International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tak, Yu Kyung; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Min Jung; Han, Eunyoung; Han, Myun Soo; Kim, Jong Jin; Kim, Wook; Lee, Jong Eun; Song, Joon Myong
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Genomic DNA quantification were performed using a quantum dot-labeled Alu sequence. ► This probe provided PCR-free determination of human genomic DNA. ► Qdot-labeled Alu probe-hybridized genomic DNAs had a 2.5-femtogram detection limit. ► Qdot-labeled Alu sequence was used to assess DNA samples for human identification. - Abstract: Forensic DNA samples can degrade easily due to exposure to light and moisture at the crime scene. In addition, the amount of DNA acquired at a criminal site is inherently limited. This limited amount of human DNA has to be quantified accurately after the process of DNA extraction. The accurately quantified extracted genomic DNA is then used as a DNA template in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for short tandem repeat (STR) human identification. Accordingly, highly sensitive and human-specific quantification of forensic DNA samples is an essential issue in forensic study. In this work, a quantum dot (Qdot)-labeled Alu sequence was developed as a probe to simultaneously satisfy both the high sensitivity and human genome selectivity for quantification of forensic DNA samples. This probe provided PCR-free determination of human genomic DNA and had a 2.5-femtogram detection limit due to the strong emission and photostability of the Qdot. The Qdot-labeled Alu sequence has been used successfully to assess 18 different forensic DNA samples for STR human identification.
Multiple exciton generation in quantum dot-based solar cells
Goodwin, Heather; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Davis, Nathaniel J. L. K.; Böhm, Marcus L.
2018-01-01
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum-confined semiconductors is the process by which multiple bound charge-carrier pairs are generated after absorption of a single high-energy photon. Such charge-carrier multiplication effects have been highlighted as particularly beneficial for solar cells where they have the potential to increase the photocurrent significantly. Indeed, recent research efforts have proved that more than one charge-carrier pair per incident solar photon can be extracted in photovoltaic devices incorporating quantum-confined semiconductors. While these proof-of-concept applications underline the potential of MEG in solar cells, the impact of the carrier multiplication effect on the device performance remains rather low. This review covers recent advancements in the understanding and application of MEG as a photocurrent-enhancing mechanism in quantum dot-based photovoltaics.
Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghrera, Aditya Sharma [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); School of Engineering and Technology, ITM University, Gurgaon-122017 (India); Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Malhotra, Bansi Dhar, E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110042 (India)
2015-05-11
We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10{sup −15} M to 10{sup −11} M.
Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection
Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar
2015-05-01
We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic-based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10-15 M to 10-11 M.
Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar
2015-01-01
We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10 −15 M to 10 −11 M
Electron-longitudinal-acoustic-phonon scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Peiji; Woolard, Dwight L.
2008-01-01
We propose a nanostructure design which can significantly suppress longitudinal-acoustic-phonon-electron scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates for quantum computing. The calculated relaxation rates vs. bias voltage exhibit a double-peak feature with a minimum approaching 10 5 s -1 . In this matter, the energy conservation law prohibits scattering contributions from phonons with large momenta; furthermore, increasing the barrier height between the double quantum dots reduces coupling strength between the dots. Hence, the joint action of the energy conservation law and the decoupling greatly reduces the scattering rates. The degrading effects of temperatures can be reduced simply by increasing the height of the barrier between the dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorke, Michael; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper
2011-01-01
A microscopic theory is used to study the dynamical properties of semiconductor quantum dot based nanocavity laser systems. The carrier kinetics and photon populations are determined using a fully quantum mechanical treatment of the light‐matter coupling. In this work, we investigate the dependency...... of the modulation response in such devices on the number of emitters coupled to the cavity mode. (© 2011 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...
Quantum-dot based nanothermometry in optical plasmonic recording media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maestro, Laura Martinez; Zhang, Qiming; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min; Jaque, Daniel
2014-01-01
We report on the direct experimental determination of the temperature increment caused by laser irradiation in a optical recording media constituted by a polymeric film in which gold nanorods have been incorporated. The incorporation of CdSe quantum dots in the recording media allowed for single beam thermal reading of the on-focus temperature from a simple analysis of the two-photon excited fluorescence of quantum dots. Experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations revealing an excellent agreement and opening a promising avenue for further understanding and optimization of optical writing processes and media
Quantum Dot-based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Zhou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are novel light emitting semiconductor nanocrystals with diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. In comparison with traditional organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs possess unique optical properties including extremely high fluorescence efficiency and minimal photobleaching which make them emerge as a new class of fluorescent labels for molecular imaging and biomedical analysis. Herein, recent advances in fundamental mechanisms and pathological applications of QD were reviewed.
Quantum Dots Based Rad-Hard Computing and Sensors
Fijany, A.; Klimeck, G.; Leon, R.; Qiu, Y.; Toomarian, N.
2001-01-01
Quantum Dots (QDs) are solid-state structures made of semiconductors or metals that confine a small number of electrons into a small space. The confinement of electrons is achieved by the placement of some insulating material(s) around a central, well-conducting region. Thus, they can be viewed as artificial atoms. They therefore represent the ultimate limit of the semiconductor device scaling. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Thermoelectric properties of an interacting quantum dot based heat engine
Erdman, Paolo Andrea; Mazza, Francesco; Bosisio, Riccardo; Benenti, Giuliano; Fazio, Rosario; Taddei, Fabio
2017-06-01
We study the thermoelectric properties and heat-to-work conversion performance of an interacting, multilevel quantum dot (QD) weakly coupled to electronic reservoirs. We focus on the sequential tunneling regime. The dynamics of the charge in the QD is studied by means of master equations for the probabilities of occupation. From here we compute the charge and heat currents in the linear response regime. Assuming a generic multiterminal setup, and for low temperatures (quantum limit), we obtain analytical expressions for the transport coefficients which account for the interplay between interactions (charging energy) and level quantization. In the case of systems with two and three terminals we derive formulas for the power factor Q and the figure of merit Z T for a QD-based heat engine, identifying optimal working conditions which maximize output power and efficiency of heat-to-work conversion. Beyond the linear response we concentrate on the two-terminal setup. We first study the thermoelectric nonlinear coefficients assessing the consequences of large temperature and voltage biases, focusing on the breakdown of the Onsager reciprocal relation between thermopower and Peltier coefficient. We then investigate the conditions which optimize the performance of a heat engine, finding that in the quantum limit output power and efficiency at maximum power can almost be simultaneously maximized by choosing appropriate values of electrochemical potential and bias voltage. At last we study how energy level degeneracy can increase the output power.
Preparation of carbon quantum dots based high photostability luminescent membranes.
Zhao, Jinxing; Liu, Cui; Li, Yunchuan; Liang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jiyan; Qian, Tonghui; Ding, Jianjun; Cao, Yuan-Cheng
2017-06-01
Urethane acrylate (UA) was used to prepare carbon quantum dots (C-dots) luminescent membranes and the resultants were examined with FT-IR, mechanical strength, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and quantum yields (QYs). FT-IR results showed the polyurethane acrylate (PUA) prepolymer -C = C-vibration at 1101 cm -1 disappeared but there was strong vibration at1687cm -1 which was contributed from the-C = O groups in cross-linking PUA. Mechanical strength results showed that the different quantity of C-dots loadings and UV-curing time affect the strength. SEM observations on the cross-sections of the membranes are uniform and have no structural defects, which prove that the C-dots are compatible with the water-soluble PUA resin. The C-dot loading was increased from 0 to 1 g, the maximum tensile stress was nearly 2.67 MPa, but the tensile strain was decreased from 23.4% to 15.1% and 7.2% respectively. QYs results showed that the C-dots in the membrane were stable after 120 h continuous irradiation. Therefore, the C-dots photoluminescent film is the promising material for the flexible devices in the future applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
InN Quantum Dot Based Infra-Red Photodetectors.
Shetty, Arjun; Kumar, Mahesh; Roull, Basanta; Vinoy, K J; Krupanidhj, S B
2016-01-01
Self-assembled InN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on Si(111) substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Single-crystalline wurtzite structure of InN QDs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The dot densities were varied by varying the indium flux. Variation of dot density was confirmed by FESEM images. Interdigitated electrodes were fabricated using standard lithog- raphy steps to form metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector devices. The devices show strong infrared response. It was found that the samples with higher density of InN QDs showed lower dark current and higher photo current. An explanation was provided for the observations and the experimental results were validated using Silvaco Atlas device simulator.
A Novel Quantum Dots-Based Point of Care Test for Syphilis
Yang, Hao; Li, Ding; He, Rong; Guo, Qin; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Xueqing; Huang, Peng; Cui, Daxiang
2010-05-01
One-step lateral flow test is recommended as the first line screening of syphilis for primary healthcare settings in developing countries. However, it generally shows low sensitivity. We describe here the development of a novel fluorescent POC (Point Of Care) test method to be used for screening for syphilis. The method was designed to combine the rapidness of lateral flow test and sensitiveness of fluorescent method. 50 syphilis-positive specimens and 50 healthy specimens conformed by Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) were tested with Quantum Dot-labeled and colloidal gold-labeled lateral flow test strips, respectively. The results showed that both sensitivity and specificity of the quantum dots-based method reached up to 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91-100%), while those of the colloidal gold-based method were 82% (95% CI, 68-91%) and 100% (95% CI, 91-100%), respectively. In addition, the naked-eye detection limit of quantum dot-based method could achieve 2 ng/ml of anti-TP47 polyclonal antibodies purified by affinity chromatography with TP47 antigen, which was tenfold higher than that of colloidal gold-based method. In conclusion, the quantum dots were found to be suitable for labels of lateral flow test strip. Its ease of use, sensitiveness and low cost make it well-suited for population-based on-the-site syphilis screening.
Pump dependence of the dynamics of quantum dot based waveguide absorbers
Viktorov, Evgeny A.; Erneux, Thomas; Piwonski, Tomasz; Pulka, Jaroslaw; Huyet, Guillaume; Houlihan, John
2012-06-01
The nonlinear two stage recovery of quantum dot based reverse-biased waveguide absorbers is investigated experimentally and analytically as a function of the initial ground state occupation probability of the dot. The latter is controlled experimentally by the pump pulse power. The slow stage of the recovery is exponential and its basic timescale is independent of pump power. The fast stage of the recovery is a logistic function which we analyze in detail. The relative strength of slow to fast components is highlighted and the importance of higher order absorption processes at the highest pump level is demonstrated.
Harnessing Sun’s Energy with Quantum Dots Based Next Generation Solar Cell
Halim, Mohammad A.
2012-01-01
Our energy consumption relies heavily on the three components of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) and nearly 83% of our current energy is consumed from those sources. The use of fossil fuels, however, has been viewed as a major environmental threat because of their substantial contribution to greenhouse gases which are responsible for increasing the global average temperature. Last four decades, scientists have been searching for alternative sources of energy which need to be environmentally clean, efficient, cost-effective, renewable, and sustainable. One of the promising sustainable sources of energy can be achieved by harnessing sun energy through silicon wafer, organic polymer, inorganic dye, and quantum dots based solar cells. Among them, quantum dots have an exceptional property in that they can excite multiple electrons using only one photon. These dots can easily be synthesized, processed in solution, and incorporated into solar cell application. Interestingly, the quantum dots solar cells can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit; however, it is a great challenge for other solar cell materials to exceed the limit. Theoretically, the quantum dots solar cell can boost the power conversion efficiency up to 66% and even higher to 80%. Moreover, in changing the size of the quantum dots one can utilize the Sun’s broad spectrum of visible and infrared ranges. This review briefly overviews the present performance of different materials-based solar cells including silicon wafer, dye-sensitized, and organic solar cells. In addition, recent advances of the quantum dots based solar cells which utilize cadmium sulfide/selenide, lead sulfide/selenide, and new carbon dots as light harvesting materials has been reviewed. A future outlook is sketched as to how one could improve the efficiency up to 10% from the current highest efficiency of 6.6%. PMID:28348320
Harnessing Sun's Energy with Quantum Dots Based Next Generation Solar Cell.
Halim, Mohammad A
2012-12-27
Our energy consumption relies heavily on the three components of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) and nearly 83% of our current energy is consumed from those sources. The use of fossil fuels, however, has been viewed as a major environmental threat because of their substantial contribution to greenhouse gases which are responsible for increasing the global average temperature. Last four decades, scientists have been searching for alternative sources of energy which need to be environmentally clean, efficient, cost-effective, renewable, and sustainable. One of the promising sustainable sources of energy can be achieved by harnessing sun energy through silicon wafer, organic polymer, inorganic dye, and quantum dots based solar cells. Among them, quantum dots have an exceptional property in that they can excite multiple electrons using only one photon. These dots can easily be synthesized, processed in solution, and incorporated into solar cell application. Interestingly, the quantum dots solar cells can exceed the Shockley - Queisser limit; however, it is a great challenge for other solar cell materials to exceed the limit. Theoretically, the quantum dots solar cell can boost the power conversion efficiency up to 66% and even higher to 80%. Moreover, in changing the size of the quantum dots one can utilize the Sun's broad spectrum of visible and infrared ranges. This review briefly overviews the present performance of different materials-based solar cells including silicon wafer, dye-sensitized, and organic solar cells. In addition, recent advances of the quantum dots based solar cells which utilize cadmium sulfide/selenide, lead sulfide/selenide, and new carbon dots as light harvesting materials has been reviewed. A future outlook is sketched as to how one could improve the efficiency up to 10% from the current highest efficiency of 6.6%.
Zhuang, Si-Hui; Guo, Xin-Xin; Wu, Ying-Song; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Yao; Ren, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Tian-Cai
2016-01-01
The unique photoproperties of quantum dots are promising for potential application in bioassays. In the present study, quantum dots were applied to a luminescent oxygen channeling assay. The reaction system developed in this study was based on interaction of biotin with streptavidin. Carboxyl-modified polystyrene microspheres doped with quantum dots were biotinylated and used as acceptors. Photosensitizer-doped carboxyl-modified polystyrene microspheres were conjugated with streptavidin and used as donors. The results indicated that the singlet oxygen that was released from the donor beads diffused into the acceptor beads. The acceptor beads were then exited via thioxene, and were subsequently fluoresced. To avoid generating false positives, a high concentration (0.01 mg/mL) of quantum dots is required for application in homogeneous immunoassays. Compared to a conventional luminescent oxygen channeling assay, this quantum dots-based technique requires less time, and would be easier to automate and miniaturize because it requires no washing to remove excess labels.
Non-linear effects and thermoelectric efficiency of quantum dot-based single-electron transistors.
Talbo, Vincent; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Retailleau, Sylvie; Dollfus, Philippe
2017-11-01
By means of advanced numerical simulation, the thermoelectric properties of a Si-quantum dot-based single-electron transistor operating in sequential tunneling regime are investigated in terms of figure of merit, efficiency and power. By taking into account the phonon-induced collisional broadening of energy levels in the quantum dot, both heat and electrical currents are computed in a voltage range beyond the linear response. Using our homemade code consisting in a 3D Poisson-Schrödinger solver and the resolution of the Master equation, the Seebeck coefficient at low bias voltage appears to be material independent and nearly independent on the level broadening, which makes this device promising for metrology applications as a nanoscale standard of Seebeck coefficient. Besides, at higher voltage bias, the non-linear characteristics of the heat current are shown to be related to the multi-level effects. Finally, when considering only the electronic contribution to the thermal conductance, the single-electron transistor operating in generator regime is shown to exhibit very good efficiency at maximum power.
Quantum-Dot-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Detection of Neonicotinoid Residues in Tea Leaves.
Wang, Shuangjie; Liu, Ying; Jiao, Shasha; Zhao, Ying; Guo, Yirong; Wang, Mengcen; Zhu, Guonian
2017-11-22
Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used for pest control on tea plantations as a result of their broad-spectrum activity. However, neonicotinoid residues released from tea leaves into tea infusions pose a dietary risk to consumers. Therefore, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable on-site detection method for neonicotinoids is needed. We developed a quantum-dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (LFICS) combined with a broad-specific antibody for detection of typical neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, and clothianidin), with sensitivities [50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 )] of 0.104-0.33 ng/mL and visual detection limits of 0.5-1 ng/mL. The strip assay could be completed in less than 30 min. Using the LFICS to analyze spiked tea samples (green tea, black tea, and oolong tea), the average recovery of the three neonicotinoids ranged between 71 and 111%, with the coefficient of variation below 12%. The results from the LFICS tests for field samples were consistent with results from ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The newly developed strip is a useful tool for the on-site detection of neonicotinoid residues in tea.
Quantum dot-based molecular beacon to monitor intracellular microRNAs.
Lee, Jonghwan; Moon, Sung Ung; Lee, Yong Seung; Ali, Bahy A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ali, Daoud; Ahmed, Javed; Al Salem, Abdullah M; Kim, Soonhag
2015-06-02
Fluorescence monitoring of endogenous microRNA (miRNA or miR) activity related to neuronal development using nano-sized materials provides crucial information on miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this study, we report a new method to monitor intracellular miRNA124a using quantum dot-based molecular beacon (R9-QD-miR124a beacon). The R9-QD-miR124a beacon was constructed using QDs and two probes, miR124a-targeting oligomer and arginine rich cell-penetrating peptide (R9 peptide). The miR124a-targeting oligomer contains a miR124a binging sequence and a black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1). In the absence of target miR124a, the R9-QD-miR124a beacon forms a partial duplex beacon and remained in quenched state because the BHQ1 quenches the fluorescence signal of the R9-QD-miR124a beacon. The binding of miR124a to the miR124a binding sequence of the miR124a-targeting oligomer triggered the separation of the BHQ1 quencher and subsequent signal-on of a red fluorescence signal. Moreover, enhanced cellular uptake was achieved by conjugation with the R9 peptide, which resulted in increased fluorescent signal of the R9-QD-miR124a beacons in P19 cells during neurogenesis due to the endogenous expression of miR124a.
Quantum Dot-Based Molecular Beacon to Monitor Intracellular MicroRNAs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonghwan Lee
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Fluorescence monitoring of endogenous microRNA (miRNA or miR activity related to neuronal development using nano-sized materials provides crucial information on miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this study, we report a new method to monitor intracellular miRNA124a using quantum dot-based molecular beacon (R9-QD-miR124a beacon. The R9-QD-miR124a beacon was constructed using QDs and two probes, miR124a-targeting oligomer and arginine rich cell-penetrating peptide (R9 peptide. The miR124a-targeting oligomer contains a miR124a binging sequence and a black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1. In the absence of target miR124a, the R9-QD-miR124a beacon forms a partial duplex beacon and remained in quenched state because the BHQ1 quenches the fluorescence signal of the R9-QD-miR124a beacon. The binding of miR124a to the miR124a binding sequence of the miR124a-targeting oligomer triggered the separation of the BHQ1 quencher and subsequent signal-on of a red fluorescence signal. Moreover, enhanced cellular uptake was achieved by conjugation with the R9 peptide, which resulted in increased fluorescent signal of the R9-QD-miR124a beacons in P19 cells during neurogenesis due to the endogenous expression of miR124a.
Paulo, Sofia; Palomares, Emilio; Martinez-Ferrero, Eugenia
2016-01-01
Graphene and carbon quantum dots have extraordinary optical and electrical features because of their quantum confinement properties. This makes them attractive materials for applications in photovoltaic devices (PV). Their versatility has led to their being used as light harvesting materials or selective contacts, either for holes or electrons, in silicon quantum dot, polymer or dye-sensitized solar cells. In this review, we summarize the most common uses of both types of semiconducting materials and highlight the significant advances made in recent years due to the influence that synthetic materials have on final performance. PMID:28335285
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofia Paulo
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Graphene and carbon quantum dots have extraordinary optical and electrical features because of their quantum confinement properties. This makes them attractive materials for applications in photovoltaic devices (PV. Their versatility has led to their being used as light harvesting materials or selective contacts, either for holes or electrons, in silicon quantum dot, polymer or dye-sensitized solar cells. In this review, we summarize the most common uses of both types of semiconducting materials and highlight the significant advances made in recent years due to the influence that synthetic materials have on final performance.
Zinc Cadmium Selenide Cladded Quantum Dot Based Electroluminescent and Nonvolatile Memory Devices
Al-Amody, Fuad H.
This dissertation presents electroluminescent (EL) and nonvolatile memory devices fabricated using pseudomorphic ZnCdSe-based cladded quantum dots (QDs). These dots were grown using our own in-school built novel reactor. The EL device was fabricated on a substrate of ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass with the quantum dots sandwiched between anode and cathode contacts with a small barrier layer on top of the QDs. The importance of these cladded dots is to increase the quantum yield of device. This device is unique as they utilize quantum dots that are pseudomorphic (nearly lattice-matched core and the shell of the dot). In the case of floating quantum dot gate nonvolatile memory, cladded ZnCdSe quantum dots are deposited on single crystalline gate insulator (ZnMgS/ZnMgSe), which is grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The control gate dielectric layer of the nonvolatile memory is Si3N4 or SiO2 and is grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The cladded dots are grown using an improved methodology of photo-assisted microwave plasma metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PMP-MOCVD) enhanced reactor. The cladding composition of the core and shell of the dots was engineered by the help of ultraviolet light which changed the incorporation of zinc (and hence composition of ZnCdSe). This makes ZnxCd1--xSe-ZnyCd1--y Se QDs to have a low composition of zinc in the core than the cladding (x
Manipulating the optical properties of CdSe/ZnSSe quantum dot based monolithic pillar microcavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seyfried, Moritz; Kalden, Joachim; Lohmeyer, Henning; Sebald, Kathrin; Gutowski, Juergen [Semiconductor Optics, Institute of Solid state Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Kruse, Carsten; Hommel, Detlef, E-mail: Seyfried@ifp.uni-bremen.d [Semiconductor Epitaxy, Institute of Solid state Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)
2010-02-01
A customization of the optical properties of pillar microcavities on the desired applications is essential for their future use as quantum-optical devices. Therefore, all-epitaxial cavities with CdSe quantum dot embedded in pillar structures with different geometries have been realized by focused-ion-beam etching. The quality factors of circularly shaped pillar microcavities have been measured and their dependence on the excitation power is discussed. As a possibility to achieve polarized light emission, asymmetrically shaped microcavities are presented. Examples of an elliptically shaped pillar as well as of photonic molecules are investigated with respect to their photoluminescence characteristics and polarization.
Physics and engineering of compact quantum dot-based lasers for biophotonics
Rafailov, Edik U
2013-01-01
Written by a team of European experts in the field, this book addresses the physics, the principles, the engineering methods, and the latest developments of efficient and compact ultrafast lasers based on novel quantum-dot structures and devices, as well as their applications in biophotonics. Recommended reading for physicists, engineers, students and lecturers in the fields of photonics, optics, laser physics, optoelectronics, and biophotonics.
Quantum dot-based molecular imaging of cancer cell growth using a clone formation assay.
Geng, Xia-Fei; Fang, Min; Liu, Shao-Ping; Li, Yan
2016-10-01
This aim of the present study was to investigate clonal growth behavior and analyze the proliferation characteristics of cancer cells. The MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line, SW480 human colon cancer cell line and SGC7901 human gastric cancer cell line were selected to investigate the morphology of cell clones. Quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques (which stained pan‑cytokeratin in the cytoplasm green and Ki67 in the cell nucleus yellow or red) were used to investigate the clone formation rate, cell morphology, discrete tendency, and Ki67 expression and distribution in clones. From the cell clone formation assay, the MCF‑7, SW480 and SGC7901 cells were observed to form clones on days 6, 8 and 12 of cell culture, respectively. These three types of cells had heterogeneous morphology, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios, and conspicuous pathological mitotic features. The cells at the clone periphery formed multiple pseudopodium. In certain clones, cancer cells at the borderline were separated from the central cell clusters or presented a discrete tendency. With quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques, cells with strong Ki67 expression were predominantly shown to be distributed at the clone periphery, or concentrated on one side of the clones. In conclusion, cancer cell clones showed asymmetric growth behavior, and Ki67 was widely expressed in clones of these three cell lines, with strong expression around the clones, or aggregated at one side. Cell clone formation assay based on quantum dots molecular imaging offered a novel method to study the proliferative features of cancer cells, thus providing a further insight into tumor biology.
Fluorescent blood glucose monitor by hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots based sensing system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Yuezhen; Wang, Xiaoxun; Sun, Jian; Jiao, Shoufeng; Chen, Hongqi; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lun, E-mail: wanglun@mail.ahnu.edu.cn
2014-01-31
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Hemin is assembled onto the surfaces of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). •With the aid of hemin, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} could quench the FL signal of GQDs obviously. •Based on this effect, a fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. •The proposed method provides a new pathway to explore practical application of GQDs. -- Abstract: In the present work, a highly sensitive and specific fluorescent biosensor for blood glucose monitoring is developed based on hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and glucose oxidase (GOx) system. The GQDs which are simply prepared by pyrolyzing citric acid exhibit strong fluorescence and good water-solubility. Due to the noncovalent assembly between hemin and GQDs, the addition of hemin can make hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to destroy the passivated surface of GQDs, leading to significant fluorescence quenching of GQDs. Based on this effect, a novel fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of glucose is from 9 to 300 μM, and the limit of detection is 0.1 μM. As unique properties of GQDs, the proposed biosensor is green, simple, cost-efficient, and it is successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human serum. In addition, the proposed method provides a new pathway to further design the biosensors based on the assembly of GQDs with hemin for detection of biomolecules.
Methods for polarized light emission from CdSe quantum dot based monolithic pillar microcavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seyfried, Moritz; Kalden, Joachim; Sebald, Kathrin; Gutowski, Juergen; Kruse, Carsten; Hommel, Detlef [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)
2010-07-01
A lifting of the polarization degeneracy of the fundamental cavity mode in pillar microcavities (MCs) would allow for controlling the polarization state of the emitted photons. Therefore, monolithic VCSEL structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy containing either one CdSe/ZnSSe quantum dot layer or three quantum well layers as active material. By using focused-ion-beam etching, MC pillars with different geometries were prepared out of the planar samples. Among these are circularly shaped pillar MCs with diameters in the range from 500 nm up to 4 {mu}m and quality factors of up to 7860, elliptically shaped MCs, and so-called photonic molecules consisting of circular pillar MCs which are connected by small bars. Polarization dependent photoluminescence investigations of the fundamental cavity mode reveal a lifting of the polarization degeneracy for all three types of MCs. The energy splitting of up to 0.42 meV in the circularly shaped pillar MCs is probably caused by anisotropic strain conditions within the sample and directly dependent on the pillar diameter, whereas the larger energy splitting of up to 0.72 meV for the photonic molecules or even 4.5 meV for the elliptically shaped MC is based on their asymmetric cross sections.
Quantum-Dot-Based Solar Cells: Recent Advances, Strategies, and Challenges.
Kim, Mee Rahn; Ma, Dongling
2015-01-02
Among next-generation photovoltaic systems requiring low cost and high efficiency, quantum dot (QD)-based solar cells stand out as a very promising candidate because of the unique and versatile characteristics of QDs. The past decade has already seen rapid conceptual and technological advances on various aspects of QD solar cells, and diverse opportunities, which QDs can offer, predict that there is still ample room for further development and breakthroughs. In this Perspective, we first review the attractive advantages of QDs, such as size-tunable band gaps and multiple exciton generation (MEG), beneficial to solar cell applications. We then analyze major strategies, which have been extensively explored and have largely contributed to the most recent and significant achievements in QD solar cells. Finally, their high potential and challenges are discussed. In particular, QD solar cells are considered to hold immense potential to overcome the theoretical efficiency limit of 31% for single-junction cells.
Quantum dot based probing of mannitol: An implication in clinical diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Debasmita; Ghosh, Srabanti [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Saha, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit@alpha.iuc.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)
2010-08-24
We demonstrate that mannitol, an important diuretic, can be determined with cysteine-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs) using optical spectroscopy. Unique luminescence enhancement of QDs was observed on interaction with mannitol. The binding between QDs and mannitol was monitored by UV-vis, Fourier transform infra-red and Raman spectroscopy. The binding constant was determined following the Langmuir binding isotherm. A quantitative correlation between mannitol concentration and PL enhancement of CdS QDs has been established. We also observed that possible interfering agents, such as, urea, uric acid, creatinine, some metal ions, glucose, sorbitol or sucrose had no significant effect on luminescence of CdS QDs. The proposed strategy can be a very fast, simple and potential tool for the monitoring of diuretics and assaying intestinal permeability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun-Wei Peng
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular and in vivo molecular imaging. More and more researches showed that QDs-based technology may become a promising approach in cancer research. In this review, we focus on recent application of QDs in cancer diagnosis and treatment, including early detection of primary tumor such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer, as well as regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. With the development of QDs synthesis and modification, the effect of QDs on tumor metastasis investigation will become more and more important in the future.
Onoshima, Daisuke; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Yoshinobu
2015-12-01
A field of recent diagnostics and therapeutics has been advanced with quantum dots (QDs). QDs have developed into new formats of biomolecular sensing to push the limits of detection in biology and medicine. QDs can be also utilized as bio-probes or labels for biological imaging of living cells and tissues. More recently, QDs has been demonstrated to construct a multifunctional nanoplatform, where the QDs serve not only as an imaging agent, but also a nanoscaffold for diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. This review highlights the promising applications of multi-functionalized QDs as advanced nanosensors for diagnosing cancer and as innovative fluorescence probes for in vitro or in vivo stem cell imaging in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Design, Implementation and Characterization of a Quantum-Dot-Based Volumetric Display
Hirayama, Ryuji; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Tate, Naoya; Shiraki, Atsushi; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2015-02-01
In this study, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a volumetric display system based on quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a polymer substrate. Unlike conventional volumetric displays, our system does not require electrical wiring; thus, the heretofore unavoidable issue of occlusion is resolved because irradiation by external light supplies the energy to the light-emitting voxels formed by the QDs. By exploiting the intrinsic attributes of the QDs, the system offers ultrahigh definition and a wide range of colours for volumetric displays. In this paper, we discuss the design, implementation and characterization of the proposed volumetric display's first prototype. We developed an 8 × 8 × 8 display comprising two types of QDs. This display provides multicolour three-type two-dimensional patterns when viewed from different angles. The QD-based volumetric display provides a new way to represent images and could be applied in leisure and advertising industries, among others.
3 ns single-shot read-out in a quantum dot-based memory structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowozin, T.; Bimberg, D.; Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.
2014-01-01
Fast read-out of two to six charges per dot from the ground and first excited state in a quantum dot (QD)-based memory is demonstrated using a two-dimensional electron gas. Single-shot measurements on modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures with embedded InAs/GaAs QDs show read-out times as short as 3 ns. At low temperature (T = 4.2 K) this read-out time is still limited by the parasitics of the setup and the device structure. Faster read-out times and a larger read-out signal are expected for an improved setup and device structure
A Colloidal-Quantum-Dot-Based Self-Charging System via the Near-Infrared Band.
Baek, Se-Woong; Cho, Jungmin; Kim, Joo-Seong; Kim, Changjo; Na, Kwangmin; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jun, Sunhong; Song, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Sohee; Choi, Jang Wook; Lee, Jung-Yong
2018-05-11
A novel self-charging platform is proposed using colloidal-quantum-dot (CQD) photovoltaics (PVs) via the near-infrared (NIR) band for low-power electronics. Low-bandgap CQDs can convert invisible NIR light sources to electrical energy more efficiently than wider spectra because of reduced thermalization loss. This energy-conversion strategy via NIR photons ensures an enhanced photostability of the CQD devices. Furthermore, the NIR wireless charging system can be concealed using various colored and NIR-transparent fabric or films, providing aesthetic freedom. Finally, an NIR-driven wireless charging system is demonstrated for a wearable healthcare bracelet by integrating a CQD PVs receiver with a flexible lithium-ion battery and entirely embedding them into a flexible strap, enabling permanent self-charging without detachment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
RADIATION PERFORMANCE OF GAN AND INAS/GAAS QUANTUM DOT BASED DEVICES SUBJECTED TO NEUTRON RADIATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In addition to their useful optoelectronics functions, gallium nitride (GaN and quantum dots (QDs based structures are also known for their radiation hardness properties. With demands on such semiconductor material structures, it is important to investigate the differences in reliability and radiation hardness properties of these two devices. For this purpose, three sets of GaN light-emitting diode (LED and InAs/GaAs dot-in-a well (DWELL samples were irradiated with thermal neutron of fluence ranging from 3×1013 to 6×1014 neutron/cm2 in PUSPATI TRIGA research reactor. The radiation performances for each device were evaluated based on the current-voltage (I-V and capacitance-voltage (C-V electrical characterisation method. Results suggested that the GaN based sample is less susceptible to electrical changes due to the thermal neutron radiation effects compared to the QD based sample.
Highly efficient quantum dot-based photoconductive THz materials and devices
Rafailov, E. U.; Leyman, R.; Carnegie, D.; Bazieva, N.
2013-09-01
We demonstrate Terahertz (THz) signal sources based on photoconductive (PC) antenna devices comprising active layers of InAs semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs. Antenna structures comprised of multiple active layers of InAs:GaAs PC materials are optically pumped using ultrashort pulses generated by a Ti:Sapphire laser and CW dualwavelength laser diodes. We also characterised THz output signals using a two-antenna coherent detection system. We discuss preliminary performance data from such InAs:GaAs THz devices which exhibit efficient emission of both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) THz signals and significant optical-to-THz conversion at both absorption wavelength ranges, <=850 nm and <=1300 nm.
ZnSe quantum dots based fluorescence quenching method for determination of paeoniflorin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Zhi [Center of Analysis, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808 (China); School of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Jiayi; Liang, Qiaowen [School of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu, Dudu [Center of Analysis, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808 (China); Zeng, Yuaner, E-mail: zengyuaner@126.com [School of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jiang, Bin, E-mail: gzjiangbin@hotmail.com [School of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2014-01-15
Water soluble ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) modified by mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) were used to determinate paeoniflorin in aqueous solutions by the fluorescence spectroscopic technique. The results showed that the fluorescence of the modified ZnSe QDs could be quenched by paeoniflorin effectively in physiological buffer solution. The optimum fluorescence intensity was found to be at incubation time 10 min, pH 7.0 and temperature 25 °C. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of paeoniflorin was 7.30×10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}. Moreover, the quenching mechanism was discussed to be a static quenching procedure, which was proved by quenching rate constant K{sub q} (1.02×10{sup 13} L mol{sup −1} s{sup −1}). -- Highlights: • The fluorescence intensity of ZnSe QDs could be quenched by paeoniflorin. • Foreign substance showed insignificant effect for determination of paeoniflorin. • The quenching mechanism was discussed to be a static quenching procedure.
Yan, Xu; Li, Hongxia; Han, Xiaosong; Su, Xingguang
2015-12-15
In this work, we develop a novel and sensitive sensor for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides based on the inner-filter effect (IFE) between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and ratiometric fluorescent quantum dots (RF-QDs). The RF-QDs has been designed by hybridizing two differently colored CdTe QDs, in which the red emissive QDs entrapped in the silica sphere acting as the reference signal, and the green emissive QDs covalently attached on the silica surface serving as the response signal.The fluorescence of RF-QDs could be quenched by AuNPs based on IFE. Protamine could effectively turn on the fluorescence due to the electrostatic attraction between protamine and AuNPs. Trypsin can easily hydrolyze protamine, leading to the quench of the fluorescence. Then, the fluorescence could be recovered again by the addition of parathion-methyl (PM) which could inhibit the activity of trypsin. By measuring the fluorescence of RF-QDs, the inhibition efficiency of PM to trypsin activity was evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, the inhibition efficiency was proportional to the logarithm of PM concentration in the range of 0.04-400 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.018 ng mL(-1). Furthermore, the simple and convenient method had been used for PM detection in environmental and agricultural samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cytotoxicity of cadmium-containing quantum dots based on a study using a microfluidic chip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Xiannuo; Weng Lixing; Tian Jing; Wang Lianhui; Wu Lei; Jin Qinghui; Zhao Jianlong
2012-01-01
There is a lack of reliable nanotoxicity assays available for monitoring and quantifying multiple cellular events in cultured cells. In this study, we used a microfluidic chip to systematically investigate the cytotoxicity of three kinds of well-characterized cadmium-containing quantum dots (QDs) with the same core but different shell structures, including CdTe core QDs, CdTe/CdS core–shell QDs, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core–shell–shell QDs, in HEK293 cells. Using the microfluidic chip combined with fluorescence microscopy, multiple QD-induced cellular events including cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and QD uptake were simultaneously analysed. The three kinds of QDs showed significantly different cytotoxicities. The CdTe QDs, which are highly toxic to HEK293 cells, resulted in remarkable cellular and nuclear morphological changes, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, and strong inhibition of cell proliferation; the CdTe/CdS QDs were moderately toxic but did not significantly affect the proliferation of HEK293 cells; while the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had no detectable influence on cytotoxicity with respect to cell morphology, viability, and proliferation. Our data indicated that QD cytotoxicity was closely related to their surface structures and specific physicochemical properties. This study also demonstrated that the microfluidic chip could serve as a powerful tool to systematically evaluate the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in multiple cellular events. (paper)
Cytotoxicity of cadmium-containing quantum dots based on a study using a microfluidic chip
Zheng, Xiannuo; Tian, Jing; Weng, Lixing; Wu, Lei; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Wang, Lianhui
2012-02-01
There is a lack of reliable nanotoxicity assays available for monitoring and quantifying multiple cellular events in cultured cells. In this study, we used a microfluidic chip to systematically investigate the cytotoxicity of three kinds of well-characterized cadmium-containing quantum dots (QDs) with the same core but different shell structures, including CdTe core QDs, CdTe/CdS core-shell QDs, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs, in HEK293 cells. Using the microfluidic chip combined with fluorescence microscopy, multiple QD-induced cellular events including cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and QD uptake were simultaneously analysed. The three kinds of QDs showed significantly different cytotoxicities. The CdTe QDs, which are highly toxic to HEK293 cells, resulted in remarkable cellular and nuclear morphological changes, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, and strong inhibition of cell proliferation; the CdTe/CdS QDs were moderately toxic but did not significantly affect the proliferation of HEK293 cells; while the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had no detectable influence on cytotoxicity with respect to cell morphology, viability, and proliferation. Our data indicated that QD cytotoxicity was closely related to their surface structures and specific physicochemical properties. This study also demonstrated that the microfluidic chip could serve as a powerful tool to systematically evaluate the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in multiple cellular events.
A quantum-dot-based fluoroassay for detection of food-borne pathogens.
Mohamadi, Elaheh; Moghaddasi, Mohammadali; Farahbakhsh, Afshin; Kazemi, Abbass
2017-09-01
Evaluation of the distribution capability of food-borne pathogens existing in food products by taking the advantage of quantum dots (QDs) for their photoluminescence properties was carried out. Bacteria namely Escherichia coli (E. coli) labelled with CdSe-QDs were examined both on an Agar nutrient and ground fish substrates in order to observe their growth rate in different environments in the Lab. A sample with an appropriate concentration ratio 10 7 CFU/mL of bacteria/CdSe-QDs was empirically selected from the samples which were grown on the Agar containing plates. The selected sample was also tested on a ground fish substrate as a real food sample. The bacterial growth was observed under the irradiation of UV light and the growth patterns were investigated for 3 successive days. The growth patterns indicated that E. coli can stay alive and can be distributed on food products so that the growth can be easily monitored. This approach makes bacterial growth on food products detectable so that it can be used as a bacteria-QD assay for an easy detection of food borne pathogens grown on a food sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Development of quantum dots-based biosensor towards on-farm detection of subclinical ketosis.
Weng, Xuan; Chen, Longyan; Neethirajan, Suresh; Duffield, Todd
2015-10-15
Early detection of dairy animal health issues allows the producer or veterinarian to intervene before the animals' production levels, or even survival, is threatened. An increased concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHBA) is a key biomarker for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis (SCK), and provides information on the health stress in cows well before any external symptoms are observable. In this study, quantum dots (QDs) modified with cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) were prepared for the sensing event, by which the βHBA concentration in the cow's blood and milk samples was determined via fluorescence analysis of the functionalized QDs. The detection was performed on a custom designed microfluidic platform combining with a low cost and miniaturized optical sensor. The sensing mechanism was first validated by a microplate reader method and then applied to the microfluidic platform. Standard βHBA solution, βHBA in blood and milk samples from cows were successfully measured by this novel technology with a detection limit at a level of 35 µM. Side by side comparison of the developed microfluidic biosensor with a commercial kit presented its good performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Direct determination of graphene quantum dots based on terbium-sensitized luminescence
Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio J.; Molina-García, Lucía; Durán, Gema M.; Ruiz-Medina, Antonio; Ríos, Ángel
2018-06-01
Graphene quantum dots (GQD) were determined in water samples using terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL). Terbium ions complex with GQD due to the carboxylic groups that are usually present in these nanomaterials, increasing the luminescence signal of terbium. In Tb(III)-GQD complexes, GQD absorb energy at their characteristic excitation wavelength and transfer it to terbium ion, which emits at its particular emission wavelength. The analytical signal, measured at λexc = 257 nm and λem = 545 nm, increases proportionally to GQD concentration between 50 and 500 μg L-1. Under optimum conditions, the proposed method presents a detection limit of 15 μg L-1 and is selective to GQD in the presence of other nanomaterials of similar size. As GQD are highly water-soluble, they are potential contaminants in environmental or drinking waters water samples, and hence the method was applied to the analysis of different drinking waters which were the target samples for the application of the developed method.
ZnSe quantum dots based fluorescence quenching method for determination of paeoniflorin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jiayi; Liang, Qiaowen; Wu, Dudu; Zeng, Yuaner; Jiang, Bin
2014-01-01
Water soluble ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) modified by mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) were used to determinate paeoniflorin in aqueous solutions by the fluorescence spectroscopic technique. The results showed that the fluorescence of the modified ZnSe QDs could be quenched by paeoniflorin effectively in physiological buffer solution. The optimum fluorescence intensity was found to be at incubation time 10 min, pH 7.0 and temperature 25 °C. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of paeoniflorin was 7.30×10 −7 mol L −1 . Moreover, the quenching mechanism was discussed to be a static quenching procedure, which was proved by quenching rate constant K q (1.02×10 13 L mol −1 s −1 ). -- Highlights: • The fluorescence intensity of ZnSe QDs could be quenched by paeoniflorin. • Foreign substance showed insignificant effect for determination of paeoniflorin. • The quenching mechanism was discussed to be a static quenching procedure
Aptamer/quantum dot-based simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple small molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Haixia [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Jiang Bingying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400040 (China); Xiang Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang Yuyong; Chai Yaqin [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)
2011-03-04
A novel strategy for 'signal on' and sensitive one-spot simultaneous detection of multiple small molecular analytes based on electrochemically encoded barcode quantum dot (QD) tags is described. The target analytes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cocaine, respectively, are sandwiched between the corresponding set of surface-immobilized primary binding aptamers and the secondary binding aptamer/QD bioconjugates. The captured QDs yield distinct electrochemical signatures after acid dissolution, whose position and size reflect the identity and level, respectively, of the corresponding target analytes. Due to the inherent amplification feature of the QD labels and the 'signal on' detection scheme, as well as the sensitive monitoring of the metal ions released upon acid dissolution of the QD labels, low detection limits of 30 nM and 50 nM were obtained for ATP and cocaine, respectively, in our assays. Our multi-analyte sensing system also shows high specificity to target analytes and promising applicability to complex sample matrix, which makes the proposed assay protocol an attractive route for screening of small molecules in clinical diagnosis.
Kumar, Sunil; Kang, T. W.; Bala, Suman; Kamboj, Sunil; Jeon, H. C.
2018-04-01
A novel niosomes-based system composed of Hypromellose (HPMC) functionalized fluorescent, biocompatible ZnS:Mn quantum dots (QDs), and anti-HIV drug Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) was designed. An appropriate ratio of surfactant Sorbitan Monostearate (SPAN-60) and cholesterol was used to obtain an optimal entrapment efficiency. Initially, after observing the successful interaction of HPMC with SPAN-60, the noisome formulation including (QDs + drug) and HPMC-coated QDs was synthesized by a wet chemical route and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Selected Electron Diffraction (SAED). Secondly, (QDs + drug) loaded niosome formulations were studied by varying the ratio of SPAN-60 and cholesterol. Multiple studies were done to characterize the shape, size, viscosity, colloidal stability, and entrapment efficiency of (QDs + drug) loaded niosomes. Lastly, pH-dependent (QDs + drug) release profiles were studied by a spectroscopic technique considering the pH of the human gastrointestinal region to obtain the formulation stability of (QDs + drug) release from the niosome vesicles. These studies also include pH-dependent photo-stability measurements based on laser-induced multiphoton excitation technique in the Infrared region. The multiphoton time-resolved studies were completed to avoid the UV induced phototoxicity in the drug delivery modules. Current studies on the formulation of niosomes-based (QDs + drug) system laid a foundation to make a complete phototoxicity free system for tracking controlled drug release and its imaging.
Liu, Yang; Cao, Nan; Gui, Wenying; Ma, Qiang
2018-06-01
In this paper, a test strip-based sensor was developed for thiacloprid quantitative detection based on PDA molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs). Thiacloprid is a new type of nicotine insecticide, which can block the normal neurotransmitter delivery process in insects. In the sensing system, N-GQDs were immersed into filter paper at first. Then, dopamine (DA) with thiacloprid can be self-polymerized on test strip surface to form the uniform PDA film. After removed thiacloprid template, the established poly dopamine (PDA) MIP can selectively recognize thiacloprid. As a result, captured thiacloprid can enhance the fluorescence intensity of N-GQDs into the test strip. As a result, the fluorescence intensity of N-GQDs can be linearly related within a certain range of thiacloprid concentration. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed sensor for thiacloprid detection exhibited a linear ranging from 0.1 mg/L to 10 mg/L with a low detection limit of 0.03 mg/L. The N-GQDs based test strip-based sensor for thiaclopridis reported for the first time. The sensing system has high selectivity to thiacloprid and provides new opportunities in the pesticide detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Write/erase time of nanoseconds in quantum dot based memory structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowozin, Tobias; Marent, Andreas; Geller, Martin; Bimberg, Dieter
2008-01-01
We have developed a novel charge-storage memory concept based on III-V semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) which has a number of fundamental advantages over conventional Si/SiO 2 floating gate memories (Flash): material-tunable and voltage-tunable barriers for improved intrinsic speed and/or storage time and high endurance. To investigate the potential of this new memory concept we have determined intrinsic write/erase times in memory structures based on InAs/GaAs and GaSb/GaAs QDs using capacitance-voltage spectroscopy. We measured a write time below 15 ns independent of the localization energy (i.e. the storage time) of the QDs. This write time is more than three orders of magnitude faster than in a Flash cell and already below the write time of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM). The erase time was determined to be 42 ns for InAs/GaAs QDs and 1.5 ms for GaSb/GaAs QDs for applied electric fields of 166 kV/cm and 206 kV/cm, respectively. From these results we derive an erase time of 1 ns in GaSb QDs for an electric field of 330 kV/cm
The performance of quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes
Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chung, Shu-Ru
2017-08-01
Recently, the investigation of quantum dots (QDs) as a color converter for white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) application has attracted a great deal of attention. Because the narrow emission wavelength of QDs can be controlled by their particle sizes and compositions, which is facilitated to improve the color gamut of display as well as color rendering index (CRI) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of WLEDs. In a typical commercially available LCD display, the color gamut is approximately to 75 % which is defined by the National Television System Committee (NTSC). In order to enhance NTSC, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of color converter should be less than 30 nm. Therefore, the QDs are the best choice for display application due to the FWHM of QDs is meet the demand of display application. In this study, the hot injection method with one-pot process is used to synthesis of colloidal ternary ZnCdSe green (G-) and red-emission (R-) QDs with a narrow emission wavelength around 537 and 610 nm. By controlling the complex reagents-stearic acid (SA) and lauric acid (LA), high performance of G- and R-QDs can be prepared. The quantum yields (QYs), particle sizes and FWHM for G- and R-QDs are 70, 30 %, 3.2 +/- 0.5, 4.1 +/- 0.5 nm and 25, 26 nm, respectively. In order to explore the performance of QDs-based WLEDs, mixing ratios effect between G-QD and R-QD are studied and the WLED is packed as conformal-type. Different ratios of R-QD and G-QD (1:10, 1:20 and 1:30) are mixed and fill up the 3020 SMD blue-InGaN LED, and named as LED-10, LED-20 and LED-30. After that, UV curable gel is deposited on the top of QD layer to form WLED and named as LED-10*, LED-20* and LED-30*. The results show that the Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates, color rendering index (CRI), luminous efficacy of LED-10*, LED-20* and LED-30* are (0.27, 0.21), 53, 1.9 lm/W, (0.29, 0.30), 72, 3.3 lm/W and (0.25, 0.34), 45, 6.8 lm/W, respectively. We can find
Yi, Yinhui; Zhu, Gangbing; Liu, Chang; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Haitao; Zhao, Jiangna; Yao, Shouzhuo
2013-12-03
Sensitive, rapid, and simple detection methods for the screening of extensively used organophosphorus pesticides and highly toxic nerve agents are in urgent demand. A novel label-free silicon quantum dots (SiQDs)-based sensor was designed for ultrasensitive detection of pesticides. This sensing strategy involves the reaction of acetylcholine chloride (ACh) with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to form choline that is in turn catalytically oxidized by choline oxidase (ChOx) to produce betaine and H2O2 which can quench the photoluminescence (PL) of SiQDs. Upon the addition of pesticides, the activity of AChE is inhibited, leading to the decrease of the generated H2O2, and hence the PL of SiQDs increases. By measuring the increase in SiQDs PL, the inhibition efficiency of pesticide to AChE activity was evaluated. It was found that the inhibition efficiency was linearly dependent on the logarithm of the pesticides concentration. Consequently, pesticides, such as carbaryl, parathion, diazinon, and phorate, were determined with the SiQDs PL sensing method. The lowest detectable concentrations for carbaryl, parathion, diazinon, and phorate reached 7.25 × 10(-9), 3.25 × 10(-8), 6.76 × 10(-8), and 1.9 × 10(-7) g/L, respectively, which were much lower than those previously reported. The detecting results of pesticide residues in food samples via this method agree well with those from high-performance liquid chromatography. The simple strategy reported here should be suitable for on-site pesticides detection, especially in combination with other portable platforms.
Milk-derived multi-fluorescent graphene quantum dot-based cancer theranostic system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thakur, Mukeshchand, E-mail: mukeshchandthakur@yahoo.com [School of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, D.Y. Patil University, Sector 15, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400 614, Maharashtra (India); N.S.N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bio-nanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Ambernath (W) 421 504, Maharashtra (India); Mewada, Ashmi [N.S.N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bio-nanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Ambernath (W) 421 504, Maharashtra (India); Walchand Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Bio-nanotechnology (wcRnb), Walchand College of Arts and Science, Walchand-Hirachand Marg, Ashok Chowk, Solapur 413006, Maharashtra (India); Pandey, Sunil, E-mail: gurus.spandey@gmail.com [N.S.N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bio-nanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Ambernath (W) 421 504, Maharashtra (India); Bhori, Mustansir, E-mail: mustansyrr@gmail.com [School of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, D.Y. Patil University, Sector 15, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400 614, Maharashtra (India); Singh, Kanchanlata [School of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, D.Y. Patil University, Sector 15, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400 614, Maharashtra (India); Sharon, Maheshwar [N.S.N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bio-nanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Ambernath (W) 421 504, Maharashtra (India); Walchand Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Bio-nanotechnology (wcRnb), Walchand College of Arts and Science, Walchand-Hirachand Marg, Ashok Chowk, Solapur 413006, Maharashtra (India); Sharon, Madhuri, E-mail: sharonmadhuri@gmail.com [N.S.N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bio-nanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Ambernath (W) 421 504, Maharashtra (India); Walchand Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Bio-nanotechnology (wcRnb), Walchand College of Arts and Science, Walchand-Hirachand Marg, Ashok Chowk, Solapur 413006, Maharashtra (India)
2016-10-01
An economical green-chemistry approach was used for the synthesis of aqueous soluble graphene quantum dots (GQDs) from cow milk for simultaneous imaging and drug delivery in cancer. The GQDs synthesized using one-pot microwave-assisted heating were multi-fluorescent, spherical in shape having a lateral size of ca. 5 nm. The role of processing parameters such as heating time and ionic strength showed a profound effect on photoluminescence properties of GQDs. The GQDs were N-doped and oxygen-rich as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Cysteamine hydrochloride (Cys) was used to attach an anti-cancer drug berberine hydrochloride (BHC) on GQDs forming GQDs@Cys-BHC complex with c.a. 88% drug loading efficiency. In vitro drug release was studied at the acidic-basic environment and drug kinetics was studied using pharmacokinetic statistical models. The GQDs were biocompatible on L929 cells whereas theranostic GQDs@Cys-BHC complex showed a potent cytotoxic effect on different cancerous cell line models: cervical cancer cell lines such as HeLa cells and breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-231 confirmed by Trypan blue and MTT-based cytotoxic assays. Furthermore, multi-excitation based cellular bioimaging was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and fluorescence microscopy using GQDs as well as GQDs@Cys-BHC complex. Thus, drug delivery (therapeutic) and bioimaging (diagnostic) properties of GQDs@Cys-BHC complex are thought to have a potential in vitro theranostic application in cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Facile green synthesis of bright dual-florescent GQDs using cow milk as a precursor • Microwave irradiation time and pH have profound effects on fluorescent properties of GQDs. • Decoration of anti-cancer drug BHC onto GQDs via Cys-linker as theranostic platform • A pH responsive in vitro anti-cancer drug release and drug release kinetic study • Multi-photon bioimaging, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis study
Milk-derived multi-fluorescent graphene quantum dot-based cancer theranostic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thakur, Mukeshchand; Mewada, Ashmi; Pandey, Sunil; Bhori, Mustansir; Singh, Kanchanlata; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri
2016-01-01
An economical green-chemistry approach was used for the synthesis of aqueous soluble graphene quantum dots (GQDs) from cow milk for simultaneous imaging and drug delivery in cancer. The GQDs synthesized using one-pot microwave-assisted heating were multi-fluorescent, spherical in shape having a lateral size of ca. 5 nm. The role of processing parameters such as heating time and ionic strength showed a profound effect on photoluminescence properties of GQDs. The GQDs were N-doped and oxygen-rich as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Cysteamine hydrochloride (Cys) was used to attach an anti-cancer drug berberine hydrochloride (BHC) on GQDs forming GQDs@Cys-BHC complex with c.a. 88% drug loading efficiency. In vitro drug release was studied at the acidic-basic environment and drug kinetics was studied using pharmacokinetic statistical models. The GQDs were biocompatible on L929 cells whereas theranostic GQDs@Cys-BHC complex showed a potent cytotoxic effect on different cancerous cell line models: cervical cancer cell lines such as HeLa cells and breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-231 confirmed by Trypan blue and MTT-based cytotoxic assays. Furthermore, multi-excitation based cellular bioimaging was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and fluorescence microscopy using GQDs as well as GQDs@Cys-BHC complex. Thus, drug delivery (therapeutic) and bioimaging (diagnostic) properties of GQDs@Cys-BHC complex are thought to have a potential in vitro theranostic application in cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Facile green synthesis of bright dual-florescent GQDs using cow milk as a precursor • Microwave irradiation time and pH have profound effects on fluorescent properties of GQDs. • Decoration of anti-cancer drug BHC onto GQDs via Cys-linker as theranostic platform • A pH responsive in vitro anti-cancer drug release and drug release kinetic study • Multi-photon bioimaging, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis study
Quantum-dot-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Meijun; Wu Yingsong; Lin Guanfeng; Hou Jingyuan; Li Ming [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China); Liu Tiancai, E-mail: liutc@smu.edu.cn [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China)
2012-09-05
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed to detect AFP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugates were prepared with QDs-doped microspheres and anti-AFP McAb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugates were prepared with LTCs and another anti-AFP McAb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excess amounts of conjugates were used for detecting AFP without rinsing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wedding of QPs and LTCs was suitable for HTRFIA to detect AFP. - Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) with novel photoproperties are not widely used in clinic diagnosis, and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assays possess many advantages over current methods for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection. A novel QD-based homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay was developed and used for detection of AFP, a primary marker for many cancers and diseases. QD-doped carboxyl-modified polystyrene microparticles (QPs) were prepared by doping oil-soluble QDs possessing a 605 nm emission peak. The antibody conjugates (QPs-E014) were prepared from QPs and an anti-AFP monoclonal antibody, and luminescent terbium chelates (LTCs) were prepared and conjugated to a second anti-AFP monoclonal antibody (LTCs-E010). In a double-antibodies sandwich structure, QPs-E014 and LTCs-E010 were used for detection of AFP, serving as energy acceptor and donor, respectively, with an AFP bridge. The results demonstrated that the luminescence lifetime of these QPs was sufficiently long for use in a time-resolved fluoroassay, with the efficiency of time-resolved Foerster resonance transfer (TR-FRET) at 67.3% and the spatial distance of the donor to acceptor calculated to be 66.1 Angstrom-Sign . Signals from TR-FRET were found to be proportional to AFP concentrations. The resulting standard curve was log Y = 3.65786 + 0.43863{center_dot}log X (R = 0.996) with Y the QPs fluorescence intensity and X the AFP concentration; the calculated sensitivity was 0
Quantum cryptography and quantification of quantum correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koashi, M
2008-01-01
Study of the security of quantum key distribution protocols has provided us a deeper understanding about the trade-off between the amount of information extracted from a quantum system and the disturbance left in the system as a result of the extraction process. Here we discuss how such a new development helps us to understand the quantum correlations in a quantitative way. A detailed analysis of the information-disturbance trade-off for the zero-disturbance cases leads to a simple structure theorem, and the theorem can be used to derive an exact formula for the compressibility of quantum signals, which is a measure of quantum correlations in terms of the cost to preserve them. The analysis including the nonzero disturbance cases has a very close connection to the theory of entanglement. While the distillable key is regarded as a measure of entanglement, it does not coincide with either of the two operational measures of entanglement, the distillable entanglement and the entanglement cost. We discuss the physical meaning of the difference between these three measures of entanglement by providing each of them with an alternative operational definition
Kim, Seongwoong; Kim, Sungsoo; Ko, Young Chun; Sohn, Honglae
2015-07-01
Photoluminescent porous silicon were prepared by an electrochemical etch of n-type silicon under the illumination with a 300 W tungsten filament bulb for the duration of etch. The red photoluminescence emitting at 650 nm with an excitation wavelength of 450 nm is due to the quantum confinement of silicon quantum dots in porous silicon. HO-terminated red luminescent PS was obtained by an electrochemical treatment of fresh PS with the current of 150 mA for 60 seconds in water and sodium chloride. As-prepared PS was sonicated, fractured, and centrifuged in toluene solution to obtain photoluminescence silicon quantum dots. Dichlorotetraphenylsilole exhibiting an emission band at 520 nm was reacted with HO-terminated silicon quantum dots to give a silole-capped silicon quantum dots. The optical characterization of silole-derivatized silicon quantum dots was investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence spectrometer. The fluorescence emission efficiency of silole-capped silicon quantum dots was increased by about 2.5 times due to F6rster resonance energy transfer from silole moiety to silicon quantum dots.
Convex geometry of quantum resource quantification
Regula, Bartosz
2018-01-01
We introduce a framework unifying the mathematical characterisation of different measures of general quantum resources and allowing for a systematic way to define a variety of faithful quantifiers for any given convex quantum resource theory. The approach allows us to describe many commonly used measures such as matrix norm-based quantifiers, robustness measures, convex roof-based measures, and witness-based quantifiers together in a common formalism based on the convex geometry of the underlying sets of resource-free states. We establish easily verifiable criteria for a measure to possess desirable properties such as faithfulness and strong monotonicity under relevant free operations, and show that many quantifiers obtained in this framework indeed satisfy them for any considered quantum resource. We derive various bounds and relations between the measures, generalising and providing significantly simplified proofs of results found in the resource theories of quantum entanglement and coherence. We also prove that the quantification of resources in this framework simplifies for pure states, allowing us to obtain more easily computable forms of the considered measures, and show that many of them are in fact equal on pure states. Further, we investigate the dual formulation of resource quantifiers, which provide a characterisation of the sets of resource witnesses. We present an explicit application of the results to the resource theories of multi-level coherence, entanglement of Schmidt number k, multipartite entanglement, as well as magic states, providing insight into the quantification of the four resources by establishing novel quantitative relations and introducing new quantifiers, such as a measure of entanglement of Schmidt number k which generalises the convex roof-extended negativity, a measure of k-coherence which generalises the \
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Jipei; Guo Weiwei; Wang Erkang
2008-01-01
The unique surface-sensitive properties make quantum dots (QDs) great potential in the development of sensors for various analytes. However, quantum dots are not only sensitive to a certain analyte, but also to the surrounding conditions. The controlled response to analyte may be the first step in the designing of functional quantum dots sensors. In this study, taking the quenching effect of benzoquinone (BQ) on CdTe QDs as model, several critical parameters of buffer solution conditions with potential effect on the sensors were investigated. The pH value and the concentration of sodium citrate in the buffer solution critically influenced the quenching effects of BQ. Dozens folds elevation of the quenching extents were observed with the increase of concentrations of H + and sodium citrate, and the quenching mechanisms were also fundamentally different with the changes of the surrounding buffer solutions. The quenching models were proposed and analyzed at different buffer conditions. Taking pH values for example, QDs quenching obeyed the sphere of effective quenching model with the sphere radii of 8.29 nm at pH 8.0, the linear Stern-Volmer equation with Stern-Volmer constant of 2.0 x 10 3 mol -1 L at pH 7.0, and the two binding site static quenching model at basic conditions. The elucidation of parameters for assay performance was important in the development of QDs-based optical sensors
ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Based Downconversion Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenyan Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs were fabricated using blue GaN chips and red-, yellow-, and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. The power efficiencies were measured as 14.0 lm/W for red, 47.1 lm/W for yellow, and 62.4 lm/W for green LEDs at 2.6 V. The temperature effect of ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs on these LEDs was investigated using CIE chromaticity coordinates, spectral wavelength, full width at half maximum (FWHM, and power efficiency (PE. The thermal quenching induced by the increased surface temperature of the device was confirmed to be one of the important factors to decrease power efficiencies while the CIE chromaticity coordinates changed little due to the low emission temperature coefficients of 0.022, 0.050, and 0.068 nm/°C for red-, yellow-, and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. These indicate that ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs are more suitable for downconversion LEDs compared to CdSe QDs.
Wei, Hong; Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Xiaorui; Wang, Zhuoxian; Cong, Fengzi; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing
2011-02-09
We show that the local electric field distribution of propagating plasmons along silver nanowires can be imaged by coating the nanowires with a layer of quantum dots, held off the surface of the nanowire by a nanoscale dielectric spacer layer. In simple networks of silver nanowires with two optical inputs, control of the optical polarization and phase of the input fields directs the guided waves to a specific nanowire output. The QD-luminescent images of these structures reveal that a complete family of phase-dependent, interferometric logic functions can be performed on these simple networks. These results show the potential for plasmonic waveguides to support compact interferometric logic operations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Chuang; Li Yan; Peng Jun; Xu Hao; Tang Hongwu; Zhang Zhiling; Pang Daiwen; Xia Heshun; Wu Qiongshui; Zeng Libo; Zhu Xiaobo
2010-01-01
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous tumor, and better understanding of its heterogeneity is essential to improving treatment effect. Quantum dot (QD)-based immunofluorescent nanotechnology (QD-IHC) for molecular pathology has potential advantages in delineating tumor heterogeneity. This potential is explored in this paper by QD-IHC imaging of HER2 and ER. BC heterogeneity can be displayed more clearly and sensitively by QD-IHC than conventional IHC in BC tissue microarrays. Furthermore, the simultaneous imaging of ER and HER2 might help understand their interactions during the process of evolution of heterogeneous BC.
Near-Infrared Ag2S Quantum Dots-Based DNA Logic Gate Platform for miRNA Diagnostics.
Miao, Peng; Tang, Yuguo; Wang, Bidou; Meng, Fanyu
2016-08-02
Dysregulation of miRNA expression is correlated with the development and progression of many diseases. These miRNAs are regarded as promising biomarkers. However, it is challenging to measure these low abundant molecules without employing time-consuming radioactive labeling or complex amplification strategies. Here, we present a DNA logic gate platform for miRNA diagnostics with fluorescence outputs from near-infrared (NIR) Ag2S quantum dots (QDs). Carefully designed toehold exchange-mediated strand displacements with different miRNA inputs occur on a solid-state interface, which control QDs release from solid-state interface to solution, responding to multiplex information on initial miRNAs. Excellent fluorescence emission properties of NIR Ag2S QDs certify the great prospect for amplification-free and sensitive miRNA assay. We demonstrate the potential of this platform by achieving femtomolar level miRNA analysis and the versatility of a series of logic circuits computation.
López, Luis I. A.; Champi, Ana; Ujevic, Sebastian; Mendoza, Michel
2015-11-01
In this work we study, as a function of the height V and width L b of the potential barriers, the transport of Dirac quasi-particles through quantum dots in graphene ribbons. We observed, as we increase V, a partial polarization ( PP) of the pseudospin due to the participation of the hyperbolic bands. This generates polarizations in the sub-lattices A or B outside the dot regions for single, coupled, and open dots. Thus for energies around the Dirac point, the conductance G at both sides of the dot shows a latticetronics of conductances G A and G B as a function of V and L b . This fact can be used as a PP spectroscopy which associates hole-type waves with the latticetronics. A periodic enhancement of PP is obtained with the increase of V in dots formed by barriers that completely occupy the nanoribbon width. For this case, a direct correspondence between G( V) and PP( V) exists. On the other hand, for the open dots, the PP( V) and the G( V) show a complex behavior that exhibit higher intensities when compared to the previous case. In the Dirac limit we have no backscattering signs, however when we move slightly away from this limit the first signs of confinement appear in the PP( V) (it freezes in a given sub-lattice). In the last case the backscattering fingerprints are obtained directly from the conductance (splittings). The open quantum dots are very sensible to their opening w d and this generates Fano line-shapes of difficult interpretation around the Dirac point. The PP spectroscopy used here allows us to understand the influence of w d in the relativistic analogues and to associate electron-type waves with the observed Fano line-shapes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bian, Wei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); School of Basic Medical Science, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Wang, Fang [School of Basic Medical Science, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Wei, Yanli; Wang, Li; Liu, Qiaoling; Dong, Wenjuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Shuang, Shaomin, E-mail: smshuang@sxu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Choi, Martin M.F., E-mail: mmfchoi@gmail.com [Partner State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, and Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China)
2015-01-26
Highlights: • A turn-on phosphorescence quantum dots probe for histidine is fabricated. • High sensitivity, good selectivity and low interference are achieved. • Histidine in urine samples can be easily detected by the phosphorescence probe. - Abstract: We report a turn-on phosphorescence probe for detection of histidine based on Co{sup 2+}-adsorbed N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) capped Mn: ZnS quantum dots (QDs) which is directly synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The phosphorescence of NAC-Mn: ZnS QDs is effectively quenched by Co{sup 2+} attributing to the adsorption of Co{sup 2+} onto the surface of QDs with a concomitant in suppressing the recombination process of hole and electron of QDs. The phosphorescence of Co{sup 2+}-adsorbed NAC-Mn: ZnS QDs can be recovered by binding of Co{sup 2+} with histidine. The quenching and regeneration of the phosphorescence of NAC-Mn: ZnS QDs have been studied in detail. The as-prepared QDs-based probe is applied to determine histidine with a linear range of 1.25–30 μM and a detection limit of 0.74 μM. The relative standard deviation for eleven repeat detections of 20 μM histidine is 0.65%. Co{sup 2+}-adsorbed NAC-Mn: ZnS QDs show high sensitivity and good selectivity to histidine over other amino acids, metal ions and co-existing substances. The proposed QDs probe has been successfully applied to determination of histidine in human urine samples with good recoveries of 98.5–103%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pooja, D., E-mail: poojaiitr@csio.res.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sectro-30 C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Saini, Sonia; Thakur, Anupma; Kumar, Baban; Tyagi, Sachin [Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sectro-30 C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Nayak, Manoj K. [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sectro-30 C, Chandigarh 160030 (India)
2017-04-15
Highlights: • Environmental friendly carbon quantum dots grafted with thiol moieties. • The functionalized CQDs demonstrated for optical detection of arsenite in water. • High analytical performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and detection limit (0.086 ppb). - Abstract: Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged out as promising fluorescent probes for hazardous heavy metals detection in recent past. In this study, water soluble CQDs were synthesized by facile microwave pyrolysis of citric acid & cysteamine, and functionalized with ditheritheritol to impart thiol functionalities at surface for selective detection of toxic arsenite in water. Microscopic analysis reveals that the synthesized CQDs are of uniform size (diameter ∼5 nm) and confirmed to have surface −SH groups by FT-IR. The functionalized probe is then demonstrated for arsenite detection in water by “Turn-On” read out mechanism, which reduces the possibility of false positive signals associated with “turn off’ probes reported earlier. The blue luminescent functionalized CQDs exhibit increase in fluorescence intensity on arsenite addition in 5–100 ppb wide detection range. The probe can be used for sensitive detection of arsenite in environmental water to a theoretical detection limit (3s) of 0.086 ppb (R{sup 2} = 0.9547) with good reproducibility at 2.6% relative standard deviation. The presented reliable, sensitive, rapid fCQDs probe demonstrated to exhibit high selectivity towards arsenite and exemplified for real water samples as well. The analytical performance of the presented probe is comparable to existing organic & semiconductor based optical probes.
CdSe white quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index
Su, Yu-Sheng; Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Chung, Shu-Ru
2016-09-01
A white light emission CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can be prepared by chemical route under 180°C. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to react with CdO to form Cd-OA complex. Hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-Octadecene (ODE) were used as co-surfactants. By controlling the reaction time, a white light emission CdSe QDs can be obtained after reacts for 3 to 10 min. The luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light ranges from 400 to 650 nm. Based on TEM measurement result, spherical morphologies with particle size 2.39+/-0.27 nm can be obtained. The quantum yields (QYs) of white CdSe QD are between 20 and 60 %, which depends on reaction time. A white CdSe QDs were mixed with UV cured gel (OPAS-226) with weight ratios 50.0 wt. %, and putted the mixture into reflective cup (3020, 13 mil) as convert type. The white LEDs have controllable CIE coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT). The luminous efficacy of the device is less than 3 lm/W, but the color rendering index (CRI) for all devices are higher than 80. Since the luminous efficacy of hybrid devices has a direct dependence on the external QY of the UV-LED as well, the luminous efficacy can be improved by well dispersion of CdSe QDs in UV gel matrix and using optimized LED chips. Therefore, in this study, we provide a new and simple method to prepare high QY of white CdSe QDs and its have a potential to applicate in solid-state lighting.
Yu, Weili; Noureldine, Dalal; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; Lin, Bin; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Abulikemu, Mutalifu; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2015-01-01
Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation in a suspension system requires a sophisticated nano-device that combines a photon absorber with effective redox catalysts. This study demonstrates an innovative molecular linking strategy for fabricating photocatalytic materials that allow effective charge separation of excited carriers, followed by efficient hydrogen evolution. The method for the sequential replacement of ligands with appropriate molecules developed in this study tethers both quantum dots (QDs), as photosensitizers, and metal nanoparticles, as hydrogen evolution catalysts, to TiO2 surfaces in a controlled manner at the nano-level. Combining hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions on the surface, CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs and an Au-Pt alloy were attached to TiO2 without overlapping during the synthesis. The resultant nano-photocatalysts achieved substantially high-performance visible-light-driven photocatalysis for hydrogen evolution. All syntheses were conducted at room temperature and in ambient air, providing a promising route for fabricating visible-light-responsive photocatalysts.
Song, Yu; Li, Yang; Liu, Ziping; Liu, Linlin; Wang, Xinyan; Su, Xingguang; Ma, Qiang
2014-11-15
In this work, we developed an ultrasensitive "turn on-off" fluorescence nanosensor for lysozyme (Lyz) detection. The novel nanosensor was constructed with the carboxymethyl chitosan modified CdTe quantum dots (CMCS-QDs). Firstly, the CMCS-QDs were fabricated via the electrostatic interaction between amino groups in CMCS polymeric chains and carboxyl groups on the surface of QDs. In the fluorescence "turn-on" step, the strong binding ability between Zn(2+) and CMCS on the surface of QDs can enhance the photoluminescence intensity (PL) of QDs. In the following fluorescence "turn-off" step, the N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG) section along the CMCS chains was hydrolyzed by Lyz. As a result, Zn(2+) was released from the surface of QDs, and the Lyz-QDs complexes were formed to quench the QDs PL. Under the optimal conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the PL of QDs and the Lyz concentration (0.1-1.2 ng/mL) with the detection limit of 0.031 ng/mL. The developed method was ultrasensitive, highly selective and fast. It has been successfully employed in the detection of Lyz in the serum with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Shaofu; Luan, Weiling; Zhong, Qixin; Yin, Shaofeng; Yang, Fuqian
2016-10-12
The "ball-on-film" template is used to construct concentric rings on the surface of PMMA-QDs (polymethyl methacrylate - quantum dots) nanocomposite films via the evaporation of pure chloroform droplets, which are confined by a steel ball. The concentric rings consist of QDs, as revealed by the fluorescence images of the concentric rings. The photoluminescence intensity of the concentric rings increases with the increase of the distance to the ball center, suggesting that the amount of QDs accumulated around the contact line at individual stick state increases with the increase of the distance to the ball center. Both the wavelength and cross-sectional area (width) of the concentric rings increase approximately linearly with increasing distance to the ball center, independent of the ball size, the film thickness and the QDs concentration. For the PMMA-QDs nanocomposite films prepared from the same QDs concentration in chloroform, the thicker the PMMA-QDs nanocomposite film, the larger the wavelength for the same distance to the ball center. The effect of confinement of two steel balls on the surface patterns over the PMMA-QDs nanocomposite films is studied via a template of "two spheres on film". Symmetric surface patterns are formed. There exist two types of featureless zone between the two balls, depending on the distance between the two balls: one is the inner featureless zone and the other is the outer featureless zone. The size of both featureless zones increases with the increase of the ball distance.
Wang, Yuyuan; Wang, Yidan; Chen, Guojun; Li, Yitong; Xu, Wei; Gong, Shaoqin
2017-09-13
A quantum-dot (QD)-based micelle conjugated with an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobody (Nb) and loaded with an anticancer drug, aminoflavone (AF), has been engineered for EGFR-overexpressing cancer theranostics. The near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence of the indium phosphate core/zinc sulfide shell QDs (InP/ZnS QDs) allowed for in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution studies. The anti-EGFR nanobody 7D12 conjugation improved the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the QD-based micelles in EGFR-overexpressing MDA-MB-468 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. In comparison with the AF-encapsulated nontargeted (i.e., without Nb conjugation) micelles, the AF-encapsulated Nb-conjugated (i.e., targeted) micelles accumulated in tumors at higher concentrations, leading to more effective tumor regression in an orthotopic triple-negative breast cancer xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, there was no systemic toxicity observed with the treatments. Thus, this QD-based Nb-conjugated micelle may serve as an effective theranostic nanoplatform for EGFR-overexpressing cancers such as TNBCs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agusdinata, Datu Buyung, E-mail: bagusdinata@niu.edu; Amouie, Mahbod [Northern Illinois University, Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering and Environment, Sustainability, & Energy Institute (United States); Xu, Tao [Northern Illinois University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)
2015-01-15
Due to their favorable electrical and optical properties, quantum dots (QDs) nanostructures have found numerous applications including nanomedicine and photovoltaic cells. However, increased future production, use, and disposal of engineered QD products also raise concerns about their potential environmental impacts. The objective of this work is to establish a modeling framework for predicting the diffusion dynamics and concentration of toxic materials released from Trioctylphosphine oxide-capped CdSe. To this end, an agent-based model simulation with reaction kinetics and Brownian motion dynamics was developed. Reaction kinetics is used to model the stability of surface capping agent particularly due to oxidation process. The diffusion of toxic Cd{sup 2+} ions in aquatic environment was simulated using an adapted Brownian motion algorithm. A calibrated parameter to reflect sensitivity to reaction rate is proposed. The model output demonstrates the stochastic spatial distribution of toxic Cd{sup 2+} ions under different values of proxy environmental factor parameters. With the only chemistry considered was oxidation, the simulation was able to replicate Cd{sup 2+} ion release from Thiol-capped QDs in aerated water. The agent-based method is the first to be developed in the QDs application domain. It adds both simplicity of the solubility and rate of release of Cd{sup 2+} ions and complexity of tracking of individual atoms of Cd at the same time.
Study of quantum dot based on tin/yttrium mixed oxide doped with terbium to be used as biomarker
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Kodaira, Claudia A.; Brito, Hermi F.; Nunes, Luiz Antonio O.
2009-01-01
Quantum dots (semiconductors nanocrystals) have brought a promising field to develop a new generation of luminescent biomarkers. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. These luminescent dots are functionalized with biomolecules. For the luminophore particle to be connect with biologicals molecules (for example covalent antibody) is necessary a previous chemical treatment to modify luminophore particle surface and this process is called functionalization. A prior chemical treatment with changes on the surface luminophore particle is necessary to couple the luminophore to biological molecules. This process can be used as coating which can protect these particles from being dissolved by acid as well as provide functional groups for biological conjugation. This work presents a photoluminescence study of nanoparticles based on tin/yttrium mixed oxides doped with terbium (SnO 2 /Y 2 O 3 :Tb 3+ ), synthesized by coprecipitation method. The nanoparticles were submitted to thermal treatment and characterized by X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) that showed cassiterite phase formation and the influence of thermal treatment on nanoparticles structures. These nanoparticles going to be functionalized with a natural polysaccharide (chitosan) in order to form microspheres. These microspheres going to be irradiated with gamma radiation to sterilization and it can be evaluated if the nanoparticles are resistant to irradiation and they do not lose functionality with this process. (author)
Qian, Zhaosheng; Chai, Lujing; Tang, Cong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jianrong; Feng, Hui
2015-03-03
A convenient, reliable, and highly sensitive real-time assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the continuous and recyclable way is established on the basis of aggregation and disaggregation of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) through the competitive assay approach. CQDs and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were used as the fluorescent indicator and substrate for ALP activity assessment, respectively. Richness of carboxyl groups on the surface of CQDs enables their severe aggregation triggered by cerium ions, which results in effective fluorescence quenching. Under the catalytic hydrolysis of ALP, ATP can be rapidly transformed to phosphate ions. Stronger affinity of phosphate ions to cerium ions than carboxyl groups is taken advantage of to achieve fluorescence recovery induced by redispersion of CQDs in the presence of ALP and ATP. Quantitative evaluation of ALP activity in a broad range from 4.6 to 383.3 U/L with the detection limit of 1.4 U/L can be realized in this way, which endows the assay with high enough sensitivity for practical detection in human serum. The assay can be used in a recyclable way for more than three times since the generated product CePO4 as a precipitate can be easily removed from the standard assay system. This strategy broadens the sensing application of fluorescent CQDs with excellent biocompatibility and provides an example based on disaggregation in optical probe development.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Brito, Hermi F.
2011-01-01
Special luminescence biomarkers have been developed to find more sensitive fluoroimmunoassay methods. A new generation of these biomarkers is the semiconductors nanocrystals, known as quantum dots, doped with lanthanides. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. The protein sol-gel is a modification of conventional method, in which the coconut water replacing the alkoxides normally used. The advantage is that, the proteins present in coconut water bind chemically with metal salts forming a polymer chain. This work presents nanoparticles based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with 3% of europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method. The nanoparticles were burned at 300 deg C, 500 deg C, 800 deg C and 1100 deg C. The samples were analyzed and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis was effective and the nanoparticles showed nanometric size and structural differences with the annealing. To be used in the fluoroimmunoassays tests, these particles need to be functionalized before be connect with biological molecules and after this process, these nanoparticles going to be submitted at gamma radiation for sterilization. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C., E-mail: paulapaganini@usp.b, E-mail: mfelinto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F., E-mail: hefbrito@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Elementos do Bloco f
2011-07-01
Special luminescence biomarkers have been developed to find more sensitive fluoroimmunoassay methods. A new generation of these biomarkers is the semiconductors nanocrystals, known as quantum dots, doped with lanthanides. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. The protein sol-gel is a modification of conventional method, in which the coconut water replacing the alkoxides normally used. The advantage is that, the proteins present in coconut water bind chemically with metal salts forming a polymer chain. This work presents nanoparticles based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with 3% of europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method. The nanoparticles were burned at 300 deg C, 500 deg C, 800 deg C and 1100 deg C. The samples were analyzed and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis was effective and the nanoparticles showed nanometric size and structural differences with the annealing. To be used in the fluoroimmunoassays tests, these particles need to be functionalized before be connect with biological molecules and after this process, these nanoparticles going to be submitted at gamma radiation for sterilization. (author)
Near-infrared quantum-dot-based non-invasive in vivo imaging of squamous cell carcinoma U14
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Yu'an; Yang Kai; Li Zhigang; Zhao Cheng; Yang Jia; Shi Chunmeng
2010-01-01
Near-infrared (near-ir) quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their excellent optical characteristics. They hold great potential for applications in non-invasive long term observation and tracing of cells in vivo. Here, near-ir QDs with an emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800) were used to label squamous cell carcinoma cell line U14 (U14/QD800). The effect of tissue depth and animal fur on the imaging sensitivity and stability was evaluated following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection into Kunming mice, employing an in vivo imaging system. We have demonstrated that QD800-based visual in vivo imaging increased the sensitivity of cancer early detection by a factor of 100 compared with traditional detection methods. More importantly, this study proved for the first time that animal fur has a serious impact on the detection sensitivity and duration of QD-based in vivo imaging. In general, the duration and sensitivity of QD800 for in vivo imaging were not greatly affected by a depth less than 1.8 ± 0.21 mm (subcutaneous or intramuscular). This study provides critical reference data for further research on near-ir QD-based early detection and in vivo visual observation of cancer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agusdinata, Datu Buyung; Amouie, Mahbod; Xu, Tao
2015-01-01
Due to their favorable electrical and optical properties, quantum dots (QDs) nanostructures have found numerous applications including nanomedicine and photovoltaic cells. However, increased future production, use, and disposal of engineered QD products also raise concerns about their potential environmental impacts. The objective of this work is to establish a modeling framework for predicting the diffusion dynamics and concentration of toxic materials released from Trioctylphosphine oxide-capped CdSe. To this end, an agent-based model simulation with reaction kinetics and Brownian motion dynamics was developed. Reaction kinetics is used to model the stability of surface capping agent particularly due to oxidation process. The diffusion of toxic Cd 2+ ions in aquatic environment was simulated using an adapted Brownian motion algorithm. A calibrated parameter to reflect sensitivity to reaction rate is proposed. The model output demonstrates the stochastic spatial distribution of toxic Cd 2+ ions under different values of proxy environmental factor parameters. With the only chemistry considered was oxidation, the simulation was able to replicate Cd 2+ ion release from Thiol-capped QDs in aerated water. The agent-based method is the first to be developed in the QDs application domain. It adds both simplicity of the solubility and rate of release of Cd 2+ ions and complexity of tracking of individual atoms of Cd at the same time
Controlling reabsorption effect of bi-color CdSe quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes
Siao, Cyuan-Bin; Chung, Shu-Ru; Wang, Kuan-Wen
2017-08-01
The colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have the potentials to be used in white light-emitting diode (WLED) as a down-converting component to replace incandescent lamps, because the traditional WLED composed of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce) phosphor lack of red color emissions and shows low color quality. Among various QDs, CdSe has been extensively studied because it possesses attractive characteristics such as high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission spectral bandwidth, as well as size-tunable optical characteristics. However, in order to enhance the color rendering index (CRI) of WLED, blending materials with different emission wavelengths has been used frequently. Unfortunately, these procedures are complex and time-consuming, and the emission energy of smaller QDs can be reabsorbed by larger QDs, resulting in decreasing the excitation intensity in yellowish-green region. Therefore, in this study, in order to decrease the reabsorption effect and to simplify the procedures, we have demonstrated a facile thermal pyrolyzed route to prepare bicolor CdSe QDs with dual-wavelengths. The emission wavelengths, particle sizes, and QYs of QDs can be tuned from 537/595 to 537/602 nm, 2.59/3.92 to 2.59/4.01 nm, and 27 to 40 %, for GR1 to 3 samples, respectively when the amount of Se precursor is decreased from 1.5 to 0.75 mmol. Meanwhile, the area ratio of green to red (Ag/Ar) in fluorescence spectra is gradually increased, due to the increase in growth rate, and decrease in nuclei formation in red emission. The GR1, GR2, and GR3 QDs are then encapsulated by convert types to form the LED, in which the QDs are deposited on the blue-emitting InGaN LED chip (λem = 450 nm). After encapsulation, the devices properties of Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity and Ag/Ar area ratio are (0.40, 0.24), 0.28/1, (0.40, 0.31), 0.52/1, and (0.40, 0.38), 1.02/1, respectively for GR1, GR2, and GR3. The results show that the green emission intensity are strongly
Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai
2015-06-15
A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Lixi, E-mail: wanglixi_njut@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Yang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Weimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Jing [China Geol Survey, Nanjing Ctr, Nanjing, 210016, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Qitu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Song, Bo; Wong, Chingping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332, GA (United States)
2017-03-15
Graphical abstract: RE(AcAc){sub 3} (RE = Ce, Dy and Tb) can realize the defects modification of ZnO QDs based on the linkage occurs between the protons of the hydroxyl groups on the surface of ZnO QDs and the π–system of acetylacetone. The color coordinate could be shifted among yellow-green, blue-green, and green region by changing the RE (AcAc){sub 3} ratios. The stable Ce(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs with average sizes of about 3.0 nm can be obtained. The calculated band gap data also proved the efficient modification of Ce(AcAc){sub 3} for ZnO QDs with the largest variation of band gap energy of 0.039 eV (from 3.583 eV to 3.544 eV). - Highlights: • Defects modification of ZnO QDs based on rare earth acetylacetonate. • Stable Ce(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs with an average sizes of about 3.0 nm. • The color coordinate could be shifted among yellow-green, blue-green, and green region by changing the RE (AcAc){sub 3} ratios. - Abstract: The surface defect modification has an important effect on the application of ZnO quantum dots, and it has gained much progress in recently years, propelled by the development of additives. Our research efforts are directed toward developing a new surface modification additive RE(AcAc){sub 3} (RE = Ce, Dy, Tb) to achieve fine ZnO QDs and adjust their surface properties. RE(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs nanostructured materials have been designed and prepared, and particular emphasis has been given to the relation between the surface modification and optical properties. The effects of RE(III) acetylacetonate modification on the FT-IR, TEM images and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated, and the surface defect modification principle and effect were discussed in details. The band gap (E{sub g}) was also calculated to prove the surface modification effect. For the RE(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs complex materials, stable linkage occurs because of the affinity of −COOH from acetylacetonate anionic ligand to zinc oxide surfaces, with attachment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua, Mengjuan; Wang, Chengquan; Qian, Jing; Wang, Kan; Yang, Zhenting; Liu, Qian; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun
2015-01-01
We herein proposed a simple and effective strategy for preparing graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-based core-satellite hybrid spheres and further explored the feasibility of using such spheres as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for the visual determination of Hg 2+ . The red-emitting CdTe QDs were firstly entrapped in the silica nanosphere to reduce their toxicity and improve their photo and chemical stabilities, thus providing a built-in correction for environmental effects, while the GQDs possessing good biocompatibility and low toxicity were electrostatic self-assembly on the silica surface acting as reaction sites. Upon exposure to the increasing contents of Hg 2+ , the blue fluorescence of GQDs can be gradually quenched presumably due to facilitating nonradiative electron/hole recombination annihilation. With the embedded CdTe QDs as the internal standard, the variations of the tested solution display continuous fluorescence color changes from blue to red, which can be easily observed by the naked eye without any sophisticated instrumentations and specially equipped laboratories. This sensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg 2+ in a broad linear range of 10 nM–22 μM with a low detection limit of 3.3 nM (S/N = 3), much lower than the allowable Hg 2+ contents in drinking water set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This prototype ratiometric probe is of good simplicity, low toxicity, excellent stabilities, and thus potentially attractive for Hg 2+ quantification related biological systems. - Highlights: • A facile strategy for preparing GQDs based core-satellite hybrid spheres was reported. • Such spheres can be used as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for Hg 2+ detection. • The Hg 2+ content can be easily distinguished by the naked eye. • The sensor shows high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg 2+ detection. • The ratiometric probe is of good simplicity, low toxicity, and excellent stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hua, Mengjuan [Key Laboratory of Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Chengquan [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Qian, Jing, E-mail: qianj@ujs.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Kan; Yang, Zhenting; Liu, Qian; Mao, Hanping [Key Laboratory of Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Kun, E-mail: wangkun@ujs.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)
2015-08-12
We herein proposed a simple and effective strategy for preparing graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-based core-satellite hybrid spheres and further explored the feasibility of using such spheres as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for the visual determination of Hg{sup 2+}. The red-emitting CdTe QDs were firstly entrapped in the silica nanosphere to reduce their toxicity and improve their photo and chemical stabilities, thus providing a built-in correction for environmental effects, while the GQDs possessing good biocompatibility and low toxicity were electrostatic self-assembly on the silica surface acting as reaction sites. Upon exposure to the increasing contents of Hg{sup 2+}, the blue fluorescence of GQDs can be gradually quenched presumably due to facilitating nonradiative electron/hole recombination annihilation. With the embedded CdTe QDs as the internal standard, the variations of the tested solution display continuous fluorescence color changes from blue to red, which can be easily observed by the naked eye without any sophisticated instrumentations and specially equipped laboratories. This sensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg{sup 2+} in a broad linear range of 10 nM–22 μM with a low detection limit of 3.3 nM (S/N = 3), much lower than the allowable Hg{sup 2+} contents in drinking water set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This prototype ratiometric probe is of good simplicity, low toxicity, excellent stabilities, and thus potentially attractive for Hg{sup 2+} quantification related biological systems. - Highlights: • A facile strategy for preparing GQDs based core-satellite hybrid spheres was reported. • Such spheres can be used as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for Hg{sup 2+} detection. • The Hg{sup 2+} content can be easily distinguished by the naked eye. • The sensor shows high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg{sup 2+} detection. • The ratiometric probe is of good simplicity, low toxicity, and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Ping Yuan
Full Text Available As a marker for tumor cell proliferation, Ki67 has important impacts on breast cancer (BC prognosis. Although immunohistochemical staining is the current standard method, variations in analytical practice make it difficult for pathologists to manually measure Ki67 index. This study was to develop a fluorescent spectrum-based quantitative analysis of Ki67 expression by quantum-dots (QDs multiple imaging technique.A QDs-based in situ multiple fluorescent imaging method was developed, which stained nuclear Ki67 as red signal and cytoplasmic cytokeratin (CK as green signal. Both Ki67 and CK signals were automatically separated and quantified by professional spectrum analysis software. This technique was applied to tissue microarrays from 240 BC patients. Both Ki67 and CK values, and Ki67/CK ratio were obtained for each patient, and their prognostic value on 5-year disease free survival was assessed.This method simultaneously stains nuclear Ki67 and cytoplasmic CK with clear signal contrast, making it easy for signal separation and quantification. The total fluorescent signal intensities of both Ki67 sum and CK sum were obtained, and Ki67/CK ratio calculated. Ki67 sum and Ki67/CK ratio were each attributed into two grades by X-tile software based on the best P value principle. Multivariate analysis showed Ki67 grade (P = 0.047 and Ki67/CK grade (P = 0.004 were independent prognostic factors. Furthermore, area under curve (AUC of ROC analysis for Ki67/CK grade (AUC: 0.683, 95%CI: 0.613-0.752 was higher than Ki67 grade (AUC: 0.665, 95%CI: 0.596-0.734 and HER-2 gene (AUC: 0.586, 95%CI: 0.510-0.661, but lower than N stage (AUC: 0.760, 95%CI: 0.696-0.823 and histological grade (AUC: 0.756, 95%CI: 0.692-0.820 on predicting the risk for recurrence.A QDs-based quantitative and in situ multiple imaging on Ki67 and CK was developed to improve Ki67 assessment in BC, and Ki67/CK grade had better performance than Ki67 grade in predicting prognosis.
Shao, D.; Li, J.; Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, X.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, H.; Chen, L.
2015-01-01
Theranostics is emerging as a popular strategy for cancer therapy; thanks to the development of nano-technology. In this work, we have combined an HSV-TK/GCV suicide gene system and near-infrared quantum dots, as the former is quite effective in liver cancer treatment and the latter facilitates
Wang, Yuanwei; Zhu, Yihua; Huang, Jianfei; Cai, Jin; Zhu, Jingrun; Yang, Xiaoling; Shen, Jianhua; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong
2016-11-03
Perovskite quantum dots with excellent optical properties and robust durability stand as an appealing and desirable candidate for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based fluorescence detection, a powerful technique featuring excellent accuracy and convenience. In this work, a monolithic superhydrophobic polystyrene fiber membrane with CsPbBr 3 perovskite quantum dots encapsulated within (CPBQDs/PS FM) was prepared via one-step electrospinning. Coupling CPBQDs with PS matrix, this CPBQDs/PS FM composite exhibits high quantum yields (∼91%), narrow half-peak width (∼16 nm), nearly 100% fluorescence retention after being exposed to water for 10 days and 79.80% fluorescence retention after 365 nm UV-light (1 mW/cm 2 ) illumination for 60 h. Thanks to the outstanding optical property of CPBQDs, an ultralow detection limit of 0.01 ppm was obtained for Rhodamine 6G (R6G) detection, with the FRET efficiency calculated to be 18.80% in 1 ppm R6G aqueous solution. Electrospun as well-designed fiber membranes, CPBQDs/PS FM composite also possesses good tailorability and recyclability, showing exciting potential for future implementation into practical applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hechster, Elad, E-mail: elad.hechster@gmail.com; Sarusi, Gabby [Electro-Optics Engineering Unit and Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84100 Israel (Israel); Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Solid State Institute, Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion – Israel Institute of technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)
2016-07-15
Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer’s surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film’s thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas’ dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hechster, Elad; Sarusi, Gabby; Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat
2016-01-01
Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer’s surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film’s thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas’ dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Y
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Yan Zhao,1,* Qiang Zhang,2,* Qingfeng Meng,3 Fenglian Wu,4 Lihua Zhang,1 Yao Tang,1 Yuanyuan Guan,1 Lixin An1 1Department of Allergy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Qingdao University, Yantai, 3Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 4Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Semiquantitative and rapid detection of specific IgE (sIgE with well clinical relevance to house dust mite (HDM are promising for prevalence rhinitis and asthma patients due to the increasing air pollution. However, the conventional IgE measurement systems are time-consuming, complicated and require special instruments. Herein, we overcome the above limitations of sIgE to HDM detection system by developing a quantum dot nanobeads-based lateral flow immunoassay and an image analysis procedure. The proposed detection system could semiquantitatively measure the IgE in a linear range of 0.2–10 U/mL. Moreover, there is a well correlation between the developed detection system and the clinical symptoms by a comparison study using 56 positive patients’ sera and 40 healthy control sera. The proposed detection system is simple, robust and easy-to-use and promising for in home test. Keywords: lateral flow immunoassay, quantum dots, house dust mite, IgE
Gong, Yan; Fan, Zhefeng
2015-04-15
We report a room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) sensor for phosphopeptides based on zirconium (IV)-modulated mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs). This sensor incorporates the advantages of the well-known Zr(4+)-phosphopeptide affinity pair and the RTP properties of doped QDs. The RTP of Mn-doped ZnS QDs capped with MPA can be effectively quenched by Zr(4+). The high affinity of phosphopeptides to Zr(4+) enables the dissociation of the ion from the surface of MPA-capped ZnS QDs, thereby forming a stable complex with phosphopeptides in the solution, and recovering the RTP of the QDs. The Zr(4+)-induced RTP quenching and subsequent phosphopeptide-induced RTP recovery for MPA-capped ZnS QDs provide a solid basis for the present RTP sensor based on QDs for the detection of phosphopeptides. The detection limit for phosphopeptides is 0.9ngmL(-1), the relative standard deviations is 2.5%, and the recovery of urine and serum samples with phosphopeptides addition rangs from 96% to 105% at optimal conditions. The proposed method was successfully applied to biological fluids and obtained satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Claussen, Jonathan C.; Algar, W. Russ; Hildebrandt, Niko; Susumu, Kimihiro; Ancona, Mario G.; Medintz, Igor L.
2013-10-01
Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) contain favorable photonic properties (e.g., resistance to photobleaching, size-tunable PL, and large effective Stokes shifts) that make them well-suited for fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (FRET) based applications including monitoring proteolytic activity, elucidating the effects of nanoparticles-mediated drug delivery, and analyzing the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellular biochemical processes. Herein, we demonstrate how unique considerations of temporal and spatial constraints can be used in conjunction with QD-FRET systems to open up new avenues of scientific discovery in information processing and molecular logic circuitry. For example, by conjugating both long lifetime luminescent terbium(III) complexes (Tb) and fluorescent dyes (A647) to a single QD, we can create multiple FRET lanes that change temporally as the QD acts as both an acceptor and donor at distinct time intervals. Such temporal FRET modulation creates multi-step FRET cascades that produce a wealth of unique photoluminescence (PL) spectra that are well-suited for the construction of a photonic alphabet and photonic logic circuits. These research advances in bio-based molecular logic open the door to future applications including multiplexed biosensing and drug delivery for disease diagnostics and treatment.
Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Su, Yu-Sheng; Chung, Shu-Ru
2017-09-01
Among solid-state lighting technology, phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are excellent candidates to replace incandescent lamps for their merit of high energy conservation, long lifetime, high luminous efficiency as well as polarized emissions. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging color tunable emissive light converters. They have shown significant promise as light emitters, as solar cells, and in biological imaging. It has been demonstrated that the pc-WLED devices integrated with red emissive ZnCdSe QDs show improved color rendering index of device. However, cadmium-based QDs have limited future owing to the well-known toxicity. Recently, non-cadmium luminescence materials, i.e. CuInS2-based QDs, are investigated as desirable low toxic alternatives. Particularly, CuInS2-based QDs exhibit very broad emissions spectra with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 100-120 nm, large Stokes shifts of 200 300 meV and finely-tunable emissions. In order to adjust emission wavelengths and improved quantum yield (QY), CuInS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core/shell structure was introduced. Therefore, CIS/ZnS QDs have been extensively investigated and be used as color converter in solid-state lighting. Synthesis and application of CuInS2/ZnS core/shell QDs are conducted using a hot injection route. CIS/ZnS core/shell QDs with molar ratio of Cu:In equal to 1:4 are prepared. For WLED fabrication, the CIS/ZnS QD is dispersed in toluene first, and then it is blended with transparent acrylic-based UV resin. Subsequently, the commercial green-emitting Lu3Al5O12: Ce3+ (LuAG) phosphors are mixed with QDs-resin mixture. After that, the QDs-phosphors-resin mixtures are put in the oven at 140 °C for 1 h to evaporate the toluene. Subsequently, the homogeneous QDs-phosphors-resin mixture is dropped on the top of a blue LED chip (InGaN). Then, the device is cured by 400 W UV light to form WLED. The emission wavelength of CIS/ZnS QD exhibits yellow region of 552 nm with QY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Honglei Chen
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 expression deficiency and autophagy in tumor stromal fibroblasts (hereafter fibroblasts are involved in tumor proliferation and progression, particularly in breast and prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B, markers of autophagy, in gastric cancer (GC and to analyze their clinical significances. Furthermore, because Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated GC (EBVaGC is a unique subtype of GC; we compared the differential expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B in EBVaGC and non-EBVaGC. Quantum dots (QDs-based immunofluorescence histochemistry was used to examine the expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B in 118 cases of GC with adequate stroma. QDs-based double immunofluorescence labeling was performed to detect the coexpression of Cav-1 and LC3B proteins. EBV-encoded small RNA was detected by QDs-based fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify EBVaGC. Multivariate analysis indicated that low fibroblastic Cav-1 level was an independent prognosticator (p = 0.029 that predicted poorer survival of GC patients. Positive fibroblastic LC3B was correlated with lower invasion (p = 0.032 and was positively associated with Cav-1 expression (r = 0.432, p < 0.001. EBV infection did not affect fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B expression. In conclusion, positive fibroblastic LC3B correlates with lower invasion, and low expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 is a novel predictor of poor GC prognosis.
Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Pathak, Dinesh; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Nunzi, Jean-Michel
2018-04-01
Cadmium sulphide (CdS) and Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The nanocrystals were characterized by Fluorescence, Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). A considerable blue shift of absorption band with respect to the cadmium sulphide was observed by the Mn concentration (0.5 M) in the doped sample with decreasing the size of nanocrystals. Other reason for this may be Mn doping. Subsequently the band gap was altered from 2.11 to 2.21 eV due to quantum confinement effect. Scanning electron microscope supplemented with EDAX was operated to find grain size and chemical composition of the synthesized nanomaterials. The PL spectrum of Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals displays three PL bands the first one, within the range of 500 nm and the second band at 537 nm, and the third one around 713 nm is labelled red band emission due to attributed to a 4T1→6A1 transition within the 3d shell of divalent manganese. XRD analysis showed that the material was in cubic crystalline state. A comparative study of surfaces of un-doped and metal doped CdS nanocrystals were investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The synthesized nanomaterial in combination with polymer, poly (3-hexyl thiophene) was operated in the construction of photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic devices with CdS nanocrystals exhibited power conversion efficiency of 0.34% without annealing and 0.38% with annealing. However, the power conversion efficiency was enhanced by a factor of 0.35 without annealing and 0.42 with annealing with corporation of Mn impurity in CdS lattice. Atomic Force Microscopy was employed for morphology and packing behavior of blend of nanocrystals with organic polymer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qian, Jing; Hua, Mengjuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Chengquan [Changzhou College of Information Technology, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Kan; Liu, Qian; Hao, Nan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Kun, E-mail: wangkun@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)
2016-11-23
New strategies for onsite determination of trace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives have become a research hotspot for homeland security needs against terrorism and environmental concerns. Herein, we designed a ratiometric fluorescence nanohybrid comprising 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped green-emitting CdTe quantum dots (gQDs) encapsulated into SiO{sub 2} sphere and L-cysteine (Lcys)-capped red-emitting CdTe QDs (rQDs) conjugated onto SiO{sub 2} surface. The surface Lcys can be used as not only the stabilizer of the rQDs but also the primary amine provider which can react with TNT to form Meisenheimer complexes. Without any additional surface modification procedure, the fluorescence of rQDs equipped with Lcys was selectively quenched by TNT because electrons of the rQDs transferred to TNT molecules due to the formation of Meisenheimer complexes. Meanwhile, the embedded gQDs always remained constant. Upon exposure to increasing amounts of TNT, the fluorescence of rQDs could be gradually quenched and consequently the logarithm of the dual emission intensity ratios exhibited a good linear negative correlation with TNT concentration over a range of 10 nM–8 μM with a low detection limit of 3.3 nM. One can perform onsite visual determination of TNT with high resolution because the ratiometric fluorescence nanosensing system exhibited obvious fluorescence color changes. This sensing strategy has been successfully applied in real samples and already integrated in a filter paper-based assay, which enables potential fields use application featuring easy handling and cost-effectiveness. - Highlights: • A facile strategy for preparing Lcys-capped rQDs based hybrid spheres was reported. • Lcys serves as the stabilizer of rQDs and primary amine provider to react with TNT. • One can perform onsite visual determination of TNT by using such probe. • The nanosensor exhibited a wide linear range and a low detection limit. • This sensing strategy can be fully
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Liping; Zhu, Anna; Lou, Xuening; Song, Dan; Yang, Rong; Shi, Hanchang; Long, Feng
2016-01-01
A universal sandwich-like immunoassay strategy based on quantum-dots immunoprobe (QD-labeled anti-mouse IgG antibody) was developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules. A portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform was applied to investigate the sandwich-like immunoassay mechanism and format of small molecules, as well as the binding kinetics between QD immunoprobe and anti-small molecule antibody. A two-step immunoassay method that involves pre-incubation mixture of different concentration of small molecule and anti-small molecule antibody, and subsequent introduction of QD immunoprobe into the optofluidic cell was conducted for small molecule determination. Compared with the one-step immunoassay method, the two-step immunoassay method can obtain higher fluorescence signal and higher sensitivity index, thus improving the nano-biosensing performance. Based on the proposed strategy, two mode targets, namely, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and Bisphenol A (BPA) were tested with high sensitivity, rapidity, and ease of use. A higher concentration of small molecules in the sample led to less anti-small molecule antibody bound with antigen-carrier protein conjugate immobilized onto the sensor surface, and less QD immunoprobes bound with anti-small molecule antibody. This phenomenon lowered the fluorescence signal detected by nano-biosensing platform. Under optimal operating conditions, MC-LR and BPA exhibited a limit of detection of 0.003 and 0.04 μg/L, respectively. The LODs were better than those of the indirect competitive immunoassay method for small molecules via Cy5.5-labeled anti-small molecule antibody. The proposed QD-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy was evaluated in spiked water samples, and showed good recovery, precision and accuracy without complicated sample pretreatments. All these results demonstrate that the new detection strategy could be readily applied to the other trace small molecules in real water samples
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng CW
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Chunwei Peng,1 Jiuyang Liu,1 Guifang Yang,2 Yan Li3 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors & Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, 2Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuchang District, Wuhan, 3Department of Peritoneal Cancer Surgery, Cancer Center of Beijing Shijitan Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Medical University, Yangfangdian, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs are a promising alternative to organic fluorescent dyes for multiplexed molecular imaging of cancer stroma, which have great advantages in holistically analyzing the complex interactions among cancer stromal components in situ.Patients and methods: A QD probe-based multiplexed spectral molecular imaging method was established for simultaneous imaging. Three tissue microarrays (TMAs including 184 gastric cancer (GC tissues were constructed for the study. Multispectral analyses were performed for quantifying stromal biomarkers, such as lysyl oxidase (LOX. The stromal status including infiltrating of immune cells (high density of macrophages, angiogenesis (high density of microvessel density [MVD], low neovessel maturation and extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling (low density of type IV collagen, intense expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 [MMP-9] was evaluated.Results: This study compared the imaging features of the QD probe-based single molecular imaging method, immunohistochemistry, and organic dye-based immunofluorescent methods, and showed the advantages of the QD probe-based multiple molecular imaging method for simultaneously visualizing complex components of cancer stroma. The risk of macrophages in high density, high MVD, low neomicrovessel maturation, MMP-9 expression and low type IV collagen was significantly increased for the expression of LOX. With the advantages of the established QD probe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Liping; Zhu, Anna; Lou, Xuening; Song, Dan; Yang, Rong [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing (China); Shi, Hanchang [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Long, Feng, E-mail: longf04@ruc.edu.cn [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing (China)
2016-01-28
A universal sandwich-like immunoassay strategy based on quantum-dots immunoprobe (QD-labeled anti-mouse IgG antibody) was developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules. A portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform was applied to investigate the sandwich-like immunoassay mechanism and format of small molecules, as well as the binding kinetics between QD immunoprobe and anti-small molecule antibody. A two-step immunoassay method that involves pre-incubation mixture of different concentration of small molecule and anti-small molecule antibody, and subsequent introduction of QD immunoprobe into the optofluidic cell was conducted for small molecule determination. Compared with the one-step immunoassay method, the two-step immunoassay method can obtain higher fluorescence signal and higher sensitivity index, thus improving the nano-biosensing performance. Based on the proposed strategy, two mode targets, namely, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and Bisphenol A (BPA) were tested with high sensitivity, rapidity, and ease of use. A higher concentration of small molecules in the sample led to less anti-small molecule antibody bound with antigen-carrier protein conjugate immobilized onto the sensor surface, and less QD immunoprobes bound with anti-small molecule antibody. This phenomenon lowered the fluorescence signal detected by nano-biosensing platform. Under optimal operating conditions, MC-LR and BPA exhibited a limit of detection of 0.003 and 0.04 μg/L, respectively. The LODs were better than those of the indirect competitive immunoassay method for small molecules via Cy5.5-labeled anti-small molecule antibody. The proposed QD-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy was evaluated in spiked water samples, and showed good recovery, precision and accuracy without complicated sample pretreatments. All these results demonstrate that the new detection strategy could be readily applied to the other trace small molecules in real water samples
Quantum non-Markovianity: characterization, quantification and detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivas, Ángel; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the concept of quantum non-Markovianity, a central theme in the theory of open quantum systems. We introduce the concept of a quantum Markovian process as a generalization of the classical definition of Markovianity via the so-called divisibility property and relate this notion to the intuitive idea that links non-Markovianity with the persistence of memory effects. A detailed comparison with other definitions presented in the literature is provided. We then discuss several existing proposals to quantify the degree of non-Markovianity of quantum dynamics and to witness non-Markovian behavior, the latter providing sufficient conditions to detect deviations from strict Markovianity. Finally, we conclude by enumerating some timely open problems in the field and provide an outlook on possible research directions. (review article)
Quantum non-Markovianity: characterization, quantification and detection
Rivas, Ángel; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.
2014-09-01
We present a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the concept of quantum non-Markovianity, a central theme in the theory of open quantum systems. We introduce the concept of a quantum Markovian process as a generalization of the classical definition of Markovianity via the so-called divisibility property and relate this notion to the intuitive idea that links non-Markovianity with the persistence of memory effects. A detailed comparison with other definitions presented in the literature is provided. We then discuss several existing proposals to quantify the degree of non-Markovianity of quantum dynamics and to witness non-Markovian behavior, the latter providing sufficient conditions to detect deviations from strict Markovianity. Finally, we conclude by enumerating some timely open problems in the field and provide an outlook on possible research directions.
FRET-based modified graphene quantum dots for direct trypsin quantification in urine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poon, Chung-Yan; Li, Qinghua [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Zhang, Jiali; Li, Zhongping [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Research Center of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Dong, Chuan [Research Center of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Lee, Albert Wai-Ming; Chan, Wing-Hong [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Li, Hung-Wing, E-mail: hwli@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)
2016-04-21
A versatile nanoprobe was developed for trypsin quantification with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Here, fluorescence graphene quantum dot is utilized as a donor while a well-designed coumarin derivative, CMR2, as an acceptor. Moreover, bovine serum albumin (BSA), as a protein model, is not only served as a linker for the FRET pair, but also a fluorescence enhancer of the quantum dots and CMR2. In the presence of trypsin, the FRET system would be destroyed when the BSA is digested by trypsin. Thus, the emission peak of the donor is regenerated and the ratio of emission peak of donor/emission peak of acceptor increased. By the ratiometric measurement of these two emission peaks, trypsin content could be determined. The detection limit of trypsin was found to be 0.7 μg/mL, which is 0.008-fold of the average trypsin level in acute pancreatitis patient's urine suggesting a high potential for fast and low cost clinical screening. - Highlights: • A FRET-based biosensor was developed for direct quantification of trypsin. • Fast and sensitive screening of pancreatic disease was facilitated. • The direct quantification of trypsin in urine samples was demonstrated.
Kim, Min Jung; Lim, Chaeyun; Lee, Jun Young; Im, Kyung Ran; Yoon, Kyung-Sup; Song, Joon Myong
2013-04-01
There is a growing interest in alopecia prevention strategies, as the number of alopecia patients is increasing. We examine the efficacy of herbal medicine for hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition in two cell lines via Western blot and high-content screening (HCS). Nine herbal extracts were obtained from three different herbal medicine mixtures using 3 different extraction methods. Five target proteins-IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), TGF-β2 (transforming growth factor-β2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), DKK-1 (Dickkopf-1), and Wnt5α-were observed for the assessment of hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition efficacy. The efficacies of nine extracts were compared with minoxidil as control. Efficacy was defined as a rise in the expression levels of IGF-1, VEGF, and Wnt5α but a decrease in DKK-1 and TGF-β2. Intracellular concurrent imaging of these proteins was successfully achieved using HCS, employing visible-to-near infrared probing based on quantum-antibody conjugates and hypermulticolor imaging.
Quantum-dot-based integrated non-linear sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bernard, Alice; Mariani, Silvia; Andronico, Alessio
2015-01-01
The authors report on the design and the preliminary characterisation of two active non-linear sources in the terahertz and near-infrared range. The former is associated to difference-frequency generation between whispering gallery modes of an AlGaAs microring resonator, whereas the latter...
Sensitive targeted multiple protein quantification based on elemental detection of Quantum Dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Garcia-Cortes, Marta [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); González-Iglesias, Hector [Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Instituto Oftalmológico Fernandez-Vega, Avenida Doctores Fernández-Vega, 34, Oviedo 33012 (Spain); Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Costa-Fernández, José M. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Coca-Prados, Miguel [Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Instituto Oftalmológico Fernandez-Vega, Avenida Doctores Fernández-Vega, 34, Oviedo 33012 (Spain); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: asm@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain)
2015-06-16
Highlights: • Novel generic platform for multiparametric quantification of proteins. • QDs labeling and ICP-MS detection allow significant analytical signal amplification. • ICP-MS mass balances information provided an internal validation of the immunoassay. • Multiparametric determination of 5 proteins in human serum samples. • ICP-MS reduced matrix effects as compared to other conventional detection techniques. - Abstract: A generic strategy based on the use of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs) as elemental labels for protein quantification, using immunoassays with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), detection is presented. In this strategy, streptavidin modified QDs (QDs-SA) are bioconjugated to a biotinylated secondary antibody (b-Ab{sub 2}). After a multi-technique characterization of the synthesized generic platform (QDs-SA-b-Ab{sub 2}) it was applied to the sequential quantification of five proteins (transferrin, complement C3, apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin and apolipoprotein A4) at different concentration levels in human serum samples. It is shown how this generic strategy does only require the appropriate unlabeled primary antibody for each protein to be detected. Therefore, it introduces a way out to the need for the cumbersome and specific bioconjugation of the QDs to the corresponding specific recognition antibody for every target analyte (protein). Results obtained were validated with those obtained using UV–vis spectrophotometry and commercial ELISA Kits. As expected, ICP-MS offered one order of magnitude lower DL (0.23 fmol absolute for transferrin) than the classical spectrophotometric detection (3.2 fmol absolute). ICP-MS precision and detection limits, however turned out to be compromised by procedural blanks. The full analytical performance of the ICP-MS-based immunoassay proposed was assessed for detection of transferrin (Tf), present at the low ng mL{sup −1} range in a complex “model” synthetic matrix, where the total protein
Meng, Peijun; Xiong, Yamin; Wu, Yingting; Hu, Yue; Wang, Hui; Pang, Yuanfeng; Jiang, Shuqing; Han, Sihai; Huang, Peili
2018-05-09
In view of the significance and urgency of the speciation analysis of quantum dots (QDs) and their degradation products for clarifying their degradation rules and toxicity mechanisms, a method for the identification and quantification of CdTe QDs and corresponding ionic species in complex matrices was developed using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quality assessment of commercial CdTe QDs and serum pharmacokinetics of synthesized CdTe QDs in rats were successfully undertaken using the developed CZE-ICP-MS method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roga, W; Illuminati, F; Spehner, D
2016-01-01
We investigate and compare three distinguished geometric measures of bipartite quantum correlations that have been recently introduced in the literature: the geometric discord, the measurement-induced geometric discord, and the discord of response, each one defined according to three contractive distances on the set of quantum states, namely the trace, Bures, and Hellinger distances. We establish a set of exact algebraic relations and inequalities between the different measures. In particular, we show that the geometric discord and the discord of response based on the Hellinger distance are easy to compute analytically for all quantum states whenever the reference subsystem is a qubit. These two measures thus provide the first instance of discords that are simultaneously fully computable, reliable (since they satisfy all the basic Axioms that must be obeyed by a proper measure of quantum correlations), and operationally viable (in terms of state distinguishability). We apply the general mathematical structure to determine the closest classical-quantum state of a given state and the maximally quantum-correlated states at fixed global state purity according to the different distances, as well as a necessary condition for a channel to be quantumness breaking. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonas Maziero
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Coherence vectors and correlation matrices are important functions frequently used in physics. The numerical calculation of these functions directly from their definitions, which involves Kronecker products and matrix multiplications, may seem to be a reasonable option. Notwithstanding, as we demonstrate in this paper, some algebraic manipulations before programming can reduce considerably their computational complexity. Besides, we provide Fortran code to generate generalized Gell-Mann matrices and to compute the optimized and unoptimized versions of associated Bloch’s vectors and correlation matrix in the case of bipartite quantum systems. As a code test and application example, we consider the calculation of Hilbert-Schmidt quantum discords.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garrett K. Simon
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution (MDI-QKD is a two-photon protocol devised to eliminate eavesdropping attacks that interrogate or control the detector in realized quantum key distribution systems. In MDI-QKD, the measurements are carried out by an untrusted third party, and the measurement results are announced openly. Knowledge or control of the measurement results gives the third party no information about the secret key. Error-free implementation of the MDI-QKD protocol requires the crypto-communicating parties, Alice and Bob, to independently prepare and transmit single photons that are physically indistinguishable, with the possible exception of their polarization states. In this paper, we apply the formalism of quantum optics and Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the impact of small errors in wavelength, bandwidth, polarization and timing between Alice’s photons and Bob’s photons on the MDI-QKD quantum bit error rate (QBER. Using published single-photon source characteristics from two-photon interference experiments as a test case, our simulations predict that the finite tolerances of these sources contribute ( 4.04 ± 20 / N sifted % to the QBER in an MDI-QKD implementation generating an N sifted -bit sifted key.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glukhov, S; Berestovoy, M; Nabiev, I; Sukhanova, A; Chames, P; Baty, D
2017-01-01
This study dealt with quantification and imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), an important prognostic marker for cancer diagnosis and treatment, using specific quantum-dot-based conjugates. Fluorescent inorganic nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are extremely highly resistant to photobleaching and have a high emission quantum yield and a continuous range of emission spectra, from the ultraviolet to the infrared regions. Ultrasmall nanoprobes consisting of highly affine anti-HER2 single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or 'nanobodies') conjugated with QDs in a strictly oriented manner have been designed. QDs with a fluorescence peak maxima at wavelengths of 562 nm, 569 nm, 570 nm or in the near-infrared region were used. Here, we present our results of ISA quantification of HER2 protein, in situ imaging of HER2 protein on the surface of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 cells in immunohistochemical experiments, and counting of stained with anti-HER2 conjugates HER2-positive SK-BR-3 cells in their mixture with unstained cells of the same culture in flow cytometry experiments. The data demonstrate that the anti-HER2 QD–sdAb conjugates obtained are highly specific and sensitive and could be used in numerous applications for advanced integrated diagnosis. (paper)
Glukhov, S.; Berestovoy, M.; Chames, P.; Baty, D.; Nabiev, I.; Sukhanova, A.
2017-01-01
This study dealt with quantification and imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), an important prognostic marker for cancer diagnosis and treatment, using specific quantum-dot-based conjugates. Fluorescent inorganic nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are extremely highly resistant to photobleaching and have a high emission quantum yield and a continuous range of emission spectra, from the ultraviolet to the infrared regions. Ultrasmall nanoprobes consisting of highly affine anti-HER2 single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or "nanobodies") conjugated with QDs in a strictly oriented manner have been designed. QDs with a fluorescence peak maxima at wavelengths of 562 nm, 569 nm, 570 nm or in the near-infrared region were used. Here, we present our results of ISA quantification of HER2 protein, in situ imaging of HER2 protein on the surface of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 cells in immunohistochemical experiments, and counting of stained with anti-HER2 conjugates HER2-positive SK-BR-3 cells in their mixture with unstained cells of the same culture in flow cytometry experiments. The data demonstrate that the anti-HER2 QD-sdAb conjugates obtained are highly specific and sensitive and could be used in numerous applications for advanced integrated diagnosis.
Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...
Shadjou, Nasrin; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Omari, Ali
2017-12-15
Rapid analyses of some water soluble vitamins (Vitamin B2, B9, and C) in commercial multi vitamins could be routinely performed in analytical laboratories. This study reports on the electropolymerization of a low toxic and biocompatible polymer "poly aspartic acid-graphene quantum dots" as a novel strategy for surface modification of glassy carbon electrode and preparation a new interface for measurement of selected vitamins in commercial multi vitamins. Electrochemical deposition, as a well-controlled synthesis procedure, has been used for subsequently layer-by-layer preparation of graphene quantum dots nanostructures on a poly aspartic acid using cyclic voltammetry techniques in the regime of -1.5 to 2 V. The field emission scanning electron microscopy indicated immobilization of graphene quantum dots onto poly aspartic acid film. The modified electrode possessed as an effective electroactivity for detection of water soluble vitamins by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry. Enhancement of peak currents is ascribed to the fast heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics that arise from the synergistic coupling between the excellent properties of poly aspartic acid as semiconducting polymer, graphene quantum dots as high density of edge plane sites and chemical modification. Under the optimized analysis conditions, the prepared sensor for detection of VB2, VB9, and VC showed a low limit of quantification 0.22, 0.1, 0.1 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chang, Li-Na; Luo, Shun-Long; Sun, Yuan
2017-11-01
The principle of superposition is universal and lies at the heart of quantum theory. Although ever since the inception of quantum mechanics a century ago, superposition has occupied a central and pivotal place, rigorous and systematic studies of the quantification issue have attracted significant interests only in recent years, and many related problems remain to be investigated. In this work we introduce a figure of merit which quantifies superposition from an intuitive and direct perspective, investigate its fundamental properties, connect it to some coherence measures, illustrate it through several examples, and apply it to analyze wave-particle duality. Supported by Science Challenge Project under Grant No. TZ2016002, Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing, Key Laboratory of Random Complex Structures and Data Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grant under No. 2008DP173182
Quantum Measurements: From Bayes Rule to Neural Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Greplova, Eliska
2017-01-01
Quantum technologies are becoming more and more introduced into the devices that we use in the daily life, such as quantum dot based television screens or quantum cryptographic channels for encoding financial transactions. Given the limits of the silicon computer chips, it will in the near future...... learning techniques such as artificial neural networks....
Quantum dots for future nanophotonic devices : lateral ordering, position, and number control
Nötzel, R.; Sritirawisarn, N.; Selçuk, E.; Wang, H.; Yuan, J.
2009-01-01
We review our recent advances in the lateral ordering, position, and number control of self-organized epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots based on self-organized anisotropic strain engineering, growth on patterned substrates, and selective area growth.
Observation and quantification of the quantum dynamics of a strong-field excited multi-level system.
Liu, Zuoye; Wang, Quanjun; Ding, Jingjie; Cavaletto, Stefano M; Pfeifer, Thomas; Hu, Bitao
2017-01-04
The quantum dynamics of a V-type three-level system, whose two resonances are first excited by a weak probe pulse and subsequently modified by another strong one, is studied. The quantum dynamics of the multi-level system is closely related to the absorption spectrum of the transmitted probe pulse and its modification manifests itself as a modulation of the absorption line shape. Applying the dipole-control model, the modulation induced by the second strong pulse to the system's dynamics is quantified by eight intensity-dependent parameters, describing the self and inter-state contributions. The present study opens the route to control the quantum dynamics of multi-level systems and to quantify the quantum-control process.
Miranda-Andrades, Jarol R.; Khan, Sarzamin; Toloza, Carlos A. T.; Romani, Eric C.; Freire Júnior, Fernando L.; Aucelio, Ricardo Q.
2017-12-01
Thiomersal is employed as preservative in vaccines, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products due to its capacity to inhibit bacterial growth. Thiomersal contains 49.55% of mercury in its composition and its highly toxic ethylmercury degradation product has been linked to neurological disorders. The photo-degradation of thiomersal has been achieved by visible light using graphene quantum dots as catalysts. The generated mercury cold vapor (using adjusted experimental conditions) was detected by multipath atomic absorption spectrometry allowing the quantification of thiomersal at values as low as 20 ng L- 1 even in complex samples as aqueous effluents of pharmaceutical industry and urine. A kinetic study (pseudo-first order with k = 0.11 min- 1) and insights on the photo-degradation process are presented.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Mørk, Jesper
2009-01-01
We propose a scheme for reducing the impact of inhomogeneous broadening on quantum dot based EIT for slow light. Field propagation calculations show superior performance in delay compared to traditionally investigated EIT schemes.......We propose a scheme for reducing the impact of inhomogeneous broadening on quantum dot based EIT for slow light. Field propagation calculations show superior performance in delay compared to traditionally investigated EIT schemes....
Exciton binding energy in a pyramidal quantum dot
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A ANITHA
2018-03-27
Mar 27, 2018 ... screening function on exciton binding energy in a pyramid-shaped quantum dot of ... tures may generate unique properties and they show .... where Ee is the ground-state energy of the electron in ... Figure 1. The geometry of the pyramidal quantum dot. base and H is the height of the pyramid which is taken.
Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment
Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.
2008-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…
Menéndez-Miranda, Mario; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Costa-Fernández, José M; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo
2015-11-27
Hyphenation of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) to an on-line elemental detection (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS) is proposed as a powerful diagnostic tool for quantum dots bioconjugation studies. In particular, conjugation effectiveness between a "model" monoclonal IgG antibody (Ab) and CdSe/ZnS core-shell Quantum Dots (QDs), surface-coated with an amphiphilic polymer, has been monitored here by such hybrid AF4-ICP-MS technique. Experimental conditions have been optimized searching for a proper separation between the sought bioconjugates from the eventual free reagents excesses employed during the bioconjugation (QDs and antibodies). Composition and pH of the carrier have been found to be critical parameters to ensure an efficient separation while ensuring high species recovery from the AF4 channel. An ICP-MS equipped with a triple quadropole was selected as elemental detector to enable sensitive and reliable simultaneous quantification of the elemental constituents, including sulfur, of the nanoparticulated species and the antibody. The hyphenated technique used provided nanoparticle size-based separation, elemental detection, and composition analysis capabilities that turned out to be instrumental in order to investigate in depth the Ab-QDs bioconjugation process. Moreover, the analytical strategy here proposed allowed us not only to clearly identify the bioconjugation reaction products but also to quantify nanoparticle:antibodies bioconjugation efficiency. This is a key issue in future development of analytical and bioanalytical photoluminescent QDs applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Use of Cdse/ZnS quantum dots for sensitive detection and quantification of paraquat in water samples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durán, Gema M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla – La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela, 10, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); IRICA (Regional Institute of Applied Scientific Research), Avenida Camilo José Cela, s/n., 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Contento, Ana M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla – La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela, 10, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Ríos, Ángel, E-mail: Angel.Rios@uclm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla – La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela, 10, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2013-11-01
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical use of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. •Methodology for water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs. •Sensitive and selective reaction with paraquat herbicide. •Application to water samples. -- Abstract: Based on the highly sensitive fluorescence change of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QD) by paraquat herbicide, a simple, rapid and reproducible methodology was developed to selectively determine paraquat (PQ) in water samples. The methodology enabled the use of simple pretreatment procedure based on the simple water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs with hydrophilic heterobifunctional thiol ligands, such as 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), using microwave irradiation. The resulting water-soluble QDs exhibit a strong fluorescence emission at 596 nm with a high and reproducible photostability. The proposed analytical method thus satisfies the need for a simple, sensible and rapid methodology to determine residues of paraquat in water samples, as required by the increasingly strict regulations for health protection introduced in recent years. The sensitivity of the method, expressed as detection limits, was as low as 3.0 ng L{sup −1}. The lineal range was between 10–5 × 10{sup 3} ng L{sup −1}. RSD values in the range of 71–102% were obtained. The analytical applicability of proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing water samples from different procedence.
Use of Cdse/ZnS quantum dots for sensitive detection and quantification of paraquat in water samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durán, Gema M.; Contento, Ana M.; Ríos, Ángel
2013-01-01
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical use of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. •Methodology for water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs. •Sensitive and selective reaction with paraquat herbicide. •Application to water samples. -- Abstract: Based on the highly sensitive fluorescence change of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QD) by paraquat herbicide, a simple, rapid and reproducible methodology was developed to selectively determine paraquat (PQ) in water samples. The methodology enabled the use of simple pretreatment procedure based on the simple water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs with hydrophilic heterobifunctional thiol ligands, such as 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), using microwave irradiation. The resulting water-soluble QDs exhibit a strong fluorescence emission at 596 nm with a high and reproducible photostability. The proposed analytical method thus satisfies the need for a simple, sensible and rapid methodology to determine residues of paraquat in water samples, as required by the increasingly strict regulations for health protection introduced in recent years. The sensitivity of the method, expressed as detection limits, was as low as 3.0 ng L −1 . The lineal range was between 10–5 × 10 3 ng L −1 . RSD values in the range of 71–102% were obtained. The analytical applicability of proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing water samples from different procedence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Dafeng; Liu Chunxia; Wang Lei; Jiang Wei
2010-01-01
A single-molecule counting approach for quantifying the antibody affixed to a surface using quantum dots and epi-fluorescence microscopy is presented. Modifying the glass substrates with carboxyl groups provides a hydrophilic surface that reacts with amine groups of an antibody to allow covalent immobilization of the antibody. Nonspecific adsorption of single molecules on the modified surfaces was first investigated. Then, quantum dots were employed to form complexes with surface-immobilized antibody molecules and used as fluorescent probes for single-molecule imaging. Epi-fluorescence microscopy was chosen as the tool for single-molecule fluorescence detection here. The generated fluorescence signals were taken by an electron multiplying charge-coupled device and were found to be proportional to the sample concentrations. Under optimal conditions, a linear response range of 5.0 x 10 -14 -3.0 x 10 -12 mol L -1 was obtained between the number of single molecules and sample concentration via a single-molecule counting approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brian E. Brumfield
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A rapidly-swept external-cavity quantum cascade laser with an open-path Herriott cell is used to quantify gas-phase chemical mixtures of D2O and HDO at a rate of 40 Hz (25-ms measurement time. The chemical mixtures were generated by evaporating D2O liquid near the open-path Herriott cell, allowing the H/D exchange reaction with ambient H2O to produce HDO. Fluctuations in the ratio of D2O and HDO on timescales of <1 s due to the combined effects of plume transport and the H/D exchange chemical reaction are observed. Noise-equivalent concentrations (1σ (NEC of 147.0 ppbv and 151.6 ppbv in a 25-ms measurement time are determined for D2O and HDO, respectively, with a 127-m optical path. These NECs are improved to 23.0 and 24.0 ppbv with a 1-s averaging time for D2O and HDO, respectively. NECs <200 ppbv are also estimated for N2O, 1,1,1,2–tetrafluoroethane (F134A, CH4, acetone and SO2 for a 25-ms measurement time. The isotopic precision for measurement of the [D2O]/[HDO] concentration ratio of 33‰ and 5‰ is calculated for the current experimental conditions for measurement times of 25 ms and 1 s, respectively.
Density of Trap States and Auger-mediated Electron Trapping in CdTe Quantum-Dot Solids
Boehme, Simon C.; Mikel Azpiroz, Jon; Aulin, Yaroslav V.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Siebbeles, Laurens D. A.; Infante, Ivan; Houtepen, Arjan J.
Charge trapping is an ubiquitous process in colloidal quantum-dot solids and a major limitation to the efficiency of quantum dot based devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and thermoelectrics. Although empirical approaches led to a reduction of trapping and thereby efficiency enhancements, the exact
Density of trap states and Auger-mediated electron trapping in CdTe quantum-dot solids
Boehme, Simon C.; Azpiroz, Jon Mikel; Aulin, Yaroslav V.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Infante, Ivan; Houtepen, Arjan J.
2015-01-01
Charge trapping is an ubiquitous process in colloidal quantum-dot solids and a major limitation to the efficiency of quantum dot based devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and thermoelectrics. Although empirical approaches led to a reduction of trapping and thereby efficiency enhancements, the exact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donglin, Wang; Zhongyuan, Yu; Yumin, Liu; Han, Ye; Pengfei, Lu; Xiaotao, Guo; Long, Zhao; Xia, Xin
2010-01-01
The composition of quantum dots has a direct effect on the optical and electronic properties of quantum-dot-based devices. In this paper, we combine the method of moving asymptotes and finite element tools to compute the composition distribution by minimizing the Gibbs free energy of quantum dots, and use this method to study the effect of near laterally and vertically neighboring quantum dots on the composition distribution. The simulation results indicate that the effect from the laterally neighboring quantum dot is very small, and the vertically neighboring quantum dot can significantly influence the composition by the coupled strain field
Introduction to quantum information science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Masahito [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Ishizaka, Satoshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Kawachi, Akinori [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Computing Sciences; Kimura, Gen [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan). College of Systems Engineering and Science; Ogawa, Tomohiro [Univ. of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Information Systems
2015-04-01
Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error
Introduction to quantum information science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Masahito; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Kawachi, Akinori; Kimura, Gen; Ogawa, Tomohiro
2015-01-01
Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error correction are
Fluorescence detection of pesticides using quantum dot materials – A review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nsibande, S.A.; Forbes, P.B.C., E-mail: patricia.forbes@up.ac.za
2016-11-16
High pesticide use, especially in agriculture, can lead to environmental pollution and potentially adverse health effects. As result, pesticide residues end up in different media, including water and food products, which may serve as direct routes for human exposure. There is thus a continuous drive to develop analytical methods for screening and quantification of these compounds in the different environmental media in which they may occur. Development of quantum dot (QD) based sensors for monitoring pesticides has gained momentum in recent years. QD materials have excellent and unique optical properties and have high fluorescence quantum yields compared to other fluorophores. They have thus been used in numerous studies for the development of probes for organic pollutants. In this paper we specifically review their application as fluorescence probes for pesticide detection in different media including water and in fruits and vegetables. The low detection limits reported demonstrate the potential use of these methods as alternatives to expensive and time-consuming conventional techniques. We also highlight potential limitations that these probes may present when it comes to routine application. Finally we discuss possible future improvements to enhance the selectivity and robustness of these sensors. We note that there is still a need for researchers to develop standardized QD based sensors which could lead to their commercialization and routine application. - Highlights: • Application of quantum dots as fluorescence probes in pesticide detection. • Recognition elements and modification strategies towards selective pesticide detection. • Sensitive detection below regulatory limits in various matrices. • Challenges and possible solutions towards standardization of quantum dot based analytical methods.
Geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in an N-partite quantum state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Ali Saif M; Joag, Pramod S
2012-01-01
Quantum discord, as introduced by Ollivier and Zurek (2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 017901), is a measure of the discrepancy between quantum versions of two classically equivalent expressions for mutual information and is found to be useful in quantification and application of quantum correlations in mixed states. It is viewed as a key resource present in certain quantum communication tasks and quantum computational models without containing much entanglement. An early step toward the quantification of quantum discord in a quantum state was by Dakic et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 190502) who introduced a geometric measure of quantum discord and derived an explicit formula for any two-qubit state. Recently, Luo and Fu (2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 034302) introduced a generic form of the geometric measure of quantum discord for a bipartite quantum state. We extend these results and find generic forms of the geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in a general N-partite quantum state. Further, we obtain computable exact formulas for the geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in an N-qubit quantum state. The exact formulas for the N-qubit quantum state can be used to get experimental estimates of the quantum discord and the total quantum correlation. (paper)
Quantum-dot based microdisk lasers and semiconductor optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 μm
Solis Trapala, K.
2011-01-01
Optical data transmission allows for high-speed and low-loss transmission over longer distances than the electronic counterpart. Yet, the advantage of using fiber-optic communications has been restrained by power hungry opto-electronic conversions at the nodes. These are required for switching
A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon.
Watson, T F; Philips, S G J; Kawakami, E; Ward, D R; Scarlino, P; Veldhorst, M; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, M A; Vandersypen, L M K
2018-03-29
Now that it is possible to achieve measurement and control fidelities for individual quantum bits (qubits) above the threshold for fault tolerance, attention is moving towards the difficult task of scaling up the number of physical qubits to the large numbers that are needed for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In this context, quantum-dot-based spin qubits could have substantial advantages over other types of qubit owing to their potential for all-electrical operation and ability to be integrated at high density onto an industrial platform. Initialization, readout and single- and two-qubit gates have been demonstrated in various quantum-dot-based qubit representations. However, as seen with small-scale demonstrations of quantum computers using other types of qubit, combining these elements leads to challenges related to qubit crosstalk, state leakage, calibration and control hardware. Here we overcome these challenges by using carefully designed control techniques to demonstrate a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device that can perform the Deutsch-Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm-canonical examples of quantum algorithms that outperform their classical analogues. We characterize the entanglement in our processor by using quantum-state tomography of Bell states, measuring state fidelities of 85-89 per cent and concurrences of 73-82 per cent. These results pave the way for larger-scale quantum computers that use spins confined to quantum dots.
A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon
Watson, T. F.; Philips, S. G. J.; Kawakami, E.; Ward, D. R.; Scarlino, P.; Veldhorst, M.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.
2018-03-01
Now that it is possible to achieve measurement and control fidelities for individual quantum bits (qubits) above the threshold for fault tolerance, attention is moving towards the difficult task of scaling up the number of physical qubits to the large numbers that are needed for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In this context, quantum-dot-based spin qubits could have substantial advantages over other types of qubit owing to their potential for all-electrical operation and ability to be integrated at high density onto an industrial platform. Initialization, readout and single- and two-qubit gates have been demonstrated in various quantum-dot-based qubit representations. However, as seen with small-scale demonstrations of quantum computers using other types of qubit, combining these elements leads to challenges related to qubit crosstalk, state leakage, calibration and control hardware. Here we overcome these challenges by using carefully designed control techniques to demonstrate a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device that can perform the Deutsch–Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm—canonical examples of quantum algorithms that outperform their classical analogues. We characterize the entanglement in our processor by using quantum-state tomography of Bell states, measuring state fidelities of 85–89 per cent and concurrences of 73–82 per cent. These results pave the way for larger-scale quantum computers that use spins confined to quantum dots.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J.
1997-01-01
This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.)
Lippert, Lisa G.; Hallock, Jeffrey T.; Dadosh, Tali; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Goldman, Yale E.
2016-01-01
We developed methods to solubilize, coat, and functionalize with NeutrAvidin elongated semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum nanorods, QRs) for use in single molecule polarized fluorescence microscopy. Three different ligands were compared with regard to efficacy for attaching NeutrAvidin using the “zero-length cross-linker” 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-carbodiimide (EDC). Biotin-4-fluorescene (B4F), a fluorophore that is quenched when bound to avidin proteins, was used to quantify bioti...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Sarzamin; Carneiro, Leonardo S.A.; Romani, Eric C.; Larrudé, Dunieskys G.; Aucelio, Ricardo Q.
2014-01-01
The determination of L-thyroxine is proposed based on the photoluminescence quenching effect caused on the L-cysteine modified ZnS quantum dots (L-cysteine ZnS QDs) aqueous dispersion. Under optimum conditions, the analytical response followed a Stern–Volmer model and the experimental conditions were adjusted to enable a robust and reproducible photoluminescence signal. The linear response observed in the quantum dots aqueous dispersion covered the L-thyroxine concentration from the LOQ (2.0×10 −8 mol L −1 ) to 4.0×10 −6 mol L −1 . The approach was tested in the determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical formulations used to treat patients with thyroid gland disorder. The percent recoveries in controlled samples were between 93.3 and 103%. Analyte fortified saliva was also evaluated as a possible sample for L-thyroxine monitoring of a patient under treatment. It was identified a static type of photoluminescence quenching caused by L-thyroxine. - Highlights: • L-cysteine ZnS QDs were used as a photoluminescent probe to detect L-thyroxine. • Intensity of probe decreases following a Stern–Volmer model. • The method can detect down ng L −1 levels of L-thyroxine in the probe dispersion. • Method was used to determinate of L-thyroxine in saliva and in pharmaceuticals. • Mechanism of interaction between L-thyroxine and quantum dots was studied
Study of CdTe quantum dots grown using a two-step annealing method
Sharma, Kriti; Pandey, Praveen K.; Nagpal, Swati; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.
2006-02-01
High size dispersion, large average radius of quantum dot and low-volume ratio has been a major hurdle in the development of quantum dot based devices. In the present paper, we have grown CdTe quantum dots in a borosilicate glass matrix using a two-step annealing method. Results of optical characterization and the theoretical model of absorption spectra have shown that quantum dots grown using two-step annealing have lower average radius, lesser size dispersion, higher volume ratio and higher decrease in bulk free energy as compared to quantum dots grown conventionally.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Sarzamin; Carneiro, Leonardo S.A. [Chemistry Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Romani, Eric C.; Larrudé, Dunieskys G. [Physics Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Aucelio, Ricardo Q., E-mail: aucelior@puc-rio.br [Chemistry Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)
2014-12-15
The determination of L-thyroxine is proposed based on the photoluminescence quenching effect caused on the L-cysteine modified ZnS quantum dots (L-cysteine ZnS QDs) aqueous dispersion. Under optimum conditions, the analytical response followed a Stern–Volmer model and the experimental conditions were adjusted to enable a robust and reproducible photoluminescence signal. The linear response observed in the quantum dots aqueous dispersion covered the L-thyroxine concentration from the LOQ (2.0×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}) to 4.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1}. The approach was tested in the determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical formulations used to treat patients with thyroid gland disorder. The percent recoveries in controlled samples were between 93.3 and 103%. Analyte fortified saliva was also evaluated as a possible sample for L-thyroxine monitoring of a patient under treatment. It was identified a static type of photoluminescence quenching caused by L-thyroxine. - Highlights: • L-cysteine ZnS QDs were used as a photoluminescent probe to detect L-thyroxine. • Intensity of probe decreases following a Stern–Volmer model. • The method can detect down ng L{sup −1} levels of L-thyroxine in the probe dispersion. • Method was used to determinate of L-thyroxine in saliva and in pharmaceuticals. • Mechanism of interaction between L-thyroxine and quantum dots was studied.
Lippert, Lisa G; Hallock, Jeffrey T; Dadosh, Tali; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Goldman, Yale E
2016-03-16
We developed methods to solubilize, coat, and functionalize with NeutrAvidin elongated semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum nanorods, QRs) for use in single molecule polarized fluorescence microscopy. Three different ligands were compared with regard to efficacy for attaching NeutrAvidin using the "zero-length cross-linker" 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC). Biotin-4-fluorescene (B4F), a fluorophore that is quenched when bound to avidin proteins, was used to quantify biotin binding activity of the NeutrAvidin coated QRs and biotin binding activity of commercially available streptavidin coated quantum dots (QDs). All three coating methods produced QRs with NeutrAvidin coating density comparable to the streptavidin coating density of the commercially available quantum dots (QDs) in the B4F assay. One type of QD available from the supplier (ITK QDs) exhibited ∼5-fold higher streptavidin surface density compared to our QRs, whereas the other type of QD (PEG QDs) had 5-fold lower density. The number of streptavidins per QD increased from ∼7 streptavidin tetramers for the smallest QDs emitting fluorescence at 525 nm (QD525) to ∼20 tetramers for larger, longer wavelength QDs (QD655, QD705, and QD800). QRs coated with NeutrAvidin using mercaptoundecanoicacid (MUA) and QDs coated with streptavidin bound to biotinylated cytoplasmic dynein in single molecule TIRF microscopy assays, whereas Poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-ocatdecene) (PMAOD) or glutathione (GSH) QRs did not bind cytoplasmic dynein. The coating methods require optimization of conditions and concentrations to balance between substantial NeutrAvidin binding vs tendency of QRs to aggregate and degrade over time.
Using nonlocal coherence to quantify quantum correlation
Pei, Pei; Wang, Wei; Li, Chong; Song, He-Shan
2010-01-01
We reexamine quantum correlation from the fundamental perspective of its consanguineous quantum property, the coherence. We emphasize the importance of specifying the tensor product structure of the total state space before discussing quantum correlation. A measure of quantum correlation for arbitrary dimension bipartite states using nonlocal coherence is proposed, and it can be easily generalized to the multipartite case. The quantification of non-entangled component within quantum correlati...
Probing long-lived dark excitons in self-assembled quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Julsgaard, Brian; Stobbe, Søren
2010-01-01
Long-lived dark exciton states are formed in self-assembled quantum dots due to the combination of the angular momentum of electrons and holes. The lifetime of dark excitons are determined by spin-flip processes that transfer dark excitons into radiative bright excitons. We employ time......-resolved spontaneous emission measurements in a modified local density of optical states to unambiguously record the spin-flip rate. Pronounced variations in the spin-flip rate with the quantum dot emission energy are observed demonstrating that the exciton storage time can be extended by controlling the quantum dot......, which illustrates the important role of interfaces for quantum dot based nanophotonic structures....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Gha-Young [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Son, Ahjeong, E-mail: ason@auburn.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)
2010-09-10
The development and characterization of a magnetic bead (MB)-quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles based assay capable of quantifying pathogenic bacteria is presented here. The MB-QD assay operates by having a capturing probe DNA selectively linked to the signaling probe DNA via the target genomic DNA (gDNA) during DNA hybridization. The signaling probe DNA is labeled with fluorescent QD{sub 565} which serves as a reporter. The capturing probe DNA is conjugated simultaneously to a MB and another QD{sub 655}, which serve as a carrier and an internal standard, respectively. Successfully captured target gDNA is separated using a magnetic field and is quantified via a spectrofluorometer. The use of QDs (i.e., QD{sub 565}/QD{sub 655}) as both a fluorescence label and an internal standard increased the sensitivity of the assay. The passivation effect and the molar ratio between QD and DNA were optimized. The MB-QD assay demonstrated a detection limit of 890 zeptomolar (i.e., 10{sup -21} mol L{sup -1}) concentration for the linear single stranded DNA (ssDNA). It also demonstrated a detection limit of 87 gene copies for double stranded DNA (dsDNA) eaeA gene extracted from pure Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 culture. Its corresponding dynamic range, sensitivity, and selectivity were also presented. Finally, the bacterial gDNA of E. coli O157:H7 was used to highlight the MB-QD assay's ability to detect below the minimum infective dose (i.e., 100 organisms) of E. coli O157:H7 in water environment.
Jatana, Samreen; Palmer, Brian C; Phelan, Sarah J; Gelein, Robert; DeLouise, Lisa A
2017-04-14
Previous work has demonstrated size, surface charge and skin barrier dependent penetration of nanoparticles into the viable layers of mouse skin. The goal of this work was to characterize the tissue distribution and mechanism of transport of nanoparticles beyond skin, with and without Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) induced skin barrier disruption. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to examine the effect of UVR dose (180 and 360 mJ/cm 2 UVB) on the skin penetration and systemic distribution of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles topically applied at different time-points post UVR using a hairless C57BL/6 mouse model. Results indicate that QDs can penetrate mouse skin, regardless of UVR exposure, as evidenced by the increased cadmium in the local lymph nodes of all QD treated mice. The average % recovery for all treatment groups was 69.68% with ~66.84% of the applied dose recovered from the skin (both epicutaneous and intracutaneous). An average of 0.024% of the applied dose was recovered from the lymph nodes across various treatment groups. When QDs are applied 4 days post UV irradiation, at the peak of the skin barrier defect and LC migration to the local lymph node, there is an increased cellular presence of QD in the lymph node; however, AAS analysis of local lymph nodes display no difference in cadmium levels due to UVR treatment. Our data suggests that Langerhans cells (LCs) can engulf QDs in skin, but transport to the lymph node may occur by both cellular (dendritic and macrophage) and non-cellular mechanisms. It is interesting that these specific nanoparticles were retained in skin similarly regardless of UVR barrier disruption, but the observed skin immune cell interaction with nanoparticles suggest a potential for immunomodulation, which we are currently examining in a murine model of skin allergy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yun [Center for Food; Fry, H. Christopher [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, DuPage County, Illinois 60439, United States; Skinner, Guy E. [Center for Food; Schill, Kristin M. [Center for Food; Duncan, Timothy V. [Center for Food
2017-03-20
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most potent toxin known. The ingestion of food contaminated with biologically active BoNT causes foodborne botulism, which can lead to respiratory paralysis, coma, and death after ingestion of as little as 70 mu g for a 70 kg human. Because of its lethality and challenges associated with current detection methods, there is an urgent need for highly sensitive rapid screening techniques capable of detecting biologically active BoNT. Here, we describe a Forster resonance energy transfer-based nanobiosensor that uses quantum dots (QDs) and two specific quencher-labeled peptide probes to detect and differentiate two biologically active forms of BoNT, serotypes A and B, which were responsible for 80% of human foodborne botulism cases in the U.S. from 2012 to 2015. Each peptide probe contains an enzymatic cleavage site specific to only one serotype. QDs were selected based on the spectral overlap with the quenchers. In the presence of the target BoNT serotype, the peptide probe is cleaved and the quenching of QD photoluminescence (PL) is reduced, giving a signal that is easily detected by a PL spectrophotometer. This sensor performance was evaluated with light chains of BoNT/A and BoNT/B (LcA and LcB), catalytic domains of the respective serotypes. LcA and LcB were detected in 3 h with limits of detection of 0.2 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. The specificity of the sensor was evaluated, and no cross-reactivity from nontarget serotypes was observed with 2 h of incubation. Because each serotype-specific peptide is conjugated to a QD with a unique emission wavelength, multiple biologically active BoNT serotypes could be detected in one PL spectrum. The sensor was also shown to be responsive to BoNT/A and BoNT/B holotoxins. Good performance of this sensor implies its potential application as a rapid screening method for biologically active BoNT/A and BoNT/B in the laboratory and in the field.
Label-Free Carbon-Dots-Based Ratiometric Fluorescence pH Nanoprobes for Intracellular pH Sensing.
Shangguan, Jingfang; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Xu, Fengzhou; Liu, Jinquan; Tang, Jinlu; Yang, Xue; Huang, Jin
2016-08-02
Measuring pH in living cells is of great importance for better understanding cellular functions as well as providing pivotal assistance for early diagnosis of diseases. In this work, we report the first use of a novel kind of label-free carbon dots for intracellular ratiometric fluorescence pH sensing. By simple one-pot hydrothermal treatment of citric acid and basic fuchsin, the carbon dots showing dual emission bands at 475 and 545 nm under single-wavelength excitation were synthesized. It is demonstrated that the fluorescence intensities of the as-synthesized carbon dots at the two emissions are pH-sensitive simultaneously. The intensity ratio (I475 nm/I545 nm) is linear against pH values from 5.2 to 8.8 in buffer solution, affording the capability as ratiometric probes for intracellular pH sensing. It also displays that the carbon dots show excellent reversibility and photostability in pH measurements. With this nanoprobe, quantitative fluorescence imaging using the ratio of two emissions (I475 nm/I545 nm) for the detection of intracellular pH were successfully applied in HeLa cells. In contrast to most of the reported nanomaterials-based ratiometric pH sensors which rely on the attachment of additional dyes, these carbon-dots-based ratiometric probes are low in toxicity, easy to synthesize, and free from labels.
Tunable Hybrid Qubit in a Triple Quantum Dot
Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Hu, Xuedong; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping
2017-12-01
We experimentally demonstrate quantum-coherent dynamics of a triple-dot-based multielectron hybrid qubit. Pulsed experiments show that this system can be conveniently initialized, controlled, measured electrically, and has a good ratio Q ˜29 between the coherence time and gate time. Furthermore, the current multielectron hybrid qubit has an operation frequency that is tunable in a wide range, from 2 to about 15 GHz. We also provide a qualitative understanding of the experimental observations by mapping them onto a three-electron system. The demonstration of the high tunability in a triple dot system could be potentially useful for future quantum control.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Agarwal, G. S
2013-01-01
.... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...
Aptamer-conjugated dendrimer-modified quantum dots for glioblastoma cells imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zhiming; Huang Peng; He Rong; Bao Chenchen; Cui Daxiang; Zhang Xiaomin; Ren Qiushi
2009-01-01
Targeted quantum dots have shown potential as a platform for development of cancer imaging. Aptamers have recently been demonstrated as ideal candidates for molecular targeting applications. In present work, polyamidoamine dendrimers were used to modify surface of quantum dots and improve their solubility in water solution. Then, dendrimer-modified quantum dots were conjugated with DNA aptamer, GBI-10, can recognize the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C on the surface of human glioblastoma cells. The dendrimer-modified quantum dots exhibit water-soluble, high quantum yield, and good biocompatibility. Aptamer-conjugated quantum dots can specifically target U251 human glioblastoma cells. High-performance aptamer-conjugated dendrimers modified quantum dot-based nanoprobes have great potential in application such as cancer imaging.
A group theoretic approach to quantum information
Hayashi, Masahito
2017-01-01
This textbook is the first one addressing quantum information from the viewpoint of group symmetry. Quantum systems have a group symmetrical structure. This structure enables to handle systematically quantum information processing. However, there is no other textbook focusing on group symmetry for quantum information although there exist many textbooks for group representation. After the mathematical preparation of quantum information, this book discusses quantum entanglement and its quantification by using group symmetry. Group symmetry drastically simplifies the calculation of several entanglement measures although their calculations are usually very difficult to handle. This book treats optimal information processes including quantum state estimation, quantum state cloning, estimation of group action and quantum channel etc. Usually it is very difficult to derive the optimal quantum information processes without asymptotic setting of these topics. However, group symmetry allows to derive these optimal solu...
Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.; Hauke, N.
2009-01-01
We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots—photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light–matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot–cavity spectral detuning...... switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components....
Relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ollitrault, J.Y.
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)
Strain-tunable quantum dot devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rastelli, A.; Trotta, R.; Zallo, E.; Atkinson, P.; Magerl, E.; Ding, F.; Plumhof, J.D.; Kumar, S.; Doerr, K.; Schmidt, O.G.
2011-01-01
We introduce a new class of quantum dot-based devices, in which the semiconductor structures are integrated on top of piezoelectric actuators. This combination allows on one hand to study in detail the effects produced by variable strains (up to about 0.2%) on the excitonic emission of single quantum dots and on the other to manipulate their electronic- and optical properties to achieve specific requirements. In fact, by combining strain with electric fields we are able to obtain (i) independent control of emission energy and charge-state of a QD, (II) wavelength-tunable single-QD light-emitting diodes and (III) frequency-stabilized sources of single photons at predefined wavelengths. Possible future extensions and applications of this technology will be discussed.
Quantum Erasure: Quantum Interference Revisited
Walborn, Stephen P.; Cunha, Marcelo O. Terra; Pádua, Sebastião; Monken, Carlos H.
2005-01-01
Recent experiments in quantum optics have shed light on the foundations of quantum physics. Quantum erasers - modified quantum interference experiments - show that quantum entanglement is responsible for the complementarity principle.
Nanosecond-timescale spin transfer using individual electrons in a quadruple-quantum-dot device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baart, T. A.; Jovanovic, N.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech and Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2016-07-25
The ability to coherently transport electron-spin states between different sites of gate-defined semiconductor quantum dots is an essential ingredient for a quantum-dot-based quantum computer. Previous shuttles using electrostatic gating were too slow to move an electron within the spin dephasing time across an array. Here, we report a nanosecond-timescale spin transfer of individual electrons across a quadruple-quantum-dot device. Utilizing enhanced relaxation rates at a so-called hot spot, we can upper bound the shuttle time to at most 150 ns. While actual shuttle times are likely shorter, 150 ns is already fast enough to preserve spin coherence in, e.g., silicon based quantum dots. This work therefore realizes an important prerequisite for coherent spin transfer in quantum dot arrays.
Quantum physics; Physique quantique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J. [Ecole Polytechnique, 75 - Paris (France)
1997-12-31
This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.) refs.
2015-07-16
catalyzed on either a copper foil or on nickel coated substrates. The graphene must be transferred off of these substrates and then on to the DBR/spacer to...properties of graphene in both the exfoliated single layer graphene (SLG) and few layer graphene (FLG) flakes . Sun et al. make use of bile salts to...semiconductors and dielectrics is the transfer of CVD graphene grown on copper foils. The graphene is grown on thin Cu-foils by CVD using methane and
Subramanian, Alagesan; Pan, Zhenghui; Zhang, Zhenbo; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Chen, Jing; Liu, Meinan; Cheng, Shuang; Xu, Yijun; Wu, Jun; Lei, Wei; Khan, Qasim; Zhang, Yuegang
2018-04-18
All-inorganic perovskite light-emitting diode (PeLED) has a high stability in ambient atmosphere, but it is a big challenge to achieve high performance of the device. Basically, device design, control of energy-level alignment, and reducing the energy barrier between adjacent layers in the architecture of PeLED are important factors to achieve high efficiency. In this study, we report a CsPbBr 3 -based PeLED with an inverted architecture using lithium-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles as the electron transport layer (ETL). The optimal lithium doping balances the charge carrier injection between the hole transport layer and ETL, leading to superior device performance. The device exhibits a current efficiency of 3 cd A -1 , a luminance efficiency of 2210 cd m -2 , and a low turn-on voltage of 2.3 V. The turn-on voltage is one of the lowest values among reported CsPbBr 3 -based PeLEDs. A 7-fold increase in device efficiencies has been obtained for lithium-doped TiO 2 compared to that for undoped TiO 2 -based devices.
Photoluminescence under high-electric field of PbS quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Ullrich
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of a laterally applied electric field (≤10 kV/cm on the photoluminescence of colloidal PbS quantum dots (diameter of 2.7 nm on glass was studied. The field provoked a blueshift of the emission peak, a reduction of the luminescent intensity, and caused an increase in the full width at half maximum of the emission spectrum. Upon comparison with the photoluminescence of p-type GaAs exhibits the uniqueness of quantum dot based electric emission control with respect to bulk materials.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Agarwal, G. S
2013-01-01
..., quantum metrology, spin squeezing, control of decoherence and many other key topics. Readers are guided through the principles of quantum optics and their uses in a wide variety of areas including quantum information science and quantum mechanics...
Quantification in emission tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buvat, Irene
2011-11-01
The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena 2 - Main problems impacting quantification in PET and SPECT: problems, consequences, correction methods, results (Attenuation, scattering, partial volume effect, movement, un-stationary spatial resolution in SPECT, fortuitous coincidences in PET, standardisation in PET); 3 - Synthesis: accessible efficiency, know-how, Precautions, beyond the activity measurement
Quantum Instantons and Quantum Chaos
Jirari, H.; Kröger, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Moriarty, K. J. M.; Rubin, S. G.
1999-01-01
Based on a closed form expression for the path integral of quantum transition amplitudes, we suggest rigorous definitions of both, quantum instantons and quantum chaos. As an example we compute the quantum instanton of the double well potential.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiang Guo-Yong; Guo Guang-Can
2013-01-01
The statistical error is ineluctable in any measurement. Quantum techniques, especially with the development of quantum information, can help us squeeze the statistical error and enhance the precision of measurement. In a quantum system, there are some quantum parameters, such as the quantum state, quantum operator, and quantum dimension, which have no classical counterparts. So quantum metrology deals with not only the traditional parameters, but also the quantum parameters. Quantum metrology includes two important parts: measuring the physical parameters with a precision beating the classical physics limit and measuring the quantum parameters precisely. In this review, we will introduce how quantum characters (e.g., squeezed state and quantum entanglement) yield a higher precision, what the research areas are scientists most interesting in, and what the development status of quantum metrology and its perspectives are. (topical review - quantum information)
Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!
Zeps, Dainis
2009-01-01
10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...
Quantification of local mobilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Y. B.
2018-01-01
A new method for quantification of mobilities of local recrystallization boundary segments is presented. The quantification is based on microstructures characterized using electron microscopy and on determination of migration velocities and driving forces for local boundary segments. Pure aluminium...... is investigated and the results show that even for a single recrystallization boundary, different boundary segments migrate differently, and the differences can be understood based on variations in mobilities and local deformed microstructures. The present work has important implications for understanding...
What are the reasons for low use of graphene quantum dots in immunosensing of cancer biomarkers?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasanzadeh, Mohammad, E-mail: mhmmd_hasanzadeh@yahoo.com [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadjou, Nasrin, E-mail: nasrin.shadjou@gmail.com [Department of Nanochemistry, Nano Technology Research Center, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanochemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-02-01
Graphene quantum dots-based immunosensors have recently gained importance for detecting antigens and biomarkers responsible for cancer diagnosis. This paper reports a literature survey of the applications of graphene quantum dots for sensing cancer biomarkers. The survey sought to explore three questions: (1) Do graphene quantum dots improve immunosensing technology? (2) If so, can graphene quantum dots have a critical, positive impact on construction of immuno-devices? And (3) What is the reason for some troubles in the application of this technology? The number of published papers in the field seems positively answer the first two questions. However additional efforts must be made to move from the bench to the real diagnosis. Some approaches to improve the analytical performance of graphene quantum dots-based immunosensors through their figures of merit have been also discussed. - Highlights: • We present the state of the art of GQDs-based immunosensors employed in cancer diagnosis. • Their analytical performance was compared identifying their advantages and limitations. • Approaches to improve the analytical performance of GQDs-based immunosensors are reported.
Red carbon dots-based phosphors for white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 92.
Zhai, Yuechen; Wang, Yi; Li, Di; Zhou, Ding; Jing, Pengtao; Shen, Dezhen; Qu, Songnan
2018-05-29
Exploration of solid-state efficient red emissive carbon dots (CDs) phosphors is strongly desired for the development of high performance CDs-based white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). In this work, enhanced red emissive CDs-based phosphors with photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 25% were prepared by embedding red emissive CDs (PLQYs of 23%) into polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Because of the protection of PVP, the phosphors could preserve strong luminescence under long-term UV excitation or being mixed with conventional packaging materials. By applying the red emissive phosphors as the color conversion layer, WLEDs with high color rendering index of 92 and color coordinate of (0.33, 0.33) are fabricated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quantification of nonclassicality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mraz, Melanie; Sperling, Jan; Vogel, Werner; Hage, Boris [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Physik, Rostock (Germany)
2013-07-01
At the beginning of the 20th century the discussion on physics beyond the classical regime started. This was the hour of birth of quantum physics and, with Einstein's description of the photoelectric effect, of quantum optics. Even the physicists had problems to understand nonclassical quantum phenomena, because of its non-intuitive properties. So, why further struggling? Nonclassical states have an advantage over classical states for various applications. Only one example is the quantum teleportation which would be unthinkable without nonclassical states. Hence, it is of a fundamental interest to study properties of nonclassical quantum states. It is already possible to say if a state is nonclassical or not, but how can we decide how much nonclassicality is in our system? We propose a degree of nonclassicality being a nonclassicality measure. It is determined by the decomposition of a quantum state into superpositions of coherent states. On the one hand, coherent states resembles the behavior of a classical harmonic oscillator most closely. On the other hand, the more quantum superpositions of coherent states are needed, the more quantum interferences arise. A method for such a decomposition of quantum states is presented and the degree of nonclassicality is determined for different states. We apply our method to typical nonclassical states, such as the compass state and the squeezed vacuum state.
Metamorphic quantum dots: Quite different nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seravalli, L.; Frigeri, P.; Nasi, L.; Trevisi, G.; Bocchi, C.
2010-01-01
In this work, we present a study of InAs quantum dots deposited on InGaAs metamorphic buffers by molecular beam epitaxy. By comparing morphological, structural, and optical properties of such nanostructures with those of InAs/GaAs quantum dot ones, we were able to evidence characteristics that are typical of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs structures. The more relevant are: the cross-hatched InGaAs surface overgrown by dots, the change in critical coverages for island nucleation and ripening, the nucleation of new defects in the capping layers, and the redshift in the emission energy. The discussion on experimental results allowed us to conclude that metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dots are rather different nanostructures, where attention must be put to some issues not present in InAs/GaAs structures, namely, buffer-related defects, surface morphology, different dislocation mobility, and stacking fault energies. On the other hand, we show that metamorphic quantum dot nanostructures can provide new possibilities of tailoring various properties, such as dot positioning and emission energy, that could be very useful for innovative dot-based devices.
Zhao, Jianru; Pan, Xiaohua; Sun, Xiaobo; Pan, Wei; Yu, Guifeng; Wang, Jinping
2018-06-01
In this work, carbon dots (CDs) with a high quantum yield (22.3%) were easily prepared by hydrothermal pyrolysis of acid fuchsin 6B and hydrogen peroxide at 180°C for 10 h. The resultant CDs possess a narrow size distribution in the range of 2.6 to 3.2 nm and emit blue fluorescence. Interestingly, the absorption band of metronidazole (MTZ) centered at 318 nm can complementary overlap with the excitation band of the as-prepared CDs centered at 320 nm, resulting in an inner filter effect (IFE) in high efficiency. In fact, the fluorescence quenching of the CDs depends on the concentration of MTZ. Therefore, a simple method for the detection of MTZ can be established using the CDs-based sensor via the IFE. The linear range of the proposed method was 0-10 μg mL -1 with the limit of detection as low as 0.257 μg mL -1 . This CDs-based sensor had been applied for the detection of MTZ in honey and MTZ tablets with the recoveries in the range of 98.0% to 105.1% and 95.7% to 106.5%, respectively. Therefore, the as-prepared CDs have a potential to be developed as a MTZ sensor with high selectivity, sensitivity and accuracy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.
2007-01-01
The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included
Tuning Single Quantum Dot Emission with a Micromirror.
Yuan, Gangcheng; Gómez, Daniel; Kirkwood, Nicholas; Mulvaney, Paul
2018-02-14
The photoluminescence of single quantum dots fluctuates between bright (on) and dark (off) states, also termed fluorescence intermittency or blinking. This blinking limits the performance of quantum dot-based devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. However, the origins of the blinking remain unresolved. Here, we use a movable gold micromirror to determine both the quantum yield of the bright state and the orientation of the excited state dipole of single quantum dots. We observe that the quantum yield of the bright state is close to unity for these single QDs. Furthermore, we also study the effect of a micromirror on blinking, and then evaluate excitation efficiency, biexciton quantum yield, and detection efficiency. The mirror does not modify the off-time statistics, but it does change the density of optical states available to the quantum dot and hence the on times. The duration of the on times can be lengthened due to an increase in the radiative recombination rate.
Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey
2012-06-01
Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The
Fluorescent quantification of melanin.
Fernandes, Bruno; Matamá, Teresa; Guimarães, Diana; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur
2016-11-01
Melanin quantification is reportedly performed by absorption spectroscopy, commonly at 405 nm. Here, we propose the implementation of fluorescence spectroscopy for melanin assessment. In a typical in vitro assay to assess melanin production in response to an external stimulus, absorption spectroscopy clearly overvalues melanin content. This method is also incapable of distinguishing non-melanotic/amelanotic control cells from those that are actually capable of performing melanogenesis. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy is the best method for melanin quantification as it proved to be highly specific and accurate, detecting even small variations in the synthesis of melanin. This method can also be applied to the quantification of melanin in more complex biological matrices like zebrafish embryos and human hair. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Electrically pumped single-photon emission at room temperature from a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deshpande, Saniya; Frost, Thomas; Hazari, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Pallab, E-mail: pkb@eecs.umich.edu [Center for Photonics and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-10-06
We demonstrate a semiconductor quantum dot based electrically pumped single-photon source operating at room temperature. Single photons emitted in the red spectral range from single In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}N/GaN quantum dots exhibit a second-order correlation value g{sup (2)}(0) of 0.29, and fast recombination lifetime ∼1.3 ±0.3 ns at room temperature. The single-photon source can be driven at an excitation repetition rate of 200 MHz.
Chang, Mou-Hsiung
2015-01-01
The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...
Gain dynamics of quantum dot devices for dual-state operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaptan, Y., E-mail: yuecel.kaptan@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, B.; Kolarczik, M.; Owschimikow, N.; Woggon, U. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Technion Institute of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Haifa (Israel)
2014-06-30
Ground state gain dynamics of In(Ga)As-quantum dot excited state lasers are investigated via single-color ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy below and above lasing threshold. Two-color pump-probe experiments are used to localize lasing and non-lasing quantum dots within the inhomogeneously broadened ground state. Single-color results yield similar gain recovery rates of the ground state for lasing and non-lasing quantum dots decreasing from 6 ps to 2 ps with increasing injection current. We find that ground state gain dynamics are influenced solely by the injection current and unaffected by laser operation of the excited state. This independence is promising for dual-state operation schemes in quantum dot based optoelectronic devices.
Scarani, Valerio
1998-01-01
The aim of this thesis was to explain what quantum computing is. The information for the thesis was gathered from books, scientific publications, and news articles. The analysis of the information revealed that quantum computing can be broken down to three areas: theories behind quantum computing explaining the structure of a quantum computer, known quantum algorithms, and the actual physical realizations of a quantum computer. The thesis reveals that moving from classical memor...
Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel A.
2005-01-01
When quantum communication networks proliferate they will likely be subject to a new type of attack: by hackers, virus makers, and other malicious intruders. Here we introduce the concept of "quantum malware" to describe such human-made intrusions. We offer a simple solution for storage of quantum information in a manner which protects quantum networks from quantum malware. This solution involves swapping the quantum information at random times between the network and isolated, distributed an...
Quantumness beyond quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanz, Ángel S
2012-01-01
Bohmian mechanics allows us to understand quantum systems in the light of other quantum traits than the well-known ones (coherence, diffraction, interference, tunnelling, discreteness, entanglement, etc.). Here the discussion focusses precisely on two of these interesting aspects, which arise when quantum mechanics is thought within this theoretical framework: the non-crossing property, which allows for distinguishability without erasing interference patterns, and the possibility to define quantum probability tubes, along which the probability remains constant all the way. Furthermore, taking into account this hydrodynamic-like description as a link, it is also shown how this knowledge (concepts and ideas) can be straightforwardly transferred to other fields of physics (for example, the transmission of light along waveguides).
Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons
Kröger, H.
2003-01-01
We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
Disease quantification in dermatology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Søren; Jemec, Gregor B E
2013-01-01
Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very ...
Hooshmand, Sara; Es'haghi, Zarrin
2017-11-30
A number of four amino acids have been simultaneously determined at CdSe quantum dot-modified/multi-walled carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode in different bodybuilding supplements. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized and applied to construct a modified carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode. FT-IR, TEM, XRD and EDAX methods were applied for characterization of the synthesized CdSe QDs. The electro-oxidation of arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala), methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) at the surface of the modified electrode was studied. Then the Taguchi's method was applied using MINITAB 17 software to find out the optimum conditions for the amino acids determination. Under the optimized conditions, the differential pulse (DP) voltammetric peak currents of Arg, Ala, Met and Cys increased linearly with their concentrations in the ranges of 0.287-33670μM and detection limits of 0.081, 0.158, 0.094 and 0.116μM were obtained for them, respectively. Satisfactory results were achieved for calibration and validation sets. The prepared modified electrode represents a very good resolution between the voltammetric peaks of the four amino acids which makes it suitable for the detection of each in presence of others in real samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hou, Xianfeng; Zeng, Fang; Du, Fangkai; Wu, Shuizhu
2013-08-23
Sulfide anions are generated not only as a byproduct from industrial processes but also in biosystems. Hence, robust fluorescent sensors for detecting sulfide anions which are fast-responding, water soluble and biocompatible are highly desirable. Herein, we report a carbon-dot-based fluorescent sensor, which features excellent water solubility, low cytotoxicity and a short response time. This sensor is based on the ligand/Cu(II) approach so as to achieve fast sensing of sulfide anions. The carbon dot (CD) serves as the fluorophore as well as the anchoring site for the ligands which bind with copper ions. For this CD-based system, as copper ions bind with the ligands which reside on the surface of the CD, the paramagnetic copper ions efficiently quench the fluorescence of the CD, affording the system a turn-off sensor for copper ions. More importantly, the subsequently added sulfide anions can extract Cu(2+) from the system and form very stable CuS with Cu(2+), resulting in fluorescence enhancement and affording the system a turn-on sensor for sulfide anions. This fast-responding and selective sensor can operate in totally aqueous solution or in physiological milieu with a low detection limit of 0.78 μM. It displays good biocompatibility, and excellent cell membrane permeability, and can be used to monitor S(2-) levels in running water and living cells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1990-01-01
The book is on quantum mechanics. The emphasis is on the basic concepts and the methodology. The chapters include: Breakdown of classical concepts; Quantum mechanical concepts; Basic postulates of quantum mechanics; solution of problems in quantum mechanics; Simple harmonic oscillator; and Angular Momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin
2008-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynaud, S.; Giacobino, S.; Zinn-Justin, J.
1997-01-01
This course is dedicated to present in a pedagogical manner the recent developments in peculiar fields concerned by quantum fluctuations: quantum noise in optics, light propagation through dielectric media, sub-Poissonian light generated by lasers and masers, quantum non-demolition measurements, quantum electrodynamics applied to cavities and electrical circuits involving superconducting tunnel junctions. (A.C.)
Lanzagorta, Marco
2011-01-01
This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hooshmand, Sara; Es' haghi, Zarrin, E-mail: eshaghi@pnu.ac.ir
2017-06-15
In this research, a novel sensitive electrochemical nanosensor based on the cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs)/ionic liquid mediated hollow fiber-pencil graphite electrode (HF-PGE) was prepared and applied for simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Crn) in urine and serum samples. The electrocatalytic oxidation of the analytes was investigated via differential pulse (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The experiments were designed, in two different steps, according to Taguchi's method; OA9 L9 (3{sup 3}) and OA9 L9 (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array to optimize experimental runs. The results revealed that the electrode response was initially influenced by the types of sensor and types of ionic liquids and their ratios. The amount of QD, buffer pH, equilibration time and scan rate also influenced electrode response efficiency. According to the results of Taguchi analysis, the amount of tetra phenyl phosphonium chloride (TPPC) and QD were the most influencing parameters on the yield response of the modified electrodes. Linear ranges were obtained between 0.297–2.970 × 10{sup 3} and 0.442–8.840 × 10{sup 3} μM, with the detection limits of 0.083 and 0.229 μM and relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.4% and 1.8%, for UA and Crn, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully examined for simultaneous determination of UA and Crn in human urine and serum samples. - Highlights: • Sensor based on modified CdSe quantum dot/ionic liquid mediated hollow fiber graphite electrode. • One-step simultaneous purification, pre-concentration, extraction, back-extraction and determination of electroactive analytes. • Target analyte uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Crn) in urine and serum samples. • Disposable nature of sensor reduced risk of carry-over.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilin, Sergei Ya
1999-01-01
A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilin, Sergei Ya [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)
1999-05-31
A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1988-12-01
Quantum ontologies are conceptions of the constitution of the universe that are compatible with quantum theory. The ontological orientation is contrasted to the pragmatic orientation of science, and reasons are given for considering quantum ontologies both within science, and in broader contexts. The principal quantum ontologies are described and evaluated. Invited paper at conference: Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, George Mason University, October 20-21, 1988. 16 refs
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Subdecoherence time generation and detection of orbital entanglement in quantum dots.
Brange, F; Malkoc, O; Samuelsson, P
2015-05-01
Recent experiments have demonstrated subdecoherence time control of individual single-electron orbital qubits. Here we propose a quantum-dot-based scheme for generation and detection of pairs of orbitally entangled electrons on a time scale much shorter than the decoherence time. The electrons are entangled, via two-particle interference, and transferred to the detectors during a single cotunneling event, making the scheme insensitive to charge noise. For sufficiently long detector dot lifetimes, cross-correlation detection of the dot charges can be performed with real-time counting techniques, providing for an unambiguous short-time Bell inequality test of orbital entanglement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drummond, P D [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD (Australia).Physics Department
1999-07-01
Full text: Quantum optics in Australia has been an active research field for some years. I shall focus on recent developments in quantum and atom optics. Generally, the field as a whole is becoming more and more diverse, as technological developments drive experiments into new areas, and theorists either attempt to explain the new features, or else develop models for even more exotic ideas. The recent developments include quantum solitons, quantum computing, Bose-Einstein condensation, atom lasers, quantum cryptography, and novel tests of quantum mechanics. The talk will briefly cover current progress and outstanding problems in each of these areas. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society.
Perspective: The future of quantum dot photonic integrated circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin C. Norman
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Direct epitaxial integration of III-V materials on Si offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages over heterogeneous integration. The challenge is that epitaxial growth introduces high densities of crystalline defects that limit device performance and lifetime. Quantum dot lasers, amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors epitaxially grown on Si are showing promise for achieving low-cost, scalable integration with silicon photonics. The unique electrical confinement properties of quantum dots provide reduced sensitivity to the crystalline defects that result from III-V/Si growth, while their unique gain dynamics show promise for improved performance and new functionalities relative to their quantum well counterparts in many devices. Clear advantages for using quantum dot active layers for lasers and amplifiers on and off Si have already been demonstrated, and results for quantum dot based photodetectors and modulators look promising. Laser performance on Si is improving rapidly with continuous-wave threshold currents below 1 mA, injection efficiencies of 87%, and output powers of 175 mW at 20 °C. 1500-h reliability tests at 35 °C showed an extrapolated mean-time-to-failure of more than ten million hours. This represents a significant stride toward efficient, scalable, and reliable III-V lasers on on-axis Si substrates for photonic integrate circuits that are fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS foundries.
Perspective: The future of quantum dot photonic integrated circuits
Norman, Justin C.; Jung, Daehwan; Wan, Yating; Bowers, John E.
2018-03-01
Direct epitaxial integration of III-V materials on Si offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages over heterogeneous integration. The challenge is that epitaxial growth introduces high densities of crystalline defects that limit device performance and lifetime. Quantum dot lasers, amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors epitaxially grown on Si are showing promise for achieving low-cost, scalable integration with silicon photonics. The unique electrical confinement properties of quantum dots provide reduced sensitivity to the crystalline defects that result from III-V/Si growth, while their unique gain dynamics show promise for improved performance and new functionalities relative to their quantum well counterparts in many devices. Clear advantages for using quantum dot active layers for lasers and amplifiers on and off Si have already been demonstrated, and results for quantum dot based photodetectors and modulators look promising. Laser performance on Si is improving rapidly with continuous-wave threshold currents below 1 mA, injection efficiencies of 87%, and output powers of 175 mW at 20 °C. 1500-h reliability tests at 35 °C showed an extrapolated mean-time-to-failure of more than ten million hours. This represents a significant stride toward efficient, scalable, and reliable III-V lasers on on-axis Si substrates for photonic integrate circuits that are fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries.
Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, Alfred
2014-01-01
We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum...... dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new...... avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g2(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission....
Quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shih, Y.H.
2001-01-01
One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. The ''ghost'' interference and the ''ghost'' image experiments demonstrated the astonishing nonlocal behavior of an entangled photon pair. Even though we still have questions in regard to fundamental issues of the entangled quantum systems, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in quantum information and quantum computation. Quantum teleportation is one of the hot topics. We have demonstrated a quantum teleportation experiment recently. The experimental results proved the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that the complete set of Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a quantum state can thus occur with certainty in principle. (orig.)
Optical and Micro-Structural Characterization of MBE Grown Indium Gallium Nitride Polar Quantum Dots
El Afandy, Rami
2011-07-07
Gallium nitride and related materials have ushered in scientific and technological breakthrough for lighting, mass data storage and high power electronic applications. These III-nitride materials have found their niche in blue light emitting diodes and blue laser diodes. Despite the current development, there are still technological problems that still impede the performance of such devices. Three-dimensional nanostructures are proposed to improve the electrical and thermal properties of III-nitride optical devices. This thesis consolidates the characterization results and unveils the unique physical properties of polar indium gallium nitride quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique. In this thesis, a theoretical overview of the physical, structural and optical properties of polar III-nitrides quantum dots will be presented. Particular emphasis will be given to properties that distinguish truncated-pyramidal III-nitride quantum dots from other III-V semiconductor based quantum dots. The optical properties of indium gallium nitride quantum dots are mainly dominated by large polarization fields, as well as quantum confinement effects. Hence, the experimental investigations for such quantum dots require performing bandgap calculations taking into account the internal strain fields, polarization fields and confinement effects. The experiments conducted in this investigation involved the transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. The analysis of the temperature dependence and excitation power dependence of the PL spectra sheds light on the carrier dynamics within the quantum dots, and its underlying wetting layer. A further analysis shows that indium gallium nitride quantum dots through three-dimensional confinements are able to prevent the electronic carriers from getting thermalized into defects which grants III-nitrides quantum dot based light emitting diodes superior thermally induced optical
Quantum robots and quantum computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benioff, P.
1998-07-01
Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.
Quantum computers and quantum computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiev, Kamil' A
2005-01-01
This review outlines the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements. The theory of ideal computers that do not interact with the environment and are immune to quantum decohering processes is presented. Decohering processes in quantum computers are investigated. The review considers methods for correcting quantum computing errors arising from the decoherence of the state of the quantum computer, as well as possible methods for the suppression of the decohering processes. A brief enumeration of proposed quantum computer realizations concludes the review. (reviews of topical problems)
Chanda, Rajat
1997-01-01
The book discusses the laws of quantum mechanics, several amazing quantum phenomena and some recent progress in understanding the connection between the quantum and the classical worlds. We show how paradoxes arise and how to resolve them. The significance of Bell's theorem and the remarkable experimental results on particle correlations are described in some detail. Finally, the current status of our understanding of quantum theory is summerised.
Coleman, Piers; Schofield, Andrew J
2005-01-20
As we mark the centenary of Albert Einstein's seminal contribution to both quantum mechanics and special relativity, we approach another anniversary--that of Einstein's foundation of the quantum theory of solids. But 100 years on, the same experimental measurement that puzzled Einstein and his contemporaries is forcing us to question our understanding of how quantum matter transforms at ultra-low temperatures.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the first part of this article, we had looked at how quantum physics can be harnessed to make the building blocks of a quantum computer. In this concluding part, we look at algorithms which can exploit the power of this computational device, and some practical difficulties in building such a device. Quantum Algorithms.
I, Quantum Robot: Quantum Mind control on a Quantum Computer
Zizzi, Paola
2008-01-01
The logic which describes quantum robots is not orthodox quantum logic, but a deductive calculus which reproduces the quantum tasks (computational processes, and actions) taking into account quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. A way toward the realization of intelligent quantum robots is to adopt a quantum metalanguage to control quantum robots. A physical implementation of a quantum metalanguage might be the use of coherent states in brain signals.
Unitary Quantum Relativity. (Work in Progress)
Finkelstein, David Ritz
2017-01-01
A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.
Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction
Stairs, Allen
2015-01-01
Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.
Quantum dynamics of quantum bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Bich Ha
2011-01-01
The theory of coherent oscillations of the matrix elements of the density matrix of the two-state system as a quantum bit is presented. Different calculation methods are elaborated in the case of a free quantum bit. Then the most appropriate methods are applied to the study of the density matrices of the quantum bits interacting with a classical pumping radiation field as well as with the quantum electromagnetic field in a single-mode microcavity. The theory of decoherence of a quantum bit in Markovian approximation is presented. The decoherence of a quantum bit interacting with monoenergetic photons in a microcavity is also discussed. The content of the present work can be considered as an introduction to the study of the quantum dynamics of quantum bits. (review)
Ranzoni, A.; den Hamer, A.; Karoli, T.; Buechler, J.; Cooper, M.A.
2015-01-01
Fluorescent labels are widely employed in biomarker quantification and diagnostics, however they possess narrow Stokes shifts and can photobleach, limiting multiplexed detection applications and compromising sensitivity. In contrast, quantum dots do not photobleach and have much wider Stokes shifts,
Brown, Matthew J.
2014-02-01
The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.
Zurek, Wojciech Hubert
2009-03-01
Quantum Darwinism describes the proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of a quantum system. It explains how the quantum fragility of a state of a single quantum system can lead to the classical robustness of states in their correlated multitude; shows how effective `wave-packet collapse' arises as a result of the proliferation throughout the environment of imprints of the state of the system; and provides a framework for the derivation of Born's rule, which relates the probabilities of detecting states to their amplitudes. Taken together, these three advances mark considerable progress towards settling the quantum measurement problem.
Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.
1997-01-01
The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP's cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs
Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong
1997-01-01
The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP`s cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kouwenhoven, L.; Marcus, C.
1998-01-01
Quantum dots are man-made ''droplets'' of charge that can contain anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousand. Their typical dimensions range from nanometres to a few microns, and their size, shape and interactions can be precisely controlled through the use of advanced nanofabrication technology. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. Indeed, quantum dots exemplify an important trend in condensed-matter physics in which researchers study man-made objects rather than real atoms or nuclei. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantized due to the confinement of electrons. With quantum dots, however, an experimentalist can scan through the entire periodic table by simply changing a voltage. In this article the authors describe how quantum dots make it possible to explore new physics in regimes that cannot otherwise be accessed in the laboratory. (UK)
Quantum information. Teleporation - cryptography - quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breuer, Reinhard
2010-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Colloquium: Non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems
Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Laine, Elsi-Mari; Piilo, Jyrki; Vacchini, Bassano
2016-04-01
The dynamical behavior of open quantum systems plays a key role in many applications of quantum mechanics, examples ranging from fundamental problems, such as the environment-induced decay of quantum coherence and relaxation in many-body systems, to applications in condensed matter theory, quantum transport, quantum chemistry, and quantum information. In close analogy to a classical Markovian stochastic process, the interaction of an open quantum system with a noisy environment is often modeled phenomenologically by means of a dynamical semigroup with a corresponding time-independent generator in Lindblad form, which describes a memoryless dynamics of the open system typically leading to an irreversible loss of characteristic quantum features. However, in many applications open systems exhibit pronounced memory effects and a revival of genuine quantum properties such as quantum coherence, correlations, and entanglement. Here recent theoretical results on the rich non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems are discussed, paying particular attention to the rigorous mathematical definition, to the physical interpretation and classification, as well as to the quantification of quantum memory effects. The general theory is illustrated by a series of physical examples. The analysis reveals that memory effects of the open system dynamics reflect characteristic features of the environment which opens a new perspective for applications, namely, to exploit a small open system as a quantum probe signifying nontrivial features of the environment it is interacting with. This Colloquium further explores the various physical sources of non-Markovian quantum dynamics, such as structured environmental spectral densities, nonlocal correlations between environmental degrees of freedom, and correlations in the initial system-environment state, in addition to developing schemes for their local detection. Recent experiments addressing the detection, quantification, and control of
Quantum symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
1993-02-01
Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaiser, Uwe; Jimenez de Aberasturi, Dorleta; Vázquez-González, Margarita; Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; Niebling, Tobias; Parak, Wofgang J.; Heimbrodt, Wolfram, E-mail: Wolfram.Heimbrodt@physik.uni-marburg.de [Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-University Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)
2015-01-14
Semiconductor quantum dots functionalized with organic dye molecules are important tools for biological sensor applications. Energy transfer between the quantum dot and the attached dyes can be utilized for sensing. Though important, the determination of the real number of dye molecules attached per quantum dot is rather difficult. In this work, a method will be presented to determine the number of ATTO-590 dye molecules attached to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots based on time resolved spectral analysis. The energy transfer from the excited quantum dot to the attached ATTO-590 dye leads to a reduced lifetime of the quantum dot's excitons. The higher the concentration of dye molecules, the shorter the excitonic lifetime becomes. However, the number of dye molecules attached per quantum dot will vary. Therefore, for correctly explaining the decay of the luminescence upon photoexcitation of the quantum dot, it is necessary to take into account the distribution of the number of dyes attached per quantum dot. A Poisson distribution of the ATTO-590 dye molecules not only leads to excellent agreement between experimental and theoretical decay curves but also additionally yields the average number of dye molecules attached per quantum dot. In this way, the number of dyes per quantum dot can be conveniently determined.
Quantum games as quantum types
Delbecque, Yannick
In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang S
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Shuo Wang, Wanming Li, Dezheng Yuan, Jindan Song, Jin Fang Department of Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ministry of Public Health, and Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The large external antigen (LEA is a cell surface glycoprotein that has been proven to be highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC as a tumor-associated antigen. To evaluate and validate the relationship between LEA expression and clinical characteristics of CRC with high efficiency, LEA expression levels were detected in 85 tissue blocks from CRC patients by quantum dot-based immunohistochemistry (QD-IHC combined with imaging quantitative analysis using quantum dots with a 605 nm emission wavelength (QD605 conjugated to an ND-1 monoclonal antibody against LEA as a probe. Conventional IHC was performed in parallel for comparison. Both QD-IHC and conventional IHC showed that LEA was specifically expressed in CRC, but not in non-CRC tissues, and high LEA expression was significantly associated with a more advanced T-stage (P<0.05, indicating that LEA is likely to serve as a CRC prognostic marker. Compared with conventional IHC, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that QD-IHC possessed higher sensitivity, resulting in an increased positive detection rate of CRC, from 70.1% to 89.6%. In addition, a simpler operation, objective analysis of results, and excellent repeatability make QD-IHC an attractive alternative to conventional IHC in clinical practice. Furthermore, to explore whether the QD probes can be utilized to quantitatively detect living cells or single cells, quantum dot-based immunocytochemistry (QD-ICC combined with imaging quantitative analysis was developed to evaluate LEA expression in several CRC cell lines. It was demonstrated that QD-ICC could also predict the correlation between LEA expression and the T-stage characteristics of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piskorska, E.; Holy, V.; Siebert, M.; Schmidt, Th.; Falta, J.; Yamaguchi, T.; Hommel, D.; Renevier, H.
2006-01-01
The local chemical composition of InGaN quantum dots grown by a MBE method on GaN virtual substrates was investigated by x-ray diffraction anomalous fine-structure method. From the detailed numerical analysis of the data we were able to reconstruct the local neighborhood of Ga atoms at different positions in the dots. Using this approach, we found that the In content increases from 20% at the dot base to 40-50% at the top. (author) [pl
Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari
2016-01-01
This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....
Walls, D F
2007-01-01
Quantum Optics gives a comprehensive coverage of developments in quantum optics over the past years. In the early chapters the formalism of quantum optics is elucidated and the main techniques are introduced. These are applied in the later chapters to problems such as squeezed states of light, resonance fluorescence, laser theory, quantum theory of four-wave mixing, quantum non-demolition measurements, Bell's inequalities, and atom optics. Experimental results are used to illustrate the theory throughout. This yields the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of experiment and theory in quantum optics in any textbook. More than 40 exercises helps readers test their understanding and provide practice in quantitative problem solving.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.
1984-01-01
This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981
Stapp, Henry P.
2011-01-01
Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a 'consistent quantum theory' that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. O...
Grifoni, Milena
1997-01-01
In this thesis, ratchet systems operating in the quantum regime are investigated. Ratchet systems, also known as Brownian motors, are periodic systems presenting an intrinsic asymmetry which can be exploited to extract work out of unbiased forces. As a model for ratchet systems, we consider the motion of a particle in a one-dimensional periodic and asymmetric potential, interacting with a thermal environment, and subject to an unbiased driving force. In quantum ratchets, intrinsic quantum flu...
Quantum space and quantum completeness
Jurić, Tajron
2018-05-01
Motivated by the question whether quantum gravity can "smear out" the classical singularity we analyze a certain quantum space and its quantum-mechanical completeness. Classical singularity is understood as a geodesic incompleteness, while quantum completeness requires a unique unitary time evolution for test fields propagating on an underlying background. Here the crucial point is that quantum completeness renders the Hamiltonian (or spatial part of the wave operator) to be essentially self-adjoint in order to generate a unique time evolution. We examine a model of quantum space which consists of a noncommutative BTZ black hole probed by a test scalar field. We show that the quantum gravity (noncommutative) effect is to enlarge the domain of BTZ parameters for which the relevant wave operator is essentially self-adjoint. This means that the corresponding quantum space is quantum complete for a larger range of BTZ parameters rendering the conclusion that in the quantum space one observes the effect of "smearing out" the singularity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibard, J.; Joffre, M.
2008-01-01
All physics is quantum from elementary particles to stars and to the big-bang via semi-conductors and chemistry. This theory is very subtle and we are not able to explain it without the help of mathematic tools. This book presents the principles of quantum mechanics and describes its mathematical formalism (wave function, Schroedinger equation, quantum operators, spin, Hamiltonians, collisions,..). We find numerous applications in the fields of new technologies (maser, quantum computer, cryptography,..) and in astrophysics. A series of about 90 exercises with their answers is included. This book is based on a physics course at a graduate level. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodgers, P.
1998-01-01
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, P
1998-03-01
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, Andrei; Klein, Moshe; Mor, Tal
2010-01-01
In number theory, a partition of a positive integer n is a way of writing n as a sum of positive integers. The number of partitions of n is given by the partition function p(n). Inspired by quantum information processing, we extend the concept of partitions in number theory as follows: for an integer n, we treat each partition as a basis state of a quantum system representing that number n, so that the Hilbert-space that corresponds to that integer n is of dimension p(n); the 'classical integer' n can thus be generalized into a (pure) quantum state ||ψ(n) > which is a superposition of the partitions of n, in the same way that a quantum bit (qubit) is a generalization of a classical bit. More generally, ρ(n) is a density matrix in that same Hilbert-space (a probability distribution over pure states). Inspired by the notion of quantum numbers in quantum theory (such as in Bohr's model of the atom), we then try to go beyond the partitions, by defining (via recursion) the notion of 'sub-partitions' in number theory. Combining the two notions mentioned above, sub-partitions and quantum integers, we finally provide an alternative definition of the quantum integers [the pure-state |ψ'(n)> and the mixed-state ρ'(n),] this time using the sub-partitions as the basis states instead of the partitions, for describing the quantum number that corresponds to the integer n.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deutsch, D.
1992-01-01
As computers become ever more complex, they inevitably become smaller. This leads to a need for components which are fabricated and operate on increasingly smaller size scales. Quantum theory is already taken into account in microelectronics design. This article explores how quantum theory will need to be incorporated into computers in future in order to give them their components functionality. Computation tasks which depend on quantum effects will become possible. Physicists may have to reconsider their perspective on computation in the light of understanding developed in connection with universal quantum computers. (UK)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, P
1998-03-01
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
Tartakovskii, Alexander
2012-07-01
Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by
A refined methodology for modeling volume quantification performance in CT
Chen, Baiyu; Wilson, Joshua; Samei, Ehsan
2014-03-01
The utility of CT lung nodule volume quantification technique depends on the precision of the quantification. To enable the evaluation of quantification precision, we previously developed a mathematical model that related precision to image resolution and noise properties in uniform backgrounds in terms of an estimability index (e'). The e' was shown to predict empirical precision across 54 imaging and reconstruction protocols, but with different correlation qualities for FBP and iterative reconstruction (IR) due to the non-linearity of IR impacted by anatomical structure. To better account for the non-linearity of IR, this study aimed to refine the noise characterization of the model in the presence of textured backgrounds. Repeated scans of an anthropomorphic lung phantom were acquired. Subtracted images were used to measure the image quantum noise, which was then used to adjust the noise component of the e' calculation measured from a uniform region. In addition to the model refinement, the validation of the model was further extended to 2 nodule sizes (5 and 10 mm) and 2 segmentation algorithms. Results showed that the magnitude of IR's quantum noise was significantly higher in structured backgrounds than in uniform backgrounds (ASiR, 30-50%; MBIR, 100-200%). With the refined model, the correlation between e' values and empirical precision no longer depended on reconstruction algorithm. In conclusion, the model with refined noise characterization relfected the nonlinearity of iterative reconstruction in structured background, and further showed successful prediction of quantification precision across a variety of nodule sizes, dose levels, slice thickness, reconstruction algorithms, and segmentation software.
Verb aspect, alternations and quantification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetla Koeva
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.
Quantum group and quantum symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Zhe.
1994-05-01
This is a self-contained review on the theory of quantum group and its applications to modern physics. A brief introduction is given to the Yang-Baxter equation in integrable quantum field theory and lattice statistical physics. The quantum group is primarily introduced as a systematic method for solving the Yang-Baxter equation. Quantum group theory is presented within the framework of quantum double through quantizing Lie bi-algebra. Both the highest weight and the cyclic representations are investigated for the quantum group and emphasis is laid on the new features of representations for q being a root of unity. Quantum symmetries are explored in selected topics of modern physics. For a Hamiltonian system the quantum symmetry is an enlarged symmetry that maintains invariance of equations of motion and allows a deformation of the Hamiltonian and symplectic form. The configuration space of the integrable lattice model is analyzed in terms of the representation theory of quantum group. By means of constructing the Young operators of quantum group, the Schroedinger equation of the model is transformed to be a set of coupled linear equations that can be solved by the standard method. Quantum symmetry of the minimal model and the WZNW model in conformal field theory is a hidden symmetry expressed in terms of screened vertex operators, and has a deep interplay with the Virasoro algebra. In quantum group approach a complete description for vibrating and rotating diatomic molecules is given. The exact selection rules and wave functions are obtained. The Taylor expansion of the analytic formulas of the approach reproduces the famous Dunham expansion. (author). 133 refs, 20 figs
Quantification of informed opinion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasmuson, D.M.
1985-01-01
The objective of this session, Quantification of Informed Opinion, is to provide the statistician with a better understanding of this important area. The NRC uses informed opinion, sometimes called engineering judgment or subjective judgment, in many areas. Sometimes informed opinion is the only source of information that exists, especially in phenomenological areas, such as steam explosions, where experiments are costly and phenomena are very difficult to measure. There are many degrees of informed opinion. These vary from the weatherman who makes predictions concerning relatively high probability events with a large data base to the phenomenological expert who must use his intuition tempered with basic knowledge and little or no measured data to predict the behavior of events with a low probability of occurrence. The first paper in this session provides the reader with an overview of the subject area. The second paper provides some aspects that must be considered in the collection of informed opinion to improve the quality of the information. The final paper contains an example of the use of informed opinion in the area of seismic hazard characterization. These papers should be useful to researchers and statisticians who need to collect and use informed opinion in their work
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Netravati M
2005-01-01
Full Text Available There is a distinct shift of emphasis in clinical neurology in the last few decades. A few years ago, it was just sufficient for a clinician to precisely record history, document signs, establish diagnosis and write prescription. In the present context, there has been a significant intrusion of scientific culture in clinical practice. Several criteria have been proposed, refined and redefined to ascertain accurate diagnosis for many neurological disorders. Introduction of the concept of impairment, disability, handicap and quality of life has added new dimension to the measurement of health and disease and neurological disorders are no exception. "Best guess" treatment modalities are no more accepted and evidence based medicine has become an integral component of medical care. Traditional treatments need validation and new therapies require vigorous trials. Thus, proper quantification in neurology has become essential, both in practice and research methodology in neurology. While this aspect is widely acknowledged, there is a limited access to a comprehensive document pertaining to measurements in neurology. This following description is a critical appraisal of various measurements and also provides certain commonly used rating scales/scores in neurological practice.
Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenneker, Carsten
2012-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers.
Schuld, Maria; Petruccione, Francesco
2018-02-09
Quantum machine learning witnesses an increasing amount of quantum algorithms for data-driven decision making, a problem with potential applications ranging from automated image recognition to medical diagnosis. Many of those algorithms are implementations of quantum classifiers, or models for the classification of data inputs with a quantum computer. Following the success of collective decision making with ensembles in classical machine learning, this paper introduces the concept of quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers. Creating the ensemble corresponds to a state preparation routine, after which the quantum classifiers are evaluated in parallel and their combined decision is accessed by a single-qubit measurement. This framework naturally allows for exponentially large ensembles in which - similar to Bayesian learning - the individual classifiers do not have to be trained. As an example, we analyse an exponentially large quantum ensemble in which each classifier is weighed according to its performance in classifying the training data, leading to new results for quantum as well as classical machine learning.
Quantum computer games: quantum minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-07-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical minesweeper the goal of the game is to discover all the mines laid out on a board without triggering them, in the quantum version there are several classical boards in superposition. The goal is to know the exact quantum state, i.e. the precise layout of all the mines in all the superposed classical boards. The player can perform three types of measurement: a classical measurement that probabilistically collapses the superposition; a quantum interaction-free measurement that can detect a mine without triggering it; and an entanglement measurement that provides non-local information. The application of the concepts taught by quantum minesweeper to one-way quantum computing are also presented.
Quantum Physics Without Quantum Philosophy
Dürr, Detlef; Zanghì, Nino
2013-01-01
It has often been claimed that without drastic conceptual innovations a genuine explanation of quantum interference effects and quantum randomness is impossible. This book concerns Bohmian mechanics, a simple particle theory that is a counterexample to such claims. The gentle introduction and other contributions collected here show how the phenomena of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to non-commuting observables, emerge from the Bohmian motion of particles, the natural particle motion associated with Schrödinger's equation. This book will be of value to all students and researchers in physics with an interest in the meaning of quantum theory as well as to philosophers of science.
Quantum measurement in quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimble, H.J.
1993-01-01
Recent progress in the generation and application of manifestly quantum or nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field is reviewed with emphasis on the research of the Quantum Optics Group at Caltech. In particular, the possibilities for spectroscopy with non-classical light are discussed both in terms of improved quantitative measurement capabilities and for the fundamental alteration of atomic radiative processes. Quantum correlations for spatially extended systems are investigated in a variety of experiments which utilize nondegenerate parametric down conversion. Finally, the prospects for measurement of the position of a free mass with precision beyond the standard quantum limit are briefly considered. (author). 38 refs., 1 fig
Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chuang, Chi-Hung; Burda, Clemens; Chen, Xiaobo
2013-01-01
Using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we investigated hot carrier distributions in semiconductor cadmium selenide quantum dots. The relaxation processes represent the behavior of an ensemble of QDs. This concept is applied for analysis with the Fermi-Dirac distribution and relaxation processes among different electron-hole pair states. By extracting the experimental hot carrier distribution and fitting with the Fermi-Dirac function, we resolved the rapid thermalization processes, such as carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon interactions was resolved within one picosecond upon photoexcitation. The analysis, using the Fermi-Dirac distribution modulated by the density of states, provides a general route to understanding the carrier cooling and heat dissipation processes in quantum dot-based systems. (copyright 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 9. Quantum Computing - Building Blocks of a Quantum Computer. C S Vijay Vishal Gupta. General Article Volume 5 Issue 9 September 2000 pp 69-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doplicher, S.
1996-01-01
We review some recent result and work in progress on the quantum structure of spacetime at scales comparable with the Planck length; the models discussed here are operationally motivated by the limitations in the accuracy of localization of events in spacetime imposed by the interplay between quantum mechanics and classical general relativity. (orig.)
Pearsall, Thomas P
2017-01-01
This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of nonlocality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawking, S.W.
1984-01-01
The subject of these lectures is quantum effects in cosmology. The author deals first with situations in which the gravitational field can be treated as a classical, unquantized background on which the quantum matter fields propagate. This is the case with inflation at the GUT era. Nevertheless the curvature of spacetime can have important effects on the behaviour of the quantum fields and on the development of long-range correlations. He then turns to the question of the quantization of the gravitational field itself. The plan of these lectures is as follows: Euclidean approach to quantum field theory in flat space; the extension of techniques to quantum fields on a curved background with the four-sphere, the Euclidean version of De Sitter space as a particular example; the GUT era; quantization of the gravitational field by Euclidean path integrals; mini superspace model. (Auth.)
Rae, Alastair I M
2016-01-01
A Thorough Update of One of the Most Highly Regarded Textbooks on Quantum Mechanics Continuing to offer an exceptionally clear, up-to-date treatment of the subject, Quantum Mechanics, Sixth Edition explains the concepts of quantum mechanics for undergraduate students in physics and related disciplines and provides the foundation necessary for other specialized courses. This sixth edition builds on its highly praised predecessors to make the text even more accessible to a wider audience. It is now divided into five parts that separately cover broad topics suitable for any general course on quantum mechanics. New to the Sixth Edition * Three chapters that review prerequisite physics and mathematics, laying out the notation, formalism, and physical basis necessary for the rest of the book * Short descriptions of numerous applications relevant to the physics discussed, giving students a brief look at what quantum mechanics has made possible industrially and scientifically * Additional end-of-chapter problems with...
Richter, Johannes; Farnell, Damian; Bishop, Raymod
2004-01-01
The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects play a dominant role has become a very active branch of solid-state-physics research in its own right. The first three chapters of the "Quantum Magnetism" survey conceptual problems and provide insights into the classes of systems considered, namely one-dimensional, two-dimensional and molecular magnets. The following chapters introduce the methods used in the field of quantum magnetism, including spin wave analysis, exact diagonalization, quantum field theory, coupled cluster methods and the Bethe ansatz. The book closes with a chapter on quantum phase transitions and a contribution that puts the wealth of phenomena into the context of experimental solid-state physics. Closing a gap in the literature, this volume is intended both as an introductory text at postgraduate level and as a modern, comprehensive reference for researchers in the field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steane, Andrew
1998-01-01
The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steane, Andrew [Department of Atomic and Laser Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom)
1998-02-01
The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from
DNA nanosensor based on biocompatible graphene quantum dots and carbon nanotubes.
Qian, Zhao Sheng; Shan, Xiao Yue; Chai, Lu Jing; Ma, Juan Juan; Chen, Jian Rong; Feng, Hui
2014-10-15
An ultrasensitive nanosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between biocompatible graphene quantum dots and carbon nanotubes for DNA detection was reported. We take advantage of good biocompatibility and strong fluorescence of graphene quantum dots, base pairing specificity of DNA and unique fluorescence resonance energy transfer between graphene quantum dots and carbon nanotubes to achieve the analysis of low concentrations of DNA. Graphene quantum dots with high quantum yield up to 0.20 were prepared and served as the fluorophore of DNA probe. FRET process between graphene quantum dots-labeled probe and oxidized carbon nanotubes is easily achieved due to their efficient self-assembly through specific π-π interaction. This nanosensor can distinguish complementary and mismatched nucleic acid sequences with high sensitivity and good reproducibility. The detection method based on this nanosensor possesses a broad linear span of up to 133.0 nM and ultralow detection limit of 0.4 nM. The constructed nanosensor is expected to be highly biocompatible because of all its components with excellent biocompatibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Quantum mechanics with quantum time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapuscik, E.
1984-01-01
Using a non-canonical Lie structure of classical mechanics a new algebra of quantum mechanical observables is constructed. The new algebra, in addition to the notion of classical time, makes it possible to introduce the notion of quantum time. A new type of uncertainty relation is derived. (author)
Proceedings of quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodonov, V.V.; Man; ko, V.I.
1991-01-01
This book contains papers presented at the XVIII International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics held in Moscow on June 4-9, 1990. Topics covered include; applications of algebraic methods in quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, quantum optics, spectrum generating groups, quantum algebras, symmetries of equations, quantum physics, coherent states, group representations and space groups
Quantification of correlations in quantum many-particle systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Byczuk, K.; Kuneš, Jan; Hofstetter, W.; Vollhardt, D.
2012-01-01
Roč. 108, č. 8 (2012), "087004-1"-"087004-5" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : electronic correlations * entropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.087004
Cariolaro, Gianfranco
2015-01-01
This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: · development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; · general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system · particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...
Drummond, P. D.; Chaturvedi, S.; Dechoum, K.; Comey, J.
2001-02-01
We investigate the theory of quantum fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems having large critical fluctuations. This allows us to treat the limits imposed by nonlinearities to quantum squeezing and noise reduction, and also to envisage future tests of quantum theory in regions of macroscopic quantum fluctuations. A long-term objective of this research is to identify suitable physical systems in which macroscopic 'Schrödinger cat'-like behaviour may be observed. We investigate two systems in particular of much current experimental interest, namely the degenerate parametric oscillator near threshold, and the evaporatively cooled (BEC). We compare the results obtained in the positive-P representation, as a fully quantum mechanical calculation, with the truncated Wigner phase space equation, also known as semi-classical theory. We show when these results agree and differ in calculations taken beyond the linearized approximation. In the region where the largest quantum fluctuations and Schrödinger cat-like behaviour might be expected, we find that the quantum predictions correspond very closely to the semi-classical theory. Nature abhors observing a Schrödinger cat. -Pacs: 03.65.Bz
Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language
Blaha, Stephen
2002-01-01
We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.
Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C
Blaha, Stephen
2002-01-01
We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Nan-run; GONG Li-hua; LIU Ye
2006-01-01
In this letter a cascade quantum teleportation scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme needs less local quantum operations than those of quantum multi-teleportation. A quantum teleportation scheme based on entanglement swapping is presented and compared with the cascade quantum teleportation scheme. Those two schemes can effectively teleport quantum information and extend the distance of quantum communication.
Powell, John L
2015-01-01
Suitable for advanced undergraduates, this thorough text focuses on the role of symmetry operations and the essentially algebraic structure of quantum-mechanical theory. Based on courses in quantum mechanics taught by the authors, the treatment provides numerous problems that require applications of theory and serve to supplement the textual material.Starting with a historical introduction to the origins of quantum theory, the book advances to discussions of the foundations of wave mechanics, wave packets and the uncertainty principle, and an examination of the Schrödinger equation that includ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rae, A.I.M.
1981-01-01
This book, based on a thirty lecture course given to students at the beginning of their second year, covers the quantum mechanics required by physics undergraduates. Early chapters deal with wave mechanics, including a discussion of the energy states of the hydrogen atom. These are followed by a more formal development of the theory, leading to a discussion of some advanced applications and an introduction to the conceptual problems associated with quantum measurement theory. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. Problems are included at the end of each chapter. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steiner, F.
1994-01-01
A short historical overview is given on the development of our knowledge of complex dynamical systems with special emphasis on ergodicity and chaos, and on the semiclassical quantization of integrable and chaotic systems. The general trace formular is discussed as a sound mathematical basis for the semiclassical quantization of chaos. Two conjectures are presented on the basis of which it is argued that there are unique fluctuation properties in quantum mechanics which are universal and, in a well defined sense, maximally random if the corresponding classical system is strongly chaotic. These properties constitute the quantum mechanical analogue of the phenomenon of chaos in classical mechanics. Thus quantum chaos has been found. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beretta, G.P.; Gyftopoulos, E.P.; Park, J.L.
1985-01-01
A novel nonlinear equation of motion is proposed for a general quantum system consisting of more than one distinguishable elementary constituent of matter. In the domain of idempotent quantum-mechanical state operators, it is satisfied by all unitary evolutions generated by the Schroedinger equation. But in the broader domain of nonidempotent state operators not contemplated by conventional quantum mechanics, it generates a generally nonunitary evolution, it keeps the energy invariant and causes the entropy to increase with time until the system reaches a state of equilibrium or a limit cycle
Lowe, John P
1993-01-01
Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beenakker, C W J
2005-01-01
Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schroedinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Ba An
2006-01-01
Absolutely and asymptotically secure protocols for organizing an exam in a quantum way are proposed basing judiciously on multipartite entanglement. The protocols are shown to stand against common types of eavesdropping attack
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tittel, W.; Brendel, J.; Gissin, N.; Ribordy, G.; Zbinden, H.
1999-01-01
The principles of quantum cryptography based on non-local correlations of entanglement photons are outlined. The method of coding and decoding of information and experiments is also described. The prospects of the technique are briefly discussed. (Z.J.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cejnar, P.
2007-01-01
Chaos is a name given in physics to a branch which, within classical mechanics, studies the consequences of sensitive dependences of the behavior of physical systems on the starting conditions, i.e., the 'butterfly wing effect'. However, how to describe chaotic behavior in the world of quantum particles? It appears that quantum mechanics does not admit the sensitive dependence on the starting conditions, and moreover, predicts a substantial suppression of chaos also at the macroscopic level. Still, the quantum properties of systems that are chaotic in terms of classical mechanics differ basically from the properties of classically arranged systems. This topic is studied by a field of physics referred to as quantum chaos. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.
1998-01-01
We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative ∂ q replaced by ∂ q with dq = dq/√1-β 2 (q), where β 2 (q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above open-quotes quantum transformationclose quotes, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) - E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures κ W and κ Q which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form (∂ q 2 + κ W )ψ = 0
Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can
2017-01-01
It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)
Duality Quantum Information and Duality Quantum Communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, C. Y.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, C.; Song, S. Y.; Long, G. L.
2011-01-01
Quantum mechanical systems exhibit particle wave duality property. This duality property has been exploited for information processing. A duality quantum computer is a quantum computer on the move and passing through a multi-slits. It offers quantum wave divider and quantum wave combiner operations in addition to those allowed in an ordinary quantum computer. It has been shown that all linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and a duality quantum computer with n qubits and d-slits can be realized in an ordinary quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit in the so-called duality quantum computing mode. The quantum particle-wave duality can be used in providing secure communication. In this paper, we will review duality quantum computing and duality quantum key distribution.
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spehner, Dominique [Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Fourier, F-38000 Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique et Modélisation des Milieux Condensés, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2014-07-15
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spehner, Dominique
2014-01-01
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature
Stapp, Henry P.
2012-05-01
Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a `consistent quantum theory' that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are not entailed by the precepts of quantum mechanics. Thus whatever is proved is not a feature of quantum mechanics, but is a property of a theory that tries to combine quantum theory with quasi-classical features that go beyond what is entailed by quantum theory itself. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by establishing, instead, properties of a system modified by adding properties alien to the original system. Hence Griffiths' rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his `consistent quantum theory' shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive version of quantum theory. An added section responds to Griffiths' reply, which cites general possibilities of ambiguities that might make what is to be proved ill-defined, and hence render the pertinent `consistent framework' ill defined. But the vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question, which, both by its physical formulation and by explicit identification, specify the framework to be used. Griffiths confirms the validity of the proof insofar as that pertinent framework is used. The section also shows
CERN Bulletin
2013-01-01
On April Fools' Day, CERN Quantum Diaries blogger Pauline Gagnon held a giveaway of microscopic proportion. Up for grabs? Ten Higgs bosons, courtesy of CERN. Pauline announced the winners last week; let's see what they'll really be getting in the mail... Custom-made Particle Zoo Higgs bosons were sent out to the winners. Read more about the prize in the Quantum Diaries post "Higgs boson lottery: when CERN plays April Fools' jokes".
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....
Grunspan, C.
2003-01-01
This text gives some results about quantum torsors. Our starting point is an old reformulation of torsors recalled recently by Kontsevich. We propose an unification of the definitions of torsors in algebraic geometry and in Poisson geometry. Any quantum torsor is equipped with two comodule-algebra structures over Hopf algebras and these structures commute with each other. In the finite dimensional case, these two Hopf algebras share the same finite dimension. We show that any Galois extension...
Mazilu, Michael
2015-01-01
ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Hua; Zhang, Yu, E-mail: yuzhang@jlu.edu.cn; Lu, Min; Liu, Wenyan [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering (China); Xu, Jian [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics (United States); Yu, William W., E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering (China)
2016-07-15
With tunable emission wavelength, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and broad absorption, colloidal quantum dots are attractive for the application in optical fiber as dopants. However, most of the quantum dots have a large overlap between their absorption and photoluminescence spectra, resulting in reabsorption loss which hinders the realization of long-distance waveguides. Therefore, ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots with large Stokes shift were proposed to fabricate a liquid-core optical fiber in this work. In this work, ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs with an average size of 3.3 nm were synthesized and the optical properties of the QD-filled fiber were also investigated as a function of fiber length and doping concentration. Compared to the control sample filled with CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot-based waveguides showed reduced reabsorption and enhanced signal propagation, which demonstrates great potential of large Stokes-shift quantum dots in optical waveguide devices.Graphical AbstractA reduced reabsorption and enhanced propagation of ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs-doped liquid-core optical fiber was achieved due to the large Stokes shift.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjiivanov, L.; Todorov, I.
2015-01-01
Expository paper providing a historical survey of the gradual transformation of the 'philosophical discussions' between Bohr, Einstein and Schrödinger on foundational issues in quantum mechanics into a quantitative prediction of a new quantum effect, its experimental verification and its proposed (and loudly advertised) applications. The basic idea of the 1935 paper of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) was reformulated by David Bohm for a finite dimensional spin system. This allowed John Bell to derive his inequalities that separate the prediction of quantum entanglement from its possible classical interpretation. We reproduce here their later (1971) version, reviewing on the way the generalization (and mathematical derivation) of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations (due to Weyl and Schrödinger) needed for the passage from EPR to Bell. We also provide an improved derivation of the quantum theoretic violation of Bell's inequalities. Soon after the experimental confirmation of the quantum entanglement (culminating with the work of Alain Aspect) it was Feynman who made public the idea of a quantum computer based on the observed effect
Quantum Computation and Quantum Spin Dynamics
Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel; Hams, Anthony; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji
2001-01-01
We analyze the stability of quantum computations on physically realizable quantum computers by simulating quantum spin models representing quantum computer hardware. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum
Quantum computing: Quantum advantage deferred
Childs, Andrew M.
2017-12-01
A type of optics experiment called a boson sampler could be among the easiest routes to demonstrating the power of quantum computers. But recent work shows that super-classical boson sampling may be a long way off.
Quantum Physics for Beginners.
Strand, J.
1981-01-01
Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)
Quantum Transmemetic Intelligence
Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan
The following sections are included: * Introduction * A Quantum Model of Free Will * Quantum Acquisition of Knowledge * Thinking as a Quantum Algorithm * Counterfactual Measurement as a Model of Intuition * Quantum Modification of Freud's Model of Consciousness * Conclusion * Acknowledgements * References
Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Peng [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Bai, Xue, E-mail: baix@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: yuzhang@jlu.edu.cn; Sun, Chun; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yu, E-mail: baix@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: yuzhang@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Tieqiang [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)
2016-08-08
High quantum yield, narrow full width at half-maximum and tunable emission color of perovskite quantum dots (QDs) make this kind of material good prospects for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the relatively poor stability under high temperature and air condition limits the device performance. To overcome this issue, the liquid-type packaging structure in combination with blue LED chip was employed to fabricate the fluorescent perovskite quantum dot-based LEDs. A variety of monochromatic LEDs with green, yellow, reddish-orange, and red emission were fabricated by utilizing the inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots as the color-conversion layer, which exhibited the narrow full width at half-maximum (<35 nm), the relatively high luminous efficiency (reaching 75.5 lm/W), and the relatively high external quantum efficiency (14.6%), making it the best-performing perovskite LEDs so far. Compared to the solid state LED device, the liquid-type LED devices exhibited excellent color stability against the various working currents. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential prospects of all-inorganic perovskite QDs for the liquid-type warm white LEDs.
Anisotropic Pauli Spin Blockade of Holes in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot
Wang, Qingwen; Klochan, Oleh; Hung, Jo-Tzu; Culcer, Dimitrie; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Hamilton, Alex
Electrically defined semiconductor quantum dots are appealing systems for spin manipulation and quantum information processing. Thanks to the weak hyperfine interaction and the strong spin-orbit interaction, heavy-holes in GaAs are promising candidates for all-electrical spin manipulation. However, making stable quantum dots in GaAs has only become possible recently, mainly because of difficulties in device fabrication and device stability. Here we present electrical transport measurements of heavy-holes in a lateral double quantum dot based on a GaAs /AlxGa1 - x As heterostructure. We observe clear Pauli spin blockade and show that the lifting of the spin blockade by an external magnetic field is extremely anisotropic. Numerical calculations of heavy-hole transport through a double quantum dot in the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction demonstrate quantitative agreement with experimental results, which indicates that the observed anisotropy can be explained by the anisotropic hole g-factor and the surface Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling.
A customizable class of colloidal-quantum-dot spasers and plasmonic amplifiers.
Kress, Stephan J P; Cui, Jian; Rohner, Patrik; Kim, David K; Antolinez, Felipe V; Zaininger, Karl-Augustin; Jayanti, Sriharsha V; Richner, Patrizia; McPeak, Kevin M; Poulikakos, Dimos; Norris, David J
2017-09-01
Colloidal quantum dots are robust, efficient, and tunable emitters now used in lighting, displays, and lasers. Consequently, when the spaser-a laser-like source of high-intensity, narrow-band surface plasmons-was first proposed, quantum dots were specified as the ideal plasmonic gain medium for overcoming the significant intrinsic losses of plasmons. Many subsequent spasers, however, have required a single material to simultaneously provide gain and define the plasmonic cavity, a design unable to accommodate quantum dots and other colloidal nanomaterials. In addition, these and other designs have been ill suited for integration with other elements in a larger plasmonic circuit, limiting their use. We develop a more open architecture that decouples the gain medium from the cavity, leading to a versatile class of quantum dot-based spasers that allow controlled generation, extraction, and manipulation of plasmons. We first create aberration-corrected plasmonic cavities with high quality factors at desired locations on an ultrasmooth silver substrate. We then incorporate quantum dots into these cavities via electrohydrodynamic printing or drop-casting. Photoexcitation under ambient conditions generates monochromatic plasmons (0.65-nm linewidth at 630 nm, Q ~ 1000) above threshold. This signal is extracted, directed through an integrated amplifier, and focused at a nearby nanoscale tip, generating intense electromagnetic fields. More generally, our device platform can be straightforwardly deployed at different wavelengths, size scales, and geometries on large-area plasmonic chips for fundamental studies and applications.
Fan-out Estimation in Spin-based Quantum Computer Scale-up.
Nguyen, Thien; Hill, Charles D; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; James, Matthew R
2017-10-17
Solid-state spin-based qubits offer good prospects for scaling based on their long coherence times and nexus to large-scale electronic scale-up technologies. However, high-threshold quantum error correction requires a two-dimensional qubit array operating in parallel, posing significant challenges in fabrication and control. While architectures incorporating distributed quantum control meet this challenge head-on, most designs rely on individual control and readout of all qubits with high gate densities. We analysed the fan-out routing overhead of a dedicated control line architecture, basing the analysis on a generalised solid-state spin qubit platform parameterised to encompass Coulomb confined (e.g. donor based spin qubits) or electrostatically confined (e.g. quantum dot based spin qubits) implementations. The spatial scalability under this model is estimated using standard electronic routing methods and present-day fabrication constraints. Based on reasonable assumptions for qubit control and readout we estimate 10 2 -10 5 physical qubits, depending on the quantum interconnect implementation, can be integrated and fanned-out independently. Assuming relatively long control-free interconnects the scalability can be extended. Ultimately, the universal quantum computation may necessitate a much higher number of integrated qubits, indicating that higher dimensional electronics fabrication and/or multiplexed distributed control and readout schemes may be the preferredstrategy for large-scale implementation.
Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Peng; Bai, Xue; Sun, Chun; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Tieqiang
2016-01-01
High quantum yield, narrow full width at half-maximum and tunable emission color of perovskite quantum dots (QDs) make this kind of material good prospects for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the relatively poor stability under high temperature and air condition limits the device performance. To overcome this issue, the liquid-type packaging structure in combination with blue LED chip was employed to fabricate the fluorescent perovskite quantum dot-based LEDs. A variety of monochromatic LEDs with green, yellow, reddish-orange, and red emission were fabricated by utilizing the inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots as the color-conversion layer, which exhibited the narrow full width at half-maximum (<35 nm), the relatively high luminous efficiency (reaching 75.5 lm/W), and the relatively high external quantum efficiency (14.6%), making it the best-performing perovskite LEDs so far. Compared to the solid state LED device, the liquid-type LED devices exhibited excellent color stability against the various working currents. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential prospects of all-inorganic perovskite QDs for the liquid-type warm white LEDs.
Yang, Siwei; Sun, Jing; Zhu, Chong; He, Peng; Peng, Zheng; Ding, Guqiao
2016-02-07
The graphene quantum dot based fluorescent probe community needs unambiguous evidence about the control on the ion selectivity. In this paper, polyethylene glycol modified N-doped graphene quantum dots (PN-GQDs) were synthesized by alkylation reaction between graphene quantum dots and organic halides. We demonstrate the tunable selectivity and sensitivity by controlling the supramolecular recognition through the length and the end group size of the polyether chain on PN-GQDs. The relationship formulae between the selectivity/detection limit and polyether chains are experimentally deduced. The polyether chain length determines the interaction between the PN-GQDs and ions with different ratios of charge to radius, which in turn leads to a good selectivity control. Meanwhile the detection limit shows an exponential growth with the size of end groups of the polyether chain. The PN-GQDs can be used as ultrasensitive and selective fluorescent probes for Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), respectively.
Quantum correlations in multipartite quantum systems
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Heshmati, A.; Karimi, N.; Yahyavi, M.
2018-03-01
Quantum entanglement is the most famous type of quantum correlation between elements of a quantum system that has a basic role in quantum communication protocols like quantum cryptography, teleportation and Bell inequality detection. However, it has already been shown that various applications in quantum information theory do not require entanglement. Quantum discord as a new kind of quantum correlations beyond entanglement, is the most popular candidate for general quantum correlations. In this paper, first we find the entanglement witness in a particular multipartite quantum system which consists of a N-partite system in 2 n -dimensional space. Then we give an exact analytical formula for the quantum discord of this system. At the end of the paper, we investigate the additivity relation of the quantum correlation and show that this relation is satisfied for a N-partite system with 2 n -dimensional space.
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Benny N.
2000-01-01
There has been significant improvement in the performance of VLSI devices, in terms of size, power consumption, and speed, in recent years and this trend may also continue for some near future. However, it is a well known fact that there are major obstacles, i.e., physical limitation of feature size reduction and ever increasing cost of foundry, that would prevent the long term continuation of this trend. This has motivated the exploration of some fundamentally new technologies that are not dependent on the conventional feature size approach. Such technologies are expected to enable scaling to continue to the ultimate level, i.e., molecular and atomistic size. Quantum computing, quantum dot-based computing, DNA based computing, biologically inspired computing, etc., are examples of such new technologies. In particular, quantum-dots based computing by using Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has recently been intensely investigated as a promising new technology capable of offering significant improvement over conventional VLSI in terms of reduction of feature size (and hence increase in integration level), reduction of power consumption, and increase of switching speed. Quantum dot-based computing and memory in general and QCA specifically, are intriguing to NASA due to their high packing density (10(exp 11) - 10(exp 12) per square cm ) and low power consumption (no transfer of current) and potentially higher radiation tolerant. Under Revolutionary Computing Technology (RTC) Program at the NASA/JPL Center for Integrated Space Microelectronics (CISM), we have been investigating the potential applications of QCA for the space program. To this end, exploiting the intrinsic features of QCA, we have designed novel QCA-based circuits for co-planner (i.e., single layer) and compact implementation of a class of data permutation matrices, a class of interconnection networks, and a bit-serial processor. Building upon these circuits, we have developed novel algorithms and QCA
Long distance quantum teleportation
Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2018-01-01
Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.
Electron quantum optics as quantum signal processing
Roussel, B.; Cabart, C.; Fève, G.; Thibierge, E.; Degiovanni, P.
2016-01-01
The recent developments of electron quantum optics in quantum Hall edge channels have given us new ways to probe the behavior of electrons in quantum conductors. It has brought new quantities called electronic coherences under the spotlight. In this paper, we explore the relations between electron quantum optics and signal processing through a global review of the various methods for accessing single- and two-electron coherences in electron quantum optics. We interpret electron quantum optics...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abram, I [Centre National d' Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 196 Avenue Henri Ravera, F-92220 Bagneux (France)
1999-02-01
Two of the most remarkable properties of light - squeezing and solitons - are being combined in a new generation of experiments that could revolutionize optics and communications. One area of application concerns the transmission and processing of classical (binary) information, in which the presence or absence of a soliton in a time-window corresponds to a ''1'' or ''0'', as in traditional optical-fibre communications. However, since solitons occur at fixed power levels, we do not have the luxury of being able to crank up the input power to improve the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving end. Nevertheless, the exploitation of quantum effects such as squeezing could help to reduce noise and improve fidelity. In long-distance communications, where the signal is amplified every 50-100 kilometres or so, the soliton pulse is strongest just after the amplifier. Luckily this is where the bulk of the nonlinear interaction needed to maintain the soliton shape occurs. However, the pulse gets weaker as it propagates along the fibre, so the nonlinear interaction also becomes weakerand weaker. This means that dispersive effects become dominant until the next stage of amplification, where the nonlinearity takes over again. One problem is that quantum fluctuations in the amplifiers lead to random jumps in the central wavelength of the individual solitons, and this results in a random variation of the speed of individual solitons in the fibre. Several schemes have been devised to remove this excess noise and bring the train of solitons back to the orderly behaviour characteristic of a stable coherent state (e.g. the solitons could be passed through a spectral filter). Photon-number squeezing could also play a key role in solving this problem. For example, if the solitons are number-squeezed immediately after amplification, there will be a smaller uncertainty in the nonlinearity that keeps the soliton in shape and, therefore, there will also be less noise in the soliton. This
Le Bellac, Michel
2006-03-01
Quantum physics allows us to understand the nature of the physical phenomena which govern the behavior of solids, semi-conductors, lasers, atoms, nuclei, subnuclear particles and light. In Quantum Physics, Le Bellac provides a thoroughly modern approach to this fundamental theory. Throughout the book, Le Bellac teaches the fundamentals of quantum physics using an original approach which relies primarily on an algebraic treatment and on the systematic use of symmetry principles. In addition to the standard topics such as one-dimensional potentials, angular momentum and scattering theory, the reader is introduced to more recent developments at an early stage. These include a detailed account of entangled states and their applications, the optical Bloch equations, the theory of laser cooling and of magneto-optical traps, vacuum Rabi oscillations, and an introduction to open quantum systems. This is a textbook for a modern course on quantum physics, written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Completely original and contemporary approach, using algebra and symmetry principles Introduces recent developments at an early stage, including many topics that cannot be found in standard textbooks. Contains 130 physically relevant exercises
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reinhard, Friedemann [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). 3. Physikalisches Institut
2010-07-01
Quantum minigolf is a virtual-reality computer game visualizing quantum mechanics. The rules are the same as for the classical game minigolf, the goal being to kick a ball such that it crosses an obstacle course and runs into a hole. The ball, however, follows the laws of quantum mechanics: It can be at several places at once or tunnel through obstacles. To know whether the ball has reached the goal, the player has to perform a position measurement, which converts the ball into a classical object and fixes its position. But quantum mechanics is indeterministic: There is always a chance to lose, even for Tiger Woods. Technically, the obstacle course and the ball are projected onto the floor by a video projector. The position of the club is tracked by an infrared marker, similar as in Nintendo's Wii console. The whole setup is portable and the software has been published under the GPL license on www.quantum-minigolf.org.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kendon, Viv
2014-01-01
Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are “universal for quantum computation” relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer
Quantum group gauge theory on quantum spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzezinski, T.; Majid, S.
1993-01-01
We construct quantum group-valued canonical connections on quantum homogeneous spaces, including a q-deformed Dirac monopole on the quantum sphere of Podles quantum differential coming from the 3-D calculus of Woronowicz on SU q (2). The construction is presented within the setting of a general theory of quantum principal bundles with quantum group (Hopf algebra) fiber, associated quantum vector bundles and connection one-forms. Both the base space (spacetime) and the total space are non-commutative algebras (quantum spaces). (orig.)
Efficient quantum circuit implementation of quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, B. L.; Wang, J. B.
2009-01-01
Quantum walks, being the quantum analog of classical random walks, are expected to provide a fruitful source of quantum algorithms. A few such algorithms have already been developed, including the 'glued trees' algorithm, which provides an exponential speedup over classical methods, relative to a particular quantum oracle. Here, we discuss the possibility of a quantum walk algorithm yielding such an exponential speedup over possible classical algorithms, without the use of an oracle. We provide examples of some highly symmetric graphs on which efficient quantum circuits implementing quantum walks can be constructed and discuss potential applications to quantum search for marked vertices along these graphs.
Renormalisation in Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Instantons and Quantum Chaos
Jirari, H.; Kröger, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Moriarty, K. J. M.
2001-01-01
We suggest how to construct non-perturbatively a renormalized action in quantum mechanics. We discuss similarties and differences with the standard effective action. We propose that the new quantum action is suitable to define and compute quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
Fitzpatrick, Richard
2015-01-01
Quantum mechanics was developed during the first few decades of the twentieth century via a series of inspired guesses made by various physicists, including Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, and Dirac. All these scientists were trying to construct a self-consistent theory of microscopic dynamics that was compatible with experimental observations. The purpose of this book is to present quantum mechanics in a clear, concise, and systematic fashion, starting from the fundamental postulates, and developing the theory in as logical manner as possible. Topics covered in the book include the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, angular momentum, time-dependent and time-dependent perturbation theory, scattering theory, identical particles, and relativistic electron theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey A. Barrett
2016-09-01
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p45 Because of the conceptual difficulties it faces, quantum mechanics provides a salient example of how alternative metaphysical commitments may clarify our understanding of a physical theory and the explanations it provides. Here we will consider how postulating alternative quantum worlds in the context of Hugh Everett III’s pure wave mechanics may serve to explain determinate measurement records and the standard quantum statistics. We will focus on the properties of such worlds, then briefly consider other metaphysical options available for interpreting pure wave mechanics. These reflections will serve to illustrate both the nature and the limits of naturalized metaphysics.
Mullin, William J
2017-01-01
Quantum mechanics allows a remarkably accurate description of nature and powerful predictive capabilities. The analyses of quantum systems and their interpretation lead to many surprises, for example, the ability to detect the characteristics of an object without ever touching it in any way, via "interaction-free measurement," or the teleportation of an atomic state over large distances. The results can become downright bizarre. Quantum mechanics is a subtle subject that usually involves complicated mathematics -- calculus, partial differential equations, etc., for complete understanding. Most texts for general audiences avoid all mathematics. The result is that the reader misses almost all deep understanding of the subject, much of which can be probed with just high-school level algebra and trigonometry. Thus, readers with that level of mathematics can learn so much more about this fundamental science. The book starts with a discussion of the basic physics of waves (an appendix reviews some necessary class...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isham, C.
1989-01-01
Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)
Ghosh, P K
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics, designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, mathematics and chemistry, provides a concise yet self-contained introduction to the formal framework of quantum mechanics, its application to physical problems and the interpretation of the theory. Starting with a review of some of the necessary mathematics, the basic concepts are carefully developed in the text. After building a general formalism, detailed treatment of the standard material - the harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, angular momentum theory, symmetry transformations, approximation methods, identical particle and many-particle systems, and scattering theory - is presented. The concluding chapter discusses the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Some of the important topics discussed in the book are the rigged Hilbert space, deformation quantization, path integrals, coherent states, geometric phases, decoherene, etc. This book is characterized by clarity and coherence of presentation.
Exner, Pavel
2015-01-01
This monograph explains the theory of quantum waveguides, that is, dynamics of quantum particles confined to regions in the form of tubes, layers, networks, etc. The focus is on relations between the confinement geometry on the one hand and the spectral and scattering properties of the corresponding quantum Hamiltonians on the other. Perturbations of such operators, in particular, by external fields are also considered. The volume provides a unique summary of twenty five years of research activity in this area and indicates ways in which the theory can develop further. The book is fairly self-contained. While it requires some broader mathematical physics background, all the basic concepts are properly explained and proofs of most theorems are given in detail, so there is no need for additional sources. Without a parallel in the literature, the monograph by Exner and Kovarik guides the reader through this new and exciting field.
Rae, Alastair I M
2007-01-01
PREFACESINTRODUCTION The Photoelectric Effect The Compton Effect Line Spectra and Atomic Structure De Broglie Waves Wave-Particle Duality The Rest of This Book THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation The Time-Independent Schrödinger Equation Boundary ConditionsThe Infinite Square Well The Finite Square Well Quantum Mechanical Tunneling The Harmonic Oscillator THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Wave Equations Separation in Cartesian Coordinates Separation in Spherical Polar Coordinates The Hydrogenic Atom THE BASIC POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MEC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bohigas, Oriol [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Orsay (France)
2005-04-18
Are there quantum signatures, for instance in the spectral properties, of the underlying regular or chaotic nature of the corresponding classical motion? Are there universality classes? Within this framework the merging of two at first sight seemingly disconnected fields, namely random matrix theories (RMT) and quantum chaos (QC), is briefly described. Periodic orbit theory (POT) plays a prominent role. Emphasis is given to compound nucleus resonances and binding energies, whose shell effects are examined from this perspective. Several aspects are illustrated with Riemann's {zeta}-function, which has become a testing ground for RMT, QC, POT, and their relationship.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohigas, Oriol
2005-01-01
Are there quantum signatures, for instance in the spectral properties, of the underlying regular or chaotic nature of the corresponding classical motion? Are there universality classes? Within this framework the merging of two at first sight seemingly disconnected fields, namely random matrix theories (RMT) and quantum chaos (QC), is briefly described. Periodic orbit theory (POT) plays a prominent role. Emphasis is given to compound nucleus resonances and binding energies, whose shell effects are examined from this perspective. Several aspects are illustrated with Riemann's ζ-function, which has become a testing ground for RMT, QC, POT, and their relationship
Page, Don N.
2006-01-01
A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habib, S.
1994-01-01
We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source
Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation
Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying
2017-04-01
Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.
Quantum control limited by quantum decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue, Fei; Sun, C. P.; Yu, S. X.
2006-01-01
We describe quantum controllability under the influences of the quantum decoherence induced by the quantum control itself. It is shown that, when the controller is considered as a quantum system, it will entangle with its controlled system and then cause quantum decoherence in the controlled system. In competition with this induced decoherence, the controllability will be limited by some uncertainty relation in a well-armed quantum control process. In association with the phase uncertainty and the standard quantum limit, a general model is studied to demonstrate the possibility of realizing a decoherence-free quantum control with a finite energy within a finite time. It is also shown that if the operations of quantum control are to be determined by the initial state of the controller, then due to the decoherence which results from the quantum control itself, there exists a low bound for quantum controllability
Quantum memory for images: A quantum hologram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Polzik, Eugene S.
2008-01-01
Matter-light quantum interface and quantum memory for light are important ingredients of quantum information protocols, such as quantum networks, distributed quantum computation, etc. [P. Zoller et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203 (2005)]. In this paper we present a spatially multimode scheme for quantum memory for light, which we call a quantum hologram. Our approach uses a multiatom ensemble which has been shown to be efficient for a single spatial mode quantum memory. Due to the multiatom nature of the ensemble and to the optical parallelism it is capable of storing many spatial modes, a feature critical for the present proposal. A quantum hologram with the fidelity exceeding that of classical hologram will be able to store quantum features of an image, such as multimode superposition and entangled quantum states, something that a standard hologram is unable to achieve
Quantum machine learning for quantum anomaly detection
Liu, Nana; Rebentrost, Patrick
2018-04-01
Anomaly detection is used for identifying data that deviate from "normal" data patterns. Its usage on classical data finds diverse applications in many important areas such as finance, fraud detection, medical diagnoses, data cleaning, and surveillance. With the advent of quantum technologies, anomaly detection of quantum data, in the form of quantum states, may become an important component of quantum applications. Machine-learning algorithms are playing pivotal roles in anomaly detection using classical data. Two widely used algorithms are the kernel principal component analysis and the one-class support vector machine. We find corresponding quantum algorithms to detect anomalies in quantum states. We show that these two quantum algorithms can be performed using resources that are logarithmic in the dimensionality of quantum states. For pure quantum states, these resources can also be logarithmic in the number of quantum states used for training the machine-learning algorithm. This makes these algorithms potentially applicable to big quantum data applications.
Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology
Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos
2013-01-01
Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe. While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models. ...
Quantum biological information theory
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2016-01-01
This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...
Collagen Quantification in Tissue Specimens.
Coentro, João Quintas; Capella-Monsonís, Héctor; Graceffa, Valeria; Wu, Zhuning; Mullen, Anne Maria; Raghunath, Michael; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I
2017-01-01
Collagen is the major extracellular protein in mammals. Accurate quantification of collagen is essential in the biomaterials (e.g., reproducible collagen scaffold fabrication), drug discovery (e.g., assessment of collagen in pathophysiologies, such as fibrosis), and tissue engineering (e.g., quantification of cell-synthesized collagen) fields. Although measuring hydroxyproline content is the most widely used method to quantify collagen in biological specimens, the process is very laborious. To this end, the Sircol™ Collagen Assay is widely used due to its inherent simplicity and convenience. However, this method leads to overestimation of collagen content due to the interaction of Sirius red with basic amino acids of non-collagenous proteins. Herein, we describe the addition of an ultrafiltration purification step in the process to accurately determine collagen content in tissues.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Quantum Computation - Particle and Wave Aspects of Algorithms. Apoorva Patel. General Article Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 821-835. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
performance driven optimization ofVLSI ... start-up company at lIT. Mumbai. ... 1 The best known algorithms for factorization ... make a measurement the quantum state continues to be ... cally in this way: if there is a source producing identical.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Sergi
2009-06-01
Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1979-01-01
The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)
Burba, M.; Lapitskaya, T.
2017-01-01
This article gives an elementary introduction to quantum computing. It is a draft for a book chapter of the "Handbook of Nature-Inspired and Innovative Computing", Eds. A. Zomaya, G.J. Milburn, J. Dongarra, D. Bader, R. Brent, M. Eshaghian-Wilner, F. Seredynski (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2006).
Raedt, Hans De; Binder, K; Ciccotti, G
1996-01-01
The purpose of this set of lectures is to introduce the general concepts that are at the basis of the computer simulation algorithms that are used to study the behavior of condensed matter quantum systems. The emphasis is on the underlying concepts rather than on specific applications. Topics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosher, A.
1980-01-01
The symposium included lectures covering both the elements and the experimental tests of the theory of quantum chromdynamics. A three day topical conference was included which included the first results from PETRA as well as the latest reports from CERN, Fermilab, and SPEAR experiments. Twenty-one items from the symposium were prepared separately for the data base
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Herraiz-Cardona, Isaac; Park, Hun; Song, Taesup; Noh, Seung Hyun; Gimenez, Sixto; Sero, Ivan Mora; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Bisquert, Juan; Terashima, Chiaki; Paik, Ungyu; Kang, Yong Soo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Low dimension ∼5 nm graphene quantum dots nanoparticles were synthesized using chemical exfoliation method. • One dimensional TiO 2 hallow nanowire is grown directly onto conducting substrates using ZnO nanowire as sacrificial template. • The merits of optical properties of the graphene quantum dots sensitizer with the transport properties of the host 1-D TiO 2 nanowire were combined and demonstrate as photoanode in photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. • A photocurrent enhancement of ∼70% at pristine TiO 2 by graphene quantum dots was achieved through photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation using sacrificial-free electrolyte. • The underlying mechanism of photocharge carrier transfer characteristics at graphene quantum dots/TiO 2 interface is studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. - Abstract: Photocarrier (e − /h + ) generation at low dimension graphene quantum dots offers multifunctional applications including bioimaging, optoelectronics and energy conversion devices. In this context, graphene quantum dots onto metal oxide electron transport layer finds great deal of attention in solar light driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen fuel generation. The merits of combining tailored optical properties of the graphene quantum dots sensitizer with the transport properties of the host wide band gap one dimensional nanostructured semiconductor provide a platform for high charge collection which promotes catalytic proton reduction into fuel generation at PEC cells. However, understanding the underlying mechanism of photocarrier transfer characteristics at graphene quantum dots/metal oxide interface during operation is often difficult as graphene quantum dots may have a dual role as sensitizer and catalyst. Therefore, exploring photocarrier generation and injection at graphene quantum dot/metal oxide heterointerfaces in contact with hole scavenging electrolyte afford a new pathway in developing graphene quantum dots based
Quantum Statistical Mechanics on a Quantum Computer
Raedt, H. De; Hams, A.H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S.; Saito, K.; Saito, E.
2000-01-01
We describe a simulation method for a quantum spin model of a generic, general purpose quantum computer. The use of this quantum computer simulator is illustrated through several implementations of Grover’s database search algorithm. Some preliminary results on the stability of quantum algorithms
Quantum arithmetic with the Quantum Fourier Transform
Ruiz-Perez, Lidia; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2014-01-01
The Quantum Fourier Transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing Quantum Fourier Transform adders and multipliers and propose some modifications that extend their capabilities. Among the new circuits, we propose a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain.
Quantum Chaos via the Quantum Action
Kröger, H.
2002-01-01
We discuss the concept of the quantum action with the purpose to characterize and quantitatively compute quantum chaos. As an example we consider in quantum mechanics a 2-D Hamiltonian system - harmonic oscillators with anharmonic coupling - which is classically a chaotic system. We compare Poincar\\'e sections obtained from the quantum action with those from the classical action.
Quantum optics and fundamentals of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dusek, M.
1997-01-01
Quantum optics has opened up new opportunities for experimental verification of the basic principles of quantum mechanics, particularly in the field of quantum interference and so-called non-local phenomena. The results of the experiments described provide unambiguous support to quantum mechanics. (Z.J.)
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,
Quantum Computing: a Quantum Group Approach
Wang, Zhenghan
2013-01-01
There is compelling theoretical evidence that quantum physics will change the face of information science. Exciting progress has been made during the last two decades towards the building of a large scale quantum computer. A quantum group approach stands out as a promising route to this holy grail, and provides hope that we may have quantum computers in our future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkelstein, D.
1989-01-01
The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giribet, G E
2005-01-01
Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)
Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver
2004-01-01
A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
Quantum Secure Dialogue with Quantum Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Tian-Yu
2014-01-01
How to solve the information leakage problem has become the research focus of quantum dialogue. In this paper, in order to overcome the information leakage problem in quantum dialogue, a novel approach for sharing the initial quantum state privately between communicators, i.e., quantum encryption sharing, is proposed by utilizing the idea of quantum encryption. The proposed protocol uses EPR pairs as the private quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the traveling photons, which can be repeatedly used after rotation. Due to quantum encryption sharing, the public announcement on the state of the initial quantum state is omitted, thus the information leakage problem is overcome. The information-theoretical efficiency of the proposed protocol is nearly 100%, much higher than previous information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocols. Moreover, the proposed protocol only needs single-photon measurements and nearly uses single photons as quantum resource so that it is convenient to implement in practice. (general)
Quantum key distribution via quantum encryption
Yong Sheng Zhang; Guang Can Guo
2001-01-01
A quantum key distribution protocol based on quantum encryption is presented in this Brief Report. In this protocol, the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs act as the quantum key to encode and decode the classical cryptography key. The quantum key is reusable and the eavesdropper cannot elicit any information from the particle Alice sends to Bob. The concept of quantum encryption is also discussed. (21 refs).
Quantum random walks using quantum accelerator modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Z.-Y.; Burnett, K.; D'Arcy, M. B.; Gardiner, S. A.
2006-01-01
We discuss the use of high-order quantum accelerator modes to achieve an atom optical realization of a biased quantum random walk. We first discuss how one can create coexistent quantum accelerator modes, and hence how momentum transfer that depends on the atoms' internal state can be achieved. When combined with microwave driving of the transition between the states, a different type of atomic beam splitter results. This permits the realization of a biased quantum random walk through quantum accelerator modes
Quantum chemistry on a superconducting quantum processor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaicher, Michael P.; Wilhelm, Frank K. [Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Love, Peter J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2016-07-01
Quantum chemistry is the most promising civilian application for quantum processors to date. We study its adaptation to superconducting (sc) quantum systems, computing the ground state energy of LiH through a variational hybrid quantum classical algorithm. We demonstrate how interactions native to sc qubits further reduce the amount of quantum resources needed, pushing sc architectures as a near-term candidate for simulations of more complex atoms/molecules.
Nonlinear optical response in a zincblende GaN cylindrical quantum dot with donor impurity center
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoyos, Jaime H. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Cra. 87 No. 30-65, Medellín (Colombia); Correa, J.D., E-mail: jcorrea@udem.edu.co [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Cra. 87 No. 30-65, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)
2016-03-01
We calculate the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of a cylindrical zincblende GaN-based quantum dot. For this purpose, we consider Coulomb interactions between electrons and an impurity ionized donor atom. The electron-donor-impurity spectrum and the associated quantum states are calculated using the effective mass approximation with a parabolic potential energy model describing both the radial and axial electron confinement. We also include the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and external electrostatic fields. The energy spectrum is obtained through an expansion of the eigenstates as a linear combination of Gaussian-type functions which reduces the computational effort since all the matrix elements are obtained analytically. Therefore, the numerical problem is reduced to the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The obtained energies are used in the evaluation of the dielectric susceptibility and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient within a modified two-level approach in a rotating wave approximation. This quantity is investigated as a function of the quantum dot dimensions, the impurity position, the external electric field intensity and the hydrostatic pressure. The results of this research could be important in the design and fabrication of zincblende GaN-quantum-dot-based electro-optical devices.
An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhouhui; Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan; Dong, Chao; Sun, Baoquan; Lou, Yanhui; Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie; Zou, Guifu
2015-01-01
Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0 # diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement
An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Xia, Zhouhui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Dong, Chao [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of New Mexico, ABQ 87120 (United States); Sun, Baoquan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lou, Yanhui, E-mail: yhlou@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)
2015-01-15
Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0{sup #} diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement.
Nonlinear optical response in a zincblende GaN cylindrical quantum dot with donor impurity center
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoyos, Jaime H.; Correa, J.D.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.
2016-01-01
We calculate the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of a cylindrical zincblende GaN-based quantum dot. For this purpose, we consider Coulomb interactions between electrons and an impurity ionized donor atom. The electron-donor-impurity spectrum and the associated quantum states are calculated using the effective mass approximation with a parabolic potential energy model describing both the radial and axial electron confinement. We also include the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and external electrostatic fields. The energy spectrum is obtained through an expansion of the eigenstates as a linear combination of Gaussian-type functions which reduces the computational effort since all the matrix elements are obtained analytically. Therefore, the numerical problem is reduced to the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The obtained energies are used in the evaluation of the dielectric susceptibility and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient within a modified two-level approach in a rotating wave approximation. This quantity is investigated as a function of the quantum dot dimensions, the impurity position, the external electric field intensity and the hydrostatic pressure. The results of this research could be important in the design and fabrication of zincblende GaN-quantum-dot-based electro-optical devices.
Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices
Lloyd, Seth
2000-01-01
This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.
Physics of quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belokurov, V.V.; Khrustalev, O.A.; Sadovnichij, V.A.; Timofeevskaya, O.D.
2003-01-01
In the paper, the modern status of the theory of quantum computation is considered. The fundamental principles of quantum computers and their basic notions such as quantum processors and computational basis states of the quantum Turing machine as well as the quantum Fourier transform are discussed. Some possible experimental realizations on the basis of NMR methods are given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhiezer, A.I.
1983-01-01
Basic ideas of quantum electrodynamics history of its origination and its importance are outlined. It is shown low the notion of the field for each kind of particles and the notion of vacuum for such field had originated and been affirmed how a new language of the Feynman diagrams had appeared without which it is quite impossible to described complex processes of particle scattering and mutual transformation. The main problem of the quantum electrodynamics is to find a scattering matrix, which solution comes to the determination of the Green electrodynamic functions. A review is given of papers on clarifying the asymptotic behaviour of the Green electrodynamic functions in the range of high pulses, on studying the Compton effect, bremsstrahlung irradiation Raman light scattering elastic scattering during channeling of charged particles in a crystal
Greiner, Walter
2009-01-01
This textbook on Quantum Electrodynamics is a thorough introductory text providing all necessary mathematical tools together with many examples and worked problems. In their presentation of the subject the authors adopt a heuristic approach based on the propagator formalism. The latter is introduced in the first two chapters in both its nonrelativistic and relativistic versions. Subsequently, a large number of scattering and radiation processes involving electrons, positrons, and photons are introduced and their theoretical treatment is presented in great detail. Higher order processes and renormalization are also included. The book concludes with a discussion of two-particle states and the interaction of spinless bosons. This completely revised and corrected new edition provides several additions to enable deeper insight in formalism and application of quantum electrodynamics.
Baaquie, Belal E; Demongeot, J; Galli-Carminati, Giuliana; Martin, F; Teodorani, Massimo
2015-01-01
At the end of the 19th century Sigmund Freud discovered that our acts and choices are not only decisions of our consciousness, but that they are also deeply determined by our unconscious (the so-called "Freudian unconscious"). During a long correspondence between them (1932-1958) Wolfgang Pauli and Carl Gustav Jung speculated that the unconscious could be a quantum system. This book is addressed both to all those interested in the new developments of the age-old enquiry in the relations between mind and matter, and also to the experts in quantum physics that are interested in a formalisation of this new approach. The description of the "Bilbao experiment" adds a very interesting experimental inquiry into the synchronicity effect in a group situation, linking theory to a quantifiable verification of these subtle effects. Cover design: "Entangled Minds". Riccardo Carminati Galli, 2014.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubairy, Suhail
2005-01-01
Quantum squeezed states are a consequence of uncertainty relations; a state is squeezed when the noise in one variable is reduced below the symmetric limit at the expense of the increased noise in the conjugate variable such that the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is not violated. Such states have been known since the earliest days of quantum mechanics. The realization in the early 80's that quantum squeezed states of the radiation field can have important applications in high precision Michelson interferometry for detecting gravitational waves led to a tremendous amount of activity, both in theoretical and experimental quantum optics. The present volume, edited by two eminent scientists, is a collection of papers by leading experts in the field of squeezed states on different aspects of the field as it stands today. The book is divided into three parts. In the first part, there are three articles that review the fundamentals. The first paper by Knight and Buzek presents an introductory account of squeezed states and their properties. The chapter, which opens with the quantization of the radiation field, goes on to discuss the quantum optical properties of single mode and multimode squeezed states. The second article by Hillery provides a detailed description of field quantization in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium, thus providing a rigorous treatment of squeezing in nonlinear media. The third article by Yurke presents a comprehensive discussion of the input-output theory of the squeezed radiation at the dielectric boundaries. The second part of the book, comprising of three articles, deals with the generation of squeezed states. In the first article, Drummond reviews the squeezing properties of light in nonlinear systems such as parametric oscillators. He also discusses squeezed light propagation through waveguides and optical fibers. In the second article, Ralph concentrates on active laser sources of squeezing and presents an analysis based on the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serot, B.D.
1992-01-01
It is therefore essential to develop reliable nuclear models that go beyond the traditional non-relativistic many-body framework. The arguments for renormalizable models based on hadronic degrees of freedom (quantum hadrodynamics) are presented, and the assumptions underlying this framework are discussed. The Walecka model, which contains neutrons, protons, and neutral scalar and vector mesons, is considered first as a simple example. The development is based on the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations, and their application to infinite matter and atomic nuclei. Some successes of this model are discussed, such as the nuclear equation of state, the derivation of the shell model, the prediction of nuclear properties throughout the periodic table, and the inclusion of zero-point vacuum corrections. The important concepts of Lorentz covariance and self-consistency are emphasized and the new dynamical features that arise in a relativistic many-body framework are highlighted. The computation of isoscalar magnetic moments is presented as an illustrative example. Calculations beyond the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations (for example, Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner) are considered next, as well as recent efforts to incorporate the full role of the quantum vacuum in a consistent fashion. An extended model containing isovector pi and rho mesons is then developed; the dynamics is based on the chirally invariant linear sigma model. The difficulties in constructing realistic chiral descriptions of nuclear matter and nuclei are analysed, and the connection between the sigma model and the Walecka model is established. Finally, the relationship between quantum hadrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics is briefly addressed. (Author)
Haroche, Serge
2013-01-01
From the infinitely small to the infinitely big, covering over 60 spatial orders of magnitude, quantum theory is used as much to describe the still largely mysterious vibrations of the microscopic strings that could be the basic constituents of the Universe, as to explain the fluctuations of the microwave radiation reaching us from the depths of outer space. Serge Haroche tells us about the scientific theory that revolutionised our understanding of nature and made an extraordinary contributio...
Martin Schaden
2002-01-01
Quantum theory is used to model secondary financial markets. Contrary to stochastic descriptions, the formalism emphasizes the importance of trading in determining the value of a security. All possible realizations of investors holding securities and cash is taken as the basis of the Hilbert space of market states. The temporal evolution of an isolated market is unitary in this space. Linear operators representing basic financial transactions such as cash transfer and the buying or selling of...
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-06-02
Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.
Nanodiamond arrays on glass for quantification and fluorescence characterisation.
Heffernan, Ashleigh H; Greentree, Andrew D; Gibson, Brant C
2017-08-23
Quantifying the variation in emission properties of fluorescent nanodiamonds is important for developing their wide-ranging applicability. Directed self-assembly techniques show promise for positioning nanodiamonds precisely enabling such quantification. Here we show an approach for depositing nanodiamonds in pre-determined arrays which are used to gather statistical information about fluorescent lifetimes. The arrays were created via a layer of photoresist patterned with grids of apertures using electron beam lithography and then drop-cast with nanodiamonds. Electron microscopy revealed a 90% average deposition yield across 3,376 populated array sites, with an average of 20 nanodiamonds per site. Confocal microscopy, optimised for nitrogen vacancy fluorescence collection, revealed a broad distribution of fluorescent lifetimes in agreement with literature. This method for statistically quantifying fluorescent nanoparticles provides a step towards fabrication of hybrid photonic devices for applications from quantum cryptography to sensing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stapp, Henry
2011-11-10
Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the
Quantum Monte Carlo tunneling from quantum chemistry to quantum annealing
Mazzola, Guglielmo; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Troyer, Matthias
2017-10-01
Quantum tunneling is ubiquitous across different fields, from quantum chemical reactions and magnetic materials to quantum simulators and quantum computers. While simulating the real-time quantum dynamics of tunneling is infeasible for high-dimensional systems, quantum tunneling also shows up in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations, which aim to simulate quantum statistics with resources growing only polynomially with the system size. Here we extend the recent results obtained for quantum spin models [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 180402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.180402], and we study continuous-variable models for proton transfer reactions. We demonstrate that QMC simulations efficiently recover the scaling of ground-state tunneling rates due to the existence of an instanton path, which always connects the reactant state with the product. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of quantum chemical reactions and quantum annealing, where quantum tunneling is expected to be a valuable resource for solving combinatorial optimization problems.
Mermin, N. David
2007-08-01
Preface; 1. Cbits and Qbits; 2. General features and some simple examples; 3. Breaking RSA encryption with a quantum computer; 4. Searching with a quantum computer; 5. Quantum error correction; 6. Protocols that use just a few Qbits; Appendices; Index.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jyotishman Bhowmick
2015-11-07
Nov 7, 2015 ... Classical. Quantum. Background. Compact Hausdorff space. Unital C∗ algebra. Gelfand-Naimark. Compact Group. Compact Quantum Group. Woronowicz. Group Action. Coaction. Woronowicz. Riemannian manifold. Spectral triple. Connes. Isometry group. Quantum Isometry Group. To be discussed.
Pilar, Frank L
2003-01-01
Useful introductory course and reference covers origins of quantum theory, Schrödinger wave equation, quantum mechanics of simple systems, electron spin, quantum states of atoms, Hartree-Fock self-consistent field method, more. 1990 edition.
On quantum statistical inference
Barndorff-Nielsen, O.E.; Gill, R.D.; Jupp, P.E.
2003-01-01
Interest in problems of statistical inference connected to measurements of quantum systems has recently increased substantially, in step with dramatic new developments in experimental techniques for studying small quantum systems. Furthermore, developments in the theory of quantum measurements have
Lvovsky, Alexander I.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang
2009-12-01
Quantum memory is essential for the development of many devices in quantum information processing, including a synchronization tool that matches various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a mechanism to convert heralded photons to on-demand photons. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory will be instrumental for implementing long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied, such as optical delay lines, cavities and electromagnetically induced transparency, as well as schemes that rely on photon echoes and the off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here, we report on state-of-the-art developments in the field of optical quantum memory, establish criteria for successful quantum memory and detail current performance levels.
Continuous wave and time resolved spectroscopy of InAsN/GaAsN based quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taliercio, T.; Valvin, P.; Intartaglia, R.; Guillet, T.; Lefebvre, P.; Bretagnon, T.; Gil, B.; Sallet, V.; Harmand, J.C.
2005-01-01
We present a study of the optical properties of quantum dots based on a new family of semiconductors: III-V dilute nitrides such as (In,Ga)(N,As). Continuous wave and time resolved photoluminescence (PL) experiments allowed us to evaluate the impact of N incorporation during the growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots. Previous work [V. Sallet et al., to be submitted to J. Cryst. Growth (2005); O. Schumann et al., J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2832 (2004)] showed that increasing the flux of N atoms into the growth chamber modifies drastically the size of the dots which leads to a bimodal growth. Two populations of dots with different sizes appear. The quantum dot PL line broadens and a second PL line appears at higher energy. Time resolved PL allows us to identify the nature of this second PL line: second population of quantum dots. A second decay time is observed which we interpret as being the consequence of the perturbation of the electronic states of the quantum dots. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system
Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795
Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires
Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A
2002-01-01
The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)
Quantum probability and quantum decision-making.
Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D
2016-01-13
A rigorous general definition of quantum probability is given, which is valid not only for elementary events but also for composite events, for operationally testable measurements as well as for inconclusive measurements, and also for non-commuting observables in addition to commutative observables. Our proposed definition of quantum probability makes it possible to describe quantum measurements and quantum decision-making on the same common mathematical footing. Conditions are formulated for the case when quantum decision theory reduces to its classical counterpart and for the situation where the use of quantum decision theory is necessary. © 2015 The Author(s).
Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh
2011-01-01
We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.
Characterization of quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahti, P.J.
1980-01-01
The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiefer, C.
2004-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Particles and waves, the superposition principle and probability interpretation, the uncertainty relation, spin, the Schroedinger equation, wave functions, symmetries, the hydrogen atom, atoms with many electrons, Schroedinger's cat and the Einstein-podolsky-Rosen problem, the Bell inequalities, the classical limit, quantum systems in the electromagnetic field, solids and quantum liquids, quantum information, quantum field theory, quantum theory and gravitation, the mathematical formalism of quantum theory. (HSI)
Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan
2012-01-01
A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...
Relativistic quantum cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molotkov, S. N.
2011-01-01
A new protocol of quantum key distribution is proposed to transmit keys through free space. Along with quantum-mechanical restrictions on the discernibility of nonorthogonal quantum states, the protocol uses additional restrictions imposed by special relativity theory. Unlike all existing quantum key distribution protocols, this protocol ensures key secrecy for a not strictly one-photon source of quantum states and an arbitrary length of a quantum communication channel.
From quantum coherence to quantum correlations
Sun, Yuan; Mao, Yuanyuan; Luo, Shunlong
2017-06-01
In quantum mechanics, quantum coherence of a state relative to a quantum measurement can be identified with the quantumness that has to be destroyed by the measurement. In particular, quantum coherence of a bipartite state relative to a local quantum measurement encodes quantum correlations in the state. If one takes minimization with respect to the local measurements, then one is led to quantifiers which capture quantum correlations from the perspective of coherence. In this vein, quantum discord, which quantifies the minimal correlations that have to be destroyed by quantum measurements, can be identified as the minimal coherence, with the coherence measured by the relative entropy of coherence. To advocate and formulate this idea in a general context, we first review coherence relative to Lüders measurements which extends the notion of coherence relative to von Neumann measurements (or equivalently, orthonomal bases), and highlight the observation that quantum discord arises as minimal coherence through two prototypical examples. Then, we introduce some novel measures of quantum correlations in terms of coherence, illustrate them through examples, investigate their fundamental properties and implications, and indicate their applications to quantum metrology.
Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook
2015-01-01
When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casati, G.; Chirikov, B.V.
1996-01-01
Various fluctuations in quantum systems with discrete spectrum are discussed, including recent unpublished results. Open questions and unexplained peculiarities of quantum fluctuations are formulated [ru
Schürmann, Michael
2008-01-01
This volume contains the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Potential Theory: Structure and Applications to Physics," held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald from February 26 to March 10, 2007. Quantum potential theory studies noncommutative (or quantum) analogs of classical potential theory. These lectures provide an introduction to this theory, concentrating on probabilistic potential theory and it quantum analogs, i.e. quantum Markov processes and semigroups, quantum random walks, Dirichlet forms on C* and von Neumann algebras, and boundary theory. Applications to quantum physics, in particular the filtering problem in quantum optics, are also presented.
Neubert, Matthias
1996-01-01
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. It is local, non-abelian gauge theory descripting the interactions between quarks and gluons, the constituents of hadrons. In these lectures, the basic concepts and ph will be introduced in a pedagogical way. Topics will include : asymptotically free partons, colour and confinement ; non-abelian gauge invariance and quantization ; the running coupling constant ; deep-inelastic scattering and scaling violations ; th chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. Some elementary knowledge of field theory, abelian gauge invariance and Feynman diagrams will be helpful in following the course.
1990-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics is an essential building block and an integral part of the gauge theory of unified electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, the so-called standard model. Its failure or breakdown at some level would have a most profound impact on the theoretical foundations of elementary particle physics as a whole. Thus the validity of QED has been the subject of intense experimental tests over more than 40 years of its history. This volume presents an up-to-date review of high precision experimental tests of QED together with comprehensive discussion of required theoretical wor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratel, H.
1999-01-01
A new stage in non-destructive quantum measurements has been reached by a French team, it is now possible to measure photons without disturbing them. The photon beam goes through a non-linear transparent medium, this medium is modified by the passing of the beam, a second photon beam is sent through the same medium, this beam whose energy is weaker can read the modifications of the transparent crystal left by the first beam. The study of these modifications gives information on the photons of the first beam. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flytzanis, C.
1988-01-01
The 1988 progress report of the Quantum Optics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program is focused on the behavior of dense and dilute materials submitted to short and high-intensity light radiation fields. Nonlinear optics techniques, with time and spatial resolution, are developed. An important research activity concerns the investigations on the interactions between the photon beams and the inhomogeneous or composite materials, as well as the artificial microstructures. In the processes involving molecular beams and surfaces, the research works on the photophysics of surfaces and the molecule-surface interactions, are included [fr
Mandl, Franz
1992-01-01
The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient
Manin's quantum spaces and standard quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Floratos, E.G.
1990-01-01
Manin's non-commutative coordinate algebra of quantum groups is shown to be identical, for unitary coordinates, with the conventional operator algebras of quantum mechanics. The deformation parameter q is a pure phase for unitary coordinates. When q is a root of unity. Manin's algebra becomes the matrix algebra of quantum mechanics for a discretized and finite phase space. Implications for quantum groups and the associated non-commutative differential calculus of Wess and Zumino are discussed. (orig.)
Quantum groups and quantum homogeneous spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulish, P.P.
1994-01-01
The usefulness of the R-matrix formalism and the reflection equations is demonstrated on examples of the quantum group covariant algebras (quantum homogeneous spaces): quantum Minkowski space-time, quantum sphere and super-sphere. The irreducible representations of some covariant algebras are constructed. The generalization of the reflection equation to super case is given and the existence of the quasiclassical limits is pointed out. (orig.)
Comparison of five DNA quantification methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Karsten; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Hedman, Johannes
2008-01-01
Six commercial preparations of human genomic DNA were quantified using five quantification methods: UV spectrometry, SYBR-Green dye staining, slot blot hybridization with the probe D17Z1, Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification kit and RB1 rt-PCR. All methods measured higher DNA concentrations than...... Quantification kit in two experiments. The measured DNA concentrations with Quantifiler were 125 and 160% higher than expected based on the manufacturers' information. When the Quantifiler human DNA standard (Raji cell line) was replaced by the commercial human DNA preparation G147A (Promega) to generate the DNA...... standard curve in the Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification kit, the DNA quantification results of the human DNA preparations were 31% higher than expected based on the manufacturers' information. The results indicate a calibration problem with the Quantifiler human DNA standard for its use...
Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penin, Alexander A.
2009-01-01
We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted
Characterizing and quantifying quantum chaos with quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We explore quantum signatures of classical chaos by studying the rate of information gain in quantum tomography. The tomographic record consists of a time series of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under the application of the Floquet operator of a quantum map that possesses (or lacks) time-reversal ...
Quantum Statistical Mechanics on a Quantum Computer
De Raedt, H.; Hams, A. H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S.; Saito, K.
1999-01-01
We describe a quantum algorithm to compute the density of states and thermal equilibrium properties of quantum many-body systems. We present results obtained by running this algorithm on a software implementation of a 21-qubit quantum computer for the case of an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on triangular lattices of different size.
Quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics
Li, Nan; Luo, Shunlong; Mao, Yuanyuan
2018-04-01
We study quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics, where quantumness refers to the noncommutativity between the initial state and the evolving state. In terms of the commutator of the square roots of the initial state and the evolving state, we define a measure to quantify the quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics with respect to initial states. Quantumness-generating capability is absent in classical dynamics and hence is a fundamental characteristic of quantum dynamics. For qubit systems, we present an analytical form for this measure, by virtue of which we analyze several prototypical dynamics such as unitary dynamics, phase damping dynamics, amplitude damping dynamics, and random unitary dynamics (Pauli channels). Necessary and sufficient conditions for the monotonicity of quantumness-generating capability are also identified. Finally, we compare these conditions for the monotonicity of quantumness-generating capability with those for various Markovianities and illustrate that quantumness-generating capability and quantum Markovianity are closely related, although they capture different aspects of quantum dynamics.
Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped ...
What is quantum in quantum randomness?
Grangier, P; Auffèves, A
2018-07-13
It is often said that quantum and classical randomness are of different nature, the former being ontological and the latter epistemological. However, so far the question of 'What is quantum in quantum randomness?', i.e. what is the impact of quantization and discreteness on the nature of randomness, remains to be answered. In a first part, we make explicit the differences between quantum and classical randomness within a recently proposed ontology for quantum mechanics based on contextual objectivity. In this view, quantum randomness is the result of contextuality and quantization. We show that this approach strongly impacts the purposes of quantum theory as well as its areas of application. In particular, it challenges current programmes inspired by classical reductionism, aiming at the emergence of the classical world from a large number of quantum systems. In a second part, we analyse quantum physics and thermodynamics as theories of randomness, unveiling their mutual influences. We finally consider new technological applications of quantum randomness that have opened up in the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...
Quantifying non-classical and beyond-quantum correlations in the unified operator formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geller, Joshua; Piani, Marco
2014-01-01
Acin et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 140404) introduced a unified framework for the study of no-signalling correlations. Such a framework is based on the notion of local quantum measurements, but, in order to account for beyond-quantum correlations, global pseudo-states that are not positive semidefinite are allowed. After a short review of the formalism, we consider its use in the quantification of both general non-local and beyond-quantum correlations. We argue that the unified framework for correlations provides a simple approach to such a quantification, in particular when the quantification is meant to be operational and meaningful in a resource-theory scenario, i.e., when considering the processing of resources by means of non-resources. We relate different notions of robustness of correlations, both at the level of (pseudo-)states and abstract probability distributions, with particular focus on the beyond-quantum robustness of correlations and pseudo-states. We revisit known results and argue that, within the unified framework, the relation between the two levels—that of operators and that of probability distributions—is very strict. We point out how the consideration of robustness at the two levels leads to a natural framework for the quantification of entanglement in a device-independent way. Finally, we show that the beyond-quantum robustness of the non-positive operators needed to achieve beyond-quantum correlations coincides with their negativity and their distance from the set of quantum states. As an example, we calculate the beyond-quantum robustness for the case of a noisy Popescu–Rohrlich box. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Interpreting quantum coherence through a quantum measurement process
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.
2017-11-01
Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the quantification of coherence or other coherencelike concepts within the framework of quantum resource theory. However, rigorously defined or not, the notion of coherence or decoherence has already been used by the community for decades since the advent of quantum theory. Intuitively, the definitions of coherence and decoherence should be two sides of the same coin. Therefore, a natural question is raised: How can the conventional decoherence processes, such as the von Neumann-Lüders (projective) measurement postulation or partially dephasing channels, fit into the bigger picture of the recently established theoretical framework? Here we show that the state collapse rules of the von Neumann or Lüders-type measurements, as special cases of genuinely incoherent operations (GIOs), are consistent with the resource theories of quantum coherence. New hierarchical measures of coherence are proposed for the Lüders-type measurement and their relationship with measurement-dependent discord is addressed. Moreover, utilizing the fixed-point theory for C* algebra, we prove that GIOs indeed represent a particular type of partially dephasing (phase-damping) channels which have a matrix representation based on the Schur product. By virtue of the Stinespring dilation theorem, the physical realizations of incoherent operations are investigated in detail and we find that GIOs in fact constitute the core of strictly incoherent operations and generally incoherent operations and the unspeakable notion of coherence induced by GIOs can be transferred to the theories of speakable coherence by the corresponding permutation or relabeling operators.
Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki
2007-01-01
Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view
Quantum reference frames and quantum transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toller, M.
1997-01-01
A quantum frame is defined by a material object following the laws of quantum mechanics. The present paper studies the relations between quantum frames, which are described by some generalization of the Poincare' group. The possibility of using a suitable quantum group is examined, but some arguments are given which show that a different mathematical structure is necessary. Some simple examples in lower-dimensional space-times are treated. They indicate the necessity of taking into account some ''internal'' degrees of freedom of the quantum frames, that can be disregarded in a classical treatment
Equivariant quantum Schubert calculus
Mihalcea, Leonardo Constantin
2006-01-01
We study the T-equivariant quantum cohomology of the Grassmannian. We prove the vanishing of a certain class of equivariant quantum Littlewood-Richardson coefficients, which implies an equivariant quantum Pieri rule. As in the equivariant case, this implies an algorithm to compute the equivariant quantum Littlewood-Richardson coefficients.
Introduction to quantum groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudbery, A.
1996-01-01
These pedagogical lectures contain some motivation for the study of quantum groups; a definition of ''quasi triangular Hopf algebra'' with explanations of all the concepts required to build it up; descriptions of quantised universal enveloping algebras and the quantum double; and an account of quantised function algebras and the action of quantum groups on quantum spaces. (author)
Automated determination of Rifamycins making use of MPA–CdTe quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jimenez-López, J.; Molina-García, L.; Rodrigues, S.S.M.; Santos, J.L.M.; Ortega-Barrales, P.; Ruiz-Medina, A.
2016-01-01
Rifamycins are a group of antibiotics particularly effective against mycobacteria and they are used for the treatment of important diseases and disorders such as tuberculosis, cancer, hepatic encephalopathy or intestinal infections. Taking into account the great clinical potential of these drugs it is important to develop a rapid, simple and reliable strategy for its quality control. This paper presents an automated quantum dots-based analytical method making use of a multicommutated flow system and the quenching effect that rifampicin and rifaximin, two important Rifamycin derivatives, have on the fluorescence of water-soluble mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots. Under the optimized conditions, the relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the quantum dots and rifampicin or rifaximin concentrations were linear in the range of 5–80 and 3–40 µg mL −1 , with a detection limit of 1.5 and 1.0 µg mL −1 , respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 3% were observed in all cases. A sample throughput of 70 determinations per hour and good recoveries were also achieved. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of rifamycins in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine.
Automated determination of Rifamycins making use of MPA–CdTe quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jimenez-López, J.; Molina-García, L. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Jaén, Campus de las Lagunillas, E-23071 Jaén (Spain); Rodrigues, S.S.M.; Santos, J.L.M. [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy of Porto University, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Ortega-Barrales, P. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Jaén, Campus de las Lagunillas, E-23071 Jaén (Spain); Ruiz-Medina, A., E-mail: anruiz@ujaen.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Jaén, Campus de las Lagunillas, E-23071 Jaén (Spain)
2016-07-15
Rifamycins are a group of antibiotics particularly effective against mycobacteria and they are used for the treatment of important diseases and disorders such as tuberculosis, cancer, hepatic encephalopathy or intestinal infections. Taking into account the great clinical potential of these drugs it is important to develop a rapid, simple and reliable strategy for its quality control. This paper presents an automated quantum dots-based analytical method making use of a multicommutated flow system and the quenching effect that rifampicin and rifaximin, two important Rifamycin derivatives, have on the fluorescence of water-soluble mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe quantum dots. Under the optimized conditions, the relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the quantum dots and rifampicin or rifaximin concentrations were linear in the range of 5–80 and 3–40 µg mL{sup −1}, with a detection limit of 1.5 and 1.0 µg mL{sup −1}, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 3% were observed in all cases. A sample throughput of 70 determinations per hour and good recoveries were also achieved. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of rifamycins in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
Quaternionic quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.
1986-01-01
In this paper the author describes a new kind of quantum mechanics or quantum field theory based on quaternions. Quaternionic quantum mechanics has a Schrodinger equation, a Dirac transformation theory, and a functional integral. Quaternionic quantum mechanics does not seem to have (except in the complex quantum mechanics specialization): A correspondence principle, and beyond this a commuting tensor product, asymptotic states, an S-matrix, a canonical formalism, coherent states or a Euclidean continuation. A new kind of quantum mechanics exists. There are many interesting formal questions to study, which should enable one to decide whether quaternionic quantum field theory is relevant for particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkelstein, D.
1987-01-01
The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex
Quantum Information Processing
Leuchs, Gerd
2005-01-01
Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crutchfield, James P.; Wiesner, Karoline
2008-01-01
We introduce ways to measure information storage in quantum systems, using a recently introduced computation-theoretic model that accounts for measurement effects. The first, the quantum excess entropy, quantifies the shared information between a quantum process's past and its future. The second, the quantum transient information, determines the difficulty with which an observer comes to know the internal state of a quantum process through measurements. We contrast these with von Neumann entropy and quantum entropy rate and provide a closed-form expression for the latter for the class of deterministic quantum processes
Quantum Chess: Making Quantum Phenomena Accessible
Cantwell, Christopher
Quantum phenomena have remained largely inaccessible to the general public. There tends to be a scare factor associated with the word ``Quantum''. This is in large part due to the alien nature of phenomena such as superposition and entanglement. However, Quantum Computing is a very active area of research and one day we will have games that run on those quantum computers. Quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement will seem as normal as gravity. Is it possible to create such games today? Can we make games that are built on top of a realistic quantum simulation and introduce players of any background to quantum concepts in a fun and mentally stimulating way? One of the difficulties with any quantum simulation run on a classical computer is that the Hilbert space grows exponentially, making simulations of an appreciable size physically impossible due largely to memory restrictions. Here we will discuss the conception and development of Quantum Chess, and how to overcome some of the difficulties faced. We can then ask the question, ``What's next?'' What are some of the difficulties Quantum Chess still faces, and what is the future of quantum games?
Efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loke, T.; Wang, J.B.
2017-01-01
A major advantage in using Szegedy’s formalism over discrete-time and continuous-time quantum walks lies in its ability to define a unitary quantum walk by quantizing a Markov chain on a directed or weighted graph. In this paper, we present a general scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks that correspond to classical Markov chains possessing transformational symmetry in the columns of the transition matrix. In particular, the transformational symmetry criteria do not necessarily depend on the sparsity of the transition matrix, so this scheme can be applied to non-sparse Markov chains. Two classes of Markov chains that are amenable to this construction are cyclic permutations and complete bipartite graphs, for which we provide explicit efficient quantum circuit implementations. We also prove that our scheme can be applied to Markov chains formed by a tensor product. We also briefly discuss the implementation of Markov chains based on weighted interdependent networks. In addition, we apply this scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits simulating the Szegedy walks used in the quantum Pagerank algorithm for some classes of non-trivial graphs, providing a necessary tool for experimental demonstration of the quantum Pagerank algorithm. - Highlights: • A general theoretical framework for implementing Szegedy walks using quantum circuits. • Explicit efficient quantum circuit implementation of the Szegedy walk for several classes of graphs. • Efficient implementation of Szegedy walks for quantum page-ranking of a certain class of graphs.
Introduction to topological quantum matter & quantum computation
Stanescu, Tudor D
2017-01-01
What is -topological- about topological quantum states? How many types of topological quantum phases are there? What is a zero-energy Majorana mode, how can it be realized in a solid state system, and how can it be used as a platform for topological quantum computation? What is quantum computation and what makes it different from classical computation? Addressing these and other related questions, Introduction to Topological Quantum Matter & Quantum Computation provides an introduction to and a synthesis of a fascinating and rapidly expanding research field emerging at the crossroads of condensed matter physics, mathematics, and computer science. Providing the big picture, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers entering this field as it allows for the fruitful transfer of paradigms and ideas amongst different areas, and includes many specific examples to help the reader understand abstract and sometimes challenging concepts. It explores the topological quantum world beyond the well-know...
Universal quantum computation by discontinuous quantum walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Underwood, Michael S.; Feder, David L.
2010-01-01
Quantum walks are the quantum-mechanical analog of random walks, in which a quantum ''walker'' evolves between initial and final states by traversing the edges of a graph, either in discrete steps from node to node or via continuous evolution under the Hamiltonian furnished by the adjacency matrix of the graph. We present a hybrid scheme for universal quantum computation in which a quantum walker takes discrete steps of continuous evolution. This ''discontinuous'' quantum walk employs perfect quantum-state transfer between two nodes of specific subgraphs chosen to implement a universal gate set, thereby ensuring unitary evolution without requiring the introduction of an ancillary coin space. The run time is linear in the number of simulated qubits and gates. The scheme allows multiple runs of the algorithm to be executed almost simultaneously by starting walkers one time step apart.
Quantum quincunx in cavity quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Tregenna, Ben; Knight, Peter L.
2003-01-01
We introduce the quantum quincunx, which physically demonstrates the quantum walk and is analogous to Galton's quincunx for demonstrating the random walk by employing gravity to draw pellets through pegs on a board, thereby yielding a binomial distribution of final peg locations. In contradistinction to the theoretical studies of quantum walks over orthogonal lattice states, we introduce quantum walks over nonorthogonal lattice states (specifically, coherent states on a circle) to demonstrate that the key features of a quantum walk are observable albeit for strict parameter ranges. A quantum quincunx may be realized with current cavity quantum electrodynamics capabilities, and precise control over decoherence in such experiments allows a remarkable decrease in the position noise, or spread, with increasing decoherence
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-01-01
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum signatures of chaos or quantum chaos?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bunakov, V. E., E-mail: bunakov@VB13190.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
A critical analysis of the present-day concept of chaos in quantum systems as nothing but a “quantum signature” of chaos in classical mechanics is given. In contrast to the existing semi-intuitive guesses, a definition of classical and quantum chaos is proposed on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem: a quantum chaotic system featuring N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) specified by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian of the system. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos that, in the classical limit, go over to the Lyapunov exponent and the classical stability parameter are proposed. The proposed criteria of quantum chaos are applied to solving standard problems of modern dynamical chaos theory.
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-10-29
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum signatures of chaos or quantum chaos?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunakov, V. E.
2016-01-01
A critical analysis of the present-day concept of chaos in quantum systems as nothing but a “quantum signature” of chaos in classical mechanics is given. In contrast to the existing semi-intuitive guesses, a definition of classical and quantum chaos is proposed on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem: a quantum chaotic system featuring N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) specified by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian of the system. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos that, in the classical limit, go over to the Lyapunov exponent and the classical stability parameter are proposed. The proposed criteria of quantum chaos are applied to solving standard problems of modern dynamical chaos theory.
Greiner, Walter
1989-01-01
"Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viennot, David, E-mail: david.viennot@utinam.cnrs.fr; Aubourg, Lucile
2016-02-15
We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile
2016-01-01
We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth
2016-11-29
Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.
Photonic Quantum Information Processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walther, P.
2012-01-01
The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)
Quantum entanglement: theory and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuch, N.
2007-10-10
This thesis deals with various questions concerning the quantification, the creation, and the application of quantum entanglement. Entanglement arises due to the restriction to local operations and classical communication. We investigate how the notion of entanglement changes if additional restrictions in form of a superselection rule are imposed and show that they give rise to a new resource. We characterize this resource and demonstrate that it can be used to overcome the restrictions, very much as entanglement can overcome the restriction to local operations by teleportation. We next turn towards the optimal generation of resources. We show how squeezing can be generated as efficiently as possible from noisy squeezing operations supplemented by noiseless passive operations, and discuss the implications of this result to the optimal generation of entanglement. The difficulty in describing the behaviour of correlated quantum many-body systems is ultimately due to the complicated entanglement structure of multipartite states. Using quantum information techniques, we investigate the ground state properties of lattices of harmonic oscillators. We derive an exponential decay of correlations for gapped systems, compute the dependence of correlation length and gap, and investigate the notion of criticality by relating a vanishing energy gap to an algebraic decay of correlations. Recently, ideas from entanglement theory have been applied to the description of many-body systems. Matrix Product States (MPS), which have a particularly simple interpretation from the point of quantum information, perform extremely well in approximating the ground states of local Hamiltonians. It is generally believed that this is due to the fact that both ground states and MPS obey an entropic area law. We clarify the relation between entropy scaling laws and approximability by MPS, and in particular find that an area law does not necessarily imply approximability. Using the quantum
Quantum entanglement: theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuch, N.
2007-01-01
This thesis deals with various questions concerning the quantification, the creation, and the application of quantum entanglement. Entanglement arises due to the restriction to local operations and classical communication. We investigate how the notion of entanglement changes if additional restrictions in form of a superselection rule are imposed and show that they give rise to a new resource. We characterize this resource and demonstrate that it can be used to overcome the restrictions, very much as entanglement can overcome the restriction to local operations by teleportation. We next turn towards the optimal generation of resources. We show how squeezing can be generated as efficiently as possible from noisy squeezing operations supplemented by noiseless passive operations, and discuss the implications of this result to the optimal generation of entanglement. The difficulty in describing the behaviour of correlated quantum many-body systems is ultimately due to the complicated entanglement structure of multipartite states. Using quantum information techniques, we investigate the ground state properties of lattices of harmonic oscillators. We derive an exponential decay of correlations for gapped systems, compute the dependence of correlation length and gap, and investigate the notion of criticality by relating a vanishing energy gap to an algebraic decay of correlations. Recently, ideas from entanglement theory have been applied to the description of many-body systems. Matrix Product States (MPS), which have a particularly simple interpretation from the point of quantum information, perform extremely well in approximating the ground states of local Hamiltonians. It is generally believed that this is due to the fact that both ground states and MPS obey an entropic area law. We clarify the relation between entropy scaling laws and approximability by MPS, and in particular find that an area law does not necessarily imply approximability. Using the quantum
Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyeon Sik; Min, Jung Joon; Lee, Byeong Il; Choi, Eun Seo; Tak, Yoon O; Choi, Heung Kook; Lee, Ju Young
2009-01-01
Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghatak, A.K.; Lokanathan, S.
1975-01-01
This textbook on quantum mechanics is intended for students at the graduate and post-graduate level. A balanced account of theory and applications is presented. Emphasis is laid on making results plausible and methods to be followed in solving problems. The various chapters in the book are devoted to the following: (1) Wave particle duality and uncertainty principle (2) Wave packets and time-dependent Schroedinger equation (3) Simple solutions of Schroedinger equation (4) Vector spaces and linear operators : Dirac notation (5) Angular momentum and spin (6) Addition of angular momenta (7) Time independent perturbation theory (8) The variational method (9) The WKB approximation (10) Elementary theory of scattering (11) Time-dependent perturbation theory (12) Motion in a magnetic field (13) Interaction of radiation with matter and (14) Relativistic theory. (A.K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vukotić Veselin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, R.J.
1988-01-01
This paper answers the title question by giving an operational definition of quantum jumps based on measurement theory. This definition forms the basis of a theory of quantum jumps which leads to a number of testable predictions. Experiments are proposed to test the theory. The suggested experiments also test the quantum Zeno paradox, i.e., they test the proposition that frequent observation of a quantum system inhibits quantum jumps in that system. (orig.)
Ficek, Zbigniew
2016-01-01
The textbook introduces students to the main ideas of quantum physics and the basic mathematical methods and techniques used in the fields of advanced quantum physics, atomic physics, laser physics, nanotechnology, quantum chemistry, and theoretical mathematics. The textbook explains how microscopic objects (particles) behave in unusual ways, giving rise to what's called quantum effects. It contains a wide range of tutorial problems from simple confidence-builders to fairly challenging exercises that provide adequate understanding of the basic concepts of quantum physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-11-18
There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.
Broadband Quantum Cryptography
Rogers, Daniel
2010-01-01
Quantum cryptography is a rapidly developing field that draws from a number of disciplines, from quantum optics to information theory to electrical engineering. By combining some fundamental quantum mechanical principles of single photons with various aspects of information theory, quantum cryptography represents a fundamental shift in the basis for security from numerical complexity to the fundamental physical nature of the communications channel. As such, it promises the holy grail of data security: theoretically unbreakable encryption. Of course, implementing quantum cryptography in real br
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro
2014-01-01
Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low...... suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference....
Quantum gate decomposition algorithms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slepoy, Alexander
2006-07-01
Quantum computing algorithms can be conveniently expressed in a format of a quantum logical circuits. Such circuits consist of sequential coupled operations, termed ''quantum gates'', or quantum analogs of bits called qubits. We review a recently proposed method [1] for constructing general ''quantum gates'' operating on an qubits, as composed of a sequence of generic elementary ''gates''.
Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*
Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin
2013-03-01
1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to
Search for New Quantum Algorithms
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lomonaco, Samuel J; Kauffman, Louis H
2006-01-01
.... Additionally, methods and techniques of quantum topology have been used to obtain new results in quantum computing including discovery of a relationship between quantum entanglement and topological linking...
InAs/GaAs quantum dots for THz generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daghestani, N.S.; Cataluna, M.A.; Berry, G.; Rose, M.J.; Ross, G.
2012-01-01
We report pulsed terahertz generation from InAs/GaAs quantum-dot based photoconductive devices. For 800 nm optical excitation, the dots act as recombination centres for carriers generated in the GaAs layers. Using photoreflective pump-probe measurements we demonstrate that the photogenerated carrier lifetime decreases when a lateral bias is applied. This can be attributed to an increase in the capture area of the dots when under bias. Two types of antenna metallization were investigated; non-Ohmic, and quasi-Ohmic contacts. Non-Ohmic antennae displayed resilience to Joule heating when operated at a field strength of 46 MV/m. The breakdown field of the devices was 48 MV/m, which is comparable to the breakdown field of bulk GaAs (∝50 MV/m). The maximum estimated infrared-to-THz conversion efficiency is ∝1x10 -5 . (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Introduction to quantum information science
Hayashi, Masahito; Kawachi, Akinori; Kimura, Gen; Ogawa, Tomohiro
2015-01-01
This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleport...
Spin injection from Co2MnGa into an InGaAs quantum well
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hickey, M. C.; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Holmes, S. N.
2008-01-01
We have demonstrated spin injection from a full Heusler alloy Co2MnGa thin film into a (100) InGaAs quantum well in a semiconductor light-emitting diode structure at a temperature of 5 K. The detection is performed in the oblique Hanle geometry, allowing quantification of the effective spin lifet...
Reliable quantum communication over a quantum relay channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gyongyosi, Laszlo, E-mail: gyongyosi@hit.bme.hu [Quantum Technologies Laboratory, Department of Telecommunications, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2 Magyar tudosok krt, Budapest, H-1117, Hungary and Information Systems Research Group, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hungarian Ac (Hungary); Imre, Sandor [Quantum Technologies Laboratory, Department of Telecommunications, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2 Magyar tudosok krt, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary)
2014-12-04
We show that reliable quantum communication over an unreliable quantum relay channels is possible. The coding scheme combines the results on the superadditivity of quantum channels and the efficient quantum coding approaches.
Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks
Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng
2015-07-01
Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks.
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
In this paper, a theory of quantum logics is proposed which is general enough to enable us to reexamine a previous work on quantum logics in the context of this theory. It is then easy to assess the differences between the different systems studied. The quantum logical systems which are incorporated are divided into two groups which we call ''quantum propositional logics'' and ''quantum event logics''. The work of Kochen and Specker (partial Boolean algebras) is included and so is that of Greechie and Gudder (orthomodular partially ordered sets), Domotar (quantum mechanical systems), and Foulis and Randall (operational logics) in quantum propositional logics; and Abbott (semi-Boolean algebras) and Foulis and Randall (manuals) in quantum event logics, In this part of the paper, an axiom system for quantum propositional logics is developed and the above structures in the context of this system examined. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hund, F.
1980-01-01
History of quantum theory from quantum representations (1900) to the formation of quantum mechanics is systematically stated in the monograph. A special attention is paid to the development of ideas of quantum physics, given are schemes of this development. Quantum theory is abstractly presented as the teaching about a role, which value h characterizing elementary quantum of action, plays in the nature: in statistics - as a unit for calculating the number of possible states; in corpuscular-wave dualism for light - as a value determining the interaction of light and substance and as a component of atom dynamics; in corpuscular-wave dualism for substance. Accordingly, history of the quantum theory development is considered in the following sequence: h discovery; history of quantum statistics, history of light quanta and initial atom dynamics; crysis of this dynamics and its settlement; substance waves and in conclusion - the completion of quantum mechanics including applications and its further development
Nesvizhevsky, Valery
2015-01-01
This unique book demonstrates the undivided unity and infinite diversity of quantum mechanics using a single phenomenon: quantum bounces of ultra-cold particles. Various examples of such "quantum bounces" are: gravitational quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons (the first observed quantum states of matter in a gravitational field), the neutron whispering gallery (an observed matter-wave analog of the whispering gallery effect well known in acoustics and for electromagnetic waves), and gravitational and whispering gallery states for anti-matter atoms that remain to be observed. These quantum states are an invaluable tool in the search for additional fundamental short-range forces, for exploring the gravitational interaction and quantum effects of gravity, for probing physics beyond the standard model, and for furthering studies into the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum optics, and surface science.
Quantum information and coherence
Öhberg, Patrik
2014-01-01
This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lloyd, Seth; Landahl, Andrew J.; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.
2004-01-01
To observe or control a quantum system, one must interact with it via an interface. This article exhibits simple universal quantum interfaces--quantum input/output ports consisting of a single two-state system or quantum bit that interacts with the system to be observed or controlled. It is shown that under very general conditions the ability to observe and control the quantum bit on its own implies the ability to observe and control the system itself. The interface can also be used as a quantum communication channel, and multiple quantum systems can be connected by interfaces to become an efficient universal quantum computer. Experimental realizations are proposed, and implications for controllability, observability, and quantum information processing are explored
Tang, Jiang
2012-09-12
Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
The NASA Langley Multidisciplinary Uncertainty Quantification Challenge
Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the formulation of an uncertainty quantification challenge problem consisting of five subproblems. These problems focus on key aspects of uncertainty characterization, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation, extreme-case analysis, and robust design.
Uncertainty quantification theory, implementation, and applications
Smith, Ralph C
2014-01-01
The field of uncertainty quantification is evolving rapidly because of increasing emphasis on models that require quantified uncertainties for large-scale applications, novel algorithm development, and new computational architectures that facilitate implementation of these algorithms. Uncertainty Quantification: Theory, Implementation, and Applications provides readers with the basic concepts, theory, and algorithms necessary to quantify input and response uncertainties for simulation models arising in a broad range of disciplines. The book begins with a detailed discussion of applications where uncertainty quantification is critical for both scientific understanding and policy. It then covers concepts from probability and statistics, parameter selection techniques, frequentist and Bayesian model calibration, propagation of uncertainties, quantification of model discrepancy, surrogate model construction, and local and global sensitivity analysis. The author maintains a complementary web page where readers ca...
Uncertainty Quantification in Aerodynamics Simulations, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work (Phases I and II) is to develop uncertainty quantification methodologies and software suitable for use in CFD simulations of...
Quantification of virus syndrome in chili peppers
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Jane
2011-06-15
Jun 15, 2011 ... alternative for the quantification of the disease' syndromes in regards to this crop. The result of these ..... parison of treatments such as cultivars or control measures and ..... Vascular discoloration and stem necrosis. 2.
Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification
Bekas, C.; Curioni, A.; Fedulova, I.
2009-01-01
Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost
Direct qPCR quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit.
Liu, Jason Yingjie
2014-11-01
The effectiveness of a direct quantification assay is essential to the adoption of the combined direct quantification/direct STR workflow. In this paper, the feasibility of using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit for the direct quantification of forensic casework samples was investigated. Both low-level touch DNA samples and blood samples were collected on PE swabs and quantified directly. The increased sensitivity of the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit enabled the detection of less than 10pg of DNA in unprocessed touch samples and also minimizes the stochastic effect experienced by different targets in the same sample. The DNA quantity information obtained from a direct quantification assay using the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit can also be used to accurately estimate the optimal input DNA quantity for a direct STR amplification reaction. The correlation between the direct quantification results (Quantifiler(®) Trio kit) and the direct STR results (GlobalFiler™ PCR amplification kit(*)) for low-level touch DNA samples indicates that direct quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit is more reliable than the Quantifiler(®) Duo DNA quantification kit for predicting the STR results of unprocessed touch DNA samples containing less than 10pg of DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A model of quantum communication device for quantum hashing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasiliev, A
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider a model of quantum communications between classical computers aided with quantum processors, connected by a classical and a quantum channel. This type of communications implying both classical and quantum messages with moderate use of quantum processing is implicitly used in many quantum protocols, such as quantum key distribution or quantum digital signature. We show that using the model of a quantum processor on multiatomic ensembles in the common QED cavity we can speed up quantum hashing, which can be the basis of quantum digital signature and other communication protocols. (paper)
Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio A Lagana
Full Text Available We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.
Quantum ballistic evolution in quantum mechanics: Application to quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benioff, P.
1996-01-01
Quantum computers are important examples of processes whose evolution can be described in terms of iterations of single-step operators or their adjoints. Based on this, Hamiltonian evolution of processes with associated step operators T is investigated here. The main limitation of this paper is to processes which evolve quantum ballistically, i.e., motion restricted to a collection of nonintersecting or distinct paths on an arbitrary basis. The main goal of this paper is proof of a theorem which gives necessary and sufficient conditions that T must satisfy so that there exists a Hamiltonian description of quantum ballistic evolution for the process, namely, that T is a partial isometry and is orthogonality preserving and stable on some basis. Simple examples of quantum ballistic evolution for quantum Turing machines with one and with more than one type of elementary step are discussed. It is seen that for nondeterministic machines the basis set can be quite complex with much entanglement present. It is also proven that, given a step operator T for an arbitrary deterministic quantum Turing machine, it is decidable if T is stable and orthogonality preserving, and if quantum ballistic evolution is possible. The proof fails if T is a step operator for a nondeterministic machine. It is an open question if such a decision procedure exists for nondeterministic machines. This problem does not occur in classical mechanics. Also the definition of quantum Turing machines used here is compared with that used by other authors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Quantum simulations with noisy quantum computers
Gambetta, Jay
Quantum computing is a new computational paradigm that is expected to lie beyond the standard model of computation. This implies a quantum computer can solve problems that can't be solved by a conventional computer with tractable overhead. To fully harness this power we need a universal fault-tolerant quantum computer. However the overhead in building such a machine is high and a full solution appears to be many years away. Nevertheless, we believe that we can build machines in the near term that cannot be emulated by a conventional computer. It is then interesting to ask what these can be used for. In this talk we will present our advances in simulating complex quantum systems with noisy quantum computers. We will show experimental implementations of this on some small quantum computers.
Quantum teleportation of propagating quantum microwaves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Candia, R.; Felicetti, S.; Sanz, M. [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Fedorov, K.G.; Menzel, E.P. [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meissner-Institut, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Zhong, L.; Deppe, F.; Gross, R. [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meissner-Institut, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Marx, A. [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meissner-Institut, Garching (Germany); Solano, E. [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Basque Foundation for Science, IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain)
2015-12-15
Propagating quantum microwaves have been proposed and successfully implemented to generate entanglement, thereby establishing a promising platform for the realisation of a quantum communication channel. However, the implementation of quantum teleportation with photons in the microwave regime is still absent. At the same time, recent developments in the field show that this key protocol could be feasible with current technology, which would pave the way to boost the field of microwave quantum communication. Here, we discuss the feasibility of a possible implementation of microwave quantum teleportation in a realistic scenario with losses. Furthermore, we propose how to implement quantum repeaters in the microwave regime without using photodetection, a key prerequisite to achieve long distance entanglement distribution. (orig.)
Quantum teleportation of propagating quantum microwaves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Candia, R.; Felicetti, S.; Sanz, M.; Fedorov, K.G.; Menzel, E.P.; Zhong, L.; Deppe, F.; Gross, R.; Marx, A.; Solano, E.
2015-01-01
Propagating quantum microwaves have been proposed and successfully implemented to generate entanglement, thereby establishing a promising platform for the realisation of a quantum communication channel. However, the implementation of quantum teleportation with photons in the microwave regime is still absent. At the same time, recent developments in the field show that this key protocol could be feasible with current technology, which would pave the way to boost the field of microwave quantum communication. Here, we discuss the feasibility of a possible implementation of microwave quantum teleportation in a realistic scenario with losses. Furthermore, we propose how to implement quantum repeaters in the microwave regime without using photodetection, a key prerequisite to achieve long distance entanglement distribution. (orig.)
Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes.
Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John
2015-03-01
Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics.
Uncertainty Quantification in Numerical Aerodynamics
Litvinenko, Alexander
2017-05-16
We consider uncertainty quantification problem in aerodynamic simulations. We identify input uncertainties, classify them, suggest an appropriate statistical model and, finally, estimate propagation of these uncertainties into the solution (pressure, velocity and density fields as well as the lift and drag coefficients). The deterministic problem under consideration is a compressible transonic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Strokes flow around an airfoil with random/uncertain data. Input uncertainties include: uncertain angle of attack, the Mach number, random perturbations in the airfoil geometry, mesh, shock location, turbulence model and parameters of this turbulence model. This problem requires efficient numerical/statistical methods since it is computationally expensive, especially for the uncertainties caused by random geometry variations which involve a large number of variables. In numerical section we compares five methods, including quasi-Monte Carlo quadrature, polynomial chaos with coefficients determined by sparse quadrature and gradient-enhanced version of Kriging, radial basis functions and point collocation polynomial chaos, in their efficiency in estimating statistics of aerodynamic performance upon random perturbation to the airfoil geometry [D.Liu et al \\'17]. For modeling we used the TAU code, developed in DLR, Germany.
Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification
Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.
2018-01-01
Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.
Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification
Litvinenko, Alexander
2014-01-06
In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.
Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification
Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.
2014-01-01
In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.
Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification
Litvinenko, Alexander
2013-12-18
In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.
Experimental quantum forgery of quantum optical money
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Chimczak, G.; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.
2017-01-01
Roč. 3, Mar (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 7. ISSN 2056-6387 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : experimental quantum forgery * quantum optical money Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 9.111, year: 2016
Quantum Plasmonics: Quantum Information at the Nanoscale
2016-11-06
A schematic of the plasmonic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment conducted is shown in Figure 2, utilizing a plasmonic beam splitter designed for a 50-50...Bunching of photons at the output port of a 4-port beam splitter due to quantum interference. In order to reach the quantum regime, the coincidence...ports of a 4-port beam splitter , as shown in Figure 1. Quantum interference manifests itself via both photons detected in the same output port
Silicon Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing
2013-11-01
S. Lai, C. Tahan, A. Morello and A. S. Dzurak, Electron Spin lifetimes in multi-valley sil- icon quantum dots, S3NANO Winter School Few spin solid...lifetimes in multi-valley sil- icon quantum dots, International Workshop on Silicon Quantum Electronics, Grenoble, France, February 2012 (Poster). C...typically plunger gates), PMMA A5 is spun at 5000 rpm for 30 seconds, resulting in a 280 nm resist thickness. The resists are baked for 90 seconds at 180
QUANTUM DISCORD AND QUANTUM COMPUTING - AN APPRAISAL
Datta, Animesh; Shaji, Anil
2011-01-01
We discuss models of computing that are beyond classical. The primary motivation is to unearth the cause of nonclassical advantages in computation. Completeness results from computational complexity theory lead to the identification of very disparate problems, and offer a kaleidoscopic view into the realm of quantum enhancements in computation. Emphasis is placed on the `power of one qubit' model, and the boundary between quantum and classical correlations as delineated by quantum discord. A ...
Lung involvement quantification in chest radiographs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Oliveira, Marcela de; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A.; Pina, Diana R.; Pereira, Paulo C.M.; Ribeiro, Sergio M.
2014-01-01
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an infectious disease which remains a global health problem. The chest radiography is the commonly method employed to assess the TB's evolution. The methods for quantification of abnormalities of chest are usually performed on CT scans (CT). This quantification is important to assess the TB evolution and treatment and comparing different treatments. However, precise quantification is not feasible for the amount of CT scans required. The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for quantification of lung damage caused by TB through chest radiographs. It was developed an algorithm for computational processing of exams in Matlab, which creates a lungs' 3D representation, with compromised dilated regions inside. The quantification of lung lesions was also made for the same patients through CT scans. The measurements from the two methods were compared and resulting in strong correlation. Applying statistical Bland and Altman, all samples were within the limits of agreement, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed an average variation of around 13% between the two quantification methods. The results suggest the effectiveness and applicability of the method developed, providing better risk-benefit to the patient and cost-benefit ratio for the institution. (author)
Quantum computing and spintronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kantser, V.
2007-01-01
Tentative to build a computer, which can operate according to the quantum laws, has leaded to concept of quantum computing algorithms and hardware. In this review we highlight recent developments which point the way to quantum computing on the basis solid state nanostructures after some general considerations concerning quantum information science and introducing a set of basic requirements for any quantum computer proposal. One of the major direction of research on the way to quantum computing is to exploit the spin (in addition to the orbital) degree of freedom of the electron, giving birth to the field of spintronics. We address some semiconductor approach based on spin orbit coupling in semiconductor nanostructures. (authors)
Dür, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Raphael; Heusler, Stefan
2017-07-01
A long-range quantum communication network is among the most promising applications of emerging quantum technologies. We discuss the potential of such a quantum internet for the secure transmission of classical and quantum information, as well as theoretical and experimental approaches and recent advances to realize them. We illustrate the involved concepts such as error correction, teleportation or quantum repeaters and consider an approach to this topic based on catchy visualizations as a context-based, modern treatment of quantum theory at high school.
Bernstein, Daniel J; Lange, Tanja
2017-09-13
Cryptography is essential for the security of online communication, cars and implanted medical devices. However, many commonly used cryptosystems will be completely broken once large quantum computers exist. Post-quantum cryptography is cryptography under the assumption that the attacker has a large quantum computer; post-quantum cryptosystems strive to remain secure even in this scenario. This relatively young research area has seen some successes in identifying mathematical operations for which quantum algorithms offer little advantage in speed, and then building cryptographic systems around those. The central challenge in post-quantum cryptography is to meet demands for cryptographic usability and flexibility without sacrificing confidence.
Counterfactual quantum cryptography.
Noh, Tae-Gon
2009-12-04
Quantum cryptography allows one to distribute a secret key between two remote parties using the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The well-known established paradigm for the quantum key distribution relies on the actual transmission of signal particle through a quantum channel. In this Letter, we show that the task of a secret key distribution can be accomplished even though a particle carrying secret information is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. The proposed protocols can be implemented with current technologies and provide practical security advantages by eliminating the possibility that an eavesdropper can directly access the entire quantum system of each signal particle.
Bernstein, Daniel J.; Lange, Tanja
2017-09-01
Cryptography is essential for the security of online communication, cars and implanted medical devices. However, many commonly used cryptosystems will be completely broken once large quantum computers exist. Post-quantum cryptography is cryptography under the assumption that the attacker has a large quantum computer; post-quantum cryptosystems strive to remain secure even in this scenario. This relatively young research area has seen some successes in identifying mathematical operations for which quantum algorithms offer little advantage in speed, and then building cryptographic systems around those. The central challenge in post-quantum cryptography is to meet demands for cryptographic usability and flexibility without sacrificing confidence.
Principles of quantum chemistry
George, David V
2013-01-01
Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c
Schaden, Martin
2002-12-01
Quantum theory is used to model secondary financial markets. Contrary to stochastic descriptions, the formalism emphasizes the importance of trading in determining the value of a security. All possible realizations of investors holding securities and cash is taken as the basis of the Hilbert space of market states. The temporal evolution of an isolated market is unitary in this space. Linear operators representing basic financial transactions such as cash transfer and the buying or selling of securities are constructed and simple model Hamiltonians that generate the temporal evolution due to cash flows and the trading of securities are proposed. The Hamiltonian describing financial transactions becomes local when the profit/loss from trading is small compared to the turnover. This approximation may describe a highly liquid and efficient stock market. The lognormal probability distribution for the price of a stock with a variance that is proportional to the elapsed time is reproduced for an equilibrium market. The asymptotic volatility of a stock in this case is related to the long-term probability that it is traded.
CERN Bulletin
2010-01-01
The turn of the XXth century witnessed a revolution in physics comparable to Isaac Newton’s discovery of the universal laws of mechanics and of gravitation three centuries earlier. The world required to be described in novel terms, as the immutable, deterministic view of our familiar universe had given way to a new world picture, one which featured chance, flux, and an incessant upsurge of waves of matter. Such a worldview was so radically new and counterintuitive that it gave rise to strong debates, to the effect that Albert Einstein himself tried to oppose it on the grounds that “God does not play dice”. In spite of the intense debates that accompanied its emergence, quantum mechanics quickly proved an incredibly efficacious new tool to understand and to predict a wide array of new phenomena. It was so successful that in no time it broke free from the environment of research labs to become part of daily life, making it possible, for example, to understand why some materials...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uesaka, Mitsuru
2003-01-01
Present state and future prospect are described on quantum beams for medical use. Efforts for compactness of linac for advanced cancer therapy have brought about the production of machines like Accuray's CyberKnife and TOMOTHERAPY (Tomo Therapy Inc.) where the acceleration frequency of X-band (9-11 GHz) is used. For cervical vein angiography by the X-band linac, a compact hard X-ray source is developed which is based on the (reverse) Compton scattering through laser-electron collision. More intense beam and laser are necessary at present. A compact machine generating the particle beam of 10 MeV-1 GeV (laser-plasma accelerator) for cancer therapy is also developed using the recent compression technique (chirped-pulse amplification) to generate laser of >10 TW. Tokyo University is studying for the electron beam with energy of GeV order, for the laser-based synchrotron X-ray, and for imaging by the short pulse ion beam. Development of advanced compact accelerators is globally attempted. In Japan, a virtual laboratory by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a working group of universities and research facilities through the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in 2001 for practical manufacturing of the above-mentioned machines for cancer therapy and for angiography. Virtual Factory (Inc.), a business venture, is to be stood in future. (N.I.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenneker, Carsten (comp.)
2012-11-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Quantum capacity of quantum black holes
Adami, Chris; Bradler, Kamil
2014-03-01
The fate of quantum entanglement interacting with a black hole has been an enduring mystery, not the least because standard curved space field theory does not address the interaction of black holes with matter. We discuss an effective Hamiltonian of matter interacting with a black hole that has a precise analogue in quantum optics and correctly reproduces both spontaneous and stimulated Hawking radiation with grey-body factors. We calculate the quantum capacity of this channel in the limit of perfect absorption, as well as in the limit of a perfectly reflecting black hole (a white hole). We find that the white hole is an optimal quantum cloner, and is isomorphic to the Unruh channel with positive quantum capacity. The complementary channel (across the horizon) is entanglement-breaking with zero capacity, avoiding a violation of the quantum no-cloning theorem. The black hole channel on the contrary has vanishing capacity, while its complement has positive capacity instead. Thus, quantum states can be reconstructed faithfully behind the black hole horizon, but not outside. This work sheds new light on black hole complementarity because it shows that black holes can both reflect and absorb quantum states without violating the no-cloning theorem, and makes quantum firewalls obsolete.
Quantum paradoxes quantum theory for the perplexed
Aharonov, Yakir
2005-01-01
A Guide through the Mysteries of Quantum Physics!Yakir Aharonov is one of the pioneers in measuring theory, the nature of quantum correlations, superselection rules, and geometric phases and has been awarded numerous scientific honors. The author has contributed monumental concepts to theoretical physics, especially the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Aharonov-Casher effect. Together with Daniel Rohrlich of the Weizmann Institute, Israel, he has written a pioneering work on the remaining mysteries of quantum mechanics. From the perspective of a preeminent researcher in the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics, the text combines mathematical rigor with penetrating and concise language
Quantum dots for quantum information technologies
2017-01-01
This book highlights the most recent developments in quantum dot spin physics and the generation of deterministic superior non-classical light states with quantum dots. In particular, it addresses single quantum dot spin manipulation, spin-photon entanglement and the generation of single-photon and entangled photon pair states with nearly ideal properties. The role of semiconductor microcavities, nanophotonic interfaces as well as quantum photonic integrated circuits is emphasized. The latest theoretical and experimental studies of phonon-dressed light matter interaction, single-dot lasing and resonance fluorescence in QD cavity systems are also provided. The book is written by the leading experts in the field.
Quantifying quantum coherence with quantum Fisher information.
Feng, X N; Wei, L F
2017-11-14
Quantum coherence is one of the old but always important concepts in quantum mechanics, and now it has been regarded as a necessary resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. However, the question of how to quantify the quantum coherence has just been paid the attention recently (see, e.g., Baumgratz et al. PRL, 113. 140401 (2014)). In this paper we verify that the well-known quantum Fisher information (QFI) can be utilized to quantify the quantum coherence, as it satisfies the monotonicity under the typical incoherent operations and the convexity under the mixing of the quantum states. Differing from most of the pure axiomatic methods, quantifying quantum coherence by QFI could be experimentally testable, as the bound of the QFI is practically measurable. The validity of our proposal is specifically demonstrated with the typical phase-damping and depolarizing evolution processes of a generic single-qubit state, and also by comparing it with the other quantifying methods proposed previously.
Quantum learning algorithms for quantum measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bisio, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bisio@unipv.it [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' A. Volta' and INFN, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro, E-mail: dariano@unipv.it [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' A. Volta' and INFN, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Perinotti, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.perinotti@unipv.it [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' A. Volta' and INFN, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sedlak, Michal, E-mail: michal.sedlak@unipv.it [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' A. Volta' and INFN, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)
2011-09-12
We study quantum learning algorithms for quantum measurements. The optimal learning algorithm is derived for arbitrary von Neumann measurements in the case of training with one or two examples. The analysis of the case of three examples reveals that, differently from the learning of unitary gates, the optimal algorithm for learning of quantum measurements cannot be parallelized, and requires quantum memories for the storage of information. -- Highlights: → Optimal learning algorithm for von Neumann measurements. → From 2 copies to 1 copy: the optimal strategy is parallel. → From 3 copies to 1 copy: the optimal strategy must be non-parallel.
Quantum neuromorphic hardware for quantum artificial intelligence
Prati, Enrico
2017-08-01
The development of machine learning methods based on deep learning boosted the field of artificial intelligence towards unprecedented achievements and application in several fields. Such prominent results were made in parallel with the first successful demonstrations of fault tolerant hardware for quantum information processing. To which extent deep learning can take advantage of the existence of a hardware based on qubits behaving as a universal quantum computer is an open question under investigation. Here I review the convergence between the two fields towards implementation of advanced quantum algorithms, including quantum deep learning.
Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet
Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go
2017-09-01
The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.
Quantum Darwinism in Quantum Brownian Motion
Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2008-12-01
Quantum Darwinism—the redundant encoding of information about a decohering system in its environment—was proposed to reconcile the quantum nature of our Universe with apparent classicality. We report the first study of the dynamics of quantum Darwinism in a realistic model of decoherence, quantum Brownian motion. Prepared in a highly squeezed state—a macroscopic superposition—the system leaves records whose redundancy increases rapidly with initial delocalization. Redundancy appears rapidly (on the decoherence time scale) and persists for a long time.
Quantum learning algorithms for quantum measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal
2011-01-01
We study quantum learning algorithms for quantum measurements. The optimal learning algorithm is derived for arbitrary von Neumann measurements in the case of training with one or two examples. The analysis of the case of three examples reveals that, differently from the learning of unitary gates, the optimal algorithm for learning of quantum measurements cannot be parallelized, and requires quantum memories for the storage of information. -- Highlights: → Optimal learning algorithm for von Neumann measurements. → From 2 copies to 1 copy: the optimal strategy is parallel. → From 3 copies to 1 copy: the optimal strategy must be non-parallel.
Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and bounded quantum memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyadera, Takayuki
2011-01-01
The effect of bounded quantum memory in a primitive information protocol has been examined using the quantum Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of information. We employed a toy two-party protocol in which Bob, by using a bounded quantum memory and an unbounded classical memory, estimates a message that was encoded in qubits by Alice in one of the bases X or Z. Our theorem gave a nontrivial effect of the memory boundedness. In addition, a generalization of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory has been obtained.
Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J
2010-08-13
We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.
Uncertainty quantification for environmental models
Hill, Mary C.; Lu, Dan; Kavetski, Dmitri; Clark, Martyn P.; Ye, Ming
2012-01-01
Environmental models are used to evaluate the fate of fertilizers in agricultural settings (including soil denitrification), the degradation of hydrocarbons at spill sites, and water supply for people and ecosystems in small to large basins and cities—to mention but a few applications of these models. They also play a role in understanding and diagnosing potential environmental impacts of global climate change. The models are typically mildly to extremely nonlinear. The persistent demand for enhanced dynamics and resolution to improve model realism [17] means that lengthy individual model execution times will remain common, notwithstanding continued enhancements in computer power. In addition, high-dimensional parameter spaces are often defined, which increases the number of model runs required to quantify uncertainty [2]. Some environmental modeling projects have access to extensive funding and computational resources; many do not. The many recent studies of uncertainty quantification in environmental model predictions have focused on uncertainties related to data error and sparsity of data, expert judgment expressed mathematically through prior information, poorly known parameter values, and model structure (see, for example, [1,7,9,10,13,18]). Approaches for quantifying uncertainty include frequentist (potentially with prior information [7,9]), Bayesian [13,18,19], and likelihood-based. A few of the numerous methods, including some sensitivity and inverse methods with consequences for understanding and quantifying uncertainty, are as follows: Bayesian hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model averaging; single-objective optimization with error-based weighting [7] and multi-objective optimization [3]; methods based on local derivatives [2,7,10]; screening methods like OAT (one at a time) and the method of Morris [14]; FAST (Fourier amplitude sensitivity testing) [14]; the Sobol' method [14]; randomized maximum likelihood [10]; Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) [10
Searching with Quantum Computers
Grover, Lov K.
2000-01-01
This article introduces quantum computation by analogy with probabilistic computation. A basic description of the quantum search algorithm is given by representing the algorithm as a C program in a novel way.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...
Lombardi, Olimpia; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian
2017-04-01
Preface; Introduction; Part I. About the Concept of Information: 1. About the concept of information Sebastian Fortin and Olimpia Lombardi; 2. Representation, information, and theories of information Armond Duwell; 3. Information, communication, and manipulability Olimpia Lombardi and Cristian López; Part II. Information and quantum mechanics: 4. Quantum versus classical information Jeffrey Bub; 5. Quantum information and locality Dennis Dieks; 6. Pragmatic information in quantum mechanics Juan Roederer; 7. Interpretations of quantum theory: a map of madness Adán Cabello; Part III. Probability, Correlations, and Information: 8. On the tension between ontology and epistemology in quantum probabilities Amit Hagar; 9. Inferential versus dynamical conceptions of physics David Wallace; 10. Classical models for quantum information Federico Holik and Gustavo Martin Bosyk; 11. On the relative character of quantum correlations Guido Bellomo and Ángel Ricardo Plastino; Index.
Quantum manifestations of chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borondo, F.; Benito, R.M.
1998-01-01
The correspondence between classical and quantum mechanics is considered both in the regular and chaotic regimes, and the main results regarding the quantum manifestations of chaos are reviewed. (Author) 16 refs
Quantum communication with photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tittel, W.
2005-01-01
Full text: The discovery that transmission of information encoded into single quantum systems enables new forms of communication let to the emergence of the domain of quantum communication. During the last ten years, various key experiments based on photons as carrier of the quantum information have been realized. Today, quantum cryptography systems based on faint laser pulses can be purchased commercially, bi-partite entanglement has been distributed over long distances and has been used for quantum key distribution, and quantum purification, teleportation and entanglement swapping have been demonstrated. I will give a general introduction into this fascinating field and will review experimental achievements in the domain of quantum communication with discrete two-level quantum systems (qubits) encoded into photons. (author)