattices is also discussed.
Binding energies of indirect excitons in double quantum well systems
Rossokhaty, Alex; Schmult, Stefan; Dietsche, Werner; von Klitzing, Klaus; Kukushkin, Igor
2011-03-01
A prerequisite towards Bose-Einstein condensation is a cold and dense system of bosons. Indirect excitons in double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (DQWs) are believed to be suitable candidates. Indirect excitons are formed in asymmetric DQW structures by mass filtering, a method which does not require external electric fields. The exciton density and the electron-hole balance can be tuned optically. Binding energies are measured by a resonant microwave absorption technique. Our results show that screening of the indirect excitons becomes already relevant at densities as low as ~ 5 × 109 cm-2 and results in their destruction.
Comparison of time optimal control for two level quantum systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shuang Cong; Jie Wen; Xubo Zou
2014-01-01
The time optimal problem for a two level quantum sys-tem is studied. We compare two different control strategies of bang-bang control and the geometric control, respectively, es-pecial y in the case of minimizing the time of steering the state from North Pole to South Pole on the Bloch sphere with bounded control. The time performances are compared for different param-eters by the individual numerical simulation experiments, and the experimental results are analyzed. The results show that the ge-ometric control spends less time than the bang-bang control does.
Modelling of multidimensional quantum systems by the numerical functional integration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lobanov, Yu.Yu.; Zhidkov, E.P. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)); Shahbagian, R.R. (Yerevan Physics Inst., Erevan (USSR))
1990-01-01
The employment of the numerical functional integration for the description of multidimensional systems in quantum and statistical physics is considered. For the multiple functional integrals with respect to Gaussian measures in the full separable metric spaces the new approximation formulas exact on a class of polynomial functionals of a given summary degree are constructed. The use of the formulas is demonstrated on example of computation of the Green function and the ground state energy in multidimensional Calogero model. The comparison of numerical results with the data obtained by the other authors which used the Monte Carlo method combined with iterative algorithms indicates that our formulas provide the higher efficiency of computations.
Conditional control of quantum beats in a cavity QED system
Norris, D G; Orozco, L A; 10.1088/1742-6596/274/1/012143
2011-01-01
We probe a ground-state superposition that produces a quantum beat in the intensity correlation of a two-mode cavity QED system. We mix drive with scattered light from an atomic beam traversing the cavity, and effectively measure the interference between the drive and the light from the atom. When a photon escapes the cavity, and upon detection, it triggers our feedback which modulates the drive at the same beat frequency but opposite phase for a given time window. This results in a partial interruption of the beat oscillation in the correlation function, that then returns to oscillate.
Probing quantum many-body dynamics in nuclear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum many-body nuclear dynamics is treated at the mean-field level with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. Low-lying and high-lying nuclear vibrations are studied using the linear response theory. The fusion mechanism is also described for light and heavy systems. The latter exhibit fusion hindrance due to quasi-fission. Typical characteristics of quasi-fission, such as contact time and partial symmetrisation of the fragments mass in the exit channel, are reproduced by TDHF calculations. The (multi-)nucleon transfer at sub-barrier energies is also discussed. (authors)