Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei
2013-01-01
Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.
Haven, Emmanuel
2013-01-01
Written by world experts in the foundations of quantum mechanics and its applications to social science, this book shows how elementary quantum mechanical principles can be applied to decision-making paradoxes in psychology and used in modelling information in finance and economics. The book starts with a thorough overview of some of the salient differences between classical, statistical and quantum mechanics. It presents arguments on why quantum mechanics can be applied outside of physics and defines quantum social science. The issue of the existence of quantum probabilistic effects in psychology, economics and finance is addressed and basic questions and answers are provided. Aimed at researchers in economics and psychology, as well as physics, basic mathematical preliminaries and elementary concepts from quantum mechanics are defined in a self-contained way.
Preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh; Yoo, Jae Gwon; Park, Seong Hee
2000-07-01
The preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source based on a superconducting electron accelerator is presented. The advanced quantum beams include: high power free electron lasers, monochromatic X-rays and {gamma}-rays, high-power medium-energy electrons, high-flux pulsed neutrons, and high-flux monochromatic slow positron beam. The AQBS system is being re-designed, assuming that the SPS superconducting RF cavities used for LEP at CERN will revived as a main accelerator of the AQBS system at KAERI, after the decommissioning of LEP at the end of 2000. Technical issues of using the SPS superconducting RF cavities for the AQBS project are discussed in this report. The advanced quantum beams will be used for advanced researches in science and industries.
Quantum mechanics of charged particle beam optics
Khan, Sameen Ahmed
2018-01-01
Theory of charged particle beam optics is basic to the design and working of charged particle beam devices from electron microscopes to accelerator machines. Traditionally, the optical elements of the devices are designed and operated based on classical mechanics and classical electromagnetism, and only certain specific quantum mechanical aspects are dealt with separately using quantum theory. This book provides a systematic approach to quantum theory of charged particle beam optics, particularly in the high energy cases such as accelerators or high energy electron microscopy.
Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays.
Lee, Benjamin G; Kansky, Jan; Goyal, Anish K; Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Belkin, Mikhail A; Sanchez, Antonio; Capasso, Federico A
2009-08-31
Wavelength beam combining was used to co-propagate beams from 28 elements in an array of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs). The beam-quality product of the array, defined as the product of near-field spot size and far-field divergence for the entire array, was improved by a factor of 21 by using wavelength beam combining. To demonstrate the applicability of wavelength beam combined DFB-QCL arrays for remote sensing, we obtained the absorption spectrum of isopropanol at a distance of 6 m from the laser array.
Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters
Uppu, Ravitej; Wolterink, Tom A. W.; Tentrup, Tristan B. H.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.
2016-07-01
We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2$\\times$2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering matrix. Our analysis using the noise operator formalism shows that the loss allows tunability of quantum interference to an extent not possible with a lossless beam splitter. Our theoretical studies support the experimental demonstrations of programmable quantum interference in highly multimodal systems such as opaque scattering media and multimode fibers.
Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters
Uppu, Ravitej; Tentrup, Tristan B H; Pinkse, Pepijn W H
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2$\\times$2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering matrix. Our analysis using the noise operator formalism shows that the loss allows tunability of quantum interference to an extent not possible with a lossless beam splitter. Our theoretical studies support the experimental demonstrations of programmable quantum interference in highly multimodal systems such as opaque scattering media and multimode fibers.
Quantum Information Science: An Update
Kwek, L. C.; Zen, Freddy P.
2016-08-01
It is now roughly thirty years since the incipient ideas on quantum information science was concretely formalized. Over the last three decades, there has been much development in this field, and at least one technology, namely devices for quantum cryptography, is now commercialized. Yet, the holy grail of a workable quantum computing machine still lies faraway at the horizon. In any case, it took nearly several centuries before the vacuum tubes were invented after the first mechanical calculating were constructed, and several decades later, for the transistor to bring the current computer technology to fruition. In this review, we provide a short survey of the current development and progress in quantum information science. It clearly does not do justice to the amount of work in the past thirty years. Nevertheless, despite the modest attempt, this review hopes to induce younger researchers into this exciting field.
Materials Science with Ion Beams
Bernas, Harry
2010-01-01
This book introduces materials scientists and designers, physicists and chemists to the properties of materials that can be modified by ion irradiation or implantation. These techniques can help design new materials or to test modified properties; novel applications already show that ion-beam techniques are complementary to others, yielding previously unattainable properties. Also, ion-beam interactions modify materials at the nanoscale, avoiding the often detrimental results of lithographic or chemical techniques. Here, the effects are related to better-known quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics, and the consequences to materials are discussed with concepts that are familiar to materials science. Examples addressed concern semiconductor physics, crystal and nanocluster growth, optics, magnetism, and applications to geology and biology.
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...
Welcome to Quantum Science and Technology
Thew, Rob
2016-03-01
Quantum information science and related technologies now involve thousands of researchers worldwide, cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering, bioscience, applied mathematics and computer science, extending from fundamental science to novel applications and industry. This situation defines the scope and mission of Quantum Science and Technology, a new IOP journal serving the interests of this multidisciplinary field by publishing research of the highest quality and impact.
Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond
Hou, P.-Y.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Yuan, X.-X.; Chang, X.-Y.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Duan, L.-M.
2016-05-01
With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Here, building on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6+/-1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science.
ASCR Workshop on Quantum Computing for Science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aspuru-Guzik, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Dam, Wim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farhi, Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaitan, Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humble, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jordan, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Landahl, Andrew J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lucas, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Preskill, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muller, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Svore, Krysta [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiebe, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Carl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-06-01
This report details the findings of the DOE ASCR Workshop on Quantum Computing for Science that was organized to assess the viability of quantum computing technologies to meet the computational requirements of the DOE’s science and energy mission, and to identify the potential impact of quantum technologies. The workshop was held on February 17-18, 2015, in Bethesda, MD, to solicit input from members of the quantum computing community. The workshop considered models of quantum computation and programming environments, physical science applications relevant to DOE's science mission as well as quantum simulation, and applied mathematics topics including potential quantum algorithms for linear algebra, graph theory, and machine learning. This report summarizes these perspectives into an outlook on the opportunities for quantum computing to impact problems relevant to the DOE’s mission as well as the additional research required to bring quantum computing to the point where it can have such impact.
Introduction to quantum information science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Masahito [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Ishizaka, Satoshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Kawachi, Akinori [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Computing Sciences; Kimura, Gen [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan). College of Systems Engineering and Science; Ogawa, Tomohiro [Univ. of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Information Systems
2015-04-01
Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error
Asymmetric chemical reactions by polarized quantum beams
Takahashi, Jun-Ichi; Kobayashi, Kensei
One of the most attractive hypothesis for the origin of homochirality in terrestrial bio-organic compounds (L-amino acid and D-sugar dominant) is nominated as "Cosmic Scenario"; a chiral impulse from asymmetric excitation sources in space triggered asymmetric reactions on the surfaces of such space materials as meteorites or interstellar dusts prior to the existence of terrestrial life. 1) Effective asymmetric excitation sources in space are proposed as polarized quantum beams, such as circularly polarized light and spin polarized electrons. Circularly polarized light is emitted as synchrotron radiation from tightly captured electrons by intense magnetic field around neutron stars. In this case, either left-or right-handed polarized light can be observed depending on the direction of observation. On the other hand, spin polarized electrons is emitted as beta-ray in beta decay from radioactive nuclei or neutron fireballs in supernova explosion. 2) The spin of beta-ray electrons is longitudinally polarized due to parity non-conservation in the weak interaction. The helicity (the the projection of the spin onto the direction of kinetic momentum) of beta-ray electrons is universally negative (left-handed). For the purpose of verifying the asymmetric structure emergence in bio-organic compounds by polarized quantum beams, we are now carrying out laboratory simulations using circularly polarized light from synchrotron radiation facility or spin polarized electron beam from beta-ray radiation source. 3,4) The target samples are solid film or aqueous solution of racemic amino acids. 1) K.Kobayashi, K.Kaneko, J.Takahashi, Y.Takano, in Astrobiology: from simple molecules to primitive life; Ed. V.Basiuk; American Scientific Publisher: Valencia, 2008. 2) G.A.Gusev, T.Saito, V.A.Tsarev, A.V.Uryson, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere. 37, 259 (2007). 3) J.Takahashi, H.Shinojima, M.Seyama, Y.Ueno, T.Kaneko, K.Kobayashi, H.Mita, M.Adachi, M.Hosaka, M.Katoh, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, 3044
Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond
Hou, Panyu; Huang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Xinxing; Chang, Xiuying; Zu, Chong; He, Li; Duan, Luming; CenterQuantum Information, IIIS, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China Team; Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA Team
2016-05-01
Quantum teleportation is an unusual disembodied form of quantum information transfer through pre-shared entanglement and classical communication, which has found important applications for realization of various quantum technologies. It is of both fundamental interest and practical importance to push quantum teleportation towards macroscopic objects. With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Built on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states in diamond, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum state tomography, we demonstrate an average teleportation fidelity (90.6 +/- 1.0)%, exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for quantum foundational studies, optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science. Center for Quantum Information, IIIS, Tsinghua University.
Quantum Sensors at the Intersections of Fundamental Science, Quantum Information Science & Computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chattopadhyay, Swapan [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Falcone, Roger [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Walsworth, Ronald [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)
2016-02-25
Over the last twenty years, there has been a boom in quantum science - i.e., the development and exploitation of quantum systems to enable qualitatively and quantitatively new capabilities, with high-impact applications and fundamental insights that can range across all areas of science and technology.
ION BEAM TECHNOLOGY IN MATERIALS SCIENCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.B. Dutt
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Ion beam processing of materials in general and semiconductors in particular, started with ion implantation in semiconductors; first used by Ohl at Bell Labs in 1952 toimprove the electrical characteristics of silicon point contact diodes by implanting H, He, N and Ar ions.The improvement was obvious but it was caused by surface damage and notthe ion implantation. However, in the process, ion implantation had an entry and slowly it became popular among the scientists and the technocrats. Thus, over the last six decades, demands continued for new and improved materials and devices that has pushed ion implanter to expand to ion beam technology. In the semiconductor industry alone, the processes have evolved so much so that in todays world, there are morethan 4000 ion implanters in the IC fab lines apart from otherion beam-assisted processing machines. Ion beam deposition techniques, ion beam lithography, ion beam etching, ion beammilling are all ion beam beam-assisted techniques that arebeing extensively used in semiconductor industries. In this backdrop, it was thought that a compilation of uses of allthese techniques together with relevant tools of analysis toserve as a guide to the semiconductor scientists and technologists for a glimpse of the ongoing efforts being madein this direction. Fortunately enough, Indian research is not lagging in use of all these modern day technologies that will be evident as the reader will go from one article to the other of this special volume.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.328-328, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1530
Conditional beam splitting attack on quantum key distribution
Calsamiglia, John; Barnett, Stephen M.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2001-01-01
We present a novel attack on quantum key distribution based on the idea of adaptive absorption [calsam01]. The conditional beam splitting attack is shown to be much more efficient than the conventional beam spitting attack, achieving a performance similar to the, powerful but currently unfeasible, photon number splitting attack. The implementation of the conditional beam splitting attack, based solely on linear optical elements, is well within reach of current technology.
Quantum philosophy understanding and interpreting contemporary science
Omnès, Roland
2002-01-01
In this magisterial work, Roland Omnès takes us from the academies of ancient Greece to the laboratories of modern science as he seeks to do no less than rebuild the foundations of the philosophy of knowledge. One of the world's leading quantum physicists, Omnès reviews the history and recent development of mathematics, logic, and the physical sciences to show that current work in quantum theory offers new answers to questions that have puzzled philosophers for centuries: Is the world ultimately intelligible? Are all events caused? Do objects have definitive locations? Omnès addresses these p
Quantum effects in beam-plasma instabilities
Bret, A
2015-01-01
Among the numerous works on quantum effects that have been published in recent years, streaming instabilities in plasma have also been revisited. Both the fluid quantum and the kinetic Wigner-Maxwell models have been used to explore quantum effects on the Weibel, Filamentation and Two-Stream instabilities. While quantum effects usually tend to reduce the instabilities, they can also spur new unstable branches. A number of theoretical results will be reviewed together with the implications to one physical setting, namely the electron driven fast ignition scenario.
Photonic quantum walk in a single beam with twisted light
Cardano, Filippo; Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Paparo, Domenico; de Lisio, Corrado; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santamato, Enrico; Marrucci, Lorenzo
2014-01-01
Inspired by the classical phenomenon of random walk, the concept of quantum walk has emerged recently as a powerful platform for the dynamical simulation of complex quantum systems, entanglement production and universal quantum computation. Such a wide perspective motivates a renewing search for efficient, scalable and stable implementations of this quantum process. Photonic approaches have hitherto mainly focused on multi-path schemes, requiring interferometric stability and a number of optical elements that scales quadratically with the number of steps. Here we report the experimental realization of a quantum walk taking place in the orbital angular momentum space of light, both for a single photon and for two simultaneous indistinguishable photons. The whole process develops in a single light beam, with no need of interferometers, and requires optical resources scaling linearly with the number of steps. Our demonstration introduces a novel versatile photonic platform for implementing quantum simulations, b...
Continuous variable quantum communication with bright entangled optical beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Chang-de; ZHANG Jing; PAN Qing; JIA Xiao-jun; PENG Kun-chi
2006-01-01
In this paper,we briefly introduce the basic concepts and protocols of continuous variable quantum communication,and then summarize the experimental researches accomplished by our group in this field.The main features of quantum communication systems used in our experiments are:(1) The bright entangled optical beams with the anticorrelated amplitude quadratures and the correlated phase quadratures that serve as the entanglement resources and (2) The Bell-state direct detection systems are utilized in the measurements of quantum entanglement and transmitted signals instead of the usually balanced homodyne detectors.
Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's Life in Science
CERN. Geneva
2011-01-01
It took a man who was willing to break all the rules to tame a theory that breaks all the rules. This talk will be based on my new book Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's life in science. I will try and present a scientific overview of the contributions of Richard Feynman, as seen through the arc of his fascinating life. From Quantum Mechanics to Antiparticles, from Rio de Janeiro to Los Alamos, a whirlwind tour will provide insights into the character, life and accomplishments of one of the 20th centuries most important scientists, and provide an object lesson in scientific integrity.
Nano and Biological Technology Panel: Quantum Information Science
2008-12-03
Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications The University of New South Wales Nano and Biological Technology Panel: Quantum Information Science 26th US Army...Technology Panel: Quantum Information Science 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Business School Summary – Quantum Information Science • Quantum information technologies now a reality • First impacts will be secure communications
Quantum Opportunities and Challenges for Fundamental Sciences in Space
Yu, Nan
2012-01-01
Space platforms offer unique environment for and measurements of quantum world and fundamental physics. Quantum technology and measurements enhance measurement capabilities in space and result in greater science returns.
Quantum radiation reaction in laser-electron-beam collisions.
Blackburn, T G; Ridgers, C P; Kirk, J G; Bell, A R
2014-01-10
It is possible using current high-intensity laser facilities to reach the quantum radiation reaction regime for energetic electrons. An experiment using a wakefield accelerator to drive GeV electrons into a counterpropagating laser pulse would demonstrate the increase in the yield of high-energy photons caused by the stochastic nature of quantum synchrotron emission: we show that a beam of 10(9) 1 GeV electrons colliding with a 30 fs laser pulse of intensity 10(22) W cm(-2) will emit 6300 photons with energy greater than 700 MeV, 60× the number predicted by classical theory.
The quantum computer game: citizen science
Damgaard, Sidse; Mølmer, Klaus; Sherson, Jacob
2013-05-01
Progress in the field of quantum computation is hampered by daunting technical challenges. Here we present an alternative approach to solving these by enlisting the aid of computer players around the world. We have previously examined a quantum computation architecture involving ultracold atoms in optical lattices and strongly focused tweezers of light. In The Quantum Computer Game (see http://www.scienceathome.org/), we have encapsulated the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the problem in a graphical user interface allowing for easy user input. Players can then search the parameter space with real-time graphical feedback in a game context with a global high-score that rewards short gate times and robustness to experimental errors. The game which is still in a demo version has so far been tried by several hundred players. Extensions of the approach to other models such as Gross-Pitaevskii and Bose-Hubbard are currently under development. The game has also been incorporated into science education at high-school and university level as an alternative method for teaching quantum mechanics. Initial quantitative evaluation results are very positive. AU Ideas Center for Community Driven Research, CODER.
Ultra-precise holographic beam shaping for microscopic quantum control.
Zupancic, Philip; Preiss, Philipp M; Ma, Ruichao; Lukin, Alexander; Eric Tai, M; Rispoli, Matthew; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus
2016-06-27
High-resolution addressing of individual ultracold atoms, trapped ions or solid state emitters allows for exquisite control in quantum optics experiments. This becomes possible through large aperture magnifying optics that project microscopic light patterns with diffraction limited performance. We use programmable amplitude holograms generated on a digital micromirror device to create arbitrary microscopic beam shapes with full phase and amplitude control. The system self-corrects for aberrations of up to several λ and reduces them to λ/50, leading to light patterns with a precision on the 10-4 level. We demonstrate aberration-compensated beam shaping in an optical lattice experiment and perform single-site addressing in a quantum gas microscope for 87Rb.
Ultra-precise holographic beam shaping for microscopic quantum control
Zupancic, Philip; Ma, Ruichao; Lukin, Alexander; Tai, M Eric; Rispoli, Matthew; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus
2016-01-01
High-resolution addressing of single ultracold atoms, trapped ions or solid state emitters allows for exquisite control in quantum optics experiments. This becomes possible through large aperture magnifying optics that project microscopic light patterns with diffraction limited performance. We use programmable amplitude holograms generated on a digital micromirror device to create arbitrary microscopic beam shapes with full phase and amplitude control. The system self-corrects for aberrations of up to several $\\lambda$ and reduces them to $\\lambda/50$, leading to light patterns with a precision on the $10^{-4}$ level. We demonstrate aberration-compensated beam shaping in an optical lattice experiment and perform single-site addressing in a quantum gas microscope for $^{87}$Rb.
Ultra-precise holographic beam shaping for microscopic quantum control
Zupancic, Philip; Preiss, Philipp M.; Ma, Ruichao; Lukin, Alexander; Tai, M. Eric; Rispoli, Matthew; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus
2016-01-01
High-resolution addressing of individual ultracold atoms, trapped ions or solid state emitters allows for exquisite control in quantum optics experiments. This becomes possible through large aperture magnifying optics that project microscopic light patterns with diffraction limited performance. We use programmable amplitude holograms generated on a digital micromirror device to create arbitrary microscopic beam shapes with full phase and amplitude control. The system self-corrects for aberrat...
Muon $g-2$ measurements and non-commutative geometry of quantum beams
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Y Srivastava; A Widom
2004-03-01
We discuss a completely quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. A beam of muons move in a strong uniform magnetic field and a weak focusing electrostatic field. Errors in the classical beam analysis are exposed. In the Dirac quantum beam analysis, an important role is played by non-commutative muon beam coordinates leading to a discrepancy between the classical and quantum theories. We obtain a quantum limit to the accuracy achievable in BNL type experiments. Some implications of the quantum corrected data analysis for supersymmetry are briefly mentioned.
Statistical Structures Underlying Quantum Mechanics and Social Science
Wright, R
2003-01-01
Common observations of the unpredictability of human behavior and the influence of one question on the answer to another suggest social science experiments are probabilistic and may be mutually incompatible with one another, characteristics attributed to quantum mechanics (as distinguished from classical mechanics). This paper examines this superficial similarity in depth using the Foulis-Randall Operational Statistics language. In contradistinction to physics, social science deals with complex, open systems for which the set of possible experiments is unknowable and outcome interference is a graded phenomenon resulting from the ways the human brain processes information. It is concluded that social science is, in some ways, "less classical" than quantum mechanics, but that generalized "quantum" structures may provide appropriate descriptions of social science experiments. Specific challenges to extending "quantum" structures to social science are identified.
Computer science approach to quantum control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janzing, D.
2006-07-01
Whereas it is obvious that every computation process is a physical process it has hardly been recognized that many complex physical processes bear similarities to computation processes. This is in particular true for the control of physical systems on the nanoscopic level: usually the system can only be accessed via a rather limited set of elementary control operations and for many purposes only a concatenation of a large number of these basic operations will implement the desired process. This concatenation is in many cases quite similar to building complex programs from elementary steps and principles for designing algorithm may thus be a paradigm for designing control processes. For instance, one can decrease the temperature of one part of a molecule by transferring its heat to the remaining part where it is then dissipated to the environment. But the implementation of such a process involves a complex sequence of electromagnetic pulses. This work considers several hypothetical control processes on the nanoscopic level and show their analogy to computation processes. We show that measuring certain types of quantum observables is such a complex task that every instrument that is able to perform it would necessarily be an extremely powerful computer. Likewise, the implementation of a heat engine on the nanoscale requires to process the heat in a way that is similar to information processing and it can be shown that heat engines with maximal efficiency would be powerful computers, too. In the same way as problems in computer science can be classified by complexity classes we can also classify control problems according to their complexity. Moreover, we directly relate these complexity classes for control problems to the classes in computer science. Unifying notions of complexity in computer science and physics has therefore two aspects: on the one hand, computer science methods help to analyze the complexity of physical processes. On the other hand, reasonable
Quantum ten a story of passion, tragedy, ambition and science
Jones, Sheilla
2014-01-01
Jones weaves together the personal and the scientific in a heartwarming -- and heartbreaking -- story of the men who struggled to create quantum physics ... a story of passion, tragedy, ambition and science.
Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective
Toth, Geza
2015-01-01
We summarise important recent advances in quantum metrology, in connection to experiments in cold gases, trapped cold atoms and photons. First we review simple metrological setups, such as quantum metrology with spin squeezed states, with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, Dicke states and singlet states. We calculate the highest precision achievable in these schemes. Then, we present the fundamental notions of quantum metrology, such as shot-noise scaling, Heisenberg scaling, the quantum Fisher information and the Cramer-Rao bound. Using these, we demonstrate that entanglement is needed to surpass the shot-noise scaling in very general metrological tasks with a linear interferometer. We discuss some applications of the quantum Fisher information, such as how it can be used to obtain a criterion for a quantum state to be a macroscopic superposition. We show how it is related to the the speed of a quantum evolution, and how it appears in the theory of the quantum Zeno effect. Finally, we explain how uncorrela...
First-principles quantum chemistry in the life sciences.
van Mourik, Tanja
2004-12-15
The area of computational quantum chemistry, which applies the principles of quantum mechanics to molecular and condensed systems, has developed drastically over the last decades, due to both increased computer power and the efficient implementation of quantum chemical methods in readily available computer programs. Because of this, accurate computational techniques can now be applied to much larger systems than before, bringing the area of biochemistry within the scope of electronic-structure quantum chemical methods. The rapid pace of progress of quantum chemistry makes it a very exciting research field; calculations that are too computationally expensive today may be feasible in a few months' time! This article reviews the current application of 'first-principles' quantum chemistry in biochemical and life sciences research, and discusses its future potential. The current capability of first-principles quantum chemistry is illustrated in a brief examination of computational studies on neurotransmitters, helical peptides, and DNA complexes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
He Guang-Qiang; Zhu Si-Wei; Guo Hong-Bin; Zeng Gui-Hua
2008-01-01
For the beam splitter attack strategy against quantum key distribution using two-mode squeezed states, the analytical expression of the optimal beam splitter parameter is provided in this paper by applying the Shannon information theory. The theoretical secret information rate after error correction and privacy amplification is given in terms of the squeezed parameter and channel parameters. The results show that the two-mode squeezed state quantum key distribution is secure against an optimal beam splitter attack.
Quantum reflection of helium atom beams from a microstructured grating
Zhao, Bum Suk; Schulz, Stephan A.; Meek, Samuel A.; Meijer, Gerard; Schöllkopf, Wieland
2008-07-01
We observe high-resolution diffraction patterns of a thermal-energy helium atom beam reflected from a microstructured surface grating at grazing incidence. The grating consists of 10-μm -wide Cr strips patterned on a quartz substrate and has a periodicity of 20μm . Fully resolved diffraction peaks up to the seventh order are observed at grazing angles up to 20mrad . With changes in de Broglie wavelength or grazing angle the relative diffraction intensities show significant variations which shed light on the nature of the atom-surface interaction potential. The observations are explained in terms of quantum reflection at the long-range attractive Casimir-van der Waals potential.
Quantum reflection of helium atom beams from a microstructured grating
Zhao, Bum Suk; Meek, Samuel A; Meijer, Gerard; Schöllkopf, Wieland
2008-01-01
We observe high-resolution diffraction patterns of a thermal-energy helium-atom beam reflected from a microstructured surface grating at grazing incidence. The grating consists of 10-$\\mu$m-wide Cr strips patterned on a quartz substrate and has a periodicity of 20 $\\mu$m. Fully-resolved diffraction peaks up to the $7^{\\rm th}$ order are observed at grazing angles up to 20 mrad. With changes in de Broglie wavelength or grazing angle the relative diffraction intensities show significant variations which shed light on the nature of the atom-surface interaction potential. The observations are explained in terms of quantum reflection at the long-range attractive Casimir-van der Waals potential.
Photonic quantum information: science and technology.
Takeuchi, Shigeki
2016-01-01
Recent technological progress in the generation, manipulation and detection of individual single photons has opened a new scientific field of photonic quantum information. This progress includes the realization of single photon switches, photonic quantum circuits with specific functions, and the application of novel photonic states to novel optical metrology beyond the limits of standard optics. In this review article, the recent developments and current status of photonic quantum information technology are overviewed based on the author's past and recent works.
Quantum mechanics with applications to nanotechnology and information science
Band, Yehuda B
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information th...
Self-similar asymptotic optical beams in semiconductor waveguides doped with quantum dots
He, Jun-Rong; Yi, Lin; Li, Hua-Mei
2017-01-01
The self-similar propagation of asymptotic optical beams in semiconductor waveguides doped with quantum dots is reported. The possibility of controlling the shape of output asymptotic optical beams is demonstrated. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. We give a possible experimental protocol to generate the obtained asymptotic parabolic beams in realistic waveguides. As a generalization to the present work, the self-similar propagation of asymptotic optical beams is proposed in a power-law nonlinear medium.
Superconducting resonators as beam splitters for linear-optics quantum computation.
Chirolli, Luca; Burkard, Guido; Kumar, Shwetank; Divincenzo, David P
2010-06-11
We propose and analyze a technique for producing a beam-splitting quantum gate between two modes of a ring-resonator superconducting cavity. The cavity has two integrated superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that are modulated by applying an external magnetic field. The gate is accomplished by applying a radio frequency pulse to one of the SQUIDs at the difference of the two mode frequencies. Departures from perfect beam splitting only arise from corrections to the rotating wave approximation; an exact calculation gives a fidelity of >0.9992. Our construction completes the toolkit for linear-optics quantum computing in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Psychohistory Paradox and Introduction to Quantum Social Science
Wayne, James J.
2014-01-01
Why would social science need the help from quantum mechanics? First, there are many unanswerable questions in social science. Are financial markets predictable? How to predict the financial markets? These important questions are not answerable in the existing framework of finance or economics. One important paradox in social science is the psychohistory paradox proposed by Asimov. In his novels, Asimov highlighted a paradox of human society: if the future events of a human society are predic...
Psychohistory Paradox and Introduction to Quantum Social Science
2014-01-01
Why would social science need the help from quantum mechanics? First, there are many unanswerable questions in social science. Are financial markets predictable? How to predict the financial markets? These important questions are not answerable in the existing framework of finance or economics. One important paradox in social science is the psychohistory paradox proposed by Asimov. In his novels, Asimov highlighted a paradox of human society: if the future events of a human society are predic...
Hollyweird science from quantum quirks to the multiverse
Grazier, Kevin R
2015-01-01
Lighthearted, quirky, and upbeat, this book explores the portrayal of science and technology on both the big and little screen -- and how Hollywood is actually doing a better job of getting it right than ever before. Grounded in the real-word, and often cutting-edge, science and technology that inspires fictional science, the authors survey Hollywood depictions of topics such as quantum mechanics, parallel universes, and alien worlds. Including material from interviews with over two dozen writers, producers, and directors of acclaimed science-themed productions -- as well as scientists, science fiction authors, and science advisor -- Hollyweird Science examines screen science fiction from the sometimes-conflicting vantage points of storytellers, researchers, and viewers. Together with a foreword by Eureka co-creator and executive producer Jaime Paglia, and an afterword by astronomer and science fiction author Michael Brotherton, Ph.D., this book is accessible to all readers from the layperson to the armchair ...
Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system
Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan
2010-01-01
Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling single- and bi-partite quantum systems, coherent control of quantum wave function in multipartite systems involving artificial solid-state qubits has been hampered due to the relatively short decoherence time and lack of precise control methods. Here we report the creation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in a tripartite quantum system, which is formed by a superconducting qubit coupled to two microscopic two-level systems (TLSs). The avoided crossings in the system's energy-level spectrum due to the qubit–TLS interaction act as tunable quantum beam splitters of wave functions. Our result shows that the Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference has great potential in precise control of the quantum states in the tripartite system. PMID:20975719
Cao, Leiming; Qi, Jian; Du, Jinjian; Jing, Jietai
2017-02-01
Multimode quantum states, such as multipartite quantum entanglement or quantum correlations, are important for both fundamental science and the future development of quantum technologies. Here we theoretically propose and experimentally realize a scheme that can fully exploit the multi-spatial-mode nature of the four-wave-mixing (FWM) process, i.e., spatial multiplexing, and thus integrates multiple FWM processes into a single cell at each stage of the cascaded process. The number of generated quantum-correlated beams 2n is exponentially dependent on the number of vapor cells n . In addition, the quantum correlations between the multiple beams also increase as the number of vapor cell increases. For the case of n =2 , we experimentally show that the degree of intensity-difference squeezing between the four quantum-correlated beams in our scheme is enhanced to -8.2 ±0.2 dB from -5.6 ±0.3 and -6.5 ±0.2 dB of squeezing obtained with a single FWM process. Our system may find applications in quantum information and precision measurement.
Chromatic effects in beam wander correction for free-space quantum communications
Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Fernandez, Veronica
2016-01-01
Beam wander caused by atmospheric turbulence can significantly degrade the performance of horizontal free-space quantum communication links. Classical beam wander correction techniques cannot be applied due to the stronger requirements of transmitting single photons. One strategy to overcome this limitation consists in using a separate wavelength from that of the quantum signal to analyze the beam wander and use this information for its correction. For this strategy to work adequately, both wavelengths should be affected equally by atmospheric turbulence, i.e. no chromatic effects should be originated from beam wander. In this letter, a series of experiments are performed to prove that this is the case for {\\lambda} ~ 850 nm as the quantum signal and {\\lambda} ~ 1550 nm as the tracking signal of a quantum communication system.
Multipulse addressing of a Raman quantum memory: configurable beam splitting and efficient readout.
Reim, K F; Nunn, J; Jin, X-M; Michelberger, P S; Champion, T F M; England, D G; Lee, K C; Kolthammer, W S; Langford, N K; Walmsley, I A
2012-06-29
Quantum memories are vital to the scalability of photonic quantum information processing (PQIP), since the storage of photons enables repeat-until-success strategies. On the other hand, the key element of all PQIP architectures is the beam splitter, which allows us to coherently couple optical modes. Here, we show how to combine these crucial functionalities by addressing a Raman quantum memory with multiple control pulses. The result is a coherent optical storage device with an extremely large time bandwidth product, that functions as an array of dynamically configurable beam splitters, and that can be read out with arbitrarily high efficiency. Networks of such devices would allow fully scalable PQIP, with applications in quantum computation, long distance quantum communications and quantum metrology.
Wave theories of non-laminar charged particle beams: from quantum to thermal regime
Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; Jovanović, Dusan; de Nicola, Sergio; Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ronsivalle
2014-04-01
The standard classical description of non-laminar charged particle beams in paraxial approximation is extended to the context of two wave theories. The first theory that we discuss (Fedele R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045. Tanjia, F. et al. 2011 Proceedings of the 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Vol. 35G. Strasbourg, France: European Physical Society) is based on the Thermal Wave Model (TWM) (Fedele, R. and Miele, G. 1991 Nuovo Cim. D 13, 1527.) that interprets the paraxial thermal spreading of beam particles as the analog of quantum diffraction. The other theory is based on a recently developed model (Fedele, R. et al. 2012a Phys. Plasmas 19, 102106; Fedele, R. et al. 2012b AIP Conf. Proc. 1421, 212), hereafter called Quantum Wave Model (QWM), that takes into account the individual quantum nature of single beam particle (uncertainty principle and spin) and provides collective description of beam transport in the presence of quantum paraxial diffraction. Both in quantum and quantum-like regimes, the beam transport is governed by a 2D non-local Schrödinger equation, with self-interaction coming from the nonlinear charge- and current-densities. An envelope equation of the Ermakov-Pinney type, which includes collective effects, is derived for both TWM and QWM regimes. In TWM, such description recovers the well-known Sacherer's equation (Sacherer, F. J. 1971 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-18, 1105). Conversely, in the quantum regime and in Hartree's mean field approximation, one recovers the evolution equation for a single-particle spot size, i.e. for a single quantum ray spot in the transverse plane (Compton regime). We demonstrate that such quantum evolution equation contains the same information as the evolution equation for the beam spot size that describes the beam as a whole. This is done heuristically by defining the lowest QWM state accessible by a system of non-overlapping fermions. The latter are associated with temperature values that are
Acceleration of positrons by a relativistic electron beam in the presence of quantum effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aki, H.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, Birjand University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-09-15
Using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model and obtaining the dispersion relation of the Cherenkov and cyclotron waves, the acceleration of positrons by a relativistic electron beam is investigated. The Cherenkov and cyclotron acceleration mechanisms of positrons are compared together. It is shown that growth rate and, therefore, the acceleration of positrons can be increased in the presence of quantum effects.
Quantum Interference of Multiple Beams Induced by Multiple Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, N. Asger; Lodahl, Peter
2011-01-01
We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging.......We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging....
Wave theories of non-laminar charged particle beams: from quantum to thermal regime
Fedele, Renato; Jovanovic, Dusan; De Nicola, Sergio; Ronsivalle, Concetta
2013-01-01
The standard classical description of non-laminar charge particle beams in paraxial approximation is extended to the context of two wave theories. The first theory is the so-called Thermal Wave Model (TWM) that interprets the paraxial thermal spreading of the beam particles as the analog of the quantum diffraction. The other theory, hereafter called Quantum Wave Model (QWM), that takes into account the individual quantum nature of the single beam particle (uncertainty principle and spin) and provides the collective description of the beam transport in the presence of the quantum paraxial diffraction. QWM can be applied to beams that are sufficiently cold to allow the particles to manifest their individual quantum nature but sufficiently warm to make overlapping-less the single-particle wave functions. In both theories, the propagation of the beam transport in plasmas or in vacuo is provided by fully similar set of nonlinear and nonlocal governing equations, where in the case of TWM the Compton wavelength (fun...
Quantum mechanics meets cognitive science: explanatory vs descriptive approaches
Blutner, R.
2010-01-01
We reflect on several aspects of the general claim that a quantum-like approach to Cognitive Science is advantageous over classical approaches. The classical approaches refer to the symbolic approaches including models using a classical (Kolmogorov) probability calculus. The general claim seems to
HIGHLIGHTS LHC First Beam - Accelerating Science : 10 September 2008
CERN Audiovisual Service
2008-01-01
First beam in the LHC - accelerating science A historic moment in the CERN Control Centre: the beam was successfully steered around the accelerator. Channel 1 : International Channel 2 : English guide A historic moment in the CERN Control Centre: the beam was successfully steered around the accelerator. Geneva, 10 September 2008. The first beam in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN1 was successfully steered around the full 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10h28 this morning. This historic event marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. “It’s a fantastic moment,” said LHC project leader Lyn Evans, “we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe.” Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronized to under a billionth of a...
The art of science from perspective drawing to quantum randomness
Angelini, Annarita
2014-01-01
Like linear perspective, complex numbers and probability are notable discoveries of the Renaissance. History has been quick to recognize the crucial impact of linear perspective on painting, but reluctant to acknowledge the importance of complex numbers and probability. Both were treated with a great deal of suspicion by the scientific establishment and overlooked for many years. It was only in the twentieth century, when quantum theory defined the notion of "complex probability amplitude", that complex numbers merged with probability and transformed the image of the physical world. From a theoretical point of view, however, the space opened to painting by linear perspective and the space opened to science by complex numbers are equally valuable and share significant characteristics. By exploring that common ground, The Art of Science will lead the reader to complement Leonardo’s vision of painting as a science and to see science as an art. Its aim is to restore a visual dimension to mathematical sciences �...
Adapting High Brightness Relativistic Electron Beams for Ultrafast Science
Scoby, Cheyne Matthew
This thesis explores the use of ultrashort bunches generated by a radiofrequency electron photoinjector driven by a femtosecond laser. Rf photoinjector technology has been developed to generate ultra high brightness beams for advanced accelerators and to drive advanced light source applications. The extremely good quality of the beams generated by this source has played a key role in the development of 4th generation light sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source, thus opening the way to studies of materials science and biological systems with high temporal and spatial resolution. At the Pegasus Photoinjector Lab, we have developed the application of a BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6-cell rf photoinjector as a tool for ultrafast science in its own right. It is the aim of this work to explore the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, give descriptions of the novel ultrafast diagnostics developed to be able to characterize the electron bunch and synchronize it with a pump laser, and share some of the scientific results that were obtained with this technology at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. This dissertation explains the requirements of the drive laser source and describes the principles of rf photoinjector design and operation necessary to produce electron bunches with an rms longitudinal length < 100 femtoseconds containing 107 - 108 electrons per bunch. In this condition, when the laser intensity is sufficiently high, multiphoton photoemission is demonstrated to be more efficient in terms of charge yield than single photon photoemission. When a short laser pulse hits the cathode the resulting beam dynamics are dominated by a strong space charge driven longitudinal expansion which leads to the creation of a nearly ideal uniformly filled ellipsoidal distribution. These beam distributions are characterized by linear space charge forces and hence by high peak brightness and small transverse emittances. This regime of operation of the RF photoinjector is also termed the
Monolithic integration of a quantum emitter with a compact on-chip beam-splitter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prtljaga, N., E-mail: n.prtljaga@sheffield.ac.uk; Coles, R. J.; O' Hara, J.; Royall, B.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Clarke, E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2014-06-09
A fundamental component of an integrated quantum optical circuit is an on-chip beam-splitter operating at the single-photon level. Here, we demonstrate the monolithic integration of an on-demand quantum emitter in the form of a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot (QD) with a compact (>10 μm), air clad, free standing directional coupler acting as a beam-splitter for anti-bunched light. The device was tested by using single photons emitted by a QD embedded in one of the input arms of the device. We verified the single-photon nature of the QD signal by performing Hanbury Brown-Twiss measurements and demonstrated single-photon beam splitting by cross-correlating the signal from the separate output ports of the directional coupler.
ISOL science at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility
Beene, J. R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Galindo Uribarri, A.; Gross, C. J.; Jones, K. L.; Liang, J. F.; Nazarewicz, W.; Stracener, D. W.; Tatum, B. A.; Varner, R. L.
2011-02-01
The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) provides high-quality Isotope Separator Online beams of short-lived, radioactive nuclei for nuclear structure and reaction studies, astrophysics research, and interdisciplinary applications. The primary driver, the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, produces rare isotopes by bombarding highly refractory targets with light ions. The radioactive isotopes are ionized, formed into a beam, mass selected, injected into the 25 MV tandem, accelerated, and used in experiments. This paper reviews the HRIBF and its users' science. Note that this manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of the manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.
Stefanov, André; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas; Suarez, Antoine
2002-03-25
Multisimultaneity is a causal model of relativistic quantum physics which assigns a real time ordering to any set of events, much in the spirit of the pilot-wave picture. Contrary to standard quantum mechanics, it predicts a disappearance of the correlations in a Bell-type experiment when both analyzers are in relative motion such that each one, in its own inertial reference frame, is first to select the output of the photons. We tested this prediction using acousto-optic modulators as moving beam splitters and interferometers separated by 55 m. We did not observe any disappearance of the correlations, in agreement with quantum mechanics.
Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser With Efficient Coupling and Beam Profile
Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Lin, Robert H.; Williams, Benjamin
2012-01-01
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are unipolar semiconductor lasers, where the wavelength of emitted radiation is determined by the engineering of quantum states within the conduction band in coupled multiple-quantum-well heterostructures to have the desired energy separation. The recent development of terahertz QCLs has provided a new generation of solid-state sources for radiation in the terahertz frequency range. Terahertz QCLs have been demonstrated from 0.84 to 5.0 THz both in pulsed mode and continuous wave mode (CW mode). The approach employs a resonant-phonon depopulation concept. The metal-metal (MM) waveguide fabrication is performed using Cu-Cu thermo-compression bonding to bond the GaAs/AlGaAs epitaxial layer to a GaAs receptor wafer.
Application of cone beam computed tomography in facial imaging science
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zacharias Fourie; Janalt Damstra; Yijin Ren
2012-01-01
The use of three-dimensional (3D) methods for facial imaging has increased significantly over the past years.Traditional 2D imaging has gradually being replaced by 3D images in different disciplines,particularly in the fields of orthodontics,maxillofacial surgery,plastic and reconstructive surgery,neurosurgery and forensic sciences.In most cases,3D facial imaging overcomes the limitations of traditional 2D methods and provides the clinician with more accurate information regarding the soft-tissues and the underlying skeleton.The aim of this study was to review the types of imaging methods used for facial imaging.It is important to realize the difference between the types of 3D imaging methods as application and indications thereof may differ.Since 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging will play an increasingly importanl role in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery,special emphasis should be placed on discussing CBCT applications in facial evaluations.
Theoretical Aspects of Science with Radioactive Nuclear Beams
Dobaczewski, J; Dobaczewski, Jacek; Nazarewicz, Witold
1997-01-01
Physics of radioactive nuclear beams is one of the main frontiers of nuclear science today. Experimentally, thanks to technological developments, we are on the verge of invading the territory of extreme N/Z ratios in an unprecedented way. Theoretically, nuclear exotica represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties in nuclear terra incognita. It is important to remember that the lesson learned by going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for normal nuclei from the neighborhood of the beta stability valley. And, of course, radioactive nuclei are crucial astrophysically; they pave the highway along which the nuclear material is transported up in the proton and neutron numbers during the complicated synthesis process in stars.
Beam and phase distributions of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser
Cui, M.; Hovenier, J.N.; Ren, Y.; Vercruyssen, N.; Gao, J.R.; Kao, T.Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J.L.
2013-01-01
We report on both measurements and simulations of the beam profile and wavefront of a single-mode, 3.5 THz quantum cascade wire laser, incorporating a lateral corrugated metal-metal waveguide, 3rd-order distributed feedback grating. The intrinsic wavefront was measured by using a Hartmann wavefront
Three criteria for quantum random number generators based on beam splitters
Svozil, Karl
2009-01-01
We propose three criteria for the generation of random digital strings from quantum beam splitters: (i) three or more mutually exclusive outcomes corresponding to the invocation of three- and higher dimensional Hilbert spaces; (ii) the mandatory use of pure states in conjugated bases for preparation and detection; and (iii) the use of entangled singlet (unique) states for elimination of bias.
I.I. Rabi Prize Talk: Exploring New Frontiers of Quantum Optical Science
Lukin, Mikhail
2009-05-01
In this talk we will discuss recent developments involving a new scientific interface between quantum optics and atomic physics, many body physics, nanoscience and quantum information science. Specific examples include quantum manipulation of individual spins and photons using impurities in diamond and control of light-matter interactions using sub-wavelength localization of optical fields. Novel applications of these techniques ranging from implementation of ideas from quantum information science to nanoscale magnetic sensing will be discussed.
State preparation for quantum information science and metrology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samblowski, Aiko
2012-06-08
The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed
Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback
Ferré, Simon; Jumpertz, Louise; Carras, Mathieu; Ferreira, Robson; Grillot, Frédéric
2017-03-01
Broad-area quantum cascade lasers with high output powers are highly desirable sources for various applications including infrared countermeasures. However, such structures suffer from strongly deteriorated beam quality due to multimode behavior, diffraction of light and self-focusing. Quantum cascade lasers presenting high performances in terms of power and heat-load dissipation are reported and their response to a nonlinear control based on optical feedback is studied. Applying optical feedback enables to efficiently tailor its near-field beam profile. The different cavity modes are sequentially excited by shifting the feedback mirror angle. Further control of the near-field profile is demonstrated using spatial filtering. The impact of an inhomogeneous gain as well as the influence of the cavity width are investigated. Compared to existing technologies, that are complex and costly, beam shaping with optical feedback is a more flexible solution to obtain high-quality mid-infrared sources.
Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback
Ferré, Simon; Jumpertz, Louise; Carras, Mathieu; Ferreira, Robson; Grillot, Frédéric
2017-01-01
Broad-area quantum cascade lasers with high output powers are highly desirable sources for various applications including infrared countermeasures. However, such structures suffer from strongly deteriorated beam quality due to multimode behavior, diffraction of light and self-focusing. Quantum cascade lasers presenting high performances in terms of power and heat-load dissipation are reported and their response to a nonlinear control based on optical feedback is studied. Applying optical feedback enables to efficiently tailor its near-field beam profile. The different cavity modes are sequentially excited by shifting the feedback mirror angle. Further control of the near-field profile is demonstrated using spatial filtering. The impact of an inhomogeneous gain as well as the influence of the cavity width are investigated. Compared to existing technologies, that are complex and costly, beam shaping with optical feedback is a more flexible solution to obtain high-quality mid-infrared sources. PMID:28287175
Probabilistic protocols in quantum information science: Use and abuse
Caves, Carlton
2014-03-01
Protocols in quantum information science often succeed with less than unit probability, but nonetheless perform useful tasks because success occurs often enough to make tolerable the overhead from having to perform the protocol several times. Any probabilistic protocol must be analyzed from the perspective of the resources required to make the protocol succeed. I present results from analyses of two probabilistic protocols: (i) nondeterministic (or immaculate) linear amplification, in which an input coherent state is amplified some of the time to a larger-amplitude coherent state, and (ii) probabilistic quantum metrology, in which one attempts to improve estimation of a parameter (or parameters) by post-selecting on a particular outcome. The analysis indicates that there is little to be gained from probabilistic protocols in these two situations.
Quantum field theory and coalgebraic logic in theoretical computer science.
Basti, Gianfranco; Capolupo, Antonio; Vitiello, Giuseppe
2017-05-04
We suggest that in the framework of the Category Theory it is possible to demonstrate the mathematical and logical dual equivalence between the category of the q-deformed Hopf Coalgebras and the category of the q-deformed Hopf Algebras in quantum field theory (QFT), interpreted as a thermal field theory. Each pair algebra-coalgebra characterizes a QFT system and its mirroring thermal bath, respectively, so to model dissipative quantum systems in far-from-equilibrium conditions, with an evident significance also for biological sciences. Our study is in fact inspired by applications to neuroscience where the brain memory capacity, for instance, has been modeled by using the QFT unitarily inequivalent representations. The q-deformed Hopf Coalgebras and the q-deformed Hopf Algebras constitute two dual categories because characterized by the same functor T, related with the Bogoliubov transform, and by its contravariant application T(op), respectively. The q-deformation parameter is related to the Bogoliubov angle, and it is effectively a thermal parameter. Therefore, the different values of q identify univocally, and label the vacua appearing in the foliation process of the quantum vacuum. This means that, in the framework of Universal Coalgebra, as general theory of dynamic and computing systems ("labelled state-transition systems"), the so labelled infinitely many quantum vacua can be interpreted as the Final Coalgebra of an "Infinite State Black-Box Machine". All this opens the way to the possibility of designing a new class of universal quantum computing architectures based on this coalgebraic QFT formulation, as its ability of naturally generating a Fibonacci progression demonstrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effects of x-ray beam hardening on detective quantum efficiency and radiation dose.
Wong, Molly Donovan; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong
2011-01-01
The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the effects of x-ray beam hardening on the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and the radiation dose of an inline x-ray imaging system. The ability to decrease the risk of harmful radiation to the patient without compromising the detection capability would more effectively balance the tradeoff between image quality and radiation dose, and therefore benefit the fields of diagnostic x-ray imaging, especially mammography. The DQE and the average glandular dose were both calculated under the same experimental conditions for a range of beam hardening levels, corresponding to no added beam hardening and two thicknesses each of Rhodium (Rh) and Molybdenum (Mo) filters. The dose calculation results demonstrate a reduction of 15% to 24% for the range of beam hardening levels. The comparison of all quantities comprising the DQE exhibit very close correlation between the results obtained without added beam hardening to the results corresponding to the range of beam hardening levels. For the specific experimental conditions utilized in this preliminary study, the results are an indication that the use of beam hardening holds the potential to reduce the radiation dose without decreasing the performance of the system. Future studies will seek to apply this method in a clinical environment and perform a comprehensive image quality evaluation, in an effort to further evaluate the potential of beam hardening to balance the tradeoff between dose and image quality.
Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide
Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle
2016-01-01
We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516
Quantum reflection of helium atom beams from a microstructured grating
Zhao, Bum Suk; Schulz, Stephan A.; Meek, Samuel A.; Meijer, Gerard; Schöllkopf, Wieland
2008-01-01
We observe high-resolution diffraction patterns of a thermal-energy helium-atom beam reflected from a microstructured surface grating at grazing incidence. The grating consists of 10-$\\mu$m-wide Cr strips patterned on a quartz substrate and has a periodicity of 20 $\\mu$m. Fully-resolved diffraction peaks up to the $7^{\\rm th}$ order are observed at grazing angles up to 20 mrad. With changes in de Broglie wavelength or grazing angle the relative diffraction intensities show significant variati...
Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Heterostructures to Study Quantum Interference Phenomena
1990-01-01
MBE growth and regrowth of heterostructures for quantum interference transistors and a detailed study of the physical mechanisms and the limitations imposed by them in such devices. We have investigated in detail the suitability of the MBE regrowth process for such applications. Very encouraging progress has been made. The performance characteristics of dual-channel quantum interference devices grown in our laboratory and defined by e-beam lithography have been measured and reported. From this work it is clear that to achieve enhanced performance and to demonstrate a large
An all-fiber source of pulsed twin beams at telecom band for quantum communication
Guo, Xueshi; Liu, Nannan; Yang, Lei; Ou, Z Y
2012-01-01
Motivated by the pursuit of a simple system to produce non-classical light sources for long- distance quantum communication, we generate for the first time an all-fiber source of pulsed twin beams in 1550 nm band by using a high gain fiber optical parametric amplifier. The noise of intensity difference of the twin beams is below the shot noise limit by 3.1 dB (10.4 dB after correction for losses). A detailed study reveals a number of limiting factors for higher noise reduction. Therefore, further noise reduction will be feasible once care is taken for these limiting factors.
Direct growth of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots in glass matrix by femtosecond laser beam
Bell, G.; Filin, A. I.; Romanov, D. A.; Levis, R. J.
2016-02-01
Controllable, spatially inhomogeneous distributions of CdSe nanocrystals smaller than the exciton Bohr radius are grown in a glass matrix under combined action of sample heating (below the transformation temperature) and focused high-repetition femtosecond (fs) laser beam. Selective quantum dot precipitation is evidenced by position-dependent absorption and Raman spectra. The particle size is estimated as r = 2.1 ± 0.3 nm by comparing the measured absorption and Raman spectra with those obtained from the samples grown in glass by traditional heat-treatment procedure. Direct growth of CdSe quantum dots in glass is enabled by nonlinear excitation using a focused fs duration laser beam (as differentiated from other methods), and this opens an avenue for adjustable selective growth patterns.
Signatures of quantum radiation reaction in laser-electron-beam collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, H. Y. [Helmholtz Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Yan, X. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zepf, M., E-mail: m.zepf@uni-jena.de [Helmholtz Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)
2015-09-15
Electron dynamics in the collision of an electron beam with a high-intensity focused ultrashort laser pulse are investigated using three-dimensional QED particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, and the results are compared with those calculated by classical Landau and Lifshitz PIC simulations. Significant differences are observed from the angular dependence of the electron energy distribution patterns for the two different approaches, because photon emission is no longer well approximated by a continuous process in the quantum radiation-dominated regime. The stochastic nature of photon emission results in strong signatures of quantum radiation-reaction effects under certain conditions. We show that the laser spot size and duration greatly influence these signatures due to the competition of QED effects and the ponderomotive force, which is well described in the classical approximation. The clearest signatures of quantum radiation reaction are found in the limit of large laser spots and few cycle pulse durations.
Schröder, Tim; Walsh, Michael; Li, Luozhou; Zheng, Jiabao; Schukraft, Marco; Pacheco, Jose L; Camacho, Ryan M; Bielejec, Edward S; Sipahigil, Alp; Evans, Ruffin E; Sukachev, Denis D; Nguyen, Christian T; Lukin, Mikhail D; Englund, Dirk
2016-01-01
The controlled creation of defect center---nanocavity systems is one of the outstanding challenges for efficiently interfacing spin quantum memories with photons for photon-based entanglement operations in a quantum network. Here, we demonstrate direct, maskless creation of atom-like single silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers in diamond nanostructures via focused ion beam implantation with $\\sim 32$ nm lateral precision and $< 50$ nm positioning accuracy relative to a nanocavity. Moreover, we determine the Si+ ion to SiV center conversion yield to $\\sim 2.5\\%$ and observe a 10-fold conversion yield increase by additional electron irradiation. We extract inhomogeneously broadened ensemble emission linewidths of $\\sim 51$ GHz, and close to lifetime-limited single-emitter transition linewidths down to $126 \\pm13$ MHz corresponding to $\\sim 1.4$-times the natural linewidth. This demonstration of deterministic creation of optically coherent solid-state single quantum systems is an important step towards development o...
Strong quantum squeezing near the pull-in instability of a nonlinear beam
Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George
2016-08-01
Microscopic silicon-based suspended mechanical oscillators, constituting an extremely sensitive force probe, transducer, and actuator, are being increasingly employed in many developing microscopies, spectroscopies, and emerging optomechanical and chem-bio sensors. We predict a significant squeezing in the quantum state of motion of an oscillator constrained as a beam and subject to an electrically induced nonlinearity. By taking into account the quantum noise, the underlying nonlinear dynamics is investigated in both the transient and stationary regimes of the driving force leading to the finding that strongly squeezed states are accessible in the vicinity of the pull-in instability of the oscillator. We discuss a possible application of this strong quantum squeezing as an optomechanical method for detecting broad-spectrum single or low-count photons, and further suggest other novel sensing actions.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ella, Lior, E-mail: lior.ella@weizmann.ac.il; Yuvaraj, D.; Suchoi, Oren; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2015-01-07
We present a study of the controllable nonlinear dynamics of a micromechanical beam coupled to a dc-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device). The coupling between these systems places the modes of the beam in a highly nonlinear potential, whose shape can be altered by varying the bias current and applied flux of the SQUID. We detect the position of the beam by placing it in an optical cavity, which sets free the SQUID to be used solely for actuation. This enables us to probe the previously unexplored full parameter space of this device. We measure the frequency response of the beam and find that it displays a Duffing oscillator behavior which is periodic in the applied magnetic flux. To account for this, we develop a model based on the standard theory for SQUID dynamics. In addition, with the aim of understanding if the device can reach nonlinearity at the single phonon level, we use this model to show that the responsivity of the current circulating in the SQUID to the position of the beam can become divergent, with its magnitude limited only by noise. This suggests a direction for the generation of macroscopically distinguishable superposition states of the beam.
Progress on research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishigaki, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment
1997-03-01
Research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application in Takasaki Establishment was reviewed. Especially, the recent progresses of research on semiconductors in space, creation of new functional materials and topics in biotechnology were reported. (author)
Electron beam deposition for nanofabrication : Insights from surface science
Wnuk, J. D.; Rosenberg, S. G.; Gorham, J. M.; van Dorp, W. F.; Hagen, C. W.; Fairbrother, D. H.
2011-01-01
Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) is a direct-write lithographic technique that utilizes the dissociation of volatile precursors by a focused electron beam in a low vacuum environment to create nanostructures. Notable advantages of EBID over competing lithographic techniques are that it is a s
Quantum Poetics: Science and Spirit in Twentieth Century American Poetry
Monaghan, (Mary) Patricia
Concepts from quantum physics illuminate ways in which five 20th century American poets struggle with the expression of nonlinear, nontemporal experiences in linear, temporal language. An "experience of spirit"- -an experience of cosmic unity which occurs in a timeless moment and involves a paradoxical sensuality--is expressed by poets Wallace Stevens, Albert Goldbarth, Nancy Willard, Linda Gregg and Marilyn Waniek. Contemporary science similarly seeks ways to express nonlinear realities in linear language. The English language is found to guide users to linear, time-bounded expression through the noun (leading to nominalization), the verb (demanding experience be limited to past, present or future), adverb and adjective (which separate senses from each other and divide attributes from essence). English presents structural difficulties to those who wish to express experiences of spirit--difficulties also articulated by quantum theorists struggling to express unvisualizable concepts. Wallace Stevens devoted the first half of his poetic career to questions of order, which find reflections within the works of quantum physicists who theorize an "implicate order" within the subatomic universe. During his later years, Stevens turned to the question of chaos, an interest paralleled by recent developments in dynamical systems theory. Albert Goldbarth and Nancy Willard alter narrative form in three ways to convey nonlinear possibilities. The "parabolic" narrative uses story to exemplify a moral or philosophical message. The "midrashic" illuminates the meaning of one story by the telling of another. Finally, the "coyotic" begins with one, apparently ordinary, story which is then altered to introduce fantastical realities. These narratives form a "relative time," similar to that which Einstein defined in his special theory of relativity. The works of Marilyn Waniek and Linda Gregg are examined in terms of the language of paradoxical sensuality, which calls into question the
Zare, S.; Yazdani, E.; Rezaee, S.; Anvari, A.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.
2015-04-01
Propagation of a Gaussian x-ray laser beam has been analyzed in collisionless thermal quantum plasma with considering a ramped density profile. In this density profile due to the increase in the plasma density, an earlier and stronger self-focusing effect is noticed where the beam width oscillates with higher frequency and less amplitude. Moreover, the effect of the density profile slope and the initial plasma density on the laser propagation has been studied. It is found that, by increasing the initial density and the ramp slope, the laser beam focuses faster with less oscillation amplitude, smaller laser spot size and more oscillations. Furthermore, a comparison is made among the laser self-focusing in thermal quantum plasma, cold quantum plasma and classical plasma. It is realized that the laser self-focusing in the quantum plasma becomes stronger in comparison with the classical regime.
Quantum-beam technology: A versatile tool for developing polymer electrolyte fuel-cell membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamaki, Tetsuya [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)
2010-09-15
This paper describes the versatile application of quantum beam-based technology to the development of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for fuel-cell applications. The {gamma}-ray or electron-beam induced radiation grafting offers a way to prepare PEMs; typically, the radical-initiated polymerization of a styrene or styrene-derivative monomer on a base polymer is followed by a sulfonation step. Novel PEMs were previously obtained using radiation-crosslinked fluoropolymers as the base material. Interestingly, combining this radiation-crosslinking process with the well-known chemical crosslinker method enabled one to obtain the ''multiply''-crosslinked PEMs, in which both the main and grafted chains have covalently bridged structures leading to a high durability. The bombardment of heavy ions accelerated to MeV or higher energies produces a continuous trail of excited and ionized molecules in polymers, which is known as a latent track. The approach using this ion-track technology is based on the chemical etching and/or modification of each track with diameters of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The resulting ''nano-structure controlled'' PEM was found to have perfect one-dimensional proton-conductive pathways parallel to its thickness direction, while, in contrast, other existing PEMs mostly exhibited proton transport in the three-dimensional random media. The hierarchical structures of the PEMs, ranging from nanometers to micrometers, were revealed by small-angle neutron scattering experiments using a cold or thermal neutron beam. The information in such a wide length scale led to a deep insight into the dynamic properties inside the PEM from a molecular to macroscopic level, which can provide feedback for the reconsideration and optimization of the preparation procedure. As demonstrated above in the author's studies, it is important to understand that every quantum beam is different, thereby making the right beam choice
Glorieux, Quentin; Guibal, Samuel; Likforman, Jean-Pierre; Coudreau, Thomas; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.053826
2011-01-01
We study the generation of intensity quantum correlations using four-wave mixing in a rubidium vapor. The absence of cavity in these experiments allows to deal with several spatial modes simultaneously. In the standard, amplifying, configuration, we measure relative intensity squeezing up to 9.2 dB below the standard quantum limit. We also theoretically identify and experimentally demonstrate an original regime where, despite no overall amplification, quantum correlations are generated. In this regime a four-wave mixing set-up can therefore play the role of a photonic beam splitter with non--classical properties, i.e. a device that splits a coherent state input into two quantum correlated beams.
Wang, Hailong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai
2017-01-10
We theoretically characterize the performance of the pairwise correlations (PCs) from multiple quantum correlated beams based on the cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes. The presence of the PCs with quantum corre- lation in these systems can be verified by calculating the degree of intensity difference squeezing for any pair of all the output fields. The quantum correlation characteristics of all the PCs under different cascaded schemes are also discussed in detail and the repulsion effect between PCs in these cascaded FWM processes is theoretically predicted. Our results open the way for the classification and application of quantum states generated from the cascaded FWM processes.
Arthur L. Schawlow Prize in Laser Science Talk: Trapped Ion Quantum Networks with Light
Monroe, Christopher
2015-05-01
Laser-cooled atomic ions are standards for quantum information science, acting as qubit memories with unsurpassed levels of quantum coherence while also allowing near-perfect measurement. When qubit state-dependent optical dipole forces are applied to a collection of trapped ions, their Coulomb interaction is modulated in a way that allows the entanglement of the qubits through quantum gates that can form the basis of a quantum computer. Similar optical forces allow the simulation of quantum many-body physics, where recent experiments are approaching a level of complexity that cannot be modelled with conventional computers. Scaling to much larger numbers of qubits can be accomplished by coupling trapped ion qubits through optical photons, where entanglement over remote distances can be used for quantum communication and large-scale distributed quantum computers. Laser sources and quantum optical techniques are the workhorse for such quantum networks, and will continue to lead the way as future quantum hardware is developed. This work is supported by the ARO with funding from the IARPA MQCO program, the DARPA Quiness Program, the ARO MURI on Hybrid Quantum Circuits, the AFOSR MURIs on Quantum Transduction and Quantum Verification, and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.
Zia, O.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Singh, J.; Brock, T.
1994-08-01
A novel optoelectronic filter voltage-tunable characteristics has been developed and implemented in a multiquantum well waveguide device. By virtue of the quantum-confined Stark effect, the refractive index in quantum wells at the periphery of a guiding region can be given a periodicity in the guiding direction by application of a bias on an electron-beam patterned Schottky grating atop the guide. If the period of the Schottky grating and associated index profile satisfies the Bragg condition, as in a resonant distributed feedback structure, band-reject filtering results. Aftering the bias on the Schottky grating changes the refractive index in the wells, thereby providing tunability of the wavelength at which Bragg diffraction occurs.
Capture cavity cryomodule for quantum beam experiment at KEK superconducting RF test facility
Tsuchiya, K.; Hara, K.; Hayano, H.; Kako, E.; Kojima, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Nakai, H.; Noguchi, S.; Ohuchi, N.; Terashima, A.; Horikoshi, A.; Semba, T.
2014-01-01
A capture cavity cryomodule was fabricated and used in a beam line for quantum beam experiments at the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan. The cryomodule is about 4 m long and contains two nine-cell cavities. The cross section is almost the same as that of the STF cryomodules that were fabricated to develop superconducting RF cavities for the International Linear Collider. An attempt was made to reduce the large deflection of the helium gas return pipe (GRP) that was observed in the STF cryomodules during cool-down and warm-up. This paper briefly describes the structure and cryogenic performance of the captures cavity cryomodule, and also reports the measured displacement of the GRP and the cavity-containing helium vessels during regular operation.
Capture cavity cryomodule for quantum beam experiment at KEK superconducting RF test facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsuchiya, K.; Hara, K.; Hayano, H.; Kako, E.; Kojima, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Nakai, H.; Noguchi, S.; Ohuchi, N.; Terashima, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Horikoshi, A.; Semba, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Works, Hitachi, Ibaraki 317-8511 (Japan)
2014-01-29
A capture cavity cryomodule was fabricated and used in a beam line for quantum beam experiments at the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan. The cryomodule is about 4 m long and contains two nine-cell cavities. The cross section is almost the same as that of the STF cryomodules that were fabricated to develop superconducting RF cavities for the International Linear Collider. An attempt was made to reduce the large deflection of the helium gas return pipe (GRP) that was observed in the STF cryomodules during cool-down and warm-up. This paper briefly describes the structure and cryogenic performance of the captures cavity cryomodule, and also reports the measured displacement of the GRP and the cavity-containing helium vessels during regular operation.
Smirnov, A. M.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Ezhova, K. V.; Tikhonov, I. V.; Dneprovskii, V. S.
2016-04-01
We investigate a simple way to create dynamic photonic crystals with different lattice symmetry by interference of four non-coplanar laser beams in colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The formation of dynamic photonic crystal was confirmed by the observed diffraction of the beams that have excited photonic crystal at the angles equal to that calculated for the corresponding three-dimensional lattice (self-diffraction regime). Self-diffraction from an induced 3D transient photonic crystal has been discovered in the case of resonant excitation of the excitons (electron - hole transitions) in CdSe/ZnS QDs (highly absorbing colloidal solution) by powerful beams of mode-locked laser with picosecond pulse duration. Self-diffraction arises for four laser beams intersecting in the cell with colloidal CdSe/ZnS QDs due to the induced 3D dynamic photonic crystal. The physical processes that arise in CdSe/ZnS QDs and are responsible for the observed self-action effects are discussed.
Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility
Wahl, U
2011-01-01
The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from ~65 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently ~15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of ~80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions i...
Makhloufi, Hajer; Boonpeng, Poonyasiri; Mazzucato, Simone; Nicolai, Julien; Arnoult, Alexandre; Hungria, Teresa; Lacoste, Guy; Gatel, Christophe; Ponchet, Anne; Carrère, Hélène; Marie, Xavier; Fontaine, Chantal
2014-03-17
We have grown GaAsBi quantum wells by molecular beam epitaxy. We have studied the properties of a 7% Bi GaAsBi quantum well and their variation with thermal annealing. High-resolution X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to get some insight into its structural properties. Stationary and time-resolved photoluminescence shows that the quantum well emission, peaking at 1.23 μm at room temperature, can be improved by a rapid annealing at 650°C, while the use of a higher annealing temperature leads to emission degradation and blue-shifting due to the activation of non-radiative centers and bismuth diffusion from the quantum well.
A controllable single photon beam-splitter as a node of a quantum network
Kumar, Santosh; Gautam, Gaurav; Ghosh, Saikat; Kumar, Deepak; Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India Collaboration; Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India Collaboration
2016-05-01
A theoretical model for a controlled single-photon beam-splitter is proposed and analysed. It consists of two crossed optical-cavities with overlapping waists, dynamically coupled to a single flying atom. The system is shown to route a single photon with near-unity efficiency in an effective ``weak-coupling'' regime. Furthermore, two such nodes, forming a segment of a quantum network, are shown to perform several controlled quantum operations. All one-qubit operations involve a transfer of a photon from one cavity to another in a single node, while two-qubit operations involve transfer from one node to a next one, coupled via an optical fiber. Novel timing protocols for classical optical fields are found to simplify possible experimental realizations along with achievable effective parameter regime. This model can be extended to various other physical systems including gated quantum dots, circuit-QED or opto-mechanical elements. This work is supported by DST-SERB, and DAE, Government of India.
Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science
Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon
2005-01-01
The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...
AREAL low energy electron beam applications in life and materials sciences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Aroutiounian, R.M. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Amatuni, G.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Aloyan, L.R.; Aslanyan, L.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Avagyan, V.Sh. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Babayan, N.S. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Institute of Molecular Biology NAS, 0014 Yerevan (Armenia); Buniatyan, V.V. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Dalyan, Y.B.; Davtyan, H.D. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Derdzyan, M.V. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Grigoryan, B.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Grigoryan, N.E. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hakobyan, L.S. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Haroutyunian, S.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Harutiunyan, V.V. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hovhannesyan, K.L. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Khachatryan, V.G. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Martirosyan, N.W. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Melikyan, G.S. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); and others
2016-09-01
The AREAL laser-driven RF gun provides 2–5 MeV energy ultrashort electron pulses for experimental study in life and materials sciences. We report the first experimental results of the AREAL beam application in the study of molecular-genetic effects, silicon-dielectric structures, ferroelectric nanofilms, and single crystals for scintillators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Löfgren, André; Zeiger, Paul; Kocevski, Vancho; Rusz, Ján, E-mail: jan.rusz@fysik.uu.se
2016-05-15
We have evaluated atomic resolution high-angle annular dark field images with ordinary beams and electron vortex beams for thin crystals of bcc iron, explicitly considering the atomic vibrations using molecular dynamics. The shape of the image representing an atomic column depends on the orbital angular momentum, sample thickness and temperature. For electron vortex beams we observe characteristic doughnut-shaped images of atomic columns. It is shown how the thermal diffuse scattering reduces the depth of their central minima, which get further smeared by finite source size effects. In addition, it is shown that in calculations of HAADF-STEM images at low temperatures one has to explicitly consider the nuclear quantum effects (zero point vibrations), otherwise the effect of atomic vibrations is strongly underestimated. - Highlights: • HAADF STEM images calculated for ordinary beams and electron vortex beams. • Temperature, sample thickness, convergence angle and source size broadening effects. • Zero point vibrations included into the molecular dynamics calculations.
Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences.
Nakajima, Kazuhisa
2015-01-01
To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker's review article on "Laser Acceleration and its future" [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],(1)) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated.
Quantum radiation reaction in head-on laser-electron beam interaction
Vranic, Marija; Fonseca, Ricardo A; Silva, Luis O
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the energy spread and the divergence of electron beams while they interact with different laser pulses at intensities where quantum effects and radiation reaction are of relevance. The interaction is modeled with a QED-PIC code and the results are compared with those obtained with a standard PIC code with the addition of a classical radiation reaction module and with theoretical predictions. While classical radiation reaction is a continuous process, in QED, radiation emission is stochastic. The two pictures reconcile in the limit when the emitted photons energy is small compared to the energy of the emitting electrons. The energy spread of the electron distribution function always tends to decrease with classical radiation reaction, whereas the stochastic QED emission can also enlarge it. These two tendencies compete in the QED-dominated regime. Our analysis, supported by the QED module, reveals an upper limit to the maximal attainable energy spread due to stoch...
2007-11-30
Ohtsuki, K. Nakagami , W. Zhu, and H. Rabitz, Chem. Phys., 287, 197-216 (2003). Quantum Control via Adaptive Tracking, W. Zhu and H. Rabitz, J. Chem...dynamics under the influence of dissipation, Y. Ohtsuki, K. Nakagami , W. Zhu, and H. Rabitz, Chem. Phys., 287, 197-216 (2003). 22. Quantum Control via
Quantum dots – a versatile tool in plant science?
Müller, Frank; Houben, Andreas; Barker, Peter E; Xiao, Yan; Käs, Josef A; Melzer, Michael
2006-01-01
An optically stable, novel class of fluorophores (quantum dots) for in situ hybridisation analysis was tested to investigate their signal stability and intensity in plant chromosome analyses. Detection of hybridisation sites in situ was based on fluorescence from streptavidin-linked inorganic crystals of cadmium selenide. Comparison of quantum dots (QDs) with conventional detection systems (Alexa 488) in immunolabeling experiments demonstrated greater sensitivity than the conventional system. In contrast, detection of QDs in in situ hybridisation of several plant chromosomes, using several high-copy sequences, was less sensitve than Alexa 488. Thus, semiconductor nanocrystal fluorophores are more suitable for immunostaining but not for in situ hybridisation of plant chromosomes. PMID:16776835
The quantum ten a passion, tragedy, ambition, and science
Jones, Sheilla
2008-01-01
Theoretical physics is in trouble. At least that's the impression you'd get from reading a spate of recent books on the continued failure to resolve the 80-year-old problem of unifying the classical and quantum worlds. The seeds of this problem were sewn eighty years ago when a dramatic revolution in physics reached a climax at the 1927 Solvay conference in Brussels. It's the story of a rush to formalize quantum physics, the work of just a handful of men fired by ambition, philosophical conflicts and personal agendas. Sheilla Jones paints an intimate portrait of the key figures who wrestled wi
Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Liapis, Andreas C.; Bissell, Luke J.; Gehring, George M.; Winkler, Justin M.; Boyd, Robert W.
2015-03-01
We present here our results on using liquid crystals in experiments with nonclassical light sources: (1) single-photon sources exhibiting antibunching (separation of all photons in time), which are key components for secure quantum communication systems, and (2) entangled photon source with photons exhibiting quantum interference in a Hong-Ou- Mandel interferometer. In the first part, cholesteric liquid crystal hosts were used to create definite circular polarization of antibunched photons emitted by nanocrystal quantum dots. If the photon has unknown polarization, filtering it through a polarizer to produce the desired polarization for quantum key distribution with bits based on polarization states of photons will reduce by half the efficiency of a quantum cryptography system. In the first part, we also provide our results on observation of a circular polarized microcavity resonance in nanocrystal quantum dot fluorescence in a 1-D chiral photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystal microcavity. In the second part of this paper with indistinguishable, time-entangled photons, we demonstrate our experimental results on simulating quantum-mechanical barrier tunnelling phenomena. A Hong-Ou-Mandel dip (quantum interference effect) is shifted when a phase change was introduced on the way of one of entangled photons in pair (one arm of the interferometer) by inserting in this arm an electrically controlled planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal layer between two prisms in the conditions close to a frustrated total internal reflection. By applying different AC-voltages to the planar-aligned nematic layer and changing its refractive index, we can obtain various conditions for incident photon propagation - from total reflection to total transmission. Measuring changes of tunnelling times of photon through this structure with femtosecond resolution permitted us to answer some unresolved questions in quantum-mechanical barrier tunnelling phenomena.
Jevasuwan, Wipakorn; Boonpeng, Poonyasiri; Panyakeow, Somsak; Ratanathammaphan, Somchai
2010-11-01
In this paper, we have studied the fabrication of InP ringlike quantum-dot molecules on GaAs(001) substrate grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy using droplet epitaxy technique and the effect of In deposition rate on the physical and optical properties of InP ringlike quantum-dot molecules. The In deposition rate is varied from 0.2 ML/s to 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 ML/s. The surface morphology and cross-section were examined by ex-situ atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The increasing of In deposition rate results in the decreasing of outer and inner diameters of InP ringlike quantum-dot molecules and height of InP quantum dots but increases the InP quantum dot and ringlike quantum-dot molecule densities. The photoluminescence peaks of InP ringlike quantum-dot molecules are blue-shifted and FWHM is narrower when In deposition rate is bigger.
Schramm, A; Tommila, J; Strelow, C; Hakkarainen, T V; Tukiainen, A; Dumitrescu, M; Mews, A; Kipp, T; Guina, M
2012-05-04
We present the growth of single, site-controlled InAs quantum dots on GaAs templates using UV-nanoimprint lithography and molecular beam epitaxy. A large quantum dot array with a period of 1.5 µm was achieved. Single quantum dots were studied by steady-state and time-resolved micro-photoluminescence experiments. We obtained single exciton emission with a linewidth of 45 µeV. In time-resolved experiments, we observed decay times of about 670 ps. Our results underline the potential of nanoimprint lithography and molecular beam epitaxy to create large-scale, single quantum dot arrays.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, David Juarez [Univ. of Guanajuato (Mexico)
2015-08-01
Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility has produced its first beam with an energy of 20 MeV. This energy is obtained by the acceleration at the Electron Gun and the Capture Cavity 2 (CC2). When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one International Liner Collider (ILC)-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We calculated the total energy of the beam and the corresponding energy to the Electron Gun and CC2. Subsequently, a Beam Position Monitors (BPM) error analysis was done, to calculate the device actual resolution.
Quantum dots in life sciences: applications, benefits, and safety issues
Delehanty, James B.; Bradburne, Christopher E.; Boeneman, Kelly; Susumu, Kimihiro; Mei, Bing C.; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Dawson, Phillip E.; Mattoussi, Hedi; Huston, Alan; Medintz, Igor L.
2010-04-01
Luminescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) possess several unique optical and spectroscopic properties including high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow symmetric, size-tunable emissions allowing large achievable Stokes shifts, and exceptional resistance to photo- and chemical degradation. These properties make QDs unique enabling materials for the development of the next generation of highly efficient biosensors for health security applications, particularly within the context of living and fixed cells. Paramount in this developmental process is addressing the biocompatibility of the QD materials. We are developing robust and facile delivery schemes for the selective intracellular delivery of QD-based nanoassemblies. These schemes are based upon the self-assembly and subsequent cellular uptake of QD-peptide and QD-polymer bioconjugates. Cellular delivery experiments utilizing both delivery schemes will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed, including the intracellular fate and stability of the QD-nanoassemblies.
The message of quantum science attempts towards a synthesis
Fröhlich, Jürg
2015-01-01
This collection of essays is above all intended to pay tribute to the fact that while QM today is a refined and incredibly successful instrument, many issues concerning the internal consistency and the interpretation of this theory are still not nearly as well understood as they ought to be. In addition, whenever possible these essays take the opportunity to link foundational issues to the many exciting developments that are often linked to major experimental and technological breakthroughs in exploiting the electromagnetic field and, in particular, its quantum properties and its interactions with matter, as well as to advances in solid state physics (such as new quantum Hall liquids, topological insulators and graphene). The present volume also focuses on various areas, including new interference experiments with very large molecules passing through double-slits, which test the validity of the Kochen-Specker theorem; new tests of the violation of Bell’s inequalities and the consequences of entanglement; ...
Quantum dots – a versatile tool in plant science?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Yan
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract An optically stable, novel class of fluorophores (quantum dots for in situ hybridisation analysis was tested to investigate their signal stability and intensity in plant chromosome analyses. Detection of hybridisation sites in situ was based on fluorescence from streptavidin-linked inorganic crystals of cadmium selenide. Comparison of quantum dots (QDs with conventional detection systems (Alexa 488 in immunolabeling experiments demonstrated greater sensitivity than the conventional system. In contrast, detection of QDs in in situ hybridisation of several plant chromosomes, using several high-copy sequences, was less sensitve than Alexa 488. Thus, semiconductor nanocrystal fluorophores are more suitable for immunostaining but not for in situ hybridisation of plant chromosomes.
Microtrap arrays on magnetic film atom chips for quantum information science.
Leung, Y.F.V.; Tauschinsky, A.; van Druten, N.J.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.
2011-01-01
We present two different strategies for developing a quantum information science platform, based on our experimental results with magnetic microtrap arrays on a magnetic-film atom chip. The first strategy aims for mesoscopic ensemble qubits in a lattice of ~5 μm period, so that qubits can be individ
A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.
Rose, Laura Hall
1988-01-01
Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…
Trapping of quantum particles and light beams by switchable potential wells
Sonkin, Eduard; Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi
2010-01-01
We consider basic dynamical effects in settings based on a pair of local potential traps that may be effectively switched on and off, or suddenly displaced, by means of appropriate control mechanisms, such as the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) or photo-switchable quantum dots. The same models, based on the linear Schrodinger equation with time-dependent trapping potentials, apply to the description of optical planar systems designed for the switching of trapped light beams. The analysis is carried out in the analytical form, using exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation. The first dynamical problem considered in this work is the retention of a particle released from a trap which was suddenly turned off, while another local trap was switched on at a distance - immediately or with a delay. In this case, we demonstrate that the maximum of the retention rate is achieved at a specific finite value of the strength of the new trap, and at a finite value of the temporal delay, depending on the distance betwe...
GaAs-based long-wavelength InAs bilayer quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhu Yan; Li Mifeng; He Jifang; Yu Ying; Ni Haiqiao; Xu Yingqiang; Wang Juan; He Zhenhong; Niu Zhichuan
2011-01-01
Molecular beam epitaxy growth ofa bilayer stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot structure on a pure GaAs matrix has been systemically investigated.The influence of growth temperature and the InAs deposition of both layers on the optical properties and morphologies of the bilayer quantum dot (BQD) structures is discussed.By optimizing the growth parameters,InAs BQD emission at 1.436μm at room temperature with a narrower FWHM of 27 meV was demonstrated.The density of QDs in the second layer is around 9 × 109 to 1.4 × 1010 cm-2.The BQD structure provides a useful way to extend the emission wavelength of GaAs-based material for quantum functional devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hong-Wei [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information,University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450004 (China); Wang, Shuang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Fang-Yi; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information,University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450004 (China)
2011-12-15
It is well known that the unconditional security of quantum-key distribution (QKD) can be guaranteed by quantum mechanics. However, practical QKD systems have some imperfections, which can be controlled by the eavesdropper to attack the secret key. With current experimental technology, a realistic beam splitter, made by fused biconical technology, has a wavelength-dependent property. Based on this fatal security loophole, we propose a wavelength-dependent attacking protocol, which can be applied to all practical QKD systems with passive state modulation. Moreover, we experimentally attack a practical polarization encoding QKD system to obtain all the secret key information at the cost of only increasing the quantum bit error rate from 1.3 to 1.4%.
Xiao, Zhihao; Lanning, R. Nicholas; Zhang, Mi; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
2017-08-01
Within the second-quantization framework, we develop a formalism for describing a spatially multimode optical field diffracted through a spatial mask and show that this process can be described as an effective interaction between various spatial modes. We demonstrate a method to calculate the quantum state in the diffracted optical field for any given quantum state in the incident field. We also give several additional examples of how the theory works, for various quantum input states, which may be easily tested in the laboratory, including two single-mode squeezed vacuums, single- and two-photon inputs, where we show that the diffraction process produces a two-mode squeezed vacuum, number-path entanglement, and a Hong-Ou-Mandel-like effect analogous to that of a beam splitter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barnard, John J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohen, Ron H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dorf, Mikhail [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eder, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Grote, Dave P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lund, Steve M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharp, William M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Henestroza, Enrique [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ed P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vay, Jean -Luc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davidson, Ron C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kaganovich, Igor D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Startsev, Ed [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fagnan, Kirsten [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Koniges, Alice [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bertozzi, Andrea [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2010-08-26
Our principal goals, and activities in support of those goals, over the next five years are as follows: (1) Optimize the properties of the NDCX-II beam for each class of target experiments; achieve quantitative agreement with measurements; develop improved machine configurations and operating points. To accomplish these goals, we plan to use Warp to simulate NDCX-II from source to target, in full kinetic detail, including first-principles modeling of beam neutralization by plasma. The output from an ensemble of Warp runs (representing shot-to-shot variations) will be used as input to target simulations using ALE-AMR on NERSC, and other codes. (2) Develop enhanced versions of NDCX-II (the machine is designed to be extensible and reconfigurable), and carry out studies to define a next-step ion beam facility. To accomplish these goals, much of the work will involve iterative optimization employing Warp runs that assume ideal beam neutralization downstream of the accelerator. (3) Carry out detailed target simulations in the Warm Dense Matter regime using the ALE-AMR code, including surface tension effects, liquid-vapor coexistence, and accurate models of both the driving beam and the target geometry. For this we will need to make multiple runs (to capture shot-to-shot variations), and to both develop and employ synthetic diagnostics (to enable comparison with experiments). The new science that will be revealed is the physics of the transition from the liquid to vapor state of a volumetrically superheated material, wherein droplets are formed, and wherein phase transitions, surface tension and hydrodynamics all play significant roles in the dynamics. These simulations will enable calculations of equation of state and other material properties, and will also be of interest for their illumination of the science of droplet formation.
The message of quantum science. Attempts towards a synthesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blanchard, Philippe [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Froehlich, Juerg (ed.) [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2015-07-01
This collection of essays is above all intended to pay tribute to the fact that while QM today is a refined and incredibly successful instrument, many issues concerning the internal consistency and the interpretation of this theory are still not nearly as well understood as they ought to be. In addition, whenever possible these essays take the opportunity to link foundational issues to the many exciting developments that are often linked to major experimental and technological breakthroughs in exploiting the electromagnetic field and in particular, its quantum properties and its interactions with matter, as well as to advances in solid state physics (such as new quantum Hall liquids, topological insulators and graphene). The present volume also focuses on various areas, including new interference experiments with very large molecules passing through double-slits, which test the validity of the Kochen-Specker theorem; new tests of the violation of Bell's inequalities and the consequences of entanglement; new non-demolition measurements and tests of ''wave-function collapse'' to name but a few. These experimental developments have raised many challenging questions for theorists, leading to a new surge of interest in the foundations of QM, which have puzzled physicists ever since this theory was pioneered almost ninety years ago. The outcome of a seminar program of the same name on foundational issues in quantum physics (QM), organized by the editors of this book and addressing newcomers to the field and more seasoned specialists alike, this volume provides a pedagogically inspired snapshot view of many of the unresolved issues in the field of foundational QM.
Relativistic quantum chemistry the fundamental theory of molecular science
Reiher, Markus
2014-01-01
Einstein proposed his theory of special relativity in 1905. For a long time it was believed that this theory has no significant impact on chemistry. This view changed in the 1970s when it was realized that (nonrelativistic) Schrödinger quantum mechanics yields results on molecular properties that depart significantly from experimental results. Especially when heavy elements are involved, these quantitative deviations can be so large that qualitative chemical reasoning and understanding is affected. For this to grasp the appropriate many-electron theory has rapidly evolved. Nowadays relativist
Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wahl, U., E-mail: uwahl@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-12-15
The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from {approx}70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently {approx}15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of {approx}80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions in biological systems. The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, emission channeling, and tracer diffusion studies. In addition to these 'classic' methods of nuclear solid state physics, also standard semiconductor analysis techniques such as photoluminescence or deep level transient spectroscopy profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps them to overcome their chemical 'blindness' since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves. In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and biophysics at ISOLDE, presenting some of the highlights during the last five years, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.
Fan, Dingxun; Li, Sen; Kang, N; Caroff, Philippe; Wang, L B; Huang, Y Q; Deng, M T; Yu, C L; Xu, H Q
2015-09-28
We report on realization and transport spectroscopy study of single quantum dots (QDs) made from InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The nanowires employed are 50-80 nm in diameter and the QDs are defined in the nanowires between the source and drain contacts on a Si/SiO2 substrate. We show that highly tunable QD devices can be realized with the MBE-grown InSb nanowires and the gate-to-dot capacitance extracted in the many-electron regimes is scaled linearly with the longitudinal dot size, demonstrating that the devices are of single InSb nanowire QDs even with a longitudinal size of ∼700 nm. In the few-electron regime, the quantum levels in the QDs are resolved and the Landég-factors extracted for the quantum levels from the magnetotransport measurements are found to be strongly level-dependent and fluctuated in a range of 18-48. A spin-orbit coupling strength is extracted from the magnetic field evolutions of a ground state and its neighboring excited state in an InSb nanowire QD and is on the order of ∼300 μeV. Our results establish that the MBE-grown InSb nanowires are of high crystal quality and are promising for the use in constructing novel quantum devices, such as entangled spin qubits, one-dimensional Wigner crystals and topological quantum computing devices.
A model of quantum-like decision-making with applications to psychology and cognitive science
Khrennikov, Andrei
2007-01-01
We consider the following model of decision-making by cognitive systems. We present an algorithm -- quantum-like representation algorithm (QLRA) -- which provides a possibility to represent probabilistic data of any origin by complex probability amplitudes. Our conjecture is that cognitive systems developed the ability to use QLRA. They operate with complex probability amplitudes, mental wave functions. Since the mathematical formalism of QM describes as well (under some generalization) processing of such quantum-like (QL) mental states, the conventional quantum decision-making scheme can be used by the brain. We consider a modification of this scheme to describe decision-making in the presence of two ``incompatible'' mental variables. Such a QL decision-making can be used in situations like Prisoners Dilemma (PD) as well as others corresponding to so called disjunction effect in psychology and cognitive science.
Quantum Dots—From Synthesis to Applications in Biomedicine and Life Sciences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregor P.C. Drummen
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Imagine devices or particles so small that they are invisible to the naked eye. Imagine that such entities could be used to patrol our bodies and autonomously augment endogenous defense and repair mechanisms. Imagine the defeat of illness at a fraction of the current costs. Bionanotechnology is the field of science that deals with just that: the development of imaging, tracking, targeting, sensing, diagnostic, and eventually therapeutic capabilities based on particles in the nanometer range, i.e., “nanoparticles”. Within the extensive group of nanoparticles, semiconducting quantum dots play a central and prominent role. Quantum dots excel at a myriad of physical properties, most notably their fluorescent properties, such as high quantum yield, photo-stability, broad absorption spectra, and their remarkable size-dependent emission-tunability.
Quantum Revolution and Rethinking the “Eternal Truths” of the Economic Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumitru MOLDOVAN
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum physics requires a rethinking of basic postulates of economic science. The article presents the fundamental ideas of the hypothesis theory “The economy of creative imagination”. Also, it identifies the reevaluation methods of mechanistic economic paradigms that were formulated through analogy with classical mechanics. The paper shows that the economic process is performed at two levels – first in individual imagination, and then in traditional workshops and factories. In individual’s imagination, real goods are “truly created” at the subatomic level. As determinism principle dominates big material objects and the uncertainty principle operates at the quantum level, the author believes that rethinking the economic science refers primarily to the discovery of laws that enable us to predict the evolution of economic phenomena within the limitations imposed by the uncertainty principle.
Proceedings of the 109th basic science seminar on research for quantum radiation measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-07-01
In the field of radiation measurement in next century, one of the main themes for researchers will be to develop new radiation detection techniques based on quantum effects. Thus three research projects for development of new neutron detection method using He-Ne laser cells, radiation-resistant optical fibers, and superconducting tunnel junction radiation detectors have been started five years before in our research group for quantum radiation measurement of the advanced science research center (ASRC) of JAERI. The joint workshop `Research for Quantum Radiation Measurement` was held as one of basic science seminars in ASRC on 19-20th of January 1998 on the occasion of the ending of the projects. There were many presentations concerning the above three themes and the participants had a good opportunity to exchange relating research information. This proceedings includes 13 papers of the presentations. It is not only useful to know the present status of advanced study but also very suggestive to see the direction and evolution of `radiation detection techniques based on quantum effects` in the future. (J.P.N.)
Quantum dots as versatile probes in medical sciences: Synthesis, modification and properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata, E-mail: Malgorzata.Geszke-Moritz@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61–614 Poznan (Poland); Moritz, Michał, E-mail: michal.moritz@put.poznan.pl [Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)
2013-04-01
Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their very small size, they possess unique properties and behave in different way than crystals in macro scale. The specificity of QDs makes them widespread in many branches of human life. The disciplines that took recently huge advantage from the development of nanotechnology are medicine and pharmacy. The creation of particles of very tiny sizes allowed these two sciences to develop or revolutionize the techniques of diagnosis or drug delivery. The most important feature for application of fluorescent nanocrystals in medical and pharmaceutical sciences is their high surface to volume ratio enabling QDs' conjugation to multiple ligands. Other properties of great importance are dispersibility and water stability, high and not easy quenched fluorescence, biocompatibility, and small and uniform sizes. In this review with ca. 200 references the recent developments in QD synthesis, surface modification, QD-based bioimaging, biotracking of drug molecules, biosensing and photodynamic therapy are summarized. - Graphical abstract: Bioapplications of QDs as versatile probes. Highlights: ► Quantum dots as versatile probes ► Fluorescent nanocrystal synthesis and strategies of surface modification ► Application of quantum dots in bioimaging and drug biotracking ► Quantum dots as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy ► Environmental pollutant detection and determination.
Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess
2012-06-01
Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.
Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Shutthanandan
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power free electron lasers (FEL. Photocathode quantum efficiency degradation is due to residual gases in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include helium ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but show evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements, the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.
Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess
2012-06-01
Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.
Proceedings of the workshop on the science of intense radioactive ion beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McClelland, J.B.; Vieira, D.J. (comps.)
1990-10-01
This report contains the proceedings of a 2-1/2 day workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams which was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 10--12, 1990. The workshop was attended by 105 people, representing 30 institutions from 10 countries. The thrust of the workshop was to develop the scientific opportunities which become possible with a new generation intense Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, currently being discussed within North America. The workshop was organized around five primary topics: (1) reaction physics; (2) nuclei far from stability/nuclear structure; (3) nuclear astrophysics; (4) atomic physics, material science, and applied research; and (5) facilities. Overview talks were presented on each of these topics, followed by 1-1/2 days of intense parallel working group sessions. The final half day of the workshop was devoted to the presentation and discussion of the working group summary reports, closing remarks and a discussion of future plans for this effort.
Sorokin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Belyaev, K. G.; Rakhlin, M. V.; Toropov, A. A.; Mukhin, I. S.; Ivanov, S. V.
2016-12-01
We report on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of heterostructures with CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) with relatively low surface density, which could be used as single-photon emitters. The QDs were formed on the surface of a 3.1- to 4.5-monolayer-thick two-dimensional strained CdTe layer by depositing amorphous Te layer and its fast thermal desorption. Subsequent thermal annealing of the surface with QDs in the absence of external Te flux led to strong broadening and short-wavelength shift of the QD photoluminescence (PL) peak. Measurement of the micro-PL spectra of individual CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots in fabricated mesastructures with a diameter of 200—1000 nm allowed estimation of the QD surface density as 1010 cm-2.
Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Fernandez, Veronica
2014-01-01
Free-space quantum key distribution links in urban environment have demanding operating needs, such as functioning in daylight and under atmospheric turbulence, which can dramatically impact their performance. Both effects are usually mitigated with a careful design of the field of view of the receiver. However, a trade-off is often required, since a narrow field of view improves background noise rejection but it is linked to an increase in turbulence-related losses. In this paper, we present a high-speed automatic tracking system to overcome these limitations. Both a reduction in the field-of-view to decrease the background noise and the mitigation of the losses caused by atmospheric turbulence are addressed. Two different designs are presented and discussed, along with technical considerations for the experimental implementation. Finally, preliminary experimental results of beam wander correction are used to estimate the potential improvement of both the quantum bit error rate and secret key rate of a free ...
UVB-emitting InAlGaN multiple quantum well synthesized using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Kong
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A high Al-content (y > 0.4 multi-quantum-well (MQW structure with a quaternary InxAlyGa(1-x-yN active layer was synthesized using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The MQW structure exhibits strong carrier confinement and room temperature ultraviolet-B (UVB photoluminescence an order of magnitude stronger than that of a reference InxAlyGa(1-x-yN thin film with comparable composition and thickness. The samples were characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Numerical simulations suggest that the UVB emission efficiency is limited by dislocation-related non-radiative recombination centers in the MQW and at the MQW - buffer interface. Emission efficiency can be significantly improved by reducing the dislocation density from 109cm−2 to 107cm−2 and by optimizing the width and depth of the quantum wells.
Towards ion beam synthesis of single CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots in a SiO{sub 2} matrix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mangold, Hans Moritz; Kinzel, Joerg B.; Krenner, Hubert J. [Emmy Noether Group at Lehrstuhl Experimentalphysik 1, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Karl, Helmut [Lehrstuhl Experimentalphysik IV, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Wixforth, Achim [Lehrstuhl Experimentalphysik I, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)
2013-07-01
II-VI compound semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a promising class of materials for applications in optical devices in the visible spectral domain. Here we show that in addition to traditional fabrication techniques such as molecular beam epitaxy or chemical synthesis, high fluence ion-beam implantation followed by a rapid thermal annealing step, can be readily applied to synthesize CdSe nanocrystals with superior optical properties within the thermal oxide on a Si wafer. In order to confine the implantation volume we employ chromium masks with arrays of nanoscale aperture openings with diameters smaller than 250 nm. We analyzed the such implanted and annealed samples by scanning electron microscopy and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy. We observe a pronounced broadening and blue shift of the nanocrystal emission when decreasing the aperture diameter to <1000 nm. We attribute this behavior to a reduction of the mean nanocrystal size but increase of its size distribution. For the smallest aperture sizes used we observe a pronounced shell-filling behavior characteristic for single quantum dot nanoemitters.
Generation of vector beams using a double-wedge depolarizer: Non-quantum entanglement
Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2016-07-01
Propagation of horizontally polarized Gaussian beam through a double-wedge depolarizer generates vector beams with spatially varying state of polarization. Jones calculus is used to show that such beams are maximally nonseparable on the basis of even (Gaussian)-odd (Hermite-Gaussian) mode parity and horizontal-vertical polarization state. The maximum nonseparability in the two degrees of freedom of the vector beam at the double wedge depolarizer output is verified experimentally using a modified Sagnac interferometer and linear analyser projected interferograms to measure the concurrence 0.94±0.002 and violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell-like inequality 2.704±0.024. The investigation is carried out in the context of the use of vector beams for metrological applications.
The radical-pair mechanism as a paradigm for the emerging science of quantum biology
Kominis, I K
2015-01-01
The radical-pair mechanism was introduced in the 1960's to explain anomalously large EPR and NMR signals in chemical reactions of organic molecules. It has evolved to the cornerstone of spin chemistry, the study of the effect electron and nuclear spins have on chemical reactions, with the avian magnetic compass mechanism and the photosynthetic reaction center dynamics being prominent biophysical manifestations of such effects. In recent years the radical-pair mechanism was shown to be an ideal biological system where the conceptual tools of quantum information science can be fruitfully applied. We will here review recent work making the case that the radical-pair mechanism is indeed a major driving force of the emerging field of quantum biology.
Greca Dufranc, Ileana María; Freire Junior, Olival
2014-01-01
Finding the best ways to introduce quantum physics to undergraduate students in all scientific areas, in particular for chemistry students, is a pressing, but hardly a simple task. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of taking into account lessons from the history of the discipline and the ongoing controversy over its interpretations and foundations in the search for new ways of improving the teaching of quantum physics. We also review and discuss the recent research in science education ...
PREFACE: 1st Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science 2013 (LPBMS2013)
Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi
2014-04-01
From 29-31 August 2013, the 1st International Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science, LPBMS 2013, took place in the Tsukuba International Congress Center in the city of Tsukuba, Japan. The conference was a continuation of the international series Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS), which started in 1994. The last one, SRMS-7, was held in Oxford UK 11-14 July 2010, where the International Advisory Committee (IAC) recommended the conference be enlarged to incorporate Materials Research from Neutron, Muon, and Slow Positron Sources, as well as the science emerging from Synchrotron Light Sources. The conference brought together contributions from academics and industrial researchers with a diverse background and experience from the physics, chemistry and engineering communities. The topics covered in the LPBMS2013 include strongly correlated electron systems, magnetism and magnetic materials, soft matter, interface and surface defects, catalysts, biomaterials, and ceramics. In the 3-day scientific program, the conference consisted of 9 plenary talks, 33 invited talks, 20 oral presentations, and 126 poster presentations. We are pleased to publish the proceedings of the LPBMS2013 in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This volume contains 58 papers representing the work that was presented and discussed at the conference. We hope that this volume will promote further development of this interdisciplinary materials research emerging from synchrotron light, neutron, muon, and slow positron sciences. Finally, we would like to thank the International Advisory Committee (Chair: Professor G N Greaves), sponsors, all the participants and contributors for making possible this international meeting of researchers. Reiji Kumai & Youichi Murakami Conference photograph Details of the program and organizing committees are available in the pdf
Manchao He; Guolong Zhu; Zhibiao Guo
2015-01-01
With the third innovation in science and technology worldwide, China has also experienced this marvelous progress. Concerning the longwall mining in China, the “masonry beam theory” (MBT) was first proposed in the 1960s, illustrating that the transmission and equilibrium method of overburden pressure using reserved coal pillar in mined-out areas can be realized. This forms the so-called “121 mining method”, which lays a solid foundation for development of mining science and technology in Chin...
Synthesis of colloidal SnSe quantum dots by electron beam irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Zhen; Peng Liwei; Fang Yaoguo; Chen Zhiwen [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Pan Dengyu [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wu Minghong, E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)
2011-12-15
Water-soluble orthorhombic colloidal SnSe quantum dots with an average diameter of 4 nm were successfully prepared by a novel irradiation route using an electronic accelerator as a radiation source and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a surfactant. The quantum dots exhibit a large direct bandgap of 3.89 eV, greatly blue shifted compared with that of bulk SnSe (1.0 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. The quantum dots show blue photoluminescence at {approx}420 nm. The influence of CTAB on the growth of the quantum dots was investigated and a possible reaction/growth mechanism was proposed. - Highlights: > A rapid, facile and green strategy is developed to synthesize SnSe QDs. > The raw materials are green and easily obtained. > The surfactant CTAB plays an important role in the formation of SnSe quantum dots. > The obtained SnSe QDs is well-dispersed with the average size of around 4 nm.
Experimental observation of quantum correlations in four-wave mixing with a conical pump.
Cao, Leiming; Du, Jinjian; Feng, Jingliang; Qin, Zhongzhong; Marino, Alberto M; Kolobov, Mikhail I; Jing, Jietai
2017-04-01
Generation of multimode quantum states has drawn much attention recently due to its importance for both fundamental science and the future development of quantum technologies. Here, by using a four-wave mixing process with a conical pump beam, we have experimentally observed about -3.8 dB of intensity-difference squeezing between a single-axial probe beam and a conical conjugate beam. The multi-spatial-mode nature of the generated quantum-correlated beams has been shown by comparing the variation tendencies of the intensity-difference noise of the probe and conjugate beams under global attenuation and local cutting attenuation. Due to its compactness, phase-insensitive nature, and easy scalability, our scheme may find potential applications in quantum imaging, quantum information processing, and quantum metrology.
The nonequilibrium quantum many-body problem as a paradigm for extreme data science
Freericks, J. K.; Nikolić, B. K.; Frieder, O.
2014-12-01
Generating big data pervades much of physics. But some problems, which we call extreme data problems, are too large to be treated within big data science. The nonequilibrium quantum many-body problem on a lattice is just such a problem, where the Hilbert space grows exponentially with system size and rapidly becomes too large to fit on any computer (and can be effectively thought of as an infinite-sized data set). Nevertheless, much progress has been made with computational methods on this problem, which serve as a paradigm for how one can approach and attack extreme data problems. In addition, viewing these physics problems from a computer-science perspective leads to new approaches that can be tried to solve more accurately and for longer times. We review a number of these different ideas here.
Stripping of H- beams by residual gas in the linac at the Los Alamos neutron science center
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mccrady, Rodney C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ito, Takeyasu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooper, Martin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Alexander, Saunders [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-09-07
The linear accelerator at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerates both protons and H{sup -} ions using Cockroft-Walton-type injectors, a drift-tube linac and a coupled-cavity linac. The vacuum is maintained in the range of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} Torr; the residual gas in the vacuum system results in some stripping of the electrons from the H{sup -} ions resulting in beam spill and the potential for unwanted proton beams delivered to experiments. We have measured the amount of fully-stripped H{sup -} beam (protons) that end up at approximately 800 MeV in the beam switchyard at LANSCE using image plates as very sensitive detectors. We present here the motivation for the measurement, the measurement technique and results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Napoli, D. R., E-mail: napoli@lnl.infn.it; Andrighetto, A.; Antonini, P.; Benini, D.; Bermudez, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Boratto, E.; Bortolato, D.; Calderolla, M.; Calore, A.; Campo, D.; Carturan, S.; Cinausero, M.; Comunian, M.; Corradetti, S.; De Angelis, G.; De Ruvo, P. L.; Esposito, J.; Ferrari, L.; Galatá, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); and others
2016-07-07
SPES, a new accelerator facility for both the production of exotic ion beams and radio-pharmaceuticals, is presently being installed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in Italy (LNL). The new cyclotron, which will provide high intensity proton beams for the production of the rare isotopes, has been installed and is now in the commissioning phase. We present here the status of the part of the project devoted to the production and acceleration of fission fragments created in the interaction of an intense proton beam on a production target of UCx. The expected SPES radioactive beams intensities, their quality and their maximum energies (up to 11 MeV/A for A=130) will permit to perform forefront research in nuclear structure and nuclear dynamics far from the stability valley. Another low energy section of the facility is foreseen for new and challenging research, both in the nuclear physics and in the material science frameworks.
Patterned growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN grating by molecular beam epitaxy
Wang Yongjin; Hu Fangren; Hane Kazuhiro
2011-01-01
Abstract We report here the epitaxial growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN gratings by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Various GaN gratings are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on GaN-on-silicon substrate by fast atom beam etching. Silicon substrate beneath GaN grating region is removed from the backside to form freestanding GaN gratings, and the patterned growth is subsequently performed on the prepared GaN template by MBE. The selective growth takes place wit...
Properties and applications of quantum dot heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henini M
2006-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractOne of the main directions of contemporary semiconductor physics is the production and study of structures with a dimension less than two: quantum wires and quantum dots, in order to realize novel devices that make use of low-dimensional confinement effects. One of the promising fabrication methods is to use self-organized three-dimensional (3D structures, such as 3D coherent islands, which are often formed during the initial stage of heteroepitaxial growth in lattice-mismatched systems. This article is intended to convey the flavour of the subject by focussing on the structural, optical and electronic properties and device applications of self-assembled quantum dots and to give an elementary introduction to some of the essential characteristics.
A Quantum Gas Jet for Non-Invasive Beam Profile Measurement
Holzer, EB; Lefevre, T; Tzoganis, V; Welsch, C; Zhang, H
2014-01-01
A novel instrument for accelerator beam diagnostics is being developed by using De Broglie-wave focusing to create an ultra-thin neutral gas jet. Scanning the gas jet across a particle beam while measuring the interaction products, the beam profile can be measured. Such a jet scanner will provide an invaluable diagnostic tool in beams which are too intense for the use of wire scanners, such as the proposed CLIC Drive Beam. In order to create a sufficiently thin jet, a focusing element working on the de Broglie wavelength of the Helium atom has been designed. Following the principles of the Photon Sieve, we have constructed an Atomic Sieve consisting of 5230 nano-holes etched into a thin film of silicon nitride. When a quasi-monochromatic Helium jet is incident on the sieve, an interference pattern with a single central maximum is created. The stream of Helium atoms passing through this central maximum is much narrower than a conventional gas jet. The first experiences with this device are presented here, alon...
Taliercio, Thierry; Gallart, Mathieu; Lefebvre, Pierre; Morel, Aurélien; Gil, Bernard; Allègre, Jacques; Grandjean, Nicolas; Massies, Jean; Grzegory, Izabella; Porowsky, Sylvester
2001-01-01
International audience; We have grown GaN films and GaN–AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) on homoepitaxial substrates, by molecular beam epitaxy using ammonia. Both the GaN film and the QW are found to have superior excitonic recombination properties which are extremely promising for the development of indium free ultra-violet lasers based on nitrides.
Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chadwick, Helen, E-mail: helen.chadwick@epfl.ch; Hundt, P. Morten; Reijzen, Maarten E. van; Yoder, Bruce L.; Beck, Rainer D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Moléculaire, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)
2014-01-21
Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.
Ilahi, Bouraoui; Zribi, Jihene; Guillotte, Maxime; Arès, Richard; Aimez, Vincent; Morris, Denis
2016-01-01
We report on Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) growth of wavelength tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD) based superluminescent diode’s active layer suitable for Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The In-flush technique has been employed to fabricate QD with controllable heights, from 5 nm down to 2 nm, allowing a tunable emission band over 160 nm. The emission wavelength blueshift has been ensured by reducing both dots’ height and composition. A structure containing four vertically stacked height-engineered QDs have been fabricated, showing a room temperature broad emission band centered at 1.1 µm. The buried QD layers remain insensitive to the In-flush process of the subsequent layers, testifying the reliability of the process for broadband light sources required for high axial resolution OCT imaging. PMID:28773633
Quantum measurement of the degree of polarization of a light beam
Legré, M; Gisin, Nicolas
2003-01-01
We demonstrate a coherent quantum measurement for the determination of the degree of polarization (DOP). This method allows to measure the DOP in the presence of fast polarization state fluctuations, difficult to achieve with the typically used polarimetric technique. A good precision of the DOP measurements is obtained using 8 type II nonlinear crystals assembled for spatial walk-off compensation.
Becerril, M.; Zelaya-Angel, O.; Medina-Torres, A. C.; Aguilar-Hernández, J. R.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Espinoza-Beltran, F. J.
2009-02-01
Amorphous cadmium-telluride films were prepared by rf sputtering on Corning 7059 glass substrates at room temperature. The deposition time was 10 and 12 h with a thickness of 400 and 480 (±40 nm), respectively. As-prepared films were amorphous according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, but a win-fit-software analysis of the main XRD broad band suggests a wurtzite structure at short range. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at 200 keV produces crystallization of the amorphous CdTe. The TEM-electron beam induces the formation of CdTe quantum dots with the wurtzite hexagonal structure (the metastable structure of CdTe) and with ˜6 nm of average grain size. As effect of a probable distortion of the CdTe crystalline lattice, the unit cell volume (UCV) shrinks to about 30% with respect to the bulk-UCV of CdTe. Besides, the energy band gap increases as expected, according to literature data on quantum confinement.
Steane, A M
1998-01-01
The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarise not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, the review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the EPR experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from classical information theory, and, arguably, quantum from classical physics. Basic quantum information ideas are described, including key distribution, teleportation, data compression, quantum error correction, the universal quantum computer and qua...
Li, Zhili; Shi, Chao; Ren, Wei
2016-09-01
A mid-infrared quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor was developed using a multimode fiber (MMF)-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) and demonstrated for sensitive nitric oxide (NO) detection at a wavelength near 5.26 μm. The QCL radiation was readily coupled into a solid-core InF3 MMF (100 μm core) with 97% coupling efficiency using an aspheric lens. Despite the 25.5% transmission loss for the 1 m long MMF, the Gaussian beam-like fiber output of 5.72° divergence was almost completely focused through the microresonator tube (length, 8.0 mm; ID, 600 μm) designed for off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy. The sensor exploiting the R6.5 (Π21/2) doublet of NO at 1900.08 cm-1 demonstrated a minimum detection limit of 24 parts per billion by volume at an averaging time of 130 s. The sensor was found to be insensitive to the fiber bending noise for a bending radius >5 cm.
2015-07-09
of CdS(MPS) are not affecting the spectrum of the composite. Both polymer and composite absorb at 423 nm(Figure 8);only a slight baseline is...of fluorescent quantum dot- polymer nanocomposites via frontal polymerization . Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry2010, 48, 2170. [2...of Quantum Dot NLO Polymer Composites Ronald Ziolo CIQA Final Report 07/09/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office
Electron-beam dynamics in a strong laser field including quantum radiation reaction
Neitz, Norman
2014-01-01
The evolution of an electron beam colliding head-on with a strong plane-wave field is investigated in the framework of strong-field QED including radiation-reaction effects due to photon emission. Employing a kinetic approach to describe the electron and the photon distribution it is shown that at a given total laser fluence the final electron distribution depends on the shape of the laser envelope and on the pulse duration, in contrast to the classical predictions of radiation reaction based on the Landau-Lifshitz equation. Finally, it is investigated how the pair-creation process leads to a nonlinear coupled evolution of the electrons in the beam, of the produced charged particles, and of the emitted photons.
Electron-beam dynamics in a strong laser field including quantum radiation reaction
Neitz, N.; Di Piazza, A.
2014-08-01
The evolution of an electron beam colliding head on with a strong plane-wave field is investigated in the framework of strong-field QED including radiation-reaction effects due to photon emission. Employing a kinetic approach to describe the electron and the photon distribution it is shown that at a given total laser fluence the final electron distribution depends on the shape of the laser envelope and on the pulse duration, in contrast to the classical predictions of radiation reaction based on the Landau-Lifshitz equation. Finally, it is investigated how the pair-creation process leads to a nonlinear coupled evolution of the electrons in the beam, of the produced charged particles, and of the emitted photons.
Singh, Gurmukh
2012-01-01
The present article is primarily targeted for the advanced college/university undergraduate students of chemistry/physics education, computational physics/chemistry, and computer science. The most recent software system such as MS Visual Studio .NET version 2010 is employed to perform computer simulations for modeling Bohr's quantum theory of…
Singh, Gurmukh
2012-01-01
The present article is primarily targeted for the advanced college/university undergraduate students of chemistry/physics education, computational physics/chemistry, and computer science. The most recent software system such as MS Visual Studio .NET version 2010 is employed to perform computer simulations for modeling Bohr's quantum theory of…
Optimization of Quantum-Dot Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Broad Spectral Bandwidth Devices
Majid, M. A.
2012-12-01
The optimization of the key growth parameters for broad spectral bandwidth devices based on quantum dots is reported. A combination of atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence of test samples, and optoelectronic characterization of superluminescent diodes (SLDs) is used to optimize the growth conditions to obtain high-quality devices with large spectral bandwidth, radiative efficiency (due to a reduced defective-dot density), and thus output power. The defective-dot density is highlighted as being responsible for the degradation of device performance. An SLD device with 160 nm of bandwidth centered at 1230 nm is demonstrated.
Beaming circularly polarized photons from quantum dots coupled with plasmonic spiral antenna.
Rui, Guanghao; Chen, Weibin; Abeysinghe, Don C; Nelson, Robert L; Zhan, Qiwen
2012-08-13
Coupling nanoscale emitters via optical antennas enables comprehensive control of photon emission in terms of intensity, directivity and polarization. In this work we report highly directional emission of circularly polarized photons from quantum dots coupled to a spiral optical antenna. The structural chirality of the spiral antenna imprints spin state to the emitted photons. Experimental results reveal that a circular polarization extinction ratio of 10 is obtainable. Furthermore, increasing the number of turns of the spiral gives rise to higher antenna gain and directivity, leading to higher field intensity and narrower angular width of emission pattern in the far field. For a five-turn Archimedes' spiral antenna, field intensity increase up to 70-fold simultaneously with antenna directivity of 11.7 dB has been measured in the experiment. The highly directional circularly polarized photon emission from such optically coupled spiral antenna may find important applications in single molecule sensing, quantum optics information processing and integrated photonic circuits as a nanoscale spin photon source.
On quantum effects in spontaneous emission by a relativistic electron beam in an undulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-02-15
Robb and Bonifacio (2011) claimed that a previously neglected quantum effect results in noticeable changes in the evolution of the energy distribution associated with spontaneous emission in long undulators. They revisited theoretical models used to describe the emission of radiation by relativistic electrons as a continuous diffusive process, and claimed that in the asymptotic limit for a large number of undulator periods the evolution of the electron energy distribution occurs as discrete energy groups according to Poisson distribution. We show that these novel results have no physical sense, because they are based on a one-dimensional model of spontaneous emission and assume that electrons are sheets of charge. However, electrons are point-like particles and, as is well-known, the bandwidth of the angular-integrated spectrum of undulator radiation is independent of the number of undulator periods. If we determine the evolution of the energy distribution using a three-dimensional theory we find the well-known results consistent with a continuous diffusive process. The additional pedagogical purpose of this paper is to review how quantum diffusion of electron energy in an undulator with small undulator parameter can be simply analyzed using the Thomson cross-section expression, unlike the conventional treatment based on the expression for the Lienard-Wiechert fields. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neben, Abraham R.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Goeke, R.; Morgan, E. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Bernardi, G. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKA SA), Cape Town 7405 (South Africa); Bowman, J. D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Briggs, F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Deshpande, A. A. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Greenhill, L. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hazelton, B. J.; Morales, M. F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Kaplan, D. L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Mitchell, D. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); and others
2016-03-20
Accurate antenna beam models are critical for radio observations aiming to isolate the redshifted 21 cm spectral line emission from the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization (EOR) and unlock the scientific potential of 21 cm cosmology. Past work has focused on characterizing mean antenna beam models using either satellite signals or astronomical sources as calibrators, but antenna-to-antenna variation due to imperfect instrumentation has remained unexplored. We characterize this variation for the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) through laboratory measurements and simulations, finding typical deviations of the order of ±10%–20% near the edges of the main lobe and in the sidelobes. We consider the ramifications of these results for image- and power spectrum-based science. In particular, we simulate visibilities measured by a 100 m baseline and find that using an otherwise perfect foreground model, unmodeled beam-forming errors severely limit foreground subtraction accuracy within the region of Fourier space contaminated by foreground emission (the “wedge”). This region likely contains much of the cosmological signal, and accessing it will require measurement of per-antenna beam patterns. However, unmodeled beam-forming errors do not contaminate the Fourier space region expected to be free of foreground contamination (the “EOR window”), showing that foreground avoidance remains a viable strategy.
Pulsed electron-beam-pumped laser based on AlGaN/InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gamov, N A; Zhdanova, E V; Zverev, M M; Peregudov, D V; Studenov, V B [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazalov, A V; Kureshov, V A; Sabitov, D R; Padalitsa, A A; Marmalyuk, A A [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-07-31
The parameters of pulsed blue-violet (λ ≈ 430 nm at T = 300 K) lasers based on an AlGaN/InGaN/GaN structure with five InGaN quantum wells and transverse electron-beam pumping are studied. At room temperature of the active element, the minimum electron energy was 9 keV and the minimum threshold electron beam current density was 8 A cm{sup -2} at an electron energy of 18 keV. (lasers)
Laurat, J; Treps, N; Maitre, A; Fabre, C; Laurat, Julien; Coudreau, Thomas; Treps, Nicolas; Maitre, Agnes; Fabre, Claude
2003-01-01
We report the first experimental demonstration of conditional preparation of a non classical state of light in the continuous variable regime. Starting from a non degenerate OPO which generates above threshold quantum intensity correlated signal and idler "twin beams", we keep the recorded values of the signal intensity only when the idler falls inside a band of values narrower than its standard deviation. By this very simple technique, we generate a sub-Poissonian state 4.4dB below shot noise from twin beams exhibiting 7.5dB of noise reduction in the intensity difference.
Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru
2012-12-01
Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a very attractive seed source for a multikilowatt pulsed CO2 lasers applied for driving extreme ultraviolet emitting plasmas. In this Letter, we investigate output beam properties of a QCL designed to address P18 and P20 lines of 10.6 micron band of CO2 molecule. In particular, output beam quality and stability are investigated for the first time. A well-defined linear polarization and a single-mode operation enabled a use of phase retrieval method for full description of QCL output beam. A direct, multi-image numerical phase retrieval technique was developed and successfully applied to the measured intensity patterns of a QCL beam. Very good agreement between the measured and reconstructed beam profiles was observed at distances ranging from QCL aperture to infinity, proving a good understanding of the beam propagation. The results also confirm a high spatial coherence and high stability of the beam parameters, the features expected from an excellent seed source.
On quantum effects in spontaneous emission by a relativistic electron beam in an undulator
Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni
2012-01-01
Robb and Bonifacio (2011) claimed that a previously neglected quantum effect results in noticeable changes in the evolution of the energy distribution associated with spontaneous emission in long undulators. They revisited theoretical models used to describe the emission of radiation by relativistic electrons as a continuous diffusive process, and claimed that in the asymptotic limit for a large number of undulator periods the evolution of the electron energy distribution occurs as discrete energy groups according to Poisson distribution. We show that these novel results have no physical sense, because they are based on a one-dimensional model of spontaneous emission and assume that electrons are sheets of charge. However, electrons are point-like particles and, as is well-known, the bandwidth of the angular-integrated spectrum of undulator radiation is independent of the number of undulator periods. If we determine the evolution of the energy distribution using a three-dimensional theory we find the well-kno...
Evolution of self-assembled InAs quantum dot molecules by molecular beam epitaxy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tangmettajittakul, Ong-arj; Thainoi, Supachok; Panyakeow, Somsak; Ratanathammaphan, Somchai [Semiconductor Device Research Laboratory (Nanotech Center of Excellence), Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)
2012-07-15
Self-assembled InAs quantum dot molecules (QDMs) have been grown by thin-capping-and-regrowth MBE technique. The QDM-forming conditions have been changed by varying InAs growth rate in the range of 0.01-0.03 ML/s. We found that the InAs growth rate affects nano-propeller shape, dot density, and dot height. The densities of QDs, nano-propellers, and QDMs are increasing while increasing the InAs growth rate. In contrast, the dot height and the length of propeller blades are contrary to growth rate. Also, the uniformity of dots in QDMs can be changed by an increase of growth rate. These results are confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Metamorphic InGaAs Quantum Well Laser Diodes at 1.5 μm on GaAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hai-Li; I. Tang-ring; S. M. Wang; WU Dong-Hai; WU ning-peng; NI Hqiao-Qiao; HUANG She-Song; XIONG Yong-Hua; WANG Peng-Fei; HAN Qin; NIU Zhi-Chuan
2009-01-01
We report a 1.5-μm InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser diode grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InGaAs metamorphic buffers. At 150K, for a 1500×10μm2 ridge waveguide laser, the lasing wavelength is centred at 1.508μm and the threshold current density is 667 A/cm2 under pulsed operation. The pulsed lasers can operate up to 286 K.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novion, C.H. de
1997-12-31
The various applications of neutron beams are reviewed. The different mechanisms involved in neutron interaction with matter are explained. We notice that generally neutron radiation effects are unfavorable but can be turned into efficient tools to add new structures or properties to materials, silicon doping is an example. The basis principles of neutron activation analysis and neutron radiography are described. (A.C.)
Fabrication of GeSn-multiple quantum wells by overgrowth of Sn on Ge by using molecular beam epitaxy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, F. [Institute for Semiconductor Engineering, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Fischer, I. A.; Schulze, J. [Institute for Semiconductor Engineering, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Benedetti, A. [CACTI, Univ. de Vigo, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende 15, Vigo (Spain); Zaumseil, P. [IHP GmbH, Innovations for High Performance Microelectronics, Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Cerqueira, M. F.; Vasilevskiy, M. I. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Stefanov, S.; Chiussi, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Univ. de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain)
2015-12-28
We report on the fabrication and structural characterization of epitaxially grown ultra-thin layers of Sn on Ge virtual substrates (Si buffer layer overgrown by a 50 nm thick Ge epilayer followed by an annealing step). Samples with 1 to 5 monolayers of Sn on Ge virtual substrates were grown using solid source molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by atomic force microscopy. We determined the critical thickness at which the transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional growth occurs. This transition is due to the large lattice mismatch between Ge and Sn (≈14.7%). By depositing Ge on top of Sn layers, which have thicknesses at or just below the critical thickness, we were able to fabricate ultra-narrow GeSn multi-quantum-well structures that are fully embedded in Ge. We report results on samples with one and ten GeSn wells separated by 5 and 10 nm thick Ge spacer layers that were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. We discuss the structure and material intermixing observed in the samples.
Kanter, Jakob; Moll, P.; Friedemann, S.; Alireza, P.; Sutherland, M.; Goh, S.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Batlogg, B.
2013-03-01
Electronic transport measurements under high pressures face several experimental challenges due to confined sample space and high forces acting on contacts and leads. As a result conventional preparation methods are often limited in the number of possible leads and usually do not allow for sample structuring. The Focused Ion Beam (FIB) enables sample contacting and structuring down to a sub-micrometre scale, making the measurement of several samples with complex shapes on a single anvil feasible. This talk will discuss Shubnikov-de Haas measurements of FIB prepared CePt2In7 samples under high pressures. CePt2In7 belongs to the CemMnIn3 m + 2 n heavy fermion family. Compared to the CeMIn5 members of this group, the structure of CePt2In7 has a more pronounced two dimensional character, but also exhibits an antiferromagnetically ordered as well as a superconducting phase. We have studied the changes of the quasiparticle masses for the various orbits as function of pressure approaching the quantum critical point.
Fabrication of GeSn-multiple quantum wells by overgrowth of Sn on Ge by using molecular beam epitaxy
Oliveira, F.; Fischer, I. A.; Benedetti, A.; Zaumseil, P.; Cerqueira, M. F.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.; Stefanov, S.; Chiussi, S.; Schulze, J.
2015-12-01
We report on the fabrication and structural characterization of epitaxially grown ultra-thin layers of Sn on Ge virtual substrates (Si buffer layer overgrown by a 50 nm thick Ge epilayer followed by an annealing step). Samples with 1 to 5 monolayers of Sn on Ge virtual substrates were grown using solid source molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by atomic force microscopy. We determined the critical thickness at which the transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional growth occurs. This transition is due to the large lattice mismatch between Ge and Sn (≈14.7%). By depositing Ge on top of Sn layers, which have thicknesses at or just below the critical thickness, we were able to fabricate ultra-narrow GeSn multi-quantum-well structures that are fully embedded in Ge. We report results on samples with one and ten GeSn wells separated by 5 and 10 nm thick Ge spacer layers that were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. We discuss the structure and material intermixing observed in the samples.
Zhang, Z; Wang, R F; Zhang, J; Li, H S; Zhang, J; Qiu, F; Yang, J; Wang, C; Yang, Y
2016-07-29
The growth of Ge quantum dots (QDs) using the ion beam sputtering deposition technique has been successfully conducted directly on single-layer graphene supported by SiO2/Si substrate. The results show that the morphology and size of Ge QDs on graphene can be modulated by tuning the Ge coverage. Charge transfer behavior, i.e. doping effect in graphene has been demonstrated at the interface of Ge/graphene. Compared with that of traditional Ge dots grown on Si substrate, the positions of both corresponding photoluminescence (PL) peaks of Ge QDs/graphene hybrid structure undergo a large red-shift, which can probably be attributed to the lack of atomic intermixing and the existence of surface states in this hybrid material. According to first-principles calculations, the Ge growth on the graphene should follow the so-called Volmer-Weber mode instead of the Stranski-Krastanow one which is observed generally in the traditional Ge QDs/Si system. The calculations also suggest that the interaction between Ge and graphene layer can be enhanced with the decrease of the Ge coverage. Our results may supply a prototype for fabricating novel optoelectronic devices based on a QDs/graphene hybrid nanostructure.
1.1-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot light-emitting transistors grown by molecular beam epitaxy.
Wu, Cheng-Han; Chen, Hsuan-An; Lin, Shih-Yen; Wu, Chao-Hsin
2015-08-15
In this Letter, we report the enhanced radiative recombination output from an AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor with InAs quantum dots embedded in the base region to form a quantum-dot light-emitting transistor (QDLET) grown by molecular beam epitaxy systems. For the device with a 100 μm×100 μm emitter area, we demonstrate the dual output characteristics with an electrical output and an optical output when the device is operating in the common-emitter configuration. The quantum-dot light-emitting transistor exhibits a base recombination radiation in the near-infrared spectral range with a dominant peak at λ of 1100 nm.
Quantum-mechanical predictions of DNA and RNA ionization by energetic proton beams
Galassi, M. E.; Champion, C.; Weck, P. F.; Rivarola, R. D.; Fojón, O.; Hanssen, J.
2012-04-01
Among the numerous constituents of eukaryotic cells, the DNA macromolecule is considered as the most important critical target for radiation-induced damages. However, up to now ion-induced collisions on DNA components remain scarcely approached and theoretical support is still lacking for describing the main ionizing processes. In this context, we here report a theoretical description of the proton-induced ionization of the DNA and RNA bases as well as the sugar-phosphate backbone. Two different quantum-mechanical models are proposed: the first one based on a continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state treatment and the second perturbative one developed within the first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1). Besides, the molecular structure information of the biological targets studied here was determined by ab initio calculations with the Gaussian 09 software at the restricted Hartree-Fock level of theory with geometry optimization. Doubly, singly differential and total ionization cross sections also provided by the two models were compared for a large range of incident and ejection energies and a very good agreement was observed for all the configurations investigated. Finally, in comparison with the rare experiment, we have noted a large underestimation of the total ionization cross sections of uracil impacted by 80 keV protons, whereas a very good agreement was shown with the recently reported ionization cross sections for protons on adenine, at both the differential and the total scale.
Quantum-mechanical predictions of DNA and RNA ionization by energetic proton beams.
Galassi, M E; Champion, C; Weck, P F; Rivarola, R D; Fojón, O; Hanssen, J
2012-04-07
Among the numerous constituents of eukaryotic cells, the DNA macromolecule is considered as the most important critical target for radiation-induced damages. However, up to now ion-induced collisions on DNA components remain scarcely approached and theoretical support is still lacking for describing the main ionizing processes. In this context, we here report a theoretical description of the proton-induced ionization of the DNA and RNA bases as well as the sugar-phosphate backbone. Two different quantum-mechanical models are proposed: the first one based on a continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state treatment and the second perturbative one developed within the first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1). Besides, the molecular structure information of the biological targets studied here was determined by ab initio calculations with the Gaussian 09 software at the restricted Hartree-Fock level of theory with geometry optimization. Doubly, singly differential and total ionization cross sections also provided by the two models were compared for a large range of incident and ejection energies and a very good agreement was observed for all the configurations investigated. Finally, in comparison with the rare experiment, we have noted a large underestimation of the total ionization cross sections of uracil impacted by 80 keV protons,whereas a very good agreement was shown with the recently reported ionization cross sections for protons on adenine, at both the differential and the total scale.
The Science of Nuclear Materials Detection using gamma-ray beams: Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence
Ohgaki, Hideaki
2014-09-01
facility in AIST, Japan. As well, 1-D, 2-D isotope imaging by using LCS gamma-ray and NRF has been conducted. Since 2009 we have started a development of a non-destructive inspection system under the MEXT program in Japan. Series of experiments of the developing system have been conducted in HIGS facility in Duke University and JAEA Kansai Photon Science Institute. We will report on the recent result of these experiments in the workshop. An atomic nucleus is excited by absorption of incident photons with an energy the same as the excitation energy of the level, and subsequently a gamma-ray is emitted as it de-excites. This phenomenon is called Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and mostly used for studies on Nuclear Physics field. By measuring the NRF gamma-rays, we can identify nuclear species in any materials because the energies of the NRF gamma-rays uniquely depend on the nuclear species. For example, 235U has an excitation level at 1733 keV. If we irradiate a material including 235U with a gamma-ray tuned at this excitation level, the material absorbs the gamma-ray and re-emits another gamma-ray immediately to move back towards the ground state. Therefore we can detect the 235U by measuring the re-emitted (NRF) gamma-rays. Several inspection methods using gamma-rays, which can penetrate a thick shielding have been proposed and examined. Bertozzi and Ledoux have proposed an application of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) by using bremsstrahlung radiations. However the signal-to-noise (SN) ratio of the NRF measurement with the bremsstrahlung radiation is, in general, low. Only a part of the incident photons makes NRF with a narrow resonant band (meV-eV) whereas most of incident radiation is scattered by atomic processes in which the reaction rate is higher than that of NRF by several orders of magnitudes and causes a background. Thus, the NRF with a gamma-ray quasi-monochromatic radiation beam is proposed. The monochromatic gamma-rays are generated by using laser
Fabrication of SiGe quantum devices by electron-beam induced damage
Ryan, Joseph M.; Broers, Alec N.; Paul, Douglas J.; Pepper, Michael; Whall, Terry E.; Fernández, Juan M.; Joyce, Bruce A.
1997-01-01
The effects of electron beam irradiation damage has been investigated in Si/SiGe heterostructures. The damage to SiGe two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) was measured as a function of accelerating voltage and electron dose. For 40 keV electrons at a dose of 2 Cm-2(typical PMMA resist values), the material properties were not significantly altered. For 100 keV and higher energy electrons, the irradiated material became more resistive at 300 K as the electron energies were increased. The material became highly resistive at low temperatures and froze out at between 20 and 30 K. The 2DHGs also became more resistive at 300 K when the irradiation dose was increased. A number of narrow channel devices were fabricated on high mobility SiGe two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) using the damage technique and gated using Schottky gates. Plateaux were observed in the conductance as a function of gate voltage. Random telegraph signals (RTSs) were observed from a 10μm-wide Hall bar irradiated with 300 keV electrons at a dose of105C m-2
Oshima, Akihiro; Sato, Yukiko; Shiraki, Fumiya; Mitani, Naohiro; Fujii, Kazuki; Oshima, Yuji; Fujita, Hajime; Washio, Masakazu
2011-02-01
The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is affected by the interfacial property between the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and the electrodes. Thus, development of well-laminated membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) has been carried out. The hybrid PEM, consisting of perfluoro-sulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer and sulfonated polystyrene grafted tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene (sulfonated PS-g-FEP) synthesized by the soft electron beam (soft-EB) induced grafting method, was fabricated by mixing sulfonated PS-g-FEP with PFSA ionomer, which is coated on the interface of the PEM and the electrodes. The obtained hybrid PEM was characterized in terms of water uptake, ion exchange capacity, polarization performance and electrochemical impedance. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the hybrid PEM was 1.0-1.2 meq/g. The polarization curve and electrochemical impedance of the hybrid PEM was analyzed. As a result, the ionic conductivity was 0.16 S/cm and is the highest in the tested PEMs. The maximum power density is about 1.0 W/cm 2 with low humidity (relative humidity RH: 16%), which is 1.5 times higher than that of commercially available Nafion ® 112.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oshima, Akihiro, E-mail: akoshima@sanken.osaka-u.ac.j [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Sato, Yukiko; Shiraki, Fumiya; Mitani, Naohiro; Fujii, Kazuki; Oshima, Yuji; Fujita, Hajime; Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering (RISE), Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku 169-8555 (Japan)
2011-02-15
The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is affected by the interfacial property between the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and the electrodes. Thus, development of well-laminated membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) has been carried out. The hybrid PEM, consisting of perfluoro-sulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer and sulfonated polystyrene grafted tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene (sulfonated PS-g-FEP) synthesized by the soft electron beam (soft-EB) induced grafting method, was fabricated by mixing sulfonated PS-g-FEP with PFSA ionomer, which is coated on the interface of the PEM and the electrodes. The obtained hybrid PEM was characterized in terms of water uptake, ion exchange capacity, polarization performance and electrochemical impedance. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the hybrid PEM was 1.0-1.2 meq/g. The polarization curve and electrochemical impedance of the hybrid PEM was analyzed. As a result, the ionic conductivity was 0.16 S/cm and is the highest in the tested PEMs. The maximum power density is about 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} with low humidity (relative humidity RH: 16%), which is 1.5 times higher than that of commercially available Nafion 112.
Jung, Woo-Young; Seol, Jae-Bok; Kwak, Chan-Min; Park, Chan-Gyung
2016-03-01
The compositional distribution of In atoms in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells is considered as one of the candidates for carrier localization center, which enhances the efficiency of the light-emitting diodes. However, two challenging issues exist in this research area. First, an inhomogeneous In distribution is initially formed by spinodal decomposition during device fabrication as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Second, electron-beam irradiation during microscopy causes the compositional inhomogeneity of In to appear as a damage contrast. Here, a systematic approach was proposed in this study: Electron-beam with current density ranging from 0 to 20.9 A/cm2 was initially exposed to the surface regions during microscopy. Then, the electron-beam irradiated regions at the tip surface were further removed, and finally, atom probe tomography was performed to run the samples without beam-induced damage and to evaluate the existence of local inhomegenity of In atoms. We proved that after eliminating the electron-beam induced damage regions, no evidence of In clustering was observed in the blue-emitting InGaN/GaN devices. In addition, it is concluded that the electron-beam induced localization of In atoms is a surface-related phenomenon, and hence spinodal decomposition, which is typically responsible for such In clustering, is negligible for biaxially strained blue-emitting InGaN/GaN devices.
Rajendran, K; de Ruiter, N J A; Chernoglazov, A I; Panta, R K; Butler, A P H; Butler, P H; Bell, S T; Anderson, N G; Woodfield, T B F; Tredinnick, S J; Healy, J L; Bateman, C J; Aamir, R; Doesburg, R M N; Renaud, P F; Gieseg, S P; Smithies, D J; Mohr, J L; Mandalika, V B H; Opie, A M T; Cook, N J; Ronaldson, J P; Nik, S J; Atharifard, A; Clyne, M; Bones, P J; Bartneck, C; Grasset, R; Schleich, N; Billinghurst, M
2014-01-01
This paper discusses methods for reducing beam hardening effects using spectral data for biomaterial applications. A small-animal spectral scanner operating in the diagnostic energy range was used. We investigate the use of photon-processing features of the Medipix3RX ASIC in reducing beam hardening and associated artefacts. A fully operational charge summing mode was used during the imaging routine. We present spectral data collected for metal alloy samples, its analysis using algebraic 3D reconstruction software and volume visualisation using a custom volume rendering software. Narrow high energy acquisition using the photon-processing detector revealed substantial reduction in beam hardening effects and metal artefacts.
LHC Restart 2009 - Accelerating Science - Beam captured just before midnight, November 20th 2009
CERN Video Productions
2009-01-01
Geneva, 20 November 2009. Particle beams are once again circulating in the world's most powerful particle accelerator, CERN*'s Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This news comes after the machine was handed over for operation on Wednesday morning. A clockwise circulating beam was established at ten o'clock this evening. This is an important milestone on the road towards first physics at the LHC, expected in 2010.
Hadzidaki, Pandora
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a multi-dimensional study concerning Heisenberg's "gamma ray microscope", a thought experiment, which is intimately connected with the historical development of quantum mechanics (QM), and also with the most disputed interpretations of quantum theory. In this study: (a) we investigate how philosophers of science read and…
Hadzidaki, Pandora
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a multi-dimensional study concerning Heisenberg's "gamma ray microscope", a thought experiment, which is intimately connected with the historical development of quantum mechanics (QM), and also with the most disputed interpretations of quantum theory. In this study: (a) we investigate how philosophers of science read and…
The Quantum Logical Challenge: Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to Logic and Philosophy of Science
Beltrametti, E.; Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Giuntini, R.
2017-04-01
Peter Mittelstaedt's contributions to quantum logic and to the foundational problems of quantum theory have significantly realized the most authentic spirit of the International Quantum Structures Association: an original research about hard technical problems, which are often "entangled" with the emergence of important changes in our general world-conceptions. During a time where both the logical and the physical community often showed a skeptical attitude towards Birkhoff and von Neumann's quantum logic, Mittelstaedt brought into light the deeply innovating features of a quantum logical thinking that allows us to overcome some strong and unrealistic assumptions of classical logical arguments. Later on his intense research on the unsharp approach to quantum theory and to the measurement problem stimulated the increasing interest for unsharp forms of quantum logic, creating a fruitful interaction between the work of quantum logicians and of many-valued logicians. Mittelstaedt's general views about quantum logic and quantum theory seem to be inspired by a conjecture that is today more and more confirmed: there is something universal in the quantum theoretic formalism that goes beyond the limits of microphysics, giving rise to interesting applications to a number of different fields.
D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2016-09-01
Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.
Atomic focusing by quantum fields: Entanglement properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paz, I.G. da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portela, CEP 64049-550, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Frazão, H.M. [Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Profa. Cinobelina Elvas, CEP 64900-000, Bom Jesus, PI (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Nemes, M.C. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Peixoto de Faria, J.G. [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, Av. Amazonas 7675, Belo Horizonte, MG 30510-000 (Brazil)
2014-04-01
The coherent manipulation of the atomic matter waves is of great interest both in science and technology. In order to study how an atom optic device alters the coherence of an atomic beam, we consider the quantum lens proposed by Averbukh et al. [1] to show the discrete nature of the electromagnetic field. We extend the analysis of this quantum lens to the study of another essentially quantum property present in the focusing process, i.e., the atom–field entanglement, and show how the initial atomic coherence and purity are affected by the entanglement. The dynamics of this process is obtained in closed form. We calculate the beam quality factor and the trace of the square of the reduced density matrix as a function of the average photon number in order to analyze the coherence and purity of the atomic beam during the focusing process.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Manchao He; Guolong Zhu; Zhibiao Guo
2015-01-01
abstract With the third innovation in science and technology worldwide, China has also experienced this marvelous progress. Concerning the longwall mining in China, the “masonry beam theory” (MBT) was first proposed in the 1960s, illustrating that the transmission and equilibrium method of overburden pressure using reserved coal pillar in mined-out areas can be realized. This forms the so-called “121 mining method”, which lays a solid foundation for development of mining science and technology in China. The“transfer rock beam theory”(TRBT) proposed in the 1980s gives a further understanding for the transmission path of stope overburden pressure and pressure distribution in high-stress areas. In this regard, the advanced 121 mining method was proposed with smaller coal pillar for excavation design, making significant contributions to improvement of the coal recovery rate in that era. In the 21st century, the traditional mining technologies faced great challenges and, under the theoretical developments pioneered by Profs. Minggao Qian and Zhenqi Song, the “cutting cantilever beam theory” (CCBT) was proposed in 2008. After that the 110 mining method is formulated subsequently, namely one stope face, after the first mining cycle, needs one advanced gateway excavation, while the other one is automatically formed during the last mining cycle without coal pillars left in the mining area. This method can be implemented using the CCBT by incorporating the key technologies, including the directional pre-splitting roof cutting, constant resistance and large deformation (CRLD) bolt/anchor supporting system with negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) effect material, and remote real-time monitoring technology. The CCBT and 110 mining method will provide the theoretical and technical basis for the development of mining industry in China.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manchao He
2015-10-01
Full Text Available With the third innovation in science and technology worldwide, China has also experienced this marvelous progress. Concerning the longwall mining in China, the “masonry beam theory” (MBT was first proposed in the 1960s, illustrating that the transmission and equilibrium method of overburden pressure using reserved coal pillar in mined-out areas can be realized. This forms the so-called “121 mining method”, which lays a solid foundation for development of mining science and technology in China. The “transfer rock beam theory” (TRBT proposed in the 1980s gives a further understanding for the transmission path of stope overburden pressure and pressure distribution in high-stress areas. In this regard, the advanced 121 mining method was proposed with smaller coal pillar for excavation design, making significant contributions to improvement of the coal recovery rate in that era. In the 21st century, the traditional mining technologies faced great challenges and, under the theoretical developments pioneered by Profs. Minggao Qian and Zhenqi Song, the “cutting cantilever beam theory” (CCBT was proposed in 2008. After that the 110 mining method is formulated subsequently, namely one stope face, after the first mining cycle, needs one advanced gateway excavation, while the other one is automatically formed during the last mining cycle without coal pillars left in the mining area. This method can be implemented using the CCBT by incorporating the key technologies, including the directional pre-splitting roof cutting, constant resistance and large deformation (CRLD bolt/anchor supporting system with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR effect material, and remote real-time monitoring technology. The CCBT and 110 mining method will provide the theoretical and technical basis for the development of mining industry in China.
Ohori, Daisuke; Fukuyama, Atsuhiko; Thomas, Cedric; Higo, Akio; Samukawa, Seiji; Ikari, Tetsuo
2016-09-01
We demonstrated that the lattice-matched GaAs quantum nanodisks (QNDs) embedded in an AlGaAs matrix were fabricated by our original top-down nanoprocess. Lattice-matched GaAs QNDs are very attractive in quantum cryptography because the spin relaxation time of QNDs might be longer than that of strained quantum dots. Quantum levels of QNDs were investigated by the photoluminescence (PL) technique. The minimum diameter and thickness of QNDs were 7 and 8 nm, respectively. PL peaks of QNDs at 1.64 and 1.66 eV were observed to be higher than that of multiple quantum wells (MQWs) observed at 1.57 eV. It is suggested that these peaks are due to the diameter distribution of QNDs. The calculated quantum levels were in good agreement with the present experimental results. The observation of the PL peaks from QNDs demonstrates that the quantum level is strongly confined not only in the perpendicular direction but also in the lateral direction.
Mangold, H Moritz; Karl, Helmut; Krenner, Hubert J
2014-02-12
Cadmium selenide nanocrystal quantum dots (NC-QDs) are site-selectively synthesized by sequential ion beam implantation of selenium and cadmium ions in a SiO2 matrix through submicrometer apertures followed by a rapid thermal annealing step. The structural and optical properties of the NC-QDs are controlled by the ion fluence during implantation and the diameter of the implantation aperture. For low fluences and small apertures the emission of these optically active emitters is blue-shifted compared to that of the bulk material by >100 meV due to quantum confinement. The emission exhibits spectral diffusion and blinking on a second time scales as established also for solution-synthesized NC-QDs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Kwangwook; Ravindran, Sooraj; Ju, Gun Wu; Min, Jung-Wook; Kang, Seokjin; Myoung, NoSoung; Yim, Sang-Youp; Jo, Yong-Ryun; Kim, Bong-Joong; Lee, Yong Tak
2016-12-01
GaAs/GaInAs multiple-quantum-well (MQW) shells having different GaInAs shell width formed on the surface of self-catalyzed GaAs core nanowires (NWs) are grown on (100) Si substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence emission from GaAs/GaInAs MQW shells and the carrier lifetime could be varied by changing the width of GaInAs shell. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements showed that the carrier lifetime had a fast and slow decay owing to the mixing of wurtzite and zinc-blende structures of the NWs. Furthermore, strain relaxation caused the carrier lifetime to decrease beyond a certain thickness of GaInAs quantum well shells.
量子信息学对信息安全的影响浅析%The Influence of the Quantum Information Science on Information Security
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周旭峰
2015-01-01
The quantum information science is the science of quantum information processing technology. The quantum information processing technology includes quantum computing technology, quantum cryptography and quantum communication technologies,its impact on information security is great. The quantum computers and quantum algorithms made many difficult math problems solved easily, that is a direct threat to many of the traditional cryptography, and the anti-quantum attacks cryptographic algorithms became the focus of the theoretical research. Quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation can effectively improve the security of quantum communication networks and quantum signature technology. People encountered many challenges in the process of studying quantum information science, also made gratifying progress. People should adequately predict the impact of quantum informatics science on commercial, military, network, banking areas at the information age.%量子信息学是研究量子信息处理技术的科学.量子信息处理技术包括量子计算技术、量子密码和量子通信技术等,对信息安全的影响巨大.量子计算机和量子算法令许多曾经的数学难题被轻松破解,这威胁到众多传统密码体系的安全性,也使得防量子算法攻击的密码体系成为理论研究热点.量子密码和量子隐形传态可有效提高量子通信网络和量子签名技术的安全性.人们在研究量子信息学的过程中遇到了诸多挑战,亦取得的可喜进展.应当充分预估量子信息学对信息时代的商业、军事、网络、银行等领域的影响.
Terashima, Wataru; Hirayama, Hideki
2010-12-01
We investigated the utility of a droplet elimination by thermal annealing (DETA) technique during the radio-frequency molecular beam epitaxy growth of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) structure. DETA is a method in which droplets deposited on the surface are eliminated by temporarily increasing the substrate temperature. DETA is a useful method which makes it possible not only to increase the number of periods in the QC structure, but also to improve the surface and structural properties of the QC structure. We could successfully increase the radiant intensity from a QCL sample by increasing the number of periods in the stacked QC structure with the DETA method.
A Sense of History: History of Science and the Teaching of Introductory Quantum Theory.
Kragh, Helge
1992-01-01
Based on the example of the history of the photoelectric effect as a case in teaching introductory quantum theory, it is argued that the dilemma between "historical truth" and "didactic usefulness" may be circumvented by focusing on a few, carefully selected case studies. The early introduction of the light-quantum is…
A Sense of History: History of Science and the Teaching of Introductory Quantum Theory.
Kragh, Helge
1992-01-01
Based on the example of the history of the photoelectric effect as a case in teaching introductory quantum theory, it is argued that the dilemma between "historical truth" and "didactic usefulness" may be circumvented by focusing on a few, carefully selected case studies. The early introduction of the light-quantum is…
Fundamentals of quantum physics. Textbook for students of science and engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereyra Padilla, Pedro [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico City (Mexico). Fisica Teorica y Materia Condensada
2012-07-01
A clearly written basic textbook with a good balance between basic explanations and applications. Supplies new views on eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in quantum mechanics. Gives background needed to understand quantum cryptography, teleportation and computation. Provides a clear and consistent understanding of quantum concepts and quantum phenomenology. This book presents a comprehensive course of quantum mechanics for undergraduate and graduate students. After a brief outline of the innovative ideas that lead up to the quantum theory, the book reviews properties of the Schroedinger equation, the quantization phenomena and the physical meaning of wave functions. The book discusses, in a direct and intelligible style, topics of the standard quantum formalism like the dynamical operators and their expected values, the Heisenberg and matrix representation, the approximate methods, the Dirac notation, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum and hydrogen atom, the spin-field and spin-orbit interactions, identical particles and Bose-Einstein condensation etc. Special emphasis is devoted to study the tunneling phenomena, transmission coefficients, phase coherence, energy levels splitting and related phenomena, of interest for quantum devices and heterostructures. The discussion of these problems and the WKB approximation is done using the transfer matrix method, introduced at a tutorial level. This book is a textbook for upper undergraduate physics and electronic engineering students.
Quantum Mechanical Aspects of Cell Microtubules: Science Fiction or Realistic Possibility?
Mavromatos, Nick E
2010-01-01
Recent experimental research with marine algae points towards quantum entanglement at ambient temperature, with correlations between essential biological units separated by distances as long as 20 Angstr\\"oms. The associated decoherence times, due to environmental influences, are found to be of order 400 fs. This prompted some authors to connect such findings with the possibility of some kind of quantum computation taking place in these biological entities: within the decoherence time scales, the cell "quantum calculates" the optimal "path" along which energy and signal would be transported more efficiently. Prompted by these experimental results, in this talk I remind the audience of a related topic proposed several years ago in connection with the possible r\\^ole of quantum mechanics and/or field theory on dissipation-free energy transfer in microtubules (MT), which constitute fundamental cell substructures. Quantum entanglement between tubulin dimers was argued to be possible, provided there exists suffici...
Surface Science Analysis of GaAs Photocathodes Following Sustained Electron Beam Delivery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shutthanandan, V.; Zhu, Zihua; Stutzman, Marcy L.; Hannon, Fay; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Hess, Wayne P.
2012-06-12
Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Several photocathode degradation processes are suspected, including defect formation by ion back bombardment, photochemistry of surface adsorbed species and irradiation-induced surface defect formation. To better understand the mechanisms of photocathode degradation, we have conducted surface and bulk analysis studies of two GaAs photocathodes removed from the FEL photoinjector after delivering electron beam for a few years. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, strained super-lattice GaAs photocathode samples, removed from the CEBAF photoinjector were analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. This analysis of photocathode degradation during nominal photoinjector operating conditions represents first steps towards developing robust new photocathode designs necessary for generating sub-micron emittance electron beams required for both fourth generation light sources and intense polarized CW electron beams for nuclear and high energy physics facilities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph P. Kenny
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also address interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.
The quantum physics bible the definitive guide to 200 years of subatomic science
Clegg, Brian
2017-01-01
An easy-to-understand guide to the complex subject of quantum physics. Quantum physics is how scientists describe the world of the very small. For other people, however, the rules of quantum physics seem to violate all logic: How can a particle be in more than one place at the same time? How can it tunnel through an impenetrable barrier? How can a cat in a box be both alive and dead? This book explains the complexities of quantum physics in bite-sized "lessons" that make it clear and accessible to all readers. The sections and chapters are: 1. Atoms -- quantum; quantum physics in everyday life; the periodic table; atoms and nuclei; isotopes; hydrogen atom (energy levels and spectra) 2. Photons -- photoelectric effect; thermal emission and the Planck distribution; wave particle duality (Young's slit experiment) 3. Quantum devices -- superconductors; transistor, diode; light-emitting diode; laser 4. Spin -- spin; fermions; exclusion principle; Fermi Dirac distribution; Bose-Einstein statistics 5. Wave Mechan...
Robblee, Karen M.
Current science education reform efforts promote inquiry-based learning, a goal that requires appropriate tools and instructional approaches. This study investigated the influence of the beliefs and knowledge of four experienced secondary chemistry teachers in their use of new instructional software that generates models of atoms and molecules based on quantum mechanics. The software, which was developed through a National Science Foundation funded project, Quantum Science Across Disciplines (QSAD), was designed to promote inquiry learning. Qualitative research methods were used for this multiple case study. Data from surveys, interviews, and extended classroom observations revealed a close correlation between a teacher's model of the learner and his or her model of teaching. Combined models of learner and teacher had the greatest influence on their decisions about implementing QSAD software. Teachers who espoused a constructivist model of learning and related models of teaching used the software to promote student investigations and inductive approaches to learning. Other factors that appeared to support the use of inquiry methods included sufficient time for students to investigate phenomena, the extent of the teacher's pedagogical content knowledge, and the amount of training using QSAD software. The Views-On-Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) instrument was used to compare the informants' beliefs about the epistemology of science to their classroom practices. Data related to the role of teachers' beliefs about scientific knowledge were inconclusive, and VOSTS results were inconsistent with the informants' stated beliefs. All four cases revealed that the teachers acted as agents of the school culture. In schools that promoted development of critical thinking, questioning, and self-direction in students, teachers were more likely to use a variety of instructional methods and emphasize construction of knowledge. These findings suggest that educational reform
Browne, David A.
2015-05-14
© 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Unipolar-light emitting diode like structures were grown by NH
Intense, pulsed, charged particle beams and associated applications to materials science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yatsui, K.; Grigoriu, C.; Masugata, K.; Jiang, W.; Sonegawa, T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Eka Prijono, A.C. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)
1997-03-01
We have demonstrated successful preparation of thin films and nanosize powders by using the technique of intense pulsed ion beam evaporation. In this paper, we review the experimental results of thin film deposition of ZnS, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, BaTiO{sub 3}, cBN, ZrO{sub 2}, ITO, and apatite, as well as the experimental results of the synthesis of nanosize powders of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (author)
Fundamentals of Quantum Physics Textbook for Students of Science and Engineering
Pereyra, Pedro
2012-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive course of quantum mechanics for undergraduate and graduate students. After a brief outline of the innovative ideas that lead up to the quantum theory, the book reviews properties of the Schrödinger equation, the quantization phenomena and the physical meaning of wave functions. The book discusses, in a direct and intelligible style, topics of the standard quantum formalism like the dynamical operators and their expected values, the Heisenberg and matrix representation, the approximate methods, the Dirac notation, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum and hydrogen atom, the spin-field and spin-orbit interactions, identical particles and Bose-Einstein condensation etc. Special emphasis is devoted to study the tunneling phenomena, transmission coefficients, phase coherence, energy levels splitting and related phenomena, of interest for quantum devices and heterostructures. The discussion of these problems and the WKB approximation is done using the transfer matrix method, intr...
Quantum mechanical aspects of cell microtubules: science fiction or realistic possibility?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mavromatos, Nick E, E-mail: nikolaos.mavromatos@kcl.ac.uk [CERN - Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23, (Switzerland)
2011-07-08
Recent experimental research with marine algae points towards quantum entanglement at ambient temperature, with correlations between essential biological units separated by distances as long as 20 Angstroems. The associated decoherence times, due to environmental influences, are found to be of order 400 fs. This prompted some authors to connect such findings with the possibility of some kind of quantum computation taking place in these biological entities: within the decoherence time scales, the cell 'quantum calculates' the optimal 'path' along which energy and signal would be transported more efficiently. Prompted by these experimental results, in this talk I remind the audience of a related topic proposed several years ago in connection with the possible role of quantum mechanics and/or field theory on dissipation-free energy transfer in microtubules (MT), which constitute fundamental cell substructures. The basic assumption was to view the cell MT as quantum electrodynamical cavities, providing sufficient isolation in vivo to enable the formation of electric-dipole quantum coherent solitonic states across the tubulin dimer walls. Crucial to this, were argued to be the electromagnetic interactions of the dipole moments of the tubulin dimers with the dipole quanta in the ordered water interiors of the MT, that play the role of quantum coherent cavity modes. Quantum entanglement between tubulin dimers was argued to be possible, provided there exists sufficient isolation from other environmental cell effects. The model was based on certain ferroelectric aspects of MT. Subsequent experiments in vitro could not confirm ferroelectricity at room temperatures, however they provided experimental measurements of the induced electric dipole moments of the MT under the influence of external electric fields. Nevertheless, this does not demonstrate that in vivo MT are not ferroelectric materials. More refined experiments should be done. In the talk I
Quantum mechanical aspects of cell microtubules: science fiction or realistic possibility?
Mavromatos, Nick E.
2011-07-01
Recent experimental research with marine algae points towards quantum entanglement at ambient temperature, with correlations between essential biological units separated by distances as long as 20 Angströms. The associated decoherence times, due to environmental influences, are found to be of order 400 fs. This prompted some authors to connect such findings with the possibility of some kind of quantum computation taking place in these biological entities: within the decoherence time scales, the cell "quantum calculates" the optimal "path" along which energy and signal would be transported more efficiently. Prompted by these experimental results, in this talk I remind the audience of a related topic proposed several years ago in connection with the possible rôle of quantum mechanics and/or field theory on dissipation-free energy transfer in microtubules (MT), which constitute fundamental cell substructures. The basic assumption was to view the cell MT as quantum electrodynamical cavities, providing sufficient isolation in vivo to enable the formation of electric-dipole quantum coherent solitonic states across the tubulin dimer walls. Crucial to this, were argued to be the electromagnetic interactions of the dipole moments of the tubulin dimers with the dipole quanta in the ordered water interiors of the MT, that play the rôle of quantum coherent cavity modes. Quantum entanglement between tubulin dimers was argued to be possible, provided there exists sufficient isolation from other environmental cell effects. The model was based on certain ferroelectric aspects of MT. Subsequent experiments in vitro could not confirm ferroelectricity at room temperatures, however they provided experimental measurements of the induced electric dipole moments of the MT under the influence of external electric fields. Nevertheless, this does not demonstrate that in vivo MT are not ferroelectric materials. More refined experiments should be done. In the talk I review the model and
Broe, Jacob; Keller, Ole
2002-06-01
It is predicted that the Goos-Hänchen effect can be resonantly enhanced by placing a metallic quantum well (ultrathin film) at the dielectric-vacuum (air) interface. We study the enhancement of the phenomenon, as it appears in frustrated total internal reflection with p-polarized light, both theoretically and numerically. Starting from boundary conditions for the electromagnetic field, which in a self-consistent manner take into account the quantum-well dynamics, we derive new expressions for the amplitude reflection and transmission coefficients of light, and from these the stationary phase approximation to the Goos-Hänchen shifts is obtained. It is shown that large peaks appear in the Goos-Hänchen shift below the critical angle in reflection, and these are located at the minima for the energy reflection coefficient. Both positive and negative shifts may occur, and the number of peaks depends on the gap width. To determine the accuracy of the simple stationary phase approximation, we carry out a rigorous stationary energy-transport calculation of the Goos-Hänchen shift. Although the overall agreement between the two approaches is good, the stationary phase approach mostly overestimates the peak heights. For a Gaussian incident beam, the resonance displacement of the reflected beam can be as large as the Gaussian width parameter. It is suggested that the possible relation between the Goos-Hänchen effect and the optical tunneling phenomenon in the two-prism configuration should be reinvestigated by depositing quantum wells on the glass-vacuum interfaces to obtain a better spatial photon localization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales-Cortes, H; Mejia-Garcia, C [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, UPALM, Edif. 9, Col. Lindavista, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Mendez-GarcIa, V H; Vazquez-Cortes, D [Coordinacion para la Innovacion y la Aplicacion de la Ciencia y la TecnologIa, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis PotosI, S L P 78000 (Mexico); Rojas-Ramirez, J S; Contreras-Guerrero, R; RamIrez-Lopez, M; Martinez-Velis, I; Lopez-Lopez, M, E-mail: mlopez@fis.cinvestav.mx [Physics Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico DF 07000 (Mexico)
2010-04-02
In the present work, we study the growth by molecular beam epitaxy of InAs self-assembling quantum dots (SAQDs) on GaAs(100) substrates subjected to an in situ annealing treatment. The annealing process consists of the exposition of the GaAs buffer layer surface to high temperatures for a few seconds with the shutter of an arsenic Knudsen cell closed. The purpose of the annealing is to obtain a better uniformity of the SAQD sizes. In our study we prepared different samples using the Stranski-Krastanov growth method to obtain InAs/GaAs(100) quantum dot samples with different annealing times and temperatures. Their structural and optical properties were studied by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and photoreflectance spectroscopy (PR). According to the results of AFM and HRSEM, by the thermal treatment we obtained a better distribution of quantum dot sizes in comparison with a reference sample with no treatment. The PR spectra from 0.9 to 1.35 eV presented two transitions associated with SAQDs. The energy transitions were obtained by fitting the PR spectra using the third derivative model.
Patterned growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN grating by molecular beam epitaxy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Yongjin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We report here the epitaxial growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN gratings by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Various GaN gratings are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on GaN-on-silicon substrate by fast atom beam etching. Silicon substrate beneath GaN grating region is removed from the backside to form freestanding GaN gratings, and the patterned growth is subsequently performed on the prepared GaN template by MBE. The selective growth takes place with the assistance of nanoscale GaN gratings and depends on the grating period P and the grating width W. Importantly, coalescences between two side facets are realized to generate epitaxial gratings with triangular section. Thin epitaxial gratings produce the promising photoluminescence performance. This work provides a feasible way for further GaN-based integrated optics devices by a combination of GaN micromachining and epitaxial growth on a GaN-on-silicon substrate. PACS 81.05.Ea; 81.65.Cf; 81.15.Hi.
Hobson, Art
2011-01-01
An earlier paper introduces quantum physics by means of four experiments: Youngs double-slit interference experiment using (1) a light beam, (2) a low-intensity light beam with time-lapse photography, (3) an electron beam, and (4) a low-intensity electron beam with time-lapse photography. It's ironic that, although these experiments demonstrate…
Hobson, Art
2011-01-01
An earlier paper introduces quantum physics by means of four experiments: Youngs double-slit interference experiment using (1) a light beam, (2) a low-intensity light beam with time-lapse photography, (3) an electron beam, and (4) a low-intensity electron beam with time-lapse photography. It's ironic that, although these experiments demonstrate…
Quantum Steganography and Quantum Error-Correction
Shaw, Bilal A.
2010-01-01
Quantum error-correcting codes have been the cornerstone of research in quantum information science (QIS) for more than a decade. Without their conception, quantum computers would be a footnote in the history of science. When researchers embraced the idea that we live in a world where the effects of a noisy environment cannot completely be…
Quantum Steganography and Quantum Error-Correction
Shaw, Bilal A.
2010-01-01
Quantum error-correcting codes have been the cornerstone of research in quantum information science (QIS) for more than a decade. Without their conception, quantum computers would be a footnote in the history of science. When researchers embraced the idea that we live in a world where the effects of a noisy environment cannot completely be…
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
A. Broadbent (Anne); C. Schaffner (Christian)
2016-01-01
textabstractQuantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation, secu
The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array Dish I: Beam Pattern Measurements and Science Implications
Neben, Abraham R; Hewitt, Jacqueline N; DeBoer, David R; Parsons, Aaron R; Aguirre, James E; Ali, Zaki S; Cheng, Carina; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Patra, Nipanjana; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Bowman, Judd; Dickenson, Roger; Dillon, Joshua S; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Jacobs, Daniel C; Kohn, Saul A; Klima, Patricia J; Moodley, Kavilan; Saliwanchik, Benjamin R B; Schaffner, Patrick; Shelton, John; Taylor, H A; Taylor, Rusty; Tegmark, Max; Wirt, Butch; Zheng, Haoxuan
2016-01-01
The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a radio interferometer aiming to detect the power spectrum of 21cm fluctuations from neutral hydrogen from the Epoch of Reionization (EOR). Drawing on lessons from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) and the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), HERA is a hexagonal array of large (14m diameter) dishes with suspended dipole feeds. Not only does the dish determine overall sensitivity, it affects the observed frequency structure of foregrounds in the interferometer. This is the first of a series of four papers characterizing the frequency and angular response of the dish with simulations and measurements. We focus in this paper on the angular response (i.e., power pattern), which sets the relative weighting between sky regions of high and low delay, and thus, apparent source frequency structure. We measure the angular response at 137MHz using the ORBCOMM beam mapping system of Neben et al. We measure a collecting area of 93m^2 in the opt...
Raplee, J.; Plotkowski, A.; Kirka, M. M.; Dinwiddie, R.; Dehoff, R. R.; Babu, S. S.
2017-04-01
Additive Manufacturing provides the opportunity to fabricate components of nearly limitless complexity compared to that of traditional manufacturing techniques. However, thermal gyrations imparted into the material from the passing of the heat source cause challenges in fabricating complex structures with the proper process parameters. While the thermal history of the material can be simulated, validating the simulations requires access to thermal data generated through in-situ process monitoring. While generation of in-situ thermal data seems trivial, acquiring and developing reliable calibrations for metallic materials is difficult due to the physical state of the material transitioning from powder to liquid to a solid. To be discussed is the methodology taken to integrate IR in-situ process monitoring within the electron beam melting process and the approach developed to accurately correlate a materials emissivity to temperature during the build process. Further the wealth of information contained within the thermal data will be discussed in the context of understanding of microstructural evolutions within the material during the build process, identification of material defects, and ability to determining the similarity/repeatability of builds fabricated with identical processing parameters as based only on the thermal signature of the build.
Alight A Beam and Beaming Light -- A Theme With Variations
Chattopadhyay, Swapan
1997-11-01
We will explore the physics and technology of interaction of light (coherent and incoherent) with charged particle beams with the generation of novel types of electromagnetic radiation and particle sources in mind. Various configurations will be presented: incoherent scattering of coherent light (laser) from an incoherent particle beam (high temperature), coherent scattering of coherent light (laser) from a `cold' (bunched) beam, amplification of light by a particle beam, femtosecond generation of particle and light beams via `optical slicing' and Thomson/Compton scattering techniques, etc. We will explore the domains of untrashort temporal duration (femtoseconds) as well as of ultrashort wavelengths (x-rays and shorter), with varying degrees of coherence. The relevance of such sources to a few critical areas of research in the natural sciences e.g. ultrafast material, chemical and biological processes, protein folding, x-ray holography, particle phase space cooling and quantum computing will be briefly touched upon. All the processes discussed involve proper interpretation and understanding of coherent states of matter and radiation, as well as the quality and quantity of information and energy embedded in them.
Kuyanov, P; LaPierre, R R
2015-08-07
InP nanowires with InAsP quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si (111) substrates. The structure of the InAsP QDs were studied using transmission electron microscopy, allowing the development of a model where QD growth occurs by group V desorption from the surrounding substrate surface. Micro-photoluminescence was performed at 10 K showing emission at 1.47-1.49 eV from the InP wurtzite structure, and various emission peaks between 0.93 and 1.33 eV attributed to the QDs. The emission was tuned by the QD composition. The effectiveness of an AlInP passivation shell was demonstrated via an improvement in the photoluminescence intensity. Spectrally-resolved photocurrent measurements at room temperature demonstrated infrared response due to absorption within the QDs. The absorption red-shifted with increasing As composition of the QD.
Quantum biological information theory
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2016-01-01
This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terashima, Wataru; Hirayama, Hideki [Terahertz Quantum Device Laboratory, RIKEN, 519-1399 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan)
2011-05-15
We studied on the radio-frequency molecular beam epitaxial (RF-MBE) growth of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade (QC) structure grown on a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-GaN template by employing the droplet elimination by thermal annealing (DETA) technique, in order to realize the successful fabrication of a QC structure with a large number of periods and to increase the radiant intensity from terahertz-quantum cascade lasers (THz-QCL) sample. DETA is a technique in which the metal droplets that form on the surface are evaporated and eliminated by temporarily increasing the substrate temperature, utilizing the property whereby the equilibrium vapor pressures of the metal components (Ga, Al) are larger than those of the resulting nitrides (GaN, AlN). DETA is a useful method which not only makes it possible to increase the number of periods in the QC structure, but also to improve the surface and structural properties of the QC structure. We could successfully increase the radiant intensity from a THz-QCL sample by increasing the number of periods in the stacked QC structure by using the DETA technique. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuryev Vladimir
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Issues of morphology, nucleation, and growth of Ge cluster arrays deposited by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy on the Si(001 surface are considered. Difference in nucleation of quantum dots during Ge deposition at low (≲600°C and high (≳600°C temperatures is studied by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. The atomic models of growth of both species of Ge huts--pyramids and wedges-- are proposed. The growth cycle of Ge QD arrays at low temperatures is explored. A problem of lowering of the array formation temperature is discussed with the focus on CMOS compatibility of the entire process; a special attention is paid upon approaches to reduction of treatment temperature during the Si(001 surface pre-growth cleaning, which is at once a key and the highest-temperature phase of the Ge/Si(001 quantum dot dense array formation process. The temperature of the Si clean surface preparation, the final high-temperature step of which is, as a rule, carried out directly in the MBE chamber just before the structure deposition, determines the compatibility of formation process of Ge-QD-array based devices with the CMOS manufacturing cycle. Silicon surface hydrogenation at the final stage of its wet chemical etching during the preliminary cleaning is proposed as a possible way of efficient reduction of the Si wafer pre-growth annealing temperature.
Hechster, Elad; Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat; Sarusi, Gabby
2016-07-01
Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer's surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film's thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas' dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.
Yuryev, Vladimir A; Arapkina, Larisa V
2011-09-05
Issues of morphology, nucleation, and growth of Ge cluster arrays deposited by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy on the Si(001) surface are considered. Difference in nucleation of quantum dots during Ge deposition at low (≲600°C) and high (≳600°C) temperatures is studied by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. The atomic models of growth of both species of Ge huts--pyramids and wedges-- are proposed. The growth cycle of Ge QD arrays at low temperatures is explored. A problem of lowering of the array formation temperature is discussed with the focus on CMOS compatibility of the entire process; a special attention is paid upon approaches to reduction of treatment temperature during the Si(001) surface pre-growth cleaning, which is at once a key and the highest-temperature phase of the Ge/Si(001) quantum dot dense array formation process. The temperature of the Si clean surface preparation, the final high-temperature step of which is, as a rule, carried out directly in the MBE chamber just before the structure deposition, determines the compatibility of formation process of Ge-QD-array based devices with the CMOS manufacturing cycle. Silicon surface hydrogenation at the final stage of its wet chemical etching during the preliminary cleaning is proposed as a possible way of efficient reduction of the Si wafer pre-growth annealing temperature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hechster, Elad, E-mail: elad.hechster@gmail.com; Sarusi, Gabby [Electro-Optics Engineering Unit and Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84100 Israel (Israel); Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Solid State Institute, Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion – Israel Institute of technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)
2016-07-15
Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer’s surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film’s thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas’ dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.
Quantum Physics Without Quantum Philosophy
Dürr, Detlef; Zanghì, Nino
2013-01-01
It has often been claimed that without drastic conceptual innovations a genuine explanation of quantum interference effects and quantum randomness is impossible. This book concerns Bohmian mechanics, a simple particle theory that is a counterexample to such claims. The gentle introduction and other contributions collected here show how the phenomena of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to non-commuting observables, emerge from the Bohmian motion of particles, the natural particle motion associated with Schrödinger's equation. This book will be of value to all students and researchers in physics with an interest in the meaning of quantum theory as well as to philosophers of science.
Cone-beam CT with a flat-panel detector: From image science to image-guided surgery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H., E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Traylor Building, Room 718, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)
2011-08-21
The development of large-area flat-panel X-ray detectors (FPDs) has spurred investigation in a spectrum of advanced medical imaging applications, including tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT). Recent research has extended image quality metrics and theoretical models to such applications, providing a quantitative foundation for the assessment of imaging performance as well as a general framework for the design, optimization, and translation of such technologies to new applications. For example, cascaded systems models of the Fourier domain metrics, such as noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ), have been extended to these modalities to describe the propagation of signal and noise through the image acquisition and reconstruction chain and to quantify the factors that govern spatial resolution, image noise, and detectability. Moreover, such models have demonstrated basic agreement with human observer performance for a broad range of imaging conditions and imaging tasks. These developments in image science have formed a foundation for the knowledgeable development and translation of CBCT to new applications in image-guided interventions-for example, CBCT implemented on a mobile surgical C-arm for intraoperative 3D imaging. The ability to acquire high-quality 3D images on demand during surgical intervention overcomes conventional limitations of surgical guidance in the context of preoperative images alone. A prototype mobile C-arm developed in academic-industry partnership demonstrates CBCT with low radiation dose, sub-mm spatial resolution, and soft-tissue visibility potentially approaching that of diagnostic CT. Integration of the 3D imaging system with real-time tracking, deformable registration, endoscopic video, and 3D visualization offers a promising addition to the surgical arsenal in interventions ranging from head-and-neck/skull base surgery to spine, orthopaedic, thoracic, and abdominal surgeries. Cadaver studies show the potential for significant boosts in surgical
Cone-beam CT with a flat-panel detector: From image science to image-guided surgery
Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.
2011-08-01
The development of large-area flat-panel X-ray detectors (FPDs) has spurred investigation in a spectrum of advanced medical imaging applications, including tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT). Recent research has extended image quality metrics and theoretical models to such applications, providing a quantitative foundation for the assessment of imaging performance as well as a general framework for the design, optimization, and translation of such technologies to new applications. For example, cascaded systems models of the Fourier domain metrics, such as noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ), have been extended to these modalities to describe the propagation of signal and noise through the image acquisition and reconstruction chain and to quantify the factors that govern spatial resolution, image noise, and detectability. Moreover, such models have demonstrated basic agreement with human observer performance for a broad range of imaging conditions and imaging tasks. These developments in image science have formed a foundation for the knowledgeable development and translation of CBCT to new applications in image-guided interventions—for example, CBCT implemented on a mobile surgical C-arm for intraoperative 3D imaging. The ability to acquire high-quality 3D images on demand during surgical intervention overcomes conventional limitations of surgical guidance in the context of preoperative images alone. A prototype mobile C-arm developed in academic-industry partnership demonstrates CBCT with low radiation dose, sub-mm spatial resolution, and soft-tissue visibility potentially approaching that of diagnostic CT. Integration of the 3D imaging system with real-time tracking, deformable registration, endoscopic video, and 3D visualization offers a promising addition to the surgical arsenal in interventions ranging from head-and-neck/skull base surgery to spine, orthopaedic, thoracic, and abdominal surgeries. Cadaver studies show the potential for significant boosts in
On-chip continuous-variable quantum entanglement
Masada, Genta; Furusawa, Akira
2016-09-01
Entanglement is an essential feature of quantum theory and the core of the majority of quantum information science and technologies. Quantum computing is one of the most important fruits of quantum entanglement and requires not only a bipartite entangled state but also more complicated multipartite entanglement. In previous experimental works to demonstrate various entanglement-based quantum information processing, light has been extensively used. Experiments utilizing such a complicated state need highly complex optical circuits to propagate optical beams and a high level of spatial interference between different light beams to generate quantum entanglement or to efficiently perform balanced homodyne measurement. Current experiments have been performed in conventional free-space optics with large numbers of optical components and a relatively large-sized optical setup. Therefore, they are limited in stability and scalability. Integrated photonics offer new tools and additional capabilities for manipulating light in quantum information technology. Owing to integrated waveguide circuits, it is possible to stabilize and miniaturize complex optical circuits and achieve high interference of light beams. The integrated circuits have been firstly developed for discrete-variable systems and then applied to continuous-variable systems. In this article, we review the currently developed scheme for generation and verification of continuous-variable quantum entanglement such as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen beams using a photonic chip where waveguide circuits are integrated. This includes balanced homodyne measurement of a squeezed state of light. As a simple example, we also review an experiment for generating discrete-variable quantum entanglement using integrated waveguide circuits.
Gilbert, Gerald; Hamrick, Michael
2013-01-01
This book provides a detailed account of the theory and practice of quantum cryptography. Suitable as the basis for a course in the subject at the graduate level, it crosses the disciplines of physics, mathematics, computer science and engineering. The theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject are derived from first principles, and attention is devoted to the practical development of realistic quantum communications systems. The book also includes a comprehensive analysis of practical quantum cryptography systems implemented in actual physical environments via either free-space or fiber-optic cable quantum channels. This book will be a valuable resource for graduate students, as well as professional scientists and engineers, who desire an introduction to the field that will enable them to undertake research in quantum cryptography. It will also be a useful reference for researchers who are already active in the field, and for academic faculty members who are teaching courses in quantum information s...
Quantum Computing, Metrology, and Imaging
Lee, H; Dowling, J P; Lee, Hwang; Lougovski, Pavel; Dowling, Jonathan P.
2005-01-01
Information science is entering into a new era in which certain subtleties of quantum mechanics enables large enhancements in computational efficiency and communication security. Naturally, precise control of quantum systems required for the implementation of quantum information processing protocols implies potential breakthoughs in other sciences and technologies. We discuss recent developments in quantum control in optical systems and their applications in metrology and imaging.
Application of Quantum Process Calculus to Higher Dimensional Quantum Protocols
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon J. Gay
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We describe the use of quantum process calculus to describe and analyze quantum communication protocols, following the successful field of formal methods from classical computer science. We have extended the quantum process calculus to describe d-dimensional quantum systems, which has not been done before. We summarise the necessary theory in the generalisation of quantum gates and Bell states and use the theory to apply the quantum process calculus CQP to quantum protocols, namely qudit teleportation and superdense coding.
Quantum physics without quantum philosophy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duerr, Detlef [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Mathematisches Inst.; Goldstein, Sheldon [Rutgers State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Zanghi, Nino [Genova Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Genova (Italy)
2013-02-01
Integrates and comments on the authors' seminal papers in the field. Emphasizes the natural way in which quantum phenomena emerge from the Bohmian picture. Helps to answer many of the objections raised to Bohmian quantum mechanics. Useful overview and summary for newcomers and students. It has often been claimed that without drastic conceptual innovations a genuine explanation of quantum interference effects and quantum randomness is impossible. This book concerns Bohmian mechanics, a simple particle theory that is a counterexample to such claims. The gentle introduction and other contributions collected here show how the phenomena of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to non-commuting observables, emerge from the Bohmian motion of particles, the natural particle motion associated with Schroedinger's equation. This book will be of value to all students and researchers in physics with an interest in the meaning of quantum theory as well as to philosophers of science.
Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K.; Rath, Madhab C.; Adhikari, Soumyakanti
2015-04-01
CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a rapid and one step templated approach inside the water pool of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) based water-in-oil microemulsions (MEs) via electron beam (EB) irradiation technique with high dose rate, which favours high nucleation rate. The interplay of different experimental parameters such as precursor concentration, absorbed dose and {{W}0} values (aqueous phase to surfactant molar ratio) of MEs were found to have interesting consequences on the morphology, photoluminescence (PL), surface composition and carrier recombination dynamics of as-grown QDs. For instance, highly stable ultrasmall (∼1.7 nm) bluish-white light emitting QDs were obtained with quantum efficiency (η) of ∼9%. Furthermore, QDs were found to exhibit tunable broadband light emission extending from 450 to 750 nm (maximum FWHM ∼180 nm). This could be realized from the CIE (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage) chromaticity co-ordinates, which varied across the blue region to the orange region thereby, conferring their potential application in white light emitting diodes. Additionally, the average PL lifetime ≤ft( ≤ft \\right) values could be varied from 18 ns to as high as 74 ns, which reflect the role of surface states in terms of their density and distribution. Another interesting revelation was the self-assembling of the initially formed QDs into nanorods with high aspect ratios ranging from 7 to 20, in correspondence with the {{W}0} values. Besides, the fundamental roles of the chemical nature of water pool and the interfacial fluidity of AOT MEs in influencing the photophysical properties of QDs were investigated by carrying out a similar study in CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; cationic surfactant) based MEs. Surprisingly, very profound and contrasting results were observed wherein ≤ft and η of the QDs in case of CTAB MEs were found to be at least three times lower as compared to that in AOT MEs.
High performance computing for beam physics applications
Ryne, R. D.; Habib, S.
Several countries are now involved in efforts aimed at utilizing accelerator-driven technologies to solve problems of national and international importance. These technologies have both economic and environmental implications. The technologies include waste transmutation, plutonium conversion, neutron production for materials science and biological science research, neutron production for fusion materials testing, fission energy production systems, and tritium production. All of these projects require a high-intensity linear accelerator that operates with extremely low beam loss. This presents a formidable computational challenge: One must design and optimize over a kilometer of complex accelerating structures while taking into account beam loss to an accuracy of 10 parts per billion per meter. Such modeling is essential if one is to have confidence that the accelerator will meet its beam loss requirement, which ultimately affects system reliability, safety and cost. At Los Alamos, the authors are developing a capability to model ultra-low loss accelerators using the CM-5 at the Advanced Computing Laboratory. They are developing PIC, Vlasov/Poisson, and Langevin/Fokker-Planck codes for this purpose. With slight modification, they have also applied their codes to modeling mesoscopic systems and astrophysical systems. In this paper, they will first describe HPC activities in the accelerator community. Then they will discuss the tools they have developed to model classical and quantum evolution equations. Lastly they will describe how these tools have been used to study beam halo in high current, mismatched charged particle beams.
Jean-Claude Gadmer
2013-01-01
9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.
Science-based design of stable quantum dots for energy-efficient lighting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohwer, Lauren E. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zhou, Xiaowang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Ping [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-09-01
II-VI quantum dots, such as CdSe and CdTe, are attractive as downconversion materials for solid-state lighting, because of their narrow linewidth, tunable emission. However, for these materials to have acceptable quantum yields (QYs) requires that they be coated with a II-VI shell material whose valence band offset serves to confine the hole to the core. Confinement prevents the hole from accessing surface traps that lead to nonradiative decay of the exciton. Examples of such hole-confined core/shell QDs include CdTe/CdSe and CdSe/CdS. Unfortunately, the shell can also cause problems due to lattice mismatch, which ranges from 4-6% for systems of interest. This lattice mismatch can create significant interface energies at the heterojunction and places the core under radial compression and the shell under tangential tension. At elevated temperatures (~240°C) interfacial diffusion can relax these stresses, as can surface reconstruction, which can expose the core, creating hole traps. But such high temperatures favor the hexagonal Wurtzite structure, which has lower QY than the cubic zinc blende structure, which can be synthesized at lower temperatures, ~140°C. In the absence of alloying the core/shell structure can become metastable, or even unstable, if the shell is too thick. This can cause result in an irregular shell or even island growth. But if the shell is too thin thermallyactivated transport of the hole to surface traps can occur. In our LDRD we have developed a fundamental atomistic modeling capability, based on Stillinger-Weber and Bond-Order potentials we developed for the entire II-VI class. These pseudo-potentials have enabled us to conduct large-scale atomistic simulations that have led to the computation of phase diagrams of II-VI QDs. These phase diagrams demonstrate that at elevated temperatures the zinc blende phase of CdTe with CdSe grown on it epitaxially becomes thermodynamically unstable due to alloying. This is accompanied by a loss of hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolaï, J.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Gatel, C., E-mail: christophe.gatel@cemes.fr; Ponchet, A. [CEMES CNRS-UPR 8011, Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza, Toulouse (France); Teissier, R.; Baranov, A. N. [IES CNRS-UMR 5214, 34095 Montpellier (France); Magen, C. [Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza, Toulouse (France); Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA)—ARAID and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)
2015-07-21
Structural and chemical properties of InAs/AlSb interfaces have been studied by transmission electron microscopy. InAs/AlSb multilayers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy with different growth sequences at interfaces. The out-of-plane strain, determined using high resolution microscopy and geometrical phase analysis, has been related to the chemical composition of the interfaces analyzed by high angle annular dark field imaging. Considering the local strain and chemistry, we estimated the interface composition and discussed the mechanisms of interface formation for the different growth sequences. In particular, we found that the formation of the tensile AlAs-type interface is spontaneously favored due to its high thermal stability compared to the InSb-type interface. We also showed that the interface composition could be tuned using an appropriate growth sequence.
Extreme physics take a quantum leap... to the edge of science
Basher, Simon
2013-01-01
In Basher's totally hip and quirky style, readers are introduced to the amazing research that is revolutionizing physics! From the pioneering experiments taking place in the Hadron Collider to NASAs deep-space exploration, "Basher Science: Extreme Physics "highlights the realm of miniscule things that was discovered in the early 1900s by scientists who were on the hunt for teeny-tiny parts of matter, the bits from which all larger things are made. This wild, uncertain world is bursting with crazy characters you're about to meet-youre gonna love them!
Quantum Random Number Generators
Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2016-01-01
Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. We discuss the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multipl...
Fomin, Vladimir M
2013-01-01
This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is po
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru, E-mail: kamiya@toyota-ti.ac.jp [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Suzuki, Hidetoshi [Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Koto 1-1-1, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)
2015-11-14
Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures.
Pan, Wenwu; Zhang, Liyao; Zhu, Liang; Song, Yuxin; Li, Yaoyao; Wang, Chang; Wang, Peng; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fan; Shao, Jun; Wang, Shumin
2017-01-01
In x Ga1-x As/GaAs1-y Bi y /In x Ga1-x As (0.20 ≤ x ≤ 0.22, 0.035 ≤ y ≤ 0.045) quantum wells (QWs) were grown on GaAs substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy for realizing the type-II band edge line-up. Both type-I and type-II transitions were observed in the Bi containing W QWs and the photoluminescence intensity was enhanced in the sample with a high Bi content, which is mainly due to the improvement of carrier confinement. The 8 band k · p model was used to analyze the electronic properties in the QWs and the calculated transition energies fit well with the experiment results. Our study shows that the proposed type-II QW is a promising candidate for realizing GaAs-based near infrared light emitting devices near 1.3 μm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoon SF
2006-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractSelf-assembled GaInNAs quantum dots (QDs were grown on GaAs (001 substrate using solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy (SSMBE equipped with a radio-frequency nitrogen plasma source. The GaInNAs QD growth characteristics were extensively investigated using atomic-force microscopy (AFM, photoluminescence (PL, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM measurements. Self-assembled GaInNAs/GaAsN single layer QD lasers grown using SSMBE have been fabricated and characterized. The laser worked under continuous wave (CW operation at room temperature (RT with emission wavelength of 1175.86 nm. Temperature-dependent measurements have been carried out on the GaInNAs QD lasers. The lowest obtained threshold current density in this work is ∼1.05 kA/cm2from a GaInNAs QD laser (50 × 1,700 µm2 at 10 °C. High-temperature operation up to 65 °C was demonstrated from an unbonded GaInNAs QD laser (50 × 1,060 µm2, with high characteristic temperature of 79.4 K in the temperature range of 10–60 °C.
Pan, Wenwu; Zhang, Liyao; Zhu, Liang; Li, Yaoyao; Chen, Xiren; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fan; Shao, Jun; Wang, Shumin
2016-09-01
Photoluminescence (PL) properties of In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs0.96Bi0.04/In0.2Ga0.8As quantum well (QW) grown on GaAs substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy were studied by varying excitation power and temperature, respectively. The type-II transition energy shifts from 1.149 eV to 1.192 eV when increasing the excitation power from 10 mW to 150 mW at 4.5 K, which was ascribed to the band-bending effect. On the other hand, the type-II PL quenches quickly along with fast redshift with the increasing temperature due to the relaxation of the band bending caused by the thermal excitation process. An 8 band k.p model was used to analyze the electronic properties and the band-bending effect in the type-II QW. The calculated subband levels and transition energy fit well with the experiment results, and two thermal activation energies of 8.7 meV and 50 meV, respectively, are deduced.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) on the optical properties of GaInNAs/GaAs Single Quantum Well (SQW) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Ion removal magnets were applied to reduce the ion damage during the growth process and the optical properties of GaInNAs/GaAs SQW are remarkably improved.RTA was carried out at 650℃ and its effect was studied by the comparising the roomtemperature PhotoLuminescence (PL) spectra for the non ion-removed (grown without magnets) sample with for the ion-removed (grown with magnets) one. The more significant improvement of PL characteristics for non ion-removed GaInNAs/GaAs SQW after annealing (compared with those for ion-removed) indicates that the nonradiative centers removed by RTA at 650℃ are mainly originated from ion damage. After annealing the PL blue shift for non ionremoved GaInNAs/GaAs SQW is much larger than those for InGaAs/GaAs and ion-removed GaInNAs/GaAs SQW. It is found that the larger PL blue shift of GaInNAs/GaAs SQW is due to the defect-assisted In-Ga interdiffusion rather than defect-assisted N-As interdiffusion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvurechenskii, Anatoly; Novikov, Pavel; Nenashev, Alexey [Rzanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Science, pr. ac. Lavrent' eva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova, 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Smagina, Zhanna; Zinovyev, Vladimir; Kuchinskaya, Polina; Rudin, Sergey [Rzanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Science, pr. ac. Lavrent' eva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
Joint experimental and theoretical study of Ge nanoislands growth on groove-patterned Si(001) substrate prepared by ion-beam-assisted nanoimprint lithography is carried out. Prepatterning procedure includes ion irradiation of Si substrate through imprinted resist mask with linear mounds and subsequent multistep oxidation/etching of irradiated Si domains. It is shown that the temperature of subsequent heteroepitaxy on the groove-patterned substrate affects the location of Ge nanoislands. The effect is attributed to additional surface tensile strain formed inside grooves by residual irradiationinduced defects. The interplay of strain and surface curvature makes the critical size of 3D nanoisland larger at the concave regions in grooves than between them. At lower temperatures this results in nanoisland nucleation at the top of mounds. At higher temperatures due to the intensive migration of Ge inside grooves the formation of large nanoislands in grooves occurs. The effect of temperature on the location and size of nanoislands is described by Monte Carlo simulations. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Probabilistic direct counterfactual quantum communication
Zhang, Sheng
2017-02-01
It is striking that the quantum Zeno effect can be used to launch a direct counterfactual communication between two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob. So far, existing protocols of this type only provide a deterministic counterfactual communication service. However, this counterfactuality should be payed at a price. Firstly, the transmission time is much longer than a classical transmission costs. Secondly, the chained-cycle structure makes them more sensitive to channel noises. Here, we extend the idea of counterfactual communication, and present a probabilistic-counterfactual quantum communication protocol, which is proved to have advantages over the deterministic ones. Moreover, the presented protocol could evolve to a deterministic one solely by adjusting the parameters of the beam splitters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61300203).
Quantum information processing in nanostructures Quantum optics; Quantum computing
Reina-Estupinan, J H
2002-01-01
Since information has been regarded os a physical entity, the field of quantum information theory has blossomed. This brings novel applications, such as quantum computation. This field has attracted the attention of numerous researchers with backgrounds ranging from computer science, mathematics and engineering, to the physical sciences. Thus, we now have an interdisciplinary field where great efforts are being made in order to build devices that should allow for the processing of information at a quantum level, and also in the understanding of the complex structure of some physical processes at a more basic level. This thesis is devoted to the theoretical study of structures at the nanometer-scale, 'nanostructures', through physical processes that mainly involve the solid-state and quantum optics, in order to propose reliable schemes for the processing of quantum information. Initially, the main results of quantum information theory and quantum computation are briefly reviewed. Next, the state-of-the-art of ...
Quantum information and coherence
Öhberg, Patrik
2014-01-01
This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...
Increasing complexity with quantum physics.
Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline
2011-09-01
We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.
Bernstein, Jeremy
1991-01-01
For the prominent science writer Jeremy Bernstein, the profile is the most congenial way of communicating science. Here, in what he labels a "series of conversations carried on in the reader's behalf and my own," he evokes the tremendous intellectual excitement of the world of modern physics, especially the quantum revolution. Drawing on his well-known talent for explaining the most complex scientific ideas for the layperson, Bernstein gives us a lively sense of what the issues of quantum mechanics are and of various ways in which individual physicists approached them.The author begins this se
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
After giving a bird's view of some existing quantum programming languages,this paper reports the recent results made by the quantum computation group of the State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology and the Department of Computer Science and Technology at Nanjing University,i.e.,the quantum programming languages NDQJava,NDQFP and their processing systems.
2012-01-01
The physics of monetary systems works like a systemic quantum process and the monetary quantum moves the economic body of production via mechanic and thermodynamic entropy.This research work compiles the foundations and conclusions of quantum monetary science as new methodical tool for achieving a higher level of economic stability as dynamic efficiency.
Wang, Yi; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Sawant, Amit; Zhao, Qihua; Du, Hong; Li, Yixin
2006-03-01
Megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) is a promising candidate for providing image guidance in radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the practical clinical implementation of this technique is limited by the relatively low detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of conventional megavoltage AMFPIs. This limitation is due to the modest thickness of the phosphor screen employed to convert incident x-rays to optical photons and the trade-off that exists between phosphor thickness and spatial resolution. Recently, our group has begun pursuing the development of thick crystalline segmented scintillating detectors as x-ray converters for AMFPIs so as to circumvent this limitation. In order to examine the potential of such detectors for providing soft-tissue visualization by means of CBCT at megavoltage energies, a Monte Carlo-based method was used to simulate the acquisition of projection images of a contrast phantom. These images were used to perform CT reconstructions by means of a Feldkamp-based algorithm. In this study, various detector configurations involving CsI and BGO scintillators at thicknesses of 10 mm and 40 mm were evaluated. In addition, since the simulations only considered energy deposition, and did not include optical phenomena, both segmented and non-segmented (continuous) detector configurations were evaluated. For the segmented CsI detectors, septal wall materials with densities lower, equivalent and higher than that of the scintillator were considered. Performance was quantified in terms of the contrast-to-noise ratio obtained for lowcontrast, soft-tissue-equivalent objects (i.e., liver, brain, and breast) embedded in the phantom. The results obtained from these early studies suggest that such segmented converters can provide visualization of soft-tissue contrast in tomographic images at clinically practical doses. It is anticipated that the realization of optimized segmented detector designs will lead
Kisan Patil, Pallavi; Luna, Esperanza; Matsuda, Teruyoshi; Yamada, Kohki; Kamiya, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Shimomura, Satoshi
2017-03-01
We report a GaAs0.96Bi0.04/GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diode (LED) grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a two-substrate-temperature (TST) technique. In particular, the QWs and the barriers in the intrinsic region were grown at the different temperatures of {T}{{GaAsBi}} = 350 °C and {T}{{GaAs}} = 550 ^\\circ {{C}}, respectively. Investigations of the microstructure using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal homogeneous MQWs free of extended defects. Furthermore, the local determination of the Bi distribution profile across the MQWs region using TEM techniques confirm the uniform Bi distribution, while revealing a slightly chemically graded GaAs-on-GaAsBi interface due to Bi surface segregation. Despite this small broadening, we found that Bi segregation is significantly reduced (up to 18% reduction) compared to previous reports on Bi segregation in GaAsBi/GaAs MQWs. Hence, the TST procedure proves as a very efficient method to reduce Bi segregation and thus increase the quality of the layers and interfaces. These improvements positively reflect in the optical properties. Room temperature photoluminescence and electroluminescence (EL) at 1.23 μm emission wavelength are successfully demonstrated using TST MQWs containing less Bi content than in previous reports. Finally, LED fabricated using the present TST technique show current–voltage (I–V) curves with a forward voltage of 3.3 V at an injection current of 130 mA under 1.0 kA cm‑2 current excitation. These results not only demonstrate that TST technique provides optical device quality GaAsBi/GaAs MQWs but highlight the relevance of TST-based growth techniques on the fabrication of future heterostructure devices based on dilute bismides.
Lee, Shih-Huang; Chin, Chih-Hao; Chen, Wei-Kan; Huang, Wen-Jian; Hsieh, Chu-Chun
2011-05-14
We conducted the title reaction using a crossed molecular-beam apparatus, quantum-chemical calculations, and RRKM calculations. Synchrotron radiation from an undulator served to ionize selectively reaction products by advantage of negligibly small dissociative ionization. We observed two products with gross formula C(2)H(3)N and C(2)H(2)N associated with loss of one and two hydrogen atoms, respectively. Measurements of kinetic-energy distributions, angular distributions, low-resolution photoionization spectra, and branching ratios of the two products were carried out. Furthermore, we evaluated total branching ratios of various exit channels using RRKM calculations based on the potential-energy surface of reaction N((2)D)+C(2)H(4) established with the method CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)+ZPE[B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)]. The combination of experimental and computational results allows us to reveal the reaction dynamics. The N((2)D) atom adds to the C=C π-bond of ethene (C(2)H(4)) to form a cyclic complex c-CH(2)(N)CH(2) that directly ejects a hydrogen atom or rearranges to other intermediates followed by elimination of a hydrogen atom to produce C(2)H(3)N; c-CH(2)(N)CH+H is the dominant product channel. Subsequently, most C(2)H(3)N radicals, notably c-CH(2)(N)CH, further decompose to CH(2)CN+H. This work provides results and explanations different from the previous work of Balucani et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A, 2000, 104, 5655], indicating that selective photoionization with synchrotron radiation as an ionization source is a good choice in chemical dynamics research.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferri, F. A.; Marega, E. Jr. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos 13560-970, SP (Brazil); Coelho, L. N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia 70919-970, DF (Brazil); Kunets, V. P.; Salamo, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)
2012-08-01
In this paper, we present a method to order low temperature (LT) self-assembled ferromagnetic In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As quantum dots (QDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The ordered In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As QDs were grown on top of a non-magnetic In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As/GaAs(100) QDs multi-layered structure. The modulation of the chemical potential, due to the stacking, provides a nucleation center for the LT In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As QDs. For particular conditions, such as surface morphology and growth conditions, the In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As QDs align along lines like chains. This work also reports the characterization of QDs grown on plain GaAs(100) substrates, as well as of the ordered structures, as function of Mn content and growth temperature. The substitutional Mn incorporation in the InAs lattice and the conditions for obtaining coherent and incoherent structures are discussed from comparison between Raman spectroscopy and x-ray analysis. Ferromagnetic behavior was observed for all structures at 2 K. We found that the magnetic moment axis changes from [110] in In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As over GaAs to [1-10] for the ordered In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As grown over GaAs template.
Leung, V Y F; Pijn, D R M; Schlatter, H; Torralbo-Campo, L; La Rooij, A L; Mulder, G B; Naber, J; Soudijn, M L; Tauschinsky, A; Abarbanel, C; Hadad, B; Golan, E; Folman, R; Spreeuw, R J C
2014-05-01
We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 μm, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cutout of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold (87)Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leung, V. Y. F. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, PO Box 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Complex Photonic Systems (COPS), MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Pijn, D. R. M.; Schlatter, H.; Torralbo-Campo, L.; La Rooij, A. L.; Mulder, G. B.; Naber, J.; Soudijn, M. L.; Tauschinsky, A.; Spreeuw, R. J. C., E-mail: r.j.c.spreeuw@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, PO Box 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Abarbanel, C.; Hadad, B.; Golan, E. [Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Folman, R. [Department of Physics and Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel)
2014-05-15
We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 μm, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cutout of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold {sup 87}Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation.
Kumar, Pradeep; Ghodke, A. D.; Karnewar, A. K.; Holikatti, A. C.; Yadav, S.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Singh, G.; Singh, P.
2013-12-01
In this paper, the measurements of vertical and horizontal aperture which are available for stable beam motion in Indus-2 at beam energy 2.5 GeV using movable beam scrapers are presented. These beam scrapers are installed in one of the long straight sections in the ring. With the movement of beam scrapers towards the beam centre, the beam lifetime is measured. The beam lifetime data obtained from the movement of vertical and horizontal beam scrapers are analyzed. The contribution of beam loss due to beam-gas scattering (vacuum lifetime) and electron-electron scattering within a beam bunch (Touschek lifetime) is separated from the measured beam lifetime at different positions of the beam scrapers. Vertical and horizontal beam sizes at scrapers location are estimated from the scraper movement towards the beam centre in quantum lifetime limit and their values closely agree with measured value obtained using X-ray diagnostic beamline.
Kumar, Pradeep; Ghodke, A D; Karnewar, A K; Holikatti, A C; Yadav, S; Puntambekar, T A; Singh, G; Singh, P
2013-12-01
In this paper, the measurements of vertical and horizontal aperture which are available for stable beam motion in Indus-2 at beam energy 2.5 GeV using movable beam scrapers are presented. These beam scrapers are installed in one of the long straight sections in the ring. With the movement of beam scrapers towards the beam centre, the beam lifetime is measured. The beam lifetime data obtained from the movement of vertical and horizontal beam scrapers are analyzed. The contribution of beam loss due to beam-gas scattering (vacuum lifetime) and electron-electron scattering within a beam bunch (Touschek lifetime) is separated from the measured beam lifetime at different positions of the beam scrapers. Vertical and horizontal beam sizes at scrapers location are estimated from the scraper movement towards the beam centre in quantum lifetime limit and their values closely agree with measured value obtained using X-ray diagnostic beamline.
Meystre, Pierre
2007-01-01
Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...
Traceable quantum sensing and metrology relied up a quantum electrical triangle principle
Fang, Yan; Wang, Hengliang; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Jingsong
2016-11-01
Hybrid quantum state engineering in quantum communication and imaging1-2 needs traceable quantum sensing and metrology, which are especially critical to quantum internet3 and precision measurements4 that are important across all fields of science and technology-. We aim to set up a mode of traceable quantum sensing and metrology. We developed a method by specially transforming an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) into a conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) with a feedback control loop, wherein quantum entanglement enabling higher precision was relied upon a set-point, a visible light laser beam-controlled an interferometer with a surface standard at z axis, diffractometers with lateral standards at x-y axes, four-quadrant photodiode detectors, a scanner and its image software, a phase-locked pre-amplifier, a cantilever with a kHz Pt/Au conducting tip, a double barrier tunneling junction model, a STM circuit by frequency modulation and a quantum electrical triangle principle involving single electron tunneling effect, quantum Hall effect and Josephson effect5. The average and standard deviation result of repeated measurements on a 1 nm height local micro-region of nanomedicine crystal hybrid quantum state engineering surface and its differential pA level current and voltage (dI/dV) in time domains by using C-AFM was converted into an international system of units: Siemens (S), an indicated value 0.86×10-12 S (n=6) of a relative standard uncertainty was superior over a relative standard uncertainty reference value 2.3×10-10 S of 2012 CODADA quantized conductance6. It is concluded that traceable quantum sensing and metrology is emerging.
Ladd, T D; Jelezko, F; Laflamme, R; Nakamura, Y; Monroe, C; O'Brien, J L
2010-03-04
Over the past several decades, quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we gain some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that exhibit unique quantum properties? Today it is understood that the answer is yes, and many research groups around the world are working towards the highly ambitious technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. A number of physical systems, spanning much of modern physics, are being developed for quantum computation. However, it remains unclear which technology, if any, will ultimately prove successful. Here we describe the latest developments for each of the leading approaches and explain the major challenges for the future.
Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information
Steeb, Willi-Hans
2012-01-01
Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...
Gales, S.
2015-11-01
The development of high-power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular high-energy nuclear physics and astrophysics, as well as societal applications in material science, nuclear energy and medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has selected a proposal based on these new premises called "ELI" for Extreme Light Infrastructure. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for nuclear physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10-PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense low-energy gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.
Shi, Zhenwu; Wang, Lu; Zhen, Honglou; Wang, Wenxin; Chen, Hong
2013-07-03
InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells used for 4.3 μm mid-wavelength infrared quantum well infrared detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In composition loss was observed and quantitatively studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction technology. By this In composition loss effect, the energy band engineering on the photo-response wavelength is not easily achieved. A thin AlGaAs barrier grown at low temperature is used to suppress the In atom desorption, and this growth process was verified to be able to adjust the photo-response wavelength as designed by energy band engineering in the photocurrent spectrum.
Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels
Li, Meng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-03-01
It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61327901, 61490711, 61225025, 11474268, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. WK2470000018
2012-02-01
and calcite (blue) segments. ............ 16 Figure 9. Experimental configuration for the generation of entangled photon cluster states [6...44 Figure 34. Type-II custom assembly showing alternating BBO (red) and calcite (blue) segments. .......... 45...Figure 35. Arbitrary possible orientations of the crystal function with varying BBO- calcite thickness ratios
Robb, G R M
2012-01-01
In arXiv:1202.0691, Geloni et al. criticise our recent work describing the spontaneous emission by a relativistic, undulating electron beam. In particular they claim that our prediction of a quantum regime in which evolution of the electron momentum distribution occurs as a sequential population of discrete momentum groups rather than in terms of a drift-diffusion process is unphysical and artificial. We show that the criticism of our model contained in arXiv:1202.0691 is unfounded.
Experimental investigation of quantum Simpson's paradox
Li, Yu-Long; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wang, Yi-Tao; Wu, Yu-Chun; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Yu, Ying; Li, Mi-Feng; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan
2013-07-01
The well-known Simpson's paradox, or Yule-Simpson (YS) effect, is often encountered in social-science and medical-science statistics. It occurs when the correlations present in different groups are reversed if the groups are combined. Simpson's paradox also exists in quantum measurements. In this Brief Report, we experimentally realized two analogous effects: the quantum-classical YS effect and the quantum-quantum YS effect in the quantum-dot system. We also compared the probability of obtaining those two effects under identical quantum measurements and found that the quantum-quantum YS effect is more likely to occur than the quantum-classical YS effect.
Nesvizhevsky, Valery
2015-01-01
This unique book demonstrates the undivided unity and infinite diversity of quantum mechanics using a single phenomenon: quantum bounces of ultra-cold particles. Various examples of such "quantum bounces" are: gravitational quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons (the first observed quantum states of matter in a gravitational field), the neutron whispering gallery (an observed matter-wave analog of the whispering gallery effect well known in acoustics and for electromagnetic waves), and gravitational and whispering gallery states for anti-matter atoms that remain to be observed. These quantum states are an invaluable tool in the search for additional fundamental short-range forces, for exploring the gravitational interaction and quantum effects of gravity, for probing physics beyond the standard model, and for furthering studies into the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum optics, and surface science.
Controlling Quantum Information
Landahl, A J
2002-01-01
Quantum information science explores ways in which quantum physical laws can be harnessed to control the acquisition, transmission, protection, and processing of information. This field has seen explosive growth in the past several years from progress on both theoretical and experimental fronts. Essential to this endeavor are methods for controlling quantum information. In this thesis, I present three new approaches for controlling quantum information. First, I present a new protocol for continuously protecting unknown quantum states from noise. This protocol combines and expands ideas from the theories of quantum error correction and quantum feedback control. The result can outperform either approach by itself. I generalize this protocol to all known quantum stabilizer codes, and study its application to the three-qubit repetition code in detail via Monte Carlo simulations. Next, I present several new protocols for controlling quantum information that are fault-tolerant. These protocols require only local qu...
Bandyopadhyay, Neelanjan
Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) is a compact room temperature (RT) source of mid-infrared radiation, which can be used for spectroscopic detection of trace amount of chemicals. The mid-infrared spectral range between (3-11 microm), has a dense array of absorption lines of numerous molecules, due to the presence of fundamental vibrational modes. The goal of this thesis can be subdivided into two parts. Firstly, short wavelength QCLs, emitting below 4microm, perform poorly at RT, due to inter-valley Gamma --- L carrier scattering, carrier escape to the continuum, heat removal from the core region at high power density corresponding to short wavelength operation, and large interface scattering due to highly strained materials. Secondly, it is desirable to have a single QCL based source emitting between 6-10microm, which be used to detect multiple molecules having their peak absorptions far apart, inside this spectral range. However, gain bandwidth of a single core QCL is relatively small, so laser emission cannot be tuned over a wide spectral range. This thesis describes the working principle of a QCL based on superlattice transport, rate equations, scattering mechanism, and waveguide design. The choice of the material system for this work and the fundamentals of band structure engineering has been derived. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy - growth optimization and characterization is one of the most important features of this work, especially for short wavelength QCLs, and has been explained in depth. Different strategies for design of active region design of short wavelength QCL and heterogeneous broadband QCL has been explored. The major milestones, of this research was the world's first watt level continuous wave (CW), RT demonstration at 3.76 microm, which was followed by another milestone of the first CW, RT demonstration at 3.39microm and 3.55microm, and finally the elusive result of QCL emitting at CW, RT at a wavelength as short as lambda ~3microm, a record. In
Quantum Bio-Informatics II From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics
Accardi, L.; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori
2009-02-01
The problem of quantum-like representation in economy cognitive science, and genetics / L. Accardi, A. Khrennikov and M. Ohya -- Chaotic behavior observed in linea dynamics / M. Asano, T. Yamamoto and Y. Togawa -- Complete m-level quantum teleportation based on Kossakowski-Ohya scheme / M. Asano, M. Ohya and Y. Tanaka -- Towards quantum cybernetics: optimal feedback control in quantum bio informatics / V. P. Belavkin -- Quantum entanglement and circulant states / D. Chruściński -- The compound Fock space and its application in brain models / K. -H. Fichtner and W. Freudenberg -- Characterisation of beam splitters / L. Fichtner and M. Gäbler -- Application of entropic chaos degree to a combined quantum baker's map / K. Inoue, M. Ohya and I. V. Volovich -- On quantum algorithm for multiple alignment of amino acid sequences / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya --Quantum-like models for decision making in psychology and cognitive science / A. Khrennikov -- On completely positive non-Markovian evolution of a d-level system / A. Kossakowski and R. Rebolledo -- Measures of entanglement - a Hilbert space approach / W. A. Majewski -- Some characterizations of PPT states and their relation / T. Matsuoka -- On the dynamics of entanglement and characterization ofentangling properties of quantum evolutions / M. Michalski -- Perspective from micro-macro duality - towards non-perturbative renormalization scheme / I. Ojima -- A simple symmetric algorithm using a likeness with Introns behavior in RNA sequences / M. Regoli -- Some aspects of quadratic generalized white noise functionals / Si Si and T. Hida -- Analysis of several social mobility data using measure of departure from symmetry / K. Tahata ... [et al.] -- Time in physics and life science / I. V. Volovich -- Note on entropies in quantum processes / N. Watanabe -- Basics of molecular simulation and its application to biomolecules / T. Ando and I. Yamato -- Theory of proton-induced superionic conduction in hydrogen-bonded systems
Brassard, G; Tapp, A; Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Tapp, Alain
2004-01-01
Quantum information processing is at the crossroads of physics, mathematics and computer science. It is concerned with that we can and cannot do with quantum information that goes beyond the abilities of classical information processing devices. Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science that aims at quantifying the amount of communication necessary to solve distributed computational problems. Quantum communication complexity uses quantum mechanics to reduce the amount of communication that would be classically required. Pseudo-telepathy is a surprising application of quantum information processing to communication complexity. Thanks to entanglement, perhaps the most nonclassical manifestation of quantum mechanics, two or more quantum players can accomplish a distributed task with no need for communication whatsoever, which would be an impossible feat for classical players. After a detailed overview of the principle and purpose of pseudo-telepathy, we present a survey of recent and no-s...
Introduction to topological quantum matter & quantum computation
Stanescu, Tudor D
2017-01-01
What is -topological- about topological quantum states? How many types of topological quantum phases are there? What is a zero-energy Majorana mode, how can it be realized in a solid state system, and how can it be used as a platform for topological quantum computation? What is quantum computation and what makes it different from classical computation? Addressing these and other related questions, Introduction to Topological Quantum Matter & Quantum Computation provides an introduction to and a synthesis of a fascinating and rapidly expanding research field emerging at the crossroads of condensed matter physics, mathematics, and computer science. Providing the big picture, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers entering this field as it allows for the fruitful transfer of paradigms and ideas amongst different areas, and includes many specific examples to help the reader understand abstract and sometimes challenging concepts. It explores the topological quantum world beyond the well-know...
Sorting quantum systems efficiently
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-05-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.
Ionicioiu, Radu
2015-01-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) -- which direct photons according to their polarization -- and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any $d$-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.
Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC
2011-10-24
Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.
Quantum Communication Technology
Gisin, Nicolas
2010-01-01
Quantum communication is built on a set of disruptive concepts and technologies. It is driven by fascinating physics and by promising applications. It requires a new mix of competencies, from telecom engineering to theoretical physics, from theoretical computer science to mechanical and electronic engineering. First applications have already found their way to niche markets and university labs are working on futuristic quantum networks, but most of the surprises are still ahead of us. Quantum communication, and more generally quantum information science and technologies, are here to stay and will have a profound impact on the XXI century.
Benítez, Ricardo Betancourt; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David; Liu, Shaohua
2009-01-01
The physical performance of two Flat Panel Detectors has been evaluated. The first Flat Panel Detector is for Fluoroscopic applications, Varian PaxScan 2520, and the second is for Cone Beam Computer Tomography applications, Varian PaxScan 4030CB. First, the spectrum of the X-ray source was measured. Second, the linearity of the detectors was investigated by using an ionization chamber and the average ADU values of the detectors. Third, the temporal resolution was characterized by evaluating their image lag. Fourth, their spatial resolution was characterized by the pre-sampling Modulation Transfer Function. Fifth, the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum was calculated for various exposures levels. Finally, the Detective Quantum Efficiency was obtained as a function of spatial frequency and entrance exposure. The results illustrate that the physical performance in Detective Quantum Efficiency and Normalized Noise Power Spectrum of the Cone Beam Computer Tomography detector is superior to that of the fluoroscopic detector whereas the latter detector has a higher spatial resolution as demonstrated by larger values of its Modulation Transfer Function at large spatial frequencies.
Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-05-15
The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.
Quantum information and computing
Ohya, M; Watanabe, N
2006-01-01
The main purpose of this volume is to emphasize the multidisciplinary aspects of this very active new line of research in which concrete technological and industrial realizations require the combined efforts of experimental and theoretical physicists, mathematicians and engineers. Contents: Coherent Quantum Control of ?-Atoms through the Stochastic Limit (L Accardi et al.); Recent Advances in Quantum White Noise Calculus (L Accardi & A Boukas); Joint Extension of States of Fermion Subsystems (H Araki); Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation Model Using Beam Splittings (K-H Fichtner et al.); Quantum
Gerry, Christopher; Knight, Peter
2004-10-01
1. Introduction; 2. Field quantization; 3. Coherent states; 4. Emission and absorption of radiation by atoms; 5. Quantum coherence functions; 6. Beam splitters and interferometers; 7. Nonclassical light; 8. Dissipative interactions and decoherence; 9. Optical test of quantum mechanics; 10. Experiments in cavity QED and with trapped ions; 11. Applications of entanglement: Heisenberg-limited interferometry and quantum information processing; Appendix A. The density operator, entangled states, the Schmidt decomposition, and the von Neumann entropy; Appendix B. Quantum measurement theory in a (very small) nutshell; Appendix C. Derivation of the effective Hamiltonian for dispersive (far off-resonant) interactions; Appendix D. Nonlinear optics and spontaneous parametric down-conversion.
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-01
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.
Holzner, Steve
2013-01-01
Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition helps make quantum physics understandable and accessible. From what quantum physics can do for the world to understanding hydrogen atoms, readers will get complete coverage of the subject, along with numerous examples to help them tackle the tough equations. Compatible with classroom text books and courses, Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition lets students study at their own paces and helps them prepare for graduate or professional exams. Coverage includes: The Schrodinger Equation and its Applications The Foundations of Quantum Physics Vector Notation Spin Scattering Theory, Angular Momentum, and more From the Back Cover Your plain-English guide to understanding and working with the micro world Quantum physics -- also called quantum mechanics or quantum field theory -- can be daunting for even the most dedicated student or enthusiast of science, math, or physics. This friendly, concise guide makes this challenging subject understandable and accessible, fr...
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-29
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prashant Anil Patil
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper gives the detailed information about Quantum computer, and difference between quantum computer and traditional computers, the basis of Quantum computers which are slightly similar but still different from traditional computer. Many research groups are working towards the highly technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. Quantum computer is very much use full for computation purpose in field of Science and Research. Large amount of data and information will be computed, processing, storing, retrieving, transmitting and displaying information in less time with that much of accuracy which is not provided by traditional computers.
Velentzas, Athanasios; Halkia, Krystallia; Skordoulis, Constantine
2007-01-01
This work investigates the presence of Thought Experiments (TEs) which refer to the theory of relativity and to quantum mechanics in physics textbooks and in books popularizing physics theories. A further point of investigation is whether TEs--as presented in popular physics books--can be used as an introduction to familiarize secondary school…
Mullin, William J
2017-01-01
Quantum mechanics allows a remarkably accurate description of nature and powerful predictive capabilities. The analyses of quantum systems and their interpretation lead to many surprises, for example, the ability to detect the characteristics of an object without ever touching it in any way, via "interaction-free measurement," or the teleportation of an atomic state over large distances. The results can become downright bizarre. Quantum mechanics is a subtle subject that usually involves complicated mathematics -- calculus, partial differential equations, etc., for complete understanding. Most texts for general audiences avoid all mathematics. The result is that the reader misses almost all deep understanding of the subject, much of which can be probed with just high-school level algebra and trigonometry. Thus, readers with that level of mathematics can learn so much more about this fundamental science. The book starts with a discussion of the basic physics of waves (an appendix reviews some necessary class...
Lu, Dawei; Biamonte, Jacob D.; Li, Jun; Li, Hang; Johnson, Tomi H.; Bergholm, Ville; Faccin, Mauro; Zimborás, Zoltán; Laflamme, Raymond; Baugh, Jonathan; Lloyd, Seth
2016-04-01
Given its importance to many other areas of physics, from condensed-matter physics to thermodynamics, time-reversal symmetry has had relatively little influence on quantum information science. Here we develop a network-based picture of time-reversal theory, classifying Hamiltonians and quantum circuits as time symmetric or not in terms of the elements and geometries of their underlying networks. Many of the typical circuits of quantum information science are found to exhibit time asymmetry. Moreover, we show that time asymmetry in circuits can be controlled using local gates only and can simulate time asymmetry in Hamiltonian evolution. We experimentally implement a fundamental example in which controlled time-reversal asymmetry in a palindromic quantum circuit leads to near-perfect transport. Our results pave the way for using time-symmetry breaking to control coherent transport and imply that time asymmetry represents an omnipresent yet poorly understood effect in quantum information science.
Lu, DaWei; Li, Jun; Li, Hang; Johnson, Tomi H; Bergholm, Ville; Faccin, Mauro; Zimborás, Zoltán; Laflamme, Raymond; Baugh, Jonathan; Lloyd, Seth
2016-01-01
Given its importance to many other areas of physics, from condensed matter physics to thermodynamics, time-reversal symmetry has had relatively little influence on quantum information science. Here we develop a network-based picture of time-reversal theory, classifying Hamiltonians and quantum circuits as time-symmetric or not in terms of the elements and geometries of their underlying networks. Many of the typical circuits of quantum information science are found to exhibit time-asymmetry. Moreover, we show that time-asymmetry in circuits can be controlled using local gates only, and can simulate time-asymmetry in Hamiltonian evolution. We experimentally implement a fundamental example in which controlled time-reversal asymmetry in a palindromic quantum circuit leads to near-perfect transport. Our results pave the way for using time-symmetry breaking to control coherent transport, and imply that time-asymmetry represents an omnipresent yet poorly understood effect in quantum information science.
Quantum physics meets biology.
Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko
2009-12-01
Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fomin, Vladimir M. (ed.) [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)
2014-07-01
Presents the new class of materials of quantum rings. Provides an elemental basis for low-cost high-performance devices promising for electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics and quantum information processing. Explains the physical properties of quantum rings to cover a gap in scientific literature. Presents the application of most advanced nanoengineering and nanocharacterization techniques. This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is possible on the basis of modern characterization methods of nanostructures, such as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. A high level of complexity is demonstrated to be needed for a dedicated theoretical model to adequately represent the specific features of quantum rings. The findings presented in this book contribute to develop low-cost high-performance electronic, spintronic, optoelectronic and information processing devices based on quantum rings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Quantum mechanics in chemistry
Schatz, George C
2002-01-01
Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt
Rödel, R.; Bauer, A.; Kremling, S.; Reitzenstein, S.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L.; Forchel, A.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate a method to controllably reduce the density of self-assembled InP quantum dots (QDs) by cyclic deposition with growth interruptions. Varying the number of cycles enabled a reduction of the QD density from 7.4 × 1010 cm - 2 to 1.8 × 109 cm - 2 for the same total amount of deposited InP. Simultaneously, a systematic increase of the QD size could be observed. Emission characteristics of different-sized InP QDs were analyzed. Excitation power dependent and time-resolved measurements confirm a transition from type I to type II band alignment for large InP quantum dots. Photon autocorrelation measurements of type I QDs performed under pulsed excitation reveal pronounced antibunching (g(2)(τ = 0) = 0.06 ± 0.03) as expected for a single-photon emitter. The described growth routine has great promise for the exploitation of InP QDs as quantum emitters.
Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kimble, H. Jeff
2017-01-01
Quantum optics is a well-established field that spans from fundamental physics to quantum information science. In the coming decade, areas including computation, communication and metrology are all likely to experience scientific and technological advances supported by this far-reaching research field.
Boeyens, Jan C A
2016-01-01
This volume, written by a highly cited author, presents the history of quantum theory together with open questions and remaining problems in terms of the plausibility of quantum chemistry and physics. It also provides insights into the theory of matter-wave mechanics. The content is aimed at students and lecturers in chemistry, physics and the philosophy of science.
Programmable Multimode Quantum Networks
Armstrong, Seiji; Janousek, Jiri; Hage, Boris; Treps, Nicolas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-A
2012-01-01
Entanglement between large numbers of quantum modes is the quintessential resource for quantum information processing and future applications such as the quantum internet. Conventionally the generation of multimode entanglement in optics requires complex layouts of beam-splitters and phase shifters in order to transform the input modes in to entangled modes. These networks need substantial modification for every new set of entangled modes to be generated. Further, the complexity grows rapidly with the number of entangled modes as the number of detectors, phase locks and optical components needs to be increased. Here we report on the highly efficient and versatile generation of various multimode entangled states within one optical beam. By defining our modes to be combinations of different spatial regions of the beam, we may use just one pair of multi-pixel detectors and one local oscillator to measure an orthogonal set of modes. The transformation of this set into a desired set of entangled modes is calculate...
Entanglement, quantum phase transitions and quantum algorithms
Orus, R
2006-01-01
The work that we present in this thesis tries to be at the crossover of quantum information science, quantum many-body physics, and quantum field theory. We use tools from these three fields to analyze problems that arise in the interdisciplinary intersection. More concretely, in Chapter 1 we consider the irreversibility of renormalization group flows from a quantum information perspective by using majorization theory and conformal field theory. In Chapter 2 we compute the entanglement of a single copy of a bipartite quantum system for a variety of models by using techniques from conformal field theory and Toeplitz matrices. The entanglement entropy of the so-called Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model is computed in Chapter 3, showing analogies with that of (1+1)-dimensional quantum systems. In Chapter 4 we apply the ideas of scaling of quantum correlations in quantum phase transitions to the study of quantum algorithms, focusing on Shor's factorization algorithm and quantum algorithms by adiabatic evolution solving a...
Timelike Momenta In Quantum Electrodynamics
Brodsky, S. J.; Ting, S. C. C.
1965-12-01
In this note we discuss the possibility of studying the quantum electrodynamics of timelike photon propagators in muon or electron pair production by incident high energy muon or electron beams from presently available proton or electron accelerators.
Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian
2017-01-01
Combining physics and philosophy, this is a uniquely interdisciplinary examination of quantum information science which provides an up-to-date examination of developments in this field. The authors provide coherent definitions and theories of information, taking clearly defined approaches to considering information in connection with quantum mechanics, probability, and correlations. Concepts addressed include entanglement of quantum states, the relation of quantum correlations to quantum information, and the meaning of the informational approach for the foundations of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the mathematical concept of information in the communicational context, and the notion of pragmatic information are considered. Suitable as both a discussion of the conceptual and philosophical problems of this field and a comprehensive stand-alone introduction, this book will benefit both experienced and new researchers in quantum information and the philosophy of physics.
Quantum random number generators
Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2017-01-01
Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.
1983-01-01
Collaborations: (i) Physics A. Dr. Charles M. Bowden (MICOM) - Two-level amplifier output stabilisation and three-ievel pump dynamics B. Professor Michael ...like a Foucault pendulum. (See Fig. 6b). The SF process is a unique macroscopic manifestation of quantum fluctuations, even though they are proportional...otherwise. (b) No level degeneracy, T2 = T2 =, KL = 0. (c) T2 = m. (d) T2 = . Ce) KL = 0. (f) KL 5. (g) No level degeneracy. Fig. 6b. Foucault pendulum co
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosales, Daniel; Gil, Bernard; Bretagnon, Thierry [CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Université de Montpellier, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Brault, Julien; Vennéguès, Philippe; Nemoz, Maud; Mierry, Philippe de; Damilano, Benjamin; Massies, Jean [CNRS Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, 06560 Valbonne (France); Bigenwald, Pierre [Institut Pascal, Campus des Cézeaux, 24 avenue des Landais, 63171 Aubière Cedex (France)
2015-07-14
We have grown (11-22)-oriented GaN/Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N quantum wells (QWs) using molecular beam epitaxy on GaN (11-22)-oriented templates grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on m-plane oriented sapphire substrates. The performance of epitaxial growth of GaN/Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N heterostructures on the semi-polar orientation (11-22) in terms of surface roughness and structural properties, i.e., strain relaxation mechanisms is discussed. In addition, high resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals very smooth QW interfaces. The photoluminescence of such samples are strictly originating from radiative recombination of free excitons for temperatures above 100 K. At high temperature, the population of localized excitons, moderately trapped (5 meV) at low temperature, is negligible.
Helping Students Learn Quantum Mechanics for Quantum Computing
Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
Quantum information science and technology is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field drawing researchers from science and engineering fields. Traditional instruction in quantum mechanics is insufficient to prepare students for research in quantum computing because there is a lack of emphasis in the current curriculum on quantum formalism and dynamics. We are investigating the difficulties students have with quantum mechanics and are developing and evaluating quantum interactive learning tutorials (QuILTs) to reduce the difficulties. Our investigation includes interviews with individual students and the development and administration of free-response and multiple-choice tests. We discuss the implications of our research and development project on helping students learn quantum mechanics relevant for quantum computing.
Olson, Andrew Carl
The bulk properties of materials and biological systems depend on their microscale behavior. This is intuitive to chemists who are used to thinking of molecular constituents dictating chemical properties at the macroscale. This bottom-up understanding of materials can be extended to mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus, catastrophic failure modes, which can begin as nanoscale void formation, and polymer chain deformations that occur during mechanical loading. Such fundamental mechanical properties are also crucial in biology, where the viability of an organism is dependent on cell function and behavior. For example, tumorigenesis and metastasis of cancer depends on the ability of a cancerous cell to generate traction forces and move through the body. This dissertation details recent developments on the tetrapod quantum dot (tQD) as a fluorescence stress probe. The nanometer size and optical properties of the tQD make it uniquely suitable for studying forces and mechanisms of mechanical deformation at the smallest length scales. First, background is provided on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots in general and the tetrapod in particular. Second, development and application of the tQD in synthetic polymer materials is discussed. Third, applications of the tQD as a sensor for cellular biophysics are demonstrated. Finally, further characterization of single tQD properties and future studies are discussed and proposed.
Kort-Kamp, W J M; Dalvit, D A R
2015-01-01
We predict quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-H\\"anchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, while the Goos- H\\"anchen ones in multiples of $\\alpha^2$. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.
Squeezed State Effects on Continuous Variable Quantum Erasing
Bonanno, Peter; Kasisomayajula, Vijay; Russo, Onofrio
2008-03-01
Experimental verification of complementarity using quantum erasing for the continuous variable (CV) infinite dimensional Hilbert space has been considered. [1] The complemetary pair is that of the canonically conjugate amplitude and phase quadratures of light. The amplitude quadrature is labeled to a squeezed meter signal by quantum nondemolition (QND) [2] entanglement coupling. [3] Knowledge of which eigenstate (WE) can be obtained by measuring this amplitude in the meter state, and can thereafter be `lost' by measuring the quadrature phase of the meter, thus restoring the quadrature phase of the signal beam in a process known as quantum erasure. [4] The coupling, i.e. the labeling of the signal state to the meter state, is implemented with a beam splitter coupled to the squeezed light meter beam. [4] We investigate the effects of using the unitary squeeze operator S(z)=exp.5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 (z*a^2 - za^+2) where z = re^i(squeezing angle) on selected coherent states under certain conditions. [5,6] [1] U. L. Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 100403 (2004). [2] V. B. Braginsky et al., Science 209, 547 (1980). [3] R. Bruckmeimer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43 (1997). [4] P. Grangier et al., Nature 396, 537 (1998). [5] C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981). [6] D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. D. 1, 3217 (1970), D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. D. 4, 1925 (1971). .
Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Gomez, Richard B.; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.
2003-08-01
In recent years, computer graphics has emerged as a critical component of the scientific and engineering process, and it is recognized as an important computer science research area. Computer graphics are extensively used for a variety of aerospace and defense training systems and by Hollywood's special effects companies. All these applications require the computer graphics systems to produce high quality renderings of extremely large data sets in short periods of time. Much research has been done in "classical computing" toward the development of efficient methods and techniques to reduce the rendering time required for large datasets. Quantum Computing's unique algorithmic features offer the possibility of speeding up some of the known rendering algorithms currently used in computer graphics. In this paper we discuss possible implementations of quantum rendering algorithms. In particular, we concentrate on the implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm for Z-buffering, ray-tracing, radiosity, and scene management techniques. We also compare the theoretical performance between the classical and quantum versions of the algorithms.
Treiman, Samuel Bard
1999-01-01
This is a rare and much-needed book: a concise but comprehensive account of quantum mechanics for popular science readers written by a respected physicist. Sam Treiman--internationally renowned for his work in particle physics--makes quantum mechanics accessible to nonspecialists. Combining mastery of the material with clear, elegant prose and infectious enthusiasm, he conveys the substance, methods, and profound oddities of the field.Treiman begins with an overview of quantum mechanics. He sketches the early development of the field by Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, and others, and he makes clear how the quantum outlook flies in the face of common sense
Arndt, Markus; Vedral, Vlatko
2009-01-01
Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolat...
Petroni, N C; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Petroni, Nicola Cufaro; Martino, Salvatore De; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio
1999-01-01
We perform a detailed analysis of the non stationary solutions of the evolution (Fokker-Planck) equations associated to either stationary or non stationary quantum states by the stochastic mechanics. For the excited stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields we explicitely discuss the exact solutions for the HO case. Moreover the possibility of modifying the original potentials in order to implement arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations is discussed with respect to both possible models for quantum measurements and applications to the control of particle beams in accelerators.
Integrated System Technologies for Modular Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing
Crain, Stephen G.
Although trapped ion technology is well-suited for quantum information science, scalability of the system remains one of the main challenges. One of the challenges associated with scaling the ion trap quantum computer is the ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, laser beams are focused on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Multiple single qubit gates are demonstrated on trapped 171Yb+ qubits and the gate performance is characterized using quantum state tomography. The system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (system photon collection efficiency is increased from 2.2% to 3.4%, which allows for fast state detection of the qubit. For a detection beam intensity of 11 mW/cm 2, the average detection time is 23.7 mus with 99.885(7)% detection fidelity. The technologies demonstrated in this thesis can be integrated to form a single quantum register with all of the necessary resources to perform local gates as well as high fidelity readout and provide a photon link to other systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuzelev, M. V., E-mail: kuzelev@mail.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)
2011-02-15
A nonlinear theory of interaction of two electromagnetic waves with a beam or a gas of spinless charged particles is developed. The effects of stimulated Compton scattering of electromagnetic waves and stimulated particle pair production (annihilation) during a collision of two electromagnetic quanta are investigated. Other stimulated processes that can occur only in a medium and decelerate electromagnetic waves are also considered. The relation between stimulated processes and various types of instabilities considered in classical electrodynamics of plasmas and plasmalike media is demonstrated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Thirolf, Peter; Seggebrock, Thorben [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Habs, Dietrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
2012-07-01
We present for the first time a concept for a seeded {gamma} quantum Free Electron Laser (QFEL) at 478 keV (transition in {sup 7}Li). To produce a highly intense and coherent {gamma} beam, we intend to use a seeded FEL scheme. Important for the production of a highly brilliant and coherent {gamma} beam are novel refractive {gamma} lenses for focusing and an efficient monochromator, allowing to generate a very intense and coherent seed beam. To realize such a coherent {gamma} beam at 478 keV (1/38 A), it is suitable to use a quantum FEL design based on a new ''asymmetric'' laser-electron Compton back scattering scheme as pursued for the MeGaRay and ELI-NP facilities. Here the pulse length of the laser is much longer than the electron bunch length, equivalent to a {gamma}-FEL with laser wiggler. The coherence of a seeded QFEL can open up totally new areas of fundamental physics and applications. Especially, 478 keV can be attractive for ''green energy'' and life-science research, such as the detection of Li deposition in the brain for manic-depressive psychosis treatment with high spatial resolution or isotope-specific nuclear waste management and treatment.
Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO)
Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Kiesel, Nikolai; Romero-Isart, Oriol; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus
2012-01-01
Quantum physics challenges our understanding of the nature of physical reality and of space-time and suggests the necessity of radical revisions of their underlying concepts. Experimental tests of quantum phenomena involving massive macroscopic objects would provide novel insights into these fundamental questions. Making use of the unique environment provided by space, MAQRO aims at investigating this largely unexplored realm of macroscopic quantum physics. MAQRO has originally been proposed as a medium-sized fundamental-science space mission for the 2010 call of Cosmic Vision. MAQRO unites two experiments: DECIDE (DECoherence In Double-Slit Experiments) and CASE (Comparative Acceleration Sensing Experiment). The main scientific objective of MAQRO, which is addressed by the experiment DECIDE, is to test the predictions of quantum theory for quantum superpositions of macroscopic objects containing more than 10e8 atoms. Under these conditions, deviations due to various suggested alternative models to quantum th...
Quantum Cosmology: Effective Theory
Bojowald, Martin
2012-01-01
Quantum cosmology has traditionally been studied at the level of symmetry-reduced minisuperspace models, analyzing the behavior of wave functions. However, in the absence of a complete full setting of quantum gravity and detailed knowledge of specific properties of quantum states, it remained difficult to make testable predictions. For quantum cosmology to be part of empirical science, it must allow for a systematic framework in which corrections to well-tested classical equations can be derived, with any ambiguities and ignorance sufficiently parameterized. As in particle and condensed-matter physics, a successful viewpoint is one of effective theories, adapted to specific issues one encounters in quantum cosmology. This review presents such an effective framework of quantum cosmology, taking into account, among other things, space-time structures, covariance, the problem of time and the anomaly issue.
Vongehr, Sascha
2012-01-01
Violations of Bell type inequalities in quantum experiments disprove all relativistic micro causal, classically real models. Desperate attempts at saving classicality retreated to claiming what Shimony calls a conspiracy. It is time to embrace the quantum paradigm instead of being stuck in defending it against positions on par with the belief in divinely planted fossils. However, different from 'quantum-magic' pseudoscience, there is resistance against quantum mechanics among scientific literate audiences, and it is growing. The Quantum Randi Challenge is designed to help scientists and educators discredit local realistic models and related attacks against quantum physics. Its 'Randi-type' properties are ensured via a simple computer game that can be made attractive and understandable to lay people. We introduce the general concept of a 'James Randi type' challenge as a tool for science outreach aimed against the spread of pseudoscience. This is a challenge which, according to the laws of nature as known to s...
Li, Shu-Shen; Long, Gui-lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi
2001-01-01
Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization.
Quantum Locality in Game Strategy
Melo-Luna, Carlos A.; Susa, Cristian E.; Ducuara, Andrés F.; Barreiro, Astrid; Reina, John H.
2017-03-01
Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players’ input states. This highlights the remarkable key role played by pure quantum coherence at powering some protocols. Finally, we propose an experiment that uses separable states and basic photon interferometry to demonstrate the locally-correlated quantum advantage.
Quantum Locality in Game Strategy.
Melo-Luna, Carlos A; Susa, Cristian E; Ducuara, Andrés F; Barreiro, Astrid; Reina, John H
2017-03-22
Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players' input states. This highlights the remarkable key role played by pure quantum coherence at powering some protocols. Finally, we propose an experiment that uses separable states and basic photon interferometry to demonstrate the locally-correlated quantum advantage.
Carrasco-Casado, Alberto
2015-01-01
This thesis focuses on the two main applications where free-space optical communication (FSOC) can bring the most significant impact: interplanetary communications and quantum communications. Consequently, the dissertation is structured in two sections. In the first one, a novel proposal is suggested regarding to using Cherenkov telescopes as ground-station receivers. A feasibility study addresses the posibility of using the technology developed for the gamma-ray telescopes that will make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) in the implementation of a new kind of ground station. Among the main advantages that these telescopes provide are the much larger apertures needed to overcome the power limitation that ground-based gamma-ray astronomy and deep-space optical communication both have. Also, the large number of big telescopes that will be built for CTA will make it possible to reduce unitary costs by economy-scale production. The second section of the thesis is framed in the field of free-space Quantum Key...
A Schrdinger formulation research for light beam propagation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘承宜; 郭弘; 胡巍; 邓锡铭
2000-01-01
The wave equation of light beam propagation was written in the form of an axial-coordinate-dependent Schrodinger equation, and the expectation value of a dynamical variable, the trial function of variational approach and the ABCD law were discussed by use of quantum mechanics approach. In view of the evolution equations of expectation values of dynamical variables in the framework of quantum mechanics, the definition of a potential function representing the beam propagation stability and its universal formula with the quality factor, the universal formula of beam width and curvature radius for a paraxial beam and cylindrically symmetric non-paraxial beam, the general formula of second derivative of beam width with respect to the axial coordinate of beam for a paraxial beam, and the general criteria of the conservation of beam quality factor and the existence of a potential well of a potential function for a paraxial beam, were given or derived, respectively. Starting with the same trial function, the co
Adiabatic Quantum Computation is Equivalent to Standard Quantum Computation
Aharonov, D; Kempe, J; Landau, Z; Lloyd, S; Regev, O; Aharonov, Dorit; Dam, Wim van; Kempe, Julia; Landau, Zeph; Lloyd, Seth; Regev, Oded
2004-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computation has recently attracted attention in the physics and computer science communities, but its computational power has been unknown. We settle this question and describe an efficient adiabatic simulation of any given quantum algorithm, which implies that the adiabatic computation model and the conventional quantum circuit model are polynomially equivalent. Our result can be extended to the physically realistic setting of particles arranged on a two-dimensional grid with nearest neighbor interactions. The equivalence between the models provides a new vantage point from which to tackle the central issues in quantum computation, namely designing new quantum algorithms and constructing fault tolerant quantum computers. In particular, by translating the main open questions in quantum algorithms to the language of spectral gaps of sparse matrices, the result makes quantum algorithmic questions accessible to a wider scientific audience, acquainted with mathematical physics, expander theory a...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M.Yamashita
2007-01-01
1 Results In the fields of the molecule-based magnets,the quantum molecular magnets have been attracting much attention. While the bulk magnets or classic magnets are based on the 3D ferro- or ferrimagnetic interaction,the quantum molecular magnets are based on the double-well potential barrier defined with DS2,where D and S are uni-axial anisotropy and spin quantum number,respectively.Therefore,while the memory capacity of the bulk magnets such as floppy disc is 109 bits,the quantum magnets may have th...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Ernst Peter
2015-07-01
It's madness, yet there is method. The physical phenomenon of the quantum jump has already brought some well-known physicists at the edge of dispair. Then nothing seems to be such illogical, undetermined, and unpredictable as the behaviour of the atoms that ultimatively form our world. The renowned historian of sciences Ernst Peter Fischer tells the fascinating story of quantum physics by means of poignant portraits of selected researchers like Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Richard P. Feynman, and ''Mr. Beam'' Anton Zeilinger. A great story of science a bout the smallest particles of the nature.
Pavelescu, E.-M.; Bălţăţeanu, N.; Spânulescu, S. I.; Arola, E.
2017-02-01
The effects of 7 MeV electron irradiation at very high doses of 2 ×1017 and 1.5 ×1018electrons /cm2 and subsequent rapid thermal annealing on photoluminescence from a strain-compensated GaInAsN/GaAsN/GaAs quantum well structure are investigated. A large additional blueshift of photoluminescence has been observed from the lower-dose irradiated sample as compared to the non-irradiated one when annealed after the irradiation. This additional blueshift will become considerably reduced by an ageing effect, which occurs already at room temperature. The mechanism causing the additional blueshift of photoluminescence and its reduction is qualitatively assigned to metastable complex defects promoted by electron irradiation in the nitrogen containing layers. No such additional blueshift of photoluminescence under the thermal treatment has been observed in the higher-dose irradiated sample.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Broe, Jacob; Keller, Ole
2002-01-01
It is predicted that the Goos-Hänchen effect can be resonantly enhanced by placing a metallic quantum well (ultrathin film) at the dielectric-vacuum (air) interface. We study the enhancement of the phenomenon, as it appears in frustrated total internal reflection with p-polarized light, both...... approximation to the Goos-Hänchen shifts is obtained. It is shown that large peaks appear in the Goos-Hänchen shift below the critical angle in reflection, and these are located at the minima for the enrergy reflection coefficient. Both positive and negative shifts may occur, and the number of peaks depends...... on the gap width. To determine the accuracy of the simple stationary phase approximation, we carry out a rigorous stationary energy-transport calculation of the Goos-Hänchen shift. Although the overall agreement between the two approaches is good, the stationary phase approach mostly overestimates the peak...
Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!
Zeps, Dainis
2009-01-01
10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...
Generation of electron Airy beams.
Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lereah, Yossi; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady
2013-02-21
Within the framework of quantum mechanics, a unique particle wave packet exists in the form of the Airy function. Its counterintuitive properties are revealed as it propagates in time or space: the quantum probability wave packet preserves its shape despite dispersion or diffraction and propagates along a parabolic caustic trajectory, even though no force is applied. This does not contradict Newton's laws of motion, because the wave packet centroid propagates along a straight line. Nearly 30 years later, this wave packet, known as an accelerating Airy beam, was realized in the optical domain; later it was generalized to an orthogonal and complete family of beams that propagate along parabolic trajectories, as well as to beams that propagate along arbitrary convex trajectories. Here we report the experimental generation and observation of the Airy beams of free electrons. These electron Airy beams were generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, which imprinted on the electrons' wavefunction a cubic phase modulation in the transverse plane. The highest-intensity lobes of the generated beams indeed followed parabolic trajectories. We directly observed a non-spreading electron wavefunction that self-heals, restoring its original shape after passing an obstacle. This holographic generation of electron Airy beams opens up new avenues for steering electronic wave packets like their photonic counterparts, because the wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories.
Integrated photonic quantum walks
Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Lebugle, Maxime; Guzman-Silva, Diego; Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander
2016-10-01
Over the last 20 years quantum walks (QWs) have gained increasing interest in the field of quantum information science and processing. In contrast to classical walkers, quantum objects exhibit intrinsic properties like non-locality and non-classical many-particle correlations, which renders QWs a versatile tool for quantum simulation and computation as well as for a deeper understanding of genuine quantum mechanics. Since they are highly controllable and hardly interact with their environment, photons seem to be ideally suited quantum walkers. In order to study and exploit photonic QWs, lattice structures that allow low loss coherent evolution of quantum states are demanded. Such requirements are perfectly met by integrated optical waveguide devices that additionally allow a substantial miniaturization of experimental settings. Moreover, by utilizing the femtosecond direct laser writing technique three-dimensional waveguide structures are capable of analyzing QWs also on higher dimensional geometries. In this context, advances and findings of photonic QWs are discussed in this review. Various concepts and experimental results are presented covering, such as different quantum transport regimes, the Boson sampling problem, and the discrete fractional quantum Fourier transform.
External beam radiotherapy as curative treatment of prostate cancer.
Pisansky, Thomas M
2005-07-01
External beam radiotherapy (RT) has been used as a curative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 5 decades, with the "modern" era emerging more than 3 decades ago. Its history is marked by gradual improvements punctuated by several quantum leaps that are increasingly driven by advancements in the computer and imaging sciences and by its integration with complementary forms of treatment. Consequently, the contemporary use of external beam RT barely resembles its earliest form, and this must be appreciated in the context of current patient care. The influence of predictive factors on the use and outcomes of external beam RT is presented, as is a selected review of the methods and outcomes of external beam RT as a single therapeutic intervention, in association with androgen suppression, or as a postoperative adjunct. Thus, the "state of the (radiotherapeutic) art" is presented to enhance the understanding of this treatment approach with the hope that this information will serve as a useful resource to physicians as they care for patients with prostate cancer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al
2012-07-01
The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.
Concurrent Quantum Computation
Yamaguchi, F; Yamamoto, Y
2000-01-01
A quantum computer is a multi-particle interferometer that comprises beam splitters at both ends and arms, where the n two-level particles undergo the interactions among them. The arms are designed so that relevant functions required to produce a computational result is stored in the phase shifts of the 2^n arms. They can be detected by interferometry that allows us to utilize quantum parallelism. Quantum algorithms are accountable for what interferometers to be constructed to compute particular problems. A standard formalism for constructing the arms has been developed by the extension of classical reversible gate arrays. By its nature of sequential applications of logic operations, the required number of gates increases exponentially as the problem size grows. This may cause a crucial obstacle to perform a quantum computation within a limited decoherence time. We propose a direct and concurrent construction of the interferometer arms by one-time evolution of a physical system with arbitrary multi-particle i...
Quantum computing and the entanglement frontier
Preskill, John
2012-01-01
Quantum information science explores the frontier of highly complex quantum states, the "entanglement frontier." This study is motivated by the observation (widely believed but unproven) that classical systems cannot simulate highly entangled quantum systems efficiently, and we hope to hasten the day when well controlled quantum systems can perform tasks surpassing what can be done in the classical world. One way to achieve such "quantum supremacy" would be to run an algorithm on a quantum computer which solves a problem with a super-polynomial speedup relative to classical computers, but there may be other ways that can be achieved sooner, such as simulating exotic quantum states of strongly correlated matter. To operate a large scale quantum computer reliably we will need to overcome the debilitating effects of decoherence, which might be done using "standard" quantum hardware protected by quantum error-correcting codes, or by exploiting the nonabelian quantum statistics of anyons realized in solid state sy...
Quantum point contacts in quantum wire systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sternemann, E.; Buchholz, S.S.; Fischer, S.F.; Kunze, U. [Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Reuter, D.; Wieck, A.D. [Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)
2010-07-01
Quantum point contacts (QPCs) attract high interest for applications as magnetic focussing, beam splitting (quantum Hall edge states), spin filtering and electron thermometry. Here, we investigate QPCs in complex quantum wire (QWR) systems such as quantum rings. The QPCs were realized by lithographical definition of a short (150 nm) constriction (170 nm width) in (a) a 540 nm wide QWR and (b) 520 nm wide QWR leads of a QWR ring as in. Nanogates on top of the constrictions allow for the control of occupied modes in the QPCs. The devices are based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with a 2DEG 55 nm below the surface, patterned by electron beam lithography and wet-chemical etching. Two- and four-terminal conductance measurements at temperatures between 23 mK and 4.2 K were performed using lock-in technique. Our measurements reveal that QPCs in 1D nanostructures can be prepared to show subband separations of 6 meV, clear conductance quantization as well as the 0.7 anomaly. We further show that electron injection across a QPC into a QWR ring allows for electron interference (Aharonov-Bohm effect).
Compact superconducting coplanar microwave beam splitters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baust, Alexander; Haeberlein, Max; Goetz, Jan; Hoffmann, Elisabeth; Menzel, Edwin P.; Schwarz, Manuel J.; Wulschner, Friedrich; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TUM, Garching (Germany); Kalb, Norbert; Losinger, Thomas [Physik-Department, TUM, Garching (Germany)
2012-07-01
The recent evolution of circuit quantum electrodynamics systems making use of standing-wave microwave modes towards setups for propagating quantum microwaves has triggered the need for low-loss superconducting microwave beam splitters. Such a device should have ports compatible with the coplanar geometry relevant for circuit QED and, at the same time, be compact allowing for scalability. This combination presents fundamental and technological challenges. In this work, we present the fabrication and characterization of various compact superconducting coplanar microwave beam splitters. In addition, we discuss efforts towards a tunable beam splitter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. B. Bouzid
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We have investigated photocurrent (PC and photoluminescence (PL in sequentially grown GaInNAs/GaAs and GaInNAs(Sb/GaAsSbN quantum wells. Photocurrent transitions are analyzed by theoretical calculations using envelope function formalism taking into account the strain effect and the strong coupling between nitrogen localized state and the GaInAs band gap. The results are consistent with a type I band alignment and a conduction band offset ratio of about 80 %. Additionally, our results suggest an increase of the electron effective mass by as much as 0.035 m0 resulting from the flattening of the conduction band under nitrogen effect. The temperature evolution of the PL peak energy and the integrated PL intensity of GaInNAsSb QW show evidence of strong localization of carriers. Both, the high delocalization temperature, in the 230 K range and the strong shift between the PC and PL spectra of GaInNAsSb QW, indicate the presence of deeper localized states as compared to that in the GaInNAs QW.
Weiss, Ulrich
2008-01-01
Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi
Molecular quantum electrodynamics
Craig, D P
1998-01-01
This systematic introduction to quantum electrodynamics focuses on the interaction of radiation with outer electrons and nuclei of atoms and molecules, answering the long-standing need of chemists and physicists for a comprehensive text on this highly specialized subject.Geared toward postgraduate students in the chemical sciences who require an understanding of quantum electrodynamics as applied to the interpretation of optical experiments on atoms and molecules, the text offers a detailed explanation of the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. It feat
Aerts, Sven; Ronde, Christian de; Probing the Meaning of Quantum Mechanics : Physical, Philosophical, and Logical Perspectives
2014-01-01
This book provides a new original perspective on one of the most fascinating and important open questions in science: What is quantum mechanics talking about? Quantum theory is perhaps our best confirmed physical theory. However, in spite of its great empirical effectiveness and the subsequent technological developments that it gave rise to in the 20th century, from the interpretation of the periodic table of elements to CD players, holograms and quantum state teleportation, it stands even today without a universally accepted interpretation. The novelty of the book comes from the multiple view
Explorations in quantum computing
Williams, Colin P
2011-01-01
By the year 2020, the basic memory components of a computer will be the size of individual atoms. At such scales, the current theory of computation will become invalid. ""Quantum computing"" is reinventing the foundations of computer science and information theory in a way that is consistent with quantum physics - the most accurate model of reality currently known. Remarkably, this theory predicts that quantum computers can perform certain tasks breathtakingly faster than classical computers -- and, better yet, can accomplish mind-boggling feats such as teleporting information, breaking suppos
Phenomenological Quantum Gravity
Hossenfelder, Sabine
2009-01-01
If the history of science has taught us anything, it's that persistence and creativity makes the once impossible possible. It has long been thought experimental tests of quantum gravity are impossible. But during the last decade, several different approaches have been proposed that allow us to test, if not the fundamental theory of quantum gravity itself, so at least characteristic features this theory can have. For the first time we can probe experimentally domains in which quantum physics and gravity cohabit, in spite of our failure so far to make a convincing marriage of them on a theoretical level.
Zory, Jr, Peter S; Kelley, Paul
1993-01-01
This book provides the information necessary for the reader to achieve a thorough understanding of all aspects of QW lasers - from the basic mechanism of optical gain, through the current technolgoical state of the art, to the future technologies of quantum wires and quantum dots. In view of the growing importance of QW lasers, this book should be read by all those with an active interest in laser science and technology, from the advanced student to the experienced laser scientist.* The first comprehensive book-length treatment of quantum well lasers* Provides a detailed treatment
Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Tapp, Alain
2005-11-01
Quantum information processing is at the crossroads of physics, mathematics and computer science. It is concerned with that we can and cannot do with quantum information that goes beyond the abilities of classical information processing devices. Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science that aims at quantifying the amount of communication necessary to solve distributed computational problems. Quantum communication complexity uses quantum mechanics to reduce the amount of communication that would be classically required. Pseudo-telepathy is a surprising application of quantum information processing to communication complexity. Thanks to entanglement, perhaps the most nonclassical manifestation of quantum mechanics, two or more quantum players can accomplish a distributed task with no need for communication whatsoever, which would be an impossible feat for classical players. After a detailed overview of the principle and purpose of pseudo-telepathy, we present a survey of recent and no-so-recent work on the subject. In particular, we describe and analyse all the pseudo-telepathy games currently known to the authors.
Nicolas, Adrien; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Maxein, Dominik; Laurat, Julien
2014-01-01
While measuring the orbital angular momentum state of bright light beams can be performed using imaging techniques, a full characterization at the single-photon level is challenging. For applications to quantum optics and quantum information science, such characterization is an essential capability. Here, we present a setup to perform the quantum state tomography of photonic qubits encoded in this degree of freedom. The method is based on a projective technique using spatial mode projection via fork holograms and single-mode fibers inserted into an interferometer. The alignment and calibration of the device is detailed as well as the measurement sequence to reconstruct the associated density matrix. Possible extensions to higher-dimensional spaces are discussed.
The deformed uncertainty relation and the corresponding beam quality factor
Li, K; Wang, S M; Li, Kang; Zhao, Dao Mu; Wang, Shao Min
1996-01-01
By using the theory of deformed quantum mechanics, we study the deformed light beam theoretically. The deformed beam quality factor M_q^2 is given explicitly under the case of deformed light in coherent state. When the deformation parameter q being a root of unity, the beam quality factor M_q^2 \\leq 1.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Baranov
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the basic distinguished scientific achievements of the world scientists-physicists in area of discovery and study of quantum-wave nature of physical processes and phenomena flowing in the microscopic world of circumferential people matter. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in area of theoretical and experimental physics, devoted the results of researches| of quantum and physical processes flowing in nature on atomic and subatomic levels. Results. The brief scientific and technical review of the basic scientific discovery and achievements of scientists-physicists is resulted in area of structure of atom of matter, generation, radiation, distribution and absorption of physical bodies of short-wave hertzian waves, indicative on a dominating role in the microscopic financial world of positions and conformities to the law of wave (by quantum mechanics, carrying especially probabilistic character a microstructure. Originality. Systematization is executed with exposition in the short concentrated form| of the known materials| on the quantum theory (electromagnetic of caloradiance, quantum theory of atom, electronic waves, quantum theory of actinoelectricity, quantum statistics of microparticless, quantum theory of the phenomenon superfluidity of liquid helium, quantum electronics and quantum-wave nature of drift of lone electrons in the metal of explorers with an electric current. Practical value. Popularization and deepening of fundamental physical and technical knowledges for students and engineer and technical specialists in area of classic and quantum physics, extending their scientific range of interests, and also support a further scientific study by them surrounding nature and to development of scientific and technical progress in society.
Helico-conical beams for generating optical twisters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Daria, Vincent Ricardo Mancao
2010-01-01
at the focus even as the topological charge is increased. Such beams can be applied to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the DAM, toroidal traps for cold atoms and for optical manipulation of microscopic particles. OPTICAL TWISTERS An optical vortex or light beam...... interference takes place. Here, we describe a diffracting beam with a spiral profile on both the amplitUde and phase of the beam. The spiral beam is a special case of a general set of Helico-Conical beams described in our previous work [1,21. This family of beams is initially characterized with an apodized...
Experimental realization of quantum illumination.
Lopaeva, E D; Ruo Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Olivares, S; Brida, G; Genovese, M
2013-04-12
We present the first experimental realization of the quantum illumination protocol proposed by Lloyd [Science 321, 1463 (2008)] and S. Tan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253601 (2008)], achieved in a simple feasible experimental scheme based on photon-number correlations. A main achievement of our result is the demonstration of a strong robustness of the quantum protocol to noise and losses that challenges some widespread wisdom about quantum technologies.
The Physics of Quantum Computation
Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette
2015-10-01
Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of down-scaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.
Yang, H. L.; Yoo, S. J.; Hwang, S. M.; Chung, K. H.
2000-02-01
A radio frequency-driven multicusp ion source has been fabricated and tested as a part of the development of a diagnostic neutral beam for the Hanbit magnetic mirror device [S. M. Hwang et al., Trans. Fusion Technol. 35, 99 (1999)]. Hydrogen plasma produced by a three-and-one-half turn antenna and rf power system with 2.5 kW, continuous wave (cw) 1.874 MHz was extracted through a single-aperture accel-decel system. The first results of the ion beam extraction experiments are described in this article.
BRICS and Quantum Information Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Erik Meineche
1998-01-01
BRICS is a research centre and international PhD school in theoretical computer science, based at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The centre has recently become engaged in quantum information processing in cooperation with the Department of Physics, also University of Aarhus. This extended...... abstract surveys activities at BRICS with special emphasis on the activities in quantum information processing....
Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.
Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2015-07-24
Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.
Chang, Mou-Hsiung
2015-01-01
The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...
Khrennikov, Andrei
2014-01-01
The education system for students in physics suffers (worldwide) from the absence of a deep course in probability and randomness. This is the real problem for students interested in quantum information theory, quantum optics, and quantum foundations. Here the primitive treatment of probability and randomness may lead to deep misunderstandings of theory and wrong interpretations of experimental results. Since during my visits (in 2013 and 2014) to IQOQI a number of students (experimenters!) asked me permanently about foundational problems of probability and randomness, especially inter-relation between classical and quantum structures, this year I gave two lectures on these problems. Surprisingly the interest of experiment-oriented students to mathematical peculiarities was very high. This (as well as permanent reminding of prof. Zeilinger) motivated me to write a text based on these lectures which were originally presented in the traditional black-board form. I hope that this might be useful for students from...
Quantum channel for the transmission of information
Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.
2004-01-13
Systems and methods are described for a quantum channel for the transmission of information. A method includes: down converting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; changing a phase of at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam to generate a first interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam; combining the first interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam with a second interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam within a single beam splitter; wherein combining includes erasing energy and momentum characteristics from both the first interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam and the second interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam; splitting the first interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam and the second interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam within the single beam splitter, wherein splitting yields a first output beam of multi-color entangled photons and a second output beam of multi-color entangled photons; and modulating the first output beam of multi-color entangled photons.
Gosson, Maurice A. de
2012-01-01
Quantum blobs are the smallest phase space units of phase space compatible with the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics and having the symplectic group as group of symmetries. Quantum blobs are in a bijective correspondence with the squeezed coherent states from standard quantum mechanics, of which they are a phase space picture. This allows us to propose a substitute for phase space in quantum mechanics. We study the relationship between quantum blobs with a certain class of level set...
Xiao, Yanhong; Klein, Mason; Hohensee, Michael; Jiang, Liang; Phillips, David F; Lukin, Mikhail D; Walsworth, Ronald L
2008-07-25
We demonstrate a slow light beam splitter using rapid coherence transport in a wall-coated atomic vapor cell. We show that particles undergoing random and undirected classical motion can mediate coherent interactions between two or more optical modes. Coherence, written into atoms via electromagnetically induced transparency using an input optical signal at one transverse position, spreads out via ballistic atomic motion, is preserved by an antirelaxation wall coating, and is then retrieved in outgoing slow light signals in both the input channel and a spatially-separated second channel. The splitting ratio between the two output channels can be tuned by adjusting the laser power. The slow light beam splitter may improve quantum repeater performance and be useful as an all-optical dynamically reconfigurable router.
Quantum error correction for beginners.
Devitt, Simon J; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae
2013-07-01
Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future.
Gamp, Alexander
2013-01-01
We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.
Principles and methods of quantum information technologies
Semba, Kouichi
2016-01-01
This book presents the research and development-related results of the “FIRST” Quantum Information Processing Project, which was conducted from 2010 to 2014 with the support of the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation of the Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan. The project supported 33 research groups and explored five areas: quantum communication, quantum metrology and sensing, coherent computing, quantum simulation, and quantum computing. The book is divided into seven main sections. Parts I through V, which consist of twenty chapters, focus on the system and architectural aspects of quantum information technologies, while Parts VI and VII, which consist of eight chapters, discuss the superconducting quantum circuit, semiconductor spin and molecular spin technologies. Readers will be introduced to new quantum computing schemes such as quantum annealing machines and coherent Ising machines, which have now arisen as alternatives to standard quantum computers and are designed to successf...
Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons
Kröger, H.
2003-01-01
We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons
Kröger, H.
2003-01-01
We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
Quantum relay schemes for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Huang, Duan; Zeng, Guihua
2017-04-01
We propose several concatenated quantum relay continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes based on the parametric amplifier (PA) and the beam splitter (BS). Instead of using only one BS in the traditional relay scheme, the proposed schemes provide two operations that involve both PA and BS, activating the beam splitting and recombining operations in turn. These schemes would benefit the system performance improvement by providing signal amplification and establishing quantum correlations. We show that the different effects of the relay schemes will cause different system performances because of the varied signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of output fields. The system's secret key rate will be increased when equipping with the PA-BS relay scheme, because the output fields of the PA are entangled with the correlated quantum noises while input fields of the BS are superimposed, subsequently leading to the quantum noise reduction of the total output fields of relay station, while the reversed BS-PA relay scheme has little advantage over the traditional counterpart that contains only one BS in relay data postprocessing because it will not cause any SNR improvement. Moreover, the reinforced PA-PA relay scheme results in a slight improvement due to the increased SNR. These quantum relay schemes can be performed through the beam splitting, the recombining operations, and the relay data postprocessing, such that it would be suitable for secret information exchange in complex networks with intermediate stations.
Relativistic quantum information
Mann, R. B.; Ralph, T. C.
2012-11-01
Over the past few years, a new field of high research intensity has emerged that blends together concepts from gravitational physics and quantum computing. Known as relativistic quantum information, or RQI, the field aims to understand the relationship between special and general relativity and quantum information. Since the original discoveries of Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, it has been known that incorporating the concepts of quantum theory into relativistic settings can produce new and surprising effects. However it is only in recent years that it has become appreciated that the basic concepts involved in quantum information science undergo significant revision in relativistic settings, and that new phenomena arise when quantum entanglement is combined with relativity. A number of examples illustrate that point. Quantum teleportation fidelity is affected between observers in uniform relative acceleration. Entanglement is an observer-dependent property that is degraded from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Entanglement can also be extracted from the vacuum of relativistic quantum field theories, and used to distinguish peculiar motion from cosmological expansion. The new quantum information-theoretic framework of quantum channels in terms of completely positive maps and operator algebras now provides powerful tools for studying matters of causality and information flow in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. This focus issue provides a sample of the state of the art in research in RQI. Some of the articles in this issue review the subject while others provide interesting new results that will stimulate further research. What makes the subject all the more exciting is that it is beginning to enter the stage at which actual experiments can be contemplated, and some of the articles appearing in this issue discuss some of these exciting new developments. The subject of RQI pulls together concepts and ideas from
Quantum frequency doubling based on tripartite entanglement with cavities
Juan, Guo; Zhi-Feng, Wei; Su-Ying, Zhang
2016-02-01
We analyze the entanglement characteristics of three harmonic modes, which are the output fields from three cavities with an input tripartite entangled state at fundamental frequency. The entanglement properties of the input beams can be maintained after their frequencies have been up-converted by the process of second harmonic generation. We have calculated the parametric dependences of the correlation spectrum on the initial squeezing factor, the pump power, the transmission coefficient, and the normalized analysis frequency of cavity. The numerical results provide references to choose proper experimental parameters for designing the experiment. The frequency conversion of the multipartite entangled state can also be applied to a quantum communication network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91430109), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20111401110004), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014011005-3).
1992-05-22
pnpn 92-22369 TuA4-2 / 97 structure with three inserted undoped InGaAs strained quantum wells . Two distributed Bragg reflector ( DBR ) mirrors with...demonstrated that spontaneous emission from GaAs quantum wells (QWs) is altered by embedding the QWs between AIAs/AIGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors ( DBRs ) [6...University of Sheffield, Sheffield Si 3JD, U.K. Abstract- We demonstrate that controllable intermixing of GaAs/AIGaAs multiple quantum well stuctures can
Quantum Description of Optical Devices Used in Interferometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Kucera
2007-09-01
Full Text Available A quantum-mechanical description of the phase shifters, retarders, mirrors and beam splitters is given in the paper. The description is then applied on two types of states. On a coherent state, a classical-like state, and on a number state, hence the strict quantum state. The quantum description of a beam splitter can be found in the literature. However the description does not treat with the polarization concept. The paper is aimed to introduce quantum description of an arbitrary oriented retarder and give a description of a beam splitter which treats with the polarization.
Bandgap engineering in a nanowire: self-assembled 0, 1 and 2D quantum structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordi Arbiol
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Inherent to the nanowire morphology is the exciting possibility of fabricating materials organized at the nanoscale in three dimensions. Composition and structure can be varied along and across the nanowire, as well as within coaxial shells. This opens up a manifold of possibilities in nanoscale materials science and engineering which is only possible with a nanowire as a starting structure. As the variation in composition and structure is accompanied by a change in the band structure, it is possible to confine carriers within the nanowire. Interestingly, this results in the formation of local two, one and zero-dimensional structures from an electronic point of view within the nanowire. This novel palette of nano-structures paves the way toward novel applications in many engineering domains such as lasers, high-mobility transistors, quantum information and energy harvesting. In the present review we summarize and give an overview on recent achievements in the design and growth of advanced quantum structures starting from nanowire templates. The quantum structures presented have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy and correspond to different confinement approaches: quantum wells (2D, quantum wires (1D and quantum dots (0D.
Focused Ion Beam Technology for Optoelectronic Devices
Reithmaier, J. P.; Bach, L.; Forchel, A.
2003-08-01
High-resolution proximity free lithography was developed using InP as anorganic resist for ion beam exposure. InP is very sensitive on ion beam irradiation and show a highly nonlinear dose dependence with a contrast function comparable to organic electron beam resists. In combination with implantation induced quantum well intermixing this new lithographic technique based on focused ion beams is used to realize high performance nano patterned optoelectronic devices like complex coupled distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers.
Quantum random walks - an introductory overview
Kempe, J
2003-01-01
This article aims to provide an introductory survey on quantum random walks. Starting from a physical effect to illustrate the main ideas we will introduce quantum random walks, review some of their properties and outline their striking differences to classical walks. We will touch upon both physical effects and computer science applications, introducing some of the main concepts and language of present day quantum information science in this context. We will mention recent developments in this new area and outline some open questions.
Mayato, R; Egusquiza, I
2002-01-01
The treatment of time in quantum mechanics is still an important and challenging open question in the foundation of the theory. This book describes the problems, and the attempts and achievements in defining, formalizing and measuring different time quantities in quantum theory, such as the parametric (clock) time, tunneling times, decay times, dwell times, delay times, arrival times or jump times. This multiauthored book, written as an introductory guide for the non-initiated as well as a useful source of information for the expert, covers many of the open questions. A brief historical overview is to be found in the introduction. It is followed by 12 chapters devoted to conceptual and theoretical investigations as well as experimental issues in quantum-mechanical time measurements. This unique monograph should attract physicists as well as philosophers of science working in the foundations of quantum physics.
Sentís, Gael; Bagan, Emilio; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Muñoz-Tapia, Ramon
2016-10-01
Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is crucial for a number of applications in biology, medicine, and social sciences. Here we take the problem of detecting sudden changes to the quantum domain. We consider a source that emits quantum particles in a default state, until a point where a mutation occurs that causes the source to switch to another state. The problem is then to find out where the change occurred. We determine the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point, allowing for collective measurements on the whole sequence of particles emitted by the source. Then, we devise online strategies where the particles are measured individually and an answer is provided as soon as a new particle is received. We show that these online strategies substantially underperform the optimal quantum measurement, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.
The quantum theory of measurement
Busch, Paul; Mittelstaedt, Peter
1996-01-01
The amazing accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory. In this book the authors give within the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics a systematic exposition of the quantum theory of measurement. Their approach includes the concepts of unsharp objectification and of nonunitary transformations needed for a unifying description of various detailed investigations. The book addresses advanced students and researchers in physics and philosophy of science. In this second edition Chaps. II-IV have been substantially rewritten. In particular, an insolubility theorem for the objectification problem has been formulated in full generality, which includes unsharp object observables and unsharp pointers.
Experimental quantum multiparty communication protocols
Smania, Massimiliano; Elhassan, Ashraf M.; Tavakoli, Armin; Bourennane, Mohamed
2016-06-01
Quantum information science breaks limitations of conventional information transfer, cryptography and computation by using quantum superpositions or entanglement as resources for information processing. Here we report on the experimental realisation of three-party quantum communication protocols using single three-level quantum system (qutrit) communication: secret-sharing, detectable Byzantine agreement and communication complexity reduction for a three-valued function. We have implemented these three schemes using the same optical fibre interferometric setup. Our realisation is easily scalable without compromising on detection efficiency or generating extremely complex many-particle entangled states.
Physical implementation of quantum walks
Manouchehri, Kia
2013-01-01
Given the extensive application of random walks in virtually every science related discipline, we may be at the threshold of yet another problem solving paradigm with the advent of quantum walks. Over the past decade, quantum walks have been explored for their non-intuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to radically new quantum algorithms. This growing interest has been paralleled by a flurry of research into how one can implement quantum walks in laboratories. This book presents numerous proposals as well as actual experiments for such a physical realization, underpinned by a wide range of
Quantum tunneling and field electron emission theories
Liang, Shi-Dong
2013-01-01
Quantum tunneling is an essential issue in quantum physics. Especially, the rapid development of nanotechnology in recent years promises a lot of applications in condensed matter physics, surface science and nanodevices, which are growing interests in fundamental issues, computational techniques and potential applications of quantum tunneling. The book involves two relevant topics. One is quantum tunneling theory in condensed matter physics, including the basic concepts and methods, especially for recent developments in mesoscopic physics and computational formulation. The second part is the f
PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013
2014-11-01
Quantum Information can be understood as being naturally derived from a new understanding of information theory when quantum systems become information carriers and quantum effects become non negligible. Experiments and the realization of various interesting phenomena in quantum information within the established field of quantum optics have been reported, which has provided a very convenient framework for the former. Together, quantum optics and quantum information are among the most exciting areas of interdisciplinary research in modern day science which cover a broad spectrum of topics, from the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information science to the introduction of new types of quantum technologies and metrology. The International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013 was organized by the Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia with the objective of bringing together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars in the domain of interest from around the world to share their experiences and research results about all aspects of quantum optics and quantum information. While the event was organized on a somewhat modest scale, it was in fact a rather fruitful meeting for established researchers and students as well, especially for the local scene where the field is relatively new. We would therefore, like to thank the organizing committee, our advisors and all parties for having made this event successful and last but not least would extend our sincerest gratitude to IOP for publishing these selected papers from icQoQi2013 in Journal of Physics: Conference Series.
Quantum control and coherence of interacting spins in diamond
De Lange, G.
2012-01-01
The field of quantum science and technology has generated many ideas for new revolutionary devices that exploit the quantum mechanical properties of small-scale systems. Isolated solid state spins play a large role in quantum technologies. They can be used as basic building blocks for a quantum comp
Quantum control and coherence of interacting spins in diamond
De Lange, G.
2012-01-01
The field of quantum science and technology has generated many ideas for new revolutionary devices that exploit the quantum mechanical properties of small-scale systems. Isolated solid state spins play a large role in quantum technologies. They can be used as basic building blocks for a quantum comp
Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.
2015-07-01
We show that during stochastic beam attenuation in double slit experiments, there appear unexpected new effects for transmission factors below a ≤ 10-4, which can eventually be observed with the aid of weak measurement techniques. These are denoted as quantum sweeper effects, which are characterized by the bunching together of low counting rate particles within very narrow spatial domains. We employ a “superclassical” modeling procedure which we have previously shown to produce predictions identical with those of standard quantum theory. Thus it is demonstrated that in reaching down to ever weaker channel intensities, the nonlinear nature of the probability density currents becomes ever more important. We finally show that the resulting unexpected effects nevertheless implicitly also exist in standard quantum mechanics.
Pankovic, Vladan
2009-01-01
In this work we consider remarkable experiment of the quantum dynamical interaction between a photon and fixed beam splitter with additional two optical fibers. Given fibers, having "circular", almost completely closed loop forms, admit that both superposition terms, corresponding to reflecting and passing photon, interact unlimitedly periodically with splitter. For increasing number of given interactions final state of the photon tends to superposition of reflecting and passing photon with equivalent superposition coefficients quite independently of their initial values. So, many time repeated unitary quantum dynamical evolution implies an unexpected degeneration. Feynman ingeniously observed that a time of the degeneration of the ideas will come, known to any great geographer-explorer (e.g. Magellan that first circumnavigate Earth), when he thinks about the army of the tourists that will come after him. For this reason mentioned dynamical degeneration will be called quantum Magellan effect. Also, we conside...
Lanzagorta, Marco
2011-01-01
This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w
de Gosson, Maurice A
2011-01-01
Quantum blobs are the smallest phase space units of phase space compatible with the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics and having the symplectic group as group of symmetries. Quantum blobs are in a bijective correspondence with the squeezed coherent states from standard quantum mechanics, of which they are a phase space picture. This allows us to propose a substitute for phase space in quantum mechanics. We study the relationship between quantum blobs with a certain class of level sets defined by Fermi for the purpose of representing geometrically quantum states.
Wu, L A; Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel
2005-01-01
Quantum computation and communication offer unprecedented advantages compared to classical information processing. Currently, quantum communication is moving from laboratory prototypes into real-life applications. When quantum communication networks become more widespread it is likely that they will be subject to attacks by hackers, virus makers, and other malicious intruders. Here we introduce the concept of "quantum malware" to describe such human-made intrusions. We offer a simple solution for storage of quantum information in a manner which protects quantum networks from quantum malware.
Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics
Nagourney, Warren
2010-01-01
Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques
Bayesian nonparametric estimation for Quantum Homodyne Tomography
Naulet, Zacharie; Barat, Eric
2016-01-01
We estimate the quantum state of a light beam from results of quantum homodyne tomography noisy measurements performed on identically prepared quantum systems. We propose two Bayesian nonparametric approaches. The first approach is based on mixture models and is illustrated through simulation examples. The second approach is based on random basis expansions. We study the theoretical performance of the second approach by quantifying the rate of contraction of the posterior distribution around ...
Quantized beam shifts in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-10-08
We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α^{2}. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey; Gao, Dongliang; Gorlach, Alexey A.
2017-01-01
momentum to particles in the backward direction. The amplified forward scattering is achieved through the interaction of multipoles, conventionally electric and magnetic dipole moments. In this talk we give an overview of the tractor beams in optics, acoustics, classical and quantum mechanics. We...... demonstrate how to ease the conditions required in experiment for realization of the optical tractor beams using the cylindrical objects. We pay a particular attention to the case of the pulling optical force due to the interaction of magnetic dipole and quadrupole moments....
Bojowald, Martin
The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? If regimes are sufficiently violent and energetic, quantum effects are non-negligible even on scales of the whole cosmos; this is realized at least once in the history of the universe: at the big bang where the classical theory of general relativity would make energy densities diverge. 1.Lachieze-Rey, M., Luminet, J.P.: Phys. Rept. 254,135 (1995), gr-qc/9605010 2.BSDeWitt1967Phys. Rev.160511131967PhRv..160.1113D0158.4650410.1103/PhysRev.160.1113DeWitt, B.S.: Phys. Rev. 160(5), 1113 (1967) 3.Wiltshire, D.L.: In: Robson B., Visvanathan N., Woolcock W.S. (eds.) Cosmology: The Physics of the Universe, pp. 473-531. World Scientific, Singapore (1996). gr-qc/0101003 4.Isham C.J.: In: DeWitt, B.S., Stora, R. (eds.) Relativity, Groups and Topology II. Lectures Given at the 1983 Les Houches Summer School on Relativity, Groups and Topology, Elsevier Science Publishing Company (1986) 5.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 12, 1769 (2003), gr-qc/0305067 6.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 3, 81 (2006), gr-qc/0507113 7.DGiulini1995Phys. Rev. D5110563013381161995PhRvD..51.5630G10.1103/PhysRevD.51.5630Giulini, D.: Phys. Rev. D 51(10), 5630 (1995) 8.Kiefer, C., Zeh, H.D.: Phys. Rev. D 51, 4145 (1995), gr-qc/9402036 9.WFBlythCJIsham1975Phys. Rev. D117684086991975PhRvD..11..768B10.1103/PhysRevD.11.768Blyth, W
Scarani, Valerio; Iblisdir, Sofyan; Gisin, Nicolas; Acin, Antonio
2005-01-01
The impossibility of perfectly copying (or cloning) an arbitrary quantum state is one of the basic rules governing the physics of quantum systems. The processes that perform the optimal approximate cloning have been found in many cases. These "quantum cloning machines" are important tools for studying a wide variety of tasks, e.g. state estimation and eavesdropping on quantum cryptography. This paper provides a comprehensive review of quantum cloning machines (both for discrete-dimensional an...
An introduction to beam physics
Berz, Martin; Wan, Weishi
2015-01-01
The field of beam physics touches many areas of physics, engineering, and the sciences. In general terms, beams describe ensembles of particles with initial conditions similar enough to be treated together as a group so that the motion is a weakly nonlinear perturbation of a chosen reference particle. Particle beams are used in a variety of areas, ranging from electron microscopes, particle spectrometers, medical radiation facilities, powerful light sources, and astrophysics to large synchrotrons and storage rings such as the LHC at CERN. An Introduction to Beam Physics is based on lectures given at Michigan State University’s Department of Physics and Astronomy, the online VUBeam program, the U.S. Particle Accelerator School, the CERN Academic Training Programme, and various other venues. It is accessible to beginning graduate and upper-division undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, and engineering. The book begins with a historical overview of methods for generating and accelerating beams, high...
Spatial-domain interactions between ultra-weak optical beams
Khadka, Utsab; Xiao, Min
2013-01-01
We have observed the spatial interactions between two ultra-weak optical beams that are initially collinear and non-overlapping. The weak beams are steered towards each other by a spatially varying cross-Kerr refractive index waveguide written by a strong laser beam in a three-level atomic medium utilizing quantum coherence. After being brought together, the weak beams show controllable phase-dependent outcomes. This is the first observation of soliton-like interactions between weak beams and can be useful for all-optically tunable beam-combining, switching and gates for weak photonic signals.
Quantum CPU and Quantum Algorithm
Wang, An Min
1999-01-01
Making use of an universal quantum network -- QCPU proposed by me\\upcite{My1}, it is obtained that the whole quantum network which can implement some the known quantum algorithms including Deutsch algorithm, quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm and Grover's algorithm.
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grote, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-05-29
The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.
Radioactive Ion Beams and Radiopharmaceuticals
Laxdal, R. E.; Morton, A. C.; Schaffer, P.
2014-02-01
Experiments performed at radioactive ion beam facilities shed new light on nuclear physics and nuclear structure, as well as nuclear astrophysics, materials science and medical science. The many existing facilities, as well as the new generation of facilities being built and those proposed for the future, are a testament to the high interest in this rapidly expanding field. The opportunities inherent in radioactive beam facilities have enabled the search for radioisotopes suitable for medical diagnosis or therapy. In this article, an overview of the production techniques and the current status of RIB facilities and proposals will be presented. In addition, accelerator-generated radiopharmaceuticals will be reviewed.
Ubiquitous Quantum Structure From Psychology to Finance
Khrennikov, Andrei Y
2010-01-01
Quantum-like structure is present practically everywhere. Quantum-like (QL) models, i.e. models based on the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and its generalizations can be successfully applied to cognitive science, psychology, genetics, economics, finances, and game theory. This book is not about quantum mechanics as a physical theory. The short review of quantum postulates is therefore mainly of historical value: quantum mechanics is just the first example of the successful application of non-Kolmogorov probabilities, the first step towards a contextual probabilistic description of natural, biological, psychological, social, economical or financial phenomena. A general contextual probabilistic model (Växjö model) is presented. It can be used for describing probabilities in both quantum and classical (statistical) mechanics as well as in the above mentioned phenomena. This model can be represented in a quantum-like way, namely, in complex and more general Hilbert spaces. In this way quantum prob...
Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum
Susskind, Leonard
2014-01-01
From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.
Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators
Correa, Luis A; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-01-01
Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step t...
1977-01-01
A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.
Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.
2016-07-01
Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.
Spin-Valley Beam Splitter in Graphene
Song, Yu; Shi, Zhi-Gui; Li, Shun; Zhang, Jian
2016-01-01
The fourfold spin-valley degenerate degrees of freedom in bulk graphene can support rich physics and novel applications associated with multicomponent quantum Hall effects and linear conductance filtering. In this work, we study how to break the spin-valley degeneracy of electron beams spatially. We propose a spin-valley beam splitter in a gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We demonstrate that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all spin-valley beam components, the formation of quasi-standing waves can lead four giant lateral Goos-H\\"{a}nchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the two modulated regions can lead difference of resonant angles or energies for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting an effective spin-valley beam splitting effect. The beam splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.
Freire, O
2005-01-01
This article focuses on the reception among physicists of Bohm's 1952 papers on the causal interpretation of quantum mechanics, which were poorly received at the time. I describe his Brazilian exile and analyze the culture of physics surrounding the foundations of quantum mechanics. I take into account the strength of the Copenhagen interpretation among physicists, the way in which issues concerning the foundations of quantum mechanics were present in the training of physicists, the low status of these issues on research agendas, and the kind of results Bohm and collaborators were able to achieve. I also compare the reception of Bohm's ideas with that of Hugh Everett's interpretation and argue that the obstacles growing from the cultural context of physics at that time had a more significant influence in the reception of Bohm's ideas than did the vicissitudes related to the McCarthyist climate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arturo Casadevall
2016-05-01
Full Text Available On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.
Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C
2016-03-01
On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.
Fang, Ferric C.
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052
Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar
2010-01-01
The application of quantum mechanics to many-particle systems has been an active area of research in recent years as researchers have looked for ways to tackle difficult problems in this area. The quantum trajectory method provides an efficient computational technique for solving both stationary and time-evolving states, encompassing a large area of quantum mechanics. Quantum Trajectories brings the expertise of an international panel of experts who focus on the epistemological significance of quantum mechanics through the quantum theory of motion.Emphasizing a classical interpretation of quan
Designs for a Quantum Electron Microscope
Kruit, Pieter; Kim, Chung-Soo; Yang, Yujia; Manfrinato, Vitor R; Hammer, Jacob; Thomas, Sebastian; Weber, Philipp; Klopfer, Brannon; Kohstall, Christoph; Juffmann, Thomas; Kasevich, Mark A; Hommelhoff, Peter; Berggren, Karl K
2015-01-01
One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron-beam splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each ...
The quantum theory of nonlinear optics
Drummond, Peter D
2014-01-01
Playing a prominent role in communications, quantum science and laser physics, quantum nonlinear optics is an increasingly important field. This book presents a self-contained treatment of field quantization and covers topics such as the canonical formalism for fields, phase-space representations and the encompassing problem of quantization of electrodynamics in linear and nonlinear media. Starting with a summary of classical nonlinear optics, it then explains in detail the calculation techniques for quantum nonlinear optical systems and their applications, quantum and classical noise sources in optical fibers and applications of nonlinear optics to quantum information science. Supplemented by end-of-chapter exercises and detailed examples of calculation techniques in different systems, this book is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, condensed matter physics, quantum information and atomic physics. A solid foundation in quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamic...
Cox, Richard M.; Citir, Murat; Armentrout, P. B.; Battey, Samuel R.; Peterson, Kirk A.
2016-05-01
Kinetic energy dependent reactions of Th+ with O2 and CO are studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. The formation of ThO+ in the reaction of Th+ with O2 is observed to be exothermic and barrierless with a reaction efficiency at low energies of k/kLGS = 1.21 ± 0.24 similar to the efficiency observed in ion cyclotron resonance experiments. Formation of ThO+ and ThC+ in the reaction of Th+ with CO is endothermic in both cases. The kinetic energy dependent cross sections for formation of these product ions were evaluated to determine 0 K bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of D0(Th+-O) = 8.57 ± 0.14 eV and D0(Th+-C) = 4.82 ± 0.29 eV. The present value of D0 (Th+-O) is within experimental uncertainty of previously reported experimental values, whereas this is the first report of D0 (Th+-C). Both BDEs are observed to be larger than those of their transition metal congeners, TiL+, ZrL+, and HfL+ (L = O and C), believed to be a result of lanthanide contraction. Additionally, the reactions were explored by quantum chemical calculations, including a full Feller-Peterson-Dixon composite approach with correlation contributions up to coupled-cluster singles and doubles with iterative triples and quadruples (CCSDTQ) for ThC, ThC+, ThO, and ThO+, as well as more approximate CCSD with perturbative (triples) [CCSD(T)] calculations where a semi-empirical model was used to estimate spin-orbit energy contributions. Finally, the ThO+ BDE is compared to other actinide (An) oxide cation BDEs and a simple model utilizing An+ promotion energies to the reactive state is used to estimate AnO+ and AnC+ BDEs. For AnO+, this model yields predictions that are typically within experimental uncertainty and performs better than density functional theory calculations presented previously.
Detecting photons in the dark region of Laguerre-Gauss beams.
Klimov, Vasily; Bloch, Daniel; Ducloy, Martial; Rios Leite, Jose R
2009-06-08
We show that a photon detector, sensitive to the magnetic field or to the gradient of electric field, can help to characterize the quantum properties of spatially-dependent optical fields. We discuss the excitation of an atom through magnetic dipole or electric quadrupole transitions with the photons of a Bessel beam or a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beams. These spiral beams are shown to be not true hollow beams, due to the presence of magnetic fields and gradients of electric fields on beam axis. This approach paves the way to an analysis at the quantum level of the propagating light beams having a complicated spatial structure.
Non-diffractive beam in random media
Shiina, Tatsuo
2017-09-01
Beam propagation has been given important attention in a variety of applications in medicine, remote sensing and information science. Especially, the beam propagation in highly scattering media, which is called random media, is important. In general, the multiple scattering gets rid of beam characteristics, e.g., intensity distribution, phase front, and polarization. In this study, self-converging effect of annular beam was applied in random media. Diluted milk was used as random media, and the transmitted light was detected with a narrow view angle of 5.5mrad. The collimated annular beam of a few tens millimeters takes a few hundred meters to transform its beam shape into the non-diffractive beam in free space, while this transformation was shorten only to 20 cm in random media, that is, the collimated annular beam caused its transformation at only 20 cm in random media. The transformed beam kept its optical characteristics of ;non-diffractive beam;. Such transformation of the annular beam needs the appropriate condition of random media. Media concentration and propagation distance control the generation of the center peak intensity of the transformed beam. This study indicates the generation of the non-diffractive beam in random media and reveals its appropriate condition.
Solid lipid particles provide a method to encapsulate and control the release of drugs in vivo but lack the imaging capability provided by CdS quantum dots. This shortcoming was addressed by combining these two technologies into a model system that uses iron oxide as a non-toxic imaging component in...
Quantum robots and quantum computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benioff, P.
1998-07-01
Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.
Divergence of optical vortex beams
Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabhakar, Shashi; Anwar, Ali; Banerji, J; Singh, R P
2015-01-01
We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the propagation of optical vortices in free space can be analysed by using the width ($w(z)$) of the host Gaussian beam and the inner and outer radii of the vortex beam at the source plane ($z=0$) as defined in \\textit{Optics Letters \\textbf{39,} 4364-4367 (2014)}. We also studied the divergence of vortex beams, considered as the rate of change of inner or outer radius with the propagation distance, and found that it varies with the order in the same way as that of the inner and outer radii at zero propagation distance. These results may be useful in designing optical fibers for orbital angular momentum modes that play a crucial role in quantum communication.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Quantum Darwinism - proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of the system (its information-theoretic progeny) - explains how quantum fragility of individual state can lead to classical robustness of their multitude.
Putz, Volkmar
2015-01-01
We consider ways of conceptualizing, rendering and perceiving quantum music, and quantum art in general. Thereby we give particular emphasis to its non-classical aspects, such as coherent superposition and entanglement.
A Spatial Domain Quantum Watermarking Scheme
Wei, Zhan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Shu-Jiang; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian
2016-07-01
This paper presents a spatial domain quantum watermarking scheme. For a quantum watermarking scheme, a feasible quantum circuit is a key to achieve it. This paper gives a feasible quantum circuit for the presented scheme. In order to give the quantum circuit, a new quantum multi-control rotation gate, which can be achieved with quantum basic gates, is designed. With this quantum circuit, our scheme can arbitrarily control the embedding position of watermark images on carrier images with the aid of auxiliary qubits. Besides reversely acting the given quantum circuit, the paper gives another watermark extracting algorithm based on quantum measurements. Moreover, this paper also gives a new quantum image scrambling method and its quantum circuit. Differ from other quantum watermarking schemes, all given quantum circuits can be implemented with basic quantum gates. Moreover, the scheme is a spatial domain watermarking scheme, and is not based on any transform algorithm on quantum images. Meanwhile, it can make sure the watermark be secure even though the watermark has been found. With the given quantum circuit, this paper implements simulation experiments for the presented scheme. The experimental result shows that the scheme does well in the visual quality and the embedding capacity. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61272514, 61170272, 61373131, 61121061, 61411146001, the program for New Century Excellent Talents under Grant No. NCET-13-0681, the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research (Grant No. MMJJ201401012) and the Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation under Grant No. 131067, and the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. ZR2013FM025
Cheon, T
2004-01-01
We show that the U(2) family of point interactions on a line can be utilized to provide the U(2) family of qubit operations for quantum information processing. Qubits are realized as localized states in either side of the point interaction which represents a controllable gate. The manipulation of qubits proceeds in a manner analogous to the operation of an abacus. Keywords: quantum computation, quantum contact interaction, quantum wire
Esteban Guevara
2006-01-01
The relationships between game theory and quantum mechanics let us propose certain quantization relationships through which we could describe and understand not only quantum but also classical, evolutionary and the biological systems that were described before through the replicator dynamics. Quantum mechanics could be used to explain more correctly biological and economical processes and even it could encloses theories like games and evolutionary dynamics. This could make quantum mechanics a...
2008-01-01
Quantum Nanomechanics is the emerging field which pertains to the mechanical behavior of nanoscale systems in the quantum domain. Unlike the conventional studies of vibration of molecules and phonons in solids, quantum nanomechanics is defined as the quantum behavior of the entire mechanical structure, including all of its constituents--the atoms, the molecules, the ions, the electrons as well as other excitations. The relevant degrees of freedom of the system are described by macroscopic var...
Periodic Scarred States in Open Quantum Dots as Evidence of Quantum Darwinism
Burke, A. M.; Akis, R.; Day, T. E.; Speyer, Gil; Ferry, D. K.; Bennett, B. R.
2010-04-01
Scanning gate microscopy (SGM) is used to image scar structures in an open quantum dot, which is created in an InAs quantum well by electron-beam lithography and wet etching. The scanned images demonstrate periodicities in magnetic field that correlate to those found in the conductance fluctuations. Simulations have shown that these magnetic transform images bear a strong resemblance to actual scars found in the dot that replicate through the modes in direct agreement with quantum Darwinism.
Quantum cloning machines and the applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2014-11-20
No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.
Fehr, S.
2010-01-01
Quantum cryptography makes use of the quantum-mechanical behavior of nature for the design and analysis of cryptographic schemes. Optimally (but not always), quantum cryptography allows for the design of cryptographic schemes whose security is guaranteed solely by the laws of nature. This is in shar
Robustness of bipartite Gaussian entangled beams propagating in lossy channels
Barbosa, F A S; de Faria, A J; Cassemiro, K N; Villar, A S; Nussenzveig, P; Martinelli, M; 10.1038/nphoton.2010.222
2010-01-01
Subtle quantum properties offer exciting new prospects in optical communications. Quantum entanglement enables the secure exchange of cryptographic keys and the distribution of quantum information by teleportation. Entangled bright beams of light attract increasing interest for such tasks, since they enable the employment of well-established classical communications techniques. However, quantum resources are fragile and undergo decoherence by interaction with the environment. The unavoidable losses in the communication channel can lead to a complete destruction of useful quantum properties -- the so-called "entanglement sudden death". We investigate the precise conditions under which this phenomenon takes place for the simplest case of two light beams and demonstrate how to produce states which are robust against losses. Our study sheds new light on the intriguing properties of quantum entanglement and how they may be tamed for future applications.
Spin waves and spin instabilities in quantum plasmas
Andreev, P A
2014-01-01
We describe main ideas of method of many-particle quantum hydrodynamics allows to derive equations for description of quantum plasma evolution. We also present definitions of collective quantum variables suitable for quantum plasmas. We show that evolution of magnetic moments (spins) in quantum plasmas leads to several new branches of wave dispersion: spin-electromagnetic plasma waves and self-consistent spin waves. Propagation of neutron beams through quantum plasmas is also considered. Instabilities appearing due to interaction of magnetic moments of neutrons with plasma are described.
Quantum state transfer between light and matter via teleportation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krauter, Hanna; Sherson, Jacob; Polzik, Eugene Simon
2010-01-01
Quantum teleportation is an interesting feature of quantum mechanics. Entanglement is used as a link between two remote locations to transfer a quantum state without physically sending it - a process that cannot be realized utilizing merely classical tools. Furthermore it has become evident...... that teleportation is also an important element of future quantum networks and it can be an ingredient for quantum computation. This article reports for the first time the teleportation from light to atoms. In the experiment discussed, the quantum state of a light beam is transferred to an atomic ensemble. The key...
MBE growth of Quantum nanostructures for optoelectronics
2014-01-01
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is a powerful tech-nique for the fabrication of several self-assembled III-V nanostructures such as quantum rings, quantum dots, (Garcia 2013) and quantum wires that can cover a wide range of the spectrum from 0.98 ¿m to 1.6 ¿m. The possibility of performing in-situ, real-time, measurements of accumulated stress (¿¿) dur-ing growth of these nanostructures enables to achieve a deep understanding of the growth processes. For example, whereas quantum rings (QR) f...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
毛乃赜; 罗亚平
2014-01-01
Nanoparticles has been incorporated into the field of forensic fingermark detection as the advances in nanotechnology. In recent years,quantum dots are highly respected by forensic scientist for its excellent fluorescence characteristics,however,most of the quantum dots are toxic and may cause pollution,these problems have constrained the application of quantum dots in the field of forensic science. Compared with organic dyes and metal-containing quantum dots,carbon dots have low toxicity,low pollution,excel-lent biocompatibility,have been used in medicine,biology,chemistry and many other fields. This paper reviews the application of quantum dots in fingermark detection,introduces the research progress of carbon dots and points out carbon dots will be an impor-tant research direction of forensic fingermark detection.%随着纳米技术的进步，纳米颗粒正在被逐步应用到法庭科学领域的手印检验之中。近年来，半导体量子点因其良好的荧光特性而备受国内外法庭科学家的推崇，但大多数半导体量子点具有毒性，且会对环境造成污染，这些问题制约了半导体量子点在法庭科学领域中的应用。与传统有机染料和金属内核的半导体量子点相比，碳量子点具有毒性低、污染小、生物相容性优异的特点，现已应用于医学、生物、化学等多个领域。本文综述了半导体量子点在手印显现中的应用，介绍了碳量子点的研究进展，并指出碳量子点显现手印是今后法庭科学领域的重要研究方向。
Quantum Computing for Quantum Chemistry
2010-09-01
This three-year project consisted on the development and application of quantum computer algorithms for chemical applications. In particular, we developed algorithms for chemical reaction dynamics, electronic structure and protein folding. The first quantum computing for
Quantum Operations as Quantum States
Arrighi, P; Arrighi, Pablo; Patricot, Christophe
2004-01-01
In this article we formalize the correspondence between quantum states and quantum operations, and harness its consequences. This correspondence was already implicit in Choi's proof of the operator sum representation of Completely Positive-preserving linear maps; we go further and show that all of the important theorems concerning quantum operations can be derived as simple corollaries of those concerning quantum states. As we do so the discussion first provides an elegant and original review of the main features of quantum operations. Next (in the second half of the paper) we search for more results to arise from the correspondence. Thus we propose a factorizability condition and an extremal trace-preservedness condition for quantum operations, give two novel Schmidt-type decompositions of bipartite pure states and two interesting composition laws for which the set of quantum operations and quantum states remain stable. The latter enables us to define a group structure upon the set of totally entangled state...
Quantum memory in quantum cryptography
Mor, T
1999-01-01
[Shortened abstract:] This thesis investigates the importance of quantum memory in quantum cryptography, concentrating on quantum key distribution schemes. In the hands of an eavesdropper -- a quantum memory is a powerful tool, putting in question the security of quantum cryptography; Classical privacy amplification techniques, used to prove security against less powerful eavesdroppers, might not be effective when the eavesdropper can keep quantum states for a long time. In this work we suggest a possible direction for approaching this problem. We define strong attacks of this type, and show security against them, suggesting that quantum cryptography is secure. We start with a complete analysis regarding the information about a parity bit (since parity bits are used for privacy amplification). We use the results regarding the information on parity bits to prove security against very strong eavesdropping attacks, which uses quantum memories and all classical data (including error correction codes) to attack th...
Optomechanical dual-beam backaction-evading measurement beyond the rotating-wave approximation
Malz, Daniel; Nunnenkamp, Andreas
2016-11-01
We present the exact analytical solution of the explicitly time-periodic quantum Langevin equation describing the dual-beam backaction-evading measurement of a single mechanical oscillator quadrature due to V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, and K. S. Thorne [Science 209, 547 (1980), 10.1126/science.209.4456.547] beyond the commonly used rotating-wave approximation. We show that counterrotating terms lead to extra sidebands in the optical and mechanical spectra and to a modification of the main peak. Physically, the backaction of the measurement is due to periodic coupling of the mechanical resonator to a light-field quadrature that only contains cavity-filtered shot noise. Since this fact is independent of other degrees of freedom the resonator might be coupled to, our solution can be generalized, including to dissipatively or parametrically squeezed oscillators, as well as recent two-mode backaction-evading measurements.
Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi
2009-09-01
Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science (Symposium X of IUMRS-ICA2008) Toshiji Kanaya, Kohji Tashiro, Kazuo Sakura Keiji Tanaka, Sono Sasaki, Naoya Torikai, Moonhor Ree, Kookheon Char, Charles C Han, Atsushi Takahara This volume contains peer-reviewed invited and contributed papers that were presented in Symposium X 'Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' at the IUMRS International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA 2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. Structure analyses of soft materials based on synchrotron radiation (SR) and neutron beam have been developed steadily. Small-angle scattering and wide-angle diffraction techniques clarified the higher-order structure as well as time dependence of structure development such as crystallization and microphase-separation. On the other hand, reflectivity, grazing-incidence scattering and diffraction techniques revealed the surface and interface structural features of soft materials. From the viewpoint of strong interests on the development of SR and neutron beam techniques for soft materials, the objective of this symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in research, development, and applications of SR and neutron beams to soft matter science. In this symposium, 21 oral papers containing 16 invited papers and 14 poster papers from China, India, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan were presented during the three-day symposium. As a result of the review of poster and oral presentations of young scientists by symposium chairs, Dr Kummetha Raghunatha Reddy (Toyota Technological Institute) received the IUMRS-ICA 2008 Young Researcher Award. We are grateful to all invited speakers and many participants for valuable contributions and active discussions. Organizing committee of Symposium (IUMRS-ICA 2008) Professor Toshiji Kanaya (Kyoto University) Professor Kohji
Magnetized and Flat Beam Experiment at FAST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halavanau, A. [Fermilab; Hyun, J. [Sokendai, Tsukuba; Mihalcea, D. [NIU, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Sen, T. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, C. [Fermilab
2017-05-22
A photocathode, immersed in solenoidal magnetic field, can produce canonical-angular-momentum (CAM) dominated or “magnetized” electron beams. Such beams have an application in electron cooling of hadron beams and can also be uncoupled to yield asymmetric-emittance (“flat”) beams. In the present paper we explore the possibilities of the flat beam generation at Fermilab’s Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. We present optimization of the beam flatness and four-dimensional transverse emittance and investigate the mapping and its limitations of the produced eigen-emittances to conventional emittances using a skew-quadrupole channel. Possible application of flat beams at the FAST facility are also discussed.
Quantum reality explains mystical powers of consciousness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Mensky
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Mystical powers of consciousness, including the direct vision of truth and management a reality, are believed to exist. Various directions of spiritual knowledge, including world religions, deal with these phenomena. Many people are persuaded that mystical events cannot be explained by scientific methods, that they contradict to science. Suggested by the present author Quantum Concept of Consciousness, or Extended Everett Concept, proves that mystical powers have their origin from what is known in quantum mechanics as quantum reality, and therefore are inherent part of science. Therefore, the “mystical” aspect in the sphere of consciousness is a common part of science and spiritual knowledge.
Toward a physical theory of quantum cognition.
Takahashi, Taiki
2014-01-01
Recently, mathematical models based on quantum formalism have been developed in cognitive science. The target articles in this special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science clearly illustrate how quantum theoretical formalism can account for various aspects of human judgment and decision making in a quantitatively and mathematically rigorous manner. In this commentary, we show how future studies in quantum cognition and decision making should be developed to establish theoretical foundations based on physical theory, by introducing Taketani's three-stage theory of the development of science. Also, implications for neuroeconomics (another rapidly evolving approach to human judgment and decision making) are discussed.
Quantum mechanics II a second course in quantum theory
Landau, Rubin H
2004-01-01
Here is a readable and intuitive quantum mechanics text that covers scattering theory, relativistic quantum mechanics, and field theory. This expanded and updated Second Edition - with five new chapters - emphasizes the concrete and calculable over the abstract and pure, and helps turn students into researchers without diminishing their sense of wonder at physics and nature.As a one-year graduate-level course, Quantum Mechanics II: A Second Course in Quantum Theory leads from quantum basics to basic field theory, and lays the foundation for research-oriented specialty courses. Used selectively, the material can be tailored to create a one-semester course in advanced topics. In either case, it addresses a broad audience of students in the physical sciences, as well as independent readers - whether advanced undergraduates or practicing scientists
Zurek, Wojciech Hubert
2009-03-01
Quantum Darwinism describes the proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of a quantum system. It explains how the quantum fragility of a state of a single quantum system can lead to the classical robustness of states in their correlated multitude; shows how effective `wave-packet collapse' arises as a result of the proliferation throughout the environment of imprints of the state of the system; and provides a framework for the derivation of Born's rule, which relates the probabilities of detecting states to their amplitudes. Taken together, these three advances mark considerable progress towards settling the quantum measurement problem.
Quantum Enhanced Phase Retrieval
Liberman, Liat; Poem, Eilon; Silberberg, Yaron
2015-01-01
The retrieval of phases from intensity measurements is a key process in many fields in science, from optical microscopy to x-ray crystallography. Here we study phase retrieval of a one-dimensional multi-phase object that is illuminated by quantum states of light. We generalize the iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to photon correlation measurements on the output plane, rather than the standard intensity measurements. We report a numerical comparison of classical and quantum phase retrieval of a small one-dimensional object of discrete phases from its far-field diffraction. While the classical algorithm was ambiguous and often converged to wrong solutions, quantum light produced a unique reconstruction with smaller errors and faster convergence. We attribute these improvements to a larger Hilbert space that constrains the algorithm.
Quantum entanglement and quantum operation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
It is a simple introduction to quantum entanglement and quantum operations. The authors focus on some applications of quantum entanglement and relations between two-qubit entangled states and unitary operations. It includes remote state preparation by using any pure entangled states, nonlocal operation implementation using entangled states, entanglement capacity of two-qubit gates and two-qubit gates construction.
Horodecki, R; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Karol
2007-01-01
All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say: {\\it what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in laboratory}. But the essence of quantum formalism - entanglement, recognized by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen and Schr\\"odinger - waited over 70 years to enter to laboratories as a new resource as real as energy. This holistic property of compound quantum systems, which involves nonclassical correlations between subsystems, is a potential for many quantum processes, including ``canonical'' ones: quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation and dense coding. However, it appeared that this new resource is very complex and difficult to detect. Being usually fragile to environment, it is robust against conceptual and mathematical tools, the task of which is to decipher its rich structure. This article reviews basic aspects of entanglement including its characterization, detection, distillation and quantifying. In particular, the authors discuss various manifestations of entanglement via ...
Weaver, Nik
2010-01-01
We define a "quantum relation" on a von Neumann algebra M \\subset B(H) to be a weak* closed operator bimodule over its commutant M'. Although this definition is framed in terms of a particular representation of M, it is effectively representation independent. Quantum relations on l^\\infty(X) exactly correspond to subsets of X^2, i.e., relations on X. There is also a good definition of a "measurable relation" on a measure space, to which quantum relations partially reduce in the general abelian case. By analogy with the classical setting, we can identify structures such as quantum equivalence relations, quantum partial orders, and quantum graphs, and we can generalize Arveson's fundamental work on weak* closed operator algebras containing a masa to these cases. We are also able to intrinsically characterize the quantum relations on M in terms of families of projections in M \\otimes B(l^2).
1993-03-19
application of Intersubband transitions, J. citons imbedded in planar monolithic DBR -Fabry-Perot cavities ard B. Khurgin, Shaozhong Li, Johns Hopkins Univ...The following symposium was held Advanced Solid State Lasers Compact Blue-Green Lasers Integrated Photonics Research Nonlinear Guide-Wave Optics...suppressed responsivity, and increased saturation intensity, while continuing to exhibit excitonic electroabsorption . (p. 20) OWA3 Quantum mlcrocavitles and
Synchronization of Interacting Quantum Dipoles
Zhu, Bihui; Xu, Minghui; Urbina, Felipe H; Restrepo, Juan G; Holland, Murray J; Rey, Ana Maria
2015-01-01
Macroscopic ensembles of radiating dipoles are ubiquitous in the physical and natural sciences. In the classical limit the dipoles can be described as damped-driven oscillators, which are able to spontaneously synchronize and collectively lock their phases. Here we investigate the correspond- ing phenomenon in the quantum regime with arrays of quantized two-level systems coupled via long-range and anisotropic dipolar interactions. Our calculations demonstrate that the dipoles may overcome the decoherence induced by quantum fluctuations and inhomogeneous couplings and evolve to a synchronized steady-state. This steady-state bears much similarity to that observed in classical systems, and yet also exhibits genuine quantum properties such as quantum correlations and quan- tum phase diffusion (reminiscent of lasing). Our predictions could be relevant for the development of better atomic clocks and a variety of noise tolerant quantum devices.
Synchronization of interacting quantum dipoles
Zhu, B.; Schachenmayer, J.; Xu, M.; Herrera, F.; Restrepo, J. G.; Holland, M. J.; Rey, A. M.
2015-08-01
Macroscopic ensembles of radiating dipoles are ubiquitous in the physical and natural sciences. In the classical limit the dipoles can be described as damped-driven oscillators, which are able to spontaneously synchronize and collectively lock their phases in the presence of nonlinear coupling. Here we investigate the corresponding phenomenon with arrays of quantized two-level systems coupled via long-range and anisotropic dipolar interactions. Our calculations demonstrate that by incoherently driving dense packed arrays of strongly interacting dipoles, the dipoles can overcome the decoherence induced by quantum fluctuations and inhomogeneous coupling and reach a synchronized steady-state characterized by a macroscopic phase coherence. This steady-state bears much similarity to that observed in classical systems, and yet also exhibits genuine quantum properties such as quantum correlations and quantum phase diffusion (reminiscent of lasing). Our predictions could be relevant for the development of better atomic clocks and a variety of noise tolerant quantum devices.
Advanced LIGO: non-Gaussian beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Ambrosio, Erika [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); O' Shaugnessy, Richard [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Thorne, Kip [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Willems, Phil [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Strigin, Sergey [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vyatchanin, Sergey [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2004-03-07
By using non-Gaussian, flat-topped beams in the advanced gravitational wave interferometers currently being designed, one can reduce the impact on the interferometer sensitivity of a variety of fundamental disturbances (thermoelastic noise, noise in mirror coatings, thermal lensing, etc). This may make beating the standard quantum limit an achievable goal.
Advanced LIGO: non-Gaussian beams
D’Ambrosio, Erika; O’Shaugnessy, Richard; Thorne, Kip; Willems, Phil; Strigin, Sergey; Vyatchanin, Sergey
2004-01-01
By using non-Gaussian, flat-topped beams in the advanced gravitational wave interferometers currently being designed, one can reduce the impact on the interferometer sensitivity of a variety of fundamental disturbances (thermoelastic noise, noise in mirror coatings, thermal lensing, etc). This may make beating the standard quantum limit an achievable goal.
Quantum Games and Quantum Discord
Nawaz, Ahmad
2010-01-01
We quantize prisoners dilemma and chicken game by our generalized quantization scheme to explore the role of quantum discord in quantum games. In order to establish this connection we use Werner-like state as an initial state of the game. In this quantization scheme measurement can be performed in entangled as well as in product basis. For the measurement in entangled basis the dilemma in both the games can be resolved by separable states with non-zero quantum discord. Similarly for product basis measurement the payoffs are quantum mechanical only for nonzero values of quantum discord.
Semiconductor double quantum dot micromaser.
Liu, Y-Y; Stehlik, J; Eichler, C; Gullans, M J; Taylor, J M; Petta, J R
2015-01-16
The coherent generation of light, from masers to lasers, relies upon the specific structure of the individual emitters that lead to gain. Devices operating as lasers in the few-emitter limit provide opportunities for understanding quantum coherent phenomena, from terahertz sources to quantum communication. Here we demonstrate a maser that is driven by single-electron tunneling events. Semiconductor double quantum dots (DQDs) serve as a gain medium and are placed inside a high-quality factor microwave cavity. We verify maser action by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Quantum physics a beginner's guide
Rae, Alastair I M
2005-01-01
As Alastair Rae points out in his introduction, ""quantum physics is not rocket science"". It may have gained a reputation as the theory that no one really understands, but its practical applications are all around us in everyday life. If it were not for quantum physics, computers would not function, metals would not conduct electricity, and the power stations that heat our homes would not produce energy. Assuming no prior scientific or mathematical knowledge, this clear and concise introduction provides a step-by-step guide to quantum theory, right from the very basic principles to the most c
Formalization of Quantum Protocols using Coq
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaap Boender
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Quantum Information Processing, which is an exciting area of research at the intersection of physics and computer science, has great potential for influencing the future development of information processing systems. The building of practical, general purpose Quantum Computers may be some years into the future. However, Quantum Communication and Quantum Cryptography are well developed. Commercial Quantum Key Distribution systems are easily available and several QKD networks have been built in various parts of the world. The security of the protocols used in these implementations rely on information-theoretic proofs, which may or may not reflect actual system behaviour. Moreover, testing of implementations cannot guarantee the absence of bugs and errors. This paper presents a novel framework for modelling and verifying quantum protocols and their implementations using the proof assistant Coq. We provide a Coq library for quantum bits (qubits, quantum gates, and quantum measurement. As a step towards verifying practical quantum communication and security protocols such as Quantum Key Distribution, we support multiple qubits, communication and entanglement. We illustrate these concepts by modelling the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, which communicates the state of an unknown quantum bit using only a classical channel.
Facilities and methods for radioactive ion beam production
Blumenfeld, Y; Van Duppen, P
2013-01-01
Radioactive ion beam facilities are transforming nuclear science by making beams of exotic nuclei with various properties available for experiments. New infrastructures and development of existing installations enlarges the scientific scope continuously. An overview of the main production, separation and beam handling methods with focus on recent developments is done, as well as a survey of existing and forthcoming facilities world-wide.
2011-12-01
an inspiring speech at the MIT Physics of Computation 1st Conference in 1981, Feynman proposed the development of a computer that would obey the...on ion trap based 36 quantum computing for physics and computer science students would include lecture notes, slides, lesson plans, a syllabus...reading lists, videos, demonstrations, and laboratories. 37 LIST OF REFERENCES [1] R. P. Feynman , “Simulating physics with computers,” Int. J
Meyer-Scott, Evan; Tiedau, Johannes; Harder, Georg; Shalm, Lynden K.; Bartley, Tim J.
2017-01-01
The statistical properties of photons are fundamental to investigating quantum mechanical phenomena using light. In multiphoton, two-mode systems, correlations may exist between outcomes of measurements made on each mode which exhibit useful properties. Correlation in this sense can be thought of as increasing the probability of a particular outcome of a measurement on one subsystem given a measurement on a correlated subsystem. Here, we show a statistical property we call “discorrelation”, in which the probability of a particular outcome of one subsystem is reduced to zero, given a measurement on a discorrelated subsystem. We show how such a state can be constructed using readily available building blocks of quantum optics, namely coherent states, single photons, beam splitters and projective measurement. We present a variety of discorrelated states, show that they are entangled, and study their sensitivity to loss. PMID:28134333
Modern or Anti-modern Science? Weimar Culture, Natural Science and the Heidegger-Heisenberg Exchange
Carson, Cathryn
The following sections are included: * Weimar Culture and Scientific Rationality * Heidegger Read Historically * Science and Crisis * Quantum Mechanics and the Heidegger-Heisenberg Exchange * Conclusion * Acknowledgments
Structured electron beams from nano-engineered cathodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lueangaramwong, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, D. [NICADD, DeKalb; Andonian, G. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Piot, P. [Fermilab
2017-03-07
The ability to engineer cathodes at the nano-scale have open new possibilities such as enhancing quantum eciency via surface-plasmon excitation, forming ultra-low-emittance beams, or producing structured electron beams. In this paper we present numerical investigations of the beam dynamics associated to this class of cathode in the weak- and strong-field regimes.We finally discuss the possible applications of some of the achievable cathode patterns when coupled with other phase space manipulations.
Structured electron beams from nano-engineered cathodes
Lueangaramwong, A.; Mihalcea, D.; Andonian, G.; Piot, P.
2017-03-01
The ability to engineer cathodes at the nano-scale have opened new possibilities such as enhancing quantum efficiency via surface-plasmon excitation, forming ultra-low-emittance beams, or producing structured electron beams. In this paper, we present numerical investigations of the beam dynamics associated with this class of cathode in the weak- and strong-field regimes. We finally discuss the possible applications of some of the achievable cathode patterns when coupled with other phase space manipulations.
Simulation study on the emittance compensation of off-axis emitted beam in RF photoinjector
Huang, Rui-Xuan; Mitchell, Chad; Jia, Qi-Ka; Papadopoulos, Christos; Sannibale, Fernando
2016-11-01
To make full use of the photocathode material and improve its quantum efficiency lifetime, it can be necessary to operate the laser away from the cathode center in photoinjectors. In RF guns, the off-axis emitted beam will see a time-dependent RF effect, which would generate a significant growth in transverse emittance. It has been demonstrated that such an emittance growth can be almost completely compensated by orienting the beam on a proper orbit in the downstream RF cavities along the injector [1]. In this paper we analyze in detail the simulation techniques used in reference [1] and the issues associated with them. The optimization of photoinjector systems involving off-axis beams is a challenging problem. To solve this problem, one needs advanced simulation tools including both genetic algorithms and an efficient algorithm for 3D space charge. In this paper, we report on simulation studies where the two codes ASTRA and IMPACT-T are used jointly to overcome these challenges, in order to optimize a system designed to compensate for the emittance growth in a beam emitted off axis. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11375199), and Chinese Scholarship Council
14. Euro summer school on exotic beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2007-07-01
This school is intended for thesis students and young post-docs working in areas related to radioactive beams. It consists of several lecture courses given by specialists in their field, starting from a basic level. This document gathers only the slides of the following presentations: 1) clusters in nuclei, 2) the production of radioactive ion beams - in-flight methods, 3) ab-initio calculations for light nuclei, 4) the production of radioactive ion beams - ISOL methods, 5) neutrons for science, and 6) the production of radioactive ion beams - charge breeding.
2012-05-01
Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events
Uncommon paths in quantum physics
Kazakov, Konstantin V
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the most fascinating, and at the same time most controversial, branches of contemporary science. Disputes have accompanied this science since its birth and have not ceased to this day. Uncommon Paths in Quantum Physics allows the reader to contemplate deeply some ideas and methods that are seldom met in the contemporary literature. Instead of widespread recipes of mathematical physics, based on the solutions of integro-differential equations, the book follows logical and partly intuitional derivations of non-commutative algebra. Readers can directly penetrate the
Optimal control and quantum simulations in superconducting quantum devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Egger, Daniel J.
2014-10-31
Quantum optimal control theory is the science of steering quantum systems. In this thesis we show how to overcome the obstacles in implementing optimal control for superconducting quantum bits, a promising candidate for the creation of a quantum computer. Building such a device will require the tools of optimal control. We develop pulse shapes to solve a frequency crowding problem and create controlled-Z gates. A methodology is developed for the optimisation towards a target non-unitary process. We show how to tune-up control pulses for a generic quantum system in an automated way using a combination of open- and closed-loop optimal control. This will help scaling of quantum technologies since algorithms can calibrate control pulses far more efficiently than humans. Additionally we show how circuit QED can be brought to the novel regime of multi-mode ultrastrong coupling using a left-handed transmission line coupled to a right-handed one. We then propose to use this system as an analogue quantum simulator for the Spin-Boson model to show how dissipation arises in quantum systems.
Use of a Gafchromic film HD-V2 for the profile measurement of energetic ion beams
Yuri, Yosuke; Ishizaka, Tomohisa; Agematsu, Takashi; Yuyama, Takahiro; Seito, Hajime; Okumura, Susumu
2017-09-01
The coloration response of a radiochromic film, Gafchromic HD-V2, to ion beams was investigated to apply the film to measuring the transverse intensity distribution of large-area ion beams. HD-V2 films were, therefore, irradiated with proton (10 MeV) and several heavy-ion (4.1-27 MeV/u) beams in a wide fluence range at the azimuthally-varying-field cyclotron facility in National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, and read with an image scanner to analyze changes in the optical density. It was shown that the available fluence range (106-1011 ions/cm2) of HD-V2 depends strongly on ion species, i.e., linear energy transfer (LET). In addition, the reduction of the sensitivity to dose was shown over a wide LET range. The transverse intensity distribution of a large-area ion beam was measured using a response function determined from the measured data. We have demonstrated that the Gafchromic film HD-V2 is useful for measuring the intensity distribution at a low fluence and thus evaluating the characteristics of various ion beams.
Arrighi, P
2003-01-01
Alice communicates with words drawn uniformly amongst $\\{\\ket{j}\\}_{j=1..n}$, the canonical orthonormal basis. Sometimes however Alice interleaves quantum decoys $\\{\\frac{\\ket{j}+i\\ket{k}}{\\sqrt{2}}\\}$ between her messages. Such pairwise superpositions of possible words cannot be distinguished from the message words. Thus as malevolent Eve observes the quantum channel, she runs the risk of damaging the superpositions (by causing a collapse). At the receiving end honest Bob, whom we assume is warned of the quantum decoys' distribution, checks upon their integrity with a measurement. The present work establishes, in the case of individual attacks, the tradeoff between Eve's information gain (her chances, if a message word was sent, of guessing which) and the disturbance she induces (Bob's chances, if a quantum decoy was sent, to detect tampering). Besides secure channel protocols, quantum decoys seem a powerful primitive for constructing n-dimensional quantum cryptographic applications. Moreover the methods emp...
Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari
2016-01-01
This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....
High-resolution optical spectroscopy with a buffer-gas-cooled beam of BaH molecules
Iwata, G. Z.; McNally, R. L.; Zelevinsky, T.
2017-08-01
Barium monohydride (BaH) is an attractive candidate for extending laser cooling and trapping techniques to diatomic hydrides. The apparatus and high-resolution optical spectroscopy presented here demonstrate progress toward this goal. A cryogenic buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam of BaH was constructed and characterized. Pulsed laser ablation into cryogenic helium buffer gas delivers ˜1 ×1010 molecules/sr/pulse in the X +2Σ (v''=0 ,N''=1 ) state of primary interest. More than 1 ×107 of these molecules per pulse enter the downstream science region with forward velocities below 100 m/s and transverse temperature of 0.1 K. This molecular beam enabled high-resolution optical spectra of BaH in quantum states relevant to laser slowing and cooling. The reported measurements include hyperfine structure and magnetic g factors in the X +2Σ , B +2Σ , and A 1/2 2Π states.
2010-03-04
efficient or less costly than their classical counterparts. A large-scale quantum computer is certainly an extremely ambi- tious goal, appearing to us...outperform the largest classical supercomputers in solving some specific problems important for data encryption. In the long term, another application...which the quantum computer depends, causing the quantum mechanically destructive process known as decoherence . Decoherence comes in several forms
Hughes, R J; Dyer, P L; Luther, G G; Morgan, G L; Schauer, M M; Hughes, Richard J; Dyer, P; Luther, G G; Morgan, G L; Schauer, M
1995-01-01
Quantum cryptography is a new method for secret communications offering the ultimate security assurance of the inviolability of a Law of Nature. In this paper we shall describe the theory of quantum cryptography, its potential relevance and the development of a prototype system at Los Alamos, which utilises the phenomenon of single-photon interference to perform quantum cryptography over an optical fiber communications link.
Gaussian entanglement generation from coherence using beam-splitters
Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Ma, Teng; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan
2016-01-01
The generation and quantification of quantum entanglement is crucial for quantum information processing. Here we study the transition of Gaussian correlation under the effect of linear optical beam-splitters. We find the single-mode Gaussian coherence acts as the resource in generating Gaussian entanglement for two squeezed states as the input states. With the help of consecutive beam-splitters, single-mode coherence and quantum entanglement can be converted to each other. Our results reveal that by using finite number of beam-splitters, it is possible to extract all the entanglement from the single-mode coherence even if the entanglement is wiped out before each beam-splitter. PMID:27892537
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, P
1998-03-01
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
Generation of non-classical optical fields by a beam splitter with second-order nonlinearity
Prakash, Hari
2016-01-01
We propose quantum-mechanical model of a beam splitter with second-order nonlinearity and show that non-classical features such as squeezing and sub-Poissonian photon statistics of optical fields can be generated in output fundamental and second harmonic modes when we mix coherent light beams via such a nonlinear beam splitter.
Quantum Networks for Generating Arbitrary Quantum States
Kaye, Phillip; Mosca, Michele
2004-01-01
Quantum protocols often require the generation of specific quantum states. We describe a quantum algorithm for generating any prescribed quantum state. For an important subclass of states, including pure symmetric states, this algorithm is efficient.
A universal quantum information processor for scalable quantum communication and networks.
Yang, Xihua; Xue, Bolin; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhu, Shiyao
2014-10-15
Entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum networks. How to conveniently and efficiently realize the generation, distribution, storage, retrieval, and control of multipartite entanglement is the basic requirement for realistic quantum information processing. Here, we present a theoretical proposal to efficiently and conveniently achieve a universal quantum information processor (QIP) via atomic coherence in an atomic ensemble. The atomic coherence, produced through electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the Λ-type configuration, acts as the QIP and has full functions of quantum beam splitter, quantum frequency converter, quantum entangler, and quantum repeater. By employing EIT-based nondegenerate four-wave mixing processes, the generation, exchange, distribution, and manipulation of light-light, atom-light, and atom-atom multipartite entanglement can be efficiently and flexibly achieved in a deterministic way with only coherent light fields. This method greatly facilitates the operations in quantum information processing, and holds promising applications in realistic scalable quantum communication and quantum networks.
Consciousness and values in the quantum universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stapp, H.P.
1985-01-01
Application of quantum mechanical description to neurophysiological processes appears to provide for a natural unification of the physical and humanistic sciences. The categories of thought used to represent physical and psychical processes become united, and the mechanical conception of man created by classical physics is replaced by a profoundly different quantum conception. This revised image of man allows human values to be rooted in contemporary science.
Some Issues in Quantum Information Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Run-Yao Duan; Zheng-Feng Ji; Yuan Feng; Ming-Sheng Ying
2006-01-01
Quantum information theory is a new interdisciplinary research field related to quantum mechanics, computer science, information theory, and applied mathematics. It provides completely new paradigms to do information processing tasks by employing the principles of quantum mechanics. In this review, we first survey some of the significant advances in quantum information theory in the last twenty years. We then focus mainly on two special subjects: discrimination of quantum objects and transformations between entanglements. More specifically, we first discuss discrimination of quantum states and quantum apparatus in both global and local settings. Secondly, we present systematical characterizations and equivalence relations of several interesting entanglement transformation phenomena, namely entanglement catalysis,multiple-copy entanglement transformation, and partial entanglement recovery.
Recent advances on integrated quantum communications
Orieux, Adeline; Diamanti, Eleni
2016-08-01
In recent years, the use of integrated technologies for applications in the field of quantum information processing and communications has made great progress. The resulting devices feature valuable characteristics such as scalability, reproducibility, low cost and interconnectivity, and have the potential to revolutionize our computation and communication practices in the future, much in the way that electronic integrated circuits have drastically transformed our information processing capacities since the last century. Among the multiple applications of integrated quantum technologies, this review will focus on typical components of quantum communication systems and on overall integrated system operation characteristics. We are interested in particular in the use of photonic integration platforms for developing devices necessary in quantum communications, including sources, detectors and both passive and active optical elements. We also illustrate the challenges associated with performing quantum communications on chip, by using the case study of quantum key distribution—the most advanced application of quantum information science. We conclude with promising perspectives in this field.
Quantum simulations with photons and polaritons merging quantum optics with condensed matter physics
2017-01-01
This book reviews progress towards quantum simulators based on photonic and hybrid light-matter systems, covering theoretical proposals and recent experimental work. Quantum simulators are specially designed quantum computers. Their main aim is to simulate and understand complex and inaccessible quantum many-body phenomena found or predicted in condensed matter physics, materials science and exotic quantum field theories. Applications will include the engineering of smart materials, robust optical or electronic circuits, deciphering quantum chemistry and even the design of drugs. Technological developments in the fields of interfacing light and matter, especially in many-body quantum optics, have motivated recent proposals for quantum simulators based on strongly correlated photons and polaritons generated in hybrid light-matter systems. The latter have complementary strengths to cold atom and ion based simulators and they can probe for example out of equilibrium phenomena in a natural driven-dissipative sett...
Technological Progress on Multi-Beam Klystrons
Ding, Yaogen
2006-01-01
The technological progress on Multi-Beam Klystrons (MBKs) at the Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS) is presented in this paper. Topics to be discussed include the development of cathodes with high current densities and low evaporation rates; multi-beam electron guns with reduced chances for breakdown; multi-beam electron optics systems with high beam transmission; RF systems with wide bandwidth and high efficiency; the oscillation and broad spectrum noise caused by non-operational modes and reflecting electrons; and computer simulations of the multi-beam electron optics system and beam-wave interaction. In addition, the research progress of several types of MBKs developed in IECAS is reported. These MBKs range in frequency from L- to X-band with corresponding peak powers ranging from several tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, average powers from several kilowatts to tens of kilowatts, and bandwidths from 3% to 12%.
Characterizing and Controlling Beam Losses at the LANSCE Facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rybarcyk, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-09-12
The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) currently provides 100-MeV H{sup +} and 800-MeV H{sup -} beams to several user facilities that have distinct beam requirements, e.g. intensity, micropulse pattern, duty factor, etc. Minimizing beam loss is critical to achieving good performance and reliable operation, but can be challenging in the context of simultaneous multi-beam delivery. This presentation will discuss various aspects related to the observation, characterization and minimization of beam loss associated with normal production beam operations in the linac.
Quantum hacking on quantum key distribution using homodyne detection
Huang, Jing-Zheng; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-03-01
Imperfect devices in commercial quantum key distribution systems open security loopholes that an eavesdropper may exploit. An example of one such imperfection is the wavelength-dependent coupling ratio of the fiber beam splitter. Utilizing this loophole, the eavesdropper can vary the transmittances of the fiber beam splitter at the receiver's side by inserting lights with wavelengths different from what is normally used. Here, we propose a wavelength attack on a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system using homodyne detection. By inserting light pulses at different wavelengths, this attack allows the eavesdropper to bias the shot-noise estimation even if it is done in real time. Based on experimental data, we discuss the feasibility of this attack and suggest a prevention scheme by improving the previously proposed countermeasures.
Quantum entanglement and quantum operation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
It is a simple introduction to quantum entanglement and quantum operations.The authors focus on some applications of quantum entanglement and relations between two-qubit entangled states and unitary operations.It includes remote state preparation by using any pure entangled states,nonlocal operation implementation using entangled states,entanglement capacity of two-qubit gates and two-qubit gates construction.
Experimental demonstration of spatial quantum correlations in multiple scattering media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund;
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions, and is tunable by varying photon fluctuations of the illuminating beam.......We demonstrate that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions, and is tunable by varying photon fluctuations of the illuminating beam....
Stochasticity effects in quantum radiation reaction
Neitz, N
2013-01-01
When an ultrarelativistic electron beam collides with a sufficiently intense laser pulse, radiation-reaction effects can strongly alter the beam dynamics. In the realm of classical electrodynamics, radiation reaction has a beneficial effect on the electron beam as it tends to reduce its energy spread. Here, we show that when quantum effects become important, radiation reaction induces the opposite effect, i.e., the electron beam spreads out after interacting with the laser pulse. We identify the physical origin of this opposite tendency in the intrinsic stochasticity of photon emission, which becomes substantial in the full quantum regime. Our numerical simulations indicated that the predicted effects of the stochasticity can be measured already with presently available lasers and electron accelerators.