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Sample records for quantum critical route

  1. Field-induced quantum critical route to a Fermi liquid in high-temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibauchi, Takasada; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; Hasegawa, Masashi; Kasahara, Yuichi; Okazaki, Ryuji; Matsuda, Yuji

    2008-05-20

    In high-transition-temperature (T(c)) superconductivity, charge doping is a natural tuning parameter that takes copper oxides from the antiferromagnet to the superconducting region. In the metallic state above T(c), the standard Landau's Fermi-liquid theory of metals as typified by the temperature squared (T(2)) dependence of resistivity appears to break down. Whether the origin of the non-Fermi-liquid behavior is related to physics specific to the cuprates is a fundamental question still under debate. We uncover a transformation from the non-Fermi-liquid state to a standard Fermi-liquid state driven not by doping but by magnetic field in the overdoped high-T(c) superconductor Tl(2)Ba(2)CuO(6+x). From the c-axis resistivity measured up to 45 T, we show that the Fermi-liquid features appear above a sufficiently high field that decreases linearly with temperature and lands at a quantum critical point near the superconductivity's upper critical field-with the Fermi-liquid coefficient of the T(2) dependence showing a power-law diverging behavior on the approach to the critical point. This field-induced quantum criticality bears a striking resemblance to that in quasi-two-dimensional heavy-Fermion superconductors, suggesting a common underlying spin-related physics in these superconductors with strong electron correlations.

  2. Quantum Criticality

    OpenAIRE

    Keimer, Bernhard; Sachdev, Subir

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of the basic theoretical ideas of quantum criticality, and of their connection to numerous experiments on correlated electron compounds. A shortened, modified, and edited version appeared in Physics Today. This arxiv version has additional citations to the literature.

  3. Critically damped quantum search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizel, Ari

    2009-04-17

    Although measurement and unitary processes can accomplish any quantum evolution in principle, thinking in terms of dissipation and damping can be powerful. We propose a modification of Grover's algorithm in which the idea of damping plays a natural role. Remarkably, we find that there is a critical damping value that divides between the quantum O(sqrt[N]) and classical O(N) search regimes. In addition, by allowing the damping to vary in a fashion we describe, one obtains a fixed-point quantum search algorithm in which ignorance of the number of targets increases the number of oracle queries only by a factor of 1.5.

  4. Quantum criticality from Fisher information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongting; Luo, Shunlong; Fu, Shuangshuang

    2017-04-01

    Quantum phase transition is primarily characterized by a qualitative sudden change in the ground state of a quantum system when an external or internal parameter of the Hamiltonian is continuously varied. Investigating quantum criticality using information-theoretic methods has generated fruitful results. Quantum correlations and fidelity have been exploited to characterize the quantum critical phenomena. In this work, we employ quantum Fisher information to study quantum criticality. The singular or extremal point of the quantum Fisher information is adopted as the estimated thermal critical point. By a significant model constructed in Quan et al. (Phys Rev Lett 96: 140604, 2006), the effectiveness of this method is illustrated explicitly.

  5. Critically damped quantum search

    OpenAIRE

    Mizel, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Although measurement and unitary processes can accomplish any quantum evolution in principle, thinking in terms of dissipation and damping can be powerful. We propose a modification of Grover's algorithm in which the idea of damping plays a natural role. Remarkably, we have found that there is a critical damping value that divides between the quantum $O(\\sqrt{N})$ and classical O(N) search regimes. In addition, by allowing the damping to vary in a fashion we describe, one obtains a fixed-poin...

  6. APS Quantum Critical Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, Brando; Hubisz, Jay; Lee, Seung J.; Serra, Javi; Terning, John

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of the light Higgs boson at the LHC is difficult to explain, particularly in light of naturalness arguments in quantum field theory. However light scalars can appear in condensed matter systems when parameters (like the amount of doping) are tuned to a critical point. At zero temperature these quantum critical points are directly analogous to the finely tuned standard model. In this paper we explore a class of models with a Higgs near a quantum critical point that exhibits non-mean-field behavior. We discuss the parametrization of the effects of a Higgs emerging from such a critical point in terms of form factors, and present two simple realistic scenarios based on either generalized free fields or a 5D dual in AdS space. For both of these models we consider the processes $gg\\to ZZ$ and $gg\\to hh$, which can be used to gain information about the Higgs scaling dimension and IR transition scale from the experimental data.

  7. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Murafuji, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF{sub 3} as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  8. Quantum critical points in quantum impurity systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jung [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Bulla, Ralf [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)]. E-mail: bulla@cpfs.mpg.de

    2005-04-30

    The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the soft-gap Anderson model, where an impurity couples to a non-trivial fermionic bath. In this case, zero-temperature phase transitions occur between two different phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. However, the quantum critical point cannot be described by non-interacting fermionic or bosonic excitations.

  9. Quantum critical points in quantum impurity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Bulla, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the soft-gap Anderson model, where an impurity couples to a non-trivial fermionic bath. In this case, zero-temperature phase transitions occur between two different phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. However, the quantum critical point cannot be described by non-interacting fermionic or bosonic excitations.

  10. Quantum Criticality via Magnetic Branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Kraus, Per

    Holographic methods are used to investigate the low temperature limit, including quantum critical behavior, of strongly coupled 4-dimensional gauge theories in the presence of an external magnetic field, and finite charge density. In addition to the metric, the dual gravity theory contains a Maxwell field with Chern-Simons coupling. In the absence of charge, the magnetic field induces an RG flow to an infrared {AdS}3 × {R}2 geometry, which is dual to a 2-dimensional CFT representing strongly interacting fermions in the lowest Landau level. Two asymptotic Virasoro algebras and one chiral Kac-Moody algebra arise as emergent symmetries in the IR. Including a nonzero charge density reveals a quantum critical point when the magnetic field reaches a critical value whose scale is set by the charge density. The critical theory is probed by the study of long-distance correlation functions of the boundary stress tensor and current. All quantities of major physical interest in this system, such as critical exponents and scaling functions, can be computed analytically. We also study an asymptotically AdS 6 system whose magnetic field induced quantum critical point is governed by an IR Lifshitz geometry, holographically dual to a D=2+1 field theory. The behavior of these holographic theories shares important similarities with that of real world quantum critical systems obtained by tuning a magnetic field, and may be relevant to materials such as Strontium Ruthenates.

  11. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasin, M; Ryzhov, V; Vinokur, V M

    2015-12-21

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transition from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d + zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T) ∈ [0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T = 0) = 1 and Λ(T → ∞) = 0. Our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.

  12. Multidimensional entropy landscape of quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, K.; Zaum, S.; Stockert, O.; Si, Q.; Löhneysen, H. V.

    2017-08-01

    The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any system in equilibrium has to vanish at absolute zero temperature. At nonzero temperatures, on the other hand, matter is expected to accumulate entropy near a quantum critical point, where it undergoes a continuous transition from one ground state to another. Here, we determine, based on general thermodynamic principles, the spatial-dimensional profile of the entropy S near a quantum critical point and its steepest descent in the corresponding multidimensional stress space. We demonstrate this approach for the canonical quantum critical compound CeCu 6-xAux near its onset of antiferromagnetic order. We are able to link the directional stress dependence of S to the previously determined geometry of quantum critical fluctuations. Our demonstration of the multidimensional entropy landscape provides the foundation to understand how quantum criticality nucleates novel phases such as high-temperature superconductivity.

  13. Fermion-induced quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    2017-08-22

    A unified theory of quantum critical points beyond the conventional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm remains unknown. According to Landau cubic criterion, phase transitions should be first-order when cubic terms of order parameters are allowed by symmetry in the Landau-Ginzburg free energy. Here, from renormalization group analysis, we show that second-order quantum phase transitions can occur at such putatively first-order transitions in interacting two-dimensional Dirac semimetals. As such type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points are induced by gapless fermions, we call them fermion-induced quantum critical points. We further introduce a microscopic model of SU(N) fermions on the honeycomb lattice featuring a transition between Dirac semimetals and Kekule valence bond solids. Remarkably, our large-scale sign-problem-free Majorana quantum Monte Carlo simulations show convincing evidences of a fermion-induced quantum critical points for N = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, consistent with the renormalization group analysis. We finally discuss possible experimental realizations of the fermion-induced quantum critical points in graphene and graphene-like materials.Quantum phase transitions are governed by Landau-Ginzburg theory and the exceptions are rare. Here, Li et al. propose a type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points induced by gapless fermions in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals.

  14. Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...

  15. Controlling superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S; Park, E; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Kim, J N; Shim, J-H; Thompson, J D; Park, Tuson

    2015-03-04

    The heavy fermion compound CeRhIn5 is a rare example where a quantum critical point, hidden by a dome of superconductivity, has been explicitly revealed and found to have a local nature. The lack of additional examples of local types of quantum critical points associated with superconductivity, however, has made it difficult to unravel the role of quantum fluctuations in forming Cooper pairs. Here, we show the precise control of superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points in CeRhIn5. Slight tin-substitution for indium in CeRhIn5 shifts its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point from 2.3 GPa to 1.3 GPa and induces a residual impurity scattering 300 times larger than that of pure CeRhIn5, which should be sufficient to preclude superconductivity. Nevertheless, superconductivity occurs at the quantum critical point of the tin-doped metal. These results underline that fluctuations from the antiferromagnetic quantum criticality promote unconventional superconductivity in CeRhIn5.

  16. Nonequilibrium critical scaling in quantum thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Abolfazl; Apollaro, Tony J. G.; Paganelli, Simone; De Chiara, Gabriele; Johannesson, Henrik; Bose, Sougato; Sodano, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    The emerging field of quantum thermodynamics is contributing important results and insights into archetypal many-body problems, including quantum phase transitions. Still, the question whether out-of-equilibrium quantities, such as fluctuations of work, exhibit critical scaling after a sudden quench in a closed system has remained elusive. Here, we take a novel approach to the problem by studying a quench across an impurity quantum critical point. By performing density matrix renormalization group computations on the two-impurity Kondo model, we are able to establish that the irreversible work produced in a quench exhibits finite-size scaling at quantum criticality. This scaling faithfully predicts the equilibrium critical exponents for the crossover length and the order parameter of the model, and, moreover, implies an exponent for the rescaled irreversible work. By connecting the irreversible work to the two-impurity spin correlation function, our findings can be tested experimentally.

  17. Parity-time symmetric quantum critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ashida, Yuto; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Symmetry plays a central role in the theory of phase transitions. Parity-time (PT) symmetry is an emergent notion in synthetic nonconservative systems, where the gain-loss balance creates a threshold for spontaneous symmetry breaking across which spectral singularity emerges. Considerable studies on PT symmetry have been conducted in optics and weakly interacting open quantum systems. Here by extending the idea of PT symmetry to strongly correlated many-body systems, we discover unconventional quantum critical phenomena, where spectral singularity and quantum criticality conspire to yield an exotic universality class which has no counterpart in known critical phenomena. Moreover, we find that superfluid correlation is anomalously enhanced owing to winding renormalization group flows in a PT-symmetry-broken quantum critical phase. Our findings can experimentally be tested in ultracold atoms.

  18. Quantum annealing: The fastest route to quantum computation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Bojtar, L.; Borchert, M.; Franke, K. A.; Higuchi, T.; Leefer, N.; Nagahama, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Mooser, A.; Niemann, M.; Ospelkaus, C.; Quint, W.; Schneider, G.; Sellner, S.; Tanaka, T.; Van Gorp, S.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ulmer, S.

    2015-11-01

    The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) aims at performing a stringent test of the combined charge parity and time reversal (CPT) symmetry by comparing the magnetic moments of the proton and the antiproton with high precision. Using single particles in a Penning trap, the proton/antiproton g-factors, i.e. the magnetic moment in units of the nuclear magneton, are determined by measuring the respective ratio of the spin-precession frequency to the cyclotron frequency. The spin precession frequency is measured by non-destructive detection of spin quantum transitions using the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, and the cyclotron frequency is determined from the particle*s motional eigenfrequencies in the Penning trap using the invariance theorem. By application of the double Penning-trap method we expect that in our measurements a fractional precision of δ g/ g 10-9 can be achieved. The successful application of this method to the antiproton will consist a factor 1000 improvement in the fractional precision of its magnetic moment. The BASE collaboration has constructed and commissioned a new experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) of CERN. This article describes and summarizes the physical and technical aspects of this new experiment.

  19. A Holographic Model For Quantum Critical Responses

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Robert C; Witczak-Krempa, William

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical response functions of strongly interacting quantum critical states described by conformal field theories (CFTs). We construct a self-consistent holographic model that incorporates the relevant scalar operator driving the quantum critical phase transition. Focusing on the finite temperature dynamical conductivity $\\sigma(\\omega,T)$, we study its dependence on our model parameters, notably the scaling dimension of the relevant operator. It is found that the conductivity is well-approximated by a simple ansatz proposed by Katz et al [1] for a wide range of parameters. We further dissect the conductivity at large frequencies $\\omega >> T$ using the operator product expansion, and show how it reveals the spectrum of our model CFT. Our results provide a physically-constrained framework to study the analytic continuation of quantum Monte Carlo data, as we illustrate using the O(2) Wilson-Fisher CFT. Finally, we comment on the variation of the conductivity as we tune away from the quantum cri...

  20. Quantum criticality of hot random spin chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, R; Potter, A C; Parameswaran, S A

    2015-05-29

    We study the infinite-temperature properties of an infinite sequence of random quantum spin chains using a real-space renormalization group approach, and demonstrate that they exhibit nonergodic behavior at strong disorder. The analysis is conveniently implemented in terms of SU(2)_{k} anyon chains that include the Ising and Potts chains as notable examples. Highly excited eigenstates of these systems exhibit properties usually associated with quantum critical ground states, leading us to dub them "quantum critical glasses." We argue that random-bond Heisenberg chains self-thermalize and that the excited-state entanglement crosses over from volume-law to logarithmic scaling at a length scale that diverges in the Heisenberg limit k→∞. The excited state fixed points are generically distinct from their ground state counterparts, and represent novel nonequilibrium critical phases of matter.

  1. Tuning the quantum critical crossover in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    2005-03-01

    Quantum dots with large Thouless number g embody a regime where both disorder and interactions can be treated nonperturbatively using large-N techniques (with N=g) and quantum phase transitions can be studied. Here we focus on dots where the noninteracting Hamiltonian is drawn from a crossover ensemble between two symmetry classes, where the crossover parameter introduces a new, tunable energy scale independent of and much smaller than the Thouless energy. We show that the quantum critical regime, dominated by collective critical fluctuations, can be accessed at the new energy scale. The nonperturbative physics of this regime can only be described by the large-N approach, as we illustrate with two experimentally relevant examples. G. Murthy, PRB 70, 153304 (2004). G. Murthy, R. Shankar, D. Herman, and H. Mathur, PRB 69, 075321 (2004)

  2. Sensitive chemical compass assisted by quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, C. Y.; Ai, Qing; Quan, H. T.; Sun, C. P.

    2012-02-01

    A radical-pair-based chemical reaction might be used by birds for navigation via the geomagnetic direction. The inherent physical mechanism is that the quantum coherent transition from a singlet state to triplet states of the radical pair could respond to a weak magnetic field and be sensitive to the direction of such a field; this then results in different photopigments to be sensed by the avian eyes. Here, we propose a quantum bionic setup, inspired by the avian compass, as an ultrasensitive probe of a weak magnetic field based on the quantum phase transition of the environments of the two electrons in the radical pair. We prove that the yield of the chemical products via recombination from the singlet state is determined by the Loschmidt echo of the environments with interacting nuclear spins. Thus quantum criticality of environments could enhance the sensitivity of detection of weak magnetic fields.

  3. Sensitive Chemical Compass Assisted by Quantum Criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, C Y; Quan, H T; Sun, C P

    2011-01-01

    The radical-pair-based chemical reaction could be used by birds for the navigation via the geomagnetic direction. An inherent physical mechanism is that the quantum coherent transition from a singlet state to triplet states of the radical pair could response to the weak magnetic field and be sensitive to the direction of such a field and then results in different photopigments in the avian eyes to be sensed. Here, we propose a quantum bionic setup for the ultra-sensitive probe of a weak magnetic field based on the quantum phase transition of the environments of the two electrons in the radical pair. We prove that the yield of the chemical products via the recombination from the singlet state is determined by the Loschmidt echo of the environments with interacting nuclear spins. Thus quantum criticality of environments could enhance the sensitivity of the detection of the weak magnetic field.

  4. Dynamical Response near Quantum Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Gazit, Snir; Podolsky, Daniel; Witczak-Krempa, William

    2017-02-01

    We study high-frequency response functions, notably the optical conductivity, in the vicinity of quantum critical points (QCPs) by allowing for both detuning from the critical coupling and finite temperature. We consider general dimensions and dynamical exponents. This leads to a unified understanding of sum rules. In systems with emergent Lorentz invariance, powerful methods from quantum field theory allow us to fix the high-frequency response in terms of universal coefficients. We test our predictions analytically in the large-N O (N ) model and using the gauge-gravity duality and numerically via quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a lattice model hosting the interacting superfluid-insulator QCP. In superfluid phases, interacting Goldstone bosons qualitatively change the high-frequency optical conductivity and the corresponding sum rule.

  5. Quantum criticality and DBI magneto-resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiritsis, Elias; Li, Li

    2017-03-01

    We use the DBI action from string theory and holography to study the magneto-resistance at quantum criticality with hyperscaling violation. We find and analyze a rich class of scaling behaviors for the magneto-resistance. A special case describes the scaling results found in pnictides by Hayers et al in 2014 (arXiv:1412.6484).

  6. Macroscopic Quantum Criticality in a Circuit QED

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y D; Nori, F; Quan, H T; Sun, C P; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) is studied for two strongly-coupled charge qubits interacting with a single-mode quantized field, which is provided by a on-chip transmission line resonator. We analyze the dressed state structure of this superconducting circuit QED system and the selection rules of electromagnetic-induced transitions between any two of these dressed states. Its macroscopic quantum criticality, in the form of ground state level crossing, is also analyzed, resulting from competition between the Ising-type inter-qubit coupling and the controllable on-site potentials.

  7. Universality of quantum critical dynamics in a planar OPO

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, P D; Drummond, Peter D.; Dechoum, Kaled

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the critical quantum fluctuations in a coherently driven planar optical parametric oscillator. We show that the presence of transverse modes combined with quantum fluctuations changes the behavior of the `quantum image' critical point. This zero-temperature non-equilibrium quantum system has the same universality class as a finite-temperature magnetic Lifshitz transition.

  8. Holographic Butterfly Effect at Quantum Critical Points

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Yi; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-01-01

    When the Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L$ in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound $\\lambda_L\\leqslant 2\\pi k_BT$, it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this letter we propose that the butterfly velocity $v_B$ can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with two holographic models exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the second derivative of $v_B$ with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).

  9. Dynamical response near quantum critical points

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Andrew; Podolsky, Daniel; Witczak-Krempa, William

    2016-01-01

    We study high frequency response functions, notably the optical conductivity, in the vicinity of quantum critical points (QCPs) by allowing for both detuning from the critical coupling and finite temperature. We consider general dimensions and dynamical exponents. This leads to a unified understanding of sum rules. In systems with emergent Lorentz invariance, powerful methods from conformal field theory allow us to fix the high frequency response in terms of universal coefficients. We test our predictions analytically in the large-N O(N) model and using the gauge-gravity duality, and numerically via Quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a lattice model hosting the interacting superfluid-insulator QCP. In superfluid phases, interacting Goldstone bosons qualitatively change the high frequency optical conductivity, and the corresponding sum rule.

  10. Quantum critical scaling for field-induced quantum phase transition in a periodic Anderson-like model polymer chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, L. J.; Zhong, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The quantum phase transition and thermodynamics of a periodic Anderson-like polymer chain in a magnetic field are investigated by Green's function theory. The T-h phase diagram is explored, wherein a crossover temperature T∗ denoting the gapless phase crossover into quantum critical regimes, smoothly connects near the critical fields to the universal linear line T∗ ∼ (h - hc,s), and ends at hc,s, providing a new route to capture quantum critical point (QCP). The quantum critical scaling around QCPs is demonstrated by analyzing magnetization, specific heat and Grüneisen parameter Γh, which provide direct access to distill the power-law critical exponents (β, δ and α) obeying the critical scaling relation α + β(1 + δ) = 2, analogous to the quantum spin system. Furthermore, scaling hypothesis equations are proposed to check the scaling analysis, for which all the data collapse onto a single curve or two independent branches for the plot against an appropriate scaling variable, indicating the self-consistency and reliability of the obtained critical exponents.

  11. Entanglement in Nonunitary Quantum Critical Spin Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Romain; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2017-07-01

    Entanglement entropy has proven invaluable to our understanding of quantum criticality. It is natural to try to extend the concept to "nonunitary quantum mechanics," which has seen growing interest from areas as diverse as open quantum systems, noninteracting electronic disordered systems, or nonunitary conformal field theory (CFT). We propose and investigate such an extension here, by focusing on the case of one-dimensional quantum group symmetric or supergroup symmetric spin chains. We show that the consideration of left and right eigenstates combined with appropriate definitions of the trace leads to a natural definition of Rényi entropies in a large variety of models. We interpret this definition geometrically in terms of related loop models and calculate the corresponding scaling in the conformal case. This allows us to distinguish the role of the central charge and effective central charge in rational minimal models of CFT, and to define an effective central charge in other, less well-understood cases. The example of the s l (2 |1 ) alternating spin chain for percolation is discussed in detail.

  12. Quantum chaos on a critical Fermi surface

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Aavishkar A

    2016-01-01

    We compute parameters characterizing many-body quantum chaos for a critical Fermi surface without quasiparticle excitations. We examine a theory of $N$ species of fermions at non-zero density coupled to a $U(1)$ gauge field in two spatial dimensions, and determine the Lyapunov rate and the butterfly velocity in an extended RPA approximation. The thermal diffusivity is found to be universally related to these chaos parameters, i.e. the relationship is independent of $N$, the gauge coupling constant, the Fermi velocity, the Fermi surface curvature, and high energy details.

  13. Quantum Criticality in YFe2Al10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, William; Wu, Liusuo; Zaliznyak, Igor; Qiu, Yiming; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose; Aronson, Meigan

    Quantum criticality has been studied in many systems, but there are few systems where observed scaling can be unified with a critical free energy F, or where the critical exponents form the basis for QC universality classes. We have identified a new layered material YFe2Al10 that shows remarkably strong QC behavior, where the scaling properties of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat are consistent with the same F. Recent neutron scattering results paint a remarkable picture of the QC fluctuations in YFe2Al10. In contrast to classical transitions, where fluctuations are relatively long ranged and inelastic scattering is observed at a magnetic zone center, in YFe2Al10 the scattering is independent of wave vector in the critical plane, indicating that the fluctuations are spatially localized, while out of plane scattering indicates that the interplaner interactions are restricted to nearest neighbors. The dynamical susceptibility χ'' ~=E-2 , and is wholly temperature independent, indicating that E/T scaling is present, the signature of QC fluctuations. These results hint that the the criticality in YFe2Al10 is local, which until now has only been found in a few f-electron based compounds.

  14. Order parameter fluctuations at a buried quantum critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yejun; Wang, Jiyang; Jaramillo, R; van Wezel, Jasper; Haravifard, S; Srajer, G; Liu, Y; Xu, Z-A; Littlewood, P B; Rosenbaum, T F

    2012-05-08

    Quantum criticality is a central concept in condensed matter physics, but the direct observation of quantum critical fluctuations has remained elusive. Here we present an X-ray diffraction study of the charge density wave (CDW) in 2H-NbSe(2) at high pressure and low temperature, where we observe a broad regime of order parameter fluctuations that are controlled by proximity to a quantum critical point. X-rays can track the CDW despite the fact that the quantum critical regime is shrouded inside a superconducting phase; and in contrast to transport probes, allow direct measurement of the critical fluctuations of the charge order. Concurrent measurements of the crystal lattice point to a critical transition that is continuous in nature. Our results confirm the long-standing expectations of enhanced quantum fluctuations in low-dimensional systems, and may help to constrain theories of the quantum critical Fermi surface.

  15. Routing protocol for wireless quantum multi-hop mesh backbone network based on partially entangled GHZ state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Hua, Jing-Yu

    2017-08-01

    Quantum multi-hop teleportation is important in the field of quantum communication. In this study, we propose a quantum multi-hop communication model and a quantum routing protocol with multihop teleportation for wireless mesh backbone networks. Based on an analysis of quantum multi-hop protocols, a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is selected as the quantum channel for the proposed protocol. Both quantum and classical wireless channels exist between two neighboring nodes along the route. With the proposed routing protocol, quantum information can be transmitted hop by hop from the source node to the destination node. Based on multi-hop teleportation based on the partially entangled GHZ state, a quantum route established with the minimum number of hops. The difference between our routing protocol and the classical one is that in the former, the processes used to find a quantum route and establish quantum channel entanglement occur simultaneously. The Bell state measurement results of each hop are piggybacked to quantum route finding information. This method reduces the total number of packets and the magnitude of air interface delay. The deduction of the establishment of a quantum channel between source and destination is also presented here. The final success probability of quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks was simulated and analyzed. Our research shows that quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks through a partially entangled GHZ state is feasible.

  16. Effective and fundamental quantum fields at criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Michael

    2010-10-28

    We employ Wetterich's approach to functional renormalization as a suitable method to investigate universal phenomena in non-perturbative quantum field theories both qualitatively and quantitatively. Therefore we derive and investigate flow equations for a class of chiral Yukawa models with and without gauge bosons and reveal fixed-point mechanisms. In four dimensions chiral Yukawa systems serve as toy models for the standard model Higgs sector and show signatures of asymptotically safe fixed points by a balancing of bosonic and fermionic contributions. In the approximations investigated this renders the theory fundamental and solves the triviality problem. Further, we obtain predictions for the Higgs mass and even for the top mass of our toy model. In three dimensions we compute the critical exponents which define new universality classes and provide benchmark values for systems of strongly correlated chiral fermions. In a Yukawa system of non-relativistic two-component fermions a fixed point dominates the renormalization flow giving rise to universality in the BCS-BEC crossover. We push the functional renormalization method to a quantitative level and we compute the critical temperature and the single-particle gap with a considerable precision for the whole crossover. Finally, we provide further evidence for the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity by confirming the existence of an ultraviolet fixed point under inclusion of a curvature-ghost coupling. (orig.)

  17. Quantum critical transport at a continuous metal-insulator transition

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, P.; Laad, M. S.; Hassan, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the first-order correlation-driven Mott metal-insulator transition (MIT), contin- uous disorder-driven transitions are intrinsically quantum critical. Here, we investigate transport quantum criticality in the Falicov-Kimball model, a representative of the latter class in the "strong disorder" category. Employing cluster-dynamical mean-field theory (CDMFT), we find clear and anomalous quantum critical scaling behavior manifesting as perfect mirror symmetry of scaling curves on b...

  18. Quantum critical metals in 4 -ɛ dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia

    2014-10-01

    We study the quantum theory of a Fermi surface coupled to a gapless boson scalar in D =4 -ɛ space-time dimensions as a simple model for non-Fermi liquids (NFL) near a quantum phase transition. Our analysis takes into account the full backreaction from Landau damping of the boson, and obtains an RG flow that proceeds through three distinct stages. Above the scale of Landau damping, the Fermi velocity flows to zero, while the coupling evolves according to its classical dimension. Once damping becomes important, its backreaction leads to a crossover regime where dynamic and static damping effects compete and the fermion self-energy does not respect scaling. Below this crossover and having tuned the boson to criticality, the theory flows to a z =3 scalar interacting with an NFL. We finally analyze the IR phases of the theory with arbitrary number of flavors Nc. When Nc is small, the superconducting dome covers the NFL behavior; strikingly, for moderately large Nc, we find that NFL effects become important first, before the onset of superconductivity. A generic prediction of the theory is that the Fermi velocity and quasiparticle residue vanish with a power law ωɛ as the fixed point is approached. These features may be useful for understanding some of the phenomenology of high-Tc materials in a systematic ɛ expansion.

  19. Quantum field theory and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn-Justin, Jean

    1996-01-01

    Over the last twenty years quantum field theory has become not only the framework for the discussion of all fundamental interactions except gravity, but also for the understanding of second-order phase transitions in statistical mechanics. This advanced text is based on graduate courses and summer schools given by the author over a number of years. It approaches the subject in terms of path and functional intergrals, adopting a Euclidean metric and using the language of partition and correlation functions. Renormalization and the renormalization group are examined, as are critical phenomena and the role of instantons. Changes for this edition 1. Extensive revision to eliminate a few bugs that had survived the second edition and (mainly) to improve the pedagogical presentation, as a result of experience gathered by lecturing. 2. Additional new topics; holomorphic or coherent state path integral; functional integral and representation of the field theory S-matrix in the holomorphic formalis; non-relativistic li...

  20. Nonequilibrium Quantum Criticality and Non-Markovian Environment: Critical Exponent of a Quantum Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, D.; Domokos, P.

    2015-07-01

    We show that the critical exponent of a quantum phase transition in a damped-driven open system is determined by the spectral density function of the reservoir. We consider the open-system variant of the Dicke model, where the driven boson mode and also the large N spin couple to independent reservoirs at zero temperature. The critical exponent, which is 1 if there is no spin-bath coupling, decreases below 1 when the spin couples to a sub-Ohmic reservoir.

  1. En Route Critical Care: Evolving, Improving & Advancing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    Conference Civilian Partnerships  ECMO Pediatric/Neonatology Consortium  58 y/o Male unresponsive to care  Needed Adult ECMO – USA ECMO MD – USAF...Neonatologist – Civilian Perfusionist – Civilian ECMO RN  Transported to Iowa 36 2011 MHS Conference International AE En Route Medical Care Conference

  2. Entropy Flow in Near-Critical Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Near-critical quantum circuits close to equilibrium are ideal physical systems for asymptotically large-scale quantum computers, because their low energy collective excitations evolve reversibly, effectively isolated from microscopic environmental fluctuations by the renormalization group. Entropy flows in near-critical quantum circuits near equilibrium as a locally conserved quantum current, obeying circuit laws analogous to the electric circuit laws. These "Kirchhoff laws" for entropy flow are the fundamental design constraints for asymptotically large-scale quantum computers. A quantum circuit made from a near-critical system (of conventional type) is described by a relativistic 1+1 dimensional relativistic quantum field theory on the circuit. The quantum entropy current near equilibrium is just the energy current divided by the temperature. The universal properties of the energy-momentum tensor constrain the entropy flow characteristics of the circuit components: the entropic conductivity of the quantum wires and the entropic admittance of the quantum circuit junctions. For example, near-critical quantum wires are always resistanceless inductors for entropy. A universal formula is derived for the entropic conductivity: σ S(ω ) = iv2 S/ω T , where ω is the frequency, T the temperature, S the equilibrium entropy density and v the velocity of "light". The thermal conductivity is Re(Tσ S(ω ))=π v2 S δ (ω ). The thermal Drude weight is, universally, v2S. This gives a way to measure the entropy density directly.

  3. [FY 2014 progress report]: Determining Critical Wintering Sites & Migration Routes for Juvenile Red Knots

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This FY2014 progress report documents project activity for determining critical wintering sites and migration routes for juvenile red knots. Project goals, expected...

  4. Generalized dynamic scaling for quantum critical relaxation in imaginary time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyi; Yin, Shuai; Zhong, Fan

    2014-10-01

    We study the imaginary-time relaxation critical dynamics of a quantum system with a vanishing initial correlation length and an arbitrary initial order parameter M0. We find that in quantum critical dynamics, the behavior of M0 under scale transformations deviates from a simple power law, which was proposed for very small M0 previously. A universal characteristic function is then suggested to describe the rescaled initial magnetization, similar to classical critical dynamics. This characteristic function is shown to be able to describe the quantum critical dynamics in both short- and long-time stages of the evolution. The one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model is employed to numerically determine the specific form of the characteristic function. We demonstrate that it is applicable as long as the system is in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. The universality of the characteristic function is confirmed by numerical simulations of models belonging to the same universality class.

  5. Anatomy of quantum critical wave functions in dissipative impurity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden-Codd, Zach; Bera, Soumya; Bruognolo, Benedikt; Linden, Nils-Oliver; Chin, Alex W.; von Delft, Jan; Nazir, Ahsan; Florens, Serge

    2017-02-01

    Quantum phase transitions reflect singular changes taking place in a many-body ground state; however, computing and analyzing large-scale critical wave functions constitutes a formidable challenge. Physical insights into the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model are provided by the coherent-state expansion (CSE), which represents the wave function by a linear combination of classically displaced configurations. We find that the distribution of low-energy displacements displays an emergent symmetry in the absence of spontaneous symmetry breaking while experiencing strong fluctuations of the order parameter near the quantum critical point. Quantum criticality provides two strong fingerprints in critical low-energy modes: an algebraic decay of the average displacement and a constant universal average squeezing amplitude. These observations, confirmed by extensive variational matrix-product-state (VMPS) simulations and field theory arguments, offer precious clues into the microscopics of critical many-body states in quantum impurity models.

  6. A route to ultrathin quantum gases at polar perovskite heterointerfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2012-09-07

    Oxide interfaces are attracting interest in recent years due to special functionalities of two-dimensional quantum gases. However, with typical thicknesses of at least 10-12 Å the gases still extend considerably in the third dimension, which compromises the size of quantum effects. To overcome this limitation, we propose incorporation of highly electronegative cations, such as Ag. By ab initio calculations, we demonstrate the formation of a mobile two-dimensional hole gas in AgNbO 3/SrTiO 3 that is confined to an ultrathin slab of only 5.6 Å thickness. Electronegative cations therefore are a promising way to enhance the quantum nature of hole gases. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Universal Postquench Prethermalization at a Quantum Critical Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagel, Pia; Orth, Peter P; Schmalian, Jörg

    2014-11-28

    We consider an open system near a quantum critical point that is suddenly moved towards the critical point. The bath-dominated diffusive nonequilibrium dynamics after the quench is shown to follow scaling behavior, governed by a critical exponent that emerges in addition to the known equilibrium critical exponents. We determine this exponent and show that it describes universal prethermalized coarsening dynamics of the order parameter in an intermediate time regime. Implications of this quantum critical prethermalization are: (i) a power law rise of order and correlations after an initial collapse of the equilibrium state and (ii) a crossover to thermalization that occurs arbitrarily late for sufficiently shallow quenches.

  8. Quantum critical transport at a continuous metal-insulator transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, P.; Laad, M. S.; Hassan, S. R.

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the first-order correlation-driven Mott metal-insulator transition, continuous disorder-driven transitions are intrinsically quantum critical. Here, we investigate transport quantum criticality in the Falicov-Kimball model, a representative of the latter class in the strong disorder category. Employing cluster-dynamical mean-field theory, we find clear and anomalous quantum critical scaling behavior manifesting as perfect mirror symmetry of scaling curves on both sides of the MIT. Surprisingly, we find that the beta function β (g ) scales as log(g ) deep into the bad-metallic phase as well, providing a sound unified basis for these findings. We argue that such strong localization quantum criticality may manifest in real three-dimensional systems where disorder effects are more important than electron-electron interactions.

  9. On-chip electrically controlled routing of photons from a single quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentham, C.; Coles, R. J.; Royall, B.; O' Hara, J.; Prtljaga, N.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Wilson, L. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Itskevich, I. E., E-mail: I.Itskevich@hull.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Clarke, E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-01

    Electrical control of on-chip routing of photons emitted by a single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dot (SAQD) is demonstrated in a photonic crystal cavity-waveguide system. The SAQD is located inside an H1 cavity, which is coupled to two photonic crystal waveguides. The SAQD emission wavelength is electrically tunable by the quantum-confined Stark effect. When the SAQD emission is brought into resonance with one of two H1 cavity modes, it is preferentially routed to the waveguide to which that mode is selectively coupled. This proof of concept provides the basis for scalable, low-power, high-speed operation of single-photon routers for use in integrated quantum photonic circuits.

  10. Quantum criticality in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wen-Yu, E-mail: steve.wen@gmail.com [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences and Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the quantum Lifshitz criticality in a general background of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity. In particular, we demonstrate the existence of critical point with dynamic critical exponent z by tuning a nonminimal coupling to its critical value. We also study the effect of nonminimal coupling and exponent z to the Efimov states and holographic RG flow in the overcritical region. We have found that the nonminimal coupling increases the instability for a probe scalar to condensate and its back reaction is discussed. At last, we give a quantum mechanics treatment to a solvable system with z=2, and comment for generic z>2.

  11. On the critical temperatures of superconductors: a quantum gravity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gregori, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We consider superconductivity in the light of the quantum gravity theoretical framework introduced in [1]. In this framework, the degree of quantum delocalization depends on the geometry of the energy distribution along space. This results in a dependence of the critical temperature characterizing the transition to the superconducting phase on the complexity of the structure of a superconductor. We consider concrete examples, ranging from low to high temperature superconductors, and discuss how the critical temperature can be predicted once the quantum gravity effects are taken into account.

  12. Universal Entanglement Entropy in 2D Conformal Quantum Critical Points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Benjamin; Mulligan, Michael; Fradkin, Eduardo; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2008-12-05

    We study the scaling behavior of the entanglement entropy of two dimensional conformal quantum critical systems, i.e. systems with scale invariant wave functions. They include two-dimensional generalized quantum dimer models on bipartite lattices and quantum loop models, as well as the quantum Lifshitz model and related gauge theories. We show that, under quite general conditions, the entanglement entropy of a large and simply connected sub-system of an infinite system with a smooth boundary has a universal finite contribution, as well as scale-invariant terms for special geometries. The universal finite contribution to the entanglement entropy is computable in terms of the properties of the conformal structure of the wave function of these quantum critical systems. The calculation of the universal term reduces to a problem in boundary conformal field theory.

  13. Can a quantum critical state represent a blackbody?

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarty, Sudip

    2016-01-01

    The blackbody theory of Planck played a seminal role in the development of quantum theory at the turn of the past century. A blackbody cavity is generally thought to be a collection of photons in thermal equilibrium; the radiation emitted is at all wavelengths, and the intensity follows a scaling law, which is Planck's characteristic distribution law. These photons arise from non-interacting normal modes. Here we suggest that certain quantum critical states when heated emit "radiation" at all wavelengths and satisfy all the criteria of a blackbody. An important difference is that the "radiation" does not necessarily consist of non-interacting photons, but also emergent relativistic bosons or fermions. The examples we provide include emergent relativistic fermions at a topological quantum critical point. This perspective on a quantum critical state may be illuminating in many unforeseen ways.

  14. Critical Casimir forces from the equation of state of quantum critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rançon, Adam; Henry, Louis-Paul; Rose, Félix; Cardozo, David Lopes; Dupuis, Nicolas; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    The mapping between a classical length and inverse temperature as imaginary time provides a direct equivalence between the Casimir force of a classical system in D dimensions and internal energy of a quantum system in d =D -1 dimensions. The scaling functions of the critical Casimir force of the classical system with periodic boundaries thus emerge from the analysis of the symmetry related quantum critical point. We show that both nonperturbative renormalization group and quantum Monte Carlo analysis of quantum critical points provide quantitative estimates for the critical Casimir force in the corresponding classical model, giving access to widely different aspect ratios for the geometry of confined systems. In light of these results, we propose protocols for the realization of critical Casimir forces for periodic boundaries through state-of-the-art cold-atom and solid-state experiments.

  15. Quantum Gravito-Optics: A Light Route from Semiclassical Gravity to Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Unnikrishnan, C S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum gravity remains an elusive theory, in spite of our thorough understanding of the quantum theory and the general theory of relativity separately, presumably due to the lack of any observational clues. We argue that the theory of quantum gravity has a strong constraining anchor in the sector of gravitational radiation ensuring reliable physical clues, albeit in a limited observable form. In particular, all types of gravitational waves expected to be observable in LIGO-like advanced detectors are fully quantum mechanical states of radiation. Exact equivalence of the full quantum gravity theory with the familiar semiclassical theory is ensured in the radiation sector, in most real situations where the relevant quantum operator functions are normal ordered, by the analogue of the optical equivalence theorem in quantum optics. We show that this is indeed the case for detection of the waves from a massive binary system, a single gravitational atom, that emits coherent radiation. The idea of quantum-gravitati...

  16. Random matrix theory and critical phenomena in quantum spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J.; Keating, J. P.; Mezzadri, F.

    2015-09-01

    We compute critical properties of a general class of quantum spin chains which are quadratic in the Fermi operators and can be solved exactly under certain symmetry constraints related to the classical compact groups $U(N)$, $O(N)$ and $Sp(2N)$. In particular we calculate critical exponents $s$, $\

  17. Transport signatures of quantum critically in Cr at high pressure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Wang, J.; Rosenbaum, T. F. (X-Ray Science Division); ( PSC-USR); (Harvard Univ.); (Univ. of Chicago)

    2010-08-03

    The elemental antiferromagnet Cr at high pressure presents a new type of naked quantum critical point that is free of disorder and symmetry-breaking fields. Here we measure magnetotransport in fine detail around the critical pressure, P{sub c} {approx} 10 GPa, in a diamond anvil cell and reveal the role of quantum critical fluctuations at the phase transition. As the magnetism disappears and T {yields} 0, the magntotransport scaling converges to a non-mean-field form that illustrates the reconstruction of the magnetic Fermi surface, and is distinct from the critical scaling measured in chemically disordered Cr:V under pressure. The breakdown of itinerant antiferromagnetism only comes clearly into view in the clean limit, establishing disorder as a relevant variable at a quantum phase transition.

  18. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-04-19

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4(LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point atx∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear belowTCG∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,Δx∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.

  19. Far from equilibrium energy flow in quantum critical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaseen, M J; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad

    2013-01-01

    We investigate far from equilibrium energy transport in strongly coupled quantum critical systems. Combining results from gauge-gravity duality, relativistic hydrodynamics, and quantum field theory, we argue that long-time energy transport occurs via a universal steady-state for any spatial dimensionality. This is described by a boosted thermal state. We determine the transport properties of this emergent steady state, including the average energy flow and its long-time fluctuations.

  20. On the critical temperatures of superconductors: a quantum gravity approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gregori, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We consider superconductivity in the light of the quantum gravity theoretical framework introduced in [1]. In this framework, the degree of quantum delocalization depends on the geometry of the energy distribution along space. This results in a dependence of the critical temperature characterizing the transition to the superconducting phase on the complexity of the structure of a superconductor. We consider concrete examples, ranging from low to high temperature superconductors, and discuss h...

  1. Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper [1] we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large Script N (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating how N and Script N enter in these three aspects of quantum correlations, coherence and coupling strength. 3) the behavior of an interacting quantum system near its critical point, the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations and the conditions under which the system manifests infrared dimensional reduction. We also discuss how the effective field theory concept bears on macroscopic quantum phenomena: the running of the coupling parameters with energy or scale imparts a dynamical-dependent and an interaction-sensitive definition of 'macroscopia'.

  2. Odd-Parity Superconductivity and the Ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, A. D.; Yates, S. J. C.; Lévy, F.; Sheikin, I.

    2007-05-01

    The study of the emergence of superconductivity close to quantum critical points affords a powerful means to identify the mechanism that drives the formation of unconventional superconductivity in heavy fermion materials. The recent discovery of superconducting states close to quantum critical points in ferromagnets UGe2 and URhGe is reviewed in this light. For URhGe we examine whether the predominant type of magnetic excitations involved are longitudinal excitations, hitherto considered theoretically to be the most promising candidate to mediate equal-spin-paired superconductivity.

  3. A New Improved Quantum Evolution Algorithm with Local Search Procedure for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP is the most classical vehicle routing problem (VRP; many solution techniques are proposed to find its better answer. In this paper, a new improved quantum evolution algorithm (IQEA with a mixed local search procedure is proposed for solving CVRPs. First, an IQEA with a double chain quantum chromosome, new quantum rotation schemes, and self-adaptive quantum Not gate is constructed to initialize and generate feasible solutions. Then, to further strengthen IQEA's searching ability, three local search procedures 1-1 exchange, 1-0 exchange, and 2-OPT, are adopted. Experiments on a small case have been conducted to analyze the sensitivity of main parameters and compare the performances of the IQEA with different local search strategies. Together with results from the testing of CVRP benchmarks, the superiorities of the proposed algorithm over the PSO, SR-1, and SR-2 have been demonstrated. At last, a profound analysis of the experimental results is presented and some suggestions on future researches are given.

  4. Complex Critical Exponents in Diluted Systems of Quantum Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rafael; Schmalian, Jörg

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we investigate the effects of the Berry phase 2 πρ on the critical properties of XY quantum-rotors that undergo a percolation transition. This model describes a variety of randomly-diluted quantum systems, such as interacting bosons coupled to a particle reservoir, quantum planar antiferromagnets under a perpendicular magnetic field, and Josephson-junction arrays with an external bias-voltage. Focusing on the quantum critical point at the percolation threshold, we find that, for rational ρ , one recovers the power-law behavior with the same critical exponents as in the case with no Berry phase. However, for irrational ρ , the low-energy excitations change completely and are given by emergent spinless fermions with fractal spectrum. As a result, critical properties that cannot be described by the usual Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson theory of phase transitions emerge, such as complex critical exponents, log-periodic oscillations, and dynamically-broken scale invariance. Research supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of BES, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  5. Universal short-time quantum critical dynamics in imaginary time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuai; Mai, Peizhi; Zhong, Fan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a scaling theory for the universal imaginary-time quantum critical dynamics for both short and long times. We discover that there exists a universal critical initial slip related to a small initial order parameter M0. In this stage, the order parameter M increases with the imaginary time τ as M ∝M0τθ with a universal initial-slip exponent θ. For the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model, we estimate θ to be 0.373, which is markedly distinct from its classical counterpart. Apart from the local order parameter, we also show that the entanglement entropy exhibits universal behavior in the short-time region. As the critical exponents in the early stage and in equilibrium are identical, we apply the short-time dynamics method to determine quantum critical properties. The method is generally applicable in both the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm and topological phase transitions.

  6. On the Quantum Geometry of Multi-critical CDT

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, Max R

    2012-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced model of multi-critical CDT to higher multi-critical points. It is observed that the continuum limit can be taken on the level of the action and that the resulting continuum surface model is again described by a matrix model. The resolvent, a simple observable of the quantum geometry which is accessible from the matrix model is calculated for arbitrary multi-critical points. We go beyond the matrix model by determining the propagator using the peeling procedure which is used to extract the effective quantum Hamiltonian and the Hausdorff dimension. With this at hand a string field theory formalism for multi-critical CDT is introduced and it is shown that the Dyson-Schwinger equations match the loop equations of the matrix model. We conclude by commenting on how to formally obtain the sum over topologies and a relation to stochastic quantisation.

  7. Holographic butterfly effect and diffusion in quantum critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Xian, Zhuo-Yu

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the butterfly effect and charge diffusion near the quantum phase transition in holographic approach. We argue that their criticality is controlled by the holographic scaling geometry with deformations induced by a relevant operator at finite temperature. Specifically, in the quantum critical region controlled by a single fixed point, the butterfly velocity decreases when deviating from the critical point. While, in the non-critical region, the behavior of the butterfly velocity depends on the specific phase at low temperature. Moreover, in the holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, the universal behavior of the butterfly velocity is absent. Finally, the tendency of our holographic results matches with the numerical results of Bose-Hubbard model. A comparison between our result and that in the O( N ) nonlinear sigma model is also given.

  8. Partial dynamical symmetry at critical points of quantum phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, A

    2007-06-15

    We show that partial dynamical symmetries can occur at critical points of quantum phase transitions, in which case underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of partial dynamical symmetries are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape phases in nuclei.

  9. Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.

  10. Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); CERN, Theory Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); New York University, Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York, NY (United States); Gomez, Cesar [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, C-XVI, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs. (orig.)

  11. Black Holes as Critical Point of Quantum Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2014-01-01

    We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.

  12. Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2014-02-01

    We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.

  13. Slow phase relaxation as a route to quantum computing beyond the quantum chaos border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J.; Kun, S. Yu.; Seligman, T. H.

    2005-07-01

    We reveal that phase memory can be much longer than energy relaxation in systems with exponentially large dimensions of Hilbert space; this finding is documented by 50 years of nuclear experiments, though the information is somewhat hidden. For quantum computers Hilbert spaces of dimension 2100 or larger will be typical and therefore this effect may contribute significantly to reduce the problems of scaling of quantum computers to a useful number of qubits.

  14. Critical fluctuations for quantum mean-field models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fannes, M.; Kossakowski, A.; Verbeure, A. (Univ. Louvain (Belgium))

    1991-11-01

    A Ginzburg-Landau-type approximation is proposed for the local Gibbs states for quantum mean-field models that leads to the exact thermodynamics. Using this approach, the spin fluctuations are computed for some spin-1/2 models. At the critical temperature, the distribution function showing abnormal fluctuations is found explicitly.

  15. Metatheoretical critics on current trends in Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C. Aranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Is our purpose in this article to review several approaches to modern problems in quantum mechanics from a critical point of view using the approximation of the traditional mathematical thinking. Nevertheless we point out several natural questions that arise in abstract mathematical reasoning.

  16. Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yichen

    2017-05-01

    We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique.

  17. Metallic magnets without inversion symmetry and antiferromagnetic quantum critical points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, I.A.

    2006-07-01

    This thesis focusses on two classes of systems that exhibit non-Fermi liquid behaviour in experiments: we investigated aspects of chiral ferromagnets and of antiferromagnetic metals close to a quantum critical point. In chiral ferromagnets, the absence of inversion symmetry makes spin-orbit coupling possible, which leads to a helical modulation of the ferromagnetically ordered state. We studied the motion of electrons in the magnetically ordered state of a metal without inversion symmetry by calculating their generic band-structure. We found that spin-orbit coupling, although weak, has a profound effect on the shape of the Fermi surface: On a large portion of the Fermi surface the electron motion parallel to the helix practically stops. Signatures of this effect can be expected to show up in measurements of the anomalous Hall effect. Recent neutron scattering experiments uncovered the existence of a peculiar kind of partial order in a region of the phase diagram adjacent to the ordered state of the chiral ferromagnet MnSi. Starting from the premise that this partially ordered state is a thermodynamically distinct phase, we investigated an extended Ginzburg-Landau theory for chiral ferromagnets. In a certain parameter regime of the Ginzburg-Landau theory we identified crystalline phases that are reminiscent of the so-called blue phases in liquid crystals. Many antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion systems can be tuned into a regime where they exhibit non-Fermi liquid exponents in the temperature dependence of thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat capacity; this behaviour could be due to a quantum critical point. If the quantum critical behaviour is field-induced, the external field does not only suppress antiferromagnetism but also induces spin precession and thereby influences the dynamics of the order parameter. We investigated the quantum critical behavior of clean antiferromagnetic metals subject to a static, spatially uniform external magnetic field. We

  18. Superconducting Switch for Fast On-Chip Routing of Quantum Microwave Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, M.; Besse, J.-C.; Mondal, M.; Oppliger, M.; Gasparinetti, S.; Wallraff, A.

    2016-08-01

    A switch capable of routing microwave signals at cryogenic temperatures is a desirable component for state-of-the-art experiments in many fields of applied physics, including but not limited to quantum-information processing, communication, and basic research in engineered quantum systems. Conventional mechanical switches provide low insertion loss but disturb operation of dilution cryostats and the associated experiments by heat dissipation. Switches based on semiconductors or microelectromechanical systems have a lower thermal budget but are not readily integrated with current superconducting circuits. Here we design and test an on-chip switch built by combining tunable transmission-line resonators with microwave beam splitters. The device is superconducting and as such dissipates a negligible amount of heat. It is compatible with current superconducting circuit fabrication techniques, operates with a bandwidth exceeding 100 MHz, is capable of handling photon fluxes on the order of 1 05 μ s-1 , equivalent to powers exceeding -90 dBm , and can be switched within approximately 6-8 ns. We successfully demonstrate operation of the device in the quantum regime by integrating it on a chip with a single-photon source and using it to route nonclassical itinerant microwave fields at the single-photon level.

  19. Quantum clock: A critical discussion on spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Burderi, Luciano; Iaria, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    We critically discuss the measure of very short time intervals. By means of a Gedankenexperiment, we describe an ideal clock based on the occurrence of completely random events. Many previous thought experiments have suggested fundamental Planck-scale limits on measurements of distance and time. Here we present a new type of thought experiment, based on a different type of clock, that provide further support for the existence of such limits. We show that the minimum time interval $\\Delta t$ that this clock can measure scales as the inverse of its size $\\Delta r$. This implies an uncertainty relation between space and time: $\\Delta r$ $\\Delta t$ $> G \\hbar / c^4$; where G, $\\hbar$ and c are the gravitational constant, the reduced Planck constant, and the speed of light, respectively. We outline and briefly discuss the implications of this uncertainty conjecture.

  20. Quantum Critical Spin-2 Chain with Emergent SU(3) Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pochung; Xue, Zhi-Long; McCulloch, I. P.; Chung, Ming-Chiang; Huang, Chao-Chun; Yip, S.-K.

    2015-04-01

    We study the quantum critical phase of an SU(2) symmetric spin-2 chain obtained from spin-2 bosons in a one-dimensional lattice. We obtain the scaling of the finite-size energies and entanglement entropy by exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group methods. From the numerical results of the energy spectra, central charge, and scaling dimension we identify the conformal field theory describing the whole critical phase to be the SU (3 )1 Wess-Zumino-Witten model. We find that, while the Hamiltonian is only SU(2) invariant, in this critical phase there is an emergent SU(3) symmetry in the thermodynamic limit.

  1. Note on "Quantum superconducting criticality in graphene and topological insulators"

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bitan; Herbut, Igor F

    2016-01-01

    We correct our previous conclusion regarding the fate of a charged quantum critical point across the superconducting transition for two dimensional massless Dirac fermion. Within the leading order $\\epsilon$ expansion, we now find that the requisite number of four-component Dirac fermion flavors ($N_f$) for the continuous phase transition through a charged critical point is $N_f>18.2699$. For $N_f\\geq1/2$, the critical number of bosonic flavors for this transition is significantly reduced as compared to the value determined in the absence of the Dirac fermions in the theory.

  2. High critical temperature superconductor Josephson junctions for quantum circuit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauch, T; Gustafsson, D; Cedergren, K; Nawaz, S; Mumtaz Virk, M; Lombardi, F [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Pettersson, H; Olsson, E [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: bauch@chalmers.se

    2009-12-15

    Recent findings of macroscopic quantum properties in high critical temperature superconductor (HTS) Josephson junctions (JJs) point toward the need to revise the role of zero energy quasi-particles in this novel superconductor. We will discuss the possibility of designing superconducting artificial atoms in a transmon configuration to study the low energy excitation spectra of HTS. We have engineered high quality grain boundary JJs on low dielectric constant substrates. By fabricating submicron junctions, we extract values of capacitance and Josephson critical current densities that satisfy the main transmon design requirements. Moreover, the measured critical current noise power extrapolated at 1 Hz gives a dephasing time of 25 ns, which indicates that the observation of macroscopic quantum coherent effects in HTS JJ is a feasible task.

  3. Mott Quantum Criticality in the Anisotropic 2D Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Benjamin; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Pruschke, Thomas; Assaad, Fakher F.; Raczkowski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    We present evidence for Mott quantum criticality in an anisotropic two-dimensional system of coupled Hubbard chains at half-filling. In this scenario emerging from variational cluster approximation and cluster dynamical mean-field theory, the interchain hopping t⊥ acts as a control parameter driving the second-order critical end point Tc of the metal-insulator transition down to zero at t⊥c/t ≃0.2 . Below t⊥c, the volume of the hole and electron Fermi pockets of a compensated metal vanishes continuously at the Mott transition. Above t⊥c, the volume reduction of the pockets is cut off by a first-order transition. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a putative quantum critical point in layered organic conductors, whose location remains elusive so far.

  4. Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yichen, E-mail: ychuang@caltech.edu

    2017-05-15

    We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique. - Highlights: • We study the dynamical quantum phase transition between many-body localized phases. • We simulate the dynamics of a very long random spin chain with matrix product states. • We observe numerically super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time.

  5. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Xia, Zhouhui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Dong, Chao [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of New Mexico, ABQ 87120 (United States); Sun, Baoquan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lou, Yanhui, E-mail: yhlou@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0{sup #} diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement.

  6. Edge Quantum Criticality and Emergent Supersymmetry in Topological Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Yao, Hong

    2017-09-01

    Proposed as a fundamental symmetry describing our Universe, spacetime supersymmetry (SUSY) has not been discovered yet in nature. Nonetheless, it has been predicted that SUSY may emerge in low-energy physics of quantum materials such as topological superconductors and Weyl semimetals. Here, by performing state-of-the-art sign-problem-free quantum Monte Carlo simulations of an interacting two-dimensional topological superconductor, we show convincing evidence that the N =1 SUSY emerges at its edge quantum critical point (EQCP) while its bulk remains gapped and topologically nontrivial. Remarkably, near the EQCP, we find that the edge Majorana fermion acquires a mass that is identical with that of its bosonic superpartner. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation that fermions and bosons have equal dynamically generated masses, a hallmark of emergent SUSY. We further discuss experimental signatures of such EQCP and associated SUSY.

  7. Dynamical eigenfunctions and critical density in loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, David A

    2012-01-01

    We offer a new, physically transparent argument for the existence of the critical, universal maximum matter density in loop quantum cosmology for the case of a flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology with scalar matter. The argument is based on the existence of a sharp exponential ultraviolet cutoff in momentum space on the eigenfunctions of the quantum cosmological dynamical evolution operator (the gravitational part of the Hamiltonian constraint), attributable to the fundamental discreteness of spatial volume in loop quantum cosmology. The existence of the cutoff is proved directly from recently found exact solutions for the eigenfunctions for this model. As a consequence, the operators corresponding to the momentum of the scalar field and the spatial volume approximately commute. The ultraviolet cutoff then implies that the scalar momentum, though not a bounded operator, is in effect bounded on subspaces of constant volume, leading to the upper bound on the expectation value of the matter densit...

  8. Experimental consequences of quantum critical points at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, D. C.; Rodière, P.; Núñez, M.; Garbarino, G.; Sulpice, A.; Marcus, J.; Gay, F.; Continentino, M. A.; Núñez-Regueiro, M.

    2015-11-01

    We study the C r1 -xR ex phase diagram finding that its phase transition temperature towards an antiferromagnetic order TN follows a quantum [(xc-x ) /xc ] ψ law, with ψ =1 /2 , from the quantum critical point (QCP) at xc=0.25 up to TN≈600 K . We compare this system to others in order to understand why this elemental material is affected by the QCP up to such unusually high temperatures. We determine a general criterion for the crossover, as a function of an external parameter such as concentration, from the region controlled solely by thermal fluctuations to that where quantum effects become observable. The properties of materials with low coherence lengths will thus be altered far away from the QCP.

  9. Thermal conductivity at a disordered quantum critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, Sean A; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    Strongly disordered and strongly interacting quantum critical points are difficult to access with conventional field theoretic methods. They are, however, both experimentally important and theoretically interesting. In particular, they are expected to realize universal incoherent transport. Such disordered quantum critical theories have recently been constructed holographically by deforming a CFT by marginally relevant disorder. In this paper we find additional disordered fixed points via relevant disordered deformations of a holographic CFT. Using recently developed methods in holographic transport, we characterize the thermal conductivity in both sets of theories in 1+1 dimensions. The thermal conductivity is found to tend to a constant at low temperatures in one class of fixed points, and to scale as $T^{0.3}$ in the other. Furthermore, in all cases the thermal conductivity exhibits discrete scale invariance, with logarithmic in temperature oscillations superimposed on the low temperature scaling behavior....

  10. Hawking Radiation and Nonequilibrium Quantum Critical Current Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonner, Julian; Green, A. G.

    2012-08-01

    The dynamical scaling of quantum critical systems in thermal equilibrium may be inherited in the driven steady state, leading to universal out-of-equilibrium behavior. This attractive notion has been demonstrated in just a few cases. We demonstrate how holography—a mapping between the quantum critical system and a gravity dual—provides an illuminating perspective and new results. Nontrivial out-of-equilibrium universality is particularly apparent in current noise, which is dual to Hawking radiation in the gravitational system. We calculate this in a two-dimensional system driven by a strong in-plane electric field and deduce a universal scaling function interpolating between previously established equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium current noise. Since this applies at all fields, out-of-equilibrium experiments no longer require very high fields for comparison with theory.

  11. Effect of route of feeding on the incidence of septic complications in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, G; Kudsk, K A

    1994-12-01

    The increased risk of septic complications accompanying severe illness and injury is compounded by the presence of malnutrition. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has been used extensively to prevent or rectify this problem. Although enteral nutrition is frequently more difficult to administer, a growing body of laboratory and clinical research shows a significant reduction in the incidence of secondary infection with its use. The mechanism proposed is that the enteral route helps maintain the gut barrier, decreasing passage of bacteria and other toxins. Translocation of these products has been implicated as a cause of nosocomial infection and organ failure. Therefore, when possible, the use of the enteral route of nutrition should be part of the overall approach to the care of the critically ill or injured patient.

  12. Mott Quantum Criticality in the Anisotropic 2D Hubbard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Benjamin; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Pruschke, Thomas; Assaad, Fakher F.; Raczkowski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence for Mott quantum criticality in an anisotropic two-dimensional system of coupled Hubbard chains at half-filling. In this scenario emerging from variational cluster approximation and cluster dynamical mean-field theory, the interchain hopping $t_{\\perp}$ acts as a control parameter driving the second-order critical end point $T_c$ of the metal-insulator transition down to zero at $t_{\\perp}^{c}/t\\simeq 0.2$. Below $t_{\\perp}^{c}$, the volume of the hole and electron Fermi p...

  13. Quantum superconductor-insulator transition: implications of BKT critical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Weyeneth, S

    2013-07-31

    We explore the implications of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) critical behavior on the two-dimensional (2D) quantum superconductor-insulator (QSI) transition driven by the tuning parameter x. Concentrating on the sheet resistance R(x,T) BKT behavior implies: an explicit quantum scaling function for R(x,T) along the superconducting branch ending at the nonuniversal critical value Rc = R(xc); a BKT-transition line T(c)(x) [proportionality] (x - x(c))(zν[overline]), where z is the dynamic exponent and ν[overline] the exponent of the zero-temperature correlation length; independent estimates of zν[overline], z and ν[overline] from the x dependence of the nonuniversal parameters entering the BKT expression for the sheet resistance. To illustrate the potential and the implications of this scenario we analyze the data of Bollinger et al (2011 Nature 472 458) taken on gate voltage tuned epitaxial films of La2-xSrxCuO4 that are one unit cell in thickness. The resulting estimates, z ~/= 3.1 and ν[overline] ~/= 0.52, indicate a clean 2D-QSI critical point where hyperscaling, the proportionality between d/λ(2)(0) and Tc, and the correspondence between the quantum phase transitions in D dimensions and the classical ones in (D + z) dimensions are violated.

  14. Nambu-Goldstone Effective Theory of Information at Quantum Criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico

    2015-01-01

    We establish a fundamental connection between quantum criticality of a many-body system, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, and its capacity of information-storage and processing. For deriving the effective theory of modes in the vicinity of the quantum critical point we develop a new method by mapping a Bose-Einstein condensate of $N$-particles onto a sigma model with a continuous global (pseudo)symmetry that mixes bosons of different momenta. The Bogolyubov modes of the condensate are mapped onto the Goldstone modes of the sigma model, which become gapless at the critical point. These gapless Goldstone modes are the quantum carriers of information and entropy. Analyzing their effective theory, we observe the information-processing properties strikingly similar to the ones predicted by the black hole portrait. The energy cost per qubit of information-storage vanishes in the large-$N$ limit and the total information-storage capacity increases with $N$ either exponentially or as a power law. The longevity of i...

  15. Chemically mediated quantum criticality in NbFe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Aftab; Johnson, D D

    2011-11-11

    Laves-phase Nb(1+c)Fe(2-c) is a rare itinerant intermetallic compound exhibiting magnetic quantum criticality at c(cr)∼1.5%Nb excess; its origin, and how alloying mediates it, remains an enigma. For NbFe(2), we show that an unconventional band critical point above the Fermi level E(F) explains most observations and that chemical alloying mediates access to this unconventional band critical point by an increase in E(F) with decreasing electrons (increasing %Nb), counter to rigid-band concepts. We calculate that E(F) enters the unconventional band critical point region for c(cr) > 1.5%Nb and by 1.74%Nb there is no Nb site-occupation preference between symmetry-distinct Fe sites, i.e., no electron-hopping disorder, making resistivity near constant as observed. At larger Nb (Fe) excess, the ferromagnetic Stoner criterion is satisfied.

  16. Implementation of single-photon quantum routing and decoupling using a nitrogen-vacancy center and a whispering-gallery-mode resonator-waveguide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong; Duan, Yu-Wen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2017-07-24

    Quantum router is a key element needed for the construction of future complex quantum networks. However, quantum routing with photons, and its inverse, quantum decoupling, are difficult to implement as photons do not interact, or interact very weakly in nonlinear media. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of implementing photonic quantum routing based on effects in cavity quantum electrodynamics, and present a scheme for single-photon quantum routing controlled by the other photon using a hybrid system consisting of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center coupled with a whispering-gallery-mode resonator-waveguide structure. Different from the cases in which classical information is used to control the path of quantum signals, both the control and signal photons are quantum in our implementation. Compared with the probabilistic quantum routing protocols based on linear optics, our scheme is deterministic and also scalable to multiple photons. We also present a scheme for single-photon quantum decoupling from an initial state with polarization and spatial-mode encoding, which can implement an inverse operation to the quantum routing. We discuss the feasibility of our schemes by considering current or near-future techniques, and show that both the schemes can operate effectively in the bad-cavity regime. We believe that the schemes could be key building blocks for future complex quantum networks and large-scale quantum information processing.

  17. Assisted finite-rate adiabatic passage across a quantum critical point: exact solution for the quantum Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Adolfo; Rams, Marek M; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2012-09-14

    The dynamics of a quantum phase transition is inextricably woven with the formation of excitations, as a result of critical slowing down in the neighborhood of the critical point. We design a transitionless quantum driving through a quantum critical point, allowing one to access the ground state of the broken-symmetry phase by a finite-rate quench of the control parameter. The method is illustrated in the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Driving through the critical point is assisted by an auxiliary Hamiltonian, for which the interplay between the range of the interaction and the modes where excitations are suppressed is elucidated.

  18. Criticality in Two-Dimensional Quantum Systems: Tensor Network Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ran, Shi-Ju; Li, Wei; Lewenstein, Maciej; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Determination and characterization of criticality in two-dimensional (2D) quantum many-body systems belong to the most important challenges and problems of quantum physics. In this paper we propose an efficient scheme to solve this problem by utilizing the infinite projected entangled pair state (iPEPS), and tensor network (TN) representations. We show that the criticality of a 2D state is faithfully reproduced by the ground state (dubbed as boundary state) of a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian constructed from its iPEPS representation. We demonstrate that for a critical state the correlation length and the entanglement spectrum of the boundary state are essentially different from those of a gapped iPEPS. This provides a solid indicator that allows to identify the criticality of the 2D state. Our scheme is verified on the resonating valence bond (RVB) states on kagom\\'e and square lattices, where the boundary state of the honeycomb RVB is found to be described by a $c=1$ conformal field theory. We apply ...

  19. Gauge-field-assisted Kekul\\'e quantum criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum phase transition of $U(1)$ - charged Dirac fermions Yukawa-coupled to the Kekul\\'e valence bond solid order parameter with $Z_3$ symmetry of the honeycomb lattice. The symmetry allows for the presence of the term in the action which is cubic in the Kekul\\'e order parameter, and which is expected to prevent the quantum phase transition in question from being continuous. The Gross-Neveu-Yukawa theory for the transition is investigated using a perturbative renormalization group and within the $\\epsilon$ expansion close to four space-time dimensions. For a vanishing $U(1)$ charge we show that quantum fluctuations may render the phase transition continuous only sufficiently far away from 3+1 dimensions, where the validity of the conclusions based on the leading order $\\epsilon$ expansion appear questionable. In the presence of a fluctuating gauge field, on the other hand, we find quantum critical behavior even at weak coupling to appear close to 3+1 dimensions, that is, within the domain of va...

  20. Random matrix theory and critical phenomena in quantum spin chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J; Keating, J P; Mezzadri, F

    2015-09-01

    We compute critical properties of a general class of quantum spin chains which are quadratic in the Fermi operators and can be solved exactly under certain symmetry constraints related to the classical compact groups U(N),O(N), and Sp(2N). In particular we calculate critical exponents s,ν, and z, corresponding to the energy gap, correlation length, and dynamic exponent, respectively. We also compute the ground state correlators 〈σ_{i}^{x}σ_{i+n}^{x}〉_{g},〈σ_{i}^{y}σ_{i+n}^{y}〉_{g}, and 〈∏_{i=1}^{n}σ_{i}^{z}〉_{g}, all of which display quasi-long-range order with a critical exponent dependent upon system parameters. Our approach establishes universality of the exponents for the class of systems in question.

  1. Impurities near an antiferromagnetic-singlet quantum critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Santos, T.; Costa, N. C.; Batrouni, G.; Curro, N.; dos Santos, R. R.; Paiva, T.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2017-02-01

    Heavy-fermion systems and other strongly correlated electron materials often exhibit a competition between antiferromagnetic (AF) and singlet ground states. Using exact quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we examine the effect of impurities in the vicinity of such an AF-singlet quantum critical point (QCP), through an appropriately defined "impurity susceptibility" χimp. Our key finding is a connection within a single calculational framework between AF domains induced on the singlet side of the transition and the behavior of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate 1 /T1 . We show that local NMR measurements provide a diagnostic for the location of the QCP, which agrees remarkably well with the vanishing of the AF order parameter and large values of χimp.

  2. Development of a CMOS Route for Electron Pumps to Be Used in Quantum Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Barraud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the ampere will change in the next few years. This electrical base unit of the S.I. will be redefined by fixing the value of the charge quantum, i.e., the electron charge e. As a result electron pumps will become the natural device for the mise en pratique of this new ampere. In the last years semiconductor electron pumps have emerged as the most advanced systems, both in terms of speed and precision. Another figure of merit for a metrological device would be its ability to be predictible and shared. For that reason a mature fabrication process would certainly be an advantage. In this article we present electron pumps made within a CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor research facility on 300 mm silicon-on-insulator wafers, using advanced microelectronics tools and processes. We give an overview of the whole integration scheme and emphasize the fabrication steps which differ from the normal CMOS route.

  3. Superconducting quantum criticality of topological surface states at three loops

    CERN Document Server

    Zerf, Nikolai; Maciejko, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The semimetal-superconductor quantum phase transition on the two-dimensional (2D) surface of a 3D topological insulator is conjectured to exhibit an emergent $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetry, based on a renormalization group (RG) analysis at one-loop order in the $\\epsilon$ expansion. We provide additional support for this conjecture by performing a three-loop RG analysis and showing that the supersymmetric fixed point found at this order survives the extrapolation to 2D. We compute critical exponents to order $\\epsilon^3$, obtaining the more accurate value $\

  4. Local quantum criticality of an iron-pnictide tetrahedron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, T Tzen; Coleman, Piers

    2012-03-01

    Motivated by the close correlation between transition temperature (T(c)) and the tetrahedral bond angle of the As-Fe-As layer observed in the iron-based superconductors, we study the interplay between spin and orbital physics of an isolated iron-arsenide tetrahedron embedded in a metallic environment. Whereas the spin-Kondo effect is suppressed to low temperatures by Hund's coupling, the orbital degrees of freedom are expected to quantum mechanically quench at high temperatures, giving rise to an overscreened, non-Fermi liquid ground state. Translated into a dense environment, this critical state may play an important role in the superconductivity of these materials.

  5. Mapping between finite temperature classical and zero temperature quantum systems: Quantum critical jamming and quantum dynamical heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Zohar; Johnson, Patrick; Graf, Matthias J.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2013-05-01

    Many electronic systems (e.g., the cuprate superconductors and heavy fermions) exhibit striking features in their dynamical response over a prominent range of experimental parameters. While there are some empirical suggestions of particular increasing length scales that accompany such transitions in some cases, this identification is not universal and in numerous instances no large correlation length is evident. To better understand, as a matter of principle, such behavior in quantum systems, we extend a known mapping (earlier studied in stochastic or supersymmetric quantum mechanics) between finite temperature classical Fokker-Planck systems and related quantum systems at zero temperature to include general nonequilibrium dynamics. Unlike Feynman mappings or stochastic quantization methods in field theories (as well as more recent holographic type dualities), the classical systems that we consider and their quantum duals reside in the same number of space-time dimensions. The upshot of our very broad and rigorous result is that a Wick rotation exactly relates (i) the dynamics in general finite temperature classical dissipative systems to (ii) zero temperature dynamics in the corresponding dual many-body quantum systems. Using this correspondence, we illustrate that, even in the absence of imposed disorder, many continuum quantum fluid systems (and possible lattice counterparts) may exhibit a zero-point “quantum dynamical heterogeneity” wherein the dynamics, at a given instant, is spatially nonuniform. While the static length scales accompanying this phenomenon do not seem to exhibit a clear divergence in standard correlation functions, the length scale of the dynamical heterogeneities can increase dramatically. We further study “quantum jamming” and illustrate how a hard-core bosonic system can undergo a zero temperature quantum critical metal-to-insulator-type transition with an extremely large effective dynamical exponent z>4 that is consistent with

  6. Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, C H; Subasi, Y

    2011-01-01

    In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper(MQP1) we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large $\\cal N$ (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating h...

  7. Fermi-surface collapse and dynamical scaling near a quantum-critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Sven; Oeschler, Niels; Wirth, Steffen; Krellner, Cornelius; Geibel, Christoph; Steglich, Frank; Paschen, Silke; Kirchner, Stefan; Si, Qimiao

    2010-08-17

    Quantum criticality arises when a macroscopic phase of matter undergoes a continuous transformation at zero temperature. While the collective fluctuations at quantum-critical points are being increasingly recognized as playing an important role in a wide range of quantum materials, the nature of the underlying quantum-critical excitations remains poorly understood. Here we report in-depth measurements of the Hall effect in the heavy-fermion metal YbRh(2)Si(2), a prototypical system for quantum criticality. We isolate a rapid crossover of the isothermal Hall coefficient clearly connected to the quantum-critical point from a smooth background contribution; the latter exists away from the quantum-critical point and is detectable through our studies only over a wide range of magnetic field. Importantly, the width of the critical crossover is proportional to temperature, which violates the predictions of conventional theory and is instead consistent with an energy over temperature, E/T, scaling of the quantum-critical single-electron fluctuation spectrum. Our results provide evidence that the quantum-dynamical scaling and a critical Kondo breakdown simultaneously operate in the same material. Correspondingly, we infer that macroscopic scale-invariant fluctuations emerge from the microscopic many-body excitations associated with a collapsing Fermi-surface. This insight is expected to be relevant to the unconventional finite-temperature behavior in a broad range of strongly correlated quantum systems.

  8. Holographic view on quantum correlations and mutual information between disjoint blocks of a quantum critical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sodano, Pasquale

    2011-10-01

    In ( d + 1) dimensional Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) networks, tensors are connected so as to reproduce the discrete, ( d + 2) holographic geometry of Anti de Sitter space (AdS d+2) with the original system lying at the boundary. We analyze the MERA renormalization flow that arises when computing the quantum correlations between two disjoint blocks of a quantum critical system, to show that the structure of the causal cones characteristic of MERA, requires a transition between two different regimes attainable by changing the ratio between the size and the separation of the two disjoint blocks. We argue that this transition in the MERA causal developments of the blocks may be easily accounted by an AdS d+2 black hole geometry when the mutual information is computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. As an explicit example, we use a BTZ AdS3 black hole to compute the MI and the quantum correlations between two disjoint intervals of a one dimensional boundary critical system. Our results for this low dimensional system not only show the existence of a phase transition emerging when the conformal four point ratio reaches a critical value but also provide an intuitive entropic argument accounting for the source of this instability. We discuss the robustness of this transition when finite temperature and finite size effects are taken into account.

  9. Critical relaxation with overdamped quasiparticles in open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Johannes; Piazza, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    We study the late-time relaxation following a quench in an open quantum many-body system. We consider the open Dicke model, describing the infinite-range interactions between N atoms and a single, lossy electromagnetic mode. We show that the dynamical phase transition at a critical atom-light coupling is characterized by the interplay between reservoir-driven and intrinsic relaxation processes in the absence of number conservation. Above the critical coupling, small fluctuations in the occupation of the dominant quasiparticle mode start to grow in time, while the quasiparticle lifetime remains finite due to losses. Near the critical interaction strength, we observe a crossover between exponential and power-law 1 /τ relaxation, the latter driven by collisions between quasiparticles. For a quench exactly to the critical coupling, the power-law relaxation extends to infinite times, but the finite lifetime of quasiparticles prevents aging from appearing in two-times response and correlation functions. We predict our results to be accessible to quench experiments with ultracold bosons in optical resonators.

  10. A route for a strong increase of critical current in nanostrained iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Toshinori; Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Cheng; Jaroszynski, Jan; Si, Weidong; Zhou, Juan; Zhu, Yimei; Li, Qiang

    2016-10-06

    The critical temperature Tc and the critical current density Jc determine the limits to large-scale superconductor applications. Superconductivity emerges at Tc. The practical current-carrying capability, measured by Jc, is the ability of defects in superconductors to pin the magnetic vortices, and that may reduce Tc. Simultaneous increase of Tc and Jc in superconductors is desirable but very difficult to realize. Here we demonstrate a route to raise both Tc and Jc together in iron-based superconductors. By using low-energy proton irradiation, we create cascade defects in FeSe0.5Te0.5 films. Tc is enhanced due to the nanoscale compressive strain and proximity effect, whereas Jc is doubled under zero field at 4.2 K through strong vortex pinning by the cascade defects and surrounding nanoscale strain. At 12 K and above 15 T, one order of magnitude of Jc enhancement is achieved in both parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields to the film surface.

  11. Superconducting quantum criticality of topological surface states at three loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerf, Nikolai; Lin, Chien-Hung; Maciejko, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    The semimetal-superconductor quantum phase transition on the two-dimensional (2D) surface of a 3D topological insulator is conjectured to exhibit an emergent N =2 supersymmetry, based on a one-loop renormalization group (RG) analysis in the ɛ expansion. We provide additional support for this conjecture by performing a three-loop RG analysis and showing that the supersymmetric fixed point found at this order survives the extrapolation to 2D. We compute critical exponents to order ɛ3, obtaining the more accurate value ν ≈0.985 for the correlation length exponent and confirming that the fermion and boson anomalous dimensions remain unchanged beyond one loop, as expected from non-renormalization theorems in supersymmetric theories. We further couple the system to a dynamical U(1) gauge field, and argue that the transition becomes fluctuation-induced first order in an appropriate type-I regime. We discuss implications of this result for quantum phase transitions between certain symmetry-preserving correlated surface states of 3D topological insulators.

  12. Gradient terms in quantum-critical theories of itinerant fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, Dmitrii L.; Sharma, Prachi; Torbunov, Dmitrii; Chubukov, Andrey V.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the origin and renormalization of the gradient (Q2) term in the propagator of soft bosonic fluctuations in theories of itinerant fermions near a quantum critical point (QCP) with ordering wavevector Q0=0 . A common belief is that (i) the Q2 term comes from fermions with high energies (roughly of order of the bandwidth) and, as such, should be included into the bare bosonic propagator of the effective low-energy model, and (ii) fluctuations within the low-energy model generate Landau damping of soft bosons, but affect the Q2 term only weakly. We argue that the situation is in fact more complex. First, we found that the high- and low-energy contributions to the Q2 term are of the same order. Second, we computed the high-energy contributions to the Q2 term in two microscopic models (a Fermi gas with Coulomb interaction and the Hubbard model) and found that in all cases these contributions are numerically much smaller than the low-energy ones, especially in 2D. This last result is relevant for the behavior of observables at low energies, because the low-energy part of the Q2 term is expected to flow when the effective mass diverges near QCP. If this term is the dominant one, its flow has to be computed self-consistently, which gives rise to a novel quantum-critical behavior. Following up on these results, we discuss two possible ways of formulating the theory of a QCP with Q0=0 .

  13. Multiobjective Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiobjective vehicle routing problem considering customer satisfaction (MVRPCS involves the distribution of orders from several depots to a set of customers over a time window. This paper presents a self-adaptive grid multi-objective quantum evolutionary algorithm (MOQEA for the MVRPCS, which takes into account customer satisfaction as well as travel costs. The degree of customer satisfaction is represented by proposing an improved fuzzy due-time window, and the optimization problem is modeled as a mixed integer linear program. In the MOQEA, nondominated solution set is constructed by the Challenge Cup rules. Moreover, an adaptive grid is designed to achieve the diversity of solution sets; that is, the number of grids in each generation is not fixed but is automatically adjusted based on the distribution of the current generation of nondominated solution set. In the study, the MOQEA is evaluated by applying it to classical benchmark problems. Results of numerical simulation and comparison show that the established model is valid and the MOQEA is effective for MVRPCS.

  14. Critical quasiparticle theory applied to heavy fermion metals near an antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Elihu; Wölfle, Peter

    2012-02-28

    We use the recently developed critical quasiparticle theory to derive the scaling behavior associated with a quantum critical point in a correlated metal. This is applied to the magnetic-field induced quantum critical point observed in YbRh(2)Si(2), for which we also derive the critical behavior of the specific heat, resistivity, thermopower, magnetization and susceptibility, the Grüneisen coefficient, and the thermal expansion coefficient. The theory accounts very well for the available experimental results.

  15. Overcoming Critical Slowing Down in Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertz, Hans Gerd; Marcu, Mihai

    The classical d+1-dimensional spin systems used for the simulation of quantum spin systems in d dimensions are, quite generally, vertex models. Standard simulation methods for such models strongly suffer from critical slowing down. Recently, we developed the loop algorithm, a new type of cluster algorithm that to a large extent overcomes critical slowing down for vertex models. We present the basic ideas on the example of the F model, a special case of the 6-vertex model. Numerical results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the loop algorithm. Then, using the framework for cluster algorithms developed by Kandel and Domany, we explain how to adapt our algorithm to the cases of the 6-vertex model and the 8-vertex model, which are relevant for spin 1/2 systems. The techniqes presented here can be applied without modification to 2-dimensional spin 1/2 systems, provided that in the Suzuki-Trotter formula the Hamiltonian is broken up into 4 sums of link terms. Generalizations to more complicated situations (higher spins, different uses of the Suzuki-Trotter formula) are, at least in principle, straightforward.

  16. Local Classical and Quantum Criticality due to Electron-Vibration Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We study the local classical and quantum critical properties of electron-vibration interaction, represented by the Yu-Anderson model. It exhibits an instability, similar to the Wentzel-Bardeen singularity, whose nature resembles to weakly first order quantum phase transitions at low temperatures, and crosses over to Gaussian behaviour with increasing temperature. We determine the dominant energy scale separating the quantum from classical criticality, study the effect of dissipation and analy...

  17. Quantum criticality at the superconductor-insulator transition revealed by specific heat measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, S; Nguyen-Duc, T; Auerbach, A; Dupuis, N; Frydman, A; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2017-02-22

    The superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is considered an excellent example of a quantum phase transition that is driven by quantum fluctuations at zero temperature. The quantum critical point is characterized by a diverging correlation length and a vanishing energy scale. Low-energy fluctuations near quantum criticality may be experimentally detected by specific heat, cp, measurements. Here we use a unique highly sensitive experiment to measure cp of two-dimensional granular Pb films through the SIT. The specific heat shows the usual jump at the mean field superconducting transition temperature marking the onset of Cooper pairs formation. As the film thickness is tuned towards the SIT, is relatively unchanged, while the magnitude of the jump and low-temperature specific heat increase significantly. This behaviour is taken as the thermodynamic fingerprint of quantum criticality in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition.

  18. Quantum criticality at the superconductor-insulator transition revealed by specific heat measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, S.; Nguyen-Duc, T.; Auerbach, A.; Dupuis, N.; Frydman, A.; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The superconductor–insulator transition (SIT) is considered an excellent example of a quantum phase transition that is driven by quantum fluctuations at zero temperature. The quantum critical point is characterized by a diverging correlation length and a vanishing energy scale. Low-energy fluctuations near quantum criticality may be experimentally detected by specific heat, cp, measurements. Here we use a unique highly sensitive experiment to measure cp of two-dimensional granular Pb films through the SIT. The specific heat shows the usual jump at the mean field superconducting transition temperature marking the onset of Cooper pairs formation. As the film thickness is tuned towards the SIT, is relatively unchanged, while the magnitude of the jump and low-temperature specific heat increase significantly. This behaviour is taken as the thermodynamic fingerprint of quantum criticality in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition. PMID:28224994

  19. Theory of finite-entanglement scaling at one-dimensional quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, Frank; Mukerjee, Subroto; Turner, Ari M; Moore, Joel E

    2009-06-26

    Studies of entanglement in many-particle systems suggest that most quantum critical ground states have infinitely more entanglement than noncritical states. Standard algorithms for one-dimensional systems construct model states with limited entanglement, which are a worse approximation to quantum critical states than to others. We give a quantitative theory of previously observed scaling behavior resulting from finite entanglement at quantum criticality. Finite-entanglement scaling in one-dimensional systems is governed not by the scaling dimension of an operator but by the "central charge" of the critical point. An important ingredient is the universal distribution of density-matrix eigenvalues at a critical point [P. Calabrese and A. Lefevre, Phys. Rev. A 78, 032329 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevA.78.032329]. The parameter-free theory is checked against numerical scaling at several quantum critical points.

  20. Semi-local quantum criticality in string/M-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis; Pantelidou, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    Semi-local quantum critical behaviour in $D-1$ spacetime dimensions can be holographically described by metrics that are conformal to $AdS_2\\times\\mathbb{R}^{D-2}$, with the conformal factor characterised by a parameter $\\eta$. We analyse such "$\\eta$-geometries" in a top-down setting by focussing on the $U(1)^4$ truncation of D=4 N=8 gauged supergravity. The model has extremal black hole solutions carrying three non-zero electric or magnetic charges which approach $AdS_4$ in the UV and an $\\eta=1$ geometry in the IR. Adding a fourth charge provides a mechanism to resolve the singularity of the $\\eta$-geometry, replacing it with an $AdS_2\\times\\mathbb{R}^2$ factor in the IR, while maintaining a large region where the $\\eta$-geometry scaling is approximately valid. Some of the magnetically charged black hole solutions preserve supersymmetry while others just preserve it in the IR. Finally, we show that $\\eta$-geometries, with various values of $\\eta$, can be obtained from the dimensional reduction of geometrie...

  1. Criticality without Frustration for Quantum Spin-1 Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Caha, Libor; Movassagh, Ramis; Nagaj, Daniel; Shor, Peter W.

    2012-11-01

    Frustration-free (FF) spin chains have a property that their ground state minimizes all individual terms in the chain Hamiltonian. We ask how entangled the ground state of a FF quantum spin-s chain with nearest-neighbor interactions can be for small values of s. While FF spin-1/2 chains are known to have unentangled ground states, the case s=1 remains less explored. We propose the first example of a FF translation-invariant spin-1 chain that has a unique highly entangled ground state and exhibits some signatures of a critical behavior. The ground state can be viewed as the uniform superposition of balanced strings of left and right brackets separated by empty spaces. Entanglement entropy of one half of the chain scales as (1)/(2)log⁡n+O(1), where n is the number of spins. We prove that the energy gap above the ground state is polynomial in 1/n. The proof relies on a new result concerning statistics of Dyck paths which might be of independent interest.

  2. Criticality without frustration for quantum spin-1 chains

    CERN Document Server

    Bravyi, Sergey; Movassagh, Ramis; Nagaj, Daniel; Shor, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Frustration-free (FF) spin chains have a property that their ground state minimizes all individual terms in the chain Hamiltonian. We ask how entangled the ground state of a FF quantum spin-s chain with nearest-neighbor interactions can be for small values of s. While FF spin-1/2 chains are known to have unentangled ground states, the case s=1 remains less explored. We propose the first example of a FF translation-invariant spin-1 chain that has a unique highly entangled ground state and exhibits some signatures of a critical behavior. The ground state can be viewed as the uniform superposition of balanced strings of left and right parentheses separated by empty spaces. Entanglement entropy of one half of the chain scales as log(n)/2 + O(1), where n is the number of spins. We prove that the energy gap above the ground state is polynomial in 1/n. The proof relies on a new result concerning statistics of Dyck paths which might be of independent interest.

  3. Zooming on the quantum critical point in Nd-LSCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyr-Choiniere, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.cyr-choiniere@usherbrooke.c [Department de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Daou, R.; Chang, J.; Laliberte, Francis; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; LeBoeuf, David [Department de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Jo, Y.J.; Balicas, L. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310-3706 (United States); Yan, J.-Q. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J.B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Taillefer, Louis, E-mail: louis.taillefer@physique.usherbrooke.c [Department de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1Z8 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Recent studies of the high-T{sub c} superconductor La{sub 1.6-x}Nd{sub 0.4}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (Nd-LSCO) have found a linear-T in-plane resistivity {rho}{sub ab} and a logarithmic temperature dependence of the thermopower S/T at a hole doping p=0.24 and a Fermi-surface reconstruction just below p=0.24. These are typical signatures of a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report data on the c-axis resistivity {rho}{sub c}(T) of Nd-LSCO measured as a function of temperature near this QCP, in a magnetic field large enough to entirely suppress superconductivity. Like {rho}{sub ab},{rho}{sub c} shows an upturn at low temperature, a signature of Fermi surface reconstruction caused by stripe order. Tracking the height of the upturn as it decreases with doping enables us to pin down the precise location of the QCP where stripe order ends, at p*=0.235{+-}0.005. We propose that the temperature T{sub {rho}} below which the upturn begins marks the onset of the pseudogap phase, found to be roughly twice as high as the stripe-ordering temperature in this material.

  4. Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaofei

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

  5. Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

  6. Universal crossover from ground-state to excited-state quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byungmin; Potter, Andrew C.; Vasseur, Romain

    2017-01-01

    We study the nonequilibrium properties of a nonergodic random quantum chain in which highly excited eigenstates exhibit critical properties usually associated with quantum critical ground states. The ground state and excited states of this system belong to different universality classes, characterized by infinite-randomness quantum critical behavior. Using strong-disorder renormalization group techniques, we show that the crossover between the zero and finite energy density regimes is universal. We analytically derive a flow equation describing the unitary dynamics of this isolated system at finite energy density from which we obtain universal scaling functions along the crossover.

  7. Holographic aspects of black holes, matrix models and quantum criticality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadoulaki, Olga

    2017-01-01

    In one word the core subject of this thesis is holography. What we mean by holography broadly is the mapping of a gravitational theory in D dimensions to a quantum mechanics system or quantum field theory in one less dimension In chapter 1, we give a basic and self-contained introduction of the

  8. Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: an approach for computing dynamically averaged vibrational spectra including critical nuclear quantum effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2007-10-18

    We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.

  9. Fermionic quantum critical point of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Corboz, P.; Troyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice provide a minimal realization of lattice Dirac fermions. Repulsive interactions between nearest neighbors drive a quantum phase transition from a Dirac semimetal to a charge-density-wave state through a fermionic quantum critical point, where the coupling of

  10. Quantum criticality in the 2D Hubbard: from weak to strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, Dimitrios; Mikelsons, Karlis; Khatami, Ehsan; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Zhaoxin; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2010-03-01

    We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional Hubbard model in the vicinity of the quantum critical point which separates the fermi liquid from the pseudogap region. We use the Dynamical Cluster Approximation (DCA) in conjunction with the weak-coupling continuous time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC) cluster solver. We measure the filling nc and the density of states at the critical point as a function of the Coulomb interaction U. We observe a change in behavior when the Coulomb interaction is of the order of the bandwidth. We also evaluate the temperature range in which the system is under the influence of the quantum critical point and compare it with the effective spin coupling Jeff. We discuss the consistency of these results with various mechanisms of quantum criticality. This research is supported by NSF DMR-0706379 and OISE-0952300.

  11. The critical role of the routing scheme in simulating peak river discharge in global hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Frieler, Katja; Schewe, Jacob; Ostberg, Sebastian; Willner, Sven; Schauberger, Bernhard; Gosling, Simon N.; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Portmann, Felix T.; Leng, Gobias; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Hanasaki, Naota; Biemans, Hester; Gerten, Dieter; Satoh, Yusuke; Pokhrel, Yadu; Stacke, Tobias; Ciais, Philippe; Chang, Jinfeng; Ducharne, Agnes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Wada, Yoshihide; Kim, Hyungjun; Yamazaki, Dai

    2017-07-01

    Global hydrological models (GHMs) have been applied to assess global flood hazards, but their capacity to capture the timing and amplitude of peak river discharge—which is crucial in flood simulations—has traditionally not been the focus of examination. Here we evaluate to what degree the choice of river routing scheme affects simulations of peak discharge and may help to provide better agreement with observations. To this end we use runoff and discharge simulations of nine GHMs forced by observational climate data (1971-2010) within the ISIMIP2a project. The runoff simulations were used as input for the global river routing model CaMa-Flood. The simulated daily discharge was compared to the discharge generated by each GHM using its native river routing scheme. For each GHM both versions of simulated discharge were compared to monthly and daily discharge observations from 1701 GRDC stations as a benchmark. CaMa-Flood routing shows a general reduction of peak river discharge and a delay of about two to three weeks in its occurrence, likely induced by the buffering capacity of floodplain reservoirs. For a majority of river basins, discharge produced by CaMa-Flood resulted in a better agreement with observations. In particular, maximum daily discharge was adjusted, with a multi-model averaged reduction in bias over about 2/3 of the analysed basin area. The increase in agreement was obtained in both managed and near-natural basins. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of routing scheme choice in peak discharge simulation, where CaMa-Flood routing accounts for floodplain storage and backwater effects that are not represented in most GHMs. Our study provides important hints that an explicit parameterisation of these processes may be essential in future impact studies.

  12. Universal Critical Behavior at a Phase Transition to Quantum Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Kazumasa A

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence is one of the most prototypical phenomena of systems driven out of equilibrium. While turbulence has been studied mainly with classical fluids like water, considerable attention is now drawn to quantum turbulence (QT), observed in quantum fluids such as superfluid helium and Bose-Einstein condensates. A distinct feature of QT is that it consists of quantum vortices, by which turbulent circulation is quantized. Yet, under strong forcing, characteristic properties of developed classical turbulence such as Kolmogorov's law have also been identified in QT. Here, we study the opposite limit of weak forcing, i.e., the onset of QT, numerically, and find another set of universal scaling laws known for classical non-equilibrium systems. Specifically, we show that the transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class, known to arise generically in transitions into an absorbing state, including transitions to classical shear-flow turbulence after very recent studies. We argue that quantum vort...

  13. Superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behavior near a nematic quantum critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Samuel; Schattner, Yoni; Berg, Erez; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2017-05-01

    Using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo, we compute the properties of a lattice model with spin mn>1mn>mn>2mn>12 itinerant electrons tuned through a quantum phase transition to an Ising nematic phase. The nematic fluctuations induce superconductivity with a broad dome in the superconducting TcTc enclosing the nematic quantum critical point. For temperatures above TcTc, we see strikingly non-Fermi liquid behavior, including a “nodal-antinodal dichotomy” reminiscent of that seen in several transition metal oxides. In addition, the critical fluctuations have a strong effect on the low-frequency optical conductivity, resulting in behavior consistent with “bad metal” phenomenology.

  14. Excitation-Gap Scaling near Quantum Critical Three-Dimensional Antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohöfer, M; Wessel, S

    2017-04-07

    By means of large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we examine the quantum critical scaling of the magnetic excitation gap (the triplon gap) in a three-dimensional dimerized quantum antiferromagnet, the bicubic lattice, and identify characteristic multiplicative logarithmic scaling corrections atop the leading mean-field behavior. These findings are in accord with field-theoretical predictions that are based on an effective description of the quantum critical system in terms of an asymptotically free field theory, which exhibits a logarithmic decay of the renormalized interaction strength upon approaching the quantum critical point. Furthermore, using bond-based singlet spectroscopy, we identify the amplitude (Higgs) mode resonance within the antiferromagnetic region. We find a Higgs mass scaling in accord with field-theoretical predictions that relate it by a factor of sqrt[2] to the corresponding triplon gap in the quantum disordered regime. In contrast to the situation in lower-dimensional systems, we observe in this three-dimensional coupled-dimer system a distinct signal from the amplitude mode also in the dynamical spin structure factor. Its width is observed to vanish proportional to the Higgs mass in the accessible proximity to the quantum critical point.

  15. Entropy landscape of phase formation associated with quantum criticality in Sr3Ru2O7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, A W; Perry, R S; Mercure, J-F; Mackenzie, A P; Grigera, S A

    2009-09-11

    Low-temperature phase transitions and the associated quantum critical points are a major field of research, but one in which experimental information about thermodynamics is sparse. Thermodynamic information is vital for the understanding of quantum many-body problems. We show that combining measurements of the magnetocaloric effect and specific heat allows a comprehensive study of the entropy of a system. We present a quantitative measurement of the entropic landscape of Sr3Ru2O7, a quantum critical system in which magnetic field is used as a tuning parameter. This allows us to track the development of the entropy as the quantum critical point is approached and to study the thermodynamic consequences of the formation of a novel electronic liquid crystalline phase in its vicinity.

  16. Odd viscosity in the quantum critical region of a holographic Weyl semimetal

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We study odd viscosity in a holographic model of a Weyl semimetal. The model is characterised by a quantum phase transition from a topological semimetal to a trivial semimetal state. Since the model is axisymmetric in three spatial dimensions there are two independent odd viscosities. Both odd viscosity coefficients are non-vanishing in the quantum critical region and non-zero only due to the mixed axial gravitational anomaly. It is therefore a novel example in which the mixed axial gravitational anomaly gives rise to a transport coefficient at first order in derivatives at finite temperature. We also compute anisotropic shear viscosities and show that one of them violates the KSS bound. In the quantum critical region, the physics of viscosities as well as conductivities is governed by the quantum critical point.

  17. BF-theory in graphene: a route toward topological quantum computing?

    CERN Document Server

    Marzuoli, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    Besides the plenty of applications of graphene allotropes in condensed matter and nanotechnology, we argue that graphene sheets might be engineered to support room-temperature topological quantum processing of information. The argument is based on the possibility of modeling the monolayer graphene effective action by means of a 3d Topological Quantum Field Theory of BF-type able to sustain non-Abelian anyon dynamics. This feature is the basic requirement of recently proposed theoretical frameworks for universal, fault-tolerant and decoherence protected quantum computation.

  18. Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J.

    2014-02-01

    The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.

  19. Laser ablation synthesis route of CdTe colloidal quantum dots for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, D. B.; Rodriguez, E.; Moreira, R. S.; Agouram, S.; Barbosa, L. C.; Jimenez, E.; Cesar, C. L.

    2009-07-01

    In this work we report a novel technique for obtain thiol capped CdTe colloidal quantum dots in one step. These nanoparticles are compatible for silica capping indicating their possible use as fluorescent markers.

  20. An acoustic analog for a quantum mechanical level-splitting route to band formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Marissa; Crum, Mitchell; Hilbert, Shawn A.; Batelaan, Herman; Canalichio, Timothy; Bull, Tyler

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores band structure in a simple acoustic apparatus that acts as an analog to the quantum infinite square well with multiple delta-function perturbations. The apparatus can be used to visualize abstract quantum phenomena in a concrete and easily understandable way. It consists of regular sections of PVC pipes connected by variable aluminum diaphragms to allow coupling between the pipe sections. The equivalence between standing waves in the acoustic system and stationary states in the quantum system is examined for multiple-cavity situations. We show that the experimental results from the acoustic system and the analytic solutions of the quantum system demonstrate the same resonance structure. We also experimentally show that the acoustic system supports band structure and that the band width is dependent on the hole size of the diaphragms.

  1. Influence of the ferroelectric quantum critical point on SrTiO3 interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, W. A.; Lafleur, P.; Raslan, A.

    2017-02-01

    We study a model SrTiO3 interface in which conduction t2 g electrons couple to the ferroelectric (FE) phonon mode. We treat the FE mode within a self-consistent phonon theory that captures its quantum critical behavior and show that proximity to the quantum critical point leads to universal tails in the electron density of the form n (z ) ˜(λ+z ) -2 , where λ ˜T2 -d /z , with d =3 the dimensionality and z =1 the dynamical critical exponent. Implications for the metal-insulator transition at low electron density are discussed.

  2. Multiplicative logarithmic corrections to quantum criticality in three-dimensional dimerized antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yanqi; Normand, Bruce; Sandvik, Anders; Meng, Zi Yang

    We investigate the quantum phase transition in an S=1/2 dimerized Heisenberg antiferromagnet in three spatial dimensions. By means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analyses, we get high-precision results for the quantum critical properties at the transition from the magnetically disordered dimer-singlet phase to the ordered Neel phase. This transition breaks O(N) symmetry with N=3 in D=3+1 dimensions. This is the upper critical dimension, where multiplicative logarithmic corrections to the leading mean-field critical properties are expected; we extract these corrections, establishing their precise forms for both the zero-temperature staggered magnetization, ms, and the Neel temperature, TN. We present a scaling ansatz for TN, including logarithmic corrections, which agrees with our data and indicates exact linearity with ms, implying a complete decoupling of quantum and thermal fluctuation effects close to the quantum critical point. These logarithmic scaling forms have not previously identified or verified by unbiased numerical methods and we discuss their relevance to experimental studies of dimerized quantum antiferromagnets such as TlCuCl3. Ref.: arXiv:1506.06073

  3. Performance Evaluation of Joint Path and Spectrum Diversity Based Routing Protocol in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks under Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamree Che-Aron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology has been introduced to solve the problems of spectrum underutilization and spectrum scarcity caused by improper spectrum management policies. The main concept of Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN is that, in a wireless ad hoc network, the unlicensed users (or Secondary Users (SUs are allowed to access the temporally unused licensed spectrum bands for data communications without harmful interference to the licensed users (or Primary Users (PUs. In CRAHNs, the mobile SUs communicate with each other without the use of any centralized network infrastructure. Routing in CRAHNs is an important task and faces various challenges including PU interference, frequent network topology changes, energy constraint, volatile bandwidth and fragile connectivity. In this study, an attempt is made to evaluate the performance of the Dual Diversity Cognitive Ad-hoc Routing Protocol (D2CARP in CRAHNs under critical conditions, i.e., high node mobility rate and number of PUs. The D2CARP protocol is a joint path and spectrum diversity based routing protocol for CRAHNs. The performance evaluation is conducted through simulation using NS-2 simulator. The performance metrics to be considered include average throughput, percentage of packet loss, average end-to-end delay and average jitter. The simulation results prove that the protocol performance is significantly affected in the networks with high number of PUs and mobility rate, leading to high path failure rate and severe service outages.

  4. Scaling of the magnetic Grüneisen ratio near quantum critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yoshi

    2014-03-01

    The magnetic Grüneisen ratio ΓH = (1/T)dT/dH is the most sensitive probe of quantum criticality. Its divergence signals the underlying instability. We have studied quantum criticality in the frustrated Kondo lattice system YbAgGe and the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 by high-precision magnetocaloric effect measurements. In the former, NFL behavior appears around a metamagnetic spin-flop transition between two symmetry broken phases. Previously, it was unclear how the two ordered phases are related to the NFL state. Here, we propose a novel quantum bicritical point (QBCP) scenario, which is distinct from either quantum critical end point or ordinary QCPs with single symmetry broken phase. The observed scaling behavior of ΓH and its characteristic asymmetry across the critical field are consistent with a QBCP scenario. We also report a possible violation of Wiedemann-Franz law at the QBCP in YbAgGe. In CeCoIn5 indications of a quantum critical field hidden inside the superconducting (SC) phase have been extensively debated. We show ΓH data and scaling analysis in the normal state, which surprisingly suggests a zero-field QCP. Anomalous behaviors of ΓH and specific heat within the SC state further support this conclusion.

  5. Tensor RG calculations and quantum simulations near criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Meurice, Y; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Unmuth-Yockey, J; Yang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the reformulation of the O(2) model with a chemical potential and the Abelian Higgs model on a 1+1 dimensional space-time lattice using the Tensor Renormalization Group (TRG) method. The TRG allows exact blocking and connects smoothly the classical Lagrangian approach to the quantum Hamiltonian approach. We calculate the entanglement entropy in the superfluid phase of the O(2) model and show that it approximately obeys the logarithmic Calabrese-Cardy scaling obtained from Conformal Field Theory (CFT). We calculate the Polyakov loop in the Abelian Higgs model and discuss the possibility of a deconfinement transition at finite volume. We propose Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonians implementable on optical lattices as quantum simulators for CFT models.

  6. Quantum creation and inflationary universes a critical appraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Coule, D H

    2000-01-01

    We contrast the possibility of inflation starting a) from the universe's inception or b) from an earlier non-inflationary state. Neither case is ideal since a) assumes quantum mechanical reasoning is straightforwardly applicable to the early universe; while case b) requires that a singularity still be present. Further, in agreement with Vachaspati and Trodden [1] case b) can only solve the horizon problem if the non-inflationary phase has equation of state $\\gamma<4/3$.

  7. Athermal domain-wall creep near a ferroelectric quantum critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Fumitaka; Minami, Nao; Horiuchi, Sachio; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2016-02-16

    Ferroelectric domain walls are typically stationary because of the presence of a pinning potential. Nevertheless, thermally activated, irreversible creep motion can occur under a moderate electric field, thereby underlying rewritable and non-volatile memory applications. Conversely, as the temperature decreases, the occurrence of creep motion becomes less likely and eventually impossible under realistic electric-field magnitudes. Here we show that such frozen ferroelectric domain walls recover their mobility under the influence of quantum fluctuations. Nonlinear permittivity and polarization-retention measurements of an organic charge-transfer complex reveal that ferroelectric domain-wall creep occurs via an athermal process when the system is tuned close to a pressure-driven ferroelectric quantum critical point. Despite the heavy masses of material building blocks such as molecules, the estimated effective mass of the domain wall is comparable to the proton mass, indicating the realization of a ferroelectric domain wall with a quantum-particle nature near the quantum critical point.

  8. The partition function zeroes of quantum critical points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crompton, P.R. [Department of Applied Maths, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.crompton@lancaster.ac.uk

    2009-04-01

    The Lee-Yang theorem for the zeroes of the partition function is not strictly applicable to quantum systems because the zeroes are defined in units of the fugacity e{sup h{delta}}{sup {tau}}, and the Euclidean-time lattice spacing {delta}{tau} can be divergent in the infrared (IR). We recently presented analytic arguments describing how a new space-Euclidean time zeroes expansion can be defined, which reproduces Lee and Yang's scaling but avoids the unresolved branch points associated with the breaking of nonlocal symmetries such as Parity. We now present a first numerical analysis for this new zeroes approach for a quantum spin chain system. We use our scheme to quantify the renormalization group flow of the physical lattice couplings to the IR fixed point of this system. We argue that the generic Finite-Size Scaling (FSS) function of our scheme is identically the entanglement entropy of the lattice partition function and, therefore, that we are able to directly extract the central charge, c, of the quantum spin chain system using conformal predictions for the scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  9. Quantum Mechanics Calculations, Basicity and Crystal Structure: The Route to Transition Metal Complexes of Azahelicenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Natali Sora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanics density functional calculations provided gas-phase electron distributions and proton affinities for several mono- and diaza[5]helicenes; computational results, together with experimental data concerning crystal structures and propensity to methylation of the nitrogen atom(s, provide a basis for designing azahelicene complexes with transition metal ions.

  10. Gate-controlled Kondo screening in graphene: Quantum criticality and electron-hole asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, M.; Fritz, L.; Bulla, R.

    2010-04-01

    Magnetic impurities in neutral graphene provide a realization of the pseudogap Kondo model, which displays a quantum phase transition between phases with screened and unscreened impurity moment. Here, we present a detailed study of the pseudogap Kondo model with finite chemical potential μ. While carrier doping restores conventional Kondo screening at lowest energies, properties of the quantum critical fixed point turn out to influence the behavior over a large parameter range. Most importantly, the Kondo temperature TK shows an extreme asymmetry between electron and hole doping. At criticality, depending on the sign of μ, TK follows either the scaling prediction TK~|μ| with a universal prefactor, or TK~|μ|x with x≈2.6. This asymmetry between electron and hole doping extends well outside the quantum critical regime and also implies a qualitative difference in the shape of the tunneling spectra for both signs of μ.

  11. Two mode photon bunching effect as witness of quantum criticality in circuit QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We suggest a scheme to probe critical phenomena at a quantum phase transition (QPT) using the quantum correlation of two photonic modes simultaneously coupled to a critical system. As an experimentally accessible physical implementation,a circuit QED system is formed by a capacitively coupled Josephson junction qubit array interacting with one superconducting transmission line resonator (TLR). It realizes an Ising chain in the transverse field (ICTF) which interacts with the two magnetic modes propagating in the TLR. We demonstrate that in the vicinity of criticality the originally independent fields tend to display photon bunching effects due to their interaction with the ICTF. Thus,the occurrence of the QPT is reflected by the quantum characteristics of the photonic fields.

  12. Two mode photon bunching effect as witness of quantum criticality in circuit QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Qing; WANG YingDan; LONG GuiLu; SUN ChangPu

    2009-01-01

    We suggest a scheme to probe critical phenomena at a quantum phase transition (OPT) using the quantum correlation of two photonic modes simultaneously coupled to a critical system. As an experimentally accessible physical implementation, a circuit QED system is formed by a capsciUvely coupled Josephson junction qubit array interacting with one superconducting transmission line resonator (TLR). It realizes an Ising chain in the transverse field (ICTF) which interacts with the two magnetic modes propagating in the TLR. We demonstrate that in the vicinity of criticality the originally independent fields tend to display photon bunching effects due to their interaction with the ICTF. Thus,the occurrence of the QPT is reflected by the quantum characteristics of the photonic fields.

  13. The critical point of quantum chromodynamics through lattice and experiment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourendu Gupta

    2011-05-01

    This talk discusses methods of extending lattice computations at finite temperature into regions of finite chemical potential, and the conditions under which such results from the lattice may be compared to experiments. Such comparisons away from a critical point are absolutely essential for quantitative use of lattice QCD in heavy-ion physics. An outline of various arguments which can then be used to locate the critical point is also presented.

  14. Quantum criticality in an Ising chain: experimental evidence for emergent E8 symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Coldea, R.; Tennant, D. A.; Wheeler, E M; Wawrzynska, E.; Prabhakaran, D.; Telling, M; Habicht, K.; Smeibidl, P; Kiefer, K.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions take place between distinct phases of matter at zero temperature. Near the transition point, exotic quantum symmetries can emerge that govern the excitation spectrum of the system. A symmetry described by the E8 Lie group with a spectrum of 8 particles was long predicted to appear near the critical point of an Ising chain. We realize this system experimentally by tuning the quasi-one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet CoNb2O6 through its critical point using strong transv...

  15. Unconventional critical activated scaling of two-dimensional quantum spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoz-Fernandez, D. A.; Romá, F.

    2016-07-01

    We study the critical behavior of two-dimensional short-range quantum spin glasses by numerical simulations. Using a parallel tempering algorithm, we calculate the Binder cumulant for the Ising spin glass in a transverse magnetic field with two different short-range bond distributions, the bimodal and the Gaussian ones. Through an exhaustive finite-size analysis, we show that the cumulant probably follows an unconventional activated scaling, which we interpret as new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the quantum critical behavior is governed by an infinite randomness fixed point.

  16. Diffraction line-shapes, Fermi surface nesting, and quantum criticality in antiferromagnetic chromium at high pressure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Harvard Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-05-01

    We explore the behavior of the nested bandstructure of chromium as a function of temperature and pressure to the point where magnetism disappears. X-ray diffraction measurements of the charge order parameter suggest that the nesting condition is maintained at high pressure, where the spin density wave ground state is destabilized by a continuous quantum phase transition. By comparing diffraction line-shapes measured throughout the temperature-pressure phase diagram we are able to identify and describe three regimes: thermal near-critical, weak coupling ground state, and quantum critical.

  17. Emergent Lorentz symmetry with vanishing velocity in a critical two-subband quantum wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, M; Rosch, A; Meyer, J S; Matveev, K A; Garst, M

    2009-05-01

    We consider a quantum wire with two subbands of spin-polarized electrons in the presence of strong interactions. We focus on the quantum phase transition when the second subband starts to get filled as a function of gate voltage. Performing a one-loop renormalization group analysis of the effective Hamiltonian, we identify the critical fixed-point theory as a conformal field theory having an enhanced SU(2) symmetry and central charge 3/2. While the fixed point is Lorentz invariant, the effective "speed of light" nevertheless vanishes at low energies due to marginally irrelevant operators leading to a diverging critical specific heat coefficient.

  18. Green wet chemical route to synthesize capped CdSe quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Oudhia; P Bichpuria

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, we report green synthesis of tartaric acid (TA) and triethanolamine (TEA) capped cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) employing chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The mechanism of capping using non-toxic binary capping agents is also discussed. Stable QDs of various sizes were obtained by varying pH of the bath. The structural, morphological and spectroscopic characterization of the as-prepared samples by XRD, SEM, optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) is also reported.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe quantum dots dispersed in PVA matrix by chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Zubair M. S. H.; Ganaie, Mohsin; Husain, M.; Zulfequar, M., E-mail: mzulfe@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India); Khan, Shamshad A. [Department of Physics St. Andrews College, Gorakhpur-273001,U.P,-India (India)

    2016-05-23

    CdSe quantum dots using polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent have been synthesized via a simple heat induced thermolysis technique. The structural analysis of CdSe/PVA thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction, which confirms crystalline nature of the prepared film. The surface morphology and particle size of the prepared sample was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The SEM studies of CdSe/PVA thin film shows the average size of particles in the form of clusters of several quantum dots in the range of 10-20 nm. The morphology of CdSe/PVA thin film was further examined by TEM. The TEM image shows the fringes of tiny dots with average sizes of 4-7 nm. The optical properties of CdSe/PVA thin film were studied by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The CdSe/PVA quantum dots follow the role of direct transition and the optical band gap is found to be 4.03 eV. From dc conductivity measurement, the observed value of activation energy was found to be 0.71 eV.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe quantum dots dispersed in PVA matrix by chemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zubair M. S. H.; Ganaie, Mohsin; Khan, Shamshad A.; Husain, M.; Zulfequar, M.

    2016-05-01

    CdSe quantum dots using polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent have been synthesized via a simple heat induced thermolysis technique. The structural analysis of CdSe/PVA thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction, which confirms crystalline nature of the prepared film. The surface morphology and particle size of the prepared sample was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The SEM studies of CdSe/PVA thin film shows the average size of particles in the form of clusters of several quantum dots in the range of 10-20 nm. The morphology of CdSe/PVA thin film was further examined by TEM. The TEM image shows the fringes of tiny dots with average sizes of 4-7 nm. The optical properties of CdSe/PVA thin film were studied by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The CdSe/PVA quantum dots follow the role of direct transition and the optical band gap is found to be 4.03 eV. From dc conductivity measurement, the observed value of activation energy was found to be 0.71 eV.

  1. Metamagnetic behavior near the quantum critical point in UGe 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, A.; Sheikin, I.; Braithwaite, D.

    2000-07-01

    We have discovered a low-field metamagnetic transition in UGe 2 close to the critical pressure at which the Curie temperature is suppressed to zero. The systematic evolution of the transition with pressure provides a unique opportunity to test theoretical models of metamagnetism.

  2. Duality between the Deconfined Quantum-Critical Point and the Bosonic Topological Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan Qi; He, Yuan-Yao; You, Yi-Zhuang; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Sen, Arnab; Sandvik, Anders W.; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang

    2017-07-01

    Recently, significant progress has been made in (2 +1 )-dimensional conformal field theories without supersymmetry. In particular, it was realized that different Lagrangians may be related by hidden dualities; i.e., seemingly different field theories may actually be identical in the infrared limit. Among all the proposed dualities, one has attracted particular interest in the field of strongly correlated quantum-matter systems: the one relating the easy-plane noncompact CP1 model (NCCP1 ) and noncompact quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two flavors (N =2 ) of massless two-component Dirac fermions. The easy-plane NCCP1 model is the field theory of the putative deconfined quantum-critical point separating a planar (X Y ) antiferromagnet and a dimerized (valence-bond solid) ground state, while N =2 noncompact QED is the theory for the transition between a bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase and a trivial Mott insulator. In this work, we present strong numerical support for the proposed duality. We realize the N =2 noncompact QED at a critical point of an interacting fermion model on the bilayer honeycomb lattice and study it using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. Using stochastic series expansion QMC simulations, we study a planar version of the S =1 /2 J -Q spin Hamiltonian (a quantum X Y model with additional multispin couplings) and show that it hosts a continuous transition between the X Y magnet and the valence-bond solid. The duality between the two systems, following from a mapping of their phase diagrams extending from their respective critical points, is supported by the good agreement between the critical exponents according to the proposed duality relationships. In the J -Q model, we find both continuous and first-order transitions, depending on the degree of planar anisotropy, with deconfined quantum criticality surviving only up to moderate strengths of the anisotropy. This explains previous claims of no deconfined quantum

  3. Atomic spin-chain realization of a model for quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toskovic, R.; van den Berg, R.; Spinelli, A.; Eliens, I. S.; van den Toorn, B.; Bryant, B.; Caux, J.-S.; Otte, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The ability to manipulate single atoms has opened up the door to constructing interesting and useful quantum structures from the ground up. On the one hand, nanoscale arrangements of magnetic atoms are at the heart of future quantum computing and spintronic devices; on the other hand, they can be used as fundamental building blocks for the realization of textbook many-body quantum models, illustrating key concepts such as quantum phase transitions, topological order or frustration as a function of system size. Here, we use low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy to construct arrays of magnetic atoms on a surface, designed to behave like spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chains in a transverse field, for which a quantum phase transition from an antiferromagnetic to a paramagnetic phase is predicted in the thermodynamic limit. Site-resolved measurements on these finite-size realizations reveal a number of sudden ground state changes when the field approaches the critical value, each corresponding to a new domain wall entering the chains. We observe that these state crossings become closer for longer chains, suggesting the onset of critical behaviour. Our results present opportunities for further studies on quantum behaviour of many-body systems, as a function of their size and structural complexity.

  4. Universally diverging Grüneisen parameter and the magnetocaloric effect close to quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijun; Garst, Markus; Rosch, Achim; Si, Qimiao

    2003-08-08

    At a generic quantum critical point, the thermal expansion alpha is more singular than the specific heat c(p). Consequently, the "Grüneisen ratio," Gamma=alpha/c(p), diverges. When scaling applies, Gamma approximately T(-1/(nu z)) at the critical pressure p=p(c), providing a means to measure the scaling dimension of the most relevant operator that pressure couples to; in the alternative limit T-->0 and p not equal p(c), Gamma approximately 1/(p-p(c)) with a prefactor that is, up to the molar volume, a simple universal combination of critical exponents. For a magnetic-field driven transition, similar relations hold for the magnetocaloric effect (1/T) partial differential T/ partial differential H|(S). Finally, we determine the corrections to scaling in a class of metallic quantum critical points.

  5. DTN ROUTING BY AVOIDING BATTERY CRITICAL CONDITIONS AND DATA LOSS AT AN INTERMEDIATE NODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith S Ambady

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delay tolerant networks are used in the areas where the network connectivity is sparse as well as the delay is very high that is in communication challenged areas. The electronic devices used in such areas will be lacking continuous power supply and thereby mostly battery powered. So there may be circumstances where, the data transmitted to an intermediate node, and the node before forwarding the data may run out of battery life. Another circumstance that may arise is that the getting lost due to any physical damage to thee node. The paper addresses simple techniques to avoid data transfer to nodes with low battery and to share data with those nodes with sufficient battery power so as to prevent any data loss and to identify any bulk packet loss due to any above mentioned issues and to efficiently route the packets. The simulation is done in ONE simulator and results are being analysed in terms of throughput ratio for different buffer size, the results show a gradual increase in throughput by the method.

  6. Disorder-driven itinerant quantum criticality of three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, J. H.; Goswami, Pallab; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-02-01

    Progress in the understanding of quantum critical properties of itinerant electrons has been hindered by the lack of effective models which are amenable to controlled analytical and numerically exact calculations. Here we establish that the disorder-driven semimetal to metal quantum phase transition of three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions could serve as a paradigmatic toy model for studying itinerant quantum criticality, which is solved in this work by exact numerical and approximate field-theoretic calculations. As a result, we establish the robust existence of a non-Gaussian universality class, and also construct the relevant low-energy effective field theory that could guide the understanding of quantum critical scaling for many strange metals. Using the kernel polynomial method (KPM), we provide numerical results for the calculated dynamical exponent (z ) and correlation length exponent (ν ) for the disorder-driven semimetal (SM) to diffusive metal (DM) quantum phase transition at the Dirac point for several types of disorder, establishing its universal nature and obtaining the numerical scaling functions in agreement with our field-theoretical analysis.

  7. Partial Dynamical Symmetry at Critical-Points of Quantum Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2007-01-01

    We show that partial dynamical symmetries (PDS) can occur at critical-points of quantum phase transitions, in which case, underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of PDS are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape-phases in nuclei.

  8. Why I am optimistic about the silicon-photonic route to quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Terry

    2017-03-01

    This is a short overview explaining how building a large-scale, silicon-photonic quantum computer has been reduced to the creation of good sources of 3-photon entangled states (and may simplify further). Given such sources, each photon needs to pass through a small, constant, number of components, interfering with at most 2 other spatially nearby photons, and current photonics engineering has already demonstrated the manufacture of thousands of components on two-dimensional semiconductor chips with performance that, once scaled up, allows the creation of tens of thousands of photons entangled in a state universal for quantum computation. At present the fully integrated, silicon-photonic architecture we envisage involves creating the required entangled states by starting with single-photons produced non-deterministically by pumping silicon waveguides (or cavities) combined with on-chip filters and nanowire superconducting detectors to herald that a photon has been produced. These sources are multiplexed into being near-deterministic, and the single photons then passed through an interferometer to non-deterministically produce small entangled states—necessarily multiplexed to near-determinism again. This is followed by a "ballistic" scattering of the small-scale entangled photons through an interferometer such that some photons are detected, leaving the remainder in a large-scale entangled state which is provably universal for quantum computing implemented by single-photon measurements. There are a large number of questions regarding the optimum ways to make and use the final cluster state, dealing with static imperfections, constructing the initial entangled photon sources and so on, that need to be investigated before we can aim for millions of qubits capable of billions of computational time steps. The focus in this article is on the theoretical side of such questions.

  9. Floodlight quantum key distribution: A practical route to gigabit-per-second secret-key rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Zhang, Zheshen; Dove, Justin; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2016-07-01

    The channel loss incurred in long-distance transmission places a significant burden on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems: they must defeat a passive eavesdropper who detects all the light lost in the quantum channel and does so without disturbing the light that reaches the intended destination. The current QKD implementation with the highest long-distance secret-key rate meets this challenge by transmitting no more than one photon per bit [M. Lucamarini et al., Opt. Express 21, 24550 (2013), 10.1364/OE.21.024550]. As a result, it cannot achieve the Gbps secret-key rate needed for one-time pad encryption of large data files unless an impractically large amount of multiplexing is employed. We introduce floodlight QKD (FL-QKD), which floods the quantum channel with a high number of photons per bit distributed over a much greater number of optical modes. FL-QKD offers security against the optimum frequency-domain collective attack by transmitting less than one photon per mode and using photon-coincidence channel monitoring, and it is completely immune to passive eavesdropping. More importantly, FL-QKD is capable of a 2-Gbps secret-key rate over a 50-km fiber link, without any multiplexing, using available equipment, i.e., no new technology need be developed. FL-QKD achieves this extraordinary secret-key rate by virtue of its unprecedented secret-key efficiency, in bits per channel use, which exceeds those of state-of-the-art systems by two orders of magnitude.

  10. Why I am optimistic about the silicon-photonic route to quantum computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Rudolph

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a short overview explaining how building a large-scale, silicon-photonic quantum computer has been reduced to the creation of good sources of 3-photon entangled states (and may simplify further. Given such sources, each photon needs to pass through a small, constant, number of components, interfering with at most 2 other spatially nearby photons, and current photonics engineering has already demonstrated the manufacture of thousands of components on two-dimensional semiconductor chips with performance that, once scaled up, allows the creation of tens of thousands of photons entangled in a state universal for quantum computation. At present the fully integrated, silicon-photonic architecture we envisage involves creating the required entangled states by starting with single-photons produced non-deterministically by pumping silicon waveguides (or cavities combined with on-chip filters and nanowire superconducting detectors to herald that a photon has been produced. These sources are multiplexed into being near-deterministic, and the single photons then passed through an interferometer to non-deterministically produce small entangled states—necessarily multiplexed to near-determinism again. This is followed by a “ballistic” scattering of the small-scale entangled photons through an interferometer such that some photons are detected, leaving the remainder in a large-scale entangled state which is provably universal for quantum computing implemented by single-photon measurements. There are a large number of questions regarding the optimum ways to make and use the final cluster state, dealing with static imperfections, constructing the initial entangled photon sources and so on, that need to be investigated before we can aim for millions of qubits capable of billions of computational time steps. The focus in this article is on the theoretical side of such questions.

  11. Quantum critical phase and Lifshitz transition in an extended periodic Anderson model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laad, M S; Koley, S; Taraphder, A

    2012-06-13

    We study the quantum phase transition in f-electron systems as a quantum Lifshitz transition driven by selective-Mott localization in a realistic extended Anderson lattice model. Using dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), we find that a quantum critical phase with anomalous ω/T scaling separates a heavy Landau-Fermi liquid from ordered phase(s). This non-Fermi liquid state arises from a lattice orthogonality catastrophe originating from orbital-selective Mott localization. Fermi surface reconstruction occurs via the interplay between and penetration of the Green function zeros to the poles, leading to violation of Luttinger's theorem in the strange metal. We show how this naturally leads to scale-invariant responses in transport. Thus, our work represents a specific DMFT realization of the hidden-FL and FL* theories, and holds promise for the study of 'strange' metal phases in quantum matter.

  12. Quantum critical response function in quasi-two-dimensional itinerant antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, C. M.; Zhu, Lijun; Schröder, Almut

    2015-10-01

    We reexamine the experimental results for the magnetic response function χ''(q ,E ,T ) for q around the antiferromagnetic vectors Q , in the quantum-critical region, obtained by inelastic neutron scattering, on an Fe-based superconductor and on a heavy-fermion compound. The motivation is to compare the results with a recent theory, which shows that the fluctuations in a generic antiferromagnetic model for itinerant fermions map to those in the universality class of the dissipative quantum-XY model. The quantum-critical fluctuations in this model, in a range of parameters, are given by the correlations of spatial and temporal topological defects. The theory predicts a χ''(q ,E ,T ) (i) which is a separable function of (q -Q ) and of (E ,T ) , (ii) at criticality, the energy-dependent part is ∝tanh(E /2 T ) below a cutoff energy, (iii) the correlation time departs from its infinite value at criticality on the disordered side by an essential singularity, and (iv) the correlation length depends logarithmically on the correlation time, so that the dynamical critical exponent z is ∞ . The limited existing experimental results are found to be consistent with the first two unusual predictions from which the linear dependence of the resistivity on T and the T lnT dependence of the entropy also follow. More experiments are suggested, especially to test the theory of variations on the correlation time and length on the departure from criticality.

  13. Black Hole Type Quantum Computing in Critical Bose-Einstein Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2015-01-01

    Recent ideas about understanding physics of black hole information-processing in terms of quantum criticality allow us to implement black hole mechanisms of quantum computing within critical Bose-Einstein systems. The generic feature, uncovered both by analytic and numeric studies, is the emergence at the critical point of gapless weakly-interacting modes, which act as qubits for information-storage at a very low energy cost. These modes can be effectively described in terms of either Bogoliubov or Goldstone degrees of freedom. The ground-state at the critical point is maximally entangled and far from being classical. We confirm this near-critical behavior by a new analytic method. We compute growth of entanglement and show its consistency with black hole type behavior. On the other hand, in the over-critical regime the system develops a Lyapunov exponent and scrambles quantum information very fast. By, manipulating the system parameters externally, we can put it in and out of various regimes and in this way ...

  14. Extended quantum critical phase in a magnetized spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, M.B.; Reich, D.H.; Broholm, C.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the magnetic field dependence of excitations in the quantum critical state of the spin S=1/2 linear chain Heisenberg antiferromagnet copper pyrazine dinitrate (CuPzN). The complete spectrum was measured at k(B)T/Jless than or equal to0.025 for H=0 and H=8.7 T, where...

  15. FFLO strange metal and quantum criticality in two dimensions: Theory and application to organic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Francesco; Zwerger, Wilhelm; Strack, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the spin imbalance in superconductors can spatially modulate the gap by forming Cooper pairs with finite momentum. For large imbalances compared to the Fermi energy, the inhomogeneous FFLO superconductor ultimately becomes a normal metal. There is mounting experimental evidence for this scenario in two-dimensional (2D) organic superconductors in large in-plane magnetic fields; this is complemented by ongoing efforts to realize this scenario in coupled tubes of atomic Fermi gases with spin imbalance. Yet, a theory for the phase transition from a metal to an FFLO superconductor has not been developed so far and the universality class has remained unknown. Here we propose and analyze a spin imbalance driven quantum critical point between a 2D metal and an FFLO phase in anisotropic electron systems. We derive the effective action for electrons and bosonic FFLO pairs at this quantum phase transition. Using this action, we predict non-Fermi-liquid behavior and the absence of quasiparticles at a discrete set of hot spots on the Fermi surfaces. This results in strange power laws in thermodynamics and response functions, which are testable with existing experimental setups on 2D organic superconductors and may also serve as signatures of the elusive FFLO phase itself. The proposed universality class is distinct from previously known quantum critical metals and, because its critical fluctuations appear already in the pairing channel, a promising candidate for naked metallic quantum criticality over extended temperature ranges.

  16. Transport signatures of Kondo physics and quantum criticality in graphene with magnetic impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tijerina, David A.; Dias da Silva, Luis G. G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Localized magnetic moments have been predicted to develop in graphene samples with vacancies or adsorbates. The interplay between such magnetic impurities and graphene's Dirac quasiparticles leads to remarkable many-body phenomena, which have, so far, proved elusive to experimental efforts. In this article we study the thermodynamic, spectral, and transport signatures of quantum criticality and Kondo physics of a dilute ensemble of atomic impurities in graphene. We consider vacancies and adatoms that either break or preserve graphene's C3 v and inversion symmetries. In a neutral graphene sample, all cases display symmetry-dependent quantum criticality, leading to enhanced impurity scattering for asymmetric impurities, in a manner analogous to bound-state formation by nonmagnetic resonant scatterers. Kondo correlations emerge only in the presence of a back gate, with estimated Kondo temperatures well within the experimentally accessible domain for all impurity types. For symmetry-breaking impurities at charge neutrality, quantum criticality is signaled by T-2 resistivity scaling, leading to full insulating behavior at low temperatures, while low-temperature resistivity plateaus appear both in the noncritical and Kondo regimes. By contrast, the resistivity contribution from symmetric vacancies and hollow-site adsorbates vanishes at charge neutrality and for arbitrary back-gate voltages, respectively. This implies that local probing methods are required for the detection of both Kondo and quantum critical signatures in these symmetry-preserving cases.

  17. A simple route for making surfactant free lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Firoz; Kumar, Neetesh; Dutta, Viresh, E-mail: vdutta@ces.iitd.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Surfactant free PbS NCs were successfully synthesised using CoSP technique. • The technique eliminates the requirements of washing to remove the ligands. • Grinding using mortar and pestle creates well separated PbS QDs. • Surfactant free PbS NCs are stable and do not show any degradation with time. - Abstract: An efficient, cost effective and less time consuming method suitable for mass production of surfactant free quantum dots (QDs) of lead sulfide (PbS) is reported. PbS nanocrystals (NCs) are first synthesised by continuous spray pyrolysis (CoSP) technique and de-agglomeration into PbS quantum dots (QDs) is achieved by vigorous mechanical grinding using mortar and pestle. Lead acetate and thiourea were used as the precursor materials for preparation of surfactant free PbS NCs. The broadening in XRD peaks of ground NCs as compared to as synthesized PbS NCs clearly indicated the reduction in particle size to be QDs of PbS. The TEM images also showed that ground PbS NCs were nearly spherical in shape having an average diameter in the range of 4–6 nm. The shift in optical gap from 0.41 eV to 1.47 eV supported the QD formation.

  18. A simple biphasic route to water soluble dithiocarbamate functionalized quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Xu, J.; Goodman, M.; Chen, Y.; Cai, M.; Shinar, J.; Lin, Z.

    2008-06-11

    Hydrophobic trioctylphosphine oxide-functionalized CdSe quantum dots (CdSe-TOPO QDs) were transferred from organic solvent to aqueous solution via a simple yet novel biphasic ligand exchange process in one step, which involved the in-situ formation of hydrophilic dithiocarbamate moieties and subsequent ligand exchange with TOPO at the chloroform/water interface. The resulting water dispersible, dithiocarbamate functionalized CdSe QDs (i.e., D-CdSe) exhibited an increased photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield as compared to the original CdSe-TOPO QDs, suggesting an effective passivation of dithiocarbamate ligands on the QD surface. The D-CdSe QDs were then mixed with hydroxyl terminated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. A decrease in the PL of the mixture was observed, indicating a possible charge transfer from the D-CdSe QDs to the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The reaction of the carboxyl group on the D-CdSe surface with the hydroxyl group on the TiO{sub 2} rendered QDs in direct contact with TiO{sub 2}, thereby facilitating the electronic interaction between them.

  19. Acute enhancement of the upper critical field for superconductivity approaching a quantum critical point in URhGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, F.; Sheikin, I.; Huxley, A.

    2007-07-01

    When a pure material is tuned to the point where a continuous phase-transition line is crossed at zero temperature, known as a quantum critical point (QCP), completely new correlated quantum ordered states can form. These phases include exotic forms of superconductivity. However, as superconductivity is generally suppressed by a magnetic field, the formation of superconductivity ought not to be possible at extremely high field. Here, we report that as we tune the ferromagnet, URhGe, towards a QCP by applying a component of magnetic field in the material's easy magnetic plane, superconductivity survives in progressively higher fields applied simultaneously along the material's magnetic hard axis. Thus, although superconductivity never occurs above a temperature of 0.5K, we find that it can survive in extremely high magnetic fields, exceeding 28T.

  20. Acute enhancement of the upper critical field for superconductivity approaching a quantum critical point in URhGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, F.; Huxley, A. [CEA, SPSMS, DRFMC, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Levy, F.; Sheikin, I. [CNRS, GHMFL, F-38042 Grenoble, (France); Huxley, A. [Univ Edinburgh, Scottish Univ Phys Alliance, Sch Phys, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Midlothian, (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    When a pure material is tuned to the point where a continuous phase-transition line is crossed at zero temperature, known as a quantum critical point (QCP), completely new correlated quantum ordered states can form. These phases include exotic forms of superconductivity. However, as superconductivity is generally suppressed by a magnetic field, the formation of superconductivity ought not to be possible at extremely high field. Here, we report that as we tune the ferromagnet, URhGe, towards a QCP by applying a component of magnetic field in the material's easy magnetic plane, superconductivity survives in progressively higher fields applied simultaneously along the material's magnetic hard axis. Thus, although superconductivity never occurs above a temperature of 0.5 K, we find that it can survive in extremely high magnetic fields, exceeding 28 T. (authors)

  1. Flux quantum tunneling effect and its influence on the experimental critical current density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻海虎; 赵忠贤; GriessenR.

    1995-01-01

    By using magnetic sweeping method, the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the experimental current density and the normalized relaxation rate have been obtained. The true critical current density corresponding to the zero activation energy has been carried out based on the collective-pinning and the thermally-activated flux motion models, and therefore the influences of the quantum tunneling effect and the thermal activation effect on the experimental critical current density are distinguished. It is found that, with temperature lower than 10 K, the relaxation rate will not drop to zero when T approaches zero K because of the occurrence of the flux quantum tunneling. This additional flux motion further reduces the experimental critical current density j making it saturated with lowering temperature.

  2. Quantum criticality and nodal superconductivity in the FeAs-based superconductor KFe2As2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J K; Zhou, S Y; Guan, T Y; Zhang, H; Dai, Y F; Qiu, X; Wang, X F; He, Y; Chen, X H; Li, S Y

    2010-02-26

    The in-plane resistivity rho and thermal conductivity kappa of the FeAs-based superconductor KFe2As2 single crystal were measured down to 50 mK. We observe non-Fermi-liquid behavior rho(T) approximately T{1.5} at H{c{2}}=5 T, and the development of a Fermi liquid state with rho(T) approximately T{2} when further increasing the field. This suggests a field-induced quantum critical point, occurring at the superconducting upper critical field H{c{2}}. In zero field, there is a large residual linear term kappa{0}/T, and the field dependence of kappa_{0}/T mimics that in d-wave cuprate superconductors. This indicates that the superconducting gaps in KFe2As2 have nodes, likely d-wave symmetry. Such a nodal superconductivity is attributed to the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations near the quantum critical point.

  3. Superconductivity near a Quantum-Critical Point: The Special Role of the First Matsubara Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Abanov, Artem; Altshuler, Boris L; Yuzbashyan, Emil A; Chubukov, Andrey V

    2016-10-07

    Near a quantum-critical point in a metal strong fermion-fermion interaction mediated by a soft collective boson gives rise to incoherent, non-Fermi liquid behavior. It also often gives rise to superconductivity which masks the non-Fermi liquid behavior. We analyze the interplay between the tendency to pairing and fermionic incoherence for a set of quantum-critical models with effective dynamical interaction between low-energy fermions. We argue that superconducting T_{c} is nonzero even for strong incoherence and/or weak interaction due to the fact that the self-energy from dynamic critical fluctuations vanishes for the two lowest fermionic Matsubara frequencies ω_{m}=±πT. We obtain the analytic formula for T_{c}, which reproduces well earlier numerical results for the electron-phonon model at vanishing Debye frequency.

  4. Theory of the nematic quantum critical point in a nodal superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ah

    2008-03-01

    In the last several years, experimental evidence has accumulated in a variety of highly correlated electronic systems of new quantum phases which (for purely electronic reasons) spontaneously break the rotational (point group) symmetry of the underlying crystal. Such electron ``nematic'' phases have been seen in quantum Hall systems[1], in the metamagnetic metal Sr3Ru2O7[2], and more recently in magnetic neutron scattering studies of the high temperature superconductor, YBCO[3]. In the case of a high Tc superconductor, the quantum dynamics of nematic order parameter naturally couples strongly to quasiparticle (qp) excitations. In this talk, I will discuss our recent results on the effects of the coupling between quantum critical nematic fluctuations and the nodal qp's of a d-wave superconductor in the vicinity of a putative quantum critical point inside the superconducting phase. We solve a model system with N flavors of quasiparticles in the large N limit[4]. To leading order in 1/N, quantum fluctuations enhance the dispersion anisotropy of the nodal excitations, and cause strong scattering which critically broadens the quasiparticle peaks in the spectral function, except in the vicinity of ``the tips of the banana,'' where the qp's remain sharp. We will discuss the possible implications of our results to ARPES and STM experiments. [1] M.P. Lilly, K.B. Cooper, J.P. Eisenstein, L.N. Pfeiffer, and K.W. West, PRL 83, 824 (1999). [2] R. A. Borzi and S. A. Grigera and J. Farrell and R. S. Perry and S. J. S. Lister and S. L. Lee and D. A. Tennant and Y. Maeno and A. P. Mackenzie, Science 315, 214 (2007). [3] V. Hinkov, D. Haug, B. Fauqu'e, P. Bourges, Y. Sidis, A. Ivanov, C. Bernhard, C. T. Lin, B. Keimer, unpublished. [4] E.-A. Kim, M. Lawler, P. Oreto, E. Fradkin, S. Kivelson, cond-mat/0705.4099.

  5. Regularity and chaos at critical points of first-order quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Macek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    We study the interplay between regular and chaotic dynamics at the critical point of a first order quantum shape-phase transition in an interacting boson model of nuclei. A classical analysis reveals a distinct behavior of the coexisting phases in a broad energy range. The dynamics is completely regular in the deformed phase while it becomes strongly chaotic in the spherical phase. A quantum analysis of the spectra separates the regular states from the irregular ones, assigns them to particular phases and discloses persisting regular rotational bands in the deformed region.

  6. Transport Properties near Quantum Critical Point in 2D Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuang-Shing; Pathak, Sandeep; Yang, Shuxiang; Su, Shi-Quan; Galanakis, Dimitris; Mikelsons, Karlis; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2011-03-01

    We obtain high quality estimates of the self energy Σ (K , ω) by direct analytic continuation of Σ (K , iωn) obtained from Continuous-Time Quantum Monte Carlo. We use these results to investigate the transport properties near the quantum critical point found in the 2D Hubbard model at finite doping. Resistivity, thermal conductivity, Wiedemann-Franz Law, and thermopower are examined in the Fermi liquid, Marginal Fermi liquid (MFL), and pseudo-gap regions. Σ (k , ω) with k along the nodal direction displays temperature-dependent scaling similar to that seen in the experiment. A next-nearest neighbor hopping tOISE-0730290.

  7. On the origin of quantum criticality found at finite doping in 2D Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuxiang; Fotso, Herbert; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2011-03-01

    To better understand the excitations responsible for quantum criticality (QC) found at finite doping in the 2D Hubbard model, we analyze the vertices for different scattering channels obtained from the Dynamical Cluster Continuous-Time Quantum Monte Carlo simulation. By decomposing these vertices using the parquet equations we find that both superconductivity and the charge instabilities responsible for the QC come from the crossed spin channel contribution, and thus are driven by the spin-fluctuations. On contrast, the spin instability comes from the fully irreducible spin vertex contribution. We acknowledge the support from NSF OISE-0730290 and DOE SciDAC DE-FC02-06ER25792.

  8. New route for preparation of luminescent mercaptoethanoate capped cadmium selenide quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj E Wankhede; Shaukatali N Inamdar; Aparna Deshpande; Aniket R Thete; Renu Pasricha; Sulabha K Kulkarni; Santosh K Haram

    2008-06-01

    We report a synthesis of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe) by refluxing a mixture of cadmium acetate, selenium powder, sodium sulfite and 2-mercaptoethanol in N,N′-dimethyl formamide (DMF)/water solution. X-ray and electron diffractions suggest the formation of hexagonal phase of size quantized CdSe. Based on TEM analysis, the formation of nanoparticles with an average diameter of 3.5 ± 0.5 nm is inferred. Their sols in DMF and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) gave characteristic absorption peaks at 300 nm and 327 nm, which is attributed to the formation of high quality, size quantized CdSe particles. Extracted particles from the sol were readily redispersed in DMF and DMSO, which were diluted further with water without losing their optical and colloidal properties. FTIR spectroscopy suggested the formation of 2-mercaptoethanol thiolate on the particle surface, with free –OH groups available for linkage. Sols in DMSO and their solutions in water displayed an intense photoluminescence (PL).

  9. Quantum critical point due to nested Fermi surface: damping of quasi-particles, resistivity and Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlottmann, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, MC 4350-309 Keene Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)]. E-mail: schlottm@martech.fsu.edu

    2004-12-31

    The nesting of the Fermi surfaces of an electron pocket and a hole pocket separated by a wave vector Q and the interaction between electrons gives rise to spin- and charge-density waves. The order can gradually be suppressed by mismatching the nesting and a quantum critical point is obtained as the critical temperature tends to zero. We calculate the quasi-particle damping close to the quantum critical point and discuss its consequences on the resistivity and Hall effect.

  10. Locating the quantum critical point of the Bose-Hubbard model through singularities of simple observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łącki, Mateusz; Damski, Bogdan; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2016-12-02

    We show that the critical point of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model can be easily found through studies of either on-site atom number fluctuations or the nearest-neighbor two-point correlation function (the expectation value of the tunnelling operator). Our strategy to locate the critical point is based on the observation that the derivatives of these observables with respect to the parameter that drives the superfluid-Mott insulator transition are singular at the critical point in the thermodynamic limit. Performing the quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, we show that this technique leads to the accurate determination of the position of its critical point. Our results can be easily extended to the three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model and different Hubbard-like models. They provide a simple experimentally-relevant way of locating critical points in various cold atomic lattice systems.

  11. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

  12. Scaling of a driven atomic gas from the weakly-dressed to the quantum critical regime

    CERN Document Server

    Helmrich, S; Whitlock, S

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of correlations in complex many-body systems can be accompanied by unexpectedly simple scaling laws which signal new physical regimes or universal relations between otherwise very different physical systems. We demonstrate that non-equilibrium scaling laws can reveal the different regimes of strongly-interacting quantum systems driven to highly excited states. For weak or far off-resonant driving we find that the dependence of the excitation rate on coupling strength is well described by power laws characteristic of the dissipative or weakly-dressed regimes, while for strong near-resonant driving we observe a crossover to the quantum critical regime. For intermediate detunings we discover superlinear intensity scaling in a new regime, indicative of cooperative excitation processes, which extends the domain where scale-invariant behavior can be found in driven quantum systems.

  13. Magneto-acoustic study near the quantum critical point of the frustrated quantum antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, P. T.; Postulka, L.; Wolf, B.; van Well, N.; Ritter, F.; Assmus, W.; Krellner, C.; Lang, M.

    2016-10-01

    Magneto-acoustic investigations of the frustrated triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4 were performed for the longitudinal modes c11 and c33 in magnetic fields along the a-axis. The temperature dependence of the sound velocity at zero field shows a mild softening at low temperature and displays a small kink-like anomaly at TN. Isothermal measurements at T sound attenuation α reveal two closely spaced features of different characters on approaching the material's quantum-critical point (QCP) at Bs ≈ 8.5 T for B || a. The peak at slightly lower fields remains sharp down to the lowest temperature and can be attributed to the ordering temperature TN(B). The second anomaly, which is rounded and which becomes reduced in size upon cooling, is assigned to the material's spin-liquid properties preceding the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with decreasing temperature. These two features merge upon cooling suggesting a coincidence at the QCP. The elastic constant at lowest temperatures of our experiment at 32 mK can be well described by a Landau free energy model with a very small magnetoelastic coupling constant G/kB ≈ 2.8 K. The applicability of this classical model indicates the existence of a small gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum which drives the system away from quantum criticality.

  14. Entanglement at a two-dimensional quantum critical point: a numerical linked-cluster expansion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallin, Ann B; Hyatt, Katharine; Singh, Rajiv R P; Melko, Roger G

    2013-03-29

    We develop a method to calculate the bipartite entanglement entropy of quantum models, in the thermodynamic limit, using a numerical linked-cluster expansion (NLCE) involving only rectangular clusters. It is based on exact diagonalization of all n×m rectangular clusters at the interface between entangled subsystems A and B. We use it to obtain the Renyi entanglement entropy of the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model, for arbitrary real Renyi index α. Extrapolating these results as a function of the order of the calculation, we obtain universal pieces of the entanglement entropy associated with lines and corners at the quantum critical point. They show NLCE to be one of the few methods capable of accurately calculating universal properties of arbitrary Renyi entropies at higher dimensional critical points.

  15. Itinerant Magnetism and the Ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point in Fe(Ga,Ge)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David J.

    2014-03-01

    FeGa3 is a tetragonal semiconductor with a band gap of ~0.5 eV and interesting thermoelectric properties. It shows diamagnetic behavior but when modestly electron doped by Ge, a ferromagnetic quantum critical point emerges and the ground state becomes a ferromagnetic metal. We present first-principles calculations showing that the magnetism can be readily explained in an itinerant picture without the need for preexisting moments in the semiconducting state and without the need for correlation terms. We also present Boltzmann transport calculations of the thermopower. Itinerant magnetism implies strong coupling between the electrons at the Fermi energy that control transport and the magnetism. Thus, FeGa3 may be a particularly interesting material near a quantum critical point. We find that the ferromagnetic state is half-metallic over a substantial composition range. Work supported by the Department of Energy, BES, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  16. A DMFT+CTQMC Investigation of Strange Metallicity in Local Quantum Critical Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Swagata; Laad, M. S.; Taraphder, A.

    2016-10-01

    “Strange” metallicity is now a pseudonym for a novel metallic state exhibiting anomalous infra-red (branch-cut) continuum features in one- and two-particle responses. Here, we employ dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) using low-temperature continuous-time- quantum Monte-Carlo (CTQMC) solver for an extended periodic Anderson model (EPAM) model to investigate unusual magnetic fluctuations in the strange metal. We show how extinction of Landau quasiparticles in the orbital selective Mott phase (OSMP) leads to (i) qualitative explication of strange transport features and (ii) anomalous quantum critical magnetic fluctuations due to critical liquid-like features in dynamical spin fluctuations, in excellent accord with data in some f-electron systems.

  17. Field-induced magnetization jumps and quantum criticality in the 2D J-Q model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders

    The J-Q model is a `designer hamiltonian' formed by adding a four spin `Q' term to the standard antiferromagnetic S = 1 / 2 Heisenberg model. The Q term drives a quantum phase transition to a valence-bond solid (VBS) state: a non-magnetic state with a pattern of local singlets which breaks lattice symmetries. The elementary excitations of the VBS are triplons, i.e. gapped S=1 quasiparticles. There is considerable interest in the quantum phase transition between the Néel and VBS states as an example of deconfined quantum criticality. Near the phase boundary, triplons deconfine into pairs of bosonic spin-1/2 excitations known as spinons. Using exact diagonalization and the stochastic series expansion quantum monte carlo method, we study the 2D J-Q model in the presence of an external magnetic field. We use the field to force a nonzero density of magnetic excitations at T=0 and look for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation of spinons. At higher magnetic fields, there is a jump in the induced magnetization caused by the onset of an effective attractive interaction between magnons on a ferromagnetic background. We characterize the first order quantum phase transition and determine the minimum value of the coupling ratio q ≡ Q / J required to produce this jump. Funded by NSF DMR-1410126.

  18. Critical fluctuations and the rates of interstate switching near the excitation threshold of a quantum parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z R; Nakamura, Y; Dykman, M I

    2015-08-01

    We study the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator near the critical point where period-two vibrations are first excited with the increasing amplitude of parametric driving. Above the threshold, quantum fluctuations induce transitions between the period-two states over the quasienergy barrier. We find the effective quantum activation energies for such transitions and their scaling with the difference of the driving amplitude from its critical value. We also find the scaling of the fluctuation correlation time with the quantum noise parameters in the critical region near the threshold. The results are extended to oscillators with nonlinear friction.

  19. Critical fluctuations and the rates of interstate switching near the excitation threshold of a quantum parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Dykman, M. I.

    2015-08-01

    We study the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator near the critical point where period-two vibrations are first excited with the increasing amplitude of parametric driving. Above the threshold, quantum fluctuations induce transitions between the period-two states over the quasienergy barrier. We find the effective quantum activation energies for such transitions and their scaling with the difference of the driving amplitude from its critical value. We also find the scaling of the fluctuation correlation time with the quantum noise parameters in the critical region near the threshold. The results are extended to oscillators with nonlinear friction.

  20. Observability of quantum criticality and a continuous supersolid in atomic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Baranov, M; Daley, A J; Zoller, P

    2010-04-23

    We analyze the Bose-Hubbard model with a three-body hard-core constraint by mapping the system to a theory of two coupled bosonic degrees of freedom. We find striking features that could be observable in experiments, including a quantum Ising critical point on the transition from atomic to dimer superfluidity at unit filling, and a continuous supersolid phase for strongly bound dimers.

  1. Topology-induced anomalous defect production by crossing a quantum critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, A; Patanè, D; Amico, L; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2009-04-03

    We study the influence of topology on the quench dynamics of a system driven across a quantum critical point. We show how the appearance of certain edge states, which fully characterize the topology of the system, dramatically modifies the process of defect production during the crossing of the critical point. Interestingly enough, the density of defects is no longer described by the Kibble-Zurek scaling, but determined instead by the nonuniversal topological features of the system. Edge states are shown to be robust against defect production, which highlights their topological nature.

  2. Quantum criticality in an Ising chain: experimental evidence for emergent E8 symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldea, R; Tennant, D A; Wheeler, E M; Wawrzynska, E; Prabhakaran, D; Telling, M; Habicht, K; Smeibidl, P; Kiefer, K

    2010-01-08

    Quantum phase transitions take place between distinct phases of matter at zero temperature. Near the transition point, exotic quantum symmetries can emerge that govern the excitation spectrum of the system. A symmetry described by the E8 Lie group with a spectrum of eight particles was long predicted to appear near the critical point of an Ising chain. We realize this system experimentally by using strong transverse magnetic fields to tune the quasi-one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet CoNb2O6 (cobalt niobate) through its critical point. Spin excitations are observed to change character from pairs of kinks in the ordered phase to spin-flips in the paramagnetic phase. Just below the critical field, the spin dynamics shows a fine structure with two sharp modes at low energies, in a ratio that approaches the golden mean predicted for the first two meson particles of the E8 spectrum. Our results demonstrate the power of symmetry to describe complex quantum behaviors.

  3. Non-critical string theory formulation of microtubule dynamics and quantum aspects of brain function

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E

    1995-01-01

    Microtubule (MT) networks, subneural paracrystalline cytosceletal structures, seem to play a fundamental role in the neurons. We cast here the complicated MT dynamics in the form of a 1+1-dimensional non-critical string theory, thus enabling us to provide a consistent quantum treatment of MTs, including enviromental {\\em friction} effects. We suggest, thus, that the MTs are the microsites, in the brain, for the emergence of stable, macroscopic quantum coherent states, identifiable with the {\\em preconscious states}. Quantum space-time effects, as described by non-critical string theory, trigger then an {\\em organized collapse} of the coherent states down to a specific or {\\em conscious state}. The whole process we estimate to take {\\cal O}(1\\,{\\rm sec}), in excellent agreement with a plethora of experimental/observational findings. The {\\em microscopic arrow of time}, endemic in non-critical string theory, and apparent here in the self-collapse process, provides a satisfactory and simple resolution to the age...

  4. Numerical renormalization group for impurity quantum phase transitions: structure of critical fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Jung [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Bulla, Ralf [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Vojta, Matthias [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-11-02

    The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the particle-hole symmetric soft-gap Anderson model. The model displays two stable phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. In contrast, the quantum phase transitions turn out to be described by interacting fixed points, and their excitations cannot be described in terms of free particles. We show that the structure of the many-body spectrum of these critical fixed points can be understood using renormalized perturbation theory close to certain values of the bath exponents which play the role of critical dimensions. Contact is made with perturbative renormalization group calculations for the soft-gap Anderson and Kondo models. A complete description of the quantum critical many-particle spectra is achieved using suitable marginal operators; technically this can be understood as epsilon-expansion for full many-body spectra.

  5. Numerical renormalization group for impurity quantum phase transitions: structure of critical fixed points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Bulla, Ralf; Vojta, Matthias

    2005-11-01

    The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the particle-hole symmetric soft-gap Anderson model. The model displays two stable phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. In contrast, the quantum phase transitions turn out to be described by interacting fixed points, and their excitations cannot be described in terms of free particles. We show that the structure of the many-body spectrum of these critical fixed points can be understood using renormalized perturbation theory close to certain values of the bath exponents which play the role of critical dimensions. Contact is made with perturbative renormalization group calculations for the soft-gap Anderson and Kondo models. A complete description of the quantum critical many-particle spectra is achieved using suitable marginal operators; technically this can be understood as epsilon-expansion for full many-body spectra.

  6. Quantum Criticality Beneath the Superconducting Dome in β-YbAlB4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, T.; Kuga, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Nakatsuji, S.

    2016-02-01

    Yb-based heavy fermion superconductor β-YbAlB4 at 0 K and 0 T at ambient pressure is located near the quantum critical point with strong mixed valiancy. In this type of Yb electron system, we expect that the magnetic order connected to the quantum critical point derives from the applied pressure. We built a pressure-temperature phase diagram for β-YbAlB4 by measuring the electrical resistivity of high quality single crystal at temperatures down to 40 mK under an applied pressure. A strange metal region appeared, showing non-Fermi liquid ρab α T1.5 behavior, which is stable with applied pressure up to 0.4 GPa, even when below the superconducting dome excluded by a magnetic field of 0.1 T. By increasing of pressure above 2.5 GPa, a magnetic order is first generated. Such ambient quantum criticality/superconductivity is unconventional and is detached from the magnetic order.

  7. Field-induced quantum criticality in CeCu{sub 6-x}Au{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grube, Kai; Eilers, Felix; Zocco, Diego; Schaefer, Roland [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Zaum, Sebastian; Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fritsch, Veronika [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Stockert, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik Fester Stoffe, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The heavy-fermion system CeCu{sub 6-x}Au{sub x} is an archetype for pressure-induced quantum criticality at the onset of antiferromagnetic order. Up to now, investigations focused mainly on the behavior close to the critical concentration x{sub c}∼0.1. The antiferromagnetic order of samples with higher Au content can, however, be also suppressed by magnetic fields. We studied the field-induced quantum critical behavior of samples with Au contents x=0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 in fields applied along the magnetic easy axis by using thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements. Due to their high sensitivities these measurements are especially suited to expose deviations from Fermi-liquid behavior. The measurements have been performed for temperatures ranging between 20 mK and 10 K, and in magnetic fields up to 14 T. With increasing Au content and critical field B{sub c} they show strongly varying critical behavior. We discuss our results taking into account the field-dependent Zeeman splitting of the CEF ground-state doublet, which manifests itself as a Schottky-like anomaly at low temperatures and fields larger than B{sub c}.

  8. Magnetic Signatures of Quantum Critical Points of the Ferrimagnetic Mixed Spin-(1/2, S) Heisenberg Chains at Finite Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strečka, Jozef; Verkholyak, Taras

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg chains are examined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations for two different quantum spin numbers S=1 and 3/2. The calculated magnetization curves at finite temperatures are confronted with zero-temperature magnetization data obtained within the density matrix renormalization group method, which imply an existence of two quantum critical points determining a breakdown of the gapped Lieb-Mattis ferrimagnetic phase and Tomonaga-Luttinger spin-liquid phase, respectively. While a square root behavior of the magnetization accompanying each quantum critical point is gradually smoothed upon rising temperature, the susceptibility and isothermal entropy change data at low temperatures provide a stronger evidence of the zero-temperature quantum critical points through marked local maxima and minima, respectively.

  9. Intragrain pinning strength depth dependence of 2223 (Bi,Pb)-based high critical Tc superconducting ceramics made by a vitreous route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, An; Godelaine, P. A.; Vanderbemden, Ph.; Cloots, R.; Ausloos, M.

    1995-04-01

    Campbell's method for measuring the critical current in superconductors has been used to obtain the critical current density and the pinning strength in Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-y ceramics synthesized by a vitreous route. The intragrain critical current is much higher than 105 A/cm2 at 40 K in zero dc magnetic field. A large increase of the pinning strength is observed near the grain surface. The decrease with depth is hyperbolic. The role of the precursors in the synthesis route is emphasized for introducing specific pinning centers. The analysis takes into consideration the ceramics granular nature, i.e., the existence of intergrain and intragrain currents.

  10. Quantum critical properties of a metallic spin-density-wave transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Max H.; Schattner, Yoni; Berg, Erez; Trebst, Simon

    2017-01-01

    We report on numerically exact determinantal quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the onset of spin-density-wave (SDW) order in itinerant electron systems captured by a sign-problem-free two-dimensional lattice model. Extensive measurements of the SDW correlations in the vicinity of the phase transition reveal that the critical dynamics of the bosonic order parameter are well described by a dynamical critical exponent z =2 , consistent with Hertz-Millis theory, but are found to follow a finite-temperature dependence that does not fit the predicted behavior of the same theory. The presence of critical SDW fluctuations is found to have a strong impact on the fermionic quasiparticles, giving rise to a dome-shaped superconducting phase near the quantum critical point. In the superconducting state we find a gap function that has an opposite sign between the two bands of the model and is nearly constant along the Fermi surface of each band. Above the superconducting Tc, our numerical simulations reveal a nearly temperature and frequency independent self-energy causing a strong suppression of the low-energy quasiparticle weight in the vicinity of the hot spots on the Fermi surface. This indicates a clear breakdown of Fermi liquid theory around these points.

  11. Classical and quantum many-body effects on the critical properties and thermodynamic regularities of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, C.; Anderson, P. W.; Delhommelle, J.

    2017-02-01

    Using molecular simulation, we determine the critical properties of Si as well as the loci for several remarkable thermodynamic contours spanning the supercritical region of the phase diagram. We consider a classical three-body potential as well as a quantum (tight-binding) many-body model, and determine the loci for the ideality contours, including the Zeno line and the H line of ideal enthalpy. The two strategies (classical or quantum) lead to strongly asymmetric binodals and to critical properties in good agreement with each other. The Zeno and H lines are found to remain linear over a wide temperature interval, despite the changes in electronic structure undergone by the fluid along these contours. We also show that the classical and quantum model yield markedly different results for the parameters defining the H line, the exponents for the power-laws underlying the line of minima for the isothermal enthalpy and for the density required to achieve ideal behavior, most notably for the enthalpy.

  12. The phase and critical point of quantum Einstein-Cartan gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, She-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    By introducing diffeomorphism and local Lorentz gauge invariant holonomy fields, we study in the recent article [S.-S. Xue, Phys. Rev. D 82 (2010) 064039] the quantum Einstein-Cartan gravity in the framework of Regge calculus. On the basis of strong coupling expansion, mean-field approximation and dynamical equations satisfied by holonomy fields, we present in this Letter calculations and discussions to show the phase structure of the quantum Einstein-Cartan gravity, (i) the order phase: long-range condensations of holonomy fields in strong gauge couplings; (ii) the disorder phase: short-range fluctuations of holonomy fields in weak gauge couplings. According to the competition of the activation energy of holonomy fields and their entropy, we give a simple estimate of the possible ultra-violet critical point and correlation length for the second-order phase transition from the order phase to disorder one. At this critical point, we discuss whether the continuum field theory of quantum Einstein-Cartan gravity can be possibly approached when the macroscopic correlation length of holonomy field condensations is much larger than the Planck length.

  13. Fluctuation-induced continuous transition and quantum criticality in Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Laura; Herbut, Igor F.; Scherer, Michael M.

    2017-09-01

    We establish a scenario where fluctuations of new degrees of freedom at a quantum phase transition change the nature of a transition beyond the standard Landau-Ginzburg paradigm. To this end, we study the quantum phase transition of gapless Dirac fermions coupled to a Z3 symmetric order parameter within a Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model in 2+1 dimensions, appropriate for the Kekulé transition in honeycomb lattice materials. For this model, the standard Landau-Ginzburg approach suggests a first-order transition due to the symmetry-allowed cubic terms in the action. At zero temperature, however, quantum fluctuations of the massless Dirac fermions have to be included. We show that they reduce the putative first-order character of the transition and can even render it continuous, depending on the number of Dirac fermions Nf. A nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach is employed to investigate the phase transition for a wide range of fermion numbers and we obtain the critical Nf, where the nature of the transition changes. Furthermore, it is shown that for large Nf the change from the first to second order of the transition as a function of dimension occurs exactly in the physical 2+1 dimensions. We compute the critical exponents and predict sizable corrections to scaling for Nf=2 .

  14. Universal Quantum Criticality in the Metal-Insulator Transition of Two-Dimensional Interacting Dirac Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Yunoki, Seiji; Sorella, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.

  15. Universal Quantum Criticality in the Metal-Insulator Transition of Two-Dimensional Interacting Dirac Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Otsuka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.

  16. Magnon-induced nuclear relaxation in the quantum critical region of a Heisenberg linear chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, M. J. R.

    2017-07-01

    The low-temperature properties of spin-1/2 one-dimensional (1D) Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (HAF) chains which have relatively small exchange couplings between the spins can be tuned using laboratory-scale magnetic fields. Magnetization measurements, made as a function of temperature, provide phase diagrams for these systems and establish the quantum critical point (QCP). The evolution of the spin dynamics behavior with temperature and applied field in the quantum critical (QC) region, near the QCP, is of particular interest and has been experimentally investigated in a number of 1D HAFs using neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance as the preferred techniques. In the QC phase both quantum and thermal spin fluctuations are present. As a result of extended spin correlations in the chains, magnon excitations are important at finite temperatures. An expression for the NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 of probe nuclei in the QC phase of 1D HAFs is obtained by considering Raman scattering processes which induce nuclear spin flips. The relaxation rate expression, which involves the temperature and the chemical potential, predicts scaling behavior of 1 /T1 consistent with recent experimental findings for quasi-1D HAF systems. A simple relationship between 1 /T1 and the deviation of the magnetization from saturation (MS-M ) is predicted for the QC region.

  17. Matrix product states and variational methods applied to critical quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Milsted, Ashley; Osborne, Tobias J

    2013-01-01

    We study the second-order quantum phase-transition of massive real scalar field theory with a quartic interaction in (1+1) dimensions on an infinite spatial lattice using matrix product states (MPS). We introduce and apply a naive variational conjugate gradient method, based on the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP) for imaginary time, to obtain approximate ground states, using a related ansatz for excitations to calculate the particle and soliton masses and to obtain the spectral density. We also estimate the central charge using finite-entanglement scaling. Our value for the critical parameter agrees well with recent Monte Carlo results, improving on an earlier study which used the related DMRG method, verifying that these techniques are well-suited to studying critical field systems. We also obtain critical exponents that agree, as expected, with those of the transverse Ising model. Additionally, we treat the special case of uniform product states (mean field theory) separately, showing that they ...

  18. A Critical Review of Surveys Emphasizing on Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks—An Anatomization under General Survey Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A large number of routing-related surveys are published so far for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that exhibit either complete or partial emphasis on routing in WSNs. These surveys classify and discuss the relevant routing protocols published mainly in the fields of classical, energy efficient, secure, hierarchical, geographic, intelligent, Quality of Service (QoS)-based and multipath WSNs. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study is presented so far which may clearly categorize the routing-related survey literature for WSNs.To fill this gap, an effort is made in this paper for presenting an in-depth review of already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs. Our review initially proposes a generalized survey design model and afterwards analyzes the routing-related survey literature in the light of the devised General Survey Design Framework (GSDF). Such an analysis describes the design soundness of the published routing-related surveys. Therefore, our review puts forth an original classification based on the frequency-of-survey-publication and taxonomizes the corresponding routing-related fields into high, medium and low focused areas of survey publication in WSNs. Furthermore, the surveys belonging to each main category are sub-categorized into various sub-classes and briefly discussed according to their design characteristics. On the one hand, this review is useful for beginners who may easily explore the already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs in a single document and investigate it by spending less effort. On the other hand, it is useful for expert researchers who may explore the trends and frequency of writing surveys in different areas of routing in WSNs. The experts may explore those areas of routing which are either neglected or least focused or lack in design soundness as per general survey design framework. In the end, insights and future research directions are outlined and a reasonable conclusion is put forth

  19. Field-induced quadrupolar quantum criticality in PrV2Al20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Masaki; Zeng, Bin; Balicas, Luis; Sakai, Akito; Nakatsuji, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    PrV2Al20 is a heavy-fermion superconductor based on the cubic Γ3 doublet that exhibits nonmagnetic quadrupolar ordering below ˜0.6 K. Our magnetotransport study on PrV2Al20 reveals field-induced quadrupolar quantum criticality at μ0Hc˜11 T applied along the [111] direction. Near the critical field μ0Hc required to suppress the quadrupolar state, we find a marked enhancement of the resistivity ρ (H ,T ) , a divergent quasiparticle effective mass and concomitant non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior [i.e., ρ (T ) ∝Tn with n ≤0.5 ]. We also observe the Shubnikov-de Haas effect above μ0Hc , indicating effective mass enhancement or m*/m0˜10 . This reveals the competition between the nonmagnetic Kondo effect and the intersite quadrupolar coupling which leads to pronounced NFL behavior in an extensive region of T and μ0H emerging from the quantum-critical point.

  20. Signature of frustrated moments in quantum critical CePd1 -xNixAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Akito; Lucas, Stefan; Gegenwart, Philipp; Stockert, Oliver; v. Löhneysen, Hilbert; Fritsch, Veronika

    2016-12-01

    CePdAl with Ce 4 f moments forming a distorted kagome network is one of the scarce materials exhibiting Kondo physics and magnetic frustration simultaneously. As a result, antiferromagnetic (AF) order setting in at TN=2.7 K encompasses only two-thirds of the Ce moments. We report measurements of the specific heat, C , and the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, Γmag, on single crystals of CePd1 -xNixAl with x ≤0.16 at temperatures down to 0.05 K and magnetic fields B up to 8 T . Field-induced quantum criticality for various concentrations is observed with the critical field decreasing to zero at xc≈0.15 . Remarkably, two-dimensional AF quantum criticality of Hertz-Millis-Moriya type arises for x =0.05 and x =0.1 at the suppression of three-dimensional magnetic order. Furthermore, Γmag(B ) shows an additional contribution near 2.5 T for all concentrations, which is ascribed to correlations of the frustrated one-third of Ce moments.

  1. Time-domain pumping a quantum-critical charge density wave ordered material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the exact time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for a nesting driven charge density wave (described by the spinless Falicov-Kimball model within dynamical mean-field theory). The pump-probe experiment involves two light pulses: the first is an ultrashort intense pump pulse that excites the system into nonequilibrium, and the second is a lower amplitude, higher frequency probe pulse that photoexcites electrons. We examine three different cases: the strongly correlated metal, the quantum-critical charge density wave, and the critical Mott insulator. Our results show that the quantum critical charge density wave has an ultraefficient relaxation channel that allows electrons to be de-excited during the pump pulse, resulting in little net excitation. In contrast, the metal and the Mott insulator show excitations that are closer to what one expects from these systems. In addition, the pump field produces spectral band narrowing, peak sharpening, and a spectral gap reduction, all of which rapidly return to their field free values after the pump is over.

  2. Criticality-Enhanced Magnetocaloric Effect in Quantum Spin Chain Material Copper Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jun-Sen; Chen, Cong; Li, Wei; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Su, Na; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Zi-Yu

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a systematic study of Cu(NO3)2·2.5 H2O (copper nitrate hemipentahydrate, CN), an alternating Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model material, is performed with multi-technique approach including thermal tensor network (TTN) simulations, first-principles calculations, as well as magnetization measurements. Employing a cutting-edge TTN method developed in the present work, we verify the couplings J = 5.13 K, α = 0.23(1) and Landé factors g∥= 2.31, g⊥ = 2.14 in CN, with which the magnetothermal properties have been fitted strikingly well. Based on first-principles calculations, we reveal explicitly the spin chain scenario in CN by displaying the calculated electron density distributions, from which the distinct superexchange paths are visualized. On top of that, we investigated the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in CN by calculating its isentropes and magnetic Grüneisen parameter. Prominent quantum criticality-enhanced MCE was uncovered near both critical fields of intermediate strengths as 2.87 and 4.08 T, respectively. We propose that CN is potentially a very promising quantum critical coolant. PMID:28294147

  3. Superconductivity versus quantum criticality: what can we learn from heavy fermions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steglich, F; Arndt, J; Friedemann, S; Krellner, C; Tokiwa, Y; Westerkamp, T; Brando, M; Gegenwart, P; Geibel, C; Wirth, S; Stockert, O

    2010-04-28

    Two quantum critical point (QCP) scenarios are being discussed for different classes of antiferromagnetic (AF) heavy-fermion (HF) systems. In the itinerant one, where AF order is of the spin-density wave (SDW) type, the heavy 'composite' charge carriers keep their integrity at the QCP. The second one implies a breakdown of the Kondo effect and a disintegration of the composite fermions at the AF QCP. We discuss two isostructural compounds as exemplary materials for these two different scenarios: CeCu(2)Si(2) exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) SDW QCP and superconductivity, presumably mediated by SDW fluctuations, as strongly suggested by recent inelastic neutron scattering experiments. In Y bRh(2)Si(2), the AF QCP is found to coincide with a Kondo-destroying one. However, in the latter compound these two QCPs can be detached by varying the average unit-cell volume, e.g. through the application of chemical pressure, as realized by partial substitution of either Ir or Co for Rh. A comparison of CeCu(2)Si(2) and Y bRh(2)Si(2) indicates that the apparent differences in quantum critical behaviour go along with disparate behaviour concerning the (non-) existence of superconductivity (SC). No sign of SC could be detected in Y bRh(2)Si(2) down to mK temperatures. A potential correlation between the specific nature of the QCP and the occurrence of SC, however, requires detailed studies on further quantum critical HF superconductors, e.g. on β-Y bAlB(4), UBe(13), CeCoIn(5) and CeRhIn(5).

  4. CRITIC2: A program for real-space analysis of quantum chemical interactions in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Johnson, Erin R.; Luaña, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    We present CRITIC2, a program for the analysis of quantum-mechanical atomic and molecular interactions in periodic solids. This code, a greatly improved version of the previous CRITIC program (Otero-de-la Roza et al., 2009), can: (i) find critical points of the electron density and related scalar fields such as the electron localization function (ELF), Laplacian, … (ii) integrate atomic properties in the framework of Bader’s Atoms-in-Molecules theory (QTAIM), (iii) visualize non-covalent interactions in crystals using the non-covalent interactions (NCI) index, (iv) generate relevant graphical representations including lines, planes, gradient paths, contour plots, atomic basins, … and (v) perform transformations between file formats describing scalar fields and crystal structures. CRITIC2 can interface with the output produced by a variety of electronic structure programs including WIEN2k, elk, PI, abinit, Quantum ESPRESSO, VASP, Gaussian, and, in general, any other code capable of writing the scalar field under study to a three-dimensional grid. CRITIC2 is parallelized, completely documented (including illustrative test cases) and publicly available under the GNU General Public License. Catalogue identifier: AECB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11686949 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 337020731 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 and 90. Computer: Workstations. Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Shared-memory parallelization can be used for most tasks. Classification: 7.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AECB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 157 Nature of problem: Analysis of quantum

  5. (Almost) naked quantum criticality with non-Fermi liquid behavior at the onset of inhomogeneous Larkin-Ovchinikov superfluidity in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Philipp; Piazza, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    We present a renormalization group analysis for the non-Fermi liquid behavior and quantum criticality arising in coupled quantum wires of attractively interacting fermions with spin imbalance in two spatial dimensions.

  6. Heavy fermions, quantum criticality, and unconventional superconductivity in filled skutterudites and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, Bohdan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-05-14

    The main goal of this program was to explore the possibility of novel states and behaviors in Pr-based system exhibiting quantum critical behavior, PrOs₄Sb₁₂. Upon small changes of external parameter, such as magnetic field, physical properties of PrOs₄Sb₁₂ are drastically altered from those corresponding to a superconductor, to heavy fermion, to field-induced ordered phase with primary quadrupolar order parameter. All these states are highly unconventional and not understood in terms of current theories thus offer an opportunity to expand our knowledge and understanding of condensed matter. At the same time, these novel states and behaviors are subjects to intense international controversies. In particular, two superconducting phases with different transition temperatures were observed in some samples and not observed in others leading to speculations that sample defects might be partially responsible for these exotic behaviors. This work clearly established that crystal disorder is important consideration, but contrary to current consensus this disorder suppresses exotic behavior. Superconducting properties imply unconventional inhomogeneous state that emerges from unconventional homogeneous normal state. Comprehensive structural investigations demonstrated that upper superconducting transition is intrinsic, bulk, and unconventional. The high quality of in-house synthesized single crystals was indirectly confirmed by de Haas-van Alphen quantum oscillation measurements. These measurements, for the first time ever reported, spanned several different phases, offering unprecedented possibility of studying quantum oscillations across phase boundaries.

  7. Quantum entanglement and criticality of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Hua; Li, Ruo-Yan; Tian, Guang-Shan

    2012-06-27

    By Lanczos exact diagonalization and the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) technique, the two-site entanglement as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg (AFH) model under an external field are investigated. With increasing external field, the small size system shows some distinct upward magnetization stairsteps, accompanied synchronously with some downward two-site entanglement stairsteps. In the thermodynamic limit, the two-site entanglement, as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization are calculated, and the critical magnetic field h(c) = 2.0 is determined exactly. Our numerical results show that the quantum entanglement is sensitive to the subtle changing of the ground state, and can be used to describe the magnetization and quantum phase transition. Based on the discontinuous behavior of the first-order derivative of the entanglement entropy and fidelity per site, we think that the quantum phase transition in this model should belong to the second-order category. Furthermore, in the magnon existence region (h entanglement which can be described by a free bosonic field theory is observed, and the central charge c is determined to be 1.

  8. Quantum Discord, CHSH Inequality and Hidden Variables -- Critical reassessment of hidden-variables models

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Hidden-variables models are critically reassessed. It is first examined if the quantum discord is classically described by the hidden-variable model of Bell in the Hilbert space with $d=2$. The criterion of vanishing quantum discord is related to the notion of reduction and, surprisingly, the hidden-variable model in $d=2$, which has been believed to be consistent so far, is in fact inconsistent and excluded by the analysis of conditional measurement and reduction. The description of the full contents of quantum discord by the deterministic hidden-variables models is not possible. We also re-examine CHSH inequality. It is shown that the well-known prediction of CHSH inequality $|B|\\leq 2$ for the CHSH operator $B$ introduced by Cirel'son is not unique. This non-uniqueness arises from the failure of linearity condition in the non-contextual hidden-variables model in $d=4$ used by Bell and CHSH, in agreement with Gleason's theorem which excludes $d=4$ non-contextual hidden-variables models. If one imposes the l...

  9. Superconductivity around quantum critical point in P-doped iron arsenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Guanghan, E-mail: ghcao@zju.edu.c [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Jiang Shuai; Wang Cao; Li Yuke; Ren Zhi; Tao Qian; Dai Jianhui; Xu Zhuan [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-12-15

    We demonstrate that, by the P/As substitution-without doping of charge carriers-in a FeAs-layer-based parent compound, superconductivity can be universally introduced. The maximum superconducting critical temperature (T{sub c}) of BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} achieves 30 K. The P doping in LnFeAsO system (Ln = La and Sm) produces superconductivity below 11 K. The normal-state resistivity obeys linear temperature dependence and the normal-state Hall coefficient shows strong temperature dependence. These non-Fermi liquid behaviors suggest magnetic quantum criticality. The maximum T{sub c} values in different systems correlates strongly with the diagonal bondangle of Fe-As-Fe, implying the important role of the next-nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange coupling in iron pnictide superconductors.

  10. SU(3) quantum critical model emerging from a spin-1 topological phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wen-Jia; Zhu, Guo-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Different from the spin-1 Haldane gapped phase, we propose an SO(3) spin-1 matrix product state (MPS), whose parent Hamiltonian includes three-site spin interactions. From the entanglement spectrum of a single block with l sites, an enlarged SU(3) symmetry is identified in the edge states, which are conjugate to each other for the l =even block but identical for the l =odd block. By blocking this state, the blocked MPS explicitly displays the SU(3) symmetry with two distinct structures. Under a symmetric bulk bipartition with a sufficient large block length l =even , the entanglement Hamiltonian (EH) of the reduced system characterizes a spontaneous dimerized phase with twofold degeneracy. However, for the block length l =odd , the corresponding EH represents an SU(3) quantum critical point with delocalized edge quasiparticles, and the critical field theory is described by the SU(3) level-1 Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theory.

  11. Candidate Elastic Quantum Critical Point in LaCu_{6-x}Au_{x}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, L; May, A F; Koehler, M R; McGuire, M A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Calder, S; Baumbach, R E; Mukherjee, R; Sapkota, D; de la Cruz, C; Singh, D J; Mandrus, D; Christianson, A D

    2016-12-02

    The structural properties of LaCu_{6-x}Au_{x} are studied using neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The continuous orthorhombic-monoclinic structural phase transition in LaCu_{6} is suppressed linearly with Au substitution until a complete suppression of the structural phase transition occurs at the critical composition x_{c}=0.3. Heat capacity measurements at low temperatures indicate residual structural instability at x_{c}. The instability is ferroelastic in nature, with density functional theory calculations showing negligible coupling to electronic states near the Fermi level. The data and calculations presented here are consistent with the zero temperature termination of a continuous structural phase transition suggesting that the LaCu_{6-x}Au_{x} series hosts an elastic quantum critical point.

  12. Fermion-Parity Anomaly of the Critical Supercurrent in the Quantum Spin-Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, C. W. J.; Pikulin, D. I.; Hyart, T.; Schomerus, H.; Dahlhaus, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    The helical edge state of a quantum spin-Hall insulator can carry a supercurrent in equilibrium between two superconducting electrodes (separation L, coherence length ξ). We calculate the maximum (critical) current Ic that can flow without dissipation along a single edge, going beyond the short-junction restriction L≪ξ of earlier work, and find a dependence on the fermion parity of the ground state when L becomes larger than ξ. Fermion-parity conservation doubles the critical current in the low-temperature, long-junction limit, while for a short junction Ic is the same with or without parity constraints. This provides a phase-insensitive, dc signature of the 4π-periodic Josephson effect.

  13. Mapping the current–current correlation function near a quantum critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodan, Emil, E-mail: prodan@yu.edu [Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Bellissard, Jean [School of Mathematics and School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The current–current correlation function is a useful concept in the theory of electron transport in homogeneous solids. The finite-temperature conductivity tensor as well as Anderson’s localization length can be computed entirely from this correlation function. Based on the critical behavior of these two physical quantities near the plateau–insulator or plateau–plateau transitions in the integer quantum Hall effect, we derive an asymptotic formula for the current–current correlation function, which enables us to make several theoretical predictions about its generic behavior. For the disordered Hofstadter model, we employ numerical simulations to map the current–current correlation function, obtain its asymptotic form near a critical point and confirm the theoretical predictions.

  14. Shear viscosity at the Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two dimensional metals

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Aavishkar A; Sachdev, Subir

    2016-01-01

    In a strongly interacting quantum liquid without quasiparticles, general scaling arguments imply that the dimensionless ratio $(k_B /\\hbar)\\, \\eta/s$, where $\\eta$ is the shear viscosity and $s$ is the entropy density, is a universal number. We compute the shear viscosity of the Ising-nematic critical point of metals in spatial dimension $d=2$ by an expansion below $d=5/2$. The anisotropy associated with directions parallel and normal to the Fermi surface leads to a violation of the scaling expectations: $\\eta$ scales in the same manner as a chiral conductivity, and the ratio $\\eta/s$ diverges as $T^{-2/z}$, where $z$ is the dynamic critical exponent for fermionic excitations dispersing normal to the Fermi surface.

  15. Visualizing Internet routing changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Mohit; Massey, Dan; Zhang, Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Today's Internet provides a global data delivery service to millions of end users and routing protocols play a critical role in this service. It is important to be able to identify and diagnose any problems occurring in Internet routing. However, the Internet's sheer size makes this task difficult. One cannot easily extract out the most important or relevant routing information from the large amounts of data collected from multiple routers. To tackle this problem, we have developed Link-Rank, a tool to visualize Internet routing changes at the global scale. Link-Rank weighs links in a topological graph by the number of routes carried over each link and visually captures changes in link weights in the form of a topological graph with adjustable size. Using Link-Rank, network operators can easily observe important routing changes from massive amounts of routing data, discover otherwise unnoticed routing problems, understand the impact of topological events, and infer root causes of observed routing changes.

  16. Exotic quantum critical point on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhen; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years a lot of exotic and anomalous topological phases were constructed by proliferating the vortexlike topological defects on the surface of the 3 d topological insulator (TI) [Fidkowski et al., Phys. Rev. X 3, 041016 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevX.3.041016; Chen et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 165132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.165132; Bonderson et al., J. Stat. Mech. (2013) P09016, 10.1088/1742-5468/2013/09/P09016; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. B 88, 115137 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.115137; Metlitski et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 125111 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.125111]. In this work, rather than considering topological phases at the boundary, we will study quantum critical points driven by vortexlike topological defects. In general, we will discuss a (2 +1 )d quantum phase transition described by the following field theory: L =ψ ¯γμ(∂μ-i aμ) ψ +| (∂μ-i k aμ) ϕ| 2+r|ϕ | 2+g |ϕ| 4 , with tuning parameter r , arbitrary integer k , Dirac fermion ψ , and complex scalar bosonic field ϕ , which both couple to the same (2 +1 )d dynamical noncompact U(1) gauge field aμ. The physical meaning of these quantities/fields will be explained in the text. Making use of the new duality formalism developed in [Metlitski et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 245151 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.245151; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. X 5, 041031 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.041031; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 085110 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.085110; D. T. Son, Phys. Rev. X 5, 031027 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.031027], we demonstrate that this quantum critical point has a quasi-self-dual nature. And at this quantum critical point, various universal quantities such as the electrical conductivity and scaling dimension of gauge-invariant operators, can be calculated systematically through a 1 /k2 expansion, based on the observation that the limit k →+∞ corresponds to an ordinary 3 d X Y transition.

  17. Charge Expulsion from Black Brane Horizons, and Holographic Quantum Criticality in the Plane

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hoker, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Quantum critical behavior in 2+1 dimensions is established via holographic methods in a 5+1-dimensional Einstein gravity theory with gauge potential form fields of rank 1 and 2. These fields are coupled to one another via a tri-linear Chern-Simons term with strength k. The quantum phase transition is physically driven by the expulsion of the electric charge from inside the black brane horizon to the outside, where it gets carried by the gauge fields which acquire charge thanks to the Chern-Simons interaction. At a critical value k=k_c, zero temperature, and any finite value of the magnetic field, the IR behavior is governed by a near-horizon Lifshitz geometry. The associated dynamical scaling exponent depends on the magnetic field. For k k_c, the IR flow is towards the purely magnetic brane in AdS_6. Its near-horizon geometry is AdS_4 \\times R^2, so that the entropy density vanishes quadratically with temperature, and all charge is carried by the gauge fields outside of the horizon.

  18. The break-up of heavy electrons at a quantum critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, J; Gegenwart, P; Wilhelm, H; Neumaier, K; Tokiwa, Y; Trovarelli, O; Geibel, C; Steglich, F; Pépin, C; Coleman, P

    2003-07-31

    The point at absolute zero where matter becomes unstable to new forms of order is called a quantum critical point (QCP). The quantum fluctuations between order and disorder that develop at this point induce profound transformations in the finite temperature electronic properties of the material. Magnetic fields are ideal for tuning a material as close as possible to a QCP, where the most intense effects of criticality can be studied. A previous study on the heavy-electron material YbRh2Si2 found that near a field-induced QCP electrons move ever more slowly and scatter off one another with ever increasing probability, as indicated by a divergence to infinity of the electron effective mass and scattering cross-section. But these studies could not shed light on whether these properties were an artefact of the applied field, or a more general feature of field-free QCPs. Here we report that, when germanium-doped YbRh2Si2 is tuned away from a chemically induced QCP by magnetic fields, there is a universal behaviour in the temperature dependence of the specific heat and resistivity: the characteristic kinetic energy of electrons is directly proportional to the strength of the applied field. We infer that all ballistic motion of electrons vanishes at a QCP, forming a new class of conductor in which individual electrons decay into collective current-carrying motions of the electron fluid.

  19. Superconducting Pairing Correlations near a Kondo-destruction Quantum Critical Point in Cluster Impurity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ang; Pixley, Jedediah; Si, Qimiao

    Heavy fermion metals represent a canonical system to study superconductivity driven by quantum criticality. We are particularly motivated by the properties of CeRhIn5, which shows the characteristic features of a Kondo destruction quantum critical point (QCP) in its normal state, and has one of the highest Tc's among the heavy fermion superconductors. As a first step to study this problem within a cluster-EDMFT approach, we analyze a four-site Anderson impurity model with the antiferromagnetic spin component of the cluster coupled to a sub-Ohmic bosonic bath. We find a QCP that belongs to the same universality class as the single-site Bose-Fermi Anderson model. Together with previous work on a two-site model, our result suggests that the Kondo destruction QCP is robust as cluster size increases. More importantly, we are able to calculate the d-wave pairing susceptibility, which we find to be enhanced near the QCP. Using this model as the effective cluster model of the periodic Anderson model, we are also able to study the superconducting pairing near the Kondo-destruction QCP of the lattice model; preliminary results will be presented.

  20. Alternate Routes in Initial Teacher Education: A Critical Review of the Research and Policy Implications for Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwok Chan; Grossman, David

    2008-01-01

    In this article Hong Kong's policy on initial teacher training is used as a case study of the interplay between international trends and local policy. Traditionally initial teacher preparation in most countries has been based in higher education institutions. In recent years alternative routes for initial teacher education have proliferated in the…

  1. Coexistence of order and chaos at critical points of first-order quantum phase transitions in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Macek, M

    2011-01-01

    We study the interplay between ordered and chaotic dynamics at the critical point of a generic first-order quantum phase transition in the interacting boson model of nuclei. Classical and quantum analyses reveal a distinct behavior of the coexisting phases. While the dynamics in the deformed phase is robustly regular, the spherical phase shows strongly chaotic behavior in the same energy intervals. The effect of collective rotations on the dynamics is investigated.

  2. Quantum criticality in an organic spin-liquid insulator κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Takayuki; Terashima, Taichi; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Kanoda, Kazushi; Uji, Shinya

    2016-11-01

    A quantum spin-liquid state, an exotic state of matter, appears when strong quantum fluctuations enhanced by competing exchange interactions suppress a magnetically ordered state. Generally, when an ordered state is continuously suppressed to 0 K by an external parameter, a quantum phase transition occurs. It exhibits critical scaling behaviour, characterized only by a few basic properties such as dimensions and symmetry. Here we report the low-temperature magnetic torque measurements in an organic triangular-lattice antiferromagnet, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3, where BEDT-TTF stands for bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene. It is found that the magnetic susceptibilities derived from the torque data exhibit a universal critical scaling, indicating the quantum critical point at zero magnetic field, and the critical exponents, γ=0.83(6) and νz=1.0(1). These exponents greatly constrain the theoretical models for the quantum spin liquid, and at present, there is no theory to explain the values, to the best of our knowledge.

  3. Hilbert-Glass Transition: New Universality of Temperature-Tuned Many-Body Dynamical Quantum Criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pekker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a new class of unconventional critical phenomena that is characterized by singularities only in dynamical quantities and has no thermodynamic signatures. One example of such a transition is the recently proposed many-body localization-delocalization transition, in which transport coefficients vanish at a critical temperature with no singularities in thermodynamic observables. Describing this purely dynamical quantum criticality is technically challenging as understanding the finite-temperature dynamics necessarily requires averaging over a large number of matrix elements between many-body eigenstates. Here, we develop a real-space renormalization group method for excited states that allows us to overcome this challenge in a large class of models. We characterize a specific example: the 1 D disordered transverse-field Ising model with generic interactions. While thermodynamic phase transitions are generally forbidden in this model, using the real-space renormalization group method for excited states we find a finite-temperature dynamical transition between two localized phases. The transition is characterized by nonanalyticities in the low-frequency heat conductivity and in the long-time (dynamic spin correlation function. The latter is a consequence of an up-down spin symmetry that results in the appearance of an Edwards-Anderson-like order parameter in one of the localized phases.

  4. Quantum Hall criticality and localization in graphene with short-range impurities at the Dirac point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattenlöhner, S; Hannes, W-R; Ostrovsky, P M; Gornyi, I V; Mirlin, A D; Titov, M

    2014-01-17

    We explore the longitudinal conductivity of graphene at the Dirac point in a strong magnetic field with two types of short-range scatterers: adatoms that mix the valleys and "scalar" impurities that do not mix them. A scattering theory for the Dirac equation is employed to express the conductance of a graphene sample as a function of impurity coordinates; an averaging over impurity positions is then performed numerically. The conductivity σ is equal to the ballistic value 4e2/πh for each disorder realization, provided the number of flux quanta considerably exceeds the number of impurities. For weaker fields, the conductivity in the presence of scalar impurities scales to the quantum-Hall critical point with σ≃4×0.4e2/h at half filling or to zero away from half filling due to the onset of Anderson localization. For adatoms, the localization behavior is also obtained at half filling due to splitting of the critical energy by intervalley scattering. Our results reveal a complex scaling flow governed by fixed points of different symmetry classes: remarkably, all key manifestations of Anderson localization and criticality in two dimensions are observed numerically in a single setup.

  5. Voice over quantum IP routing based on least relay no de constrained optimization strategy%基于最少中继节点约束的量子VoIP路由优化策略∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂敏; 刘广腾; 杨光; 裴昌幸

    2016-01-01

    Quantum communication is the interdisciplinary science of quantum mechanics and telecommunication theory. It has advantages of perfect information security and high efficiency in transmission. In recent years, the theoretical and experimental results show that quantum communication systems have the superiority over the traditional communication systems. Quantum communication systems are hopeful for solving the information security problems that everyone is facing today, therefore, they possess broad application prospects and are forming a research hotspot of the telecommu-nications field currently. On the other hand, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is the method to transmit the digitized packet voice in Internet around the world. The advantages of VoIP are that it can carry voice, data, video, telephone conference, electronic commerce, and electronic mail economically. VoIP can realize the information storage and re-transmission easily and flexibly. However, VoIP also encounters the problem of information security. We are trying to combine the quantum communications network and the VoIP system together and build a brand new network named quantum VoIP network which combines the advantages of both quantum communications and VoIP. The data packets may be delayed and lost in a queue up with a router due to the congestion and link failure during the transmission of quantum information. In order to ensure the performance of quantum VoIP system, the routing optimization strategies are proposed in the paper. The relay technology based on entanglement swapping is adopted. The multiuse quantum communications are realized by giving priority to the quantum channels with the least relay nodes. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that when the data transmission links are fail to work properly and routers are in congestion, adopting the routing optimization strategies in M/M/m queuing system with the bit error rate (BER) of quantum bit setting to be 0.2 and the

  6. Strain-Driven Approach to Quantum Criticality in AFe_{2}As_{2} with A=K, Rb, and Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Felix; Grube, Kai; Zocco, Diego A; Wolf, Thomas; Merz, Michael; Schweiss, Peter; Heid, Rolf; Eder, Robert; Yu, Rong; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Si, Qimiao; Shibauchi, Takasada; Löhneysen, Hilbert V

    2016-06-10

    The iron-based superconductors AFe_{2}As_{2} with A=K, Rb, Cs exhibit large Sommerfeld coefficients approaching those of heavy-fermion systems. We have investigated the magnetostriction and thermal expansion of this series to shed light on this unusual behavior. Quantum oscillations of the magnetostriction allow identifying the band-specific quasiparticle masses which by far exceed the band-structure derived masses. The divergence of the Grüneisen ratio derived from thermal expansion indicates that with increasing volume along the series a quantum critical point is approached. The critical fluctuations responsible for the enhancement of the quasiparticle masses appear to weaken the superconducting state.

  7. Irradiation route to aqueous synthesis of highly luminescent ZnSe quantum dots and its function as a copper ion fluorescence sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Yeluri Narayana; Datta, Aparna [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Das, Satyendra K. [Radiochemistry Division, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saha, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit@alpha.iuc.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Radiation chemical technique can provide a useful route for synthesis of ZnSe QDs. • Chelating nature of ethylene diamine is exploited for capping nanoparticles. • ZnSe QDs can be a suitable sensitive alternative to toxic cadmium-based system. • Cu(II) ion is probed by QDs in the presence of other physiologically relevant ions. - Abstract: Size-controlled synthesis of stable ZnSe QDs with narrow distribution in aqueous environment through conventional soft chemical method still poses a challenge. The proposed radiation assisted strategy demonstrates aqueous synthesis of stable, monodisperse and luminescent ZnSe QDs capped with chelating ethylene diamine under ambient conditions and at room temperature. Radiation chemical method facilitates in slow and in-situ release of selenium ion from sodium selenosulfate. The concentrations of precursors, such as zinc salt, selenium source, ethylene diamine and absorbed radiation (7–90 kGy) dose were optimized for obtaining good quality particles. Selective quenching of luminescence of as-synthesized quantum dots (QDs) by Cu{sup 2+} ions vis-à-vis other physiologically important cations provide evidence for use of ZnSe quantum dots as alternative to toxic Cd-based quantum dots to probe Cu{sup 2+} ions. The linear relation of ratio of loss in emission intensity as a function of concentration of Cu(II) indicates detection limit in nano-molar range.

  8. Landau-Ginzburg Limit of Black Hole's Quantum Portrait: Self Similarity and Critical Exponent

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have suggested that the microscopic quantum description of a black hole is an overpacked self-sustained Bose-condensate of N weakly-interacting soft gravitons, which obeys the rules of 't Hooft's large-N physics. In this note we derive an effective Landau-Ginzburg Lagrangian for the condensate and show that it becomes an exact description in a semi-classical limit that serves as the black hole analog of 't Hooft's planar limit. The role of a weakly-coupled Landau-Ginzburg order parameter is played by N. This description consistently reproduces the known properties of black holes in semi-classical limit. Hawking radiation, as the quantum depletion of the condensate, is described by the slow-roll of the field N. In the semiclassical limit, where black holes of arbitrarily small size are allowed, the equation of depletion is self similar leading to a scaling law for the black hole size with critical exponent 1/3.

  9. Universal transport near a quantum critical Mott transition in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak-Krempa, William; Ghaemi, Pouyan; Senthil, T.; Kim, Yong Baek

    2012-12-01

    We discuss the universal-transport signatures near a zero-temperature continuous Mott transition between a Fermi liquid and a quantum spin liquid in two spatial dimensions. The correlation-driven transition occurs at fixed filling and involves fractionalization of the electron: upon entering the spin liquid, a Fermi surface of neutral spinons coupled to an internal gauge field emerges. We present a controlled calculation of the value of the zero-temperature universal resistivity jump predicted to occur at the transition. More generally, the behavior of the universal scaling function that collapses the temperature- and pressure-dependent resistivity is derived, and is shown to bear a strong imprint of the emergent gauge fluctuations. We further predict a universal jump of the thermal conductivity across the Mott transition, which derives from the breaking of conformal invariance by the damped gauge field, and leads to a violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in the quantum critical region. A connection to the quasitriangular organic salts is made, where such a transition might occur. Finally, we present some transport results for the pure rotor O(N) conformal field theory.

  10. Criticality and Excitation Gap in Quantum Systems: Applications of Continuous Matrix Product States in Imaginary Time

    CERN Document Server

    Tirrito, Emanuele; Ran, Shi-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an efficient method that allows for simultaneous determination of the ground state, low energy excitation properties and excitation gap in quantum many body systems. To this aim we first use the \\textit{ab-initio} optimization principle of tensor networks (TN), to show that the infinite density matrix renormalization group (iDMRG) in the real space is associated in a natural manner to the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) implemented on a continuous matrix product state (MPS), and defined in imaginary time. We illustrate this association showing that the (imaginary) time matrix product state (MPS) in iTEBD reproduces accurately the properties of the two-dimensional (2D) classical Ising model, verifying in this way that the time MPS corresponds to a well-defined physical state. We apply then our scheme to the one-dimensional (1D) quantum Ising chain, where the time MPS is defined in continuous imaginary time. It is found that the time MPS at or close to the critical point is always...

  11. Transport anomalies and quantum criticality in electron-doped cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu; Yu, Heshan; He, Ge; Hu, Wei; Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Beiyi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Jin, Kui, E-mail: kuijin@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Electrical transport and its complementary thermal transport on electron-doped cuprates are reviewed. • The common features of electron-doped cuprates are sorted out and shown in the last figure. • The complex superconducting fluctuations and quantum fluctuations are distinguished. - Abstract: Superconductivity research is like running a marathon. Three decades after the discovery of high-T{sub c} cuprates, there have been mass data generated from transport measurements, which bring fruitful information. In this review, we give a brief summary of the intriguing phenomena reported in electron-doped cuprates from the aspect of electrical transport as well as the complementary thermal transport. We attempt to sort out common features of the electron-doped family, e.g. the strange metal, negative magnetoresistance, multiple sign reversals of Hall in mixed state, abnormal Nernst signal, complex quantum criticality. Most of them have been challenging the existing theories, nevertheless, a unified diagram certainly helps to approach the nature of electron-doped cuprates.

  12. Quantum Critical Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Shaken Optical Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Logan W.; Feng, Lei; Ha, Li-Chung; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    From condensed matter to cosmology, systems which cross a continuous, symmetry-breaking phase transition are expected to generate topological defects whose density scales universally with the rate at which the phase transition is crossed. We experimentally test the application of this universal Kibble-Zurek scaling prediction to quantum phase transitions by studying ultracold bosons in a shaken optical lattice. When the lattice shaking amplitude crosses a critical threshold, an ordinary Bose condensate transitions to an effectively ferromagnetic pseudo-spinor condensate with discrete, magnetized regions separated by domain walls. We appraise the dynamic scaling laws for both the time at which the domain structure forms and the typical size of the domains by varying the quench rate across the transition. We explore the regime in which the universal prediction applies, as well as potential deviations at extreme quench rates.

  13. Grüneisen parameter studies on heavy fermion quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenwart, Philipp

    2016-11-01

    The Grüneisen parameter, experimentally determined from the ratio of thermal expansion to specific heat, quantifies the pressure dependence of characteristic energy scales of matter. It is highly enhanced for Kondo lattice systems, whose properties are strongly dependent on the pressure sensitive antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between f- and conduction electrons. In this review, we focus on the divergence of the Grüneisen parameter and its magnetic analogue, the adiabatic magnetocaloric effect, for heavy-fermion metals near quantum critical points. We compare experimental results with current theoretical models, including the effect of strong geometrical frustration. We also discuss the possibility of using materials with the divergent magnetic Grüneisen parameter for adiabatic demagnetization cooling to very low temperatures.

  14. Anomalous curie response of impurities in quantum-critical spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Kaj H; Sandvik, Anders W

    2007-07-13

    We consider a magnetic impurity in two different S=1/2 Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnets at their respective critical interlayer couplings separating Néel and disordered ground states. We calculate the impurity susceptibility using a quantum Monte Carlo method. With intralayer couplings in only one of the layers (Kondo lattice), we observe an anomalous Curie constant C*, as predicted on the basis of field-theoretical work [S. Sachdev, Science 286, 2479 (1999)10.1126/science.286.5449.2479]. The value C* = 0.262 +/- 0.002 is larger than the normal Curie constant C=S(S+1)/3. Our low-temperature results for a symmetric bilayer are consistent with a universal C*.

  15. On the theory of quantum quenches in near-critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Gesualdo; Viti, Jacopo

    2017-02-01

    The theory of quantum quenches in near-critical one-dimensional systems formulated in Delfino (2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 402001) yields analytic predictions for the dynamics, unveils a qualitative difference between non-interacting and interacting systems, with undamped oscillations of one-point functions occurring only in the latter case, and explains the presence and role of different time scales. Here we examine additional aspects, determining in particular the relaxation value of one-point functions for small quenches. For a class of quenches we relate this value to the scaling dimensions of the operators. We argue that the E 8 spectrum of the Ising chain can be more accessible through a quench than at equilibrium, while for a quench of the plane anisotropy in the XYZ chain we obtain that the one-point function of the quench operator switches from damped to undamped oscillations at Δ =1/2 .

  16. On the theory of quantum quenches in near-critical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2016-01-01

    The theory of quantum quenches in near-critical one-dimensional systems formulated in [J. Phys. A 47 (2014) 402001] yields analytic predictions for the dynamics, unveils a qualitative difference between non-interacting and interacting systems, with undamped oscillations of one-point functions occurring only in the latter case, and explains the presence of different time scales. Here we examine additional aspects, obtaining in particular the expression for the relaxation value of one-point functions for small quenches. We argue that the $E_8$ spectrum of the Ising chain is more accessible through a quench than at equilibrium, while for a quench of the plane anisotropy in the XYZ chain we obtain that the one-point function of the quench operator switches from damped to undamped oscillations at $\\Delta=1/2$.

  17. Critical strain region evaluation of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, D L [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Pizarro, J [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Galindo, P L [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Garcia, R [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Trevisi, G [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Frigeri, P [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Nasi, L [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Franchi, S [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Molina, S I [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2007-11-28

    A novel peak finding method to map the strain from high resolution transmission electron micrographs, known as the Peak Pairs method, has been applied to In(Ga)As/AlGaAs quantum dot (QD) samples, which present stacking faults emerging from the QD edges. Moreover, strain distribution has been simulated by the finite element method applying the elastic theory on a 3D QD model. The agreement existing between determined and simulated strain values reveals that these techniques are consistent enough to qualitatively characterize the strain distribution of nanostructured materials. The correct application of both methods allows the localization of critical strain zones in semiconductor QDs, predicting the nucleation of defects, and being a very useful tool for the design of semiconductor devices.

  18. Band structure and itinerant magnetism in quantum critical NbFe2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, A. P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Singh, David J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We report first-principles calculations of the band structure and magnetic ordering in the C14 Laves phase compound NbFe{sub 2}. The magnetism is itinerant in the sense that the moments are highly dependent on ordering. We find an overestimation of the magnetic tendency within the local spin-density approximation, similar to other metals near magnetic quantum critical points. We also find a competition between different magnetic states due to band-structure effects. These lead to competing magnetic tendencies due to competing interlayer interactions, one favoring a ferrimagnetic solution and the other an antiferromagnetic state. While the structure contains Kagome lattice sheets, which could, in principle, lead to strong magnetic frustration, the calculations do not show dominant nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions within these sheets. These results are discussed in relation to experimental observations.

  19. Magnetic and superconducting quantum critical points of heavy-fermion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuer, A.; Sheikin, I.; Braithwaite, D. E-mail: dbraithwaite@cea.fr; Faak, B.; Huxley, A.; Raymond, S.; Flouquet, J

    2001-05-01

    Two examples of heavy-fermion systems are presented : CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, an antiferromagnet with a quantum critical point at P{sub C}=28 kbar and UGe{sub 2} an itinerant ferromagnet which transits in a paramagnetic phase above P{sub C}=16 kbar. In CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2} the superconductivity domain is centered on P{sub C}. Special attention was given to the superconducting and magnetic anomalies at their superconducting and Neel temperatures. In UGe{sub 2} superconductivity appears in 9 kbar at a temperature T{sub S}, more than two orders of magnitude lower than the Curie temperature; furthermore, it occurs only on the magnetic border (P

  20. Magnetic and superconducting quantum critical points of heavy-fermion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuer, A.; Sheikin, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Fåk, B.; Huxley, A.; Raymond, S.; Flouquet, J.

    2001-05-01

    Two examples of heavy-fermion systems are presented : CePd 2Si 2, an antiferromagnet with a quantum critical point at PC=28 kbar and UGe 2 an itinerant ferromagnet which transits in a paramagnetic phase above PC=16 kbar. In CePd 2Si 2 the superconductivity domain is centered on PC. Special attention was given to the superconducting and magnetic anomalies at their superconducting and Néel temperatures. In UGe 2 superconductivity appears in 9 kbar at a temperature TS, more than two orders of magnitude lower than the Curie temperature; furthermore, it occurs only on the magnetic border ( P< PC). Another characteristic temperature TX is detected by resistivity; the zigzag uranium chain of the lattice may favor a supplementary nesting in the majority spin band.

  1. Transport anomalies and quantum criticality in electron-doped cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Yu, Heshan; He, Ge; Hu, Wei; Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Beiyi; Jin, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Superconductivity research is like running a marathon. Three decades after the discovery of high-Tc cuprates, there have been mass data generated from transport measurements, which bring fruitful information. In this review, we give a brief summary of the intriguing phenomena reported in electron-doped cuprates from the aspect of electrical transport as well as the complementary thermal transport. We attempt to sort out common features of the electron-doped family, e.g. the strange metal, negative magnetoresistance, multiple sign reversals of Hall in mixed state, abnormal Nernst signal, complex quantum criticality. Most of them have been challenging the existing theories, nevertheless, a unified diagram certainly helps to approach the nature of electron-doped cuprates.

  2. Green route synthesis of high quality CdSe quantum dots for applications in light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Susnata; Singh, Shashi B.; Ray, S. K.

    2012-05-01

    Investigation was made on light emitting diodes fabricated using CdSe quantum dots. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Room temperature photoluminescence investigation showed sharp 1st excitonic emission peak at 568 nm. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting devices were fabricated by solution process. The electroluminescence study showed low turn on voltage (˜2.2 V) .The EL peak intensity was found to increase by increasing the operating current.

  3. Applications of Canonical transformations and nontrivial vacuum solutions to flavor mixing and critical phenomena in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2004-12-01

    MISHCHENKO, YURIY. Applications of Canonical Transformations and Nontrivial Vacuum Solutions to flavor mixing and critical phenomena in Quantum Field Theory. (Under the direction of Chueng-Ryong Ji.) In this dissertation we consider two recent applications of Bogoliubov Transformation to the phenomenology of quantum mixing and the theory of critical phenomena. In recent years quantum mixing got in the focus of the searches for New Physics due to its unparalleled sensitivity to SM parameters and indications of neutrino mixing. It was recently suggested that Bogoliubov Transformation may be important in proper definition of the flavor states that otherwise results in problems in perturbative treatment. As first part of this dissertation we investigate this conjecture and develop a complete formulation of such a mixing field theory involving introduction of general formalism, analysis of space-time conversion and phenomenological implications. As second part of this dissertati

  4. Degenerate Fermi and non-Fermi liquids near a quantum critical phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, S.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Lapertot, G.; Matsuda, T. D.; Knebel, G.; Flouquet, J.; Walstedt, R. E.

    2014-11-01

    Recently there is renewed interest in quantum critical phase transitions (QCPT) at T = 0 K in metallic strongly correlated electron systems. From early experimental results, the QCPT in the Kondo-lattice compound YbRh2Si2 is not a case of the ordinary spin density wave (SDW) instability observed in Ce-based Kondo lattices, but a candidate for a novel locally critical case. Here, we observe that coexisting, static Fermi liquid (FL) and non-Fermi liquid (NFL) states are a key feature of the QCPT in YbRh2Si2. By means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) measurements on a single-crystalline sample, we find that the FL and NFL states are invariant, whereas their ratio in a crossover is field dependent near the QCPT. Such a pair of states has remained hidden in Ce compounds, owing presumably to the short lifetimes of the two states. We derive a scaling law for the occupation ratio of the two states, which could be widely applicable to Kondo-lattice systems.

  5. Uncovering the hidden quantum critical point in disordered massless Dirac and Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, J. H.; Huse, David A.; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-09-01

    We study the properties of the avoided or hidden quantum critical point (AQCP) in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl semimetals in the presence of short range potential disorder. By computing the averaged density of states (along with its second and fourth derivative at zero energy) with the kernel polynomial method (KPM) we systematically tune the effective length scale that eventually rounds out the transition and leads to an AQCP. We show how to determine the strength of the avoidance, establishing that it is not controlled by the long wavelength component of the disorder. Instead, the amount of avoidance can be adjusted via the tails of the probability distribution of the local random potentials. A binary distribution with no tails produces much less avoidance than a Gaussian distribution. We introduce a double Gaussian distribution to interpolate between these two limits. As a result we are able to make the length scale of the avoidance sufficiently large so that we can accurately study the properties of the underlying transition (that is eventually rounded out), unambiguously identify its location, and provide accurate estimates of the critical exponents ν =1.01 ±0.06 and z =1.50 ±0.04 . We also show that the KPM expansion order introduces an effective length scale that can also round out the transition in the scaling regime near the AQCP.

  6. RSOS Quantum Chains Associated with Off-Critical Minimal Models and $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ Parafermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, Davide; Pearce, Paul A; Ravanini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We consider the $\\varphi_{1,3}$ off-critical perturbation ${\\cal M}(m,m';t)$ of the general non-unitary minimal models where $2\\le m\\le m'$ and $m, m'$ are coprime and $t$ measures the departure from criticality corresponding to the $\\varphi_{1,3}$ integrable perturbation. We view these models as the continuum scaling limit in the ferromagnetic Regime III of the Forrester-Baxter Restricted Solid-On-Solid (RSOS) models on the square lattice. We also consider the RSOS models in the antiferromagnetic Regime II related in the continuum scaling limit to $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ parfermions with $n=m'-2$. Using an elliptic Yang-Baxter algebra of planar tiles encoding the allowed face configurations, we obtain the Hamiltonians of the associated quantum chains defined as the logarithmic derivative of the transfer matrices with periodic boundary conditions. The transfer matrices and Hamiltonians act on a vector space of paths on the $A_{m'-1}$ Dynkin diagram whose dimension is counted by generalized Fibonacci numbers.

  7. Criticality, factorization and Wigner-Yanase skew information in quantum spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W. W.; Li, J. X.; Shan, C. J.; Gong, L. Y.; Zhao, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    We apply the Wigner-Yanase skew information approach to analyze criticality and factorization phenomenon in the one-dimensional anisotropy model with uniform coupling interaction and periodic-two one. Based on the exact solutions of the ground states, the Wigner-Yanase skew information between two nearest-neighbor lattices is obtained. For the uniform case, the first-order derivative of the Wigner-Yanase skew information is non-analytically around the critical point. The scaling behavior and the universality are verified numerically. In particular, such skew information can also detect the factorization transition in this model. For the periodic-two case, it is found that there exist more than one phase-transition point in some parameter region due to the competition between periodicity and anisotropy. Furthermore, two kinds of phase transitions, i.e., the Ising and anisotropy transitions, driven by external field and the anisotropy parameter , are investigated carefully by the skew information. Our results state that quantum phase transition driven by the anisotropy parameter can belong to the same universality class as the one driven by external field.

  8. New quantum-critical-point-related effects in Ce lattice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sereni, J.G. [Division Bajas Temperaturas, Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA), 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)]. E-mail: jsereni@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2004-12-31

    Anomalous physical properties related to quantum critical points are investigated in Ce-systems whose magnetic phase boundaries, TN,C(x,p), can be traced for at least one decade of temperature. A change from the usual negative curvature to a linear concentration, x, dependence of TN,C(x) is observed at x*>=xcr/2 (xcr being the critical concentration). Within the x*xxcr region, the usual specific heat temperature dependence Cm/T{proportional_to}Ln(1/T) develops above TN,C, while a nearly constant value of Cm/T maximum is observed besides a scaling of Cm/T(T) with {delta}T=T-TN,C. Coincidentally, a significant increase of the zero-point entropy S0(x)(=RLn2-Sm(x,T)) occurs. Dimensionality and dynamics of the spin fluctuations can be analyzed computing the internal energy and entropy for T>=TN and AC-susceptibility results. Consequences for the free-energy evolution within this region and implications of the S0(x) increase are discussed.

  9. Universality of finite-size corrections to geometrical entanglement in one-dimensional quantum critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi-Jing; Hu, Bing-Quan; Cho, Sam Young; Zhou, Huan-Qiang; Shi, Qian-Qian

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the finite-size corrections to the geometrical entanglement per lattice site in the spin-1/2 chain have been numerically shown to scale inversely with system size, and its prefactor b has been suggested to be possibly universal [Q-Q. Shi et al., New J. Phys. 12, 025008 (2010)]. As possible evidence of its universality, the numerical values of the prefactors have been confirmed analytically by using the Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy with a Neumann boundary condition for a free compactified field [J-M. Stephan et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 180406(R) (2010)]. However, the Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy is not unique and does depend on conformally invariant boundary conditions. Here, we show that a unique Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy corresponding to a finitesize correction to the geometrical entanglement per lattice site exists and show that the ratio of the prefactor b to the corresponding minimum groundstate degeneracy gmin for the Affleck- Ludwig boundary entropy is a constant for any critical region of the spin-1 XXZ system with the single-ion anisotropy, i.e., b/(2 log2 g min ) = -1. Previously studied spin-1/2 systems, including the quantum three-state Potts model, have verified the universal ratio. Hence, the inverse finite-size correction to the geometrical entanglement per lattice site and its prefactor b are universal for one-dimensional critical systems.

  10. Pressure-tuned quantum criticality in the antiferromagnetic Kondo semimetal CeNi2-δAs2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongkang; Ronning, F; Wakeham, N; Lu, Xin; Park, Tuson; Xu, Z-A; Thompson, J D

    2015-11-03

    The easily tuned balance among competing interactions in Kondo-lattice metals allows access to a zero-temperature, continuous transition between magnetically ordered and disordered phases, a quantum-critical point (QCP). Indeed, these highly correlated electron materials are prototypes for discovering and exploring quantum-critical states. Theoretical models proposed to account for the strange thermodynamic and electrical transport properties that emerge around the QCP of a Kondo lattice assume the presence of an indefinitely large number of itinerant charge carriers. Here, we report a systematic transport and thermodynamic investigation of the Kondo-lattice system CeNi2-δAs2 (δ ≈ 0.28) as its antiferromagnetic order is tuned by pressure and magnetic field to zero-temperature boundaries. These experiments show that the very small but finite carrier density of ~0.032 E-/formular unit in CeNi2-δAs2 leads to unexpected transport signatures of quantum criticality and the delayed development of a fully coherent Kondo-lattice state with decreasing temperature. The small carrier density and associated semimetallicity of this Kondo-lattice material favor an unconventional, local-moment type of quantum criticality and raises the specter of the Nozières exhaustion idea that an insufficient number of conduction-electron spins to separately screen local moments requires collective Kondo screening.

  11. Pressure-tuned quantum criticality in the antiferromagnetic Kondo semimetal CeNi2−δAs2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongkang; Ronning, F.; Wakeham, N.; Lu, Xin; Park, Tuson; Xu, Z.-A.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    The easily tuned balance among competing interactions in Kondo-lattice metals allows access to a zero-temperature, continuous transition between magnetically ordered and disordered phases, a quantum-critical point (QCP). Indeed, these highly correlated electron materials are prototypes for discovering and exploring quantum-critical states. Theoretical models proposed to account for the strange thermodynamic and electrical transport properties that emerge around the QCP of a Kondo lattice assume the presence of an indefinitely large number of itinerant charge carriers. Here, we report a systematic transport and thermodynamic investigation of the Kondo-lattice system CeNi2−δAs2 (δ ≈ 0.28) as its antiferromagnetic order is tuned by pressure and magnetic field to zero-temperature boundaries. These experiments show that the very small but finite carrier density of ∼0.032 e−/formular unit in CeNi2−δAs2 leads to unexpected transport signatures of quantum criticality and the delayed development of a fully coherent Kondo-lattice state with decreasing temperature. The small carrier density and associated semimetallicity of this Kondo-lattice material favor an unconventional, local-moment type of quantum criticality and raises the specter of the Nozières exhaustion idea that an insufficient number of conduction-electron spins to separately screen local moments requires collective Kondo screening. PMID:26483465

  12. Signatures of a quantum Griffiths phase in a d-metal alloy close to its ferromagnetic quantum critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Almut; Ubaid-Kassis, Sara; Vojta, Thomas

    2011-03-09

    We report magnetization measurements close to the ferromagnetic quantum phase transition of the d-metal alloy Ni(1 - x)V(x) at a vanadium concentration of x(c)≈11.4%. In the diluted regime (x > x(c)), the temperature (T) and magnetic field (H) dependences of the magnetization are characterized by nonuniversal power laws and display H/T scaling in a wide temperature and field range. The exponents vary strongly with x and follow the predictions of a quantum Griffiths phase. We also discuss the deviations and limits of the quantum Griffiths phase as well as the phase boundaries due to bulk and cluster physics.

  13. Chemically grown vertically aligned 1D ZnO nanorods with CdS coating for efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC): a controlled synthesis route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Sawanta S; Kim, Hyungjin; Patil, Pramod S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2013-12-28

    In the present article, vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by an aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route on a fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. These nanorods were further sensitized with cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The synthesized CdS coated ZnO nanorods were characterized for their structural and morphological properties with X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Finally, prepared CdS coated 1D ZnO photoelectrodes were tested for their photoelectrochemical performance. Our results show that the sample deposited after 40 SILAR cycles shows 5.61 mA cm(-2) short current density (JSC) with η = 1.61% power conversion efficiency.

  14. Tunable narrow emission in ZnS/CdS/ZnS quantum well structures prepared by aqueous route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hitanshu; Kumari, Asha; Singh, Ragini Raj

    2017-07-01

    ZnS/CdS/ZnS quantum wells (QWs) with tunable narrow emission due to narrow size distribution were successfully synthesized by wet chemical method. QWs give high luminescence and hence important materials for recent nanotechnology applications such as optoelectronics and bioimaging. In this work we put forward a QW structure with extended potential barrier, where electron and holes are confining in the core of ZnS and ZnS/CdS QDs by creating a ZnS/CdS/ZnS potential well like structure. Multilayers break the continuity of structure, which gives the combined advantages of ZnS, CdS and ZnS/CdS. This well like structure of quantum dots gives highest possibility to confine the electron and holes inside core and enhance the optical properties with suitable shell thickness. Structural, morphological and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Quantum yield of these quantum dot structures was also measured.

  15. Cellular trafficking of quantum dot-ligand bioconjugates and their induction of changes in normal routing of unconjugated ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tekle, Christina; van Deurs, Bo; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    :Qdots were internalized by clathrin-dependent endocytosis as fast as Tf, but their recycling was blocked. Unlike Shiga toxin, the Shiga:Qdot bioconjugate was not routed to the Golgi apparatus. The internalized ricin:Qdot bioconjugates localized to the same endosomes as ricin itself but could...... not be visualized in the Golgi apparatus. Importantly, we find that the endosomal accumulation of ricin:Qdots affects endosome-to-Golgi transport of both ricin and Shiga toxin: Transport of ricin was reduced whereas transport of Shiga toxin was increased. In conclusion, the data reveal that, although coupling...

  16. Upper critical field and quantum oscillations in tetragonal superconducting FeS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Taichi; Kikugawa, Naoki; Lin, Hai; Zhu, Xiyu; Wen, Hai-Hu; Nomoto, Takuya; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Uji, Shinya

    2016-09-01

    The magnetoresistance and magnetic torque of FeS are measured in magnetic fields B of up to 18 T down to a temperature of 0.03 K. The superconducting transition temperature is found to be Tc=4.1 K , and the anisotropy ratio of the upper critical field Bc 2 at Tc is estimated from the initial slopes to be Γ (Tc)=6.9 . Bc 2(0 ) is estimated to be 2.2 and 0.36 T for B ∥a b and c , respectively. Quantum oscillations are observed in both the resistance and torque. Two frequencies F =0.15 and 0.20 kT are resolved and assigned to a quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surface cylinder. The carrier density and Sommerfeld coefficient associated with this cylinder are estimated to be 5.8 ×10-3 carriers/Fe and 0.48 mJ /(K2mol ) , respectively. Other Fermi surface pockets still remain to be found. Band-structure calculations are performed and compared to the experimental results.

  17. Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2016-07-01

    In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near ≈0.17, the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.

  18. Kondo effect and quantum critical point in Mn(1-x)CoxSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, J.; Viennois, R.; Guritanu, V.; Giannini, E.; van der Marel, D.

    2010-01-01

    We report magnetic, transport and neutron diffraction studies of the solid solution Mn1-xCoxSi. For the Mn rich compounds, a sharp decrease of the Curie temperature is observed upon cobalt doping and neutron elastic scattering shows that the helimagnetic order of MnSi persists up to x = 0.06 with a shortening of the helix period. For higher Co concentrations (0.06 Weiss temperature changes sign and the system enters an antiferromagnetic state upon cooling (TN=9K for x = 0.50). In this doping range, the antiferromagnetic coupling leads to a Kondo effect marked by a minimum in the resistivity. This scenario is supported by the scaling of the magnetoresistance with a TK approx 6.5 K, close to the change in curvature of the resistivity and in agreement with the Weiss temperature from magnetic susceptibility. The sign change of the Weiss temperature and the transition from a helimagnetic to an antiferromagnetic ground state, with increasing the Co doping, point toward the existence of a quantum critical point at the composition Mn0.94Co0.06Si.

  19. Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2016-07-19

    In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near [Formula: see text], the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.

  20. Holographic Approach to Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Moving Mirrors Coupled to Quantum Critical Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Chen-Pin; Lee, Da-Shin

    2013-01-01

    We employ the holographic method to study fluctuations and dissipation of an $n$-dimensional moving mirror coupled to quantum critical theories in $d$ spacetime dimensions. The bulk counterpart of the mirror with perfect reflection is a D$(n+1)$ brane in the Lifshitz geometry of $d+1$ dimensions. The motion of the mirror can be realized from the dynamics of the brane at the boundary of the bulk. The excited modes of the brane in the bulk render the mirror undergoing Brownian motion. For small displacement of the mirror, we derive the analytical results of the correlation functions and response functions. The dynamics of the mirror due to small fluctuations around the brane vacuum state in the bulk is found supraohmic so that after initial growth, the velocity fluctuations approach a saturated value at late time with a power-law behavior. On the contrary, in the Lifshitz black hole background, the mirror in thermal fluctuations shows that its relaxation dynamics becomes ohmic, and the saturation of velocity fl...

  1. Quantum critical point for stripe order: An organizing principle of cuprate superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas [Departement de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto (Canada); Taillefer, Louis, E-mail: Louis.Taillefer@USherbrooke.ca [Departement de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-11-01

    A spin density-wave quantum critical point (QCP) is the central organizing principle of organic, iron-pnictide, heavy-fermion and electron-doped cuprate superconductors. It accounts for the superconducting T{sub c} dome, the non-Fermi-liquid resistivity, and the Fermi-surface reconstruction. Outside the magnetically ordered phase above the QCP, scattering and pairing decrease in parallel as the system moves away from the QCP. Here we argue that a similar scenario, based on a stripe-order QCP, is a central organizing principle of hole-doped cuprate superconductors. Key properties of La{sub 1.8-x}Eu{sub 0.2}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, La{sub 1.6-x}Nd{sub 0.4}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} are naturally unified, including stripe order itself, its QCP, Fermi-surface reconstruction, the linear-T resistivity, and the nematic character of the pseudogap phase.

  2. Is U3Ni3Sn4 best described as near a quantum critical point?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.H.; Shlyk, L.; Nenkov, K.; Huber, J.G.; De Long, L.E.

    2003-04-08

    Although most known non-Fermi liquid (NFL) materials are structurally or chemically disordered, the role of this disorder remains unclear. In particular, very few systems have been discovered that may be stoichiometric and well ordered. To test whether U{sub 3}Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} belongs in this latter class, we present measurements of the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) of polycrystalline and single-crystal U{sub 3}Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} samples that are consistent with no measurable local atomic disorder. We also present temperature-dependent specific heat data in applied magnetic fields as high as 8 T that show features that are inconsistent with the antiferromagnetic Griffiths' phase model, but do support the conclusion that a Fermi liquid/NFL crossover temperature increases with applied field. These results are inconsistent with theoretical explanations that require strong disorder effects, but do support the view that U{sub 3}Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} is a stoichoiometric, ordered material that exhibits NFL behavior, and is best described as being near an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point.

  3. Quantum criticality in the 122 iron pnictide superconductors emerging from orbital-selective Mottness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. D.; Laad, M. S.; Craco, L.; Gillett, J.; Tripathi, V.; Sebastian, S. E.

    2015-10-01

    The twin issues of the nature of the "normal" state and competing order(s) in the iron arsenides are central to understanding their unconventional, high-Tc superconductivity. We use a combination of transport anisotropy measurements on detwinned Sr (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 single crystals and local density approximation plus dynamical mean field theory (LDA + DMFT) calculations to revisit these issues. The peculiar resistivity anisotropy and its evolution with x are naturally interpreted in terms of an underlying orbital-selective Mott transition (OSMT) that gaps out the dx z or dy z states. Further, we use a Landau-Ginzburg approach using LDA + DMFT input to rationalize a wide range of anomalies seen up to optimal doping, providing strong evidence for secondary electronic nematic order. These findings suggest that strong dynamical fluctuations linked to a marginal quantum-critical point associated with this OSMT and a secondary electronic nematic order constitute an intrinsically electronic pairing mechanism for superconductivity in Fe arsenides.

  4. Signature of a continuous quantum phase transition in non-equilibrium energy absorption: Footprints of criticality on higher excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sirshendu; Dasgupta, Subinay; Das, Arnab

    2015-11-16

    Understanding phase transitions in quantum matters constitutes a significant part of present day condensed matter physics. Quantum phase transitions concern ground state properties of many-body systems, and hence their signatures are expected to be pronounced in low-energy states. Here we report signature of a quantum critical point manifested in strongly out-of-equilibrium states with finite energy density with respect to the ground state and extensive (subsystem) entanglement entropy, generated by an external pulse. These non-equilibrium states are evidently completely disordered (e.g., paramagnetic in case of a magnetic ordering transition). The pulse is applied by switching a coupling of the Hamiltonian from an initial value (λI) to a final value (λF) for sufficiently long time and back again. The signature appears as non-analyticities (kinks) in the energy absorbed by the system from the pulse as a function of λF at critical-points (i.e., at values of λF corresponding to static critical-points of the system). As one excites higher and higher eigenstates of the final Hamiltonian H(λF) by increasing the pulse height (|λF - λI|), the non-analyticity grows stronger monotonically with it. This implies adding contributions from higher eigenstates help magnifying the non-analyticity, indicating strong imprint of the critical-point on them. Our findings are grounded on exact analytical results derived for Ising and XY chains in transverse field.

  5. Quasi-Periodically Driven Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeny, Albert; Puig, Joaquim; Mintert, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Floquet theory provides rigorous foundations for the theory of periodically driven quantum systems. In the case of non-periodic driving, however, the situation is not so well understood. Here, we provide a critical review of the theoretical framework developed for quasi-periodically driven quantum systems. Although the theoretical footing is still under development, we argue that quasi-periodically driven quantum systems can be treated with generalisations of Floquet theory in suitable parameter regimes. Moreover, we provide a generalisation of the Floquet-Magnus expansion and argue that quasi-periodic driving offers a promising route for quantum simulations.

  6. Influence of GaAs Substrate Orientation on InAs Quantum Dots: Surface Morphology, Critical Thickness, and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang BL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInAs/GaAs heterostructures have been simultaneously grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100, GaAs (100 with a 2° misorientation angle towards [01−1], and GaAs (n11B (n = 9, 7, 5 substrates. While the substrate misorientation angle increased from 0° to 15.8°, a clear evolution from quantum dots to quantum well was evident by the surface morphology, the photoluminescence, and the time-resolved photoluminescence, respectively. This evolution revealed an increased critical thickness and a delayed formation of InAs quantum dots as the surface orientation departed from GaAs (100, which was explained by the thermal-equilibrium model due to the less efficient of strain relaxation on misoriented substrate surfaces.

  7. How far can a pragmatist go into quantum theory? - A critical view of our current understanding of quantum phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, A S

    2015-01-01

    To date, quantum mechanics has proven to be our most successful theoretical model. However, it is still surrounded by a "mysterious halo" that can be summarized in a simple but challenging question: Why quantum phenomena are not understood under the same logic as classical ones? Although this is an open question (probably without an answer), from a pragmatist's point of view there is still room enough to further explore the quantum world, marveling ourselves with new physical insights. We just need to look back in the historical evolution of the quantum theory and thoroughly reconsider three key issues: (1) how this has developed since its early stages at a conceptual level, (2) what kind of experiments can be performed at present in a laboratory, and (3) what nonstandard conceptual models are available to extract some extra information. This contribution is aimed at providing some answers (and, perhaps, also raising some issues) to these questions through one of such models, namely Bohmian mechanics, a hydro...

  8. Induction-Detection Electron Spin Resonance with Sensitivity of 1000 Spins: En Route to Scalable Quantum Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Aharon; Shklyar, Roman; Twig, Ygal

    2013-01-01

    Spin-based quantum computation (QC) in the solid state is considered to be one of the most promising approaches to scalable quantum computers. However, it faces problems such as initializing the spins, selectively addressing and manipulating single spins, and reading out the state of the individual spins. We have recently sketched a scheme that potentially solves all of these problems5. This is achieved by making use of a unique phosphorus-doped 28Si sample (28Si:P), and applying powerful new electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques for parallel excitation, detection, and imaging in order to implement QCs and efficiently obtain their results. The beauty of our proposed scheme is that, contrary to other approaches, single-spin detection sensitivity is not required and a capability to measure signals of ~100-1000 spins is sufficient to implement it. Here we take the first experimental step towards the actual implementation of such scheme. We show that, by making use of the smallest ESR resonator constructed to ...

  9. Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, T. [MPI-CPFS (Germany); Bachmann, M. [MPI-CPFS (Germany); Moll, P.J.W. [MPI-CPFS (Germany); Balicas, L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Chan, Mun Keat [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramshaw, Brad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcdonald, Ross David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Balakirev, Fedor Fedorovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Eric Dietzgen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Electronic nematicity appears in proximity to unconventional high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and iron-arsenides, yet whether they cooperate or compete is widely discussed. While many parallels are drawn between high-Tc and heavy fermion superconductors, electronic nematicity was not believed to be an important aspect in their superconductivity. We have found evidence for a field-induced strong electronic in-plane symmetry breaking in the tetragonal heavy fermion superconductor CeRhIn5. At ambient pressure and zero field, it hosts an anti-ferromagnetic order (AFM) of nominally localized 4f electrons at TN=3.8K(1). Moderate pressure of 17kBar suppresses the AFM order and a dome of superconductivity appears around the quantum critical point. Similarly, a density-wave-like correlated phase appears centered around the field-induced AFM quantum critical point. In this phase, we have now observed electronic nematic behavior.

  10. Memory-preserving equilibration after a quantum quench in a one-dimensional critical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadis, Spyros

    2016-09-01

    One of the fundamental principles of statistical physics is that only partial information about a system's state is required for its macroscopic description. This is not only true for thermal ensembles, but also for the unconventional ensemble, known as generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE), that is expected to describe the relaxation of integrable systems after a quantum quench. By analytically studying the quench dynamics in a prototypical one-dimensional critical model, the massless free bosonic field theory, we find evidence of a novel type of equilibration characterized by the preservation of an enormous amount of memory of the initial state that is accessible by local measurements. In particular, we show that the equilibration retains memory of non-Gaussian initial correlations, in contrast to the case of massive free evolution which erases all such memory. The GGE in its standard form, being a Gaussian ensemble, fails to predict correctly the equilibrium values of local observables, unless the initial state is Gaussian itself. Our findings show that the equilibration of a broad class of quenches whose evolution is described by Luttinger liquid theory with an initial state that is non-Gaussian in terms of the bosonic field, is not correctly captured by the corresponding bosonic GGE, raising doubts about the validity of the latter in general one-dimensional gapless integrable systems such as the Lieb-Liniger model. We also propose that the same experiment by which the GGE was recently observed [Langen et al., Science 348, 207 (2015), 10.1126/science.1257026] can also be used to observe its failure, simply by starting from a non-Gaussian initial state.

  11. On critical stability of three quantum charges interacting through delta potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We consider three one dimensional quantum, charged and spinless particles interacting through delta potentials. We derive sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of at least one bound state.......We consider three one dimensional quantum, charged and spinless particles interacting through delta potentials. We derive sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of at least one bound state....

  12. Richard L. Greene Dissertation Award in Experimental Condensed Matter or Materials Physics Talk: Ferromagnetic quantum criticality in YbNi4 P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppke, Alexander

    In a number of strongly correlated electron systems quantum phase transitions can be observed by the suppression of antiferromagnetic order. In contrast the prototypical continuous quantum phase transition of a metallic ferromagnet is often preempted by a first-order transition or a superconducting state. We show that the Kondo lattice system YbNi4P2 exhibits a ferromagnetically ordered phase with a very low Curie temperature of 0.15K. The compound can be tuned to a ferromagnetic quantum critical point by substitution of phosphorus by arsenic. With thermodynamic studies of specific heat, ac susceptibility and thermal expansion we show strong evidence for the ferromagnetic order and the quantum criticality in the YbNi4(P 1-x As x)2 doping series and the existence of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point at zero applied field for small substitutions.

  13. Unveiling magnetic interactions of ruthenium trichloride via constraining direction of orbital moments: Potential routes to realize a quantum spin liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y. S.; Xiang, H. J.; Gong, X. G.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments reveal that the honeycomb ruthenium trichloride α -RuC l3 is a prime candidate of the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). However, there is no theoretical model which can properly describe its experimental dynamical response due to the lack of a full understanding of its magnetic interactions. Here, we propose a general scheme to calculate the magnetic interactions in systems (e.g., α -RuC l3 ) with nonnegligible orbital moments by constraining the directions of orbital moments. With this scheme, we put forward a minimal J1-K1-Γ1-J3-K3 model for α -RuC l3 and find that: (I) The third nearest neighbor (NN) antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interaction J3 stabilizes the zigzag antiferromagnetic order; (II) The NN symmetric off-diagonal exchange Γ1 plays a pivotal role in determining the preferred direction of magnetic moments and generating the spin wave gap. An exact diagonalization study on this model shows that the Kitaev QSL can be realized by suppressing the NN symmetric off-diagonal exchange Γ1 and the third NN Heisenberg interaction J3. Thus, we not only propose a powerful general scheme for investigating the intriguing magnetism of Jeff=1 /2 magnets, but also point out future directions for realizing the Kitaev QSL in the honeycomb ruthenium trichloride α -RuC l3 .

  14. The multibasic cleavage site in H5N1 virus is critical for systemic spread along the olfactory and hematogenous routes in ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); S. Herfst (Sander); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); P. van Run (Peter); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); M. Linster (Martin); R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.H.C.M. Kreijtz (Joost); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); T. Kuiken (Thijs); D.A.J. van Riel (Debby)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe route by which highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spreads systemically, including the central nervous system (CNS), is largely unknown in mammals. Especially, the olfactory route, which could be a route of entry into the CNS, has not been studied in detail. Although

  15. Evidence of a quantum critical point in Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 alloys at high Yb doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y. P.; Haney, D. J.; Huang, X. Y.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.; Dzero, M.; Almasan, C. C.

    2015-03-01

    We performed this study on single crystals of Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 alloys with the motivation to further explore some of the previously reported unusual behaviors such as robust coherence and superconductivity, non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior, and the possibility of quantum criticality in higher Yb doping. Our specific heat and electronic magneto-transport measurements on the alloy with x = 0.75 nominal doping down to temperatures (T) as low as 0.5 K and magnetic fields (H) as high as 14 T. Our analysis of both specific heat and resistivity data unveils the presence of a crossover from NFL behavior at high temperatures to Fermi-liquid (FL) behavior at lower temperatures. Our analysis also indicates that the origin of the NFL behavior is a result of quantum fluctuations of unknown origin. The H-T phase diagram extracted from resistivity and specific heat shows that the crossover from NFL to FL behavior at zero temperature occurs at H = 0. This implies that the alloy with x = 0.75 Yb concentration is quantum critical, i.e., xc = 0.75. This result of zero field quantum critical point at x = 0.75 is also confirmed from our analysis of magneto-resistance data. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant NSF DMR-1006606) and Ohio Board of Regents (Grant OBR-RIP-220573) at KSU, and by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG02- 04ER46105) at UCSD.

  16. Synthesis of Monometallic (Au and Pd) and Bimetallic (AuPd) Nanoparticles Using Carbon Nitride (C3N4) Quantum Dots via the Photochemical Route for Nitrophenol Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageria, Pragati; Uppala, Shravan; Nazir, Roshan; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Basu, Mrinmoyee; Pande, Surojit

    2016-10-04

    In this study, we report the synthesis of monometallic (Au and Pd) and bimetallic (AuPd) nanoparticles (NPs) using graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) quantum dots (QDs) and photochemical routes. Eliminating the necessity of any extra stabilizer or reducing agent, the photochemical reactions have been carried out using a UV light source of 365 nm where C3N4 QD itself functions as a suitable stabilizer as well as a reducing agent. The g-C3N4 QDs are excited upon irradiation with UV light and produce photogenerated electrons, which further facilitate the reduction of metal ions. The successful formation of Au, Pd, and AuPd alloy nanoparticles is evidenced by UV-vis, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photon spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy techniques. The morphology and distribution of metal nanoparticles over the C3N4 QD surface has been systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and SAED analysis. To explore the catalytic activity of the as-prepared samples, the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol with excellent performance is also investigated. It is noteworthy that the synthesis of both monometallic and bimetallic NPs can be accomplished by using a very small amount of g-C3N4, which can be used as a promising photoreducing material as well as a stabilizer for the synthesis of various metal nanoparticles.

  17. Quantum correlation dynamics subjected to critical spin environment with short-range anisotropic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J. L.; Zhang, X. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Short-range interaction among the spins can not only results in the rich phase diagram but also brings about fascinating phenomenon both in the contexts of quantum computing and information. In this paper, we investigate the quantum correlation of the system coupled to a surrounding environment with short-range anisotropic interaction. It is shown that the decay of quantum correlation of the central spins measured by pairwise entanglement and quantum discord can serve as a signature of quantum phase transition. In addition, we study the decoherence factor of the system when the environment is in the vicinity of the phase transition point. In the strong coupling regime, the decay of the decoherence factor exhibits Gaussian envelop in the time domain. However, in weak coupling limit, the quantum correlation of the system is robust against the disturbance of the magnetic field through optimal control of the anisotropic short-range interaction strength. Based on this, the effects of the short-range anisotropic interaction on the sudden transition from classical to quantum decoherence are also presented. PMID:27596050

  18. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  19. Critical behavior of the site diluted quantum anisotropic Heisenberg model in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L. S.; Pires, A. S. T.; Costa, B. V.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we use the Self Consistent Harmonic Approximation and Quantum Monte Carlo technique to study the Quantum XY on a two dimensional square lattice in the presence of nonmagnetic impurities. In particular we discuss how site disorder changes the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature, TBKT. This temperature is determined as a function of the nonmagnetic density. Our results are consistent with an anomalous behavior of TBKT at a concentration close to the site percolation threshold. We interpret the results as due to a competition between the confining of vortices and quantum fluctuations, or due to finite size effects.

  20. Evidence for deconfined quantum criticality in a two-dimensional Heisenberg model with four-spin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Anders W

    2007-06-01

    Using ground-state projector quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the valence-bond basis, it is demonstrated that nonfrustrating four-spin interactions can destroy the Néel order of the two-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet and drive it into a valence-bond solid (VBS) phase. Results for spin and dimer correlations are consistent with a single continuous transition, and all data exhibit finite-size scaling with a single set of exponents, z=1, nu=0.78+/-0.03, and eta=0.26+/-0.03. The unusually large eta and an emergent U(1) symmetry, detected using VBS order parameter histograms, provide strong evidence for a deconfined quantum critical point.

  1. 3 d - 4 d hybridization anomaly in NixPd1-x alloys at quantum critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, P.; Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Srivastava, Suneel K.

    2017-07-01

    First-principles density functional theory computations of electronic structure and local magnetic properties of the non-fluctuating ground state of NixPd1-x alloy system around its quantum critical point xc=0.026 have been performed. The density of states at the Fermi energy and certain other parameters characterizing the Ni 3 d - Pd 4 d hybridization apparently follow power-laws with x similar to that obeyed by the reported ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition temperature. The width of Pd 4 d density of states (DOS) and centroid of Ni 3 d DOS show peak-like anomalies in the neighbourhood of xc, and so indicate a possible scenario of the existence of a definite relation between the orbital hybridization and the emergence of quantum fluctuations in the system.

  2. Quantum criticality in partially frustrated CePd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Veronika; Kittler, Wolfram [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Woitschach, Sarah; Stockert, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik Fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In the antiferromagnetic (AF) heavy-fermion system CePdAl the magnetic Ce ions form a network of equilateral triangles in the (001) plane, similar to the kagome lattice, with one third of the Ce moments not participating in the long-range order due to geometrical frustration. The Neel temperature T{sub N} = 2.7 K is reduced upon replacing Pd by Ni in CePd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}Al, with T{sub N} → 0 for x ∼ 0.14. At this concentration the specific heat C exhibits a C/T ∝ - log T dependence. This and the linear T{sub N}(x) dependence are indicative of two-dimensional (2D) critical AF fluctuations within the conventional description of quantum criticality after Hertz, Millis and Moriya, in marked contrast to the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic order found by neutron diffraction experiments in CePdAl. We discuss the role of frustration when approaching the quantum critical point in Ni-substituted CePdAl on the basis of measurements of the magnetization, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and neutron diffraction experiments.

  3. Microscopic investigation of electronic inhomogeneity induced by substitutions in a quantum critical metal CeCoIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H.; Ronning, F.; Zhu, J.-X.; Wakeham, N.; Yasuoka, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-09-01

    Chemical substitutions are used commonly to tune a magnetic transition to zero temperature, but the resulting non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior is nonuniversal. We have used nuclear quadrupole resonance to probe microscopically the response of a prototypical quantum critical metal CeCoIn5 to substitutions of small amounts of Sn and Cd for In. These substituents induce very different local electronic environments as observed by site-dependent spin lattice relaxation rates 1 /T1 that influence the NFL behavior. The effects found here illustrate the need for care in interpreting NFL properties determined by macroscopic measurements.

  4. Nonlinear quantum critical transport and the Schwinger mechanism for a superfluid-mott-insulator transition of bosons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A G; Sondhi, S L

    2005-12-31

    Scaling arguments imply that quantum-critical points exhibit universal nonlinear responses to external probes. We investigate the origins of such nonlinearities in transport, which is especially problematic since the system is necessarily driven far from equilibrium. We argue that for a wide class of systems the new ingredient that enters is the Schwinger mechanism--the production of carriers from the vacuum by the applied field--which is then balanced against a scattering rate that is itself set by the field. We show by explicit computation how this works for the case of the symmetric superfluid-Mott insulator transition of bosons.

  5. Novel quantum criticality in CeRu2Si2 near absolute zero observed by thermal expansion and magnetostriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, J; Abe, S; Takahashi, D; Segawa, Y; Komai, Y; Tsujii, H; Matsumoto, K; Suzuki, H; Onuki, Y

    2008-12-19

    We report linear thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements for CeRu2Si2 in magnetic fields up to 52.6 mT and at temperatures down to 1 mK. At high temperatures, this compound showed Landau-Fermi-liquid behavior: The linear thermal expansion coefficient and the magnetostriction coefficient were proportional to the temperature and magnetic field, respectively. In contrast, a pronounced non-Fermi-liquid effect was found below 50 mK. The negative contribution of thermal expansion and magnetostriction suggests the existence of an additional quantum critical point.

  6. Scrutinizing Hall Effect in Mn1 -xFex Si : Fermi Surface Evolution and Hidden Quantum Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, V. V.; Lobanova, I. I.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Voronov, V. V.; Dyadkin, V. A.; Chubova, N. M.; Grigoriev, S. V.; Demishev, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Separating between the ordinary Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect in the paramagnetic phase of Mn1 -xFex Si reveals an ordinary Hall effect sign inversion associated with the hidden quantum critical (QC) point x*˜0.11 . The effective hole doping at intermediate Fe content leads to verifiable predictions in the field of fermiology, magnetic interactions, and QC phenomena in Mn1 -xFex Si . The change of electron and hole concentrations is considered as a "driving force" for tuning the QC regime in Mn1 -xFex Si via modifying the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction within the Heisenberg model of magnetism.

  7. Quantum Critical Point, Scaling, and Universality in High Tc [CaxLa(1-x)][Ba(2-c-x)La(c+x)]Cu3Oy

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Using charge transport observations on sintered ceramic samples of CLBLCO, we failed to observe the Quantum Critical Point (QCP) where it is expected. Experimental data relating Cooper pair density, electrical conductivity, and superconductivity critical temperature suggest that Homes' relation might need a more specific definition of 'sigma'. Transport observations on YBCO single crystals will resolve this question.

  8. Non-Fermi liquid regimes with and without quantum criticality in Ce(1-x)Yb(x)CoIn5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Singh, Yogesh P; Shu, Lei; Janoschek, Marc; Dzero, Maxim; Maple, M Brian; Almasan, Carmen C

    2013-04-30

    One of the greatest challenges to Landau's Fermi liquid theory--the standard theory of metals--is presented by complex materials with strong electronic correlations. In these materials, non-Fermi liquid transport and thermodynamic properties are often explained by the presence of a continuous quantum phase transition that happens at a quantum critical point (QCP). A QCP can be revealed by applying pressure, magnetic field, or changing the chemical composition. In the heavy-fermion compound CeCoIn5, the QCP is assumed to play a decisive role in defining the microscopic structure of both normal and superconducting states. However, the question of whether a QCP must be present in the material's phase diagram to induce non-Fermi liquid behavior and trigger superconductivity remains open. Here, we show that the full suppression of the field-induced QCP in CeCoIn5 by doping with Yb has surprisingly little impact on both unconventional superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behavior. This implies that the non-Fermi liquid metallic behavior could be a new state of matter in its own right rather than a consequence of the underlying quantum phase transition.

  9. Finite-temperature scaling close to Ising-nematic quantum critical points in two-dimensional metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punk, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    We study finite-temperature properties of metals close to an Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two spatial dimensions. In particular we show that at any finite temperature there is a regime where order parameter fluctuations are characterized by a dynamical critical exponent z =2 , in contrast to z =3 found at zero temperature. Our results are based on a simple Eliashberg-type approach, which gives rise to a boson self-energy proportional to Ω /γ (T ) at small momenta, where γ (T ) is the temperature dependent fermion scattering rate. These findings might shed some light on recent Monte Carlo simulations at finite temperature, where results consistent with z =2 were found.

  10. Classical-to-quantum crossover in the critical behavior of the transverse-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Rajak, Atanu; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2015-10-01

    We study the critical behavior of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in transverse field (at finite temperature) using Monte Carlo simulation and exact diagonalization (at zero temperature). We determine the phase diagram of the model by estimating the Binder cumulant. We also determine the correlation length exponent from the collapse of the scaled data. Our numerical studies here indicate that critical Binder cumulant (indicating the universality class of the transition behavior) and the correlation length exponent cross over from their "classical" to "quantum" values at a finite temperature (unlike the cases of pure systems, where such crossovers occur at zero temperature). We propose a qualitative argument supporting such an observation, employing a simple tunneling picture.

  11. Quantum-critical fluctuations in 2D metals: strange metals and superconductivity in antiferromagnets and in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Chandra M.

    2016-08-01

    The anomalous transport and thermodynamic properties in the quantum-critical region, in the cuprates, and in the quasi-two dimensional Fe-based superconductors and heavy-fermion compounds, have the same temperature dependences. This can occur only if, despite their vast microscopic differences, a common statistical mechanical model describes their phase transitions. The antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ic models for the latter two, just as the loop-current model for the cuprates, map to the dissipative XY model. The solution of this model in (2+1)D reveals that the critical fluctuations are determined by topological excitations, vortices and a variety of instantons, and not by renormalized spin-wave theories of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson type, adapted by Moriya, Hertz and others for quantum-criticality. The absorptive part of the fluctuations is a separable function of momentum \\mathbf{q} , measured from the ordering vector, and of the frequency ω and the temperature T which scale as \\tanh (ω /2T) at criticality. Direct measurements of the fluctuations by neutron scattering in the quasi-two-dimensional heavy fermion and Fe-based compounds, near their antiferromagnetic quantum critical point, are consistent with this form. Such fluctuations, together with the vertex coupling them to fermions, lead to a marginal fermi-liquid, with the imaginary part of the self-energy \\propto \\text{max}(ω,T) for all momenta, a resistivity \\propto T , a T\\ln T contribution to the specific heat, and other singular fermi-liquid properties common to these diverse compounds, as well as to d-wave superconductivity. This is explicitly verified, in the cuprates, by analysis of the pairing and the normal self-energy directly extracted from the recent high resolution angle resolved photoemission measurements. This reveals, in agreement with the theory, that the frequency dependence of the attractive irreducible particle-particle vertex in the d-wave channel is the same as the irreducible

  12. Magneto-acoustic study near the quantum critical point of the frustrated quantum antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, P. T., E-mail: t.pham@hzdr.de [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Postulka, L.; Wolf, B.; Ritter, F.; Assmus, W.; Krellner, C.; Lang, M., E-mail: michael.lang@physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Well, N. van [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-10-14

    Magneto-acoustic investigations of the frustrated triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} were performed for the longitudinal modes c{sub 11} and c{sub 33} in magnetic fields along the a-axis. The temperature dependence of the sound velocity at zero field shows a mild softening at low temperature and displays a small kink-like anomaly at T{sub N}. Isothermal measurements at T < T{sub N} of the sound attenuation α reveal two closely spaced features of different characters on approaching the material's quantum-critical point (QCP) at B{sub s} ≈ 8.5 T for B || a. The peak at slightly lower fields remains sharp down to the lowest temperature and can be attributed to the ordering temperature T{sub N}(B). The second anomaly, which is rounded and which becomes reduced in size upon cooling, is assigned to the material's spin-liquid properties preceding the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with decreasing temperature. These two features merge upon cooling suggesting a coincidence at the QCP. The elastic constant at lowest temperatures of our experiment at 32 mK can be well described by a Landau free energy model with a very small magnetoelastic coupling constant G/k{sub B} ≈ 2.8 K. The applicability of this classical model indicates the existence of a small gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum which drives the system away from quantum criticality.

  13. Neutron, Electron and X-ray Scattering Investigation of Cr1-xVx Near Quantum Criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, D A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Aronson, Meigan C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Wu, Lijun [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Nelson, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Mansfield, J. F. [University of Michigan; Sun, K. [University of Michigan; Erwin, R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Lynn, J. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The weakness of electron-electron correlations in the itinerant antiferromagnet Cr doped with V has long been considered the reason that neither new collective electronic states or even non Fermi liquid behaviour are observed when antiferromagnetism in Cr1 xVx is suppressed to zero temperature. We present the results of neutron and electron diffraction measurements of several lightly doped single crystals of Cr1 xVx in which the archtypal spin density wave instability is progressively suppressed as the V content increases, freeing the nesting-prone Fermi surface for a new striped charge instability that occurs at xc=0.037. This novel nesting driven instability relieves the entropy accumulation associated with the suppression of the spin density wave and avoids the formation of a quantum critical point by stabilising a new type of charge order at temperatures in excess of 400 K. Restructuring of the Fermi surface near quantum critical points is a feature found in materials as diverse as heavy fermions, high temperature copper oxide superconductors and now even elemental metals such as Cr.

  14. Developing Kondo lattice coherence and quantum criticality in YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Steffen; Seiro, Silvia; Geibel, Christoph; Steglich, Frank [MPI for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Kirchner, Stefan [MPI for Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Krellner, Cornelius [Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Si, Qimiao [Rice University, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Hybridization is a fundamental concept in strongly correlated electron physics. In heavy fermion metals, it may result in the generation of low-energy scales that can give rise to quantum criticality and unconventional superconductivity. An important techniques that helped shaping our understanding of nonlocal correlations - magnetic and superconducting - has been tunneling spectroscopy (STS) with its unique ability to give local, microscopic information that directly relates to the one-particle Green's function. We investigated YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, an archetypal heavy fermion metal. Quantum criticality is discussed in terms of an antiferromagnetic instability and a Kondo break-down of the heavy quasiparticles. STS studies identified a hybridization-induced gap-like feature of the tunneling conductance. Here we focus on the evolution of the Kondo lattice. While the Kondo lattice starts forming already at the single-ion Kondo temperature, lattice Kondo effects dominate only at much lower temperatures. This establishes a hierarchy of energy scales. Finite-temperature signatures of the QCP are observed in field-dependent STS. Our findings are augmented by band structure calculations and transport measurements.

  15. Quantum critical point of Dirac fermion mass generation without spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan-Yao; Wu, Han-Qing; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-12-01

    We study a lattice model of interacting Dirac fermions in (2 +1 ) dimensions space-time with an SU(4) symmetry. While increasing the interaction strength, this model undergoes a continuous quantum phase transition from a weakly interacting Dirac semimetal to a fully gapped and nondegenerate phase without condensing any Dirac fermion bilinear mass operator. This unusual mechanism for mass generation is consistent with recent studies of interacting topological insulators/superconductors, and also consistent with recent progress in the lattice QCD community.

  16. Zero-point term and quantum effects in the Johnson noise of resistors: a critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2016-05-01

    There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor. This term originates from a quantum-theoretical treatment of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Is the zero-point term really there, or is it only an experimental artifact, due to the uncertainty principle, for phase-sensitive amplifiers? Could it be removed by renormalization of theories? We discuss some historical measurement schemes that do not lead to the effect predicted by the FDT, and we analyse new features that emerge when the consequences of the zero-point term are measured via the mean energy and force in a capacitor shunting the resistor. If these measurements verify the existence of a zero-point term in the noise, then two types of perpetual motion machines can be constructed. Further investigation with the same approach shows that, in the quantum limit, the Johnson-Nyquist formula is also invalid under general conditions even though it is valid for a resistor-antenna system. Therefore we conclude that in a satisfactory quantum theory of the Johnson noise, the FDT must, as a minimum, include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. Issues concerning the zero-point term may also have implications for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

  17. Horizontal Route Planning of Cruise Missile Based On the Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm%基于改进量子遗传法的巡航导弹水平航迹规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兵; 刘刚; 赵鹏涛; 黄宁

    2012-01-01

    航迹规划是巡航导弹任务规划的核心,针对巡航导弹发射目标应满足多性能指标的航迹规划.为确保巡航导弹高效完成作战任务,提出要以巡航导弹水平航迹规划为应用背景,将量子遗传算法应用到巡航导弹的航迹规划中,首先在传统量子遗传算法基础上了引入了量子门旋转角步长动态调整机制、增加了量子交叉操作和量子变异操作,使得改进后的量子遗传算法具有更高的搜索效率.通过仿真验证了改进算法比GA算法、传统QGA算法具有更快的收敛速度和全局搜索能力,适用于巡航导弹的水平航迹规划,为巡航导弹多目标发射规划提供了依据.%Route planning is the most important part of cruise missile mission planning system. The paper mainly did some work on the horizontal route planning of cruise missile using the quantum genetic algorithm. The quantum genetic algorithm was firstly applied to the cruise missile route planning and then some improved strategies were a-dopted on the traditional quantum genetic algorithm, such as adopting the dynamic adjustment mechanism of the rotation of quantum gate and adding the quantum crossover and mutation operation. The the quantum genetic algorithm with the improved strategies had better searching efficiency. Lastly, the simulation shows that the IQGA has faster convergence speed and searching efficiency than the GA and QGA.

  18. Quantum criticality at the Anderson transition: A typical medium theory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Samiyeh; Tang, Shao; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    We present a complete analytical and numerical solution of the typical medium theory (TMT) for the Anderson metal-insulator transition. This approach self-consistently calculates the typical amplitude of the electronic wave functions, thus representing the conceptually simplest order-parameter theory for the Anderson transition. We identify all possible universality classes for the critical behavior, which can be found within such a mean-field approach. This provides insights into how interaction-induced renormalizations of the disorder potential may produce qualitative modifications of the critical behavior. We also formulate a simplified description of the leading critical behavior, thus obtaining an effective Landau theory for Anderson localization.

  19. Onset of quantum criticality in the topological-to-nematic transition in a two-dimensional electron gas at filling factor ν =5 /2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, K. A.; Samkharadze, N.; Gardner, G. C.; Biswas, Rudro R.; Manfra, M. J.; Csáthy, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    Under hydrostatic pressure, the ground state of a two-dimensional electron gas at ν =5 /2 changes from a fractional quantum Hall state to the stripe phase. By measuring the energy gap of the fractional quantum Hall state and of the onset temperature of the stripe phase, we mapped out a phase diagram of these competing phases in the pressure-temperature plane. Our data highlight the dichotomy of two descriptions of the half-filled Landau level near the quantum critical point: one based on electrons and another on composite fermions.

  20. Ambient pressure structural quantum critical point in the phase diagram of (Ca(x)Sr(1-x))(3)Rh(4)Sn(13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, S K; Tompsett, D A; Saines, P J; Chang, H C; Matsumoto, T; Imai, M; Yoshimura, K; Grosche, F M

    2015-03-06

    The quasiskutterudite superconductor Sr_{3}Rh_{4}Sn_{13} features a pronounced anomaly in electrical resistivity at T^{*}∼138  K. We show that the anomaly is caused by a second-order structural transition, which can be tuned to 0 K by applying physical pressure and chemical pressure via the substitution of Ca for Sr. A broad superconducting dome is centered around the structural quantum critical point. Detailed analysis of the tuning parameter dependence of T^{*} as well as insights from lattice dynamics calculations strongly support the existence of a structural quantum critical point at ambient pressure when the fraction of Ca is 0.9 (i.e., x_{c}=0.9). This establishes the (Ca_{x}Sr_{1-x})_{3}Rh_{4}Sn_{13} series as an important system for exploring the physics of structural quantum criticality without the need of applying high pressures.

  1. Critical velocity of a mobile impurity in one-dimensional quantum liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, M; Kamenev, A; Gangardt, D M; Lamacraft, A

    2012-05-18

    We study the notion of superfluid critical velocity in one spatial dimension. It is shown that, for heavy impurities with mass M exceeding a critical mass Mc, the dispersion develops periodic metastable branches resulting in dramatic changes of dynamics in the presence of an external driving force. In contrast to smooth Bloch oscillations for Mvelocity and an energy loss. This is predicted to lead to a nonanalytic dependence of the impurity drift velocity on small forces.

  2. Critical Assessment of Wave-Particle Complementarity via Derivation from Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Herbut, Fedor

    2009-01-01

    After introducing sketchily Bohr's wave-particle complementarity principle in his own words, a derivation of an extended form of the principle from standard quantum mechanics is performed. Reality-evaluation of each step is given. The derived theory is applied to simple examples and the extended entities are illustrated in a thought experiment. Assessment of the approach of Bohr and of this article is taken up again with a rather negative conclusion as far as reflecting reality is concerned. The paper ends with selected incisive opinions on Bohr's dogmatic attitude and with some comments by the present author.

  3. Emergence of Critical Phenomena in Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, James J; Thomas, Robert E; Booth, George H; Frenkel, Daan; Alavi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent literature discussion on the origin and severity of the `sign problem' in full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) and its `initiator' adaptation (i-FCIQMC), methods of interest and potential because they allow for exact (FCI) ground-state solutions to be obtained often at a much reduced computational cost. In this study we aim to use a simple order parameter, describing the `sign structure' of the stochastic wavefunction representation, to empirically characterise the fundamentally different collective behaviour of the walker population in both methods.

  4. Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior Close to a Quantum Critical Point in a Ferromagnetic State without Local Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Svanidze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantum critical point (QCP occurs upon chemical doping of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Sc_{3.1}In. Remarkable for a system with no local moments, the QCP is accompanied by non-Fermi liquid behavior, manifested in the logarithmic divergence of the specific heat both in the ferro-and the paramagnetic states, as well as linear temperature dependence of the low-temperature resistivity. With doping, critical scaling is observed close to the QCP, as the critical exponents δ, γ, and β have weak composition dependence, with δ nearly twice and β almost half of their respective mean-field values. The unusually large paramagnetic moment μ_{PM}∼1.3μ_{B}/F.U. is nearly composition independent. Evidence for strong spin fluctuations, accompanying the QCP at x_{c}=0.035±0.005, may be ascribed to the reduced dimensionality of Sc_{3.1}In, associated with the nearly one-dimensional Sc-In chains.

  5. Critical comparison of electrode models in density functional theory based quantum transport calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D; Palacios, J J

    2011-01-28

    We study the performance of two different electrode models in quantum transport calculations based on density functional theory: parametrized Bethe lattices and quasi-one-dimensional wires or nanowires. A detailed account of implementation details in both the cases is given. From the systematic study of nanocontacts made of representative metallic elements, we can conclude that the parametrized electrode models represent an excellent compromise between computational cost and electronic structure definition as long as the aim is to compare with experiments where the precise atomic structure of the electrodes is not relevant or defined with precision. The results obtained using parametrized Bethe lattices are essentially similar to the ones obtained with quasi-one-dimensional electrodes for large enough cross-sections of these, adding a natural smearing to the transmission curves that mimics the true nature of polycrystalline electrodes. The latter are more demanding from the computational point of view, but present the advantage of expanding the range of applicability of transport calculations to situations where the electrodes have a well-defined atomic structure, as is the case for carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbons, or semiconducting nanowires. All the analysis is done with the help of codes developed by the authors which can be found in the quantum transport toolbox ALACANT and are publicly available.

  6. Quantum confinement and its related effects on the critical size of GeO2 nanoparticles anodes for lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yoonkook; Park, Mihee; Son, Yeonguk; Lee, Jung-Soo; Jang, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Youngsik; Cho, Jaephil

    2014-02-12

    This work has been performed to determine the critical size of the GeO2 nanoparticle for lithium battery anode applications and identify its quantum confinement and its related effects on the electrochemical performance. GeO2 nanoparticles with different sizes of ∼ 2, ∼ 6, ∼ 10, and ∼ 35 nm were prepared by adjusting the reaction rate, controlling the reaction temperature and reactant concentration, and using different solvents. Among the different sizes of the GeO2 nanoparticles, the ∼ 6 nm sized GeO2 showed the best electrochemical performance. Unexpectedly smaller particles of the ∼ 2 nm sized GeO2 showed the inferior electrochemical performances compared to those of the ∼ 6 nm sized one. This was due to the low electrical conductivity of the ∼ 2 nm sized GeO2 caused by its quantum confinement effect, which is also related to the increase in the charge transfer resistance. Those characteristics of the smaller nanoparticles led to poor electrochemical performances, and their relationships were discussed.

  7. Inverse Landau-Khalatnikov Transformation and Infrared Critical Exponents of (2+1)-dimensional Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Aitchison, Ian Johnston Rhind; McNeill, D B

    1997-01-01

    By applying an inverse Landau-Khalatnikov transformation, connecting (resummed) Schwinger-Dyson treatments in non-local and Landau gauges of $QED_3$, we derive the infrared behaviour of the wave-function renormalization in the Landau gauge, and the associated critical exponents in the normal phase of the theory (no mass generation). The result agrees with the one conjectured in earlier treatments. The analysis involves an approximation, namely an expansion of the non-local gauge in powers of momenta in the infrared. This approximation is tested by reproducing the critical number of flavours necessary for dynamical mass generation in the chiral-symmetry-broken phase of $QED_3$.

  8. Multiband nodeless superconductivity near the charge-density-wave quantum critical point in ZrTe3-x Sex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔珊; 何兰坡; 洪晓晨; 朱相德; Cedomir Petrovic; 李世燕

    2016-01-01

    It was found that selenium doping can suppress the charge-density-wave (CDW) order and induce bulk supercon-ductivity in ZrTe3. The observed superconducting dome suggests the existence of a CDW quantum critical point (QCP) in ZrTe3−x Sex near x≈0.04. To elucidate the superconducting state near the CDW QCP, we measure the thermal conductivity of two ZrTe3−x Sex single crystals (x=0.044 and 0.051) down to 80 mK. For both samples, the residual linear termκ0/T at zero field is negligible, which is a clear evidence for nodeless superconducting gap. Furthermore, the field dependence ofκ0/T manifests a multigap behavior. These results demonstrate multiple nodeless superconducting gaps in ZrTe3−x Sex , which indicates conventional superconductivity despite of the existence of a CDW QCP.

  9. Crystal growth by Bridgman and Czochralski method of the ferromagnetic quantum critical material YbNi4P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliemt, K.; Krellner, C.

    2016-09-01

    The tetragonal YbNi4P2 is one of the rare examples of compounds that allow the investigation of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point. We report in detail on two different methods which have been used to grow YbNi4P2 single crystals from a self-flux. The first, a modified Bridgman method, using a closed crucible system yields needle-shaped single crystals oriented along the [001]-direction. The second method, the Czochralski growth from a levitating melt, yields large single crystals which can be cut in any desired orientation. With this crucible-free method, samples without flux inclusions and a resistivity ratio at 1.8 K of RR1.8K = 17 have been grown.

  10. High critical temperature superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer with feedforward active noise control system for magnetocardiographic measurement in unshielded circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukami, A.; Nishiura, H.; Sakuta, K.; Kobayashi, T

    2003-10-15

    Magnetocardiographic (MCG) measurement in unshielded environment for practical use requires to suppress the environmental magnetic noise. We have designed the high critical temperature superconducting quantum interference device (High-T{sub c} SQUID) magnetometer with feedforward active noise control (ANC) system to suppress the environmental magnetic noise. The compensatory system consisted of two SQUID magnetometers, a digital signal processor (DSP) and the coil wound around the input magnetometer. The DSP calculated the output data to minimize the environmental noise from the input and reference date and then the coil generated the magnetic field to cancel the environmental noise. This method achieved the effective noise attenuation below 100 Hz about 40 dB. MCG measurement in unshielded environment was also performed.

  11. Pressure-induced unconventional superconductivity near a quantum critical point in CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, S; Tabuchi, T; Zheng Guoqing [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Wang, X F; Chen, X H [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-05-15

    {sup 75}As-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements are performed on CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} under pressure. At P = 4.7 and 10.8 kbar, the temperature dependencies of nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T{sub 1}) measured in the tetragonal phase show no coherence peak just below T{sub c}(P) and decrease with decreasing temperature. The superconductivity is gapless at P = 4.7 kbar but evolves to that with multiple gaps at P = 10.8 kbar. We find that the superconductivity appears near a quantum critical point under pressures in the range 4.7 kbar {<=} P {<=} 10.8 kbar. Both electron correlation and superconductivity disappear in the collapsed tetragonal phase. A systematic study under pressure indicates that electron correlations play a vital role in forming Cooper pairs in this compound.

  12. Scrutinizing Hall Effect in Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si: Fermi Surface Evolution and Hidden Quantum Criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, V V; Lobanova, I I; Ivanov, V Yu; Voronov, V V; Dyadkin, V A; Chubova, N M; Grigoriev, S V; Demishev, S V

    2015-12-18

    Separating between the ordinary Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect in the paramagnetic phase of Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si reveals an ordinary Hall effect sign inversion associated with the hidden quantum critical (QC) point x^{*}∼0.11. The effective hole doping at intermediate Fe content leads to verifiable predictions in the field of fermiology, magnetic interactions, and QC phenomena in Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si. The change of electron and hole concentrations is considered as a "driving force" for tuning the QC regime in Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si via modifying the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction within the Heisenberg model of magnetism.

  13. The idealized quantum two-slit gedanken experiment revisited-Criticism and reinterpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, Mohamed Saladin [Department of Physics, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-02-01

    An idealized two-slit experiment is envisaged in which the hypothetical experimental set-up is constructed in such a way as to resemble a toy model giving information about the structure of quantum space-time itself. Thus starting from a very simple equation which may be interpreted as a physical realization of Goedel's undecidability theorem, we proceed to show that space-time is very likely to be akin to a fuzzy Kaehler-like manifold on the quantum level. This remarkable manifold transforms gradually into a classical space-time as we decrease the resolution in a way reversibly analogous to the processes of recovering classical space-time from the Riemannian space of general relativity. The paper's main philosophy is to emphasize that the quintessence of the two-slit experiment as well as Feynman's path integral could be given a different interpretation by altering our classical concept of space-time geometry and topology. In turn this would be in keeping with the development in theoretical physics since special and subsequently general relativity. In the final analysis it would seem that we have two different yet, from a positivistic philosophy viewpoint, completely equivalent alternatives to view quantum physics. Either we insist on what we see in our daily experiences, namely, a smooth four-dimensional space-time, and then accept, whether we like it or not, things such as probability waves and complex probabilities. Alternatively, we could see behind the facade of classical space-time a far more elaborate and highly complex fuzzy space-time with infinite hierarchical dimensions such as the so-called Fuzzy K3 or E-Infinity space-time and as a reward for this imaginative picture we can return to real probabilities without a phase and an almost classical picture with the concept of a particle's path restored. We say almost classical because non-linear dynamics and deterministic chaos have long shown the central role of randomness in classical

  14. Multi-Constrained QoS Routing Algorithm Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm%基于量子遗传算法的多约束QoS路由算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 李飞; 郑宝玉

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a approach to the QoS routing problem on quantum genetic algorithm. The network resource consumption function and the distribution of network loads are considered as the objective function, besides network width and delay. Quantum bit (qubit) has been used for encoding the problem. The quantum chromosomes are updated by the quantum gate operation in order to get the path that will take less resource, balance the network loads, use the network resource reasonably and reduce network congestion.%论述了用量子遗传算法解决计算机路由选择中的选播QoS路由问题.在考虑网络带宽、时延的基础上,将资源消耗函数和网络负载分布作为目标函数,采用量子比特编码,利用量子旋转门操作实现量子染色体的更新操作来求最优解,希望所选路径消耗较少的网络资源,并使负载尽量均衡分布,达到合理利用网络资源,降低网络拥塞的目的.

  15. 基于量子遗传算法的WSNs能量均衡路由优化%Optimization of Energy Balancing Routing Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm in WSNs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐霜

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that sensor node energy is limited and energy-consuming of sensor nodes in wireless sensor network is unbalanced, a quantum genetic algorithm is proposed. On the basis of considering the network energy consumption and path delay, the algorithm makes full use of efficient searching and global optimization ability of quantum genetic algorithm to optimize routing. Moreover, quantum genetic algorithm is analyzed in detail, including the quantum encoding, fitness function design and quantum variations. The simulation result shows that quantum genetic algorithm is better than traditional genetic algorithm in inducing energy consumption and prolonging network life cycle.%针对无线传感器网络(WSNs)中传感器节点能量有限,以及单一的传输路径所带来的能量消耗不均衡的问题,引入量子遗传算法对其进行优化。充分利用量子遗传算法高效搜索和全局优化的能力,在综合考虑网络耗能和路径延迟的基础上全局优化路由;并对算法的一些环节如量子比特编码、适应度函数的设计以及量子变异进行了详细的分析与设计。仿真表明:与传统遗传算法相比,量子遗传算法在降低网络能耗,延长网络生命期方面有着优越性。

  16. Einstein's strugges with quantum theory a reappraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Home, Dipankar

    2007-01-01

    Einstein’s Struggles with Quantum Theory: A Reappraisal by Dipankar Home and Andrew Whitaker provides a detailed account of Albert Einstein’s thinking in regard to quantum physics. Until recently, most of Einstein’s views on quantum physics were dismissed and even ridiculed; some critics even suggested that Einstein was not able to grasp the complexities of the formalism of quantum theory and subtleties of the standard interpretation of this theory known as the Copenhagen interpretation put forward by Niels Bohr and his colleagues. But was that true? Modern scholarship argues otherwise, insist Drs. Home and Whitaker, who painstakingly explain the questions Einstein raised as well as offer a detailed discussion of Einstein’s position and major contributions to quantum theory, connecting them with contemporary studies on fundamental aspects of this theory. This unique book presents a mathematical as well as a non-mathematical route through the theories, controversies, and investigations, making the disc...

  17. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-01

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  18. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-15

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  19. Quantum criticality of D-wave quasiparticles and superconducting phase fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafek, Oskar; Tesanović, Zlatko

    2003-12-05

    We present finite temperature (T) extension of the (2+1)-dimensional QED (QED3) theory of under-doped cuprates. The theory describes nodal quasiparticles whose interactions with quantum proliferated hc/2e vortex-antivortex pairs are represented by an emergent U(1) gauge field. Finite T introduces a scale beyond which the spatial fluctuations of vorticity are suppressed. As a result, the spin susceptibility of the pseudogap state is bounded by T2 at low T and crosses over to approximately T at higher T, while the low-T specific heat scales as T2, reflecting the thermodynamics of QED3. The Wilson ratio vanishes as T-->0; the pseudogap state is a "thermal (semi)metal" but a "spin-charge dielectric." This non-Fermi liquid behavior originates from two general principles: spin correlations induced by "gauge" interactions of quasiparticles and fluctuating vortices and the "relativistic" scaling of the T=0 fixed point.

  20. The Critical Properties of a Modulated Quantum sine—Gordon Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhi-Guo; ZHANGYu-Mei

    2002-01-01

    A new procedure of trial variational wave functional is proposed for investigating the mass renormalization and the local structure of the ground state of a one-dimensional quantum sine-Gordon model with linear spatial modulation,whose ground state differs from that without modulation.The phase diagram obtained in parameters (αΛ-2,β2) plane show that the vertical part of the boundary between soliton lattice phase and incommensurate (IC) phase with vanishing gap sticks at β2=4π,the IC phase can only appear for β2≥4π and the IC phase regime is enlarged with increasing spatial modulation in the case of definite parameter αΛ-2.The transition is of the continuous type on the vertical part of the boundary,while it is of the first order on the boundary for β2>4π.

  1. The Critical Properties of a Modulated Quantum sine-Gordon Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhiGuo; ZHANG YuMei

    2002-01-01

    A new procedure of trial variational wave functional is proposed for invostigating the mass reuormalizationand the local structure of the ground state of a one-dimensional quantum sine-Gorrdonm model with linear spatial modu-lation, whose ground state differs from that without modulation. Thc phase diagram obtained in parameters (αA 2,β2)plane shows that the vertical part of the boundary between soliton lattice phase and iucommensurate (IC) phase withvanishing gap sticks at β2 = 4, the IC phase can only appear forβ2 > 47r and thc IC phase regime is enlarged withincreasing spatial modulation in the case of definite parameter αA-2. The transition is of the continuous type on thevertical part of the boundary, while it is of the first order on the boundary forβ2 > 47r.

  2. Quality of the transgene-specific CD8+ T cell response induced by adenoviral vector immunization is critically influenced by virus dose and route of vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Ørskov, Cathrine; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have been widely used for experimental gene therapy and vaccination, yet there is a surprising lack of knowledge connecting the route and dose of adenovirus administration to the induced transgene-specific immune response. We have recently demonstrated polyfunctional CD8(+) T...... cells and protective memory responses using adenoviral vectors, which seem to contrast with recent reports suggesting that an exhausted CD8(+) T cell phenotype is induced by inoculation with adenoviral vectors. Accordingly, we investigated the route and dose interrelationship for transgene-specific CD8...... correlated positively with dissemination, whereas the functional capacity of the generated T cells correlated inversely with vector dissemination. A comparison of the immune response to s.c. or i.v. administration at moderate doses revealed that inoculation by both routes induced a transient peak of IFN...

  3. Nonperturbative functional renormalization-group approach to transport in the vicinity of a (2 +1 ) -dimensional O(N )-symmetric quantum critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F.; Dupuis, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization-group approach to the two-dimensional quantum O (N ) model, we compute the low-frequency limit ω →0 of the zero-temperature conductivity in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. Our results are obtained from a derivative expansion to second order of a scale-dependent effective action in the presence of an external (i.e., nondynamical) non-Abelian gauge field. While in the disordered phase the conductivity tensor σ (ω ) is diagonal, in the ordered phase it is defined, when N ≥3 , by two independent elements, σA(ω ) and σB(ω ) , respectively associated to SO (N ) rotations which do and do not change the direction of the order parameter. For N =2 , the conductivity in the ordered phase reduces to a single component σA(ω ) . We show that limω→0σ (ω ,δ ) σA(ω ,-δ ) /σq2 is a universal number, which we compute as a function of N (δ measures the distance to the quantum critical point, q is the charge, and σq=q2/h the quantum of conductance). On the other hand we argue that the ratio σB(ω →0 ) /σq is universal in the whole ordered phase, independent of N and, when N →∞ , equal to the universal conductivity σ*/σq at the quantum critical point.

  4. Ghost spins and quantum critical behavior in a spin chain with local bond deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianhui; Wang, Yupeng; Eckern, U.

    1999-09-01

    We study the impurity-induced critical behavior in an integrable SU(2)-invariant model consisting of an open spin chain of arbitrary spin S (Takhatajian-Babujian model) interacting with an impurity of spin S-->' located at one of the boundaries. For S=1/2 or S'=1/2, the impurity interaction takes a very simple form JS-->1.S-->' that describes the deformed boundary bond between the impurity S-->' and the first bulk spin S-->1 with an arbitrary coupling strength J. For a weak coupling 0S, and S'=J0/[(S+S')2-1/4], the impurity spin is split into two ghost spins. Their cooperative effect leads to a variety of new critical behaviors with different values of \\|S'-S\\|.

  5. A UAV Route Planning Method Based on Voronoi Diagram and Quantum Genetic Algorithm%基于Voronoi图和量子遗传算法的飞行器航迹规划方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兵; 刘刚; 闫建峥; 黄宁

    2013-01-01

    A new route planning method is proposed, which adopts the quantum genetic algorithm based on the Voronoi Diagram (VD). Firstly, the Voronoi diagram space of the aircraft was established by building up the Voronoi diagrams of start point, target point and threats. Secondly, some improvements was made to the traditional quantum genetic algorithm, such as introducing dynamic changing mechanism of quantum gate rotating, adding quantum crossover operation and quantum mutation operation, to make it had better searching efficiency. Simulation was made and the results of route planning using the Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm (IQGA) were given. The simulation results show that the IQGA-VD has better convergence speed and searching efficiency than the GA-VD algorithm.%以飞行器航迹规划为应用背景,提出一种基于Voronoi图和量子遗传算法的飞行器航迹规划方法.首先,建立威胁源的V图,并构建发射点、目标点与威胁源的V图赋权有向图,从而建立飞行器航迹规划V图空间;然后,对传统量子遗传算法进行改进,引入了量子门旋转角步长动态调整机制;并增加了量子交叉操作和量子变异操作,使得改进后的量子遗传算法具有更高的搜索效率,采用改进后的量子遗传算法求解V图空间中的最优航迹;最后,进行了仿真实验.仿真结果表明,基于V图和量子遗传算法的航路规划方法是可行和有效的.

  6. 基于双链量子遗传算法的多约束QoS组播路由算法%A QOS MULTICAST ROUTING ALGORITHM BASED ON DOUBLE CHAINS QUANTUM GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺智明; 梁云飞

    2013-01-01

    多约束QoS组播路由问题是NP完全问题.提出一种基于双链量子遗传算法的多约束QoS组播路由算法,该算法具有种群多样性、收敛速度快、并行性更高等优点,并对算法具体流程和实现方法进行了详细的描述.实验结果表明,与已有的遗传算法、量子遗传算法相比,该算法有搜索速度快、全局寻优能力强等优点.%Multi-constrained quality-of-service (QoS) routing is an NP complete problem. In this paper we propose a multi-constrained QoS multicast routing algorithm which is based on double chains quantum genetic algorithm ( DCQGA) , the algorithm has the advantages of population diversity, fast convergence speed and better parallelism, etc. We also provide detailed description on specific processes and the implementation means of the algorithm. Experimental results show that compared with existing genetic algorithm and quantum generic algorithm, the proposed algorithm has the advantages of higher search speed and strong global optimisation ability.

  7. Real-time dynamics induced by quenches across the quantum critical points in gapless Fermi systems with a magnetic impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Christian; Mußhoff, Julian; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2014-12-01

    The energy-dependent scattering of fermions from a localized orbital at an energy-dependent rate Γ (ɛ ) ∝|ɛ| r gives rise to quantum critical points (QCPs) in the pseudogap single-impurity Anderson model separating a local moment phase with an unscreened spin moment from a strong-coupling phase which slightly deviates from the screened phase of standard Kondo problem. Using the time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TD-NRG) approach we show that local dynamic properties always equilibrate towards a steady-state value even for quenches across the QCP but with systematic deviations from the thermal equilibrium depending on the distance to the critical coupling. Local nonequilibrium properties are presented for interaction quenches and hybridization quenches. We augment our numerical data by an analytical calculation that becomes exact at short times and find excellent agreement between the numerics and the analytical theory. For interaction quenches within the screened phase we find a universal function for the time-dependent local double occupancy. We trace back the discrepancy between our results and the data obtained by a time-dependent Gutzwiller variational approach to restrictions of the wave-function ansatz in the Gutzwiller theory: while the NRG ground states properly account for the formation of an extended spin moment which decouples from the system in the unscreened phase, the Gutzwiller ansatz only allows the formation of the spin moment on the local impurity orbital.

  8. Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, F.; Helm, T.; Shirer, K. R.; Bachmann, M. D.; Balicas, L.; Chan, M. K.; Ramshaw, B. J.; McDonald, R. D.; Balakirev, F. F.; Jaime, M.; Bauer, E. D.; Moll, P. J. W.

    2017-08-01

    Electronic nematic materials are characterized by a lowered symmetry of the electronic system compared to the underlying lattice, in analogy to the directional alignment without translational order in nematic liquid crystals. Such nematic phases appear in the copper- and iron-based high-temperature superconductors, and their role in establishing superconductivity remains an open question. Nematicity may take an active part, cooperating or competing with superconductivity, or may appear accidentally in such systems. Here we present experimental evidence for a phase of fluctuating nematic character in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CeRhIn5 (ref. 5). We observe a magnetic-field-induced state in the vicinity of a field-tuned antiferromagnetic quantum critical point at Hc ≈ 50 tesla. This phase appears above an out-of-plane critical field H* ≈ 28 tesla and is characterized by a substantial in-plane resistivity anisotropy in the presence of a small in-plane field component. The in-plane symmetry breaking has little apparent connection to the underlying lattice, as evidenced by the small magnitude of the magnetostriction anomaly at H*. Furthermore, no anomalies appear in the magnetic torque, suggesting the absence of metamagnetism in this field range. The appearance of nematic behaviour in a prototypical heavy-fermion superconductor highlights the interrelation of nematicity and unconventional superconductivity, suggesting nematicity to be common among correlated materials.

  9. Strong Coupling Superconductivity in the Vicinity of the Structural Quantum Critical Point in (Ca(x)Sr(1-x))₃Rh₄Sn₁₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wing Chi; Cheung, Yiu Wing; Saines, Paul J; Imai, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takuya; Michioka, Chishiro; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Goh, Swee K

    2015-11-13

    The family of the superconducting quasiskutterudites (Ca(x)Sr(1-x))(3)Rh(4)Sn(13) features a structural quantum critical point at x(c)=0.9, around which a dome-shaped variation of the superconducting transition temperature T(c) is found. Using specific heat, we probe the normal and the superconducting states of the entire series straddling the quantum critical point. Our analysis indicates a significant lowering of the effective Debye temperature on approaching x(c), which we interpret as a result of phonon softening accompanying the structural instability. Furthermore, a remarkably large enhancement of 2Δ/k(B)T(c) and ΔC/γT(c) beyond the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer values is found in the vicinity of the structural quantum critical point. The phase diagram of (Ca(x)Sr(1-x))(3)Rh(4)Sn(13) thus provides a model system to study the interplay between structural quantum criticality and strong electron-phonon coupling superconductivity.

  10. Field and pressure response of Yb compounds close to a quantum critical point

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Seuring; E W Scheidt; E Bauer

    2002-05-01

    YbCu5-Al provides the possibility to tune ground state properties by a change of the valence due to the Cu/Al substitution, by pressure as well as by the application of a magnetic field. Near to the critical concentration cr ≈ 1.5 non-Fermi-liquid properties (NFL) are obvious, obeying hyperscaling. If magnetic order sets in for >1.5, the application of moderate magnetic fields quenches order and again NFL features become evident. Hyperscaling in this case indicates strongly interacting spin fluctuations.

  11. Quantum Criticality and Superconductivity in SmFe1-xCoxAsO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, H.; Yun, Y.; Shumsun, N.; Savinkov, A.; Suzuki, H.; Li, Y. K.; Tao, Q.; Cao, G. H.; Xu, Z. A.

    2012-12-01

    One of the iron pnictide superconductors, SmFe1-xCoxAsO shows a domelike TC curve against Co concentration x. The parent compound SmFeAsO shows the crystal structure transition and antiferromagnetic spin density wave (SDW) ordering. With increasing x, the structural transition temperature TD and SDW ordering temperature TN decrease and reach 0 K at the critical concentration xC. It is not so clear that the critical concentrations for TD and for TN coincident to each other or not. In our present report, we investigated the structural transition by the low temperature x-ray diffraction and the SDW ordering and the superconducting transition by measuring the magnetization using the SQUID magnetometer, MPMS We determined the phase diagram of TD, TN and the superconductive transition temperature TC against the Co concentration x near the xC precisely. We found that the maximum of TC in domelike shape locates near the xC, suggesting the QCP.

  12. 基于逻辑承载网的量子通信网路由和交换策略%Routing and exchange strategy of quantum communication network based on logic carrying network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小云; 易运晖

    2015-01-01

    传统的量子通信网络采用空分机制,受链路中密钥分发率最低的链路限制。在大规模的量子通信网络中,链路资源浪费将更为显著,呼损率也很高。提出一种结合了分布式链路聚合算法和分布式业务聚合算法,可以支持多种业务,提供第三层路由功能以及服务质量保证的量子通信网络的路由策略。基于OPNET对呼损率的进行了仿真验证。结果表明,在保证安全性的同时可以提高瓶颈链路速率,降低系统呼损率,提高了服务质量。%Traditional quantum communication network using an air separation mechanism,is limited by the link with low⁃est key distribution rate. In large⁃scale quantum communication networks,the link⁃resource waste is more significant,and call loss rate is high. A quantum communication network routing strategy is proposed,which combines with distributed link aggrega⁃tion algorithm and distributed business aggregation algorithm,supports a variety of business,and provides a third layer routing function and service quality assurance. A call loss rate simulation verification based on OPNET was carried. The results show that the strategy can increase bottleneck link velocity,reduce system call loss rate and improve the service quality,while the safety is ensured.

  13. d-f hybridization and quantum criticality in weakly-itinerant ferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neto, M B; Castro Neto, A H; Kim, J S; Stewart, G R

    2013-01-16

    We investigate the unusual magnetic, thermodynamic and transport properties of nearly-critical, weakly-itinerant ferromagnets with the general formula UTX, where T=Rh, Co and X=Ge, Si. As a unique feature of these systems, we show how changes in the V(df) hybridization, which controls their proximity to a ferromagnetic instability, determine the evolution of the ground state magnetization, M(0), the Curie temperature, T(C), the density of states at the Fermi level, N(E(F)), the T(2) resistivity coefficient, A, and the specific heat coefficient, γ. The universal aspect of our findings comes from the dependence on only two parameters: the transition metal T(d) bandwidth, W(d), and the distance between the T(d) and U(f) band centers, C(T(d)) - C(U(f)). We discuss our results in connection to data for URh(1-x)Co(x)Ge.

  14. Antiferromagnetic and Orbital Ordering on a Diamond Lattice Near Quantum Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, K. W.; Morey, J. R.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Wu, Hui; Podlesnyak, A. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Broholm, C. L.

    2016-10-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements on powder samples of the spinel FeSc2S4 that reveal a previously unobserved magnetic ordering transition occurring at 11.8(2) K. Magnetic ordering occurs subsequent to a subtle cubic-to-tetragonal structural transition that distorts Fe coordinating sulfur tetrahedra and lifts the orbital degeneracy. The orbital ordering is not truly long ranged, but occurs over finite-sized domains that limit magnetic correlation lengths. The application of 1 GPa hydrostatic pressure appears to destabilize this Néel state, reducing the transition temperature to 8.6(8) K and redistributing magnetic spectral weight to higher energies. The relative magnitudes of ordered ⟨m ⟩2=3.1 (2 ) μB2 and fluctuating moments ⟨δ m ⟩=13 (1 ) μB2 show that the magnetically ordered state of FeSc2 S4 is drastically renormalized and close to criticality.

  15. Direct three-dimensional ordering of quasi-one-dimensional quantum dimer system near critical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Taku; Hori, Nobuyoshi; Takata, Seiya; Wada, Nobuo; Amaya, Naoki; Hosokoshi, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Dimensionalities of X X Z spin orderings or degenerate hard-core bosons in a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) dimer system are examined by the ac susceptibility and specific heat of antiferromagnetic bond-alternating chains in pentafluorophenyl nitronyl nitroxide (F5PNN ). At intermediate fields in the gapless region, the 1D short-range order (SRO) corresponding to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and three-dimensional (3D) long-range order (LRO BEC) at lower temperatures are separately observed, as expected from the small interchain interaction. In contrast, a definite region around the critical field was established where 3D LRO occurs without the development of 1D SRO at higher temperatures.

  16. Quantum Criticality and Lifshitz Transition in the Ising System CeRu2Si2: Comparison with YbRh2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourret, Alexandre; Aoki, Dai; Boukahil, Mounir; Brison, Jean-Pascal; Knafo, William; Knebel, Georg; Raymond, Stephane; Taupin, Mathieu; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Flouquet, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    New thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements on prototype heavy-fermion compounds close to magnetic quantum criticality are presented. The highly sensitive technique of TEP is an unique tool to reveal Fermi surface instabilities, referred here as Lifshitz transitions. The first focus is on the Ising CeRu2Si2 series. Doping CeRu2Si2 with Rh produces a decoupling between the first order metamagnetic transition and the pseudo-metamagnetism observed in the pure compound. Comparison is made with the case of YbRh2Si2 which is often considered as the archetype of local quantum criticality by contrast to CeRu2Si2, taken as an example of spin-density wave criticality. Up to now for ferromagnetic materials showing ferromagnetic wings, no simple case appears where the Fermi surface is preserved between the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. An open issue is the consequence of Lifshitz transitions on superconductivity in these multiband systems.

  17. Spin dynamics and spin freezing at ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmakat, P.; Wagner, M.; Ritz, R.; Bauer, A.; Brando, M.; Deppe, M.; Duncan, W.; Duvinage, C.; Franz, C.; Geibel, C.; Grosche, F. M.; Hirschberger, M.; Hradil, K.; Meven, M.; Neubauer, A.; Schulz, M.; Senyshyn, A.; Süllow, S.; Pedersen, B.; Böni, P.; Pfleiderer, C.

    2015-07-01

    We report selected experimental results on the spin dynamics and spin freezing at ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions to illustrate some of the most prominent escape routes by which ferromagnetic quantum criticality is avoided in real materials. In the transition metal Heusler compound Fe2TiSn we observe evidence for incipient ferromagnetic quantum criticality. High pressure studies in MnSi reveal empirical evidence for a topological non-Fermi liquid state without quantum criticality. Single crystals of the hexagonal Laves phase compound Nb1- y Fe2+ y provide evidence of a ferromagnetic to spin density wave transition as a function of slight compositional changes. Last but not least, neutron depolarisation imaging in CePd1- x Rh x underscore evidence taken from the bulk properties of the formation of a Kondo cluster glass.

  18. Field-induced quantum criticality and universal temperature dependence of the magnetization of a spin-1/2 heisenberg chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Y; Sakakibara, T; Aoyama, C P; Hotta, C; Turnbull, M M; Landee, C P; Takano, Y

    2015-01-23

    High-precision dc magnetization measurements have been made on Cu(C4H4N2) (NO3)2 in magnetic fields up to 14.7 T, slightly above the saturation field Hs=13.97  T, in the temperature range from 0.08 to 15 K. The magnetization curve and differential susceptibility at the lowest temperature show excellent agreement with exact theoretical results for the spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in one dimension. A broad peak is observed in magnetization measured as a function of temperature, signaling a crossover to a low-temperature Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid regime. With an increasing field, the peak moves gradually to lower temperatures, compressing the regime, and, at Hs, the magnetization exhibits a strong upturn. This quantum critical behavior of the magnetization and that of the specific heat withstand quantitative tests against theory, demonstrating that the material is a practically perfect one-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

  19. Ferromagnetic quantum criticality in the new heavy-fermion system YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brando, Manuel; Steppke, Alexander; Lausberg, Stefan; Kuechler, Robert; Lengyel, Edit; Steinke, Lucia; Krellner, Cornelius; Borth, Robert; Nicklas, Michael; Geibel, Christoph; Steglich, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik Fester Stoffe Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We present measurements of the ac-susceptibility, specific heat (C) and thermal expansion ({alpha}) on single crystals of the new quasi-one-dimensional heavy-fermion system YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2}. YbNi{sub 4}P{sub 2} is a Kondo-lattice system that orders ferromagnetically at a very low temperature T{sub c}=0.17 K. Ferromagnetism can be suppressed by arsenic substitution x on phosphorus site and a ferromagnetic (FM) quantum critical point (QCP) is approached at x=0.08. We provide evidence that such a FM-QCP exists in YbNi{sub 4}(P{sub 0.92}As{sub 0.08}){sub 2} by showing that (i) the magnetic transition remains ferromagnetic between x=0 and x=0.08, (ii) no phase transition nor Fermi-liquid ground state down to 0.02 K can be observed at x=0.08, and finally (iii) the Grueneisen ratio {Gamma}={alpha}/C strongly diverges with decreasing temperature as {Gamma}{proportional_to}T{sup -0.3}.

  20. Emergent Non-Fermi-Liquid at the Quantum Critical Point of a Topological Phase Transition in Two Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Hiroki; Yang, Bohm-Jung; Chubukov, Andrey; Schmalian, Jörg; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-02-19

    We study the effects of Coulomb interaction between 2D Weyl fermions with anisotropic dispersion which displays relativistic dynamics along one direction and nonrelativistic dynamics along the other. Such a dispersion can be realized in phosphorene under electric field or strain, in TiO_{2}/VO_{2} superlattices, and, more generally, at the quantum critical point between a nodal semimetal and an insulator in systems with a chiral symmetry. Using the one-loop renormalization group approach in combination with the large-N expansion, we find that the system displays interaction-driven non-Fermi liquid behavior in a wide range of intermediate frequencies and marginal Fermi liquid behavior at the smallest frequencies. In the non-Fermi liquid regime, the quasiparticle residue Z at energy E scales as Z∝E^{a} with a>0, and the parameters of the fermionic dispersion acquire anomalous dimensions. In the marginal Fermi-liquid regime, Z∝(|logE|)^{-b} with universal b=3/2.

  1. 基于改进K-means聚类和量子粒子群算法的多航迹规划%Multiple Route Planning Based on Improved K-means Clustering and Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董阳; 王瑾; 柏鹏

    2014-01-01

    针对在复杂环境下需要通过多航迹规划以实现武器协同的问题,利用排挤机制产生 K-means聚类的初始聚类中心,并将改进K-means聚类与量子粒子群算法( QPSO)相结合应用于无人机的三维多航迹规划。改进算法解决了K-means聚类易陷入局部最优、聚类准确率低的问题。根据产生的初始聚类中心,将粒子划分成多个子种群,利用QPSO算法对每个子种群进行优化,使得每个子种群可以产生一条可行航迹。仿真分析证明了改进算法可以有效保证子种群之间的多样性,生成较为分散的多条可行航迹。%For the problem of multiple routes planning to realize the weapon cooperation in complex envi-ronment,K-means clustering is improved by an exclusion mechanism which generates the initial cluster centers. A method combining quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization( QPSO) with K-means cluste-ring is proposed and applied to 3-D multiple routes planning of unmanned aerial vehicle( UAV) . The im-proved algorithm solves the problem of falling in local best and improves the clustering accuracy. It classi-fies the particles to several subgroups. Then every subgroup is optimized by QPSO so as to generate a feasi-ble route. Finally,multiple and dispersive routes are constituted. Simulation proves that the improved algo-rithm can assure the variety of subgroups and generates feasible and diverse routes.

  2. Design of a universal logic block for fault-tolerant realization of any logic operation in trapped-ion quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, H.; Dousti, M. J.; Shafaei, A.; Pedram, M.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a physical mapping tool for quantum circuits, which generates the optimal universal logic block (ULB) that can, on average, perform any logical fault-tolerant (FT) quantum operations with the minimum latency. The operation scheduling, placement, and qubit routing problems tackled by the quantum physical mapper are highly dependent on one another. More precisely, the scheduling solution affects the quality of the achievable placement solution due to resource pressures that may be created as a result of operation scheduling, whereas the operation placement and qubit routing solutions influence the scheduling solution due to resulting distances between predecessor and current operations, which in turn determines routing latencies. The proposed flow for the quantum physical mapper captures these dependencies by applying (1) a loose scheduling step, which transforms an initial quantum data flow graph into one that explicitly captures the no-cloning theorem of the quantum computing and then performs instruction scheduling based on a modified force-directed scheduling approach to minimize the resource contention and quantum circuit latency, (2) a placement step, which uses timing-driven instruction placement to minimize the approximate routing latencies while making iterative calls to the aforesaid force-directed scheduler to correct scheduling levels of quantum operations as needed, and (3) a routing step that finds dynamic values of routing latencies for the qubits. In addition to the quantum physical mapper, an approach is presented to determine the single best ULB size for a target quantum circuit by examining the latency of different FT quantum operations mapped onto different ULB sizes and using information about the occurrence frequency of operations on critical paths of the target quantum algorithm to weigh these latencies. Experimental results show an average latency reduction of about 40 % compared to previous work.

  3. A Survey on Investigating the Need for Intelligent Power-Aware Load Balanced Routing Protocols for Handling Critical Links in MANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, B.; Bhalaji, N.; Sivakumar, D.

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks connectivity is always an issue of concern. Due to dynamism in the behavior of mobile nodes, efficiency shall be achieved only with the assumption of good network infrastructure. Presence of critical links results in deterioration which should be detected in advance to retain the prevailing communication setup. This paper discusses a short survey on the specialized algorithms and protocols related to energy efficient load balancing for critical link detection in the recent literature. This paper also suggests a machine learning based hybrid power-aware approach for handling critical nodes via load balancing. PMID:24790546

  4. A Survey on Investigating the Need for Intelligent Power-Aware Load Balanced Routing Protocols for Handling Critical Links in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks connectivity is always an issue of concern. Due to dynamism in the behavior of mobile nodes, efficiency shall be achieved only with the assumption of good network infrastructure. Presence of critical links results in deterioration which should be detected in advance to retain the prevailing communication setup. This paper discusses a short survey on the specialized algorithms and protocols related to energy efficient load balancing for critical link detection in the recent literature. This paper also suggests a machine learning based hybrid power-aware approach for handling critical nodes via load balancing.

  5. A survey on investigating the need for intelligent power-aware load balanced routing protocols for handling critical links in MANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, B; Bhalaji, N; Sivakumar, D

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks connectivity is always an issue of concern. Due to dynamism in the behavior of mobile nodes, efficiency shall be achieved only with the assumption of good network infrastructure. Presence of critical links results in deterioration which should be detected in advance to retain the prevailing communication setup. This paper discusses a short survey on the specialized algorithms and protocols related to energy efficient load balancing for critical link detection in the recent literature. This paper also suggests a machine learning based hybrid power-aware approach for handling critical nodes via load balancing.

  6. The Vehicle Routing Problem in the Case of Stochastic Demand Based on Hybrid Quantum Genetic Algorithm%基于混合量子遗传算法的随机需求车辆调度问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛显龙; 王旭; 代应

    2011-01-01

    在分析集货式动态配送网络中车辆调度问题的基础上,建立基于时间轴的动态车辆调度模型,根据随机需求信息把动态配送问题转换成一系列静态配送问题,并设计量子遗传算法时静态配送问题求解.建立动态车辆调度问题的数学优化模型,设计基于并行节约算法动态插入随机需求信息的混合量子遗传算法,对动态模型进行实时再优化.最后,结合算例时模型和算法进行计算仿真,取得了较好的试验结果.%On the basis of analyzing the vehicle routing problem of dynamic distribution network, the dynamic vehicle routing problem with time axis is proposed. According to the stochastic demand information, the dynamic distribution problem is transformed into a series of static distribution problems, and the improved genetic algorithm is designed to solve them, The mathematical model of dynamic vehiele routing problems is established, and hybrid quantum genetic algorithm based on parallel economy algorithm which can insert random dynamic demand information is designed for real-time optimization of the dynamic model. Finally, combining with a simulated example, the model and algorithm is tested, which achieve good results.

  7. A facile in situ synthesis route for CuInS(2) quantum-dots/In(2)S(3) co-sensitized photoanodes with high photoelectric performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Qiang; Rui, Yi-Chuan; Zhang, Qing-Hong; Li, Yao-Gang; Wang, Hong-Zhi

    2013-11-27

    CuInS2 quantum-dot sensitized TiO2 photoanodes with In2S3 buffer layer were in situ prepared via chemical bath deposition of In2S3, where the Cd-free In2S3 layer then reacted with TiO2/CuxS which employed a facile SILAR process to deposit CuxS quantum dots on TiO2 film, followed by a covering process with ZnS layer. Polysulfide electrolyte and Cu2S on FTO glass counter electrode were used to provide higher photovoltaic performance of the constructed devices. The characteristics of the quantum dots sensitized solar cells were studied in more detail by optical measurements, photocurrent-voltage performance measurements, and impedance spectroscopy. On the basis of optimal CuxS SILAR cycles, the best photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.62% (Jsc = 6.49 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.50 V, FF = 0.50) under full one-sun illumination was achieved by using Cu2S counter electrode. Cu2S-FTO electrode exhibits superior electrocatalytic ability for the polysulfide redox reactions relative to that of Pt-FTO electrode.

  8. Dynamically induced frustration as a route to a quantum spin ice state in Tb2Ti2O7 via virtual crystal field excitations and quantum many-body effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavian, Hamid R; Gingras, Michel J P; Canals, Benjamin

    2007-04-13

    The Tb2Ti2O7 pyrochlore magnetic material is attracting much attention for its spin liquid state, failing to develop long-range order down to 50 mK despite a Curie-Weiss temperature thetaCW approximately -14 K. In this Letter we reinvestigate the theoretical description of this material by considering a quantum model of independent tetrahedra to describe its low-temperature properties. The naturally tuned proximity of this system near a Néel to spin ice phase boundary allows for a resurgence of quantum fluctuation effects that lead to an important renormalization of its effective low-energy spin Hamiltonian. As a result, Tb2Ti2O7 is argued to be a quantum spin ice. We put forward an experimental test of this proposal using neutron scattering on a single crystal.

  9. Signatures of nonlocal Cooper-pair transport and of a singlet-triplet transition in the critical current of a double-quantum-dot Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, B.; Domínguez, F.; Schroer, A.; Yeyati, A. Levy; Recher, P.

    2016-10-01

    We study the critical Josephson current flowing through a double quantum dot weakly coupled to two superconducting leads. We use analytical as well as numerical methods to investigate this setup in the limit of small and large bandwidth leads in all possible charging states, where we account for on-site interactions exactly. Our results provide clear signatures of nonlocal spin-entangled pairs, which support interpretations of recent experiments [R. S. Deacon, A. Oiwa, J. Sailer, S. Baba, Y. Kanai, K. Shibata, K. Hirakawa, and S. Tarucha, Nat. Commun. 6, 7446 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8446]. In addition, we find that the ground state with one electron on each quantum dot can undergo a tunable singlet-triplet phase transition in the regime where the superconducting gap in the leads is not too large, which gives rise to an additional new signature of nonlocal Cooper-pair transport.

  10. Femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: a green route for large-scale production of porous graphene and graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paola; Hu, Anming; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Duley, Walter W; Zhou, Norman Y

    2014-02-21

    Porous graphene (PG) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are attracting attention due to their potential applications in photovoltaics, catalysis, and bio-related fields. We present a novel way for mass production of these promising materials. The femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is employed for their synthesis. Porous graphene (PG) layers were found to float at the water-air interface, while graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were dispersed in the solution. The sheets consist of one to six stacked layers of spongy graphene, which form an irregular 3D porous structure that displays pores with an average size of 15-20 nm. Several characterization techniques have confirmed the porous nature of the collected layers. The analyses of the aqueous solution confirmed the presence of GQDs with dimensions of about 2-5 nm. It is found that the formation of both PG and GQDs depends on the fs-laser ablation energy. At laser fluences less than 12 J cm(-2), no evidence of either PG or GQDs is detected. However, polyynes with six and eight carbon atoms per chain are found in the solution. For laser energies in the 20-30 J cm(-2) range, these polyynes disappeared, while PG and GQDs were found at the water-air interface and in the solution, respectively. The origin of these materials can be explained based on the mechanisms for water breakdown and coal gasification. The absence of PG and GQDs, after the laser ablation of HOPG in liquid nitrogen, confirms the proposed mechanisms.

  11. Incorporation of Spatial Interactions in Location Networks to Identify Critical Geo-Referenced Routes for Assessing Disease Control Measures on a Large-Scale Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission.

  12. Quantum criticality of a spin-1 XY model with easy-plane single-ion anisotropy via a two-time Green function approach avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study the quantum phase transition, the phase diagram and the quantum criticality induced by the easy-plane single-ion anisotropy in a d-dimensional quantum spin-1 XY model in absence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. We employ the two-time Green function method by avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling of spin operators at the same sites which is of doubtful accuracy. Following the original Devlin procedure we treat exactly the higher order single-site anisotropy Green functions and use Tyablikov-like decouplings for the exchange higher order ones. The related self-consistent equations appear suitable for an analysis of the thermodynamic properties at and around second order phase transition points. Remarkably, the equivalence between the microscopic spin model and the continuous O(2) -vector model with transverse-Ising model (TIM)-like dynamics, characterized by a dynamic critical exponent z=1, emerges at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point with the single-ion anisotropy parameter D as the non-thermal control parameter. The zero-temperature critic anisotropy parameter Dc is obtained for dimensionalities d > 1 as a function of the microscopic exchange coupling parameter and the related numerical data for different lattices are found to be in reasonable agreement with those obtained by means of alternative analytical and numerical methods. For d > 2, and in particular for d=3, we determine the finite-temperature critical line ending in the quantum critical point and the related TIM-like shift exponent, consistently with recent renormalization group predictions. The main crossover lines between different asymptotic regimes around the quantum critical point are also estimated providing a global phase diagram and a quantum criticality very similar to the conventional ones.

  13. Quantum criticality and Lifshitz transition in the Ising system CeRu2Si2: Comparison with YbRh2Si2

    OpenAIRE

    Pourret, A.; Aoki, D.; Boukahil, M.; Brison, J. -P.; Knafo, W.; Knebel, G.; Raymond, S.; Taupin, M.; Onuki, Y.; Flouquet, J.

    2013-01-01

    New thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements on prototype heavy-fermion compounds close to magnetic quantum criticality are presented. The highly sensitive technique of TEP is an unique tool to reveal Fermi surface instabilities, referred here as Lifshitz transitions. The first focus is on the Ising CeRu2Si2 series. Doping CeRu2Si2 with Rh produces a decoupling between the first order metamagnetic transition and the pseudo-metamagnetism observed in the pure compound. Comparison is made with th...

  14. Quantum shape phase transitions from spherical to deformed for Bose-Fermi systems: the effect of the odd particle around the critical point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böyükata M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum phase transitions in odd-nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model with a description based on the concept of intrinsic states. We consider the case of a single j=9/2 odd-particle coupled to an even-even boson core that performs a transition from spherical to deformed prolate and to deformed gamma-unstable shapes varying a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core is discussed along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point.

  15. Evidence for quantum critical behavior in the optimally doped cuprate Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla; Fedorov; Johnson; Wells; Hulbert; Li; Gu; Koshizuka

    1999-09-24

    The photoemission line shapes of the optimally doped cuprate Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) were studied in the direction of a node in the superconducting order parameter by means of very high resolution photoemission spectroscopy. The peak width or inverse lifetime of the excitation displays a linear temperature dependence, independent of binding energy, for small energies, and a linear energy dependence, independent of temperature, for large binding energies. This behavior is unaffected by the superconducting transition, which is an indication that the nodal states play no role in the superconductivity. Temperature-dependent scaling suggests that the system displays quantum critical behavior.

  16. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  17. Lateralization of route continuation and route order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Ham, Ineke J M; Van Den Hoven, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Navigation is a complex cognitive ability and its structure is still poorly understood. Memory for route continuation and route order are hypothesized to be at least partially separate components of navigation ability. In the current experiment, participants studied a route in virtual reality. The d

  18. Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-García José M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term “critical phenomena”. They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. Critical phenomena give a natural route from smooth initial data to arbitrarily large curvatures visible from infinity, and are therefore likely to be relevant for cosmic censorship, quantum gravity, astrophysics, and our general understanding of the dynamics of general relativity.

  19. Quantum PSO algorithm for order selection problem with multiple process routes%基于量子粒子群求解多制程订单选择问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桢; 黄磊

    2015-01-01

    Considering the characteristic of multiple process routes, this paper focuses on the order selection problem. A mixed integer non-linear programming model is built with objective of maximizing the total profits. A quantum-behaved PSO-based algorithm is employed as solution mainframe in which a sequence-based particle coding solution is designed to represent decision variables and integer variables and four population initiation strategies are proposed to improve the solution quality. A repair mechanism for infeasible solutions is adopted in iteration. By computational comparison tests, it can be proven that the model and algorithm are feasible and effective.%针对订单选择问题,考虑订单具有不同制程的特征,建立了以总收益为目标的混合整数非线性规划模型。以量子粒子群优化算法为框架进行求解,采用基于排序的粒子编码方案表达0-1变量和整数变量,提出四种种群初始化策略以便提高求解质量,并在迭代过程中对不可行解进行修复。通过对比验证,结果表明模型和算法可行、有效。

  20. The origins of the research on the foundations of quantum mechanics (and other critical activities) in Italy during the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracca, Angelo; Bergia, Silvio; Del Santo, Flavio

    2017-02-01

    We present a reconstruction of the studies on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics carried out in Italy at the turn of the 1960s. Actually, they preceded the revival of the interest of the American physicists towards the foundations of quantum mechanics around mid-1970s, recently reconstructed by David Kaiser in a book of 2011. An element common to both cases is the role played by the young generation, even though the respective motivations were quite different. In the US they reacted to research cuts after the war in Vietnam, and were inspired by the New Age mood. In Italy the dissatisfaction of the young generations was rooted in the student protests of 1968 and the subsequent labour and social fights, which challenged the role of scientists. The young generations of physicists searched for new scientific approaches and challenged their own scientific knowledge and role. The criticism to the foundations of quantum mechanics and the perspectives of submitting them to experimental tests were perceived as an innovative research field and this attitude was directly linked to the search for an innovative and radical approach in the history of science. All these initiatives gave rise to booming activity throughout the 1970s, contributing to influence the scientific attitude and the teaching approach.

  1. Enhanced pairing of quantum critical metals near d=3+1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kachru, Shamit; Kaplan, Jared; Raghu, S.; Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia

    2015-07-20

    We study the dynamics of a quantum critical boson coupled to a Fermi surface in intermediate energy regimes where the Landau damping of the boson can be parametrically controlled, either via large Fermi velocity or by large- N techniques. We develop a systematic approach to the BCS instability of such systems, including careful treatment of the enhanced log 2 and log 3 singularities which appear already at 1-loop. These singularities arise due to the exchange of a critical boson in the Cooper channel and are absent in Fermi liquid theory. We also treat possible instabilities to charge density wave (CDW) formation, and compare the scales Λ BCS and Λ CDW of the onset of the instabilities in different parametric regimes. We address the question of whether the dressing of the fermions into a non-Fermi liquid via interactions with the order parameter field can happen at energies > Λ BCS , Λ CDW .

  2. Preparation of AgInS₂ quantum dot/In₂S₃ co-sensitized photoelectrodes by a facile aqueous-phase synthesis route and their photovoltaic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi

    2015-04-14

    In an aqueous-phase system, AgInS2 quantum dot (QD) sensitized TiO2 photoanodes were prepared in situ by the reaction of β-In2S3 nanocrystals and as-prepared TiO2/Ag2S-QD electrodes, followed by a covering process with a ZnS passivation layer. A facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was adopted to obtain TiO2/Ag2S-QD electrodes. β-In2S3 nanocrystals synthesized by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) process serve as the reactant of AgInS2 as well as a buffer layer between the interfaces of TiO2 and AgInS2-QDs. A polysulfide electrolyte and a Pt-coated FTO glass count electrode were used to test the photovoltaic performance of the constructed devices. The characteristics of the sensitized photoelectrodes were studied in more detail by electron microscopy, X-ray techniques, and optical and photoelectric performance measurements. AgInS2 is the main photo-sensitizer for TiO2/AgInS2-QD/In2S3 electrodes and excess In2S3 appears on the surface of the electrodes. Based on the optimal Ag2S SILAR cycle, the best photovoltaic performance of the prepared TiO2/AgInS2-QD/In2S3 electrode with the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 7.87 mA cm(-2) and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.70% under full one-sun illumination was achieved.

  3. Short-lived quinonoid species from 5,6-dihydroxyindole dimers en route to eumelanin polymers: integrated chemical, pulse radiolytic, and quantum mechanical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzella, Alessandro; Panzella, Lucia; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Navaratman, Suppiah; Edge, Ruth; Land, Edward J; Barone, Vincenzo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2006-12-06

    The transient species formed by oxidation of three dimers of 5,6-dihydroxyindole (1), a major building block of the natural biopolymer eumelanin, have been investigated. Pulse radiolytic oxidation of 5,5',6,6'-tetrahydroxy-2,4'-biindolyl (3) and 5,5',6,6'-tetrahydroxy-2,7'-biindolyl (4) led to semiquinones absorbing around 450 nm, which decayed with second-order kinetics (2k=2.8x10(9) and 1.4x10(9) M-1 s-1, respectively) to give the corresponding quinones (500-550 nm). 5,5',6, 6'-Tetrahydroxy-2,2'-biindolyl (2), on the other hand, furnished a semiquinone (lamdamax=480 nm) which disproportionated at a comparable rate (2k=3x10(9) M-1 s-1) to give a relatively stable quinone (lamdamax=570 nm). A quantum mechanical investigation of o-quinone, quinonimine, and quinone methide structures of 2-4 suggested that oxidized 2-4 exist mainly as 2-substituted extended quinone methide tautomers. Finally, an oxidation product of 3 was isolated for the first time and was formulated as the hydroxylated derivative 5 arising conceivably by the addition of water to the quinone methide intermediate predicted by theoretical analysis. Overall, these results suggest that the oxidation chemistry of biindolyls 2-4 differs significantly from that of the parent 1, whereby caution must be exercised before concepts that apply strictly to the mode of coupling of 1 are extended to higher oligomers.

  4. How to choose the route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Choosing the route for nutrition support delivery is one of the main steps in the algorithm of providing successful nutrition to the critically ill, but it is certainly not an easy process. The rationale should be guided not only by principles like physiology and benefit versus harm, but also by individual patient factors like feasibility, contraindications, predicted versus actual tolerance, and (most important) the timing for starting food delivery. Although oral nutrition is the more physiological route for feeding, it is seldom possible or sufficient in critically ill patients. Enteral nutrition, in the form of tube feeding, remains the best option in the absence of absolute contraindications, but many other factors should be taken into account. These include the importance of starting early and trying to achieve target nutrients delivery early, especially in previously undernourished or in most severely ill patients, as well as the gastrointestinal intolerance present in the majority of critically ill patients. Parenteral nutrition is an alternative route for nutrition delivery when the enteral one is impossible or insufficient. The most common complication when choosing this route is overfeeding, which has been associated with increased complications rate. On the other hand, the most common complication of enteral nutrition is underfeeding, which has also been associated with worse outcome and even increased mortality. Combining enteral with supplemental parenteral nutrition is therefore a rational approach for providing early and adequate nutritional support in the most severely ill patients.

  5. Photolysis quantum yield measurements in the near-UV; a critical analysis of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, John E T; Kaplan, Jack H; Forbush, Biff; Ogden, David C; Trentham, David R

    2016-05-11

    The photolysis quantum yield, Qp, of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl phosphate (caged Pi) measured in the near-UV (342 nm peak with 60 nm half-bandwidth) is 0.53 and is based on results reported in 1978 (Biochemistry, 17, 1929-1935). This article amplifies methodology for determining that Qp in view of different recent estimates. Some general principles together with other examples relating to measurement of Qp values are discussed together with their relevance to biological research.

  6. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    be that the objects routed have an availability time window and a delivery time window or that locations on the path have a service time window. When routing moving transportation objects such as vehicles and vessels schedules are made in connection with the routing. Such schedules represent the time for the presence...... to a destination on a predefined network, the routing and scheduling of vessels in a liner shipping network given a demand forecast to be covered, the routing of manpower and vehicles transporting disabled passengers in an airport and the vehicle routing with time windows where one version studied includes edge...... of a connection between two locations. This could be an urban bus schedule where busses are routed and this routing creates a bus schedule which the passengers between locations use. In this thesis various routing and scheduling problems will be presented. The topics covered will be routing from an origin...

  7. 铁基超导体的量子临界行为∗%Quantum criticalities in carrier-dop ed iron-based sup erconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李政; 周睿; 郑国庆

    2015-01-01

    In the past several decades, quantum phase transition and the associated fluctuations have emerged as a major challenge to our understanding of condensed matter. Such transition is tuned by an external parameter such as pressure, chemical doping or magnetic field. The transition point, called quantum critical point (QCP), is only present at absolute zero temperature (T ), but its influence (quantum criticality) is spread to nonzero temperature region. Quite often, new stable orders of matter, such as superconductivity, emerge around the QCP, whose relationship to the quantum fluctuations is one of the most important issues. Iron-pnictide superconductors are the second class of high-temperature-superconductor family whose phase diagram is very similar to the first class, the copper-oxides. Superconductivity emerges in the vicinity of exotic orders, such as antiferromagnetic, structural or nematic order. Therefore, iron-pnictides provide us a very good opportunity to study quantum criticality. Here we review nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the coexistence of states and quantum critical phenomena in both hole-doped system Ba1−xKxFe2As2 as well as electron-doped systems BaFe2−xNixAs2 and LaFeAsO1−xFx. Firstly, we found that the 75As NMR spectra split or are broadened for H//c-axis, and shift to a higher frequency for H//ab-plane below a certain temperature in the underdoped region of both hole-doped Ba1−xKxFe2As2 and electron-doped BaFe2−xNixAs2, which indicate that an internal magnetic field develops along the c-axis due to an antiferromagnetic order. Upon further cooling, the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 measured at the shifted peak shows a distinct decrease below the superconducting critical temperature Tc. These results show unambiguously that the antiferromagnetic order and superconductivity coexist microscopically, which is the essential condition for a magnetic QCP. Moreover, the much weaker T-dependence of 1/T1 in the superconducting

  8. Quantum Discord for Investigating Quantum Correlations without Entanglement in Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Rong, Xing; Jin, Fangzhou; Geng, Jianpei; Feng, Pengbo; Xu, Nanyang; Wang, Ya; Ju, Chenyong; Shi, Mingjun; Du, Jiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Quantum systems unfold diversified correlations which have no classical counterparts. These quantum correlations have various different facets. Quantum entanglement, as the most well known measure of quantum correlations, plays essential roles in quantum information processing. However, it has recently been pointed out that quantum entanglement cannot describe all the nonclassicality in the correlations. Thus the study of quantum correlations in separable states attracts widely attentions. Herein, we experimentally investigate the quantum correlations of separable thermal states in terms of quantum discord. The sudden change of quantum discord is observed, which captures ambiguously the critical point associated with the behavior of Hamiltonian. Our results display the potential applications of quantum correlations in studying the fundamental properties of quantum system, such as quantum criticality of non-zero temperature.

  9. Performance of the mission critical Electrical Support System (ESS) which handled communications and data transfer between the Rosetta Orbiter and its Lander Philae while en route to and at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Rusznyak, Peter; Balaz, Jan; Schmidt, Walter; Fantinati, Cinzia; Kuechemann, Oliver; Geurts, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The Electrical Support System (ESS), which was designed and built in Ireland, handled commands transmitted from the Rosetta spacecraft to the Command and Data Management System (CDMS) aboard its Lander Philae during a ten year Cruise Phase to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as well as at the comet itself. The busy Cruise Phase included three Earth flybys, a fly-by of Mars and visits to two asteroids, Steins and Lutetia. Data originating at the individual Lander experiments measured while en-route to and at the comet were also handled by the ESS which received and reformatted them prior to their transmission by Rosetta to Earth. Since the success of the Lander depended on the acquisition of scientific data, the ESS was defined by the European Space Agency to be Mission Critical Hardware. The electronic design of the ESS and its method of handling communications between the spacecraft and Philae are herein presented. The nominal performance of the ESS during the Cruise Phase and in the course of subsequent surface campaigns is described and the successful fulfilment of the brief of this subsystem to retrieve unique scientific data measured by the instruments of the Philae Lander demonstrated.

  10. Wireless Mesh Network Routing Under Uncertain Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Jonathan; Dai, Liang; Chang, Bin; Xue, Yuan

    Traffic routing plays a critical role in determining the performance of a wireless mesh network. Recent research results usually fall into two ends of the spectrum. On one end are the heuristic routing algorithms, which are highly adaptive to the dynamic environments of wireless networks yet lack the analytical properties of how well the network performs globally. On the other end are the optimal routing algorithms that are derived from the optimization problem formulation of mesh network routing. They can usually claim analytical properties such as resource use optimality and throughput fairness. However, traffic demand is usually implicitly assumed as static and known a priori in these problem formulations. In contrast, recent studies of wireless network traces show that the traffic demand, even being aggregated at access points, is highly dynamic and hard to estimate. Thus, to apply the optimization-based routing solution in practice, one must take into account the dynamic and uncertain nature of wireless traffic demand. There are two basic approaches to address the traffic uncertainty in optimal mesh network routing (1) predictive routing that infers the traffic demand with maximum possibility based in its history and optimizes the routing strategy based on the predicted traffic demand and (2) oblivious routing that considers all the possible traffic demands and selects the routing strategy where the worst-case network performance could be optimized. This chapter provides an overview of the optimal routing strategies for wireless mesh networks with a focus on the above two strategies that explicitly consider the traffic uncertainty. It also identifies the key factors that affect the performance of each routing strategy and provides guidelines towards the strategy selection in mesh network routing under uncertain traffic demands.

  11. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  12. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  13. Quantum criticality in Yb(Rh{sub 0.93}Co{sub 0.07}){sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steppke, Alexander; Borth, Robert; Nicklas, Michael; Geibel, Christoph; Steglich, Frank; Brando, Manuel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Pedrero, Luis [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Krellner, Cornelius [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The heavy-fermion compound YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is a prototype system which allows us to study an unconventional quantum critical point. With slight isoelectronic substitution of Rh by 7% Co the AFM order is stabilized (T{sub N}=0.4 K) and in thermodynamic (χ{sub a}c(T)) and electrical transport measurements (ρ(T, H)) the Kondo-breakdown energy scale T* detaches from the putative conventional spin-density wave QCP. To investigate the existence of this quantum phase transition and the possible role of the additional energy scale we performed thermodynamic measurements at low temperatures. At a QCP the absence of characteristic energy scales other than the temperatures has been shown to lead to power-law scaling behavior in the Grueneisen ratio. Combining results from specific heat, magnetization and thermal expansion we exclude a SDW QCP when the AFM order is suppressed by a magnetic field from the thermal and magnetic Grueneisen ratio. This is corroborated by measurements under hydrostatic pressure.

  14. Modeling the PbS quantum dots complex dielectric function by adjusting the E-k diagram critical points of bulk PbS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechster, Elad; Sarusi, Gabby

    2017-07-01

    The complex dielectric function ɛ(E )=ɛR(E )+i ɛI(E ) of a semiconductor is a key parameter that dictates the material's optical and electrical properties. Surprisingly, the ɛ(E ) of Lead Sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) has not been widely studied. In the present work, we develop a new model that aims to simulate the ɛ(E ) of QDs. Our model is based on the fact that the quantum confinement in the nano regime affects all the electronic transitions throughout the entire Brillouin zone. Hence, as a first approximation, we attribute an equal contribution of energy, equivalent to the bandgap broadening, to each critical point (CP) in the E-k diagram. This is mathematically realized by adding these energy contributions to the central energy parameters of the Lorentz oscillator model. In order to validate our model, we used the CP parameters of bulk PbS to simulate the ɛ(E ) of PbS QDs. Next, we use Maxwell Relations to calculate the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of PbS QDs from ɛ(" separators="|E ). Our results were compared with those published in the previous literature and showed good agreement. Our findings open a new avenue that may enable the calculation of the ɛ(" separators="|E ) for nanoparticle systems.

  15. HTSC cuprate phase diagram using a modified Boson-Fermion-Gossamer model describing competing orders, a quantum critical point and possible resonance complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Richard H.; March, Norman H.; Booth, Michael L.

    There has been considerable effort expended toward understanding high temperature superconductors (HTSC), and more specifically the cuprate phase diagram as a function of doping level. Yet, the only agreement seems to be that HTSC is an example of a strongly correlated material where Coulomb repulsion plays a major role. This manuscript proposes a model based on a Feshbach resonance pairing mechanism and competing orders. An initial BCS-type superconductivity at high doping is suppressed in the two particle channel by a localized preformed pair (PP) (Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink, J Low Temp Phys, 1985, 59, 980) (circular density wave) creating a quantum critical point. As doping continues to diminish, the PP then participates in a Feshbach resonance complex that creates a new electron (hole) pair that delocalizes and constitutes HTSC and the characteristic dome (Squire and March, Int J Quantum Chem, 2007, 107, 3013; 2008, 108, 2819). The resonant nature of the new pair contributes to its short coherence length. The model we propose also suggests an explanation (and necessity) for an experimentally observed correlated lattice that could restrict energy dissipation to enable the resonant Cooper pair to move over several correlation lengths, or essentially free. The PP density wave is responsible for the pseudogap as it appears as a "localized superconductor" since its density of states and quasiparticle spectrum are similar to those of a superconductor (Peierls-Fröhlich theory), but with no phase coherence between the PP.

  16. Nonperturbative functional renormalization-group approach to transport in the vicinity of a $(2+1)$-dimensional O($N$)-symmetric quantum critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization-group approach to the two-dimensional quantum O($N$) model, we compute the low-frequency limit $\\omega\\to 0$ of the zero-temperature conductivity in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. Our results are obtained from a derivative expansion to second order of a scale-dependent effective action in the presence of an external (i.e., non-dynamical) non-Abelian gauge field. While in the disordered phase the conductivity tensor $\\sigma(\\omega)$ is diagonal, in the ordered phase it is defined, when $N\\geq 3$, by two independent elements, $\\sigma_{\\rm A}(\\omega)$ and $\\sigma_{\\rm B}(\\omega)$, respectively associated to SO($N$) rotations which do and do not change the direction of the order parameter. For $N=2$, the conductivity in the ordered phase reduces to a single component $\\sigma_{\\rm A}(\\omega)$. We show that $\\lim_{\\omega\\to 0}\\sigma(\\omega,\\delta)\\sigma_{\\rm A}(\\omega,-\\delta)/\\sigma_q^2$ is a universal number which we compute as a function of $N$ ($\\d...

  17. Quantum criticality and the formation of a putative electronic liquid crystal in Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, A.P., E-mail: apm9@st-and.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Bruin, J.A.N. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Borzi, R.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rost, A.W. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Grigera, S.A. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos, UNLP-CONICET, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)

    2012-11-01

    We present a brief review of the physical properties of Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, in which the approach to a magnetic-field-tuned quantum critical point is cut off by the formation of a novel phase with transport characteristics consistent with those of a nematic electronic liquid crystal. Our goal is to summarise the physics that led to that conclusion being drawn, describing the key experiments and discussing the theoretical approaches that have been adopted. Throughout the review we also attempt to highlight observations that are not yet understood, and to discuss the future challenges that will need to be addressed by both experiment and theory.

  18. Small Atomic Orbital Basis Set First-Principles Quantum Chemical Methods for Large Molecular and Periodic Systems: A Critical Analysis of Error Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sure, Rebecca; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In quantum chemical computations the combination of Hartree-Fock or a density functional theory (DFT) approximation with relatively small atomic orbital basis sets of double-zeta quality is still widely used, for example, in the popular B3LYP/6-31G* approach. In this Review, we critically analyze the two main sources of error in such computations, that is, the basis set superposition error on the one hand and the missing London dispersion interactions on the other. We review various strategies to correct those errors and present exemplary calculations on mainly noncovalently bound systems of widely varying size. Energies and geometries of small dimers, large supramolecular complexes, and molecular crystals are covered. We conclude that it is not justified to rely on fortunate error compensation, as the main inconsistencies can be cured by modern correction schemes which clearly outperform the plain mean-field methods.

  19. Criticality and novel quantum liquid phases in Ginzburg-Landau theories with compact and non-compact gauge fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smiseth, Jo

    2005-07-01

    The critical properties of three-dimensional U(1)-symmetric lattice gauge theories have been studied. The models apply to various physical systems such as insulating phases of strongly correlated electron systems as well as superconducting and superfluid states of liquid metallic hydrogen under extreme pressures. The thesis contains an introductory part and a collection of research papers of which seven are published works and one is submitted for publication. The outline of this thesis is as follows. In Chapter 2 the theory of phase transitions is discussed with emphasis on continuous phase transitions, critical phenomena and phase transitions in gauge theories. In the next chapter the phases of the abelian Higgs model are presented, and the critical phenomena are discussed. Furthermore, the multicomponent Ginzburg-Landau theory and the applications to liquid metallic hydrogen are presented. Chapter 4 contains an overview of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, including the Metropolis algorithm, error estimates, and re weighting techniques. This chapter is followed by the papers I-VIII. Paper I: Criticality in the (2+1)-Dimensional Compact Higgs Model and Fractionalized Insulators. Paper II: Phase structure of (2+1)-dimensional compact lattice gauge theories and the transition from Mott insulator to fractionalized insulator. Paper III: Compact U(1) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions and the physics of low dimensional insulating materials. Paper IV: Phase structure of Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theories. Paper V: Critical Properties of the N-Color London Model. Paper VI: Field- and temperature induced topological phase transitions in the three-dimensional N-component London superconductor. Paper VII: Vortex Sublattice Melting in a Two-Component Superconductor. Paper VIII: Observation of a metallic superfluid in a numerical experiment (ml)

  20. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  1. Routing on Metacyclic Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun Xiao

    2002-01-01

    Wu, Lakshmivarahan and Dhall[5] recently described a deterministic, distributed routing scheme for some special classes of metacyclic graphs. However they have no proof of correctness that the scheme is a shortest path routing algorithm. In the note we give a suboptimal, deterministic routing algorithm.

  2. Intraosseous (IO) route .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All drugs and fluids given via intravenous route were safely given through IO route with superior to ... was used widely during the Korean War, In 1950-1960. Intravenous ... In this article a brief review and analysis of cases managed by IO route ...

  3. Towards ferromagnetic quantum criticality in FeGa3 -xGex :71Ga NQR as a zero-field microscopic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M.; Wagner-Reetz, M.; Cardoso-Gil, R.; Gille, P.; Steglich, F.; Grin, Y.; Baenitz, M.

    2016-02-01

    71Ga NQR, magnetization, and specific-heat measurements have been performed on polycrystalline Ge-doped FeGa3 samples. A crossover from an insulator to a correlated local moment metal in the low-doping regime and the evolution of itinerant ferromagnet upon further doping is found. For the nearly critical concentration at the threshold of ferromagnetic order, xC=0.15, 71(1 /T1T ) exhibits a pronounced T-4 /3 power law over two orders of magnitude in temperature, which indicates three-dimensional quantum critical ferromagnetic fluctuations. Furthermore, for the ordered x =0.2 sample (TC≈6 K), 71(1 /T1T ) could be fitted well in the frame of Moriya's self-consistent renormalization theory for weakly ferromagnetic systems with 1 /T1T ˜χ . In contrast to this, the low-doping regime nicely displays local moment behavior where 1 /T1T ˜χ2 is valid. For T →0 , the Sommerfeld ratio γ =(C /T ) is enhanced (70 mJ /mole K2 for x =0.1 ) , which indicates the formation of heavy 3 d electrons.

  4. Single-photon quantum router with multiple output ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Bin; Fan, Heng

    2014-04-28

    The routing capability is a requisite in quantum network. Although the quantum routing of signals has been investigated in various systems both in theory and experiment, the general form of quantum routing with many output terminals still needs to be explored. Here we propose a scheme to achieve the multi-channel quantum routing of the single photons in a waveguide-emitter system. The channels are composed by the waveguides and are connected by intermediate two-level emitters. By adjusting the intermediate emitters, the output channels of the input single photons can be controlled. This is demonstrated in the cases of one output channel, two output channels and the generic N output channels. The results show that the multi-channel quantum routing of single photons can be well achieved in the proposed system. This offers a scheme for the experimental realization of general quantum routing of single photons.

  5. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    In today’s globalized society, transport contributes to our daily life in many different ways. The production of the parts for a shelf ready product may take place on several continents and our travel between home and work, vacation travel and business trips has increased in distance the last......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... to a destination on a predefined network, the routing and scheduling of vessels in a liner shipping network given a demand forecast to be covered, the routing of manpower and vehicles transporting disabled passengers in an airport and the vehicle routing with time windows where one version studied includes edge...

  6. Reliable Quantum Computers

    CERN Document Server

    Preskill, J

    1997-01-01

    The new field of quantum error correction has developed spectacularly since its origin less than two years ago. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. Hence, an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be performed reliably, provided that the average probability of error per quantum gate is less than a certain critical value, the accuracy threshold. A quantum computer storing about 10^6 qubits, with a probability of error per quantum gate of order 10^{-6}, would be a formidable factoring engine. Even a smaller, less accurate quantum computer would be able to perform many useful tasks. (This paper is based on a talk presented at the ITP Conference on Quantum Coherence and Decoherence, 15-18 December 1996.)

  7. Vehicle Routing in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2010-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. In industry and the public sector, vehicle routing tools provide substantial savings every day. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently ...

  8. Route Availabililty Planning Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Route Availability Planning Tool (RAPT) is a weather-assimilated decision support tool (DST) that supports the development and execution of departure management...

  9. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  10. Ultrasonic investigation close to quantum critical point in YbTr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} (Tr: Co, Rh, and Ir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y; Kamiyama, T; Ito, K; Nakamura, M; Yoshizawa, M [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Saiga, Y [Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, HigashiHiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Kosaka, M [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Uwatoko, Y, E-mail: yoshiki@iwate-u.ac.j [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 227-8581 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    We performed ultrasonic measurements on high quality single crystals of the Yb-based heavy fermion compounds YbTr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} (Tr: Co, Rh and Ir) over a temperature range from 200 K to 0.5 K, which seem to be close to a quantum critical point (QCP). A sharp contrast of the temperature dependence of elastic constants was found at low temperature among the three compounds, reflecting the 4f electronic state stemmed from Yb ion. The results indicate that a crystalline electric field (CEF) effect seems to be dominant in the systems YbRh{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} and YbIr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} at low temperatures. On the other hand, the CEF effect is much less, but an additional effect would be dominant which is most probably ascribable to non Fermi liquid characteristics formed close to the QCP. We discuss briefly each 4f electronic state developed at the low temperatures and physical parameters relating to a renormalized band model in YbTr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} in the framework of a deformation potential approximation.

  11. Indications of a Quantum Critical Point in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ Using a Local Kondo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Eduardo; Dai, Jixia; Arnold, Gerald; Gu, Genda; McElroy, Kyle

    2014-03-01

    A complete understanding of the complex phase diagrams that are present in high temperature superconductors remains elusive. While there is an overwhelming amount of experimental data on the existence and interplay of the phases present in high Tc superconductors from local probes, much of the existing data only looks at the charge degree of freedom of the material. By substituting Fe atoms for Cu atoms in the CuO plane of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212), we gain the ability to access the spin degree of freedom since the Fe atoms retain their magnetization below the superconducting transition temperature. This leads to a local Kondo effect which can be observed using Spectroscopic-Imaging Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (SI-STM) and the local Kondo temperature can be extracted from spectra via a theoretical model. We show that the examination of this local Kondo temperature across local and sample average doping leads to the observation of a change in the quasiparticle spin degree of freedom at a quantum critical point (QCP) with a nominal hole doping of roughly 0.22, in agreement with other probes. The observation of the QCP in Bi2212 with this new method to access the spin degree of freedom helps to unravel some of the mystery behind the complex phase diagram of Bi2212.

  12. Quantum critical point in SmO(1-x)F(x)FeAs and oxygen vacancy induced by high fluorine dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Chu, Shengqi; Chu, Wangsheng; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Linjuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Liu, Ronghua; Chen, Xianhui; Marcelli, Augusto; Wu, Ziyu

    2011-09-01

    The local lattice and electronic structure of the high-T(c) superconductor SmO(1-x)F(x)FeAs as a function of F-doping have been investigated by Sm L(3)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure and multiple-scattering calculations. Experiments performed at the L(3)-edge show that the white line (WL) is very sensitive to F-doping. In the under-doped region (x ≤ 0.12) the WL intensity increases with doping and then it suddenly starts decreasing at x = 0.15. Meanwhile, the trend of the WL linewidth versus F-doping levels is just contrary to that of the intensity. The phenomenon is almost coincident with the quantum critical point occurring in SmO(1-x)F(x)FeAs at x ≃ 0.14. In the under-doped region the increase of the intensity is related to the localization of Sm-5d states, while theoretical calculations show that both the decreasing intensity and the consequent broadening of linewidth at high F-doping are associated with the content and distribution of oxygen vacancies.

  13. Charge redistribution and a shortening of the Fe--As bond at the quantum critical point of SmO1-xFxFeAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Dong, Peng; Xu, Wei; Liu, Shengli; Chu, Wangsheng; Chen, Xianhui; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-07-01

    Many researchers have pointed out that there is a quantum critical point (QCP) in the F-doped SmOFeAs system. In this paper, the electronic structure and local structure of the superconductive FeAs layer in SmO(1-x)FxFeAs as a function of the F-doping concentration have been investigated using Fe and As K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Experiments performed on the X-ray absorption near-edge structure showed that in the vicinity of the QCP the intensity of the pre-edge feature at the Fe-edge decreases continuously, while there is a striking rise of the shoulder-peak at the As edge, suggesting the occurrence of charge redistribution near the QCP. Further analysis on the As K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure demonstrated that the charge redistribution originates mostly from a shortening of the Fe-As bond at the QCP. An evident relationship between the mysterious QCP and the fundamental Fe-As bond was established, providing new insights on the interplay between QCP, charge dynamics and the local structural Fe-As bond in Fe-based superconductors.

  14. The origins of the research on the foundations of quantum mechanics (and other critical activities) in italy during the 1970s

    CERN Document Server

    Baracca, Angelo; Del Santo, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    We present a reconstruction of the studies on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (FQM) carried out in Italy at the turn of the 1960s. Actually, they preceded the revival of the interest of the American physicists towards the FQM around mid-1970s, recently reconstructed by David Kaiser in a book of 2011. An element common to both cases is the role played by the young generation, even though the respective motivations were quite different. In the US they reacted to research cuts after the war in Vietnam, and were inspired by the New Age mood. In Italy the dissatisfaction of the young generations was rooted in the student protests of 1968 and the subsequent labour and social fights, which challenged the role of scientists. The young generations of physicists searched for new scientific approaches and challenged their own scientific knowledge and role. The criticism to the FQM and the perspectives of submitting them to experimental tests were perceived as an innovative research field and this attitude was direc...

  15. Quantum signatures of chaos or quantum chaos?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunakov, V. E., E-mail: bunakov@VB13190.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A critical analysis of the present-day concept of chaos in quantum systems as nothing but a “quantum signature” of chaos in classical mechanics is given. In contrast to the existing semi-intuitive guesses, a definition of classical and quantum chaos is proposed on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem: a quantum chaotic system featuring N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) specified by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian of the system. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos that, in the classical limit, go over to the Lyapunov exponent and the classical stability parameter are proposed. The proposed criteria of quantum chaos are applied to solving standard problems of modern dynamical chaos theory.

  16. Exploiting Locality in Quantum Computation for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Jarrod R; Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-12-18

    Accurate prediction of chemical and material properties from first-principles quantum chemistry is a challenging task on traditional computers. Recent developments in quantum computation offer a route toward highly accurate solutions with polynomial cost; however, this solution still carries a large overhead. In this Perspective, we aim to bring together known results about the locality of physical interactions from quantum chemistry with ideas from quantum computation. We show that the utilization of spatial locality combined with the Bravyi-Kitaev transformation offers an improvement in the scaling of known quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry and provides numerical examples to help illustrate this point. We combine these developments to improve the outlook for the future of quantum chemistry on quantum computers.

  17. Improving Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Performance by Geographic Route Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; YU Yan-bing; LU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to help reactive ad hoc routing protocols select better-performance routes, a novel metric named geographic route length (GRL) is proposed. The relationship between GRL metric and routing performance is analyzed in detail. Combined with hop metric, GRL is applied into the original ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation experiments have shown that GRL can effectively reduce packet delay and route discovery frequency, thus can improve reactive ad hoc routing performance.

  18. A New Route Maintenance in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructureless, self-organizable, multi hop packet switched network. A number of routing protocols for MANETs have been proposed in recent years. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is one of the most popular routing protocol for ad hoc networks. This paper presents a novel method to enhance route maintenance part of DSR protocol. Our proposed route maintenance significantly increases the efficiency of the protocol at the time of route failures.

  19. Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Mitra, Prasenjit; Klippel, Alexander; Maceachren, Alan

    Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles: changing levels of granularity, hierarchical organization, incorporation of cognitively and perceptually salient elements, and so forth. Identifying such information in text documents automatically is crucial for enabling machine-understanding of human spatial language. The benefits are: a) creating opportunities for large-scale studies of human linguistic behavior; b) extracting and georeferencing salient entities (landmarks) that are used by human route direction providers; c) developing methods to translate route directions to sketches and maps; and d) enabling queries on large corpora of crawled/analyzed movement data. In this paper, we introduce our approach and implementations that bring us closer to the goal of automatically processing linguistic route directions. We report on research directed at one part of the larger problem, that is, extracting the three most critical parts of route directions and movement patterns in general: origin, destination, and route parts. We use machine-learning based algorithms to extract these parts of routes, including, for example, destination names and types. We prove the effectiveness of our approach in several experiments using hand-tagged corpora.

  20. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Magnetic correlations and quantum criticality in the insulating antiferromagnetic, insulating spin liquid, renormalized Fermi liquid, and metallic antiferromagnetic phases of the Mott system V2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Broholm, C.; Aeppli, G.; Carter, S. A.; Dai, P.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Honig, J. M.; Metcalf, P.; Trevino, S. F.

    1998-11-01

    Magnetic correlations in all four phases of pure and doped vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) have been examined by magnetic thermal-neutron scattering. Specifically, we have studied the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of metallic V2-yO3, the antiferromagnetic insulating and paramagnetic metallic phases of stoichiometric V2O3, and the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of insulating V1.944Cr0.056O3. While the antiferromagnetic insulator can be accounted for by a localized Heisenberg spin model, the long-range order in the antiferromagnetic metal is an incommensurate spin-density wave, resulting from a Fermi surface nesting instability. Spin dynamics in the strongly correlated metal are dominated by spin fluctuations with a ``single lobe'' spectrum in the Stoner electron-hole continuum. Furthermore, our results in metallic V2O3 represent an unprecedentedly complete characterization of the spin fluctuations near a metallic quantum critical point, and provide quantitative support for the self-consistent renormalization theory for itinerant antiferromagnets in the small moment limit. Dynamic magnetic correlations for ħω

  2. IP Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco Pinto, Armando

    2002-03-01

    Uyless Black is a widely known expert in computer networks and data communications. He is author of more than ten books in the communication technologies field, which puts him in a good position to address this topic. In IP Routing Protocols he starts by providing the background and concepts required for understanding TCP/IP technology. This is done clearly and assumes little prior knowledge of the area. As might be expected, he emphasizes the IP route discovery problem. Later he details several routing protocols.

  3. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  4. Popper's test of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bramon, A

    2005-01-01

    A test of quantum mechanics proposed by K. Popper and dealing with two-particle entangled states emitted from a fixed source has been criticized by several authors. Some of them claim that the test becomes inconclusive once all the quantum aspects of the source are considered. Moreover, another criticism states that the predictions attributed to quantum mechanics in Popper's analysis are untenable. We reconsider these criticisms and show that, to a large extend, the `falsifiability' potential of the test remains unaffected.

  5. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  6. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  7. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  8. Integrated route analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1981-01-01

    The integrated route analysis provides a data base for the second phase of the Arctic Pilot Project, the selection of a shipping corridor over which LNG icebreaking carriers will transport liquified...

  9. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  10. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  11. Industrial Vehicle Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2008-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently solve VRP instances with more than 50-100 customers in reasonable time, which is generally a sma...

  12. Application of Fluorescent Quantum Dots Synthesized via Chemical Routes in Fingerprints Development%化学合成荧光量子点在指纹显现中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余雪娇; 刘建军; 于迎春; 左胜利

    2012-01-01

    The importance of quantum dots(QDs) in fingerprints development, the preparation and optical properties of quantum dots are summarized in the paper. Especially recent progress of chemical synthesis, modification and application in fingerprint development of II ~ VI quantum dots such as CdS series, CdTe series, CdSe series, ZnSe series, III ~ V quantum dots such as InP are discussed. Finally, the recent research of IV quantum dots( C and Si QDs) and the prospect for potential application in crime scence are also discussed.%简要阐述了量子点的光学特性、制备方法及其在指纹显现中的应用.重点介绍了Ⅱ~Ⅵ族的CdS基、CdTe基、CdSe基、ZnSe基量子点和Ⅲ~Ⅴ族的InP量子点的化学合成、修饰及其在指纹显现中的研究进展,最后介绍了第Ⅳ族C、Si量子点的研究现状,并对其在指纹显现中的潜在应用作了展望.

  13. Scan Quantum Mechanics: Quantum Inertia Stops Superposition

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    A novel interpretation of the quantum mechanical superposition is put forward. Quantum systems scan all possible available states and switch randomly and very rapidly among them. The longer they remain in a given state, the larger the probability of the system to be found in that state during a measurement. A crucial property that we postulate is quantum inertia, that increases whenever a constituent is added, or the system is perturbed with all kinds of interactions. Once the quantum inertia $I_q$ reaches a critical value $I_{cr}$ for an observable, the switching among the different eigenvalues of that observable stops and the corresponding superposition comes to an end. Consequently, increasing the mass, temperature, gravitational force, etc. of a quantum system increases its quantum inertia until the superposition of states disappears for all the observables and the system transmutes into a classical one. The process could be reversible decreasing the size, temperature, gravitational force, etc. leading to...

  14. Routing Service Quality—Local Driver Behavior Versus Routing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    experiments with real vehicle trajectory data and an existing online navigation service. It is found that the availability of information about previous trips enables better prediction of route travel time and makes it possible to provide the users with more popular routes than does a conventional navigation...... of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...

  15. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.

  16. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varyi...

  17. The power of a critical heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Michele; Fazio, Rosario

    2016-06-01

    Since its inception about two centuries ago thermodynamics has sparkled continuous interest and fundamental questions. According to the second law no heat engine can have an efficiency larger than Carnot's efficiency. The latter can be achieved by the Carnot engine, which however ideally operates in infinite time, hence delivers null power. A currently open question is whether the Carnot efficiency can be achieved at finite power. Most of the previous works addressed this question within the Onsager matrix formalism of linear response theory. Here we pursue a different route based on finite-size-scaling theory. We focus on quantum Otto engines and show that when the working substance is at the verge of a second order phase transition diverging energy fluctuations can enable approaching the Carnot point without sacrificing power. The rate of such approach is dictated by the critical indices, thus showing the universal character of our analysis.

  18. The power of a critical heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Michele; Fazio, Rosario

    2016-06-20

    Since its inception about two centuries ago thermodynamics has sparkled continuous interest and fundamental questions. According to the second law no heat engine can have an efficiency larger than Carnot's efficiency. The latter can be achieved by the Carnot engine, which however ideally operates in infinite time, hence delivers null power. A currently open question is whether the Carnot efficiency can be achieved at finite power. Most of the previous works addressed this question within the Onsager matrix formalism of linear response theory. Here we pursue a different route based on finite-size-scaling theory. We focus on quantum Otto engines and show that when the working substance is at the verge of a second order phase transition diverging energy fluctuations can enable approaching the Carnot point without sacrificing power. The rate of such approach is dictated by the critical indices, thus showing the universal character of our analysis.

  19. Location-routing problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporte, G.

    1987-01-01

    Location-routing problems involve simultaneously locating a number of facilities among candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. This paper presents a survey of such problems. It includes some applications and examples of location-routing problems, a description of the main heuristics that have been developed for such problems, and reviews of various formulations and algorithms used in solving these problems. A more detailed review is given of exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem, three-index vehicle flow formulations, and two-index vehicle flow formulations and algorithms for symmetrical and non-symmetrical problems. It is concluded that location-routing problem research is a fast-growing area, with most developments occurring over the past few years; however, research is relatively fragmented, often addresses problems which are too specific and contains several voids which have yet to be filled. A number of promising research areas are identified. 137 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Quantum inertia stops superposition: Scan Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    Scan Quantum Mechanics is a novel interpretation of some aspects of quantum mechanics in which the superposition of states is only an approximate effective concept. Quantum systems scan all possible states in the superposition and switch randomly and very rapidly among them. A crucial property that we postulate is quantum inertia, that increases whenever a constituent is added, or the system is perturbed with all kinds of interactions. Once the quantum inertia Iq reaches a critical value Icr for an observable, the switching among its different eigenvalues stops and the corresponding superposition comes to an end, leaving behind a system with a well defined value of that observable. Consequently, increasing the mass, temperature, gravitational strength, etc. of a quantum system increases its quantum inertia until the superposition of states disappears for all the observables and the system transmutes into a classical one. Moreover, the process could be reversible. Entanglement can only occur between quantum systems because an exact synchronization between the switchings of the systems involved must be established in the first place and classical systems do not have any switchings to start with. Future experiments might determine the critical inertia Icr corresponding to different observables, which translates into a critical mass Mcr for fixed environmental conditions as well as critical temperatures, critical electric and magnetic fields, etc. In addition, this proposal implies a new radiation mechanism from astrophysical objects with strong gravitational fields, giving rise to non-thermal synchrotron emission, that could contribute to neutron star formation. Superconductivity, superfluidity, Bose-Einstein condensates, and any other physical phenomena at very low temperatures must be reanalyzed in the light of this interpretation, as well as mesoscopic systems in general.

  1. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  2. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  3. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  4. Routing strategy in a distribution network when the driver learning effect is considered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battini, Daria; Faccio, Maurizio; Persona, Alessandro;

    2015-01-01

    This paper faces one critical short term decision: the construction of routes for daily goods' deliveries in a distribution network. It investigates the possibility of applying a fixed routing strategy instead of a daily routing optimisation strategy, analysing the benefits derived from the drive...

  5. FastRoute: An Efficient and High-Quality Global Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern large-scale circuit designs have created great demand for fast and high-quality global routing algorithms to resolve the routing congestion at the global level. Rip-up and reroute scheme has been employed by the majority of academic and industrial global routers today, which iteratively resolve the congestion by recreating the routing path based on current congestion. This method is proved to be the most practical routing framework. However, the traditional iterative maze routing technique converges very slowly and easily gets stuck at local optimal solutions. In this work, we propose a very efficient and high-quality global router—FastRoute. FastRoute integrates several novel techniques: fast congestion-driven via-aware Steiner tree construction, 3-bend routing, virtual capacity adjustment, multisource multi-sink maze routing, and spiral layer assignment. These techniques not only address the routing congestion measured at the edges of global routing grids but also minimize the total wirelength and via usage, which is critical for subsequent detailed routing, yield, and manufacturability. Experimental results show that FastRoute is highly effective and efficient to solve ISPD07 and ISPD08 global routing benchmark suites. The results outperform recently published academic global routers in both routability and runtime. In particular, for ISPD07 and ISPD08 global routing benchmarks, FastRoute generates 12 congestion-free solutions out of 16 benchmarks with a speed significantly faster than other routers.

  6. Routing Issues in Opportunistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marco; Crowcroft, Jon; Giordano, Silvia; Hui, Pan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Passarella, Andrea

    The opportunistic networking idea stems from the critical review of the research field on Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). After more than ten years of research in the MANET field, this promising technology still has not massively entered the mass market. One of the main reasons of this is nowadays seen in the lack of a practical approach to the design of infrastructure-less multi-hop ad hoc networks [186, 185]. One of the main approaches of conventional MANET research is to design protocols that mask the features of mobile networks via the routing (and transport) layer, so as to expose to higher layers an Internet-like network abstraction. Wireless networks’ peculiarities, such as mobility of users, disconnection of nodes, network partitions, links’ instability, are seen—as in the legacy Internet—as exceptions. This often results in the design of MANET network stacks that are significantly complex and unstable [107].

  7. Quantum rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Gomez, Richard B.; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2003-08-01

    In recent years, computer graphics has emerged as a critical component of the scientific and engineering process, and it is recognized as an important computer science research area. Computer graphics are extensively used for a variety of aerospace and defense training systems and by Hollywood's special effects companies. All these applications require the computer graphics systems to produce high quality renderings of extremely large data sets in short periods of time. Much research has been done in "classical computing" toward the development of efficient methods and techniques to reduce the rendering time required for large datasets. Quantum Computing's unique algorithmic features offer the possibility of speeding up some of the known rendering algorithms currently used in computer graphics. In this paper we discuss possible implementations of quantum rendering algorithms. In particular, we concentrate on the implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm for Z-buffering, ray-tracing, radiosity, and scene management techniques. We also compare the theoretical performance between the classical and quantum versions of the algorithms.

  8. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  9. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  10. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  11. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  12. Vehicle Routing Problem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonči Carić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem cannot always be solved exactly,so that in actual application this problem is solved heuristically.The work describes the concept of several concrete VRPmodels with simplified initial conditions (all vehicles are ofequal capacity and start from a single warehouse, suitable tosolve problems in cases with up to 50 users.

  13. Reliable Internet Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    reconfigurations. Proposals that optimize OSPF or IS-IS link weights with failures in mind, such as [34] and [72], must rely on shortest path IGP routing...tolerant layer 2 data center network fabric. In Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, pages 39–50, 2009. [72] A. Nucci, S. Bhattacharyya, N. Taft, and C. Diot. IGP link

  14. Electric-field-induced energy tuning of on-demand entangled-photon emission from self-assembled quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Höfer, Bianca; Chen, Yan; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Böttner, Stefan; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-01-01

    The scalability of quantum dot based non-classical light sources relies on the control over their dissimilar emission energies. Electric fields offer a promising route to tune the quantum dot emission energy through the quantum-confined Stark effect. However, electric fields have been mostly used for tuning the energy of single-photon emission from quantum dots, while electrical control over the energy of entangled-photon emission, which is crucial for building a solid-state quantum repeater using indistinguishable entangled photons, has not been realized yet. Here, we present a method to achieve electrical control over the energy of entangled-photon emission from quantum dots. The device consists of an electrically-tunable quantum diode integrated onto a piezoactuator. We find that, through application of a vertical electric field, the critical uniaxial stress used to eliminate the fine-structure-splitting of quantum dots can be linearly tuned. This allows realization of a triggered source of energy-tunable ...

  15. Interference and inequality in quantum decision theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Taksu, E-mail: taksu.cheon@kochi-tech.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Kochi University of Technology, Tosa Yamada, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Taiki, E-mail: ttakahashi@lynx.let.hokudai.ac.j [Laboratory of Social Psychology, Department of Behavioral Science, Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University, N.10, W.7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2010-12-01

    The quantum decision theory is examined in its simplest form of two-condition two-choice setting. A set of inequalities to be satisfied by any quantum conditional probability describing the decision process is derived. Experimental data indicating the breakdown of classical explanations are critically examined with quantum theory using the full set of quantum phases.

  16. Quantum leaps of black holes: Magnifying glasses of quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2016-01-01

    We show using simple arguments, that the conceptual triad of a {\\it classical} black hole, semi-classical Hawking emission and geometry quantization is inherently, mutually incompatible. Presence of any two explicitly violates the third. We argue that geometry quantization, if realized in nature, magnifies the quantum gravity features hugely to catapult them into the realm of observational possibilities. We also explore a quantum route towards extremality of the black holes.

  17. Quantum leaps of black holes: Magnifying glasses of quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; Lochan, Kinjalk

    2016-10-01

    We show using simple arguments, that the conceptual triad of a classical black hole, semi-classical Hawking emission and geometry quantization is inherently, mutually incompatible. Presence of any two explicitly violates the third. We argue that geometry quantization, if realized in nature, magnifies the quantum gravity features hugely to catapult them into the realm of observational possibilities. We also explore a quantum route towards extremality of the black holes.

  18. Quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shu-Shen; Long, Gui-lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization.

  19. Route Repetition and Route Retracing: Effects of Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Malte Wiener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing, the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shifts from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  20. 多车型车辆路径问题的量子遗传算法研究%Study on Multi-types Vehicle Routing Problem and Its Quantum Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛显龙; 许茂增; 王伟鑫

    2013-01-01

    本文在分析现有文献中多车型车辆路径问题中车辆使用优先原则的基础上,将车辆使用费用分为固定费用和油耗费用,并建立以配送总费用最小为优化目标的数学模型.设计量子遗传算法对模型进行求解,采用量子比特位设计染色体结构,改进遗传算法中交叉与变异算子,避免优秀基因不被破坏,设计快速寻优机制与最优保留机制,增强的求解效率.最后,结合算例对模型和算法进行了检验与分析.%Based on analysis of using the priority principle in the problem of multi-vehicle scheduling in the available literature, the using cost of vehicle is divided into consumption costs and fixed costs. A mathematical model is established for the target of minimum total distribution cost. Then Quantum genetic algorithm is designed to solve the model, the chromosome structure is designed by quantum bits, and the crossover and mutation operators are improved in the genetic algorithm to avoid the destruction of good genes. The rapid searching mechanism and best preservation mechanism are designed in the evolution of the quantum rotation gate to accelerate the convergence speed. Finally, the model and algorithm are analyzed and tested by examples.

  1. Multicast QoS routing algorithm based on quantum genetic algorithm%一种基于量子遗传算法的多播路由算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟维嘉; 庞伟正

    2006-01-01

    提出了一种基于量子遗传算法QGA(quantum genetic algorithm)解决多播QoS (quality of service)路由问题的算法.介绍了量子遗传算法的基本原理, 给出了算法实现的方法和具体流程,并进行了量子遗传算法在多播路由选择优化方面的仿真实验,证明了量子遗传算法优于常规遗传算法.

  2. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...

  3. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum light–matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories. PMID:27695198

  4. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G; Humphreys, Peter C; Bustard, Philip J; Acosta, Victor M; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2016-11-12

    Quantum light-matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.

  5. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.

  6. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  7. Topological phases: Wormholes in quantum matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoutens, K.

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation of so-called anyonic defects in a topological phase of quantum matter leads to a critical state that can be visualized as a 'quantum foam', with topology-changing fluctuations on all length scales.

  8. Electronic route information panels (DRIPs).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Also in the Netherlands, the term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates whether there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination and how long they are. On certain locations DRIPS also give the estimated tr

  9. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  10. Effective local dynamic routing strategy for air route networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wenjun; Zhao Lingxi

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of air transportation, network service ability has attracted a lot of attention in academe. Aiming to improve the throughput of the air route network (ARN), we propose an effective local dynamic routing strategy in this paper. Several factors, such as the rout-ing distance, the geographical distance and the real-time local traffic, are taken into consideration. When the ARN is in the normal free-flow state, the proposed strategy can recover the shortest path routing (SPR) strategy. When the ARN undergoes congestion, the proposed strategy changes the paths of flights based on the real-time local traffic information. The throughput of the Chinese air route network (CARN) is evaluated. Results confirm that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the throughput of CARN. Meanwhile, the increase in the average flying distance and time is tiny. Results also indicate the importance of the distance related factors in a routing strategy designed for the ARN.

  11. Critical scaling in the large-$N$ $O(N)$ model in higher dimensions and its possible connection to quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mati, P

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the critical scaling of the large-$N$ $O(N)$ model in higher dimensions using the exact renormalization group equations, motivated by the recently found non-trivial fixed point in $4critical potential. Particular attention is paid to the case of $d=5$ where the scaling exponent $\

  12. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  13. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  14. Fault-tolerant quantum computation

    CERN Document Server

    Preskill, J

    1997-01-01

    The discovery of quantum error correction has greatly improved the long-term prospects for quantum computing technology. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment, or due to imperfect implementations of quantum logical operations. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. In principle, an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be performed reliably, provided that the average probability of error per gate is less than a certain critical value, the accuracy threshold. It may be possible to incorporate intrinsic fault tolerance into the design of quantum computing hardware, perhaps by invoking topological Aharonov-Bohm interactions to process quantum information.

  15. Quantum Small-world Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zong-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2011-01-01

    Quantum networks are critical to quantum communication and distributed quantum computing. Here we propose a small-world model of large-scale quantum repeater networks, where "small-world" is a fundamental concept rooted in complex networks, which describe a broad range of real systems. The core of the model is to relate the hierarchical fashion of measurements to coarse-graining process, when quantum repeater protocols are implemented. We demonstrate that quantum repeater networks with fractal structure can be enlarged with certain length scale in geographic space, while preserving topology by performing renormalization. Actually, renormalization here serves as an organizing principle determining the distribution of long-range entangled links over quantum networks, which gives rise to fractal to small-world transition. Furthermore, by iterative implementation of renormalization on the former coarse-grained network, we eventually obtain an onion-like, hierarchical quantum small-world network, where the distanc...

  16. Storage and flood routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  17. Nonequilibrium quantum mechanics: A "hot quantum soup" of paramagnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, H. D.; Sushkov, O. P.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent measurements of the lifetime (decay width) of paramagnons in quantum antiferromagnet TlCuCl3, we investigate paramagnon decay in a heat bath and formulate an appropriate quantum theory. Our formulation can be split into two regimes: (i) a nonperturbative, "hot quantum soup" regime where the paramagnon width is comparable to its energy; (ii) a usual perturbative regime where the paramagnon width is significantly lower than its energy. Close to the Neel temperature, the paramagnon width becomes comparable to its energy and falls into the hot quantum soup regime. To describe this regime, we develop a new finite frequency, finite temperature technique for a nonlinear quantum field theory; the "golden rule of quantum kinetics." The formulation is generic and applicable to any three-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet in the vicinity of a quantum critical point. Specifically, we apply our results to TlCuCl3 and find agreement with experimental data. Additionally, we show that logarithmic running of the coupling constant in the upper critical dimension changes the commonly accepted picture of the quantum disordered and quantum critical regimes.

  18. Instability Free Routing: Beyond One Protocol Instance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    assigned a Rout- ing Information Base (RIB) [13]. This database is used to store the routing information related to the routing process (e.g., routes...presents routing anomalies that can derive from route selection by itself, i.e., without any route redis - tribution configured between the routing... redis - tributed into the RIP protocol, all RIP messages received from the neighbors are in fact discarded independently of the AD values. This

  19. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  20. Isotope-based quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    G Plekhanov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial...

  1. 14 CFR 121.115 - Route width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Route width. (a) Routes and route segments over Federal airways, foreign airways, or advisory routes have a width equal to the designated width of those airways or advisory routes. Whenever the... clearance. (2) Minimum en route altitudes. (3) Ground and airborne navigation aids. (4) Air traffic density...

  2. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  3. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Koussis; K. Mazi; S. Lykoudis; Argiriou, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses); therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised). Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing...

  4. Quantum cellular automata and free quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    In a series of recent papers [1-4] it has been shown how free quantum field theory can be derived without using mechanical primitives (including space-time, special relativity, quantization rules, etc.), but only considering the easiest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the simple principles of unitarity, homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. This has opened the route to extending the axiomatic information-theoretic derivation of the quantum theory of abstract systems [5, 6] to include quantum field theory. The inherent discrete nature of the informational axiomatization leads to an extension of quantum field theory to a quantum cellular automata theory, where the usual field theory is recovered in a regime where the discrete structure of the automata cannot be probed. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale of discreteness to the Planck scale, and the customary physical regime where discreteness is not visible is the relativistic one of small wavevectors. In this paper we provide a thorough derivation from principles that in the most general case the graph of the quantum cellular automaton is the Cayley graph of a finitely presented group, and showing how for the case corresponding to Euclidean emergent space (where the group resorts to an Abelian one) the automata leads to Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell field dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some perspectives towards the more general scenario of non-linear automata for interacting quantum field theory.

  5. Turbocharging Quantum Tomography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin J; Gamble, John King,; Nielsen, Erik; Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm; Scholten, Travis L.; Rudinger, Kenneth Michael

    2015-01-01

    Quantum tomography is used to characterize quantum operations implemented in quantum information processing (QIP) hardware. Traditionally, state tomography has been used to characterize the quantum state prepared in an initialization procedure, while quantum process tomography is used to characterize dynamical operations on a QIP system. As such, tomography is critical to the development of QIP hardware (since it is necessary both for debugging and validating as-built devices, and its results are used to influence the next generation of devices). But tomography su %7C ers from several critical drawbacks. In this report, we present new research that resolves several of these flaws. We describe a new form of tomography called gate set tomography (GST), which unifies state and process tomography, avoids prior methods critical reliance on precalibrated operations that are not generally available, and can achieve unprecedented accuracies. We report on theory and experimental development of adaptive tomography protocols that achieve far higher fidelity in state reconstruction than non-adaptive methods. Finally, we present a new theoretical and experimental analysis of process tomography on multispin systems, and demonstrate how to more e %7C ectively detect and characterize quantum noise using carefully tailored ensembles of input states.

  6. Turbocharging Quantum Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gamble, John King [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nielsen, Erik [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scholten, Travis L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Quantum tomography is used to characterize quantum operations implemented in quantum information processing (QIP) hardware. Traditionally, state tomography has been used to characterize the quantum state prepared in an initialization procedure, while quantum process tomography is used to characterize dynamical operations on a QIP system. As such, tomography is critical to the development of QIP hardware (since it is necessary both for debugging and validating as-built devices, and its results are used to influence the next generation of devices). But tomography suffers from several critical drawbacks. In this report, we present new research that resolves several of these flaws. We describe a new form of tomography called gate set tomography (GST), which unifies state and process tomography, avoids prior methods critical reliance on precalibrated operations that are not generally available, and can achieve unprecedented accuracies. We report on theory and experimental development of adaptive tomography protocols that achieve far higher fidelity in state reconstruction than non-adaptive methods. Finally, we present a new theoretical and experimental analysis of process tomography on multispin systems, and demonstrate how to more effectively detect and characterize quantum noise using carefully tailored ensembles of input states.

  7. On-chip generation and guiding of quantum light from a site-controlled quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Jamil, Ayesha; Kalliakos, Sokratis; Schwagmann, Andre; Ward, Martin B; Brody, Yarden; Ellis, David J P; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P; Jones, Geb A C; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the emission and routing of single photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an actively positioned InAs quantum dot. Device scale arrays of quantum dots are formed by a two step regrowth process. We precisely locate the propagating region of a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide with respect to the quantum dot nucleation site. Under pulsed optical excitation, the multiphoton emission probability from the exit of the waveguide is 12 \\pm 5 % before any background correction. Our results are a major step towards the deterministic integration of a quantum emitter with the waveguiding components of photonic quantum circuits.

  8. On-chip generation and guiding of quantum light from a site-controlled quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Ayesha; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P.; Jones, Geb A. C.; Ritchie, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Kalliakos, Sokratis; Ward, Martin B.; Ellis, David J. P.; Shields, Andrew J., E-mail: andrew.shields@crl.toshiba.co.uk [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Schwagmann, Andre; Brody, Yarden [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate the emission and routing of single photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an actively positioned InAs quantum dot. Device–scale arrays of quantum dots are formed by a two–step regrowth process. We precisely locate the propagating region of a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide with respect to the quantum dot nucleation site. Under pulsed optical excitation, the multiphoton emission probability from the waveguide's exit is 12% ± 5% before any background correction. Our results are a major step towards the deterministic integration of a quantum emitter with the waveguiding components of photonic quantum circuits.

  9. Experimental demonstration of a quantum router

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, X X; Hou, P -Y; Chang, X -Y; Zu, C; Duan, L -M

    2015-01-01

    The router is a key element for a network. We describe a scheme to realize genuine quantum routing of single-photon pulses based on cascading of conditional quantum gates in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and report a proof-of-principle experiment for its demonstration using linear optics quantum gates. The polarization of the control photon routes in a coherent way the path of the signal photon while preserving the qubit state of the signal photon represented by its polarization. We demonstrate quantum nature of this router by showing entanglement generated between the initially unentangled control and signal photons, and confirm that the qubit state of the signal photon is well preserved by the router through quantum process tomography.

  10. Experimental demonstration of a quantum router.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X X; Ma, J-J; Hou, P-Y; Chang, X-Y; Zu, C; Duan, L-M

    2015-07-22

    The router is a key element for a network. We describe a scheme to realize genuine quantum routing of single-photon pulses based on cascading of conditional quantum gates in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and report a proof-of-principle experiment for its demonstration using linear optics quantum gates. The polarization of the control photon routes in a coherent way the path of the signal photon while preserving the qubit state of the signal photon represented by its polarization. We demonstrate quantum nature of this router by showing entanglement generated between the initially unentangled control and signal photons, and confirm that the qubit state of the signal photon is well preserved by the router through quantum process tomography.

  11. Experimental demonstration of a quantum router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X. X.; Ma, J.-J.; Hou, P.-Y.; Chang, X.-Y.; Zu, C.; Duan, L.-M.

    2015-01-01

    The router is a key element for a network. We describe a scheme to realize genuine quantum routing of single-photon pulses based on cascading of conditional quantum gates in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and report a proof-of-principle experiment for its demonstration using linear optics quantum gates. The polarization of the control photon routes in a coherent way the path of the signal photon while preserving the qubit state of the signal photon represented by its polarization. We demonstrate quantum nature of this router by showing entanglement generated between the initially unentangled control and signal photons, and confirm that the qubit state of the signal photon is well preserved by the router through quantum process tomography. PMID:26197928

  12. Quantum stochastics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Mou-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...

  13. Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, A M

    1998-01-01

    The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarise not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, the review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the EPR experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from classical information theory, and, arguably, quantum from classical physics. Basic quantum information ideas are described, including key distribution, teleportation, data compression, quantum error correction, the universal quantum computer and qua...

  14. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  15. Preparation of AgInS2 quantum dot/In2S3 co-sensitized photoelectrodes by a facile aqueous-phase synthesis route and their photovoltaic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi

    2015-03-01

    In an aqueous-phase system, AgInS2 quantum dot (QD) sensitized TiO2 photoanodes were prepared in situ by the reaction of β-In2S3 nanocrystals and as-prepared TiO2/Ag2S-QD electrodes, followed by a covering process with a ZnS passivation layer. A facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was adopted to obtain TiO2/Ag2S-QD electrodes. β-In2S3 nanocrystals synthesized by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) process serve as the reactant of AgInS2 as well as a buffer layer between the interfaces of TiO2 and AgInS2-QDs. A polysulfide electrolyte and a Pt-coated FTO glass count electrode were used to test the photovoltaic performance of the constructed devices. The characteristics of the sensitized photoelectrodes were studied in more detail by electron microscopy, X-ray techniques, and optical and photoelectric performance measurements. AgInS2 is the main photo-sensitizer for TiO2/AgInS2-QD/In2S3 electrodes and excess In2S3 appears on the surface of the electrodes. Based on the optimal Ag2S SILAR cycle, the best photovoltaic performance of the prepared TiO2/AgInS2-QD/In2S3 electrode with the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 7.87 mA cm-2 and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.70% under full one-sun illumination was achieved.In an aqueous-phase system, AgInS2 quantum dot (QD) sensitized TiO2 photoanodes were prepared in situ by the reaction of β-In2S3 nanocrystals and as-prepared TiO2/Ag2S-QD electrodes, followed by a covering process with a ZnS passivation layer. A facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was adopted to obtain TiO2/Ag2S-QD electrodes. β-In2S3 nanocrystals synthesized by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) process serve as the reactant of AgInS2 as well as a buffer layer between the interfaces of TiO2 and AgInS2-QDs. A polysulfide electrolyte and a Pt-coated FTO glass count electrode were used to test the photovoltaic performance of the constructed devices. The characteristics of the

  16. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  17. Quantum Blobs

    OpenAIRE

    Gosson, Maurice A. de

    2012-01-01

    Quantum blobs are the smallest phase space units of phase space compatible with the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics and having the symplectic group as group of symmetries. Quantum blobs are in a bijective correspondence with the squeezed coherent states from standard quantum mechanics, of which they are a phase space picture. This allows us to propose a substitute for phase space in quantum mechanics. We study the relationship between quantum blobs with a certain class of level set...

  18. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  19. A Primer of Multicast Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Whereas unicast routing determines a path from one source node to one destination node, multicast routing determines a path from one source to many destinations, or from many sources to many destinations. We survey multicast routing methods for when the set of destinations is static, and for when it is dynamic. While most of the methods we review are tree based, some non-tree methods are also discussed. We survey results on the shape of multicast trees, delay constrained multicast routing, aggregation of multicast traffic, inter-domain multicast, and multicast virtual private networks. We focu

  20. Alternative routes of insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnankutty, Ranjith K; Mathew, Aju; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2009-10-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.