WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantized interaction field

  1. Entropy for the Quantized Field in the Atom-Field Interaction: Initial Thermal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Amilca Andrade-Morales

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the entropy of a quantized field in interaction with a two-level atom (in a pure state when the field is initially in a mixture of two number states. We then generalise the result for a thermal state; i.e., an (infinite statistical mixture of number states. We show that for some specific interaction times, the atom passes its purity to the field and therefore the field entropy decreases from its initial value.

  2. Energy Quantization and Probability Density of Electron in Intense-Field-Atom Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖淑艳; 程太旺; 李晓峰; 吴令安; 付盘铭

    2003-01-01

    We find that, due to the quantum correlation between the electron and the field, the electronic energy becomes quantized also, manifesting the particle aspect of light in the electron-light interaction. The probability amplitude of finding electron with a given energy is given by a generalized Bessel function, which can be represented as a coherent superposition of contributions from a few electronic quantum trajectories. This concept is illustrated by comparing the spectral density of the electron with the laser assisted recombination spectrum.

  3. An introduction to field quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Yasushi

    1969-01-01

    An Introduction to Field Quantization is an introductory discussion of field quantization and problems closely related to it. Field quantization establishes a commutation relation of the field and finds an operator in such a manner that the Heisenberg equation of motion is satisfied. This book contains eight chapters and begins with a review of the quantization of the Schroedinger field and the close relation between quantized field theory and the many-body theory in quantum mechanics. These topics are followed by discussions of the quantization of the radiation field and the field of lattice

  4. Description of Atom-Field Interaction via Quantized Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Roohollah; Tavassoly, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we outline an approach to the study of atom-field interacting systems, where the Hamiltonian of the field is simply inspired from the quantized Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian. As a simple physical realization of the model, the interaction between a two-level atom with such a single-mode field is studied. The explicit form of the atom-field entangled state associated with the considered system is analytically deduced and the dynamics of a few of its physical properties is numerically evaluated. To achieve the latter purposes, the temporal behavior of the degree of entanglement, atomic population inversion as well as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing of the field are evaluated. Moreover, the effects of the intensity of initial field and the damping parameter within the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian on the above-mentioned criteria are investigated. As is shown, by adjusting the latter evolved parameters one can appropriately tune the discussed physical quantities.

  5. Quantum Discord Dynamics of Two Atoms Interacting with Two Quantized Field Modes through a Raman Interaction with Phase Decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi; XU Jing-Bo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the quantum discord dynamics of two effective two-level atoms independently interacting with two quantized field modes through a Raman interaction in the presence of phase decoherence.The influence of the phase decoherence and detuning on the evolution of the quantum discord and entanglement between two atoms is discussed.It is found that the quantum discord is more robust than the entanglement under the phase decoherence,and the amount of discord and entanglement between two atoms can be increased by adjusting the detuning.

  6. Intrinsic decoherence of entanglement of a single quantized field interacting with a two-level atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    How the mean photon number, the probability of excited state and intrinsic decoherence coefficient influence the time evolution of entanglement is unknown, when a single-mode quantized optic field and a two-level atom coupling system is governed by Milburn equation. The Jaynes-Cummings model is considered. A lower bound of concurrence is proposed to calculate the entanglement. Simulation results indicate that the entanglement of system increases following the increasing of intrinsic decoherence coefficient or the decreasing of the mean photon number. Besides that, the entanglement of system decreases, while the probability of exited state increases from 0 to 0.1, and increases, while the probability of exited state increases from 0.1 to 1.

  7. Stochastic Variational Method as a Quantization Scheme II: Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kodama, T Koide T

    2014-01-01

    Quantization of electromagnetic fields is investigated in the framework of stochastic variational method (SVM). Differently from the canonical quantization, this method does not require canonical form and quantization can be performed directly from the gauge invariant Lagrangian. The gauge condition is used to choose dynamically independent variables. We verify that, in the Coulomb gauge condition, SVM result is completely equivalent to the traditional result. On the other hand, in the Lorentz gauge condition, SVM quantization can be performed without introducing the indefinite metric. The temporal and longitudinal components of the gauge filed, then, behave as c-number functionals affected by quantum fluctuation through the interaction with charged matter fields. To see further the relation between SVM and the canonical quantization, we quantize the usual gauge Lagrangian with the Fermi term and argue a stochastic process with a negative second order correlation is introduced to reproduce the indefinite metr...

  8. Modeling molecule-plasmon interactions using quantized radiation fields within time-dependent electronic structure theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Daniel R.; DePrince, A. Eugene, E-mail: deprince@chem.fsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4390 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We present a combined cavity quantum electrodynamics/ab initio electronic structure approach for simulating plasmon-molecule interactions in the time domain. The simple Jaynes-Cummings-type model Hamiltonian typically utilized in such simulations is replaced with one in which the molecular component of the coupled system is treated in a fully ab initio way, resulting in a computationally efficient description of general plasmon-molecule interactions. Mutual polarization effects are easily incorporated within a standard ground-state Hartree-Fock computation, and time-dependent simulations carry the same formal computational scaling as real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. As a proof of principle, we apply this generalized method to the emergence of a Fano-like resonance in coupled molecule-plasmon systems; this feature is quite sensitive to the nanoparticle-molecule separation and the orientation of the molecule relative to the polarization of the external electric field.

  9. Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields in Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakazu, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Kazunori

    1996-01-01

    A quantization procedure for the electromagnetic field in a rectangular cavity with perfect conductor walls is presented, where a decomposition formula of the field plays an essential role. All vector mode functions are obtained by using the decomposition. After expanding the field in terms of the vector mode functions, we get the quantized electromagnetic Hamiltonian.

  10. Quantum dynamics of a BEC interacting with a single-mode quantized field in the presence of interatom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemian, E. [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavassoly, M.K., E-mail: mktavassoly@yazd.ac.ir [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Photonics Research Group, Engineering Research Center, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-23

    In this paper, we consider a model in which N two-level atoms in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) interact with a single-mode quantized laser field. Our goal is to investigate the quantum dynamics of atoms in the BEC in the presence of interatom interactions. To achieve the purpose, at first, using the collective angular momentum operators, we try to reduce the dynamical Hamiltonian of the system to a well-known Jaynes–Cummings like model (JCM). We also use the Dicke model to construct the state of atomic subsystem, by which the analytical solution of the system may be obtained. Then, we analyze the atomic population inversion, the degree of entanglement between the “atoms in BEC” and the “field” as well as the Mandel parameter. Numerical results show that, the atomic population inversion, atom-field entanglement and quantum statistics of photons are very sensitive to the evolved parameters in the model (and so can be well-adjusted), such as the number of atoms in BEC, the intensity of initial field, the interatom coupling constant and detuning. To investigate the entanglement properties, we pay attention to the entropy and linear entropy. It is shown that, oscillations in the two entropy criteria may be seen, with some maxima of entanglement at some moments of time. Finally, looking for the quantum statistics, we evaluate the Mandel parameter, by which we demonstrate the sub-Poissonian statistics and so the nonclassical characteristics of the field state of system. Collapse-revival phenomenon, which is a distinguishable nonclassical characteristic of the system, can be apparently observed in the atomic population inversion and the Mandel parameter. - Highlights: • N two-level atoms in a BEC interacting with a laser field in the presence of interatom interactions is considered. • The atomic population inversion, degree of entanglement between the “atoms in BEC” and the “field” and the Mandel parameter are investigated. • Collapse

  11. Quantization of massive Weyl fields in vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    We briefly review the main methods for the description of massive Weyl fields in vacuum. On the classical level we discuss Weyl fields expressed through Grassmann variables as well as having spinors with commuting components. In both approaches we quantize the system. We get the correct anticommutation relations between creation and annihilation operators, which result in the proper form of the total energy of the field. However, the commuting classical Weyl fields require the new method of quantization.

  12. Casimir-Polder interaction in second quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefele, Juergen

    2011-03-21

    The Casimir-Polder interaction between a single neutral atom and a nearby surface, arising from the (quantum and thermal) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, is a cornerstone of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), and theoretically well established. Recently, Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of ultracold atoms have been used to test the predictions of cQED. The purpose of the present thesis is to upgrade single-atom cQED with the many-body theory needed to describe trapped atomic BECs. Tools and methods are developed in a second-quantized picture that treats atom and photon fields on the same footing. We formulate a diagrammatic expansion using correlation functions for both the electromagnetic field and the atomic system. The formalism is applied to investigate, for BECs trapped near surfaces, dispersion interactions of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder type, and the Bosonic stimulation in spontaneous decay of excited atomic states. We also discuss a phononic Casimir effect, which arises from the quantum fluctuations in an interacting BEC. (orig.)

  13. Space-Time Quantization and Nonlocal Field Theory -Relativistic Second Quantization of Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, S

    2000-01-01

    We propose relativistic second quantization of matrix model of D particles in a general framework of nonlocal field theory based on Snyder-Yang's quantized space-time. Second-quantized nonlocal field is in general noncommutative with quantized space-time, but conjectured to become commutative with light cone time $X^+$. This conjecture enables us to find second-quantized Hamiltonian of D particle system and Heisenberg's equation of motion of second-quantized {\\bf D} field in close contact with Hamiltonian given in matrix model. We propose Hamilton's principle of Lorentz-invariant action of {\\bf D} field and investigate what conditions or approximations are needed to reproduce the above Heisenberg's equation given in light cone time. Both noncommutativities appearing in position coordinates of D particles in matrix model and in quantized space-time will be eventually unified through second quantization of matrix model.

  14. Quantized Fields in a Nonlinear Dielectric Medium A Microscopic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hillery, M; Hillery, Mark; Mlodinow, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    Theories which have been used to describe the quantized electromagnetic field interacting with a nonlinear dielectric medium are either phenomenological or derived by quantizing the macroscopic Maxwell equations. Here we take a different approach and derive a Hamiltonian describing interacting fields from one which contains both field and matter degrees of freedom. The medium is modelled as a collection of two-level atoms, and these interact with the electromagnetic field. The atoms are grouped into effective spins and the Holstein- Primakoff representation of the spin operators is used to expand them in one over the total spin. When the lowest-order term is combined with the free atomic and field Hamiltonians, a theory of noninteracting polaritons results. When higher-order terms are expressed in terms of polariton operators, standard nonlinear optical interactions emerge.

  15. Relating field theories via stochastic quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.

  16. Relating field theories via stochastic quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert [KdV Institute for Mathematics, University of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Orlando, Domenico [Institute for the Mathematics and Physics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-Ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8568 Chiba (Japan); Reffert, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.reffert@impu.j [Institute for the Mathematics and Physics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-Ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8568 Chiba (Japan)

    2010-01-11

    This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.

  17. Relating Field Theories via Stochastic Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Reffert, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.

  18. Field quantization in inhomogeneous absorptive dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.; Wubs, Martijn

    2004-01-01

    The quantization of the electromagnetic field in a three-dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric medium with losses is carried out in the framework of a damped-polariton model with an arbitrary spatial dependence of its parameters. The equations of motion for the canonical variables are solved explicit

  19. Light-Front quantization of field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, P P

    1996-01-01

    Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincarè algebra and the LF Spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons.

  20. Entropic quantization of scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222 (United States)

    2015-01-13

    Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation.

  1. Quantum dynamics of a BEC interacting with a single-mode quantized field under the influence of a dissipation process: thermal and squeezed vacuum reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, E.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we consider a system consisting of a number of two-level atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a single-mode quantized field, which interact with each other in the presence of two different damping sources, i.e. cavity and atomic reservoirs. The reservoirs which we consider here are thermal and squeezed vacuum ones corresponding to field and atom modes. Strictly speaking, by considering both types of reservoirs for each of the atom and field modes, we investigate the quantum dynamics of the interacting bosons in the system. Then, via solving the quantum Langevin equations for such a dissipative BEC system, we obtain analytical expressions for the time dependence of atomic population inversion, mean atom as well as photon number and quadrature squeezing in the field and atom modes. Our investigations demonstrate that for modeling the real physical systems, considering the dissipation effects is essential. Also, numerical calculations which are presented show that the atomic population inversion, the mean number of atoms in the BEC and the photons in the cavity possess damped oscillatory behavior due to the presence of reservoirs. In addition, non-classical squeezing effects in the field quadrature can be observed especially when squeezed vacuum reservoirs are taken into account. As an outstanding property of this model, we may refer to the fact that one can extract the atom-field coupling constant from the frequency of oscillations in the mentioned quantities such as atomic population inversion.

  2. Features of multiphoton-stimulated bremsstrahlung in a quantized field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenkov, Ivan A.; Tikhonova, Olga V.

    2010-12-01

    The process of absorption and emission of external field quanta by a free electron during the scattering on a potential centre is investigated in the case of interaction with a quantized electromagnetic field. The analytical expression for differential cross-sections and probabilities of different multiphoton channels are obtained. We demonstrate that in the case of a non-classical 'squeezed vacuum' initial field state the probability for the electron to absorb a large number of photons appears to be larger by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the classical field and leads to the formation of the high-energy plateau in the electron energy spectrum. The generalization of the Marcuse effect to the case of the quantized field is worked out. The total probability of energy absorption by electron from the non-classical light is analysed.

  3. Features of multiphoton-stimulated bremsstrahlung in a quantized field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burenkov, Ivan A; Tikhonova, Olga V, E-mail: ovtikhonova@mail.r [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-14

    The process of absorption and emission of external field quanta by a free electron during the scattering on a potential centre is investigated in the case of interaction with a quantized electromagnetic field. The analytical expression for differential cross-sections and probabilities of different multiphoton channels are obtained. We demonstrate that in the case of a non-classical 'squeezed vacuum' initial field state the probability for the electron to absorb a large number of photons appears to be larger by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the classical field and leads to the formation of the high-energy plateau in the electron energy spectrum. The generalization of the Marcuse effect to the case of the quantized field is worked out. The total probability of energy absorption by electron from the non-classical light is analysed.

  4. Collapse-revival in entanglement and photon statistics: the interaction of a three-level atom with a two-mode quantized field in cavity optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani Nadiki, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper the interaction of a three-level atom in V-configuration with a two-mode quantized field in cavity optomechanics is studied. To achieve the purpose, we first deduce the effective Hamiltonian and evaluate the explicit time-dependent form of the state vector of the whole system by choosing special initial conditions for atom, field and the oscillatory mirror. Interestingly, we can obtain the time evolution of atomic linear entropy, population inversion, quantum statistics and squeezing, both analytically and numerically. The results show that the entanglement between the atom and the subsystem of field and mirror, and all above-mentioned physical quantities can be appropriately controlled by the initial atom-field state condition, the parameters of cavity optomechanics as well as atom-field coupling strengths. In particular, the appearance of collapse-revival phenomenon in the entanglement and quantum photon statistics, also the full sub-Poissonian statistics in the two modes of field as well as in the mechanical mode of optomechanical system are noticeable features of the work.

  5. On field theory quantization around instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    2009-01-01

    With the perspective of looking for experimentally detectable physical applications of the so-called topological embedding, a procedure recently proposed by the author for quantizing a field theory around a non-discrete space of classical minima (instantons, for example), the physical implications are discussed in a ``theoretical'' framework, the ideas are collected in a simple logical scheme and the topological version of the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity is solved in the intermediate situation between type I and type II superconductors.

  6. Phase-space quantization of field theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.

    1999-04-20

    In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999.

  7. Enhanced quantization particles, fields and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering book addresses the question: Are the standard procedures of canonical quantization fully satisfactory, or is there more to learn about assigning a proper quantum system to a given classical system? As shown in this book, the answer to this question is: The standard procedures of canonical quantization are not the whole story! This book offers alternative quantization procedures that complete the story of quantization. The initial chapters are designed to present the new procedures in a clear and simple manner for general readers. As is necessary, systems that exhibit acceptable results with conventional quantization lead to the same results when the new procedures are used for them. However, later chapters examine selected models that lead to unacceptable results when quantized conventionally. Fortunately, these same models lead to acceptable results when the new quantization procedures are used.

  8. Path Integrals and Lorentz Violation in Polymer Quantized Scalar Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kajuri, Nirmalya

    2014-01-01

    We obtain a path integral formulation of polymer quantized scalar field theory, starting from the Hilbert Space framework. This brings the polymer quantized scalar field theory under the ambit of Feynman diagrammatic techniques. The path integral formulation also shows that Lorentz invariance is lost for the Klein-Gordon field.

  9. Path integral quantization of parametrised field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Varadarajan, M

    2004-01-01

    Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrised field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrised field theory in order to analyse issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is non-trivial and is the analog of the Fradkin- Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrised field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of non-standard `Wick rotations' of the standard free scalar field 2 point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field 2 point functions. We illustra...

  10. Interactions between unidirectional quantized vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, T; Brown, R A; Walmsley, P M; Golov, A I

    2016-01-01

    We have used the vortex filament method to numerically investigate the interactions between pairs of quantized vortex rings that are initially traveling in the same direction but with their axes offset by a variable impact parameter. The interaction of two circular rings of comparable radii produce outcomes that can be categorized into four regimes, dependent only on the impact parameter; the two rings can either miss each other on the inside or outside, or they can reconnect leading to final states consisting of either one or two deformed rings. The fraction of of energy went into ring deformations and the transverse component of velocity of the rings are analyzed for each regime. We find that rings of very similar radius only reconnect for a very narrow range of the impact parameter, much smaller than would be expected from geometrical cross-section alone. In contrast, when the radii of the rings are very different, the range of impact parameters producing a reconnection is close to the geometrical value. A...

  11. From topological field theory to deformation quantization and reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, Alberto S

    2016-01-01

    This note describes the functional-integral quantization of two-dimensional topological field theories together with applications to problems in deformation quantization of Poisson manifolds and reduction of certain submanifolds. A brief introduction to smooth graded manifolds and to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism is included.

  12. BRST quantization and canonical Ward identity of the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG YongChang; JIANG YunGuo; LI XinGuo

    2007-01-01

    According to the method of path integral quantization for the canonical constrained system in Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin scheme, the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system was quantized. Both the Hamiltonian of the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system in phase space and the quantization procedure were simplified. The BRST generator was constructed, and the BRST transformations of supersymmetric fields were gotten; the effective action was calculated, and the generating functional for the Green function was achieved; also, the gauge generator was constructed, and the gauge transformation of the system was obtained. Finally, the Ward-Takahashi identities based on the canonical Noether theorem were calculated, and two relations between proper vertices and propagators were obtained.

  13. Quantization of Interacting Non-Relativistic Open Strings using Extended Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, P J; Fuenmayor, E; Leal, L; Leal, Lorenzo

    2005-01-01

    Non-relativistic charged open strings coupled with Abelian gauge fields are quantized in a geometric representation that generalizes the Loop Representation. The model comprises open-strings interacting through a Kalb-Ramond field in four dimensions. It is shown that a consistent geometric-representation can be built using a scheme of ``surfaces and lines of Faraday'', provided that the coupling constant (the ``charge'' of the string) is quantized.

  14. Electronic Wave Packet in a Quantized Electromagnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程太旺; 薛艳丽; 李晓峰; 吴令安; 傅盘铭

    2002-01-01

    We study a non-stationary electronic wave packet in a quantized electromagnetic field. Generally, the electron and field become entangled as the electronic wave packet evolves. Here we find that, when the initial photon state is a coherent one, the wavefunction of the system can be factorized if we neglect the transferred photon number. In this case, the quantized-field calculation is equivalent to the semi-classical calculation.

  15. Rarita-Schwinger Quantum Free Field Via Deformation Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, B Carballo

    2011-01-01

    Rarita-Schwinger (RS) quantum free field is reexamined in the context of deformation quantization. It is found out that the subsidiary condition does not introduce any change either in the Wigner function or in other aspects of the deformation quantization formalism, in relation to the Dirac field case. This happens because the vector structure of the RS field imposes constraints on the space of wave function solutions and not on the operator structure. The RS propagator was also calculated within this formalism.

  16. A physically motivated quantization of the electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert; Barlow, Thomas M.; Beige, Almut

    2016-01-01

    The notion that the electromagnetic field is quantized is usually inferred from observations such as the photoelectric effect and the black-body spectrum. However accounts of the quantization of this field are usually mathematically motivated and begin by introducing a vector potential, followed by the imposition of a gauge that allows the manipulation of the solutions of Maxwell’s equations into a form that is amenable for the machinery of canonical quantization. By contrast, here we quantize the electromagnetic field in a less mathematically and more physically motivated way. Starting from a direct description of what one sees in experiments, we show that the usual expressions of the electric and magnetic field observables follow from Heisenberg’s equation of motion. In our treatment, there is no need to invoke the vector potential in a specific gauge and we avoid the commonly used notion of a fictitious cavity that applies boundary conditions to the field.

  17. Scalar field quantization without divergences in all spacetime dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauder, John R.

    2011-07-01

    Covariant, self-interacting scalar quantum field theories admit solutions for low enough spacetime dimensions, but when additional divergences appear in higher dimensions, the traditional approach leads to results, such as triviality, that are less than satisfactory. Guided by idealized but soluble nonrenormalizable models, a nontraditional proposal for the quantization of covariant scalar field theories is advanced, which achieves a term-by-term, divergence-free, perturbation analysis of interacting models expanded about a suitable pseudofree theory, which differs from a free theory by an O(planck2) counterterm. These positive features are realized within a functional integral formulation by a local, nonclassical, counterterm that effectively transforms parameter changes in the action from generating mutually singular measures, which are the basis for divergences, to equivalent measures, thereby removing all divergences. The use of an alternative model about which to perturb is already supported by properties of the classical theory and is allowed by the inherent ambiguity in the quantization process itself. This procedure not only provides acceptable solutions for models for which no acceptable, faithful solution currently exists, e.g. phiv4n, for spacetime dimensions n >= 4, but offers a new, divergence-free solution for less-singular models as well, e.g. phiv4n, for n = 2, 3. Our analysis implies similar properties for multicomponent scalar models, such as those associated with the Higgs model.

  18. Scalar Field Quantization Without Divergences In All Spacetime Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2011-01-01

    Covariant, self-interacting scalar quantum field theories admit solutions for low enough spacetime dimensions, but when additional divergences appear in higher dimensions, the traditional approach leads to results, such as triviality, that are less than satisfactory. Guided by idealized but soluble nonrenormalizable models, a nontraditional proposal for the quantization of covariant scalar field theories is advanced, which achieves a term-by-term, divergence-free, perturbation analysis of interacting models expanded about a suitable pseudofree theory, which differs from a free theory by an O(\\hbar^2) counterterm. These positive features are secured within a functional integral formulation by a local, nonclassical, counterterm that effectively transforms parameter changes in the action from generating mutually singular measures, which are the basis for divergences, to equivalent measures, thereby removing all divergences. The use of an alternative model about which to perturb is already supported by properties...

  19. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestwick, Andrew; Fox, Eli; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2015-03-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has recently been of great interest due to its recent experimental realization in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3, a ferromagnetic 3D topological insulator. The presence of ferromagnetic exchange breaks time-reversal symmetry, opening a gap in the surface states, but gives rise to dissipationless chiral conduction at the edge of a magnetized film. Ideally, this leads to vanishing longitudinal resistance and Hall resistance quantized to h /e2 , where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge, but perfect quantization has so far proved elusive. Here, we study the QAHE in the limit of zero applied magnetic field, and measure Hall resistance quantized to within one part per 10,000. Deviation from quantization is due primarily to thermally activated carriers, which can be nearly eliminated through adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This result demonstrates an important step toward dissipationless electron transport in technologically relevant conditions.

  20. Polymer-Fourier quantization of the scalar field revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Chung, Angel; Vergara, J. David

    2016-10-01

    The polymer quantization of the Fourier modes of the real scalar field is studied within algebraic scheme. We replace the positive linear functional of the standard Poincaré invariant quantization by a singular one. This singular positive linear functional is constructed as mimicking the singular limit of the complex structure of the Poincaré invariant Fock quantization. The resulting symmetry group of such polymer quantization is the subgroup SDiff(ℝ4) which is a subgroup of Diff(ℝ4) formed by spatial volume preserving diffeomorphisms. In consequence, this yields an entirely different irreducible representation of the canonical commutation relations, nonunitary equivalent to the standard Fock representation. We also compared the Poincaré invariant Fock vacuum with the polymer Fourier vacuum.

  1. Polymer-Fourier quantization of the scalar field revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Chung, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The Polymer Quantization of the Fourier modes of the real scalar field is studied within algebraic scheme. We replace the positive linear functional of the standard Poincar\\'e invariant quantization by a singular one. This singular positive linear functional is constructed as mimicking the singular limit of the complex structure of the Poincar\\'e invariant Fock quantization. The resulting symmetry group of such Polymer Quantization is the subgroup $\\mbox{SDiff}(\\mathbb{R}^4)$ which is a subgroup of $\\mbox{Diff}(\\mathbb{R}^4)$ formed by spatial volume preserving diffeomorphisms. In consequence, this yields an entirely different irreducible representation of the Canonical Commutation Relations, non-unitary equivalent to the standard Fock representation. We also compared the Poincar\\'e invariant Fock vacuum with the Polymer Fourier vacuum.

  2. Deriving a complete set of eigendistributions for a gravitational wave equation describing the quantized interaction of gravity with a Yang-Mills field in case the Cauchy hypersurface is non-compact

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper we quantized the interaction of gravity with a Yang-Mills and Higgs field and obtained as a result a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Assuming that the Cauchy hypersurfaces are compact we proved a spectral resolution for the wave equation by applying the method of separation of variables. In this paper we extend the results to the case when the Cauchy hypersurfaces are non-compact by considering a Gelfand triplet and applying the nuclear spectral theorem.

  3. Light-front Quantized Field Theory Some New Results

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, P P

    1999-01-01

    A review is made on some recent studies which support the point of view that the relativistic field theory quantized on the light-front (LF) is more transparent compared to the conventional equal-time one. The discussion may be of relevance in the context of the quantization of gravitation theory. The LF quantization is argued to be equally appropriate as the conventional equal-time one. The description on the LF of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the (tree level) Higgs mechanism, the emergence of the $\\theta$-vacua in the Schwinger model, the absence of such vacua in the Chiral SM, the BRS-BFT quantization of the latter on the LF are among the topics discussed. Comments on the irrelevance, in the quantized theory, of the fact that the hyperplanes $x^{\\pm}=0$ constitute characteristic surfaces of the hyperbolic partial differential equation are also made. The LF theory quantized on, say, the $x^{+}=const.$ hyperplanes seems to already contain in it the information on the equal-$x^{-}$ commutators as wel...

  4. THE EXACT SOLUTION OF A TWO-LEVEL ATOM MOVING IN A QUANTIZED TRAVELLING LIGHT FIELD AND A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹旭波; 许晶波; 高孝纯; 符建

    2001-01-01

    We adopt a dynamical algebraic approach to study the system of a two-level atom moving in a quantized travelling light field and a gravitational field with a multiphoton interaction. The exact solution of the system is obtained and used to discuss the influence of the gravitational field on the collapses and revivals of atomic population, sub-Poissonian statistics.

  5. Quantization of the radiation field in an anisotropic dielectric medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Liu Shi-Bing; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    There are both loss and dispersion characteristics for most dielectric media. In quantum theory the loss in medium is generally described by Langevin force in the Langevin noise (LN) scheme by which the quantization of the radiation field in various homogeneous absorbing dielectrics can be successfully actualized. However, it is invalid for the anisotropic dispersion medium. This paper extends the LN theory to an anisotropic dispersion medium and presented the quantization of the radiation field as well as the transformation relation between the homogeneous and anisotropic dispersion media.

  6. Polarization-free Quantization of Linear Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lanéry, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that there exist infinitely-many inequivalent representations of the canonical (anti)-commutation relations of Quantum Field Theory (QFT). A way out, suggested by Algebraic QFT, is to instead define the quantum theory as encompassing all possible (abstract) states. In the present paper, we describe a quantization scheme for general linear (aka. free) field theories that can be seen as intermediate between traditional Fock quantization and full Algebraic QFT, in the sense that: * it provides a constructive, explicit description of the resulting space of quantum states; * it does not require the choice of a polarization, aka. the splitting of classical solutions into positive vs. negative-frequency modes: in fact, any Fock representation corresponding to a "reasonable" choice of polarization is naturally embedded; * it supports the implementation of a "large enough" class of linear symplectomorphisms of the classical, infinite-dimensional phase space. The proposed quantization (like Algebraic Q...

  7. Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@physik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Sars, Matthias [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Suijlekom, Walter D. van [Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial–we call it cycle homology–and by graph homology. -- Highlights: •We derive gauge theory Feynman from scalar field theory with 3-valent vertices. •We clarify the role of graph homology and cycle homology. •We use parametric renormalization and the new corolla polynomial.

  8. BRST quantization and canonical Ward identity of the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the method of path integral quantization for the canonical constrained system in Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin scheme, the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system was quantized. Both the Hamiltonian of the supersymmetric electromagnetic interaction system in phase space and the quantization procedure were simplified. The BRST generator was constructed, and the BRST transforma- tions of supersymmetric fields were gotten; the effective action was calculated, and the generating functional for the Green function was achieved; also, the gauge generator was constructed, and the gauge transformation of the system was ob- tained. Finally, the Ward-Takahashi identities based on the canonical Noether theorem were calculated, and two relations between proper vertices and propaga- tors were obtained.

  9. The Theory of Quantized Fields. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, J.

    1951-01-01

    The arguments leading to the formulation of the Action Principle for a general field are presented. In association with the complete reduction of all numerical matrices into symmetrical and anti-symmetrical parts, the general field is decomposed into two sets, which are identified with Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac fields. The spin restriction on the two kinds of fields is inferred from the time reflection invariance requirement. The consistency of the theory is verified in terms of a criterion involving the various generators of infinitesimal transformations. Following a discussion of charged fields, the electromagnetic field is introduced to satisfy the postulate of general gauge invariance. As an aspect of the latter, it is recognized that the electromagnetic field and charged fields are not kinematically independent. After a discussion of the field-strength commutation relations, the independent dynamical variable of the electromagnetic field are exhibited in terms of a special gauge.

  10. Radial Quantization for Conformal Field Theories on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Richard C; Neuberger, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    We consider radial quantization for conformal quantum field theory with a lattice regulator. A Euclidean field theory on $\\mathbb R^D$ is mapped to a cylindrical manifold, $\\mathbb R\\times \\mathbb S^{D-1}$, whose length is logarithmic in scale separation. To test the approach, we apply this to the 3D Ising model and compute $\\eta$ for the first $Z_2$ odd primary operator.

  11. First-Quantized Theory of Expanding Universe from Field Quantization in Mini-Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new quantization scheme, which conceptually resembles the third-quantization scheme, for the spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models in Einstein gravity coupled with a neutral massless scalar field. Our strategy is to specify a semi-Riemannian structure on the mini-superspace and to consider the quantum Klein-Gordon field on the mini-superspace. Then, the Hilbert space of this quantum system becomes inseparable, which causes the creation of infinite number of universes. To overcome this issue, we introduce a vector bundle structure on the Hilbert space and the connection of the vector bundle. Then, we can define a consistent unitary time evolution of the quantum universe in terms of the connection field on the vector bundle. By doing this, we are able to treat the quantum dynamics of a single-universe state. We also find an appropriate observable set constituting the CCR-algebra, and obtain the Schr\\"odinger equation for the wave function of the single-universe state. We show that...

  12. Berry phases in the three-level atoms driven by quantized light fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mai-Lin Liang; Zong-Cheng Xu; Bing Yuan

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of Berry's phases is given for the three-level atoms interacting with external one-mode and two-mode quantized light fields. Three main results are obtained: (i) There is a Berry phase which vanishes in the classical limit or this Berry phase is completely induced by the field quantization; (ii) Berry's phases for the one-mode field and the two-mode field can be equal so long as the photon numbers of the two-mode field are properly chosen; (iii) In the two-mode case, Berry phases of the atom interacting with one mode is affected by the other mode even if the photon number of the other mode is zero.

  13. Suppressing photochemical reactions with quantized light fields

    CERN Document Server

    Galego, Javier; Feist, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Photoisomerization, i.e., a change of molecular structure after absorption of a photon, is one of the most fundamental photochemical processes. It can perform desirable functionality, e.g., as the primary photochemical event in human vision, where it stores electronic energy in the molecular structure, or for possible applications in solar energy storage and as memories, switches, and actuators; but it can also have detrimental effects, for example as an important damage pathway under solar irradiation of DNA, or as a limiting factor for the efficiency of organic solar cells. While photoisomerization can be avoided by shielding the system from light, this is of course not a viable pathway for approaches that rely on the interaction with external light (such as solar cells or solar energy storage). Here, we show that strong coupling of organic molecules to a confined light mode can be used to strongly suppress photoisomerization, and thus convert molecules that normally show fast photodegradation into photosta...

  14. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  15. A Third-Quantized Approach to the Large-N Field Models

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, V P

    1998-01-01

    Large-N field systems are considered from an unusual point of view. The Hamiltonian is presented in a third-quantized form analogously to the second-quantized formulation of the quantum theory of many particles. The semiclassical approximation is applied to the third-quantized Hamiltonian. The advantages of this approach in comparison with 1/N-expansion are discussed.

  16. Canonical quantization of gauge fields in static space-times with applications to Rindler spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F; Yazaki, K

    2008-01-01

    The canonical quantization in Weyl gauge of gauge fields in static space-times is presented. With an appropriate definition of transverse and longitudinal components of gauge fields, the Gauss law constraint is resolved explicitly for scalar and spinor QED and a complete non-perturbative solution is given for the quantized Maxwell-field coupled to external currents. The formalism is applied in investigations of the electromagnetic field in Rindler spaces. The relation of creation and annihilation operators in Minkowski and Rindler spaces is established and initial value problems associated with bremsstrahlung of a uniformly accelerated charge are studied. The peculiar scaling properties of scalar and gauge theories in Rindler spaces are discussed and various quantities such as the photon condensate or the interaction energy of static charges or scalar sources are computed.

  17. Effect of field quantization on Rabi oscillation of equidistant cascade four-level system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mihir Ranjan Nath; Tushar Kanti Dey; Surajit Sen; Gautam Gangopadhyay

    2008-01-01

    We have exactly solved a model of equidistant cascade four-level system interacting with a single-mode radiation field both semiclassically and quantum mechanically by exploiting its similarity with Jaynes-Cummings model. For the classical field, it is shown that the Rabi oscillation of the system initially in the first level (second level) is similar to that of the system when it is initially in the fourth level (third level). We then proceed to solve the quantized version of the model where the dressed state is constructed using a six-parameter four-dimensional matrix and show that the symmetry exhibited in the Rabi oscillation of the system for the semiclassical model is completely destroyed on the quantization of the cavity field. Finally, we have studied the collapse and revival of the system for the cavity field-mode in a coherent state to discuss the restoration of symmetry and its implication is discussed.

  18. Quantization of field systems coupled to point-masses

    CERN Document Server

    G., J Fernando Barbero; Margalef-Bentabol, Juan; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S

    2015-01-01

    We study the Fock quantization of a compound classical system consisting of point masses and a field. We start by studying the details of the Hamiltonian formulation of the model by using the geometric constraint algorithm of Gotay, Nester and Hinds. By relying on this Hamiltonian description, we characterize in a precise way the real Hilbert space of classical solutions to the equations of motion and use it to rigorously construct the Fock space of the system. We finally discuss the structure of this space, in particular the impossibility of writing it in a natural way as a tensor product of Hilbert spaces associated with the point masses and the field, respectively.

  19. Second Quantization of the Stueckelberg Relativistic Quantum Theory and Associated Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, L P

    1998-01-01

    The gauge compensation fields induced by the differential operators of the Stueckelberg-Schrödinger equation are discussed, as well as the relation between these fields and the standard Maxwell fields. An action is constructed and the second quantization of the fields carried out using a constraint procedure. Some remarks are made on the properties of the second quantized matter fields.

  20. Elements of Geometric Quantization and Applications to Fields and Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, V P

    2016-01-01

    These lecture notes (from the Second Autumn School in High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory, Yerevan 2014) cover a number of topics related to geometric quantization. Most of the material is presented from a physicist's point of view. The original notes are posted at \\verb+http://theorphyslab-ysu.info/VW_ASW-2014/uploads/ArmeniaLectures.pdf+. The have been revised with some additions and changes, although referencing is still somewhat dated. These notes are posted here as they may be good background material for some recent papers.

  1. Quantization of electromagnetic field and analysis of Purcell effect based on formalism of scattering matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliteevski, M. A.; Gubaydullin, A. R.; Ivanov, K. A.; Mazlin, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a rigorous self-consistent approach for the quantization of electromagnetic field in inhomogeneous structures. The approach is based on utilization of the scattering matrix of the system. Instead of the use of standard periodic Born-Karman boundary conditions, we use the quantization condition implying equating eigenvalues of the scattering matrix (S-matrix) of the system to unity (S-quantization). In the trivial case of uniform medium boundary condition for S-quantization is nothing but periodic boundary condition. S-quantization allows calculating modification of the spontaneous emission rate for arbitrary inhomogeneous structure and direction of the emitted radiation. S-quantization solves the long-standing problem coupled to normalization of the quasi-stationary electromagnetic modes. Examples of application of S-quantization for the calculation of spontaneous emission rate for the cases of Bragg reflector and microcavity are demonstrated.

  2. PREPARATION OF MANY-ATOM ENTANGLED STATE VIA THE QUANTIZED CAVITY FIELD RESONANT INTERACTION WITH ATOM%利用原子-腔场共振相互作用制备多原子缠结态(英)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌永

    2002-01-01

    A scheme for preparation of the many-atom entangled state via the resonant interaction of quantized cavity with atom is presented.It is injected an two-level atom initially prepared in the superposition of the ground state and excited state through the cavity prepared in the vacuum state.The atom passing through the cavity creates atom-field entanglement.The other two-level atoms prepared in the ground states are injected into the cavity at different angles,respectively.After the interaction with the cavity field,the many-atom entangled state is produced and the cavity field is still in the vacuum state.Comparing with the existing schemes,ours is easier to realize experimently.%提出了一个利用量子腔场与原子的共振相互作用制备多原子缠结态的方案.首先将一个初态制备在基态和激发态的叠加态的二能级原子注入一个真空态腔场中.原子通过腔时产生原子-场缠结.制备于基态的其它二能级原子分别以不同角度注入腔场,在与腔场相互作用时可制得多原子缠结态,而空腔仍然保持在真空态.与现存的方案比较,该方案在实验上更容易实现.

  3. Plasmon-photon interaction in metal nanoparticles: Second-quantization perturbative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finazzi, Marco; Ciccacci, Franco

    2012-07-01

    We present a description of photon-plasmon interactions in metal nanoparticles based on the second quantization of electromagnetic fields and collective electron excitations. The quantum optical properties of nanostructured systems sustaining resonant charge oscillations will be derived by applying perturbation theory. The linear optical properties can be completely derived from the plasmon-photon coupling coefficients that apply to the particular particle material, environment, and geometry. Nonlinear electromagnetic phenomena such as second harmonic generation need instead to be described by explicitly accounting for the nonlinear corrections of the plasmon-photon interaction Hamiltonian.

  4. Canonical quantization of the D=2n dimensional relativistic spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriyn, G V

    1995-01-01

    The pseudoclassical hamiltonian and action of the $D=2n$ dimensional Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic moment interacting with the external electromagnetic field is found. The Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation of motion for the Pauli-Lubanski vector is deduced. The canonical quantization of $D=2n$ dimensional Dirac spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field is carried out in the gauge which allows to describe simultaneously particles and antiparticles (massive and massless) already at the classical level. Pseudoclassical Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is used to obtain canonical (Newton-Wigner) coordinates and in terms of this variables the theory is quantized. The connection of this quantization with the deGroot and Suttorp's description of Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field is discussed.

  5. Improved Faddeev-Jackiw quantization of the electromagnetic field and Lagrange multiplier fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jin-Long; HUANG Yong-Chang

    2008-01-01

    We use the improved Faddeev-Jackiw quantization method to quantize the electromagnetic field and its Lagrange multiplier fields.The method's comparison with the usual Faddeev-Jackiw method and the Dirac method is given.We show that this method is equivalent to the Dirac method and also retains all the merits of the usual Faddeev-Jackiw method.Moreover,it is simpler than the usual one if one needs to obtain new secondary constraints.Therefore,the improved Faddeev-Jackiw method is essential.Meanwhile,we find the new meaning of the Lagrange multipliers and explain the Faddeev-Jackiw generalized brackets concerning the Lagrange multipliers.

  6. The Indispensability of Ghost Fields in the Light-Cone Gauge Quantization of Gauge Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Nakawaki, Yuji; McCartor, Gary

    1999-01-01

    We continue McCartor and Robertson's recent demonstration of the indispensability of ghost fields in the light-cone gauge quantization of gauge fields. It is shown that the ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives and in regularizing the most singular component of gauge field propagator. To this end it is sufficient to confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields. Furthermore to circumvent dealing with constrained systems, we construct the temporal gauge c...

  7. Discrete phase space - II: The second quantization of free relativistic wave fields

    CERN Document Server

    Das, A

    2008-01-01

    The Klein-Gordon equation, the Maxwell equation, and the Dirac equation are presented as partial difference equations in the eight-dimensional covariant discrete phase space. These equations are also furnished as difference-differential equations in the arena of discrete phase space and continuous time. The scalar field and electromagnetic fields are quantized with commutation relations. The spin-1/2 field is quantized with anti-commutation relations. Moreover, the total momentum, energy and charge of these free relativisitic quantized fields in the discrete phase space and continuous time are computed exactly. The results agree completely with those computed from the relativisitic fields defned on the space-time continuum.

  8. Response of two-band systems to a single-mode quantized field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. C.; Shen, H. Z.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-03-01

    The response of topological insulators (TIs) to an external weakly classical field can be expressed in terms of Kubo formula, which predicts quantized Hall conductivity of the quantum Hall family. The response of TIs to a single-mode quantized field, however, remains unexplored. In this work, we take the quantum nature of the external field into account and define a Hall conductance to characterize the linear response of a two-band system to the quantized field. The theory is then applied to topological insulators. Comparisons with the traditional Hall conductance are presented and discussed.

  9. Cotangent bundle quantization: Entangling of metric and magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Karasev, M V

    2005-01-01

    For manifolds $\\M$ of noncompact type endowed with an affine connection (for example, the Levi-Civita connection) and a closed 2-form (magnetic field) we define a Hilbert algebra structure in the space $L^2(\\TB)$ and construct an irreducible representation of this algebra in $L^2(\\M)$. This algebra is automatically extended to polynomial in momenta functions and distributions. Under some natural conditions this algebra is unique. The non-commutative product over $\\TB$ is given by an explicit integral formula. This product is exact (not formal) and is expressed in invariant geometrical terms. Our analysis reveals this product has a front, which is described in terms of geodesic triangles in $\\M$. The quantization of $\\delta$-functions induces a family of symplectic reflections in $\\TB$ and generates a magneto-geodesic connection $\\Gamma$ on $T^*\\M$. This symplectic connection entangles, on the phase space level, the original affine structure on $\\M$ and the magnetic field. In the classical approximation, the $...

  10. SL(2,C) Gauge Theory of Gravitation and the Quantization of the Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, M; Carmeli, Moshe; Malin, Shimon

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to quantize the gravitational field is presented. It is based on the observation that the quantum character of matter becomes more significant as one gets closer to the big bang. As the metric loses its meaning, it makes sense to consider Schrodinger's three generic types of manifolds - unconnected differentiable, affinely connected, and metrically connected - as a temporal sequence following the big bang. Hence one should quantize the gravitational field on general differentiable manifolds or on affinely connected manifolds. The SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation is employed to explore this possibility. Within this framework, the quantization itself may well be canonical.

  11. Determination of the Density of Energy States in a Quantizing Magnetic Field for Model Kane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gulyamov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For nonparabolic dispersion law determined by the density of the energy states in a quantizing magnetic field, the dependence of the density of energy states on temperature in quantizing magnetic fields is studied with the nonquadratic dispersion law. Experimental results obtained for PbTe were analyzed using the suggested model. The continuous spectrum of the energy density of states at low temperature is transformed into discrete Landau levels.

  12. Inequivalent quantization in the field of a ferromagnetic wire

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Pulak Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    We argue that it is possible to bind neutral atom (NA) to the ferromagnetic wire (FW) by inequivalent quantization of the Hamiltonian. We follow the well known von Neumann's method of self-adjoint extensions (SAE) to get this inequivalent quantization, which is characterized by a parameter \\Sigma\\in\\mathbb{R}({mod}2\\pi). There exists a single bound state for the coupling constant \\eta^2\\in[0,1). Although this bound state should not occur due to the existence of classical scale symmetry in the problem. But since quantization procedure breaks this classical symmetry, bound state comes out as a scale in the problem leading to scaling anomaly. We also discuss the strong coupling region \\eta^2< 0, which supports bound state making the problem re-normalizable.

  13. Effective Field Theory of Fractional Quantized Hall Nematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Michael; /MIT, LNS; Nayak, Chetan; /Station Q, UCSB; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    We present a Landau-Ginzburg theory for a fractional quantized Hall nematic state and the transition to it from an isotropic fractional quantum Hall state. This justifies Lifshitz-Chern-Simons theory - which is shown to be its dual - on a more microscopic basis and enables us to compute a ground state wave function in the symmetry-broken phase. In such a state of matter, the Hall resistance remains quantized while the longitudinal DC resistivity due to thermally-excited quasiparticles is anisotropic. We interpret recent experiments at Landau level filling factor {nu} = 7/3 in terms of our theory.

  14. BRST quantization of a sixth-order derivative scalar field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai

    2013-01-01

    We study a sixth order derivative scalar field model in Minkowski spacetime as a toy model of higher-derivative critical gravity theories. This model is consistently quantized when using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization scheme even though it does not show gauge symmetry manifestly. Imposing a BRST quartet generated by two scalars and ghosts, there remains a non-trivial subspace with positive norm. This might be interpreted as a Minkowskian dual version of the unitary truncati...

  15. The Indispensability of Ghost Fields in the Light-Cone Gauge Quantization of Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nakawaki, Y; Nakawaki, Yuji; Cartor, Gary Mc

    1999-01-01

    We continue McCartor and Robertson's recent demonstration of the indispensability of ghost fields in the light-cone gauge quantization of gauge fields. It is shown that the ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives and in regularizing the most singular component of gauge field propagator. To this end it is sufficient to confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields. Furthermore to circumvent dealing with constrained systems, we construct the temporal gauge canonical formulation of the free electromagnetic field in auxiliary coordinates $x^{\\mu}=(x^-,x^+,x^1,x^2)$ where $x^-=x^0 cos{\\theta}-x^3 sin{\\theta}, x^+=x^0 sin{\\theta}+x^3 cos{\\theta}$ and $x^-$ plays the role of time. In so doing we can quantize the fields canonically without any constraints, unambiguously introduce "static ghost fields" as residual gauge degrees of freedom and construct the light-cone gauge solution in the light-cone representation by simply taking the light-cone limit (${\\theta}\\to \\pi/4$). As a by...

  16. The Indispensability of Ghost Fields in the Light-Cone Gauge Quantization of Gauge Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakawaki, Y.; McCartor, G.

    1999-07-01

    We continue McCartor and Robertson's recent demonstration of the indispensability of ghost fields in the light-cone gauge quantization of gauge fields. It is shown that the ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives and in regularizing the most singular component of the gauge field propagator. To this end it is sufficient to confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields. Furthermore, to circumvent dealing with constrained systems, we construct the temporal gauge canonical formulation of the free electromagnetic field in auxiliary coordinates xμ=(x-, x+, x1, x2), where x- = x0 cos {θ}-x3 sin θ x+ = x0 sin θ +x3 cos θ and x- plays the role of time. In so doing we can quantize the fields canonically without any constraints, unambiguously introduce ``static ghost fields" as residual gauge degrees of freedom and construct the light-cone gauge solution in the light-cone representation by simply taking the light-cone limit (θ --> (π / 4) ). As a by product we find that, with a suitable choice of vacuum, the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt form of the propagator can be derived in the θ=0 case (the temporal gauge formulation in the equal-time representation).

  17. Quantized Conductance in InSb nanowires at zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    We present measurements of InSb nanowires in the ballistic transport regime. In 1D materials such as nanowires, electron scattering has an increased chance of back-reflection, obscuring the observation of quantized conductance at low magnetic fields. By improving the contacts to the nanowire as well as its dielectric environment backscattering events are minimized and conductance quantization is observable at zero magnetic field with high device yield. We study the evolution of individual sub-bands in an external magnetic field, observing a degeneracy between the 2nd and 3rd sub-band when the magnetic field is orientated perpendicular to the nanowire axis.

  18. Indispensability of Ghost Fields and Extended Hamiltonian Formalism in Axial Gauge Quantization of Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nakawaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives in pure space-like axial gauge quantizations of gauge fields. To avoid inessential complications we confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields and incorporate their quantizations as a continuous deformation of those in light-cone gauge. We attain this by constructing an axial gauge formulation in auxiliary coordinates $x^{\\mu}= (x^+,x^-,x^1,x^2)$, where $x^+=x^0{\\rm sin}{\\theta}+x^3{\\rm cos}{\\theta}, x^-=x^0{\\rm cos}{\\theta}-x^3{\\rm sin}{\\theta}$ and $x^+$ and $A_-=A^0{\\rm cos} {\\theta}+A^3{\\rm sin}{\\theta}=0$ are taken as the evolution parameter and the gauge fixing condition, respectively. We introduce $x^-$-independent residual gauge fields as ghost fields and accomodate them to the Hamiltonian formalism by applying McCartor and Robertson's method. As a result, we obtain conserved translational generators $P_{\\mu}$, which retain ghost degrees of freedom integrated over the hyperplane $x^-=$ constant. They enabl...

  19. Stress-energy of a quantized scalar field in static wormhole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, B E; Anderson, P R; Taylor, Brett E.; Hiscock, William A.; Anderson, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    Static traversable wormhole solutions of the Einstein equations require ``exotic'' matter which violates the weak energy condition. The vacuum stress-energy of quantized fields has been proposed as the source for this matter. Using the Dewitt-Schwinger approximation, analytic expressions for the stress-energy of a quantized massive scalar field are calculated in five static spherically symmetric Lorentzian wormhole spacetimes. We find that in all cases, for both minimally and conformally coupled scalar fields, the stress-energy does not have the properties needed to support the wormhole geometry.

  20. Conductance Quantization at Zero Magnetic Field in InSb Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja C.; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Nijholt, Bas; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic electron transport is a key requirement for existence of a topological phase transition in proximitized InSb nanowires. However, measurements of quantized conductance as direct evidence of ballistic transport have so far been obscured due to the increased chance of backscattering in one dimensional nanowires. We show that by improving the nanowire-metal interface as well as the dielectric environment we can consistently achieve conductance quantization at zero magnetic field. Additionally, studying the sub-band evolution in a rotating magnetic field reveals an orbital degeneracy between the second and third sub-bands for perpendicular fields above 1T.

  1. Polymer quantization of the free scalar field and its classical limit

    CERN Document Server

    Laddha, Alok

    2010-01-01

    Building on prior work, a generally covariant reformulation of free scalar field theory on the flat Lorentzian cylinder is quantized using Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) type `polymer' representations. This quantization of the {\\em continuum} classical theory yields a quantum theory which lives on a discrete spacetime lattice. We explicitly construct a state in the polymer Hilbert space which reproduces the standard Fock vacuum- two point functions for long wavelength modes of the scalar field. Our construction indicates that the continuum classical theory emerges under coarse graining. All our considerations are free of the "triangulation" ambiguities which plague attempts to define quantum dynamics in LQG. Our work constitutes the first complete LQG type quantization of a generally covariant field theory together with a semi-classical analysis of the true degrees of freedom and thus provides a perfect infinite dimensional toy model to study open issues in LQG, particularly those pertaining to the definition of ...

  2. BRST Quantization of a Sixth-Order Derivative Scalar Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai

    2013-12-01

    We study a sixth-order derivative scalar field model in Minkowski spacetime as a toy model of higher-derivative critical gravity theories. This model is consistently quantized when using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization scheme even though it does not show gauge symmetry manifestly. Imposing a BRST quartet generated by two scalars and ghosts, there remains a nontrivial subspace with positive norm. This might be interpreted as a Minkowskian dual version of the unitary truncation in the logarithmic conformal field theory.

  3. BRST quantization of a sixth-order derivative scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2013-01-01

    We study a sixth order derivative scalar field model in Minkowski spacetime as a toy model of higher-derivative critical gravity theories. This model is consistently quantized when using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization scheme even though it does not show gauge symmetry manifestly. Imposing a BRST quartet generated by two scalars and ghosts, there remains a non-trivial subspace with positive norm. This might be interpreted as a Minkowskian dual version of the unitary truncation in the logarithmic conformal field theory.

  4. Anderson Localization with Second Quantized Fields: Quantum Statistical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Clinton; Agarwal, G S

    2010-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of Anderson localization of nonclassical light with emphasis on the quantum statistical aspects of localized light. We demonstrate, from the variance in mean intensity of localized light, as well as site-to-site correlations, that the localized light carries signatures of quantum statistics of input light. For comparison, we also present results for input light with coherent field statistics and thermal field statistics. Our results show that there is an enhancement in fluctuations of localized light due to the medium's disorder. We also find superbunching of the localized light, which may be useful for enhancing the interaction between radiation and matter. Another important consequence of sub-Poissonian statistics of the incoming light is to quench the total fluctuations at the output. Finally, we compare the effects of Gaussian and Rectangular distributions for the disorder, and show that Gaussian disorder accelerates the localization of light.

  5. Configuration interaction in the second quantization representation: basics with applications up to full CI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Kruglyak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical formalism of the second quantization is applied to the configuration interaction (CI method in quantum chemistry. Application of the Wick’s theorems for calculation of the matrix elements over configurations leads to a simple logical scheme which is valid for configurations of an arbitrary complexity and can be easily programmed.

  6. Magneto-Coulomb Drag: Interplay of Electron-Electron Interactions and Landau Quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1996-01-01

    effect. The presence of both electron-electron interactions and Landau quantization results in (i) a twin-peaked structure of rho(21)(B) in the interplateau regions at low temperatures and (ii) for the chemical potential at the center of a Landau level band, a peaked temperature dependence of rho(21)(T...

  7. Dynamics of cascade three-level system interacting with the classical and quantized field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mihir Ranjan Nath; Surajit Sen; Gautam Gangopadhyay

    2003-12-01

    We study the exact solutions of the cascade three-level atom interacting with a single mode classical and quantized field with different initial conditions ofthe atom. For the semiclassical model, it is found that if the atom is initially in the middle level, the time-dependent populations of the upper and lower levels are always equal. This dynamical symmetry exhibited by the classical field is spoiled on quantization of the field mode. To reveal this non-classical effect, a Euler matrix formalism is developed to solve the dressed states of the cascade Jaynes–Cummings model (JCM). Possible modification of such an effect on the collapse and revival phenomenon is also discussed by taking the quantized field in a coherent state.

  8. Reduced Loop Quantization with four Klein-Gordon Scalar Fields as Reference Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Giesel, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we perform a reduced phase space quantization of gravity using four Klein-Gordon scalar fields as reference matter as an alternative to the Brown-Kucha\\v{r} dust model in [1] where eight (dust) scalar fields are used. We compare our results to an earlier model by Domagala et. al. [2] where only one Klein-Gordon scalar field was considered as reference matter for the Hamiltonian constraint. As a result we find that the choice of four Klein-Gordon scalar fields as reference matter leads to a reduced dynamical model that cannot be quantized using loop quantum gravity techniques. However, we further discuss a slight generalization of the action for the four Klein-Gordon scalar fields and show that this leads to a model which can be quantized in the framework of loop quantum gravity. Particularly, considering the model by Domagala et. al. [2] and the one introduced in this work we are able to compare Dirac and reduced phase space quantization.

  9. Fourth quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir

    2013-12-18

    In this Letter we will analyze the creation of the multiverse. We will first calculate the wave function for the multiverse using third quantization. Then we will fourth-quantize this theory. We will show that there is no single vacuum state for this theory. Thus, we can end up with a multiverse, even after starting from a vacuum state. This will be used as a possible explanation for the creation of the multiverse. We also analyze the effect of interactions in this fourth-quantized theory.

  10. Quantized photonic spin Hall effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liang; Liu, Mengxia; Chen, Shizhen; Liu, Yachao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-01-01

    We examine the photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) in a graphene-substrate system with the presence of an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime, we demonstrate that the in-plane and transverse spin-dependent splittings in the photonic SHE exhibit different quantized behaviors. The quantized SHE can be described as a consequence of a quantized geometric phase (Berry phase), which corresponds to the quantized spin-orbit interaction. Furthermore, an experimental scheme based on quantum weak value amplification is proposed to detect the quantized SHE in the terahertz frequency regime. By incorporating the quantum weak measurement techniques, the quantized photonic SHE holds great promise for detecting quantized Hall conductivity and the Berry phase. These results may bridge the gap between the electronic SHE and photonic SHE in graphene.

  11. New aspects of quantization of Jackiw-Pi model: field-antifield formalism and noncommutativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nikoofard, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The so-callled Jackiw-Pi (JP) model for massive vector fields is a three dimensional, gauge invariant and parity preserving model which was discussed in several contexts. In this paper we have discussed its quantum aspects through the introduction of Planck scale objects, i.e., via noncommutativity and the well known BV quantization. Namely, we have constructed the JP noncommutative space-time version and we have provided the BV quantization of the commutative JP model and we have discussed its features. The noncommutativity has introduced interesting new objects in JP's Planck scale framework. The anomaly issue was discussed.

  12. Effect of Quantizing Magnetic Field on Cyclotron Energy and Cyclotron Effective Mass in Size Quantized Films with Non-Parabolic Energy Band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.(I). GUL(I)YEV; R. F. EM(I)NBEYL(I); A. KORKUT

    2007-01-01

    The Fermi energy, cyclotron energy and cyclotron effective mass of degenerate electron gas in a size-quantized semiconductor thin film with non-parabolic energy bands are studied. The influences of quantizing magnetic field on these quantities in two-band approximation of the Kane model are investigated. It is shown that the Fermi energy oscillates in a magnetic field. The period and positions of these oscillations are found as a function of film thickness and concentration of electrons. Cyclotron energy and cyclotron effective mass are investigated as a function of film thickness in detail. The results obtained here are compared with experimental data on GaAs quantum wells.

  13. Canonical quantization of lattice Higgs-Yang-Mills fields: Krein essential selfadjointness of the Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challifour, John L.; Timko, Edward J.

    2016-06-01

    Using a Krein indefinite metric in Fock space, the Hamiltonian for cut-off models of canonically quantized Higgs-Yang-Mills fields interpolating between the Gupta-Bleuler-Feynman and Landau gauges is shown to be essentially maximal accretive and essentially Krein selfadjoint.

  14. Stochastic quantization of topological field theory: generalized Langevin equation with memory kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N.F. E-mail: gsm@cbpf.br; nfuxsvai@cbpf.br

    2006-04-15

    We use the method of stochastic quantization in a topological field theory defined in an Euclidean space, assuming a Langevin equation with a memory kernel. We show that our procedure for the Abelian Chern-Simons theory converges regardless of the nature of the Chern-Simons coefficient. (author)

  15. A canonical approach to electromagnetic field quantization in a nonhomogeneous and anisotropic magnetodielectric medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Amooshahi, Majid; Soltani, Morteza [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Ave., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: fardinkh@phys.ui.ac.ir, E-mail: amooshahi@phys.ui.ac.ir, E-mail: m.soltani@phys.ui.ac.ir

    2009-04-14

    In this paper, by extending the Lagrangian of the Huttner-Barnett model an electromagnetic field in a nonhomogeneous and anisotropic magnetodielectric medium is quantized canonically. In this model, Maxwell equations in the medium are obtained and solved using the Green function technique. The noise operators are found and the results are compared with the phenomenological method.

  16. Phase space quantization, non-commutativity and the gravitational field

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of the phase space in non-commutative geometry in the presence of a non-trivial frame. Our basic assumptions are that the underlying space is a symplectic and parallelizable manifold. Furthermore, we assume the validity of the Leibniz rule and the Jacobi identities. We consider non-commutative spaces due to the quantization of the symplectic structure and determine the momentum operators that guarantee a set of canonical commutation relations, appropriately extended to include the non-trivial frame. We stress the important role of left vs. right acting operators and of symplectic duality. This enables us to write down the form of the full phase space algebra on these non-commutative spaces, both in the non-compact and in the compact case. We test our results against the class of 4D and 6D symplectic nilmanifolds, thus presenting a large set of non-trivial examples that realize the general formalism.

  17. Response of a rotating detector coupled to a polymer quantized field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffino Stargen, D.; Kajuri, Nirmalya; Sriramkumar, L.

    2017-09-01

    Assuming that high-energy effects may alter the standard dispersion relations governing quantized fields, the influence of such modifications on various phenomena has been studied extensively in the literature. In different contexts, it has generally been found that, while superluminal dispersion relations hardly affect the standard results, subluminal relations can lead to (even substantial) modifications to the conventional results. A polymer quantized scalar field is characterized by a series of modified dispersion relations along with suitable changes to the standard measure of the density of modes. Amongst the modified dispersion relations, one finds that the lowest in the series can behave subluminally over a small domain in wave numbers. In this work, we study the response of a uniformly rotating Unruh-DeWitt detector that is coupled to a polymer quantized scalar field. While certain subluminal dispersion relations can alter the response of the rotating detector considerably, in the case of polymer quantization, due to the specific nature of the dispersion relations, the modification to the transition probability rate of the detector does not prove to be substantial. We discuss the wider implications of the result.

  18. Quantization of massive scalar fields over axis symmetric space-time backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Piedra, O P F; Oca, Alejandro Cabo Montes de; Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernandez

    2007-01-01

    The renormalized mean value of the quantum Lagrangian and the Energy-Momentum tensor for scalar fields coupled to an arbitrary gravitational field configuration are analytically evaluated in the Schwinger-DeWitt approximation, up to second order in the inverse mass value. The cylindrical symmetry situation is considered. The results furnish the starting point for investigating iterative solutions of the back-reaction problem related with the quantization of cylindrical scalar field configurations. Due to the homogeneity of the equations of motion of the Klein-Gordon field, the general results are also valid for performing the quantization over either vanishing or non-vanishing mean field configurations. As an application, compact analytical expressions are derived here for the quantum mean Lagrangian and Energy-Momentum tensor in the particular background given by the Black-String space-time.

  19. Massless Scalar Field Propagator in a Quantized Space-Time

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, V

    2006-01-01

    We consider in detail the analytic behaviour of the non-interacting massless scalar field two-point function in H.S. Snyder's discretized non-commuting spacetime. The propagator we find is purely real on the Euclidean side of the complex $p^2$ plane and goes like $1/p^2$ as $p^2\\to 0$ from either the Euclidean or Minkowski side. The real part of the propagator goes smoothly to zero as $p^2$ increases to the discretization scale $1/a^2$ and remains zero for $p^2>1/a^2$. This behaviour is consistent with the termination of single-particle propagation on the ultraviolet side of the discretization scale. The imaginary part of the propagator, consistent with a multiparticle-production branch discontinuity, is finite and continuous on the Minkowski side, slowly falling to zero when $1/a^2

  20. Finite-temperature electromagnetic-field quantization in a medium: The thermofield approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheirandish, F.; Soltani, M.; Jafari, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jarib Street, 81746-73441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Starting from a Lagrangian, an electromagnetic field is quantized in the presence of a medium in thermal equilibrium and also in a medium with time-varying temperature. The vector potential for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases is obtained and vacuum fluctuations of the fields are calculated. As an illustrative example, the finite-temperature decay rate and level shift of an atom in a polarizable medium are calculated in this approach.

  1. Relativistic diffusion equation from stochastic quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O

    2007-01-01

    The new scheme of stochastic quantization is proposed. This quantization procedure is equivalent to the deformation of an algebra of observables in the manner of deformation quantization with an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). We apply this method to the models of nonrelativistic and relativistic particles interacting with an electromagnetic field. In the first case we establish the equivalence of such a quantization to the Fokker-Planck equation with a special force. The application of the proposed quantization procedure to the model of a relativistic particle results in a relativistic generalization of the Fokker-Planck equation in the coordinate space, which in the absence of the electromagnetic field reduces to the relativistic diffusion (heat) equation. The stationary probability distribution functions for a stochastically quantized particle diffusing under a barrier and a particle in the potential of a harmonic oscillator are derived.

  2. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in spatially flat cosmological spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomar, Laura Castelló [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cortez, Jerónimo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Blas, Daniel Martín-de; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: laucaste@estumail.ucm.es, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: daniel.martin@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade da Beira Interior, R. Marquês D' Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal)

    2012-11-01

    We study the Fock quantization of scalar fields in (generically) time dependent scenarios, focusing on the case in which the field propagation occurs in –either a background or effective– spacetime with spatial sections of flat compact topology. The discussion finds important applications in cosmology, like e.g. in the description of test Klein-Gordon fields and scalar perturbations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the observationally favored flat case. Two types of ambiguities in the quantization are analyzed. First, the infinite ambiguity existing in the choice of a Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, understandable as the freedom in the choice of inequivalent vacua for a given field. Besides, in cosmological situations, it is customary to scale the fields by time dependent functions, which absorb part of the evolution arising from the spacetime, which is treated classically. This leads to an additional ambiguity, this time in the choice of a canonical pair of field variables. We show that both types of ambiguities are removed by the requirements of (a) invariance of the vacuum under the symmetries of the three-torus, and (b) unitary implementation of the dynamics in the quantum theory. In this way, one arrives at a unique class of unitarily equivalent Fock quantizations for the system. This result provides considerable robustness to the quantum predictions and renders meaningful the confrontation with observation.

  3. Collapse and revival of a single-Cooper-pair box in a single-mode quantized field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚延荪; 邹健; 邵彬

    2003-01-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a single-Cooper-pair box biased by a classical voltage and also irradiated by a single-mode quantized field.We demonstrate that under weak damping of the quantized field,the collapse-revival phenomena can exist in this system,and the oscillations of the collapse and revival depend sensitively on the initial state of the single-mode quantized field and the damping rate κ.We also demonstrate that this system can show the beats phenomena.

  4. Wigner function and the entanglement of a quantized Bessel-Gaussian vortex state of a quantized radiation field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Kai-Cheng; Li Shao-Xin; Tang Ying; Zheng Xiao-Juan; Tang Hui-Qin

    2012-01-01

    A new kind of quantum non-Gaussian state with a vortex structure,termed a Bessel-Gaussian vortex state,is constructed,which is an eigenstate of the sum of squared annihilation operators a2 + b2.The Wigner function of the quantum vortex state is derived and exhibits negativity which is an indication of nonclassicality.It is also found that a quantized vortex state is always in entanglement.And a scheme for generating such quantized vortex states is proposed.

  5. Quantization of a billiard model for interacting particles

    CERN Document Server

    Papenbrock, T; Papenbrock, Thomas; Prosen, Tomaz

    2000-01-01

    We consider a billiard model of a self-bound, interacting three-body system in two spatial dimensions. Numerical studies show that the classical dynamics is chaotic. The corresponding quantum system displays spectral fluctuations that exhibit small deviations from random matrix theory predictions. These can be understood in terms of scarring caused by a 1-parameter family of orbits inside the collinear manifold.

  6. Quantization of the minimal and non-minimal vector field in curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, David J

    2015-01-01

    The local momentum space method is used to study the quantized massive vector field (the Proca field) with the possible addition of non-minimal terms. Heat kernel coefficients are calculated and used to evaluate the divergent part of the one-loop effective action. It is shown that the naive expression for the effective action that one would write down based on the minimal coupling case needs modification. We adopt a Faddeev-Jackiw method of quantization and consider the case of an ultrastatic spacetime for simplicity. The operator that arises for non-minimal coupling to the curvature is shown to be non-minimal in the sense of Barvinsky and Vilkovisky. It is shown that when a general non-minimal term is added to the theory the result is not renormalizable with the addition of a local Lagrangian counterterm.

  7. Orbital quantization in the high-magnetic-field state of a charge-density-wave system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, D.; Kartsovnik, M. V.; Grigoriev, P. D.; Biberacher, W.; Müller, H.

    2003-11-01

    A superposition of the Pauli and orbital couplings of a high magnetic field to charge carriers in a charge-density-wave (CDW) system is proposed to give rise to transitions between subphases with quantized values of the CDW wave vector. By contrast to the purely orbital field-induced density-wave effects which require a strongly imperfect nesting of the Fermi surface, the new transitions can occur even if the Fermi surface is well nested at zero field. We suggest that such transitions are observed in the organic metal α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 under a strongly tilted magnetic field.

  8. Longitudinal magnetoresistance of layered crystals in a quantizing magnetic field taking into account the spin splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askerov, B. M.; Figarova, S. R.; Mahmudov, M. M.

    2006-07-01

    The magnetoresistance of layered crystals in a longitudinal quantizing magnetic field by taking into account the spin splitting is theoretically investigated. The general expression for the electrical conductivity of a quasi two-dimensional electron gas at the deformation-potential scattering has been obtained. In the behavior of the specific resistance, peaks have been revealed, and a number and positions of the peaks are dictated by the spin splitting magnitude.

  9. Group field theory as the 2nd quantization of Loop Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Oriti, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    We construct a 2nd quantized reformulation of canonical Loop Quantum Gravity at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the Group Field Theory formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specifi...

  10. Quantization of massive scalar fields over static black string backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernandez

    2007-01-01

    The renormalized mean value of the corresponding components of the Energy-Momentum tensor for massive scalar fields coupled to an arbitrary gravitational field configuration having cylindrical symmetry are analytically evaluated using the Schwinger-DeWitt approximation, up to second order in the inverse mass value. The general results are employed to explicitly derive compact analytical expressions for the Energy-Momentum tensor in the particular background of the Black-String spacetime. In the case of the Black String considered in this work, we proof that a violation of the weak energy condition occur at the horizon of the space-time for values of the coupling constant, that include as particular cases the most interesting of minimal and conformal coupling.

  11. Second Quantized Scalar QED in Homogeneous Time-Dependent Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2014-01-01

    We formulate the second quantized scalar quantum electrodynamics in homogeneous, time-dependent electromagnetic fields, in which the Hamiltonian for a charged scalar field is an infinite system of decoupled time-dependent oscillators for electric fields but of coupled time-dependent oscillators for magnetic fields. We then employ the quantum invariant method to find various quantum states for the charged field. For time-dependent electric fields, a pair of quantum invariant operators for each oscillator plays the role of the time-dependent annihilation and creation operators, constructs the exact quantum states, and gives the vacuum persistence amplitude as well as the pair-production rate. We also find the quantum invariants for the coupled oscillators for the charged field in time-dependent magnetic fields and advance a perturbation method when the magnetic fields change adiabatically. Finally the quantum state and pair production is discussed when a time-dependent electric field is present in parallel to t...

  12. Precise Quantization of the Anomalous Hall Effect near Zero Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestwick, A. J.; Fox, E. J.; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

    2015-05-01

    We report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10 000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  13. D-Theory: Field Quantization by Dimensional Reduction of Discrete Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, R; Riederer, S; Wiese, U J

    2003-01-01

    D-theory is an alternative non-perturbative approach to quantum field theory formulated in terms of discrete quantized variables instead of classical fields. Classical scalar fields are replaced by generalized quantum spins and classical gauge fields are replaced by quantum links. The classical fields of a d-dimensional quantum field theory reappear as low-energy effective degrees of freedom of the discrete variables, provided the (d+1)-dimensional D-theory is massless. When the extent of the extra Euclidean dimension becomes small in units of the correlation length, an ordinary d-dimensional quantum field theory emerges by dimensional reduction. The D-theory formulation of scalar field theories with various global symmetries and of gauge theories with various gauge groups is constructed explicitly and the mechanism of dimensional reduction is investigated.

  14. Particle on a torus knot: Constrained dynamics and semi-classical quantization in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Praloy; Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir

    2016-11-01

    Kinematics and dynamics of a particle moving on a torus knot poses an interesting problem as a constrained system. In the first part of the paper we have derived the modified symplectic structure or Dirac brackets of the above model in Dirac's Hamiltonian framework, both in toroidal and Cartesian coordinate systems. This algebra has been used to study the dynamics, in particular small fluctuations in motion around a specific torus. The spatial symmetries of the system have also been studied. In the second part of the paper we have considered the quantum theory of a charge moving in a torus knot in the presence of a uniform magnetic field along the axis of the torus in a semiclassical quantization framework. We exploit the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller (EBK) scheme of quantization that is appropriate for multidimensional systems. Embedding of the knot on a specific torus is inherently two dimensional that gives rise to two quantization conditions. This shows that although the system, after imposing the knot condition reduces to a one dimensional system, even then it has manifested non-planar features which shows up again in the study of fractional angular momentum. Finally we compare the results obtained from EBK (multi-dimensional) and Bohr-Sommerfeld (single dimensional) schemes. The energy levels and fractional spin depend on the torus knot parameters that specifies its non-planar features. Interestingly, we show that there can be non-planar corrections to the planar anyon-like fractional spin.

  15. Field-induced diverse quantizations in monolayer and bilayer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jhao-Ying; Chen, Szu-Chao; Gumbs, Godfrey; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2017-03-01

    This report provides a comprehensive understanding of the magnetic quantization effects in phosphorene with the use of the generalized tight-binding model. Especially for bilayer systems, a composite magnetic and electric field can induce the feature-rich LL spectrum. We demonstrate the existence of two subgroups of Landau levels (LLs) near the Fermi level according to their distinguishable localization centers. The strong competition between the two subgroups induces unusual quantization behaviors, such as multiple anticrossings for the Bz- and Ez-dependent energy spectra. These results are clearly explained by the spatial distributions of subenvelope functions from which two types of LLs are characterized by being either the usual or the perturbed distribution modes. The detailed analysis of the diverse magnetic quantizations is quite important in understanding other physical properties, such as the dispersion relations of magnetoplasmons, magneto-optical selection rules, as well as electron transport properties. The unusual energy spectra are directly revealed by the special features of the density of states, which could be further validated by measurements employing scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

  16. Third quantization: modeling the universe as a 'particle' in a quantum field theory of the minisuperspace

    CERN Document Server

    Robles-Pérez, S J

    2012-01-01

    The third quantization formalism of quantum cosmology adds simplicity and conceptual insight into the quantum description of the multiverse. Within such a formalism, the existence of squeezed and entangled states raises the question of whether the complementary principle of quantum mechanics has to be extended to the quantum description of the whole space-time manifold. If so, the 'particle' description entails the consideration of a multiverse scenario and the 'wave' description induces us to consider as well correlations and interactions among the universes of the multiverse.

  17. Higher Spin Fermionic Quantum Fields on Curved Spacetimes and their Algebraic Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Muehlhoff, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    A first order linear differential operator for Fermionic spinor fields of arbitrary half integral spin on globally hyperbolic Lorentzian spacetime manifolds is constructed. The Cauchy problem for the resulting field equation (massive as well as massless) is shown to have unique solutions. On the spinor bundle, a natural Hermitian scalar product is constructed with respect to which the differential operator is of positive-definite type. This leads to a construction of C*-algebra representation of the canonical anti-commutation relations and thus to a quantization of the higher spin system, which does not depend on further choices. Hence, these considerations show that the well-known CAR-algebraic quantization construction by Dimock (1982) for the spin 1/2 Dirac field can naturally be generalized to Fermionic fields of higher spin, which was as yet an open question. This document is equipped with a solid introduction to the formalism of 2-spinors on curved spacetimes in an invariant fashion using abstract index...

  18. Noise-free scattering of the quantized electromagnetic field from a dispersive linear dielectric

    CERN Document Server

    Hillery, M; Hillery, Mark; Drummond, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    We study the scattering of the quantized electromagnetic field from a linear, dispersive dielectric using the scattering formalism for quantum fields. The medium is modeled as a collection of harmonic oscillators with a number of distinct resonance frequencies. This model corresponds to the Sellmeir expansion, which is widely used to describe experimental data for real dispersive media. The integral equation for the interpolating field in terms of the in field is solved and the solution used to find the out field. The relation between the in and out creation and annihilation operators is found which allows one to calculate the S-matrix for this system. In this model, we find that there are absorption bands, but the input-output relations are completely unitary. No additional quantum noise terms are required.

  19. Covariant Quantization of "Massive" Spin-3/2 Fields in the de Sitter Space

    CERN Document Server

    Takook, M V; Babaian, E

    2012-01-01

    We present a covariant quantization of the free "massive" spin-3/2 fields in four-dimensional de Sitter space-time based on analyticity in the complexified pseudo-Riemannian manifold. The field equation is obtained as an eigenvalue equation of the Casimir operator of the de Sitter group. The solutions are calculated in terms of coordinate-independent de Sitter plane-waves in tube domains and the null curvature limit is discussed. We give the group theoretical content of the field equation. The Wightman two-point function $S^{i \\bar j}_{\\alpha\\alpha'}(x,x')$ is calculated. We introduce the spinor-vector field operator $\\Psi_\\alpha(f)$ and the Hilbert space structure. A coordinate-independent formula for the field operator $\\Psi_\\alpha(x)$ is also presented.

  20. Group field theory as the second quantization of loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    We construct a second quantized reformulation of canonical loop quantum gravity (LQG) at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the group field theory (GFT) formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.

  1. On the Irreducible BRST Quantization of Spin-5/2 Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bizdadea, C; Timneanu, E N

    1998-01-01

    Spin-5/2 gauge fields are quantized in an irreducible way within both the BRST and BRST-anti-BRST manners. To this end, we transform the reducible generating set into an irreducible one, such that the physical observables corresponding to these two formulations coincide. The gauge-fixing procedure emphasizes on the one hand the differences among our procedure and the results obtained in the literature, and on the other hand the equivalence between our BRST and BRST-anti-BRST approaches.

  2. Group field theory as the 2nd quantization of Loop Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oriti, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    We construct a 2nd quantized reformulation of canonical Loop Quantum Gravity at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the Group Field Theory formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.

  3. Stückelberg Field Shiftting Quantization of Free-Particle on D-Dimensional Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, C

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we quantize the free-particle on a D-dimensional sphere in an unambiguous way by converting the second-class constraint using St\\"uckelberg field shiftting formalism. Further, we argument that this formalism is equivalent to the BFFT constraint conversion method and show that the energy spectrum is identical to the pure Laplace-Beltrami operator without additional terms arising from the curvature of the sphere. We work out the gauge symmetry generators with results consistent with those obtained through the nonlinear implementation of the gauge symmetry

  4. The Casimir effect with quantized charged spinor matter in background magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, Yu A

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of a background uniform magnetic field and boundary conditions on the vacuum of a quantized charged spinor matter field confined between two parallel neutral plates; the magnetic field is directed orthogonally to the plates. The admissible set of boundary conditions at the plates is determined by the requirement that the Dirac hamiltonian operator be self-adjoint. It is shown that, in the case of a sufficiently strong magnetic field and a sufficiently large separation of the plates, the Casimir force is repulsive, being independent of the choice of a boundary condition, as well as of the distance between the plates. The detection of this effect seems to be feasible in a foreseen future.

  5. Criteria for the determination of time dependent scalings in the Fock quantization of scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M

    2012-01-01

    The quantization of scalar fields in nonstationary spacetimes is plagued with ambiguities that undermine the significance of physical predictions. A context in which this kind of ambiguities arises and prevents the derivation of robust results is, e.g., in the quantum analysis of cosmological perturbations. In these situations, typically, a suitable scaling of the field by a time dependent function leads to a description in an auxiliary static background, though the nonstationarity still shows up in a time dependent mass. For such a field description, and assuming the compactness of the spatial sections, we recently proved in three or less spatial dimensions that the criteria of a natural implementation of the spatial isometries and of a unitary time evolution are able to select a unique class of unitarily equivalent vacua, and hence of Fock representations. In this work, we extend our uniqueness result to the consideration of all possible field descriptions that can be reached by a time dependent canonical t...

  6. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in a Bianchi I cosmology with unitary dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M

    2016-01-01

    The Fock quantization of free scalar fields is subject to an infinite ambiguity when it comes to choosing a set of annihilation and creation operators, choice that is equivalent to the determination of a vacuum state. In highly symmetric situations, this ambiguity can be removed by asking vacuum invariance under the symmetries of the system. Similarly, in stationary backgrounds, one can demand time-translation invariance plus positivity of the energy. However, in more general situations, additional criteria are needed. For the case of free (test) fields minimally coupled to a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, it has been proven that the ambiguity is resolved by introducing the criterion of unitary implementability of the quantum dynamics, as an endomorphism in Fock space. This condition determines a specific separation of the time dependence of the field, so that this splits into a very precise background dependence and a genuine quantum evolution. Furthermore, together with the condition of vacuum invaria...

  7. Second quantized scalar QED in homogeneous time-dependent electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2014-12-01

    We formulate the second quantization of a charged scalar field in homogeneous, time-dependent electromagnetic fields, in which the Hamiltonian is an infinite system of decoupled, time-dependent oscillators for electric fields, but it is another infinite system of coupled, time-dependent oscillators for magnetic fields. We then employ the quantum invariant method to find various quantum states for the charged field. For time-dependent electric fields, a pair of quantum invariant operators for each oscillator with the given momentum plays the role of the time-dependent annihilation and the creation operators, constructs the exact quantum states, and gives the vacuum persistence amplitude as well as the pair-production rate. We also find the quantum invariants for the coupled oscillators for the charged field in time-dependent magnetic fields and advance a perturbation method when the magnetic fields change adiabatically. Finally, the quantum state and the pair production are discussed when a time-dependent electric field is present in parallel to the magnetic field.

  8. Wigner Quantization of Hamiltonians Describing Harmonic Oscillators Coupled by a General Interaction Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Regniers

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a system of coupled harmonic oscillators, the interaction can be represented by a real, symmetric and positive definite interaction matrix. The quantization of a Hamiltonian describing such a system has been done in the canonical case. In this paper, we take a more general approach and look at the system as a Wigner quantum system. Hereby, one does not assume the canonical commutation relations, but instead one just requires the compatibility between the Hamilton and Heisenberg equations. Solutions of this problem are related to the Lie superalgebras gl(1|n and osp(1|2n. We determine the spectrum of the considered Hamiltonian in specific representations of these Lie superalgebras and discuss the results in detail. We also make the connection with the well-known canonical case.

  9. Quantization on Space-Time Hyperboloids

    CERN Document Server

    Biernat, Elmar P

    2011-01-01

    We quantize a relativistic massive complex spin-0 field and a relativistic massive spin-1/2 field on a space-time hyperboloid. We call this procedure point-form canonical quantization. Lorentz invariance of the hyperboloid implies that the 4 generators for translations become dynamic and interaction dependent, whereas the 6 generators for Lorentz transformations remain kinematic and interaction free. We expand the fields in terms of usual plane waves and prove the equivalence to equal-time quantization by representing the Poincare generators in a momentum basis. We formulate a generalized scattering theory for interacting fields by considering evolution of the system generated by the interaction dependent four-momentum operator. Finally we expand our generalized scattering operator in powers of the interaction and show its equivalence to the Dyson expansion of usual time-ordered perturbation theory.

  10. Solitary structures in a spatially nonuniform degenerate plasma in the presence of quantizing magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shaukat, Muzzamal I. [University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (RCET Campus) 54000 (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A. [Department of Physics, Forman Christian College, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-03-15

    In the present investigation, linear and nonlinear propagation of low frequency (ω≪Ω{sub ci}) electrostatic waves have been studied in a spatially inhomogeneous degenerate plasma with one dimensional electron trapping in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field and finite temperature effects. Using the drift approximation, formation of 1 and 2D drift ion solitary structures have been studied both for fully and partially degenerate plasmas. The theoretical results obtained have been analyzed numerically for the parameters typically found in white dwarfs for illustrative purpose. It is observed that the inclusion of Landau quantization significantly changes the expression of the electron number density of a dense degenerate plasma which affects the linear and nonlinear propagation of drift acoustic solitary waves in such a system. The present work may be beneficial to understand the propagation of drift solitary structures with weak transverse perturbation in a variety of physical situations, such as white dwarfs and laser-induced plasmas, where the quantum effects are expected to dominate.

  11. Consistent quantization of massless fields of any spin and the generalized Maxwell's equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A simplified formalism of first quantized massless fields of any spin is presented. The angular momentum basis for particles of zero mass and finite spin s of the D^(s-1/2,1/2) representation of the Lorentz group is used to describe the wavefunctions. The advantage of the formalism is that by equating to zero the s-1 components of the wave functions, the 2s-1 subsidiary conditions (needed to eliminate the non-forward and non-backward helicities) are automatically satisfied. Probability currents and Lagrangians are derived allowing a first quantized formalism. A simple procedure is derived for connecting the wave functions with potentials and gauge conditions. The spin 1 case is of particular interest and is described with the D^(1/2,1/2) vector representation of the well known self-dual representation of the Maxwell's equations. This representation allows us to generalize Maxwell's equations by adding the E_0 and B_0 components to the electric and magnetic four-vectors. Restrictions on their existence are dis...

  12. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of Dirac fields in 2+1 dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M

    2016-01-01

    We study the Fock quantization of a free Dirac field in 2+1-dimensional backgrounds which are conformally ultrastatic, with a time-dependent conformal factor. As it is typical for field theories, there is an infinite ambiguity in the Fock representation of the canonical anticommutation relations. Different choices may lead to unitarily inequivalent theories that describe different physics. To remove this ambiguity one usually requires that the vacuum be invariant under the unitary transformations that implement the symmetries of the equations of motion. However, in non-stationary backgrounds, where time translation is not a symmetry transformation, the requirement of vacuum invariance is in general not enough to fix completely the Fock representation. We show that this problem is overcome in the considered scenario by demanding, in addition, a unitarily implementable quantum dynamics. The combined imposition of these conditions selects a unique family of equivalent Fock representations. Moreover, one also obt...

  13. Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M

    2016-01-01

    We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize ...

  14. Covariant canonical quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippel, G.M. von [University of Regina, Department of Physics, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Wohlfarth, M.N.R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    We present a manifestly covariant quantization procedure based on the de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian formulation of classical field theory. This procedure agrees with conventional canonical quantization only if the parameter space is d=1 dimensional time. In d>1 quantization requires a fundamental length scale, and any bosonic field generates a spinorial wave function, leading to the purely quantum-theoretical emergence of spinors as a byproduct. We provide a probabilistic interpretation of the wave functions for the fields, and we apply the formalism to a number of simple examples. These show that covariant canonical quantization produces both the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equation, while also predicting the existence of discrete towers of identically charged fermions with different masses. Covariant canonical quantization can thus be understood as a ''first'' or pre-quantization within the framework of conventional QFT. (orig.)

  15. Master equation with quantized atomic motion including dipole-dipole interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanet, François; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John

    2016-05-01

    We derive a markovian master equation for the internal dynamics of an ensemble of two-level atoms including all effects related to the quantization of their motion. Our equation provides a unifying picture of the consequences of recoil and indistinguishability of atoms beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime on both their dissipative and conservative dynamics, and is relevant for experiments with ultracold trapped atoms. We give general expressions for the decay rates and the dipole-dipole shifts for any motional states, and we find analytical formulas for a number of relevant states (Gaussian states, Fock states and thermal states). In particular, we show that the dipole-dipole interactions and cooperative photon emission can be modulated through the external state of motion. The effects predicted should be experimentally observable with Rydberg atoms. FD would like to thank the F.R.S.-FNRS for financial support. FD is a FRIA Grant holder of the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique-FNRS.

  16. Supersymmetric gauge theories, quantization of M{sub flat}, and conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teschner, J.; Vartanov, G.S.

    2013-02-15

    We propose a derivation of the correspondence between certain gauge theories with N=2 supersymmetry and conformal field theory discovered by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa in the spirit of Seiberg-Witten theory. Based on certain results from the literature we argue that the quantum theory of the moduli spaces of flat SL(2,R)-connections represents a nonperturbative ''skeleton'' of the gauge theory, protected by supersymmetry. It follows that instanton partition functions can be characterized as solutions to a Riemann-Hilbert type problem. In order to solve it, we describe the quantization of the moduli spaces of flat connections explicitly in terms of two natural sets of Darboux coordinates. The kernel describing the relation between the two pictures represents the solution to the Riemann Hilbert problem, and is naturally identified with the Liouville conformal blocks.

  17. Dynamical symmetry breaking of lambda- and vee-type three-level systems on quantization of the field modes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mihir Ranjan Nath; Surajit Sen; Asoke Kumar Sen; Gautam Gangopadhyay

    2008-07-01

    We develop a scheme to construct the Hamiltonians of the lambda-, vee- and cascade-type three-level configurations using the generators of (3) group. It turns out that this approach provides a well-defined selection rule to give different Hamiltonians for each configuration. The lambda- and vee-type configurations are exactly solved with different initial conditions while taking the two-mode classical and quantized fields. For the classical field, it is shown that the Rabi oscillation of the lambda model is similar to that of the vee model and the dynamics of the vee model can be recovered from lambda model and vice versa simply by inversion. We then proceed to solve the quantized version of both models by introducing a novel Euler matrix formalism. It is shown that this dynamical symmetry exhibited in the Rabi oscillation of two configurations for the semiclassical models is completely destroyed on quantization of the field modes. The symmetry can be restored within the quantized models when both field modes are in the coherent states with large average photon number which is depicted through the collapse and revival of the Rabi oscillations.

  18. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in a Bianchi I cosmology with unitary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Navascués, Beatriz Elizaga; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2016-11-01

    The Fock quantization of free scalar fields is subject to an infinite ambiguity when it comes to choosing a set of annihilation and creation operators, a choice that is equivalent to the determination of a vacuum state. In highly symmetric situations, this ambiguity can be removed by asking vacuum invariance under the symmetries of the system. Similarly, in stationary backgrounds, one can demand time-translation invariance plus positivity of the energy. However, in more general situations, additional criteria are needed. For the case of free (test) fields minimally coupled to a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, it has been proven that the ambiguity is resolved by introducing the criterion of unitary implementability of the quantum dynamics, as an endomorphism in Fock space. This condition determines a specific separation of the time dependence of the field, so that this splits into a very precise background dependence and a genuine quantum evolution. Furthermore, together with the condition of vacuum invariance under the spatial Killing symmetries, unitarity of the dynamics selects a unique Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, up to unitary equivalence. In this work, we generalize these results to anisotropic spacetimes with shear, which are therefore not conformally symmetric, by considering the case of a free scalar field in a Bianchi I cosmology.

  19. On necessary and sufficient conditions of the BV quantization of a generic Lagrangian field system

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkirov, D; Mangiarotti, L; Sardanashvily, G

    2005-01-01

    We address the problem of extending an original field Lagrangian to ghosts and antifields in order to satisfy the master equation in the framework of the BV quantization of Lagrangian field systems. This extension essentially depends on the degeneracy of an original Lagrangian. A generic Lagrangian system of even and odd fields on an arbitrary smooth manifold is examined in the algebraic terms of the Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex. Its Euler-Lagrange operator obeys the Noether identities which need not be independent, but satisfy the first-stage Noether identities, and so on. We state the necessary and sufficient condition of the existence of the exact antifield Koszul-tate complex with the boundary operator whose nilpotency property provides all the Noether and higher-stage Noether identities of an original Lagrangian system. The Noether inverse second theorem that we prove associates to this Koszul-Tate complex the sequence graded in ghosts whose ascent operator provides the gauge and higher-stage g...

  20. Field-induced Gap and Quantized Charge Pumping in Nano-helix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Tsinghua U., Beijing; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-02-15

    We propose several novel physical phenomena based on nano-scale helical wires. Applying a static electric field transverse to the helical wire induces a metal to insulator transition, with the band gap determined by the applied voltage. Similar idea can be applied to 'geometrically' constructing one-dimensional systems with arbitrary external potential. With a quadrupolar electrode configuration, the electric field could rotate in the transverse plane, leading to a quantized dc charge current proportional to the frequency of the rotation. Such a device could be used as a new standard for the high precession measurement of the electric current. The inverse effect implies that passing an electric current through a helical wire in the presence of a transverse static electric field can lead to a mechanical rotation of the helix. This effect can be used to construct nano-scale electro-mechanical motors. Finally, our methodology also enables new ways of controlling and measuring the electronic properties of helical biological molecules such as the DNA.

  1. Detection of Interactions between Proteins through Rotation Forest and Local Phase Quantization Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Wong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs play a vital role in most cellular processes. Although many efforts have been devoted to detecting protein interactions by high-throughput experiments, these methods are obviously expensive and tedious. Targeting these inevitable disadvantages, this study develops a novel computational method to predict PPIs using information on protein sequences, which is highly efficient and accurate. The improvement mainly comes from the use of the Rotation Forest (RF classifier and the Local Phase Quantization (LPQ descriptor from the Physicochemical Property Response (PR Matrix of protein amino acids. When performed on three PPI datasets including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, and Helicobacter pylori, we obtained good results of average accuracies of 93.8%, 97.96%, and 89.47%, which are much better than in previous studies. Extensive validations have also been explored to evaluate the performance of the Rotation Forest ensemble classifier with the state-of-the-art Support Vector Machine classifier. These promising results indicate that the proposed method might play a complementary role for future proteomics research.

  2. Covariant canonical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hippel, G M; Hippel, Georg M. von; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2006-01-01

    We present a manifestly covariant quantization procedure based on the de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian formulation of classical field theory. Covariant canonical quantization agrees with conventional canonical quantization only if the parameter space is d=1 dimensional time. In d>1 quantization requires a fundamental length scale, and any bosonic field generates a spinorial wave function, leading to the purely quantum-theoretical emergence of spinors as a byproduct. We provide a probabilistic interpretation of the wave functions for the fields, and apply the formalism to a number of simple examples. These show that covariant canonical quantization produces both the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equation, while also predicting the existence of discrete towers of identically charged fermions with different masses.

  3. Resolving-Power Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Starting with a general discussion, a program is sketched for a quantization based on dilations. This resolving-power quantization is simplest for scalar field theories. The hope is to find a way to relax the requirement of locality so that the necessity to fine tune mass parameters is eliminated while universality is still preserved.

  4. Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz, E-mail: beatriz.elizaga@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Mercedes, E-mail: m.martin@hef.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Heyendaalseweg 135, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001, Covilhã (Portugal)

    2017-01-15

    We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize the part of the dynamics governed by the Dirac equation that is unitarily implementable. The uniqueness of the Fock vacuum is attained then once a physically motivated convention for the concepts of particles and antiparticles is fixed.

  5. Quantization and renormalization of the manifest left-right symmetric model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Duka, P; Zralek, M

    2000-01-01

    Quantization and renormalization of the left-right symmetric model is the main purpose of the paper. First the model at tree level with a Higgs sector containing one bidoublet and two triplets is precisely discussed. Then the canonical quantization and Faddeev-Popov Lagrangian are carried out ('t Hooft gauge). The BRST symmetry is discussed. Subsequently the on mass shell renormalization is performed and, as a test of consistency, the renormalization of the ZNiNj vertex is analyzed.

  6. Quantized beam shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Dalvit, D A R

    2015-01-01

    We predict quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-H\\"anchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, while the Goos- H\\"anchen ones in multiples of $\\alpha^2$. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  7. Deformation quantization and Nambu mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Dito, G; Sternheimer, D; Takhtajan, L A; Dito, Giuseppe; Flato, Moshe; Sternheimer, Daniel; Takhtajan, Leon

    1996-01-01

    Starting from deformation quantization (star-products), the quantization problem of Nambu Mechanics is investigated. After considering some impossibilities and pushing some analogies with field quantization, a solution to the quantization problem is presented in what we call the Zariski quantization of fields (observables, functions, in this case polynomials). This quantization is based on the factorization over {\\Bbb R} of polynomials in several real variables. We quantize the algebra of fields generated by the polynomials by defining a deformation of this algebra which is Abelian, associative and distributive. This procedure is then adapted to derivatives (needed for the Nambu brackets), which ensures the validity of the Fundamental Identity of Nambu Mechanics also at the quantum level. Our construction is in fact more general than the particular case considered here: it can be utilized for quite general defining identities and for much more general star-products.

  8. Quantization of Emergent Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2013-01-01

    Emergent gravity is based on a novel form of the equivalence principle known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma in symplectic geometry stating that the electromagnetic force can always be eliminated by a local coordinate transformation as far as spacetime admits a symplectic structure, in other words, a microscopic spacetime becomes noncommutative (NC). If gravity emerges from U(1) gauge theory on NC spacetime, this picture of emergent gravity suggests a completely new quantization scheme where quantum gravity is defined by quantizing spacetime itself, leading to a dynamical NC spacetime. Therefore the quantization of emergent gravity is radically different from the conventional approach trying to quantize a phase space of metric fields. This approach for quantum gravity allows a background independent formulation where spacetime as well as matter fields is equally emergent from a universal vacuum of quantum gravity.

  9. Quantization of emergent gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2015-02-01

    Emergent gravity is based on a novel form of the equivalence principle known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma in symplectic geometry stating that the electromagnetic force can always be eliminated by a local coordinate transformation as far as space-time admits a symplectic structure, in other words, a microscopic space-time becomes noncommutative (NC). If gravity emerges from U(1) gauge theory on NC space-time, this picture of emergent gravity suggests a completely new quantization scheme where quantum gravity is defined by quantizing space-time itself, leading to a dynamical NC space-time. Therefore the quantization of emergent gravity is radically different from the conventional approach trying to quantize a phase space of metric fields. This approach for quantum gravity allows a background-independent formulation where space-time and matter fields are equally emergent from a universal vacuum of quantum gravity.

  10. BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian [Physics Department, St. Lawrence University,Canton, NY 13617 (United States); Şengör, Gizem [Department of Physics, Syracuse University,Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2016-11-08

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  11. BRST Quantization of Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to the perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas quantization in synchronous gauge, which amounts to Dirac quantization, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  12. Metrical Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, J R

    1998-01-01

    Canonical quantization may be approached from several different starting points. The usual approaches involve promotion of c-numbers to q-numbers, or path integral constructs, each of which generally succeeds only in Cartesian coordinates. All quantization schemes that lead to Hilbert space vectors and Weyl operators---even those that eschew Cartesian coordinates---implicitly contain a metric on a flat phase space. This feature is demonstrated by studying the classical and quantum ``aggregations'', namely, the set of all facts and properties resident in all classical and quantum theories, respectively. Metrical quantization is an approach that elevates the flat phase space metric inherent in any canonical quantization to the level of a postulate. Far from being an unwanted structure, the flat phase space metric carries essential physical information. It is shown how the metric, when employed within a continuous-time regularization scheme, gives rise to an unambiguous quantization procedure that automatically ...

  13. The influence of instructional interactions on students’ mental models about the quantization of physical observables: a modern physics course case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didiş Körhasan, Nilüfer; Eryılmaz, Ali; Erkoç, Şakir

    2016-01-01

    Mental models are coherently organized knowledge structures used to explain phenomena. They interact with social environments and evolve with the interaction. Lacking daily experience with phenomena, the social interaction gains much more importance. In this part of our multiphase study, we investigate how instructional interactions influenced students’ mental models about the quantization of physical observables. Class observations and interviews were analysed by studying students’ mental models constructed in a modern physics course during an academic semester. The research revealed that students’ mental models were influenced by (1) the manner of teaching, including instructional methodologies and content specific techniques used by the instructor, (2) order of the topics and familiarity with concepts, and (3) peers.

  14. Kinematical Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We consider here kinematical quantization: a first and often overlooked step in quantization procedures. $\\mathbb{R}$, $\\mathbb{R}_+$ and the interval are considered, as well as direct (Cartesian) products thereof. Some simple minisuperspace models, and mode by mode consideration of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology, have indefinite signature versions of such kinematical quantizations. The examples in the current paper build in particular toward the case of vacuum $\\mathbb{S}^3$ slightly inhomogeneous cosmology's mode configuration space, which is mathematically a finite time interval slab of Minkowski spacetime.

  15. On a third S-matrix in the theory of quantized fields on curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Hack, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Mathematik

    2007-01-15

    Wightman functions for interacting quantum fields on curved space times are calculated via the perturbation theory of the Yang-Feldman equations, where the incoming field is a free field in a quasifree representation. We show that these Wightman functions that are obtained as a sum over extended Feynman graphs fulfill the basic axioms of hermiticity, invariance, spectrality (on stationary spacetimes), perturbative positivity and locality (the latter property is shown up to second order in the loop expansion). In the case of non-stationary spacetimes, the outgoing field in general is in a non-quasifree representation of the CCR. This makes it necessary to develop a method to calculate the unitary transformation between a non quasifree representation and a quasifree one. This is carried out using *-calculus on the dual of the Borchers algebra with a combinatorial co-product. Given that preferred quasifree representations for early and late times exist, we thus obtain a complete scattering description using three S-matrices: The first is determined by vacuum expectation values between incoming and outgoing fields. The second is a unitary transformation between the non-quasifree representation for the ''out''-fields and the quasifree representation for the ''in''-field. The last one is the Bogoliubov transformation between the preferred representation at early times (i.e. the ''in''-field representation) and the preferred representation at late times. (orig.)

  16. Path integral quantization of the relativistic Hopfield model

    CERN Document Server

    Belgiorno, F; Piazza, F Dalla; Doronzo, M

    2016-01-01

    The path integral quantization method is applied to a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model, which represents a very interesting mesoscopic framework for the description of the interaction between quantum light and dielectric quantum matter, with particular reference to the context of analogue gravity. In order to take into account the constraints occurring in the model, we adopt the Faddeev-Jackiw approach to constrained quantization in the path integral formalism. In particular we demonstrate that the propagator obtained with the Faddeev-Jackiw approach is equivalent to the one which, in the framework of Dirac canonical quantization for constrained systems, can be directly computed as the vacuum expectation value of the time ordered product of the fields. Our analysis also provides an explicit example of quantization of the electromagnetic field in a covariant gauge and coupled with the polarization field, which is a novel contribution to the literature on the Faddeev-Jackiw procedure.

  17. Reservoir induced topological order and quantized charge pumps in open lattice models with interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzner, Dominik; Koster, Malte; Grusdt, Fabian; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery of the quantum Hall effect, topological states of matter have attracted the attention of scientists in many fields of physics. By now there is a rather good understanding of topological order in closed, non-interacting systems. In contrast the extension to open systems in particular with interactions is entirely in its infancy. Recently there have been advances in characterizing topology in reservoir driven systems without interactions, but the topological invariants introduced lack a clear physical interpretation and are restricted to non-interacting systems. We consider a one-dimensional interacting topological system whose dynamics is entirely driven by reservoir couplings. By slowly tuning these couplings periodically in time we realize an open-system analogue of the Thouless charge pump that proves to be robust against unitary and non-unitary perturbations. Making use of this Thouless pump we introduce a topological invariant, which is applicable to interacting systems. Finally we propose a conceptual detection scheme that translates the open-system topological invariant into the context of a well understood closed system.

  18. System Identification with Quantized Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhao, Yanlong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents recently developed methodologies that utilize quantized information in system identification and explores their potential in extending control capabilities for systems with limited sensor information or networked systems. The results of these methodologies can be applied to signal processing and control design of communication and computer networks, sensor networks, mobile agents, coordinated data fusion, remote sensing, telemedicine, and other fields in which noise-corrupted quantized data need to be processed. Providing a comprehensive coverage of quantized identification,

  19. Semi-Classical and Quantized-Field Descriptions of Light Propagation in General Non-Local and Non-Stationary Dispersive and Absorbing Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Verne

    2016-05-01

    Semi-classical and quantum-field descriptions for the interaction of light with matter are systematically discussed. Applications of interest include resonant pump-probe optical phenomena, such as electromagnetically induced transparency. In the quantum-mechanical description of matter systems, we introduce a general reduced-density-matrix framework. Time-domain (equation-of-motion) and frequency-domain (resolvent-operator) formulations are developed in a unified and self-consistent manner, using a Liouville-space operator representation. In the semi-classical description, the electromagnetic field is described as a classical field satisfying the Maxwell equations. Compact Liouville-space operator expressions are derived for the linear and the general (n'th order) non-linear electromagnetic-response tensors describing moving many-electron systems. The tetradic matrix elements of the Liouville-space self-energy operators are evaluated for environmental collisional and radiative interactions. The quantized-field approach is essential for a fully self-consistent quantum-mechanical description. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research through the Basic Research Program at The Naval Research Laboratory.

  20. Entanglement and coherence of a three-level atom in Λ configuration interacting with two fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian-Song; Xu Jing-Bo

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement of a three-level atom in A configuration interacting with two quantized field modes by using logarithmic negativity. Then, we study the relationship of the atomic coherence and the entanglement between two fields which are initially prepared in vacuum or thermal states. We find that if the two fields are prepared in thermal states, the atomic coherence can induce the entanglement between two thermal fields. However, there is no coherence-induced entanglement between two vacuum fields.

  1. A trapped ion with time-dependent frequency interaction with a laser field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, J M Vargas; Moya-Cessa, H [INAOE, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2004-06-01

    We analyse the problem of a trapped ion with time-dependent frequency interacting with a laser field. By using a set of unitary time-dependent transformations we show that this system is equivalent to the interaction between a quantized field and a double level with time-dependent interaction parameters. In passing, we show that in the on-resonance case different vibrational transitions may be achieved by using time-dependent parameters.

  2. Coherent state quantization of quaternions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraleetharan, B., E-mail: bbmuraleetharan@jfn.ac.lk, E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Jaffna, Thirunelveli (Sri Lanka); Thirulogasanthar, K., E-mail: bbmuraleetharan@jfn.ac.lk, E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 De Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Parallel to the quantization of the complex plane, using the canonical coherent states of a right quaternionic Hilbert space, quaternion field of quaternionic quantum mechanics is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols, and related quantities are analyzed. Quaternionic version of the harmonic oscillator and Weyl-Heisenberg algebra are also obtained.

  3. Lattice radial quantization by cubature

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Basic aspects of a program to put field theories quantized in radial coordinates on the lattice are presented. Only scalar fields are discussed. Simple examples are solved to illustrate the strategy when applied to the 3D Ising model.

  4. A unified field theory II: Gravity interacting with a Yang-Mills and Higgs field

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2016-01-01

    We quantize the interaction of gravity with a Yang-Mills and Higgs field using canonical quantization. Similar to the approach in a previous paper we discard the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and express the Hamilton constraint by the evolution equation of the mean curvature of the hypersurfaces in the foliation defined by the Hamiltonian setting. Expressing the time derivative of the mean curvature with the help of the Poisson brackets the canonical quantization of this equation leads to a wave equation in $Q=(0,\\infty)\\times \\cal{S}_o$, where $\\cal{S}_o$ is one of the Cauchy hypersurfaces in the Hamiltonian setting. The wave equation describes the interaction of an arbitrary Riemannian metric in $\\cal{S}_o$ and a given Yang-Mills and Higgs field. If the metric is complete $Q$ is globally hyperbolic. In case $\\cal{S}_o$ is compact we also prove a spectral resolution of the wave equation and establish sufficient conditions guaranteeing a mass gap.

  5. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  6. Classical-field description of the quantum effects in the light-atom interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Rashkovskiy, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I show that light-atom interaction can be described using purely classical field theory without any quantization. In particular, atom excitation by light that accounts for damping due to spontaneous emission is fully described in the framework of classical field theory. I show that three well-known laws of the photoelectric effect can also be derived and that all of its basic properties can be described within classical field theory.

  7. Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a quantized bulk scalar field in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Pejhan, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    In a previous work [S. Rahbardehghan et al. in Phys. Lett. B 750, 627 (2015)], we considered a simple brane-world model; a single $4$-dimensional brane embedded in a $5$-dimensional de Sitter (dS) space-time. Then, by including a conformally coupled scalar field in the bulk, we studied the induced Casimir energy-momentum tensor. Technically, the Krein-Gupta-Bleuler (KGB) quantization scheme as a covariant and renormalizable quantum field theory in dS space was used to perform the calculations. In the present paper, we generalize this study to a less idealized, but physically motivated, scenario, namely we consider Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time which behaves asymptotically as a dS space-time. More precisely, we evaluate Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a system with two $D$-dimensional curved branes on background of $D+1$-dimensional FRW space-time with negative spatial curvature and a bulk conformally coupled scalar field that satisfies Dirichlet boundary condition on the branes.

  8. Mathematical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Nik

    2001-01-01

    With a unique approach and presenting an array of new and intriguing topics, Mathematical Quantization offers a survey of operator algebras and related structures from the point of view that these objects are quantizations of classical mathematical structures. This approach makes possible, with minimal mathematical detail, a unified treatment of a variety of topics.Detailed here for the first time, the fundamental idea of mathematical quantization is that sets are replaced by Hilbert spaces. Building on this idea, and most importantly on the fact that scalar-valued functions on a set correspond to operators on a Hilbert space, one can determine quantum analogs of a variety of classical structures. In particular, because topologies and measure classes on a set can be treated in terms of scalar-valued functions, we can transfer these constructions to the quantum realm, giving rise to C*- and von Neumann algebras.In the first half of the book, the author quickly builds the operator algebra setting. He uses this ...

  9. Electromagnetic fields and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Richard

    1982-01-01

    For more than a century, ""Becker"" and its forerunner, ""Abraham-Becker,"" have served as the bible of electromagnetic theory for countless students. This definitive translation of the physics classic features both volumes of the original text.Volume I, on electromagnetic theory, includes an introduction to vector and tensor calculus, the electrostatic field, electric current and the field, and the theory of relativity. The second volume comprises a self-contained introduction to quantum theory that covers the classical principles of electron theory and quantum mechanics, problems involving

  10. Isomorphism between the multi-state Hamiltonian and the second-quantized many-electron Hamiltonian with only 1-electron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the isomorphism between an multi-state Hamiltonian and the second-quantized many-electron Hamiltonian (with only 1-electron interactions). This suggests that all methods developed for the former can be employed for the latter, and vice versa. The resonant level (Landauer) model for nonequilibrium quantum transport is used as a proof-of-concept example. Such as the classical mapping models for the multi-state Hamiltonian proposed in our previous work [J. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 204105 (2016)] lead to exact results for this model problem. We further demonstrate how these methods can also be applied to the second-quantized many-electron Hamiltonian even when 2-electron interactions are included.

  11. Isomorphism between the multi-state Hamiltonian and the second-quantized many-electron Hamiltonian with only 1-electron interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the isomorphism between the multi-state Hamiltonian and the second-quantized many-electron Hamiltonian (with only 1-electron interactions). This suggests that all methods developed for the former can be employed for the latter, and vice versa. The resonant level (Landauer) model for nonequilibrium quantum transport is used as a proof-of-concept example. Such as the classical mapping models for the multi-state Hamiltonian proposed in our previous work [J. Chem. Phys. (submitted)] lead to exact results for this model problem. We further demonstrate how these methods can also be applied to the second-quantized many-electron Hamiltonian even when 2-electron interactions are included.

  12. Quantizing Weierstrass

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Vincent; Dauphinee, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    We study the connection between the Eynard-Orantin topological recursion and quantum curves for the family of genus one spectral curves given by the Weierstrass equation. We construct quantizations of the spectral curve that annihilate the perturbative and non-perturbative wave-functions. In particular, for the non-perturbative wave-function, we prove, up to order hbar^5, that the quantum curve satisfies the properties expected from matrix models. As a side result, we obtain an infinite sequence of identities relating A-cycle integrals of elliptic functions and quasi-modular forms.

  13. There is no "First" Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Zeh, H D

    2003-01-01

    The appearance of spinor fields as operators or arguments of field functionals in quantum field theory is often regarded as a second quantization, since fermion wave functions were themselves discovered by quantizing mass points (``particles''). I argue that this language, though reflecting the historical development, is misleading. Field amplitudes always represent the true physical variables (in quantum theory the arguments of a fundamental wave functional), including fields which never appear classical, while apparent particles are no more than the result of decoherence in the measuring device, without playing any fundamental role in the theory or its interpretation. A remark on gauge fields is added.

  14. Short-range intervortex interaction and interacting dynamics of half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction and dynamics of two half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. Using the Padé approximation for the vortex core profile, we calculate the intervortex potential, whose asymptotic form for a large distance has been derived by Eto et al. [Phys. Rev. A 83, 063603 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.063603]. Through numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equations, we reveal different kinds of dynamical trajectories of the vortices depending on the combinations of signs of circulations and the intercomponent density coupling. Under the adiabatic limit, we derive the equations of motion for the vortex coordinates, in which the motion is caused by the balance between Magnus force and the intervortex forces. The initial velocity of the vortex motion can be explained quantitatively by this point vortex approximation, but understanding the long-time behavior of the dynamics needs more consideration beyond our model.

  15. Faddeev-Senjanovic quantization of SU(n) N=2 supersymmetric gauge field system with a non-Abelian Chern-Simons topological term and its fractional spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yongchang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: ychuang@bjut.edu.cn; Huo Qiuhong [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2008-04-24

    Using Faddeev-Senjanovic path integral quantization for constrained Hamilton system, we quantize SU(n) N=2 supersymmetric gauge field system with non-Abelian Chern-Simons topological term in 2+1 dimensions. We use consistency of Coulomb gauge condition to naturally deduce a new gauge condition. Furthermore, we obtain the generating functional of Green function in phase space, deduce the angular momentum based on the global canonical Noether theorem at quantum level, obtain the fractional spin of this supersymmetric system, and show that the total angular momentum is the sum of the orbital angular momentum and spin angular momentum of the non-Abelian gauge field. Finally, we obtain the anomalous fractional spin and discover that the fractional spin has the contributions of both the group superscript components and A{sub 0}{sup s}(x) charge.

  16. Quantized charged fields with t-electric potential step as external background

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Gitman, D M

    2015-01-01

    We give a brief description of the generalized Furry picture with t-electric potential steps and use this basis to present nonperturbative calculations in three exactly solvable cases: Sauter-like (or adiabatic) electric field, T-constant electric field, and exponentially decaying electric field. Here, we provide some important and so far unpublished details. We show how these cases help to gain insight into the universal features of particle creation from vacuum. This survey of exactly solvable cases, presented on the same footing, can be used as introductory material for understanding a recent generalization of the Furry picture with x-electric potential steps [arXiv:1506.01156] and [arXiv:1511.02915].

  17. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.

  18. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, T G

    2010-01-01

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetoelectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.

  19. Quantized Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, M

    2003-11-19

    This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, one can quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion; one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We then discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta}{rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest that one can put an experimental bound on how far away a universe with a scale factor very different from our own must be, by looking at its effects on our CMB radiation.

  20. The First-Quantized Theory of Photons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-Yong; XIONG Cai-Dong; Keller Ole

    2007-01-01

    In near-field optics and optical tunnelling theory, photon wave mechanics, I.e. The first-quantized theory of photons, allows us to address the spatial field localization problem in a flexible manner which links smoothly to classical electromagnetics. We develop photon wave mechanics in a rigorous and unified way, based on which field quantization is obtained in a new way.

  1. Quantization of Free Scalar Fields in the Presence of Natural Cutoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nozari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a quantum theory of free scalar fields in (1+1-dimensions based on the deformed Heisenberg algebra x^,p^=iħ1-βp+2β2p2, that admits the existence of both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum, where β is a deformation parameter. We consider both canonical and path integral formalisms of the scenario. Finally a higher dimensional extension is easily performed in the path integral formalism.

  2. Quantization of Free Scalar Fields in the Presence of Natural Cutoffs

    OpenAIRE

    Nozari, K.; F. Moafi; Rezaee Balef, F.

    2012-01-01

    We construct a quantum theory of free scalar fields in (1+1)-dimensions based on the deformed Heisenberg algebra x^,p^=iħ1-βp+2β2p2, that admits the existence of both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum, where β is a deformation parameter. We consider both canonical and path integral formalisms of the scenario. Finally a higher dimensional extension is easily performed in the path integral formalism.

  3. Third quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Seligman, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    The basic ideas of second quantization and Fock space are extended to density operator states, used in treatments of open many-body systems. This can be done for fermions and bosons. While the former only requires the use of a non-orthogonal basis, the latter requires the introduction of a dual set of spaces. In both cases an operator algebra closely resembling the canonical one is developed and used to define the dual sets of bases. We here concentrated on the bosonic case where the unboundedness of the operators requires the definitions of dual spaces to support the pair of bases. Some applications, mainly to non-equilibrium steady states, will be mentioned.

  4. Third quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Thomas H.; Prosen, Tomaž

    2010-12-01

    The basic ideas of second quantization and Fock space are extended to density operator states, used in treatments of open many-body systems. This can be done for fermions and bosons. While the former only requires the use of a non-orthogonal basis, the latter requires the introduction of a dual set of spaces. In both cases an operator algebra closely resembling the canonical one is developed and used to define the dual sets of bases. We here concentrated on the bosonic case where the unboundedness of the operators requires the definitions of dual spaces to support the pair of bases. Some applications, mainly to non-equilibrium steady states, will be mentioned.

  5. Dimensional Quantization and the Resonance Concept of the Low-Threshold Field Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Fursey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief critical review of modern theoretical interpretations of the low-threshold field emission phenomenon for metallic electrodes covered with carbon structures, taking the latest experiments into consideration, and confirming the continuity of spectrum of resonance states localized on the interface of the metallic body of the cathode and the carbon cover. Our proposal allowed us to interpret the double maxima of the emitted electron’s distribution on full energy. The theoretical interpretation is presented in a previous paper which describes the (1 + 1 model of a periodic 1D continuous interface. The overlapping of the double maxima may be interpreted taking into account a 2D superlattice periodic structure of the metal-vacuum interface, while the energy of emitted electrons lies on the overlapping spectral gaps of the interface 2D periodic lattice.

  6. Improved Lattice Radial Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Richard C; Fleming, George T

    2014-01-01

    Lattice radial quantization was proposed in a recent paper by Brower, Fleming and Neuberger[1] as a nonperturbative method especially suited to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories. The lessons learned from the lattice radial quantization of the 3D Ising model on a longitudinal cylinder with 2D Icosahedral cross-section suggested the need for an improved discretization. We consider here the use of the Finite Element Methods(FEM) to descretize the universally-equivalent $\\phi^4$ Lagrangian on $\\mathbb R \\times \\mathbb S^2$. It is argued that this lattice regularization will approach the exact conformal theory at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the continuum. Numerical tests are underway to support this conjecture.

  7. Pion-Nucleon Scattering in Kadyshevsky Formalism and Higher Spin Field Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Wagenaar, J W

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains two parts. The first part deals with pion-nucleon/meson-baryon scattering in the Kadyshevsky formalism. This formalism is introduced and discussed. Problems may arise when derivative couplings and/or higher spin fields are used, especially when compared to the results in the Feynman formalism: unwanted contact terms pop-up. These terms are cancelled using the Gross and Jackiw or Takahashi and Umezawa method. The final results in both formalisms are therefore equal, causal and covariant. Formal incorporation of pair suppression in the baryon exchange sector is achieved using a method based on the Takahashi and Umezawa method. For the resulting tree level amplitudes, we have shown, to our knowledge for the first time, that they are causal, covariant and n-independent. Moreover, the amplitudes are just a factor 1/2 of the usual Feynman expressions. The amplitudes contain only posititve energy initial and final states, although it should be mentioned that negative energy is present inside an ...

  8. Graphene p n junction in a quantizing magnetic field: Conductance at intermediate disorder strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fräßdorf, Christian; Trifunovic, Luka; Bogdanoff, Nils; Brouwer, Piet W.

    2016-11-01

    In a graphene p n junction at high magnetic field, unidirectional "snake states" are formed at the p n interface. In a clean p n junction, each snake state exists in one of the valleys of the graphene band structure, and the conductance of the junction as a whole is determined by microscopic details of the coupling between the snake states at the p n interface and quantum Hall edge states at the sample boundaries [Tworzydło et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 035411 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.035411]. Disorder mixes and couples the snake states. We here report a calculation of the full conductance distribution in the crossover between the clean limit and the strong-disorder limit, in which the conductance distribution is given by random matrix theory [Abanin and Levitov, Science 317, 641 (2007), 10.1126/science.1144672]. Our calculation involves an exact solution of the relevant scaling equation for the scattering matrix, and the results are formulated in terms of parameters describing the microscopic disorder potential in bulk graphene.

  9. Electric charge quantization in SU(3)_c X SU(3)_L X U(1)_X model

    CERN Document Server

    Abdinov, O B; Rzaeva, S S

    2010-01-01

    Basing on the general photon eigenstate and anomaly cancellation, it is shown that the electric charge quantization in SU(3)_c X SU(3)_L X U(1)_X model with exotic particles can be obtained independently on parameters alpha and betta. The fixation of hypercharges of fermions fields by the Higgs fields and dependence of the electric charges quantization conditions from the hypercharges of Higgs fields leads to the fact that the electric charge in the considered model can be quantized and fixed only in the presence of Higgs fields. In addition, we have shown that in the considered model the classical constraints following from the Yukawa interactions are equivalent to the conditions following from the parity invariance of electromagnetic interaction. The most general expressions for the gauge bosons masses, eigenstates of neutral fields and the interactions of leptons and quarks with gauge bosons have been derived in the arbitrary case

  10. Idealization Second Quantization of Composite Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Duan-Lu; YU Si-Xia; SUN Chang-Pu

    2001-01-01

    A practical method is developed to deal with the second quantization of the many-body system containing the composite particles.In our treatment,the modes associated with composite particles are regarded approximately as independent ones compared with those of unbound particles.The field operators of the composite particles thus arise naturally in the second quantization Hamiltonian.To be emphasized,the second quantization Hamiltonian has the regular structures which correspond clearly to different physical processes.``

  11. Rotational symmetry of classical orbits, arbitrary quantization of angular momentum and the role of the gauge field in two-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jun-Li; Liang, Jiu-Qing

    2012-04-01

    We study quantum—classical correspondence in terms of the coherent wave functions of a charged particle in two-dimensional central-scalar potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits. For both closed and open classical orbits, the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level space of angular momentum being greater or less than ħ is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions, which is not necessarily 2π-periodic. The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value, which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model. The well-known quantum mechanical anyon model becomes a special case of the arbitrary quantization, where the classical orbits are 2π-periodic.

  12. Rotational symmetry of classical orbits, arbitrary quantization of angular momentum and the role of the gauge field in two-dimensional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Jun-Li; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    We study quantum-classical correspondence in terms of the coherent wave functions of a charged particle in twodimensional central-scalar potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits.For both closed and open classical orbits,the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level space of angular momentum being greater or less than h is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions,which is not necessarily 2π-periodic.The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value,which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model.The well-known quantum mechanical anyon model becomes a special case of the arbitrary quantization,where the classical orbits are 2π-periodic.

  13. Quantization of submanifold embeddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahns, Dorothea; Zahn, Jochen [Courant Research Centre ' ' Higher Order Structures' ' , Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Rejzner, Katarzyna [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We describe a perturbative quantization of the embedding of d-dimensional submanifolds into n-dimensional Minkowski space, based on suitable generalizations of the Nambu-Goto action. We use tools from perturbative algebraic quantum field theory, quantum field theory on curved spacetimes, and the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. The resulting theory is perturbatively non-renormalizable, but well-defined as an effective theory, i.e., there are no anomalies, for any dimension d,n. In particular there is no critical dimension for the case of string theory (d=2).

  14. Loop Representation of charged particles interacting with Maxwell and Chern-Simons fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fuenmayor, E; Revoredo, R; Fuenmayor, Ernesto; Leal, Lorenzo; Revoredo., Ryan

    2002-01-01

    The loop representation formulation of non-relativistic particles coupled with abelian gauge fields is studied. Both Maxwell and Chern-Simons interactions are separately considered. It is found that the loop-space formulations of these models share significant similarities, although in the Chern-Simons case there exists an unitary transformation that allows to remove the degrees of freedom associated with the paths. As a general result, we find that charge quantization is necessary for the geometric representation to be consistent.

  15. Quantized Neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo; Werner, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Consider a set of physical systems, evolving according to some global dynamics yielding another set of physical systems. Such a global dynamics f may have a causal structure, i.e. each output physical system may depend only on some subset of the input physical system, whom we may call its "neighbours". We can of course write down these dependencies, and hence formalize them in a bipartite graph labeled with the physical systems sitting at each node, with the first (resp. second) set holding the global state of the composite physical system at time t (resp. t'), and the edges between the partition stating which physical systems may influence which. Moreover if f is bijective, then we can quantize just by linear extension, so that it now turns into a unitary operator Q(f) acting upon this set of, now quantum, physical systems. The question we address is: what becomes, then, of the dependency graph? In other words, has Q(f) got the same causal structure as f? The answer to this question turns out to be a surpris...

  16. A brief review on the Problem of Divergence in Krein Space Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Payandeh, Farrin; Fathi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we have a brief review on the problem of divergence in quantum field theory and its elimination using the method of Krein space quantization. In this method, the auxiliary negative frequency states have been utilized, the modes of which do not interact with the physical states and are not affected by the physical boundary conditions. It is remarkable that Krein space quantization is similar to Pauli-Villars regularization, so we can call it the "Krein regularization". Considering the QED in Krein space quantization, it could be shown that the theory is automatically regularized. Calculation of the three primitive divergent integrals, the vacuum polarization, electron self energy and vertex function using Krein space method leads to finite values, since the infrared and ultraviolet divergencies do not appear. For another example, the Casimir stress on a spherical shell in de Sitter spacetime for a massless scalar field could be calculated using Krein space quantization.

  17. Berry phases for interacting spins in composite environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Da-Bao; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Due to the potential application in quantum information process, geometric phase of interacting system arouse many interests. Some physicists concentrate on the system in pure classical envi- ronment, while others study the system in pure quantized environment. So a natural question is asked: how about an interacting system in composite environments made up of both classical and quantized field. In this letter, we analyze a quantum system composed of two interacting spins, of which one is in classical magnetic field and the other is in quantized field. First, classical magnetic field driven Berry phases for the whole system and subsystem are studied. The effect of couplings between particles and photon on these phases are analyzed. In comparison with the dynamical quantized field, We find that even a static quantized field in its vacuum state can also have an effect on Berry phase. Second, quantized field driven Berry phases for the whole system and sub- system are formulated, including both one and two mode ...

  18. Quantization of Second Order Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles, Rene; Napsuciale, Mauro, E-mail: rene@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: mauro@fisica.ugto.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Lomas del Bosque 103, Fraccionamiento Lomas del Campestre, Leon Guanajuato, 37150 (Mexico)

    2011-04-01

    We review how second order equations for fields arise just by using projectors over Poincare invariant subspaces. We focus in the case of fields describing massive spin 1/2 particles, we propose a particular second order Lagrangian and present preliminary results in its quantization.

  19. Four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. II Invariant distribution of quantized field oscillators and questions on infinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of the quantum field theory is changed by introducing a new universal probability principle into field operators: one single inherent and invariant probability distribution P(/k/) is postulated for boson and fermion field oscillators. This can be accomplished only when one treats the four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. Special relativity is too restrictive to allow such a universal probability principle. A radical length, R, appears in physics through the probability distribution P(/k/). The force between two point particles vanishes when their relative distance tends to zero. This appears to be a general property for all forces and resembles the property of asymptotic freedom. The usual infinities in vacuum fluctuations and in local interactions, however complicated they may be, are all removed from quantum field theories. In appendix A a simple finite and unitary theory of unified electroweak interactions is discussed without assuming Higgs scalar bosons.

  20. Generalized noise terms for the quantized fluctuational electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka; Oksanen, Jani

    2017-03-01

    The quantization of optical fields in vacuum has been known for decades, but extending the field quantization to lossy and dispersive media in nonequilibrium conditions has proven to be complicated due to the position-dependent electric and magnetic responses of the media. In fact, consistent position-dependent quantum models for the photon number in resonant structures have only been formulated very recently and only for dielectric media. Here we present a general position-dependent quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that extends the consistent field quantization to describe the photon number also in the presence of magnetic field-matter interactions. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuations provide an additional degree of freedom in media where the magnetic coupling to the field is prominent. Therefore, the field quantization requires an additional independent noise operator that is commuting with the conventional bosonic noise operator describing the polarization current fluctuations in dielectric media. In addition to allowing the detailed description of field fluctuations, our methods provide practical tools for modeling optical energy transfer and the formation of thermal balance in general dielectric and magnetic nanodevices. We use QFED to investigate the magnetic properties of microcavity systems to demonstrate an example geometry in which it is possible to probe fields arising from the electric and magnetic source terms. We show that, as a consequence of the magnetic Purcell effect, the tuning of the position of an emitter layer placed inside a vacuum cavity can make the emissivity of a magnetic emitter to exceed the emissivity of a corresponding electric emitter.

  1. Field Theory of Fundamental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouhong; Ma, Tian

    2017-01-01

    First, we present two basic principles, the principle of interaction dynamics (PID) and the principle of representation invariance (PRI). Intuitively, PID takes the variation of the action under energy-momentum conservation constraint. We show that the PID is the requirement of the presence of dark matter and dark energy, the Higgs field and the quark confinement. PRI requires that the SU(N) gauge theory be independent of representations of SU(N). It is clear that PRI is the logic requirement of any gauge theory. With PRI, we demonstrate that the coupling constants for the strong and the weak interactions are the main sources of these two interactions, reminiscent of the electric charge. Second, we emphasize that symmetry principles-the principle of general relativity and the principle of Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance-together with the simplicity of laws of nature, dictate the actions for the four fundamental interactions. Finally, we show that the PID and the PRI, together with the symmetry principles give rise to a unified field model for the fundamental interactions, which is consistent with current experimental observations and offers some new physical predictions. The research is supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) grant DMS-1515024, and by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) grant N00014-15-1-2662.

  2. Light-Front Quantization of Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodskey, Stanley

    2002-12-01

    Light-front wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their physical quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The light-front Hamiltonian formalism provides new nonperturbative methods for obtaining the QCD spectrum and eigensolutions, including resolvant methods, variational techniques, and discretized light-front quantization. A new method for quantizing gauge theories in light-cone gauge using Dirac brackets to implement constraints is presented. In the case of the electroweak theory, this method of light-front quantization leads to a unitary and renormalizable theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field leaving the light-front vacuum equal to the perturbative vacuum. I also discuss an ''event amplitude generator'' for automatically computing renormalized amplitudes in perturbation theory. The importance of final-state interactions for the interpretation of diffraction, shadowing, and single-spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions such as deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is emphasized.

  3. ASYMPTOTIC QUANTIZATION OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus P(o)tzelberger

    2003-01-01

    We give a brief introduction to results on the asymptotics of quantization errors.The topics discussed include the quantization dimension,asymptotic distributions of sets of prototypes,asymptotically optimal quantizations,approximations and random quantizations.

  4. Quantum Entropy of a Single Cooper-Pair Box Interacting with Two Electromagnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A Hamiltonian which represents the interaction between a single Cooper-pair box and two quantized electromagnetic fields is considered in order to find new ways for quantum information. The wave function in Schrdinger picture is obtained. The evolution of the entropy of the box as a function of the scaled time is ploted to measure the entanglement between the box and the fields. It is found that the entanglement is sensitive to the detuning between the Josephson energy and the fields frequency, increasing the detuning can decrease the entanglement.

  5. What is "Relativistic Canonical Quantization"?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbatsky, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to give the most popular description of the scheme of quantization of relativistic fields that was named relativistic canonical quantization (RCQ). I do not give here the full exact account of this scheme. But with the help of this review any physicist, even not a specialist in the relativistic quantum theory, will be able to get a general view of the content of RCQ, of its connection with other known approaches, of its novelty and of its fruitfulness.

  6. The Quantization of Gravity Dynamic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Vergeles, S N

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of dynamic quantization method we build in this paper a new mathematically correct quantization scheme of gravity. In the frame of this scheme we develop a canonical formalism in tetrad-connection variables in 4-D theory of pure gravity. In this formalism the regularized quantized fields corresponding to the classical tetrad and connection fields are constructed. It is shown, that the regularized fields satisfy to general covariant equations of motion, which have the classical form. In order to solve these equations the iterative procedure is offered.

  7. Landau level quantization and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akera, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; MacDonald, A.H. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Norman, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A microscopic calculation of vortex-lattice states in two-dimensional electron systems at strong magnetic fields is made taking fully the Landau level quantization into account within the mean field scheme. Results of the order parameter and the local density of states are presented both in the limit of pairing in a single Landau level and in the semiclassical regime of weaker fields and differences from the Abrikosov vortex state are discussed.

  8. Rotational Symmetry of Classical Orbits, Arbitrary Quantization of Angular Momentum and the Role of Gauge Field in Two-Dimensional Space

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Jun-Li

    2010-01-01

    We study the quantum-classical correspondence in terms of coherent wave functions of a charged particle in two-dimensional central-scalar-potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits. For both closed and open classical orbits, the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level-space of angular momentum being greater or less than $\\hbar$ is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions, which is not necessarily $2\\pi$-periodic. The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value, which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model. The quantum mechanical model of anyon proposed by Wilczek (Phys. Rev. Lette. 48, 1144) becomes a special case of th...

  9. Superfield extended BRST quantization in general coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Lavrov, P M; Moshin, P Y

    2004-01-01

    We propose a superfield formalism of Lagrangian BRST-antiBRST quantization of arbitrary gauge theories in general coordinates with the base manifold of fields and antifields desribed in terms of both bosonic and fermionic variables.

  10. Quantum transport equation for systems with rough surfaces and its application to ultracold neutrons in a quantizing gravity field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, M.; Meyerovich, A. E., E-mail: Alexander-Meyerovich@uri.edu [University of Rhode Island, Department of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss transport of particles along random rough surfaces in quantum size effect conditions. As an intriguing application, we analyze gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides in conjunction with GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble). We present a theoretical description of these experiments in the biased diffusion approximation for neutron mirrors with both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) roughness. All system parameters collapse into a single constant which determines the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states and the exit neutron count. This constant is determined by a complicated integral of the correlation function (CF) of surface roughness. The reliable identification of this CF is always hindered by the presence of long fluctuation-driven correlation tails in finite-size samples. We report numerical experiments relevant for the identification of roughness of a new GRANIT waveguide and make predictions for ongoing experiments. We also propose a radically new design for the rough waveguide.

  11. Quantization and Quantum-Like Phenomena: A Number Amplitude Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. R.; Haven, E.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, quantization has meant turning the dynamical variables of classical mechanics that are represented by numbers into their corresponding operators. Thus the relationships between classical variables determine the relationships between the corresponding quantum mechanical operators. Here, we take a radically different approach to this conventional quantization procedure. Our approach does not rely on any relations based on classical Hamiltonian or Lagrangian mechanics nor on any canonical quantization relations, nor even on any preconceptions of particle trajectories in space and time. Instead we examine the symmetry properties of certain Hermitian operators with respect to phase changes. This introduces harmonic operators that can be identified with a variety of cyclic systems, from clocks to quantum fields. These operators are shown to have the characteristics of creation and annihilation operators that constitute the primitive fields of quantum field theory. Such an approach not only allows us to recover the Hamiltonian equations of classical mechanics and the Schrödinger wave equation from the fundamental quantization relations, but also, by freeing the quantum formalism from any physical connotation, makes it more directly applicable to non-physical, so-called quantum-like systems. Over the past decade or so, there has been a rapid growth of interest in such applications. These include, the use of the Schrödinger equation in finance, second quantization and the number operator in social interactions, population dynamics and financial trading, and quantum probability models in cognitive processes and decision-making. In this paper we try to look beyond physical analogies to provide a foundational underpinning of such applications.

  12. Inconsistency of the interactions between pseudoscalar, spinor and Rarita-Schwinger fields

    CERN Document Server

    Badagnani, D; Barbero, C

    2016-01-01

    We perform the Dirac quantization of RS fields interacting with a spinor and the first derivative of a pseudoscalar field. We achieve the calculations for two forms of this interaction: first we review the conventional coupling of lowest derivative order, reproducing the well known inconsistencies in its anticommutator algebra. Then, we perform the analysis on the next order term popularly known as spin 3/2 gauge invariant interaction, which is claimed to be free of these inconsistencies. Nevertheless we find that the direct application of the Dirac formalism leads to inconsistencies in complete analogy to the previous case. This is of high relevance in the particle phenomenology field, where these interactions are used to interpret experimental data involving Delta(1232) resonances.

  13. Quantization via Linear homotopy types

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Urs

    2014-01-01

    In the foundational logical framework of homotopy-type theory we discuss a natural formalization of secondary integral transforms in stable geometric homotopy theory. We observe that this yields a process of non-perturbative cohomological quantization of local pre-quantum field theory; and show that quantum anomaly cancellation amounts to realizing this as the boundary of a field theory that is given by genuine (primary) integral transforms, hence by linear polynomial functors. Recalling that traditional linear logic has semantics in symmetric monoidal categories and serves to formalize quantum mechanics, what we consider is its refinement to linear homotopy-type theory with semantics in stable infinity-categories of bundles of stable homotopy types (generalized cohomology theories) formalizing Lagrangian quantum field theory, following Nuiten and closely related to recent work by Haugseng and Hopkins-Lurie. For the reader interested in technical problems of quantization we provide non-perturbative quantizati...

  14. Third Quantization and Quantum Universes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Pyo, E-mail: sangkim@kunsan.ac.kr

    2014-01-15

    We study the third quantization of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with N-minimal massless fields. The third quantized Hamiltonian for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the minisuperspace consists of infinite number of intrinsic time-dependent, decoupled oscillators. The Hamiltonian has a pair of invariant operators for each universe with conserved momenta of the fields that play a role of the annihilation and the creation operators and that construct various quantum states for the universe. The closed universe exhibits an interesting feature of transitions from stable states to tachyonic states depending on the conserved momenta of the fields. In the classical forbidden unstable regime, the quantum states have googolplex growing position and conjugate momentum dispersions, which defy any measurements of the position of the universe.

  15. Effective resonant interactions via a driving field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, A B [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, Guadalajara 44420 (Mexico); Sainz, I [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, Guadalajara 44420 (Mexico); Saavedra, C [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2004-11-01

    Effective resonant quantum atom-field interactions are studied. These resonant interactions are induced by the presence of an external classical driving field. An adequate choice for frequencies of the driving field produces nonlinear effective Hamiltonians both for atom-field and for spin-spin interactions. It is shown that the exact numerical evolution for each resonance condition is well described by the corresponding effective Hamiltonian.

  16. Basis Light-Front Quantization: Recent Progress and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, James P.; Adhikari, Lekha; Chen, Guangyao; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Zhao, Xingbo

    2016-08-01

    Light-front Hamiltonian field theory has advanced to the stage of becoming a viable non-perturbative method for solving forefront problems in strong interaction physics. Physics drivers include hadron mass spectroscopy, generalized parton distribution functions, spin structures of the hadrons, inelastic structure functions, hadronization, particle production by strong external time-dependent fields in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and many more. We review selected recent results and future prospects with basis light-front quantization that include fermion-antifermion bound states in QCD, fermion motion in a strong time-dependent external field and a novel non-perturbative renormalization scheme.

  17. Influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the Einstein relation in nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials: Simplified theory, relative comparison and suggestion for experimental determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahari, S. [Administration Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Nano Scale Device Research Laboratory, Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); De, D. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, BF 142, Sector I, Kolkata 700 064, West Bengal (India); Adhikari, S.M.; Niyogi, A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 70009 (India); Dey, A. [Department of Electronics, Kalyani Government of Engineering College, Kalyani, Nadia (India); Paitya, N. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 70009 (India); Saha, S.C. [Department of Electronics, Mallabhum Institute of Technology, Brajaradhanagar, Gosanipur, Bankura (India); Ghatak, K.P., E-mail: kamakhyaghatak@yahoo.co.i [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 70009 (India); Bose, P.K. [National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India)

    2010-09-15

    An attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-to-mobility ratio (DMR) under crossed fields' configuration in nonlinear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law by incorporating the crystal field in the Hamiltonian and including the anisotropies of the effective electron mass and the spin-orbit splitting constants within the framework of kp formalisms. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary compounds form a special case of our generalized analysis. The DMR has also been investigated for II-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various appropriate dispersion relations. We have considered n-CdGeAs{sub 2}, n-Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te, n-In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP, p-CdS and stressed n-InSb materials as examples. The DMR also increases with increasing electric field and the natures of oscillations are totally band structure dependent with different numerical values. It has been observed that the DMR exhibits oscillatory dependences with inverse quantizing magnetic field and carrier degeneracy due to the Subhnikov-de Haas effect. An experimental method of determining the DMR for degenerate materials in the present case has been suggested.

  18. Third Quantization of Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.; Mora, Cesar

    2001-01-01

    We study the third quantization of a Brans-Dicke toy model, we calculate the number density of the universes created from nothing and found that it has a Planckian form. Also, we calculated the uncertainty relation for this model by means of functional Schr"odinger equation and we found that fluctuations of the third-quantized universe field tends to a finite limit in the course of cosmic expansion.

  19. Rhythm quantization for transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cemgil, A.T.; Desain, P.W.M.; Kappen, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Automatic Music Transcription is the extraction of an acceptable notation from performed music. One important task in this problem is rhythm quantization which refers to categorization of note durations. Although quantization of a pure mechanical performance is rather straightforward, the task becom

  20. Generalized Quantization Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zheng; CAO Zhuang-Qi; DENG Xiao-Xu; SHEN Qi-Shun

    2005-01-01

    @@ On the basis of analytical transfer matrix theory, we fine a generalized quantization condition. By introducing a new type of modified momentum, our quantization condition has the same form as the Bohr-Sommerfeld formula.Numerical and analytical comparisons show that the present method is exact.

  1. Third Quantization and Quantum Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Michael Deturck

    My thesis consists of three separate parts. Part one consists of a study of CP violation in the Kaon decay: K to pi pi gamma . To study the short distance contribution to the matrix element we developed an operator expansion for the effective Hamiltonian. An effective s to dgamma vertex arises through operator mixing. We evaluated several two-loop graphs in order to obtain the coefficient of this operator. We studied the long distance contributions to the matrix element and demonstrated that this was the dominant contribution. This explained why the polarization of the emitted photon is primarily of the magnetic type. Part two of my thesis involves the treatment of string theory at finite temperature. We introduced finite temperature into string theory by compactifying time on a twisted torus of radius beta = 1/kT, the reciprical of the temperature. The twisted torus takes into account the different thermal properties of bosons and fermions. We computed the one-loop vacuum amplitude Lambda(beta) on a twisted torus which is manifestly modular invariant. We found that lnZ(beta) = -betaVLambda (beta) where Z(beta) is the partition function and V the volume of the system. We computed the function sigma(E) which counts the number of multi-string states of total energy E by taking the inverse Laplace transform of Z( beta). We also studied the effect of finite temperature on the effective potentials which determine a string theory's compactification. The third part of my thesis involved the Wheeler DeWitt equation and a new interpretation of quantum cosmology. We examined a proposal by DeWitt for the normalization of solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We avoided negative probability problems with this proposal by reinterpreting the Wheeler-DeWitt wave function as a second quantized field. As the arguments of the Wheeler-DeWitt wave functional are second quantized fields this represented a third quantization. We developed a mode decomposition for the third quantized

  2. Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a quantized bulk scalar field in the geometry of two curved branes on Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejhan, Hamed; Rahbardehghan, Surena

    2016-09-01

    In a previous work [S. Rahbardehghan and H. Pejhan, Phys. Lett. B 750, 627 (2015)], we considered a simple brane-world model: a single four-dimensional brane embedded in a five-dimensional de Sitter (dS) space-time. Then, by including a conformally coupled scalar field in the bulk, we studied the induced Casimir energy-momentum tensor. Technically, the Krein-Gupta-Bleuler quantization scheme as a covariant and renormalizable quantum field theory in dS space was used to perform the calculations. In the present paper, we generalize this study to a less idealized, but physically motivated, scenario; namely, we consider Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time which behaves asymptotically as a dS space-time. More precisely, we evaluate a Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a system with two D -dimensional curved branes on background of D +1 -dimensional FRW space-time with negative spatial curvature and a conformally coupled bulk scalar field that satisfied the Dirichlet boundary condition on the branes.

  3. Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wung-Hong Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.

  4. Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2014-12-01

    The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.

  5. Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wung-Hong, E-mail: whhwung@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2014-12-12

    The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.

  6. Theory of interacting quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rebenko, Alexei L

    2012-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the systematic and encyclopedic presentation of the foundations of quantum field theory. It represents mathematical problems of the quantum field theory with regardto the new methods of the constructive and Euclidean field theory formed for the last thirty years of the 20th century on the basis of rigorous mathematical tools of the functional analysis, the theory of operators, and the theory of generalized functions. The book is useful for young scientists who desire to understand not only the formal structure of the quantum field theory but also its basic concepts and connection with classical mechanics, relativistic classical field theory, quantum mechanics, group theory, and the theory of functional integration.

  7. Stress-energy tensor of the quantized massive scalar field in spherically symmetric, topological and lukewarm black hole configurations in D =4 and D =5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasek, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, using the general Schwinger-DeWitt approach, we construct the approximate stress-energy tensor of the quantized massive scalar field with arbitrary curvature coupling in D =4 and D =5 classical spacetimes of the electrically charged static black holes with the cosmological constant. Depending on the sign of the cosmological constant we consider both spherically symmetric and topological spacetimes with the special emphasis put on the extremal and ultraextremal configurations. Moreover, we analyze the geometries of the closest vicinity of the degenerate horizons, which topologically are the product of the maximally symmetric subspaces. We solve the semiclassical Einstein field equations for such product spacetimes. Since the transformation k →-k and f''→-f'' leaves the equations unchanged, where k is the curvature of the (D -2 )-dimensional subspace and f'' is the second derivative of the metric potential at the degenerate horizon, it suffices to consider only the spherically symmetric case. It is shown that in four and five dimensions there are forbidden sectors of the parameter space.

  8. Classical Fields and the Quantum Concept

    CERN Document Server

    De Souza, M M

    1996-01-01

    We do a critical review of the Faraday-Maxwell concept of classical field and of its quantization process. With the hindsight knowledge of the essentially quantum character of the interactions, we use a naive classical model of field, based on exchange of classical massless particles, for a comparative and qualitative analysis of the physical content of the Coulomb's and Gauss's laws. It enlightens the physical meaning of a field singularity and of a static field. One can understand the problems on quantizing a classical field but not the hope of quantizing the gravitational field right from General Relativity.

  9. Magnetic fields from second-order interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Osano, Bob

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that when two types of perturbations interact in cosmological perturbation theory, the interaction may lead to the generation of a third type. In this article we discuss the generation of magnetic fields from such interactions. We determine conditions under which the interaction of a first-order magnetic field with a first-order scalar-or vector-, or tensor-perturbations would lead to the generation of second order magnetic field. The analysis is done in a covariant-index-free approach, but could be done in the standard covariant indexed-approach.

  10. Magnetic fields from second-order interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Osano, Bob

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that when two types of perturbations interact in cosmological perturbation theory, the interaction may lead to the generation of a third type. In this article we discuss the generation of magnetic fields from such interactions. We determine conditions under which the interaction of a first-order magnetic field with a first-order scalar-or vector-, or tensor-perturbations would lead to the generation of second order magnetic field. The analysis is done in a covariant-index-fre...

  11. Symmetry breaking induced by charge density and the entropy of interacting fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Guendelman, E. I.

    1987-01-01

    We study interacting complex scalar field theories with global U(1) symmetry and concave potentials. It is usually assumed that spontaneous symmetry breaking is excluded for such interaction. However, we show that degenerate ground states appear when the system is considered as a charged medium, which we take to be so large that it makes sense to speak of a uniform, finite, charge density. This of course implies that we are considering as ground states solutions that select a particular Lorentz frame. The consequent symmetry breaking is accompanied by the usual Goldstone modes. It makes topological solitons possible in 1+1 dimensions. Further, a new kind of nontopological solitons appears, again in 1+1 dimensions. These are embedded in a uniformly charged background. Unlike the Friedberg-Lee-Sirlin solitons, those studied here do not require a complicatedly shaped potential to exist. Although Derrick's theorem, which forbids higher-dimensional solitons, cannot be proved in the present context, it appears that such solitons are still forbidden in the presence of finite charge density. When the field is confined to a box, the frequency spectrum is, classically, a continuum. This is in sharp contrast to the situation for linear fields. However, semiclassical quantization, or the requirement that charge be quantized, both make the spectrum discrete. We show by general arguments that the energy spectrum (distinct from the frequency spectrum for nonlinear fields) for the interacting field in a box must have widely spaced levels. For the case of a quartic potential we compute the energy levels exactly in 1+1 dimensions, and verify this conclusion directly. The interacting scalar field thus complies in detail with the bound on specific entropy proposed by one of us earlier as applicable to all finite physical systems.

  12. Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Florian

    2012-07-16

    In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.

  13. General Quantization Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Maiz, F

    2012-01-01

    A general quantization rule for bound states of the Schrodinger equation is presented. Like fundamental theory of integral, our idea is mainly based on dividing the potential into many pieces, solving the Schr\\"odinger equation, and deriving the general quantization rule. For both exactly and non-exactly solvable systems, the energy levels of all the bound states can be easily calculated from the general quantization rule. Using this new general quantization rule, we re-calculate the energy levels for the one-dimensional system, with an infinite square well, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the Morse Potential, with the symmetric and asymmetric Rosen-Morse potentials, with the first P\\"oschl-Teller potential, with the Coulomb Potential, with the V-shape Potential, and the ax^4 potential, and for the three dimensions systems, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the ordinary Coulomb potential, and for the hydrogen atom.

  14. A Field-motion tautological approach and the role of the acceleration in setting a quantization condition

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimento, Daniel Lima

    2013-01-01

    In this work is made a reanalysis of the central problem of electrodynamics, i.e., finding the conditions under which an electromagnetic field generates a stable mechanical motion and conversely the existence of this field itself can be consistent with that motion.

  15. Riemann surface and quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, E. E.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Inozemtseva, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach of the unified consideration of classical and quantum mechanics from the standpoint of the complex analysis effects. It turns out that quantization can be interpreted in terms of the Riemann surface corresponding to the multivalent LnΨ function. A visual interpretation of "trajectories" of the quantum system and of the Feynman's path integral is presented. A magnetic dipole having a magnetic charge that satisfies the Dirac quantization rule was obtained.

  16. Lagrange structure and quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazinski, Peter O. [Department of Quantum Field Theory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Lyakhovich, Simon L. [Department of Quantum Field Theory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Sharapov, Alexey A. [Department of Quantum Field Theory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    A path-integral quantization method is proposed for dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion do not necessarily follow from the action principle. The key new notion behind this quantization scheme is the Lagrange structure which is more general than the lagrangian formalism in the same sense as Poisson geometry is more general than the symplectic one. The Lagrange structure is shown to admit a natural BRST description which is used to construct an AKSZ-type topological sigma-model. The dynamics of this sigma-model in d+1 dimensions, being localized on the boundary, are proved to be equivalent to the original theory in d dimensions. As the topological sigma-model has a well defined action, it is path-integral quantized in the usual way that results in quantization of the original (not necessarily lagrangian) theory. When the original equations of motion come from the action principle, the standard BV path-integral is explicitly deduced from the proposed quantization scheme. The general quantization scheme is exemplified by several models including the ones whose classical dynamics are not variational.

  17. Action Quantization, Energy Quantization, and Time Parametrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2017-03-01

    The additional information within a Hamilton-Jacobi representation of quantum mechanics is extra, in general, to the Schrödinger representation. This additional information specifies the microstate of ψ that is incorporated into the quantum reduced action, W. Non-physical solutions of the quantum stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equation for energies that are not Hamiltonian eigenvalues are examined to establish Lipschitz continuity of the quantum reduced action and conjugate momentum. Milne quantization renders the eigenvalue J. Eigenvalues J and E mutually imply each other. Jacobi's theorem generates a microstate-dependent time parametrization t-τ =partial _E W even where energy, E, and action variable, J, are quantized eigenvalues. Substantiating examples are examined in a Hamilton-Jacobi representation including the linear harmonic oscillator numerically and the square well in closed form. Two byproducts are developed. First, the monotonic behavior of W is shown to ease numerical and analytic computations. Second, a Hamilton-Jacobi representation, quantum trajectories, is shown to develop the standard energy quantization formulas of wave mechanics.

  18. A hybrid approach for quantizing complicated motion of a charged particle in time-varying magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menouar, Salah [Laboratory of Optoelectronics and Compounds (LOC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Ferhat Abbas Setif 1, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Choi, Jeong Ryeol, E-mail: choiardor@hanmail.net [Department of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Yeongsong 15, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Quantum characteristics of a charged particle subjected to a singular oscillator potential under an external magnetic field is investigated via SU(1,1) Lie algebraic approach together with the invariant operator and the unitary transformation methods. The system we managed is somewhat complicated since we considered not only the time-variation of the effective mass of the system but also the dependence of the external magnetic field on time in an arbitrary fashion. In this case, the system is a kind of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems which require more delicate treatment when we study it. The complete wave functions are obtained without relying on the methods of perturbation and/or approximation, and the global phases of the system are identified. To promote the understanding of our development, we applied it to a particular case, assuming that the effective mass slowly varies with time under a time-dependent magnetic field.

  19. Non—conservation of energy arising from atomic dipole interactions and its effects on light field and coupled atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongChuan-Hua

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between coulpled atoms and a single mode of a quantized electromagnetic field, which involve the terms originating from the dipole interactions, are discussed. In the usual Jaynes-Cummings model for coupled atoms, the terms of non-conservation of energy originating from dipole interactions are neglected, however, we take them into consideration in this paper. The effects of these terms on the evolutions of quantum statistic properties and squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole moments and atomic population inversion are investigated. It has been shown that the coupling between atoms modulates these evolutions of fields and atoms. The terms of non-conservation of energy affect these evolutions of field and atoms slightly. They also have effects on the squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole and atomic population inversions. The initial states of atoms also affect these properties.

  20. Non-conservation of energy arising from atomic dipole interactions and its effects on light field and coupled atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董传华

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between coupled atoms and a single mode of a quantized electromagnetic field, which involve the terms originating from the dipole interactions, are discussed. In the usual Jaynes Cummings model for coupled atoms,the terms of non-conservation of energy originating from dipole interactions are neglected, however, we take them into consideration in this paper. The effects of these terms on the evolutions of quantum statistic properties and squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole moments and atomic population inversion are investigated. It has been shown that the coupling between atoms modulates these evolutions of fields and atoms. The terms of non-conservation of energy affect these evolutions of fields and atoms slightly. They also have effects on the squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole and atomic population inversions. The initial states of atoms also affect these properties.

  1. Interacting scalar fields in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Devaraj, G; Devaraj, Ganesh; Einhorn, Martin B

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the massless \\lambda \\phi^4 theory in de Sitter space. We argue that the infrared divergence associated with the free massless, minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space is not present when interactions are included because the field does not remain minimally coupled. This is essentially because \\xi=0 is not a fixed point of the renormalization group once interactions are included.

  2. Quantum entanglement, Wheeler’s delayed choice experiment and its explanation on the basis of quantization of fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.

    2017-08-01

    The result of Wheeler's delayed choice experiment is a natural consequence of the entanglement of moving photons and particles (atoms, molecules) of the slit through which they move. The inclusion of quantum fields (taking into account that speed of virtual particles is not limited) self-consistently explains why interaction’s propagation velocity after closing one slit is larger than the speed of light.

  3. Chiral Symmetry Breaking and Point-Splitting Procedure in Light-Cone Quantized QED in a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbacher, D

    2005-01-01

    The summation of all rainbow diagrams in QED in a strong magnetic field leads to a dynamical electron mass on the light-cone. Further contributions to this summation however can cause problems with light-cone singularities. It is shown that these problems are generally avoided by applying the point-splitting regularization to every diagram. The possibility of implementing this procedure into the Lagrangian of the theory is discussed.

  4. Generalized Gravitational Entropy of Interacting Scalar Field and Maxwell Field

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The generalized gravitational entropy proposed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena in recent is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the spacetime. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy. Our investigations have not found the unexpected anomalous surface term.

  5. Lagrange structure and quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O; Sharapov, A A

    2005-01-01

    A path-integral quantization method is proposed for dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion do \\textit{not} necessarily follow from the action principle. The key new notion behind this quantization scheme is the Lagrange structure which is more general than the Lagrangian formalism in the same sense as Poisson geometry is more general than the symplectic one. The Lagrange structure is shown to admit a natural BRST description which is used to construct an AKSZ-type topological sigma-model. The dynamics of this sigma-model in $d+1$ dimensions, being localized on the boundary, are proved to be equivalent to the original theory in $d$ dimensions. As the topological sigma-model has a well defined action, it is path-integral quantized in the usual way that results in quantization of the original (not necessarily Lagrangian) theory. When the original equations of motion come from the action principle, the standard BV path-integral is explicitly deduced from the proposed quantization scheme. The genera...

  6. Faddeev–Jackiw quantization of non-autonomous singular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadi, Zahir [Laboratoire de physique théorique, Faculté des sciences exactes, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Equipe BioPhyStat, ICPMB, IF CNRS N 2843, Université de Lorraine, 57070 Metz Cedex (France); Bérard, Alain [Equipe BioPhyStat, ICPMB, IF CNRS N 2843, Université de Lorraine, 57070 Metz Cedex (France); Mohrbach, Hervé, E-mail: herve.mohrbach@univ-lorraine.fr [Equipe BioPhyStat, ICPMB, IF CNRS N 2843, Université de Lorraine, 57070 Metz Cedex (France)

    2016-10-07

    We extend the quantization à la Faddeev–Jackiw for non-autonomous singular systems. This leads to a generalization of the Schrödinger equation for those systems. The method is exemplified by the quantization of the damped harmonic oscillator and the relativistic particle in an external electromagnetic field.

  7. Integration measure and extended BRST covariant quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Nersessian, A P; Geyer, Bodo; Lavrov, Petr; Nersessian, Armen

    2001-01-01

    We propose an extended BRST invariant Lagrangian quantization scheme of general gauge theories based on an explicit realization of the modified triplectic algebra that was announced in our previous investigation (hep-th/0104189). The algebra includes, besides the odd operators $V^a$ appearing in the triplectic formalism, also the odd operators $U^a$ introduced within modified triplectic quantization, both of which being anti-Hamiltonian vector fields. We show that some even supersymplectic structure defined on the space of fields and antifields provides the extended BRST path integral with a well-defined integration measure. All the known Lagrangian quantization schemes based on the extended BRST symmetry are obtained by specifying the (free) parameters of that method.

  8. Schwinger Mechanism with Stochastic Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We prescribe a formulation of the particle production with real-time Stochastic Quantization. To construct the retarded and the time-ordered propagators we decompose the stochastic variables into positive- and negative-energy parts. In this way we demonstrate how to derive the Schwinger mechanism under a time-dependent electric field. We also discuss a physical interpretation with help of numerical simulations and develop an analogue to the one-dimensional scattering with the non-relativistic Schroedinger equation. We can then reformulate the Schwinger mechanism as the high-energy quantum reflection problem rather than tunneling.

  9. Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Dirac Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2004-01-01

    Gravitational interactions of Dirac field are studied in this paper. Based on gauge principle, quantum gauge theory of gravity, which is perturbatively renormalizable, is formulated in the Minkowski space-time. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, gravity is treated as a kind of fundamental interactions, which is transmitted by gravitational gauge tield, and Dirac field couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Based on this theory, we can easily explain gravitational phase effect, which has already been detected by COW experiment.

  10. Polaron transition of surface electrons on liquid {sup 4}He films in zero and quantizing magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tress, O.; Penning, F.C.; Teske, E.; Wyder, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, 38 - Grenoble (France). Hochfeldmagnetlabor; Mistura, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    Surface electrons (SE) prepared on helium films of thickness d are supposed to undergo a transition to the polaronic state when the corresponding binding energy {lambda}{sub b}{proportional_to}d{sup -4} is close to or larger than k{sub B}T. Although the polaron has been observed recently, no clear transition was seen so far. In this paper we want to present magnetotransport measurements carried out at rather high temperatures (T>1.2 K) to avoid the Wigner crystallization for a wide range of electron densities (5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}field mobility measurements versus d and also shown in the corresponding magnetotransport measurements up to 10 T below and above the transition. (orig.) 19 refs.

  11. Black hole entropy quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, A; Fernandez-Borja, E; Corichi, Alejandro; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the pioneer works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show that an observed oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation, when properly interpreted yields an entropy that has discrete, equidistant values that are consistent with the Bekenstein framework.

  12. Branes and Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Gukov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The problem of quantizing a symplectic manifold (M,\\omega) can be formulated in terms of the A-model of a complexification of M. This leads to an interesting new perspective on quantization. From this point of view, the Hilbert space obtained by quantization of (M,\\omega) is the space of (Bcc,B') strings, where Bcc and B' are two A-branes; B' is an ordinary Lagrangian A-brane, and Bcc is a space-filling coisotropic A-brane. B' is supported on M, and the choice of \\omega is encoded in the choice of Bcc. As an example, we describe from this point of view the representations of the group SL(2,R). Another application is to Chern-Simons gauge theory.

  13. Could Geoneutrinos Interact With the Geomagnetic Field?

    CERN Document Server

    Quintero, C A B

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we consider the possibility of interaction between geoneutrinos and the geomagnetic field, by adopting an approach based on the Dirac's equation with a non-minimal coupling that accounts for the magnetic interaction of the massive neutrinos. In our approach, we see that the magnetic interaction is controlled by a dimensionless parameter, $f\\simeq 10^{-1}$, and we estimate the mean value of this interaction to be of the order of $10^{-14}\\ MeV^{2}$.

  14. Nonperturbative effects in deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Periwal, V

    2000-01-01

    The Cattaneo-Felder path integral form of the perturbative Kontsevich deformation quantization formula is used to explicitly demonstrate the existence of nonperturbative corrections to na\\"\\i ve deformation quantization.

  15. Interactions between electromagnetic fields and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between Electromagnetic Fields and Matter deals with the principles and methods that can amplify electromagnetic fields from very low levels of signals. This book discusses how electromagnetic fields can be produced, amplified, modulated, or rectified from very low levels to enable these for application in communication systems. This text also describes the properties of matter and some phenomenological considerations to the reactions of matter when an action of external fields results in a polarization of the particle system and changes the bonding forces existing in the matter.

  16. Fractional quantization of charge and spin in topological quantum pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Pasquale; Citro, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Topological quantum pumps are topologically equivalent to the quantum Hall state: In these systems, the charge pumped during each pumping cycle is quantized and coincides with the Chern invariant. However, differently from quantum Hall insulators, quantum pumps can exhibit novel phenomena such as the fractional quantization of the charge transport, as a consequence of their distinctive symmetries in parameter space. Here, we report the analogous fractional quantization of the spin transport in a topological spin pump realized in a one-dimensional lattice via a periodically modulated Zeeman field. In the proposed model, which is a spinfull generalization of the Harper-Hofstadter model, the amount of spin current pumped during well-defined fractions of the pumping cycle is quantized as fractions of the spin Chern number. This fractional quantization of spin is topological, and is a direct consequence of the additional symmetries ensuing from the commensuration of the periodic field with the underlying lattice.

  17. Quantized, piecewise linear filter network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1993-01-01

    A quantization based piecewise linear filter network is defined. A method for the training of this network based on local approximation in the input space is devised. The training is carried out by repeatedly alternating between vector quantization of the training set into quantization classes an...

  18. Hopfion canonical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A; Norvaisas, E; Shnir, Ya

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of the canonical quantization of the rotational mode of the charge Q=1 and Q=2 spinning Hopfions. The axially-symmetric solutions are constructed numerically, it is shown the quantum corrections to the mass of the configurations are relatively large.

  19. Hopfion canonical quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acus, A. [Vilnius University, Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Gostauto 12, Vilnius 01108 (Lithuania); Halavanau, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, BSU, Minsk (Belarus); Norvaisas, E. [Vilnius University, Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Gostauto 12, Vilnius 01108 (Lithuania); Shnir, Ya., E-mail: shnir@maths.tcd.ie [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, BSU, Minsk (Belarus); Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-05-03

    We study the effect of the canonical quantization of the rotational mode of the charge Q=1 and Q=2 spinning Hopfions. The axially-symmetric solutions are constructed numerically, it is shown the quantum corrections to the mass of the configurations are relatively large.

  20. Quantized Algebra I Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBuvitz, William

    2014-01-01

    I am a volunteer reader at the Princeton unit of "Learning Ally" (formerly "Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic") and I recently discovered that high school students are introduced to the concept of quantization well before they take chemistry and physics. For the past few months I have been reading onto computer files a…

  1. Revisiting Canonical Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2012-01-01

    Conventional canonical quantization procedures directly link various c-number and q-number quantities. Here, we advocate a different association of classical and quantum quantities that renders classical theory a natural subset of quantum theory with \\hbar>0. While keeping the good results of conventional procedures, some examples are noted where the new procedures offer better results than conventional ones.

  2. Exotic Material as Interactions Between Scalar Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson G. A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Many theoretical papers refer to the need to create exotic materials with average negative energies for the formation of space propulsion anomalies such as "wormholes" and "warp drives". However, little hope is given for the existence of such material to resolve its creation for such use. From the standpoint that non-minimally coupled scalar fields to gravity appear to be the current direction mathematically. It is proposed that exotic material is really scalar field interactions. Within this paper the Ginzburg-Landau (GL scalar fields associated with superconductor junctions isinvestigated as a source for negative vacuum energy fluctuations, which could be used to study the interactions among energyfluctuations, cosmological scalar (i.e., Higgs fields, and gravity.

  3. Modified triplectic quantization in general coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B

    2003-01-01

    We present an extension of previous results (hep-th/0105215)on the quantization of general gauge theories within the BRST-antBRST invatiant Lagrangian scheme in general coordinates, namely, we consider the case when the base manifold of fields and antifields is a supermanifold desribed in terms of both bosonic and fermionic variables.

  4. Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Scalar Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUNing

    2003-01-01

    Quantum gauge theory of gravity is formulated based on gauge principle. Because the Lagrangian has strict local gravitational gauge symmetry, gravitational gauge theory is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum theory. Gravitational gauge interactions of scalar field are studied in this paper. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, scalar field minimal couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Comparing the Lagrangian for scalar field in quantum gauge theory of gravity with the corresponding Lagrangian in quantum fields in curved space-time, the definition for metric in curved space-time in geometry picture of gravity can be obtained, which is expressed by gravitational gauge field. In classical level, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches are also discussed.

  5. Twisted supergravity and its quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Twisted supergravity is supergravity in a background where the bosonic ghost field takes a non-zero value. This is the supergravity counterpart of the familiar concept of twisting supersymmetric field theories. In this paper, we give conjectural descriptions of type IIA and IIB supergravity in $10$ dimensions. Our conjectural descriptions are in terms of the closed-string field theories associated to certain topological string theories, and we conjecture that these topological string theories are twists of the physical string theories. For type IIB, the results of arXiv:1505.6703 show that our candidate twisted supergravity theory admits a unique quantization in perturbation theory. This is despite the fact that the theories, like the original physical theories, are non-renormalizable. Although we do not prove our conjectures, we amass considerable evidence. We find that our candidates for the twisted supergravity theories contain the residual supersymmetry one would expect. We also prove (using heavily a res...

  6. Inconsistency of the ‘spin-3/2 gauge invariant’ interaction of Rarita-Schwinger fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badagnani, D.; Mariano, A.; Barbero, C.

    2017-02-01

    We perform the Dirac quantization of Rarita-Schwinger fields interacting with a spinor and the first derivative of a pseudoscalar field. We achieve the calculations for two forms of this interaction: first we review the conventional coupling of lowest derivative order, reproducing the well known inconsistencies in its anticommutator algebra. Then, we perform the analysis on the next order term popularly known as ‘spin-3/2 gauge invariant interaction’, which is claimed to be free of these inconsistencies. Nevertheless we find that the direct application of the Dirac formalism leads to inconsistencies in complete analogy to the previous case. This is of high relevance in the particle phenomenology field, where these interactions are used to interpret experimental data involving {{Δ }}(1232) resonances.

  7. Dynamics of atom-field entanglement in a bimodal cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Deçordi, G L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate some aspects of the dynamics and entanglement of bipartite quantum system (atom-quantized field), coupled to a third ``external" subsystem (quantized field). We make use of the Raman coupled model; a three-level atom in a lambda configuration interacting with two modes of the quantized cavity field. We consider the far off resonance limit, which allows the derivation of an effective Hamiltonian of a two-level atom coupled to the fields. We also make a comparison with the situation in which one of the modes is treated classically rather than prepared in a quantum field (coherent state).

  8. The stationary states of interacting fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frazer, W.R.; Hove, Léon van

    1958-01-01

    As an application of a time-independent perturbation formalism developed earlier for systems with many degrees of freedom, we give in terms of diagrams the general perturbation expressions for the exact stationary states of interacting fields. The physical vacuum is obtained by applying to the bare

  9. A brief review on the problem of divergence in Krein space quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payandeh, F. [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, Z.G.; Fathi, M. [Department of Physics, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper we have a brief review on the problem of divergence in quantum field theory and its elimination using the method of Krein space quantization. In this method, the auxiliary negative frequency states have been utilized, the modes of which do not interact with the physical states and are not affected by the physical boundary conditions. It is remarkable that Krein space quantization is similar to Pauli-Villars regularization, so we can call it the ''Krein regularization''. Considering the QED in Krein space quantization, it could be shown that the theory is automatically regularized. Calculation of the three primitive divergent integrals, the vacuum polarization, electron self energy and vertex function using Krein space method leads to finite values, since the infrared and ultraviolet divergencies do not appear. For another example, the Casimir stress on a spherical shell in de Sitter spacetime for a massless scalar field could be calculated using Krein space quantization. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Adjoint $QCD_{1+1}$ in Light-cone Gauge, Quantized at Equal Time

    CERN Document Server

    Vianello, E

    2004-01-01

    SU(2) gauge theory coupled to massless fermions in the adjoint representation is quantized in light-cone gauge by imposing the equal-time canonical algebra. The theory is defined on a space-time cylinder with "twisted" boundary conditions, periodic for one color component (the diagonal 3- component) and antiperiodic for the other two. The focus of the study is on the non-trivial vacuum structure and the fermion condensate. It is shown that the indefinite-metric quantization of free gauge bosons is not compatible with the residual gauge symmetry of the interacting theory. A suitable quantization of the unphysical modes of the gauge field is necessary in order to guarantee the consistency of the subsidiary condition and allow the quantum representation of the residual gauge symmetry of the classical Lagrangian: the 3-color component of the gauge field must be quantized in a space with an indefinite metric while the other two components require a positive-definite metric. The contribution of the latter to the fr...

  11. Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Scalar Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2003-01-01

    Quantum gauge theory of gravity is formulated based on gauge principle. Because the Lagrangian hasstrict local gravitational gauge symmetry, gravitational gauge theory is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum theory.Gravitational gauge interactions of scalar field are studied in this paper. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, scalar fieldminimal couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Comparing the Lagrangian forscalar field in quantum gauge theory of gravity with the corresponding Lagrangian in quantum fields in curved space-time, the definition for metric in curved space-time in geometry picture of gravity can be obtained, which is expressedby gravitational gauge field. In classical level, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches are also discussed.

  12. Quantization of super Teichmueller spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla

    2016-08-15

    The quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces has found important applications to conformal field theory and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We construct a quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces, using coordinates associated to the ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. We construct a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations. Therefore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential. In the quantum Teichmueller theory, it was observed that the key object defining the Teichmueller theory has a close relation to the representation theory of the Borel half of U{sub q}(sl(2)). In our research we observed that the role of U{sub q}(sl(2)) is taken by quantum superalgebra U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). A Borel half of U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)) is the super quantum plane. The canonical element of the Heisenberg double of the quantum super plane is evaluated in certain infinite dimensional representations on L{sup 2}(R) x C{sup 1} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 1} and compared to the flip operator from the Teichmueller theory of super Riemann surfaces.

  13. Collisionless reconnection: magnetic field line interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field lines are quantum objects carrying one quantum Φ0 = 2πh/e of magnetic flux and have finite radius λm. Here we argue that they possess a very specific dynamical interaction. Parallel field lines reject each other. When confined to a certain area they form two-dimensional lattices of hexagonal structure. We estimate the filling factor of such an area. Anti-parallel field lines, on the other hand, attract each other. We identify the physical mechanism as being due to the action of the gauge potential field, which we determine quantum mechanically for two parallel and two anti-parallel field lines. The distortion of the quantum electrodynamic vacuum causes a cloud of virtual pairs. We calculate the virtual pair production rate from quantum electrodynamics and estimate the virtual pair cloud density, pair current and Lorentz force density acting on the field lines via the pair cloud. These properties of field line dynamics become important in collisionless reconnection, consistently explaining why and how reconnection can spontaneously set on in the field-free centre of a current sheet below the electron-inertial scale.

  14. Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    1999-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.

  15. Quantization of systems with $OSp(2|2)$ symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    We study the quantization of systems with $OSp(2|2)$ symmetry. Systems contain ordinary fields and their counterparts with different statistics. The unitarity of systems holds by imposing subsidiary conditions on states.

  16. Uniform quantized electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Johan S.; Lomba, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T  =  0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies.

  17. Resurgence matches quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Mariño, Marcos; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The quest to find a nonperturbative formulation of topological string theory has recently seen two unrelated developments. On the one hand, via quantization of the mirror curve associated to a toric Calabi–Yau background, it has been possible to give a nonperturbative definition of the topological-string partition function. On the other hand, using techniques of resurgence and transseries, it has been possible to extend the string (asymptotic) perturbative expansion into a transseries involving nonperturbative instanton sectors. Within the specific example of the local {{{P}}2} toric Calabi–Yau threefold, the present work shows how the Borel–Padé–Écalle resummation of this resurgent transseries, alongside occurrence of Stokes phenomenon, matches the string-theoretic partition function obtained via quantization of the mirror curve. This match is highly non-trivial, given the unrelated nature of both nonperturbative frameworks, signaling at the existence of a consistent underlying structure.

  18. Resurgence Matches Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The quest to find a nonperturbative formulation of topological string theory has recently seen two unrelated developments. On the one hand, via quantization of the mirror curve associated to a toric Calabi-Yau background, it has been possible to give a nonperturbative definition of the topological-string partition function. On the other hand, using techniques of resurgence and transseries, it has been possible to extend the string (asymptotic) perturbative expansion into a transseries involving nonperturbative instanton sectors. Within the specific example of the local P2 toric Calabi-Yau threefold, the present work shows how the Borel-Pade-Ecalle resummation of this resurgent transseries, alongside occurrence of Stokes phenomenon, matches the string-theoretic partition function obtained via quantization of the mirror curve. This match is highly non-trivial, given the unrelated nature of both nonperturbative frameworks, signaling at the existence of a consistent underlying structure.

  19. WAVELET SCALAR QUANTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Karuna kumar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprints are today the most widely used biometric features for personal identification. With the increasing usage of biometric systems the question arises naturally how to store and handle the acquired sensor data. Our algorithm for the digitized images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of discrete wavelet transform sub band decomposition. This technique referred to as the wavelet scalar quantization method. The algorithm produces archival quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper finger print cards to be replaced by digital imagery. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations.

  20. Interaction Between Flames and Electric Fields Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between flames and electric fields has long been an interesting research subject that has theoretical importance as well as practical significance. Many of the reactions in a flame follow an ionic pathway: that is, positive and negative ions are formed during the intermediate steps of the reaction. When an external electric field is applied, the ions move according to the electric force (the Coulomb force) exerted on them. The motion of the ions modifies the chemistry because the reacting species are altered, it changes the velocity field of the flame, and it alters the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame will change its shape and location to meet all thermal, chemical, and electrical constraints. In normal gravity, the strong buoyant effect often makes the flame multidimensional and, thus, hinders the detailed study of the problem.

  1. Inelastic scattering of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Pshenichnyuk, I A

    2016-01-01

    We study inelastic interactions of particles with quantized vortices in superfluids by using a semi-classical matter wave theory that is analogous to the Landau two-fluid equations, but allows for the vortex dynamics. The research is motivated by recent experiments on xenon doped helium nanodroplets that show clustering of the impurities along the vortex cores. We numerically simulate the dynamics of trapping and interactions of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluid helium and the obtained results can be extended to scattering of other impurities by quantized vortices. Different energies and impact parameters of incident particles are considered. We show that inelastic scattering is closely linked to the generation of Kelvin waves along a quantized vortex during the interaction even if there is no capture. The capture criterion of an impurity is formulated in terms of the binding energy.

  2. Analysis of quantization noise and state estimation with quantized measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The approximate correction of the additive white noise model in quantized Kalman filter is investigated under certain conditions. The probability density function of the error of quantized measurements is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The analysis is based on the probability theory and nonparametric density estimation technique, respectively. The approximator of probability density function of quantized measurement noise is given. The numerical results of nonparametric density estimation algori...

  3. Nonlinear interactions for massive spin-2 fields

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-May, Angnis

    2016-01-01

    We give a basic introduction to ghost-free nonlinear theories involving massive spin-2 fields, focussing on bimetric theory. After motivating the construction of such models from field theoretical considerations, we review the linear theories for massive and massless spin-2 fluctuations propagating on maximally symmetric backgrounds. The structure of general nonlinear spin-2 interactions is explained before we specialise to the ghost-free case. We review the maximally symmetric solutions of bimetric theory, its mass spectrum and the parameter limit which brings the theory close to general relativity. Finally we discuss applications of bimetric theory to cosmology with particular emphasis on the role of the general relativity limit.

  4. Entanglement Between Qubits Interacting with Thermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashkirovaa E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the entanglement between two dipole coupled two-level artificial atoms (superconducting qubits, ion, spins etc.. The model, in which only one atom is trapped in an lossless cavity and interacts with single-mode thermal field, and the other one can be spatially moved freely outside the cavity has been carried out. We have considered the effect of the atomic coherence on the entanglement behavior. We have shown that a thermal field might cause high entanglement between the atoms both for coherent and incoherent initial atomic states only for small values of cavity mean photon number. We have also derived that the degree of entanglement is weakly dependent on the strength of dipole-dipole interaction for coherent initial states. In the considered model the atoms would get entangled even when both atoms are initially in the excited state.

  5. A no-go theorem for the consistent quantization of the massive gravitino on Robertson-Walker spacetimes and arbitrary spin 3/2 fields on general curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Thomas-Paul; Makedonski, Mathias [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-06-15

    We first introduce a set of conditions which assure that a free spin (3)/(2) field with m{>=}0 can be consistently ('unitarily') quantized on all four-dimensional curved spacetimes, i.e. also on spacetimes which are not assumed to be solutions of the Einstein equations. We discuss a large - and, as we argue, exhaustive - class of spin (3)/(2) field equations obtained from the Rarita-Schwinger equation by the addition of non-minimal couplings and prove that no equation in this class fulfils all sufficient conditions. Afterwards, we investigate the situation in supergravity, where the curved background is usually assumed to satisfy the Einstein equations and, hence, detailed knowledge on the spacetime curvature is available. We provide a necessary condition for the unitary quantization of a spin (3)/(2) Majorana field and prove that this condition is not met by supergravity models in four-dimensional Robertson-Walker spacetimes if local supersymmetry is broken. Our proof is model-independent as we merely assume that the gravitino has the standard kinetic term. (orig.)

  6. Interactive flow field around two Savonius turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigetomi, Akinari; Murai, Yuichi; Tasaka, Yuji; Takeda, Yasushi [Laboratory for Flow Control, Division of Energy and Environmental System, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    The use of a Savonius type of vertical axis wind turbine is expanding in urban environments as a result of its ability to withstand turbulence as well as its relatively quiet operation. In the past, single turbine performance has been investigated primarily for determining the optimum blade configuration. In contrast, combining multiple Savonius turbines in the horizontal plane produces extra power in particular configurations. This results from the interaction between the two flow fields around individual turbines. To understand quantitatively the interaction mechanism, we measured the flow field around two Savonius turbines in close configurations using particle image velocimetry. The phase-averaged flow fields with respect to the rotation angle of the turbines revealed two types of power-improvement interactions. One comes from the Magnus effect that bends the main stream behind the turbine to provide additional rotation of the downstream turbine. The other is obtained from the periodic coupling of local flow between the two turbines, which is associated with vortex shedding and cyclic pressure fluctuations. Use of this knowledge will assist the design of packaged installations of multiple Savonius turbines. (author)

  7. Interacting Quantum Fields on de Sitter Space

    CERN Document Server

    Barata, João C A; Mund, Jen

    2016-01-01

    In 1975 Figari, H{\\o}egh-Krohn and Nappi constructed the ${\\mathscr P}(\\varphi)_2$ model on the two-dimensional de Sitter space. Here we complement their work with a number of new results. In particular, we show that $i.)$ the unitary irreducible representations of $SO_0(1,2)$ for both the principal and the complementary series can be formulated on the Hilbert space spanned by wave functions supported on the Cauchy surface; $ii.)$ physical infrared problems are absent on de Sitter space; $iii.)$ the interacting quantum fields satisfy the equations of motion in their covariant form; $iv.)$ the generators of the boosts and the rotations for the interacting quantum field theory arise by contracting the stress-energy tensor with the relevant Killing vector fields and integrating over the relevant line segments. They generate a reducible, unitary representation of the Lorentz group on the Fock space for the free field. We establish also relations to the modular objects of (relative) Tomita-Takesaki theory. In addi...

  8. Metodología para la Cuantización de Campos de Yang-Mills Methodology for the Quantization of Yang-Mills Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Romano-Aportela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las interacciones electromagnéticas y nucleares débiles utilizando el principio fundamental de simetría en espacios abstractos denominados teoría de campos de Yang-Mills, también conocidos como campos de norma (gauge fields y el mecanismo de Higgs. Los campos de norma actúan como mediadores de las interacciones, cuyo alcance está determinado de manera directa por la masa. Por este motivo los campos de norma se unen al mecanismo de Higgs que genera masa a los portadores de las interacciones, manteniendo la teoría invariante bajo una transformación de norma. Esto se logra a través de un rompimiento espontaneo de simetría para finalmente aplicar esta metodología con la finalidad de unificar las teorías de las interacciones considerando el modelo estándar de Weinberg-Salam.The electromagnetic and weak nuclear interactions are analyzed using the fundamental principle of symmetry in abstract spaces named theory of Yang-Mills fields, also known as gauge fields, and Higgs's mechanism. Gauge fields are mediators of interactions, whose scope is determined directly by the mass. For this reason, gauge fields are joined with the Higgs mechanism that generates mass to the interaction carriers, maintaining the invariant theory under a gauge transformation. This is achieved through spontaneous symmetry breaking to finally applying this methodology in order to unify the theories of interactions considering the Weinberg-Salam standard model.

  9. Quantization Procedures; Sistemas de cuantificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.

    1976-07-01

    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs.

  10. The quantization of gravity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, D

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to quantum gravity, aimed at a fairly general audience and concentrating on what have historically two main approaches to quantum gravity: the covariant and canonical programs (string theory is not covered). The quantization of gravity is discussed by analogy with the quantization of the electromagnetic field. The conceptual and technical problems of both approaches are discussed, and the paper concludes with a discussion of evidence for quantum gravity from the rest of physics. The paper assumes some familiarity with non-relativistic quantum mechanics, special relativity, and the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of classical mechanics; some experience with classical field theory, quantum electrodynamics and the gauge principle in electromagnetism might be helpful but is not required. No knowledge of general relativity or of quantum field theory in general is assumed.

  11. Effects of quantization on detrended fluctuation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Song-Sheng; Xu Ze-Xi; Yin Kui-Xi; Xu Yin-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a method foro estimating the long-range power-law correlation exponent in noisy signals. It has been used successfully in many different fields, especially in the research of physiological signals.As an inherent part of these studies, quantization of continuous signals is inevitable. In addition, coarse-graining, to transfer original signals into symbol series in symbolic dynamic analysis, can also be considered as a quantization-like operation. Therefore, it is worth considering whether the quantization of signal has any effect on the result of DFA and if so, how large the effect will be. In this paper we study how the quantized degrees for three types of noise series (anti-correlated, uncorrelated and long-range power-law correlated signals) affect the results of DFA and find that their effects are completely different. The conclusion has an essential value in choosing the resolution of data acquisition instrument and in the processing of coarse-graining of signals.

  12. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid 'atomtronic' circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W; Lobb, Christopher J; Phillips, William D; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K

    2014-02-13

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits-it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  13. Radial action-phase quantization in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinisch, Gilbert [Departement Cassiopee, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, 06304-Nice cedex 4 (France)], E-mail: gilbert@oca.eu

    2008-02-04

    The 2D radial stationary nonlinear Schroedinger equation yields a new action-phase quantization of energy, in contrast with the linear case where the energy levels are degenerated with respect to the Ermakov constant. Characteristic values of radial energy quantization are given in the Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field description for the main vortex-nucleation experiments performed in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. Finally, the link with Einstein's conjecture about non-quantizability of quasiperiodic orbits on a 2D torus is pointed out.

  14. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  15. Generalized Superfield Lagrangian Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M; Moshin, P Y

    2002-01-01

    We consider an extension of the gauge-fixing procedure in the framework of the Lagrangian superfield BRST and BRST-antiBRST quantization schemes for arbitrary gauge theories, taking into account the possible ambiguity in the choice of the superfield antibracket. We show that this ambiguity is fixed by the algebraic properties of the antibracket and the form of the BRST and antiBRST transformations, realized in terms of superspace translations. The Ward identities related to the generalized gauge-fixing procedure are obtained.

  16. Quantizing Earth surface deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Bowin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global analysis of Bowin (2010 used the global 14 absolute Euler pole set (62 Myr history from Gripp and Gordon (1990 and demonstrated that plate tectonics conserves angular momentum. We herein extend that analysis using the more detailed Bird (2003 52 present-day Euler pole set (relative to a fixed Pacific plate for the Earth's surface, after conversion to absolute Euler poles. Additionally, new analytical results now provide new details on upper mantle mass anomalies in the outer 200 km of the Earth, as well as an initial quantizing of surface deformations.

  17. Optimization of frequency quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Tibabishev, V N

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the functional defining the price and quality of sample readings of the generalized velocities. It is shown that the optimal sampling frequency, in the sense of minimizing the functional quality and price depends on the sampling of the upper cutoff frequency of the analog signal of the order of the generalized velocities measured by the generalized coordinates, the frequency properties of the analog input filter and a maximum sampling rate for analog-digital converter (ADC). An example of calculating the frequency quantization for two-tier ADC with an input RC filter.

  18. Covariant Quantization with Extended BRST Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Lavrov, P M

    1999-01-01

    A short rewiev of covariant quantization methods based on BRST-antiBRST symmetry is given. In particular problems of correct definition of Sp(2) symmetric quantization scheme known as triplectic quantization are considered.

  19. Isomonodromic quantization of dimensionally reduced gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Korotkin, D.; Nicolai, H.

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed account of the isomonodromic quantization of dimensionally reduced Einstein gravity with two commuting Killing vectors. This theory constitutes an integrable ``midi-superspace" version of quantum gravity with infinitely many interacting physical degrees of freedom. The canonical treatment is based on the complete separation of variables in the isomonodromic sectors of the model. The Wheeler-DeWitt and diffeomorphism constraints are thereby reduced to the Knizhnik-Zamolod...

  20. Weak gauge principle and electric charge quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Minguzzi, E; Almorox, A L

    2006-01-01

    We review the argument that relates the quantization of electric charge to the topology of the spacetime manifold starting from the gauge principle. We formulate it in the language of Cech cohomology so that its generalization to cases that do not involve a monopole field becomes straightforward. We consider two different formulations of the gauge principle, the usual (strong) version and a weaker version in which the transition functions can differ from matter field to matter field. From both versions it follows that the charges are quantized if the electromagnetic field is not exact. The weak case is studied in detail. To each pair of particles there corresponds an interference class $k \\in H^{1}(M,U(1))$ that controls the different behavior of the particles under topological Aharonov-Bohm experiments. If this class is trivial the phenomenology reduces to that of the usual strong gauge principle case. It is shown that the theory may give rise to two natural quantization units that we identify with the quant...

  1. Near field interactions in terahertz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, George R.

    Terahertz (THz) frequencies comprise the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum more energetic than microwaves, but less energetic than infrared light. The THz band presents many opportunities for condensed matter physics and optics engineering. From the physics perspective, advances in the generation and detection of THz radiation have opened the door for spectroscopic studies of a range of solid-state phenomena that manifest at THz frequencies. From an engineering perspective, THz frequencies are an under-used spectral region, ripe for the development of new devices. In both cases, the challenge for researchers is to overcome a lack of sources, detectors, and optics for THz light, termed the THz Gap. Metamaterials (MMs), composite structures with engineered index of refraction, n, and impedance, Z, provide one path towards realizing THz optics. MMs are an ideal platform for the design of local EM field distributions, and far-field optical properties. This is especially true at THz frequencies, where fabrication of inclusions is easily accomplished with photolithography. Historically, MM designs have been based around static configurations of resonant inclusions that work only in a narrow frequency band, limiting applications. Broadband and tunable MMs are needed to overcome this limit. This dissertation focuses on creating tunable and controllable MM structures through the manipulation of electromagnetic interactions between MM inclusions. We introduce three novel MM systems. Each system is studied computationally with CST-Studio, and experimentally via THz spectroscopy. First, we look at the tunable transmission spectrum of two coupled split ring resonators (SRRs) with different resonant frequencies. We show that introducing a lateral displacement between the two component resonators lowers the electromagnetic coupling between the SRRs, activating a new resonance. Second, we study an SRR array, coupled to a non-resonant closed ring array. We show that lowering

  2. Quantization of edge currents along magnetic barriers and magnetic guides

    CERN Document Server

    Dombrowski, N; Raikov, G D

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the edge conductance of particles submitted to an Iwatsuka magnetic field, playing the role of a purely magnetic barrier. We also consider magnetic guides generated by generalized Iwatsuka potentials. In both cases we prove quantization of the edge conductance. Next, we consider magnetic perturbations of such magnetic barriers or guides, and prove stability of the quantized value of the edge conductance. Further, we establish a sum rule for edge conductances. Regularization within the context of disordered systems is discussed as well.

  3. Quantization Of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Max Plank did not quantize temperature. I will show that the Plank temperature violates the Plank scale. Plank stated that the Plank scale was Natures scale and independent of human construct. Also stating that even aliens would derive the same values. He made a huge mistake, because temperature is based on the Kelvin scale, which is man-made just like the meter and kilogram. He did not discover natures scale for the quantization of temperature. His formula is flawed, and his value is incorrect. Plank's calculation is Tp = c2Mp/Kb. The general form of this equation is T = E/Kb Why is this wrong? The temperature for a fixed amount of energy is dependent upon the volume it occupies. Using the correct formula involves specifying the radius of the volume in the form of (RE). This leads to an inequality and a limit that is equivalent to the Bekenstein Bound, but using temperature instead of entropy. Rewriting this equation as a limit defines both the maximum temperature and Boltzmann's constant. This will saturate any space-time boundary with maximum temperature and information density, also the minimum radius and entropy. The general form of the equation then becomes a limit in BH thermodynamics T <= (RE)/(λKb) .

  4. Quantization over boson operator spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosen, Tomaz [Department of Physics, FMF, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Seligman, Thomas H [Instituto de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    The framework of third quantization-canonical quantization in the Liouville space-is developed for open many-body bosonic systems. We show how to diagonalize the quantum Liouvillean for an arbitrary quadratic n-boson Hamiltonian with arbitrary linear Lindblad couplings to the baths and, as an example, explicitly work out a general case of a single boson. (fast track communication)

  5. Quantization over boson operator spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Prosen, Tomaz

    2010-01-01

    The framework of third quantization - canonical quantization in the Liouville space - is developed for open many-body bosonic systems. We show how to diagonalize the quantum Liouvillean for an arbitrary quadratic n-boson Hamiltonian with arbitrary linear Lindblad couplings to the baths and, as an example, explicitly work out a general case of a single boson.

  6. Lattice Radial Quantization: 3D Ising

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Richard; Neuberger, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Lattice radial quantization is introduced as a nonperturbative method intended to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories that can be realized as fixed points of known Lagrangians. As an example, we employ a lattice shaped as a cylinder with a 2D Icosahedral cross-section to discretize dilatations in the 3D Ising model. Using this method, we obtain the preliminary estimate eta=0.034(10).

  7. Covariant quantization of the CBS superparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, P.A. E-mail: pag5@nyu.edu; Policastro, G.; Porrati, M

    2001-07-09

    The quantization of the Casalbuoni-Brink-Schwarz superparticle is performed in an explicitly covariant way using the antibracket formalism. Since an infinite number of ghost fields are required, within a suitable off-shell twistor-like formalism, we are able to fix the gauge of each ghost sector without modifying the physical content of the theory. The computation reveals that the antibracket cohomology contains only the physical degrees of freedom.

  8. Homotopy arguments for quantized Hall conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, T

    2002-01-01

    Using the strong localization bounds obtained by the Aizenman-Molcanov method for a particle in a magnetic field and a disordered potential, we show that the zero-temperature Hall conductivity of a gas of such particles is quantized and constant as long as both Fermi energy and disorder coupling parameter vary in a region of strong localization of the corresponding two-dimensional phase diagram.

  9. Gauge models in modified triplectic quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Moshin, P Y; Geyer, Bodo; Lavrov, Petr M.; Moshin, Pavel Yu.

    2001-01-01

    We apply the modified triplectic formalism for quantizing several popular gauge models - non-abelian antisymmetric tensor field model, W2-gravity and two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion. The explicit solutions are obtained for the generating equations of the quantum action and the gauge-fixing functional. Using these solutions we construct the vacuum functional and obtain the corresponding transformations of the extended BRST symmetry.

  10. Covariant quantization of the CBS superparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, P. A.; Policastro, G.; Porrati, M.

    2001-07-01

    The quantization of the Casalbuoni-Brink-Schwarz superparticle is performed in an explicitly covariant way using the antibracket formalism. Since an infinite number of ghost fields are required, within a suitable off-shell twistor-like formalism, we are able to fix the gauge of each ghost sector without modifying the physical content of the theory. The computation reveals that the antibracket cohomology contains only the physical degrees of freedom.

  11. Analysis of the quantum bouncer using polymer quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruiz, A.; Frank, A.; Urrutia, L. F.

    2015-08-01

    Polymer quantization (PQ) is a background independent quantization scheme that arises in loop quantum gravity. This framework leads to a new short-distance (discretized) structure characterized by a fundamental length. In this paper we use PQ to analyze the problem of a particle bouncing on a perfectly reflecting surface under the influence of Earth's gravitational field. In this scenario, deviations from the usual quantum effects are induced by the spatial discreteness, but not by a new short-range gravitational interaction. We solve the polymer Schrödinger equation in an analytical fashion, and we evaluate numerically the corresponding energy levels. We find that the polymer energy spectrum exhibits a negative shift compared to the one obtained for the quantum bouncer. The comparison of our results with those obtained in the GRANIT experiment leads to an upper bound for the fundamental length scale, namely λ ≪0.6 Å . We find polymer corrections to the transition probability between levels, induced by small vibrations, together with the probability of spontaneous emission in the quadrupole approximation.

  12. Remarks on the geometric quantization of Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, Andrea; Spera, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    In this note, we resume the geometric quantization approach to the motion of a charged particle on a plane, subject to a constant magnetic field perpendicular to the latter, by showing directly that it gives rise to a completely integrable system to which we may apply holomorphic geometric quantization. In addition, we present a variant employing a suitable vertical polarization and we also make contact with Bott’s quantization, enforcing the property “quantization commutes with reduction”, which is known to hold under quite general conditions. We also provide an interpretation of translational symmetry breaking in terms of coherent states and index theory. Finally, we give a representation theoretic description of the lowest Landau level via the use of an S1-equivariant Dirac operator.

  13. Gupta-Bleuler Photon Quantization in the SME

    CERN Document Server

    Colladay, Don; Potting, Robertus

    2014-01-01

    Photon quantization is implemented in the standard model extension (SME) using the Gupta-Bleuler method and BRST concepts. The quantization prescription applies to both the birefringent and non-birefringent CPT-even couplings. A curious incompatibility is found between the presence of the Lorentz-violating terms and the existence of a nontrivial conjugate momentum $\\Pi^0$ yielding problems with covariant quantization procedure. Introduction of a mass regulator term can avoid the vanishing of $\\Pi^0$ and allows for the implementation of a covariant quantization procedure. Field-theoretic calculations involving the SME photons can then be performed using the mass regulator, similar to the conventional procedure used in electrodynamics for infrared-divergence regulation.

  14. Matrix Quantization of Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Floratos, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Based on our recent work on Quantum Nambu Mechanics $\\cite{af2}$, we provide an explicit quantization of the Lorenz chaotic attractor through the introduction of Non-commutative phase space coordinates as Hermitian $ N \\times N $ matrices in $ R^{3}$. For the volume preserving part, they satisfy the commutation relations induced by one of the two Nambu Hamiltonians, the second one generating a unique time evolution. Dissipation is incorporated quantum mechanically in a self-consistent way having the correct classical limit without the introduction of external degrees of freedom. Due to its volume phase space contraction it violates the quantum commutation relations. We demonstrate that the Heisenberg-Nambu evolution equations for the Matrix Lorenz system develop fast decoherence to N independent Lorenz attractors. On the other hand there is a weak dissipation regime, where the quantum mechanical properties of the volume preserving non-dissipative sector survive for long times.

  15. Second Quantized Mathieu Moonshine

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We study the second quantized version of the twisted twining genera of generalized Mathieu moonshine, and verify that they give rise to Siegel modular forms with infinite product representations. Most of these forms are expected to have an interpretation as twisted partition functions counting 1/4 BPS dyons in type II superstring theory on K3\\times T^2 or in heterotic CHL-models. We show that all these Siegel modular forms, independently of their possible physical interpretation, satisfy an "S-duality" transformation and a "wall-crossing formula". The latter reproduces all the eta-products of an older version of generalized Mathieu moonshine proposed by Mason in the '90s. Surprisingly, some of the Siegel modular forms we find coincide with the multiplicative (Borcherds) lifts of Jacobi forms in umbral moonshine.

  16. Restricted phase-space approximation in real-time stochastic quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Anzaki, Ryoji; Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Oka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We perform and extend real-time numerical simulation of a scalar quantum field theory using stochastic quantization. After a brief review of the quantization method, we calculate the propagator and the perturbative series and compare with analytical results. This is a first step toward general applications, and we focus only on the vacuum properties of the theory; this enables us to handle the boundary condition by the $i\\epsilon$ prescription. Then, we explicitly check the convergence and solve the differential equation in frequency space. For clarity we drop the spatial-derivative terms and make a comparison between our results and the numerically exact results obtained by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. While we can control stability of the numerical simulation for any coupling strength, our results turn out to flow into an unphysical attractor if the simulation is out of the weak-coupling regime. We propose a simple truncation scheme to incorporate the interaction terms, which we name the "restricted ...

  17. Polymer Quantization predicts radiation in inertial frames

    CERN Document Server

    Kajuri, Nirmalya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector coupled to a polymer quantized massless scalar field in flat spacetime, using the propagator obtained by Hossain, Husain and Seahra. As this propagator violates Lorentz invariance, frames moving at different constant velocities are no longer equivalent. This means that it is possible in principle for even an observer moving at constant velocity to detect radiation. We show that such an observer indeed detects radiation. Remarkably, we show that the rate of this radiation does not decrease with the decrease in the characteristic length scale of polymer quantization. Thus the radiation cannot be suppressed by making the polymer length scale arbitrarily small. Our results should bring this theory within the ambit of low-energy experiments and place a lower limit on the characteristic polymer length scale.

  18. The problem of quantization of lightcone QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Alexey V

    2011-01-01

    There exists the problem to construct a quantum algebra of observables in lightcone QCD beyond the perturbative regime. It has recently established that the boundary gauge fields are crucial for a consistent construction of the classical dynamic system. If the gauge group is non-Abelian and there are four or more space-time dimensions then the procedure of symplectic reduction gives a classical dynamical system with very complicated Hamiltonian having infinite power over the coupling constant. Then, to quantize the theory one should to construct a Poisson algebra and to quantize it. Careful analysis shows that a Poisson formulation has a problem with: canonical commutation relations, spatial invariance, and the boundary degrees of freedom in the Hamiltonian.

  19. Vector Potential Quantization and the Quantum Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Meis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the quantization of the vector potential amplitude of the electromagnetic field to a single photon state starting from the fundamental link equations between the classical electromagnetic theory and the quantum mechanical expressions. The resulting wave-particle formalism ensures a coherent transition between the classical electromagnetic wave theory and the quantum representation. A quantization constant of the photon vector potential is defined. A new quantum vacuum description results directly in having very low energy density. The calculated spontaneous emission rate and Lambs shift for the nS states of the hydrogen atom are in agreement with quantum electrodynamics. This low energy quantum vacuum state might be compatible with recent astrophysical observations.

  20. Foundations of quantization for probability distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Siegfried

    2000-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing need for methods of data compression, quantization has become a flourishing field in signal and image processing and information theory. The same techniques are also used in statistics (cluster analysis), pattern recognition, and operations research (optimal location of service centers). The book gives the first mathematically rigorous account of the fundamental theory underlying these applications. The emphasis is on the asymptotics of quantization errors for absolutely continuous and special classes of singular probabilities (surface measures, self-similar measures) presenting some new results for the first time. Written for researchers and graduate students in probability theory the monograph is of potential interest to all people working in the disciplines mentioned above.

  1. Immersion versus interactivity and analytic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Losing oneself in a story, a film or a picture is nothing but another step in the suspension of disbelief that permits one to become immersed in the 'novel' of reality. It is not by chance that the text-world metaphor informs classical aesthetics that, more than anything else, emphasizes emotional involvement. On the contrary, as in much of modern art, self-reflexivity and metafictional attention to the rhetoric of the real, to the framework, to the conventions and to the processes of meaning production, all involve a disenchanted, detached and sceptic vision--in short, an aesthetics of the text as game. By analogy, any analytic style or model that aims to produce a transformative experience must satisfactorily resolve the conflict between immersion (the analyst's emotional participation and sticking to the dreamlike or fictional climate of the session, dreaming knowing it's a dream) and interactivity (for the most part, interpretation as an anti-immersive device that 'wakes' one from fiction and demystifies consciousness). In analytic field theory the setting can be defined--because of the weight given to performativity of language, to the sensory matrix of the transference and the transparency of the medium--the place where an ideal balance is sought between immersion and interaction.

  2. Flow field interactions between two tandem cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Nathan; Burton, David; Sheridan, John; Thompson, Mark; Brown, Nicholas A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Aerodynamic drag is the primary resistive force acting on cyclists at racing speeds. Many events involve cyclists travelling in very close proximity. Previous studies have shown that interactions result in significant drag reductions for inline cyclists. However, the interaction between cyclist leg position (pedalling) and the vortical flow structures that contribute significantly to the drag on an isolated cyclist has not previously been quantified or described for tandem cyclists of varying separation. To this end, scale model cyclists were constructed for testing in a water channel for inline tandem configurations. Particle image velocimetry was used to capture time-averaged velocity fields around two tandem cyclists. Perhaps surprisingly, the wake of a trailing cyclist maintains strong similarity to the characteristic wake of a single cyclist despite a significant disturbance to the upstream flow. Together with streamwise velocity measurements through the wake and upstream of the trailing cyclist, this work supports previous findings, which showed that the trailing cyclist drag reduction is primarily due to upstream sheltering effects reducing the stagnation pressure on forward-facing surfaces.

  3. VLSI Processor For Vector Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Pixel intensities in each kernel compared simultaneously with all code vectors. Prototype high-performance, low-power, very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit designed to perform compression of image data by vector-quantization method. Contains relatively simple analog computational cells operating on direct or buffered outputs of photodetectors grouped into blocks in imaging array, yielding vector-quantization code word for each such block in sequence. Scheme exploits parallel-processing nature of vector-quantization architecture, with consequent increase in speed.

  4. Quantization Ambiguity, Ergodicity and Semiclassics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1999-01-01

    A simple argument shows that eigenstates of a classically ergodic system are individually ergodic on coarse-grained scales. This has implications for the quantization ambiguity in ergodic systems: the difference between alternative quantizations is suppressed compared with the $O(\\hbar^2)$ ambiguity in the integrable case. For two-dimensional ergodic systems in the high-energy regime, individual eigenstates are independent of the choice of quantization procedure, in contrast with the regular case, where even the ordering of eigenlevels is ambiguous. Surprisingly, semiclassical methods are shown to be much more precise for chaotic than for integrable systems.

  5. Quantization ambiguity, ergodicity and semiclassics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Lev [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that almost all eigenstates of a classically ergodic system are individually ergodic on coarse-grained scales. This has important implications for the quantization ambiguity in ergodic systems: the difference between alternative quantizations is suppressed compared with the O( h-bar {sup 2}) ambiguity in the integrable or regular case. For two-dimensional ergodic systems in the high-energy regime, individual eigenstates are independent of the choice of quantization procedure, in contrast with the regular case, where even the ordering of eigenlevels is ambiguous. Surprisingly, semiclassical methods are shown to be much more precise in any dimension for chaotic than for integrable systems.

  6. Image quantization: statistics and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Muka, Edward

    1998-07-01

    A method for analyzing the effects of quantization, developed for temporal one-dimensional signals, is extended to two- dimensional radiographic images. By calculating the probability density function for the second order statistics (the differences between nearest neighbor pixels) and utilizing its Fourier transform (the characteristic function), the effect of quantization on image statistics can be studied by the use of standard communication theory. The approach is demonstrated by characterizing the noise properties of a storage phosphor computed radiography system and the image statistics of a simple radiographic object (cylinder) and by comparing the model to experimental measurements. The role of quantization noise and the onset of contouring in image degradation are explained.

  7. Osp(1,2)-covariant Lagrangian quantization of general gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, B.; Lavrov, P.M. [Universitat Leipzig, Naturwissenschaftlich-Theoretisches Zentrum, Leipzig (Germany); Muelsch, D. [Wissenschaftszentrum Leipzig e.V., Leipzig (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    An osp(1, 2)-covariant Lagrangian quantization of general gauge theories is introduced which also applies to massive fields. It generalizes the Batalin-Vilkovisky and the Sp(2)-covariant field-antifield approach and guarantees symplectic invariance of the quantized action. Massive gauge theories with closed algebra are considered as an example. (author)

  8. Theory of the Knight Shift and Flux Quantization in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. N.; Lee, H. J.; Schwartz, B. B.; Silvert, W.

    1962-05-01

    Consequences of a generalization of the theory of superconductivity that yields a finite Knight shift are presented. In this theory, by introducing an electron-electron interaction that is not spatially invariant, the pairing of electrons with varying total momentum is made possible. An expression for Xs (the spin susceptibility in the superconducting state) is derived. In general Xs is smaller than Xn, but is not necessarily zero. The precise magnitude of Xs will vary from sample to sample and will depend on the nonuniformity of the samples. There should be no marked size dependence and no marked dependence on the strength of the magnetic field; this is in accord with observation. The basic superconducting properties are retained, but there are modifications in the various electromagnetic and thermal properties since the electrons paired are not time sequences of this generalized theory on flux quantization arguments are presented.(auth)

  9. The Hamiltonian structure of Dirac's equation in tensor form and its Fermi quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifler, Frank; Morris, Randall

    1992-01-01

    Currently, there is some interest in studying the tensor forms of the Dirac equation to elucidate the possibility of the constrained tensor fields admitting Fermi quantization. We demonstrate that the bispinor and tensor Hamiltonian systems have equivalent Fermi quantizations. Although the tensor Hamiltonian system is noncanonical, representing the tensor Poisson brackets as commutators for the Heisenberg operators directly leads to Fermi quantization without the use of bispinors.

  10. Feedback Quantization in Crosscorrelation Predistorters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Amplification of signals with fluctuating envelopes inevitably leads to distortion because of nonlinear behavior of the power amplifier (PA). Digital predistortion can counteract these nonlinear effects. In this letter, the crosscorrelation predistorter is described and the effects of quantization i

  11. Canonical quantization of constrained systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, A.; Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Canal, C.A.G. (Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo No. 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina (AR))

    1990-07-01

    The consideration of first-class constraints together with gauge conditions as a set of second-class constraints in a given system is shown to be incorrect when carrying out its canonical quantization.

  12. Immersive, interactive virtual field trips promote learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Mead, C.; Buxner, S.; Taylor, W.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.; Sundstrom, J.

    2016-12-01

    We are assessing the educational effectiveness of a new type of immersive virtual field trip (iVFT) that we are developing, grounded in active, inquiry-based learning, and accessible via web browsers. To this end, we collected data from five high school AP biology classes (n = 153) that were assigned an iVFT lesson focused on life and environment during the Ediacaran time period, 550 million years ago. Students explore a series of fossil beds using high resolution imagery and video acquired during a field expedition to the Nilpena site in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. They first encounter an immersive spherical image, which orients them to the area. Then, they identify fossils in the iVFT, using a dichotomous key. Finally, they explore an interactive simulation of this ancient ecosystem. The average time spent on the experience was approximately two hours. The learning objective is for students to be able to describe the Ediacaran ecosystem preserved in the rocks at Nilpena. To assess this outcome, we administered identical pre- and post-lesson quizzes to students. Results showed a statistically significant improvement on the six-item quiz with a normalized gain of 0.96 (pre-lesson mean: 2.4, post-lesson mean: 5.9, p students demonstrated an increase in score or maintained a perfect score. The pre-lesson scores are close to what would be expected from guessing, so these results represent a substantial growth in understanding. These findings encourage the use of iVFT-based learning experiences in education (an evolving suite is publicly available at http://vft.asu.edu). In the future, we will explore in more detail which aspects of the experience provide greatest educational benefit, and the effectiveness in teaching scientific reasoning skills in addition to content knowledge. To answer these questions, we will supplement content-based questions with mixed-methods data including interviews.

  13. The quantized D-transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, M.; Vallejos, R. O.

    1996-06-01

    We construct a new example of a quantum map, the quantized version of the D-transformation, which is the natural extension to two dimensions of the tent map. The classical, quantum and semiclassical behavior is studied. We also exhibit some relationships between the quantum versions of the D-map and the parity projected baker's map. The method of construction allows a generalization to dissipative maps which includes the quantization of a horseshoe. (c) 1996 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Quantized Network Coding for Sparse Messages

    CERN Document Server

    Nabaee, Mahdy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the data gathering problem in the context of power grids by using a network of sensors, where the sensed data have inter-node redundancy. Specifically, we propose a new transmission method, calledquantized network coding, which performs linear net-work coding in the field of real numbers, and quantization to accommodate the finite capacity of edges. By using the concepts in compressed sensing literature, we propose to use l1-minimization to decode the quantized network coded packets, especially when the number of received packets at the decoder is less than the size of sensed data (i.e. number of nodes). We also propose an appropriate design for network coding coefficients, based on restricted isometry property, which results in robust l1-min decoding. Our numerical analysis show that the proposed quantized network coding scheme with l1-min decoding can achieve significant improvements, in terms of compression ratio and delivery delay, compared to conventional packet forwarding.

  15. Cosmology with three interacting spin-2 fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüben, Marvin; Akrami, Yashar; Amendola, Luca; Solomon, Adam R.

    2016-08-01

    Theories of massive gravity with one or two dynamical metrics generically lack stable and observationally viable cosmological solutions that are distinguishable from Λ cold dark matter (CDM). We consider an extension to trimetric gravity, with three interacting spin-2 fields which are not plagued by the Boulware-Deser ghost. We systematically explore every combination with two free parameters in search of background cosmologies that are competitive with Λ CDM . For each case we determine whether the expansion history satisfies viability criteria, and whether or not it contains beyond-Λ CDM phenomenology. Among the many models we consider, there are only three cases that seem to be both viable and distinguishable from standard cosmology. One of the models has only one free parameter and displays a crossing from above to below the phantom divide. The other two provide scaling behavior, although they contain future singularities that need to be studied in more detail. These models possess interesting features that make them compelling targets for a full comparison to observations of both cosmological expansion history and structure formation.

  16. Quantized Visual Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alexander Escobar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.

  17. Quantized conductance of a suspended graphene nanoconstriction

    CERN Document Server

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Junesch, Juliane; Guimarães, Marcos H D; Marun, Ivan J Vera; Jonkman, Harry T; van Wees, Bart J

    2011-01-01

    A yet unexplored area in graphene electronics is the field of quantum ballistic transport through graphene nanostructures. Recent developments in the preparation of high mobility graphene are expected to lead to the experimental verification and/or discovery of many new quantum mechanical effects in this field. Examples are effects due to specific graphene edges, such as spin polarization at zigzag edges of a graphene nanoribbon and the use of the valley degree of freedom in the field of graphene valleytronics8. As a first step in this direction we present the observation of quantized conductance at integer multiples of 2e^2/h at zero magnetic field and 4.2 K temperature in a high mobility suspended graphene ballistic nanoconstriction. This quantization evolves into the typical quantum Hall effect for graphene at magnetic fields above 60mT. Voltage bias spectroscopy reveals an energy spacing of 8 meV between the first two subbands. A pronounced feature at 0.6 2e^2/h present at a magnetic field as low as ~0.2T...

  18. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Kupriyanov, V G

    2016-01-01

    Non-commutativity is quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-commutativity. Except for some specific cases, like the constant $B$-field in open strings, the string coordinates are not only non-commutative, but also non-associative. It manifests the non-geometric nature of the consistent string vacua. The aim of this paper is to study the mathematical tools necessary to deal with non-associativity in physics. Working in the framework of deformation quantization we admit non-associative star products, but keep the violation of associativity under control. We require that the star associator of three functions should vanish whenever each two of them are iqual. Such a star product is called alternative. This condition imposes the restriction on non-associative algebras, the star commutator should...

  19. Phase control of optical bistability and multistability in closed-type Landau-quantized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Yu, Rong; Ding, Chunling; Huang, Hailin; Sun, Zhaoyu; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the dynamic characteristics of a Landau-quantized graphene monolayer system interacting with three infrared laser probe fields in a monodirectional ring cavity, and analyse the input-output properties of the infrared laser probe field under a steady-state condition. The results show that we can effectively control the appearance or disappearance of optical bistability (OB) or optical multistability (OM) by adjusting the relative phase of three coherent fields, the coupling field intensity, as well as the frequency detunings of the probe field and the control field. In addition, we discuss in detail the influences of the left-hand and right-hand circularly polarized component intensity of the control field on the behaviors of OB and OM. Our investigation may be used to build more efficient logic-gate devices to realize an all-optic switching process.

  20. Mean field interaction in biochemical reaction networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we establish a relationship between chemical dynamics and mean field game dynamics. We show that chemical reaction networks can be studied using noisy mean field limits. We provide deterministic, noisy and switching mean field limits and illustrate them with numerical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Nonadiabatic Phase and Persistent Currents for System of Spin-1/2 Particles in Presence of Electromagnetic Fields and Spin-Orbit Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nian-Bei; MA Zhong-Shui

    2004-01-01

    We present a comprehensive view and details of calculations on Aharonov-Anandan phase for the charged particles in the external electric and magnetic fields for a nonadiabatic process. We derive, with consideration of a spin-orbit interaction and Zeemann Splitting, the persistent currents as a response to an Aharonov-Casher topological interference effect in one-dimensional mesoscopic ring. We also establish a connection to Berry adiabatic phase with deduced dynamical-nature dependence in the nonadiabatic process. The second quantization representation has also been employed in exhibition of persistent currents in the many-body case.

  2. A Second Quantized Approach to the Rabi Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldiotti, M. C.; Molina, C.

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, the Rabi Problem, involving the response of a spin 1/2 particle subjected to a magnetic field, is considered in a second quantized approach. In this concrete physical scenario, we show that the second quantization procedure can be applied directly in a non-covariant theory. The proposed development explicits not only the relation between the full quantum treatment of the problem and the semiclassical Rabi model, but also the connection of these approaches with the Jaynes-Cummings model. The consistency of the method is checked in the semiclassical limit. The treatment is then extended to the matter component of the Rabi problem so that the Schrödinger equation is directly quantized. Considering the spinorial field, the appearance of a negative energy sector implies a specific identification between Schrödinger's and Maxwell's theories. The generalized theory is consistent, strictly quantum and non-relativistic.

  3. Covariance, Curved Space, Motion and Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostol M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak external forces and non-inertial motion are equivalent with thefree motion in a curved space. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is derivedfor such motion and the effects of the curvature upon the quantizationare analyzed, starting from a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved spaces. It is shown that the quantization is actually destroyed, in general, by a non-inertial motion in the presence of external forces, in the sense that such a motion may produce quantum transitions. Examples are given for a massive scalar field and for photons.

  4. Brief review on black hole loop quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Olmedo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a review about the quantization of spherically symmetric spacetimes adopting loop quantum gravity techniques. Several models that have been studied so far share similar properties: the resolution of the classical singularity, and some of them an intrinsic discretization of the geometry. We also explain the extension to Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. Besides, we review how quantum test fields on these quantum geometries allow us to study phenomena like the Casimir effect or Hawking radiation. Finally, we briefly describe a recent proposal that incorporates spherically symmetric matter, discussing its relevance for the understanding of black hole evolution.

  5. Spin Foams and Canonical Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Noui, Karim

    2011-01-01

    This review is devoted to the analysis of the mutual consistency of the spin foam and canonical loop quantizations in three and four spacetime dimensions. In the three-dimensional context, where the two approaches are in good agreement, we show how the canonical quantization \\`a la Witten of Riemannian gravity with a positive cosmological constant is related to the Turaev-Viro spin foam model, and how the Ponzano-Regge amplitudes are related to the physical scalar product of Riemannian loop quantum gravity without cosmological constant. In the four-dimensional case, we recall a Lorentz-covariant formulation of loop quantum gravity using projected spin networks, compare it with the new spin foam models, and identify interesting relations and their pitfalls. Finally, we discuss the properties which a spin foam model is expected to possess in order to be consistent with the canonical quantization, and suggest a new model illustrating these results.

  6. Dancing in the thresholds: Exploring the interactive field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Constance S.

    This dissertation is an attempt to investigate the nature of the interactive field to deepen as well as broaden its scope as it applies to depth psychology and its praxis. With a phenomenological eye toward field dynamics from other paradigms, this exploration demonstrates an additional theoretical framework within the interactive field. It opens other possibilities creating a neither/nor position from which to contain our work with an alchemical/metaphorical position and allows for the liberation of the imaginal realm through which ``the Other'' may be of service, and in fact, may ask us to be in service to it. The literature review not only surveys the three primary schools in psychology-the psychoanalytical, the classical, and archetypal as the genesis of the interactive field, but also investigates shamanic realms as a backdrop from which to see field theory. Field theory is also explored in the world of quantum physics where the universal field is examined from paradigms situated in varied consciousness models. The somatic unconscious, an intrinsic part of the interactive field in mutual engagement with two or more persons, is also woven into the fabric of this study as an intersection between the universal field and the psychodynamic field. This study, as a psychological gnosis, initiates subtle body awareness from Eastern cosmologies from a depth perspective in the psychodynamics of the interactive field. Synchronistic encounters are integrated into field theory as a threshold where universal fields engage the somatic unconscious, initiating numinous and sometimes transformative change into one's life.

  7. Twist Field as Three String Interaction Vertex in Light Cone String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimoto, Isao; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Teraguchi, Shunsuke

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that matrix string theory and light-cone string field theory are closely related. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the twist field, which represents string interactions in matrix string theory, and the three-string interaction vertex in light-cone string field theory carefully. We find that the three-string interaction vertex can reproduce some of the most important OPEs satisfied by the twist field.

  8. Twist Field as Three String Interaction Vertex in Light Cone String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimoto, Isao; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Teraguchi, Shunsuke

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that matrix string theory and light-cone string field theory are closely related. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the twist field, which represents string interactions in matrix string theory, and the three-string interaction vertex in light-cone string field theory carefully. We find that the three-string interaction vertex can reproduce some of the most important OPEs satisfied by the twist field.

  9. EZW coding using nonuniform quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Che-Yi; Derin, Haluk

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents an image coder that modifies the EZW coder and provides an improvement in its performance. The subband EZW image coder uses a uniform quantizer with a threshold (deadzone). Whereas, we know that the distribution/histogram of the wavelet tree subband coefficients, all except the lowest subband, tend to be Laplacian. To accommodate for this, we modify the refining procedure in EZW and use a non-uniform quantizer on the coefficients that better fits their distribution. The experimental results show that the new image coder performs better than EZW.

  10. Periodic roads and quantized wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.

  11. Quantization on nilpotent Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a consistent development of the Kohn-Nirenberg type global quantization theory in the setting of graded nilpotent Lie groups in terms of their representations. It contains a detailed exposition of related background topics on homogeneous Lie groups, nilpotent Lie groups, and the analysis of Rockland operators on graded Lie groups together with their associated Sobolev spaces. For the specific example of the Heisenberg group the theory is illustrated in detail. In addition, the book features a brief account of the corresponding quantization theory in the setting of compact Lie groups. The monograph is the winner of the 2014 Ferran Sunyer i Balaguer Prize.

  12. Enhanced Quantization: The particle on the circle

    CERN Document Server

    Geloun, Joseph Ben

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced quantization is an improved program for overcoming difficulties which may arise during an ordinary canonical quantization procedure. We review here how this program applies for a particle on circle.

  13. Superfield Covariant Quantization with BRST Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2000-01-01

    We generalize the method of superfield Lagrangian BRST quantization in the part of the gauge-fixing procedure and obtain a quantization method that can be considered as an alternative to the Batalin - Vilkovisky formalism.

  14. Plausible Explanation of Quantization of Intrinsic Redshift from Hall Effect and Weyl Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Using phion condensate model as described by Moffat [1], we consider a plausible explanation of (Tifft intrinsic redshift quantization as described by Bell [6] as result of Hall effect in rotating frame. We also discuss another alternative to explain redshift quantization from the viewpoint of Weyl quantization, which could yield Bohr- Sommerfeld quantization.

  15. Probabilistic distance-based quantizer design for distributed estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Hak

    2016-12-01

    We consider an iterative design of independently operating local quantizers at nodes that should cooperate without interaction to achieve application objectives for distributed estimation systems. We suggest as a new cost function a probabilistic distance between the posterior distribution and its quantized one expressed as the Kullback Leibler (KL) divergence. We first present the analysis that minimizing the KL divergence in the cyclic generalized Lloyd design framework is equivalent to maximizing the logarithmic quantized posterior distribution on the average which can be further computationally reduced in our iterative design. We propose an iterative design algorithm that seeks to maximize the simplified version of the posterior quantized distribution and discuss that our algorithm converges to a global optimum due to the convexity of the cost function and generates the most informative quantized measurements. We also provide an independent encoding technique that enables minimization of the cost function and can be efficiently simplified for a practical use of power-constrained nodes. We finally demonstrate through extensive experiments an obvious advantage of improved estimation performance as compared with the typical designs and the novel design techniques previously published.

  16. Effective field theory analysis of the self-interacting chameleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctuary, Hillary; Sturani, Riccardo

    2010-08-01

    We analyse the phenomenology of a self-interacting scalar field in the context of the chameleon scenario originally proposed by Khoury and Weltman. In the absence of self-interactions, this type of scalar field can mediate long range interactions and simultaneously evade constraints from violation of the weak equivalence principle. By applying to such a scalar field the effective field theory method proposed for Einstein gravity by Goldberger and Rothstein, we give a thorough perturbative evaluation of the importance of non-derivative self-interactions in determining the strength of the chameleon mediated force in the case of orbital motion. The self-interactions are potentially dangerous as they can change the long range behaviour of the field. Nevertheless, we show that they do not lead to any dramatic phenomenological consequence with respect to the linear case and solar system constraints are fulfilled.

  17. FCJ-124 Interactive Environments as Fields of Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristoph Brunner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a critical inquiry of interactive environments as fields of transduction. It is argued that Gilbert Simondon’s concepts of individuation, transduction, in-formation, the preindividual, and the associated milieu enable a processual thinking of the analysis and design of interactive technologies as technogenetic emergence. These concepts offer a way for interaction design to understand interactive environments through the dynamics between fields of transduction and fields of experience in relational and affective terms. The article analyses the way in which two technological assemblages, Voz Alta and the Impossible Room, provide different experiential fields experimenting with the transductive power of digital and interactive media. We emphasise the potential for creating new modes of experience. Our aim is to underline the necessary convergences between practices of design and thought; to enable affectively engaging fields of transduction.

  18. Derivative self-interactions for a massive vector field

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán

    2016-01-01

    In this work we revisit the construction of theories for a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions such that only the 3 desired polarizations corresponding to a Proca field propagate. We start from the decoupling limit by constructing healthy interactions containing second derivatives of the Stueckelberg field with itself and also with the transverse modes. The resulting interactions can then be straightforwardly generalized beyond the decoupling limit. We then proceed to a systematic construction of the interactions by using the Levi-Civita tensors. Both approaches lead to a finite family of allowed derivative self-interactions for the Proca field. Finally, we show that some higher order terms recently introduced as new interactions trivialize in 4 dimensions by virtue of the Cayley-Hamilton theorem.

  19. The cosmology of interacting spin-2 fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanini, Nicola [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Koivisto, Tomi S., E-mail: n.tamanini.11@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: Emmanuel_Saridakis@baylor.edu, E-mail: t.s.koivisto@astro.uio.no [Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the cosmology of interacting spin-2 particles, formulating the multi-gravitational theory in terms of vierbeins and without imposing any Deser-van Nieuwen-huizen-like constraint. The resulting multi-vierbein theory represents a wider class of gravitational theories if compared to the corresponding multi-metric models. Moreover, as opposed to its metric counterpart which in general seems to contain ghosts, it has already been proved to be ghost-free. We outline a discussion about the possible matter couplings and we focus on the study of cosmological scenarios in the case of three and four interacting vierbeins. We find rich behavior, including de Sitter solutions with an effective cosmological constant arising from the multi-vierbein interaction, dark-energy solutions and nonsingular bouncing behavior.

  20. Integer and Half-Integer Quantization Conditions in Quantum Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi-Shi; JIA Duo-Jie

    2001-01-01

    The integer and half-integer quantization conditions are found in quantum mechanics based on the topological structure of symmetry group of the singlet and spinor wavefunction. The internal symmetry of the physical system is shown to be sufficient to determine the topological structure in quantum mechanics without taking int account the dynamical details about the interaction.

  1. Diffusion Equations, Quantum Fields and Fundamental Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosto S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns an “ab initio” theoretical model based on the space-time quantum uncertainty and aimed to identify the conceptual root common to all four fundamental interactions known in nature. The essential information that identifies unambiguously each kind of interaction is inferred in a straightforward way via simple considerations involving the diffusion laws. The conceptual frame of the model is still that introduced in previous papers, where the basic statements of the relativity and wave mechanics have been contextually obtained as corollaries of the quantum uncertainty.

  2. Canonical quantization of four- and five-dimensional U(1) gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnerb, N.; Horwitz, L. P.

    1993-12-01

    We discuss the canonical quantization of an interacting massless U(1) gauge field using a bosonic gauge-fixing method. We present a way to make the transformation between the Lorentz and the Coulomb gauge of such theories, without using an explicit representation of the fields in terms of creation-annihilation operators. We demonstrate this method in the case of Maxwell photons interacting with Schrödinger electrons and then we treat, with the same methods, a system of higher-dimensional equations appearing in the framework of a manifestly covariant relativistic quantum theory. The nonrelativistic limit of the Coulomb term for such a theory is discussed and compared to the Fokker action appearing in the Wheeler-Feynman action-at-a-distance theory for electromagnetic interactions.

  3. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols...

  4. Laughlin's argument for the quantized thermal Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Nakai, Ryota; Nomura, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    We extend Laughlin's magnetic-flux-threading argument to the quantized thermal Hall effect. A proper analogue of Laughlin's adiabatic magnetic-flux threading process for the case of the thermal Hall effect is given in terms of an external gravitational field. From the perspective of the edge theories of quantum Hall systems, the quantized thermal Hall effect is closely tied to the breakdown of large diffeomorphism invariance, that is, a global gravitational anomaly. In addition, we also give an argument from the bulk perspective in which a free energy, decomposed into its Fourier modes, is adiabatically transferred under an adiabatic process involving external gravitational perturbations.

  5. Chaos Induced by Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Shigehara, T; Mishima, T; Cheon, T; Shigehara, Takaomi; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Mishima, Taketoshi; Cheon, Taksu

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we show that two-dimensional billiards with point interactions inside exhibit a chaotic nature in the microscopic world, although their classical counterpart is non-chaotic. After deriving the transition matrix of the system by using the self-adjoint extension theory of functional analysis, we deduce the general condition for the appearance of chaos. The prediction is confirmed by numerically examining the statistical properties of energy spectrum of rectangular billiards with multiple point interactions inside. The dependence of the level statistics on the strength as well as the number of the scatterers is displayed. KEYWORDS: wave chaos, quantum mechanics, pseudointegrable billiard, point interaction, functional analysis

  6. Phase transitions in Vector Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witoelar, Aree; Ghosh, Anarta; Biehl, Michael; Verleysen, Michel

    2008-01-01

    We study Winner-Takes-All and rank based Vector Quantization along the lines of the statistical physics of off-line learning. Typical behavior of the system is obtained within a model where high-dimensional training data are drawn from a mixture of Gaussians. The analysis becomes exact in the simpli

  7. Modeling the interaction of DNA with alternating fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bergues-Pupo, Ana Elisa; Falo, Fernando; 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.022703

    2013-01-01

    We study the influence of a THz field on thermal properties of DNA molecules. A Peyrard- Bishop-Dauxois model with the inclusion of a solvent interaction term is considered. The THz field is included as a sinusoidal driven force in the equation of mo tion. We show how under certain field and system parameters, melting transition and bubble formation are modified.

  8. Path integral quantization of scalar fluctuations above a kink

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean

    2007-01-01

    We quantize scalar fluctuations in 1+1 dimensions above a classical background kink. The properties of the effective action for the corresponding classical field are studied with an exact functional method, alternative to exact Wilsonian renormalization, where the running parameter is a bare mass, and the regulator of the quantum theory is fixed.

  9. Classical covariant Poisson structures and Deformation Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Berra-Montiel, Jasel; Palacios-García, César D

    2014-01-01

    Starting with the well-defined product of quantum fields at two spacetime points, we explore an associated Poisson structure for classical field theories within the deformation quantization formalism. We realize that the induced star-product is naturally related to the standard Moyal product through the causal Green functions connecting points in the space of classical solutions to the equations of motion. Our results resemble the Peierls-DeWitt bracket analyzed in the multisymplectic context. Once our star-product is defined we are able to apply the Wigner-Weyl map in order to introduce a generalized version of Wick's theorem. Finally, we include a couple of examples to explicitly test our method: the real scalar field and the bosonic string. For both models we have encountered generalizations of the creation/annihilation relations, and also a generalization of the Virasoro algebra in the bosonic string case.

  10. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  11. Deformation of second and third quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  12. Deformation of Second and Third Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  13. Interaction and dephasing of center-of-mass quantized excitons in wide ZnSe/Zn0.94Mg0.06Se quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Maier, R.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the interaction and dephasing of the excitons in wide ZnSe/Zn0.94Mg0.06Se quantum wells by spectrally resolved, femtosecond four-wave mixing (FWM). Polarization-dependent measurements indicate that excitation-induced dephasing is the dominant FWM process. The biexcitons of the center...

  14. Lepton-photon interactions in external background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate lepton-photon interactions in a class of generalized external background fields with periodic plane-wave character. Considering the full interaction with the background, S-matrix elements are calculated exactly. We apply those general expressions to interaction schemes like Compton scattering in specific field configurations, as for instance provided in modern laser facilities, or in high intense regions of future linear colliders. Results are extended to the case of frontal colliding high-energy field photons with leptons such that new insights beyond the usual soft terms become accessible.

  15. On the macroscopic quantization in mesoscopic rings and single-electron devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Andrew G.

    2016-05-01

    In this letter we investigate the phenomenon of macroscopic quantization and consider particle on the ring interacting with the dissipative bath as an example. We demonstrate that even in presence of environment, there is macroscopically quantized observable which can take only integer values in the zero temperature limit. This fact follows from the total angular momentum conservation combined with momentum quantization for bare particle on the ring. The nontrivial thing is that the model under consideration, including the notion of quantized observable, can be mapped onto the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schon model of the single-electron box (SEB). We evaluate SEB observable, originating after mapping, and reveal new physics, which follows from the macroscopic quantization phenomenon and the existence of additional conservation law. Some generalizations of the obtained results are also presented.

  16. A Monte Carlo simulation for the field theory with quartic interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sergio Mittmann dos [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In the work [1-S. M. Santos, B. E. J. Bodmann and A. T. Gomez, Um novo metodo computacional para a teoria de campos na rede: resultados preliminares, IV Escola do Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, 2002; and 2-S. M. Santos and B. E. J. Bodmann, Simulacao na rede de teorias de campos quanticos, XXVIII Congresso Nacional de Matematica Aplicada e Computacional (CNMAC), Sao Paulo, 2005], a computational method on the lattice was elaborated for the problem known as scalar field theory with quartic interaction (for instance, see: J. R. Klauder, Beyound conventional quantization, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). This one introduced an algorithm, which allows the simulation of a given field theory and is independent of the lattice spacing, by redefining the fields and the parameters (the mass m and the coupling constant g). This kind of approach permits varying the dimension of the lattice without changing the computational complexity of the algorithm. A simulation was made using the Monte Carlo method, where the renormalized mass m{sub R}, the renormalized coupling constant g{sub R} and the two point correlation function were determined with success. In the present work, the genuine computational method is used for new simulations. Now, the Monte Carlo method is not used just for the simulation of the algorithm, like in [1, 2], but also for defining the adjust parameters (the mass and the coupling constant), introduced ad hoc in [1, 2]. This work presents the first simulations' outcomes, where best results that [1, 2] were determined, for the renormalized mass and the renormalized coupling constant. (author)

  17. Entropy of Field Interacting With Two Atoms in Bell State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Zhi-Yong; MA Jun-Mao; LI Ning; FU Xia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate entropy properties of the single-mode coherent optical field interacting with the two two-level atoms initially in one of the four Bell states. It is found that the different initial states of the two atoms lead to different evolutions of field entropy and the intensity of the field plays an important role for the evolution properties of field entropy.

  18. Born-Jordan quantization theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive mathematical study of the operators behind the Born–Jordan quantization scheme. The Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures of quantum mechanics are equivalent only if the Born–Jordan scheme is used. Thus, Born–Jordan quantization provides the only physically consistent quantization scheme, as opposed to the Weyl quantization commonly used by physicists. In this book we develop Born–Jordan quantization from an operator-theoretical point of view, and analyze in depth the conceptual differences between the two schemes. We discuss various physically motivated approaches, in particular the Feynman-integral point of view. One important and intriguing feature of Born-Jordan quantization is that it is not one-to-one: there are infinitely many classical observables whose quantization is zero.

  19. Width dependent transition of quantized spin-wave modes in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} square nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Chandrima; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Rousseau, Olivier [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otani, YoshiChika [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    We investigated optically induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics in square shaped Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanorings with varying ring width. Rich spin-wave spectra are observed whose frequencies showed a strong dependence on the ring width. Micromagnetic simulations showed different types of spin-wave modes, which are quantized upto very high quantization number. In the case of widest ring, the spin-wave mode spectrum shows quantized modes along the applied field direction, which is similar to the mode spectrum of an antidot array. As the ring width decreases, additional quantization in the azimuthal direction appears causing mixed modes. In the narrowest ring, the spin-waves exhibit quantization solely in azimuthal direction. The different quantization is attributed to the variation in the internal field distribution for different ring width as obtained from micromagnetic analysis and supported by magnetic force microscopy.

  20. Magnetic quantization of s p3 bonding in monolayer gray tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chao; Wu, Chung-Lin; Wu, Jhao-Ying; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2016-07-01

    A generalized tight-binding model, which is based on the subenvelope functions of the different sublattices, is developed to explore the novel magnetic quantization in monolayer gray tin (tinene). The effects due to the s p3 bonding, the spin-orbital coupling, the magnetic field, and the electric field are simultaneously taken into consideration. The unique magnetoelectronic properties lie in two groups of low-lying Landau levels, with different orbital components, localization centers, state degeneracy, spin configurations, and magnetic- and electric-field dependencies. The first and second groups mainly come from the 5 pz and (5 px,5 py ) orbitals, respectively. Their Landau-level splittings are, respectively, induced by the electric field and spin-orbital interactions. The intragroup anticrossings are only revealed in the former. The unique tinene Landau levels are absent in graphene, silicene, and germanene.

  1. One-loop approximation of Mφller scattering in generalized Krein-space quantization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. PAYANDEH; M. MEHRAFARIN; M. V. TAKOOK

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the negative-norm states necessarily appear in a covariant quantization of the free minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter spacetime. In this processes ultraviolet and infrared di-vergences have been automatically eliminated. A natural renormalization of the one-loop interacting quantum field in Minkowski spacetime (λψ4) has been achieved through the consideration of the nega-tive-norm states defined in Krein space. It has been shown that the combination of quantum field theory in Krein space together with consideration of quantum metric fluctuation, results in quantum field the-cry without any divergences. Pursuing this approach, we express Wick's theorem and calculate Mφiler scattering in the one-loop approximation in generalized Krein space. The mathematical consequence of this method is the disappearance of the ultraviolet divergence in the one-loop approximation.

  2. One-loop approximation of Mφller scattering in generalized Krein-space quantization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.; PAYANDEH; M.; MEHRAFARIN; M.; V.; TAKOOK

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the negative-norm states necessarily appear in a covariant quantization of the free minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter spacetime. In this processes ultraviolet and infrared di- vergences have been automatically eliminated. A natural renormalization of the one-loop interacting quantum field in Minkowski spacetime (λφ 4) has been achieved through the consideration of the nega- tive-norm states defined in Krein space. It has been shown that the combination of quantum field theory in Krein space together with consideration of quantum metric fluctuation, results in quantum field the- ory without any divergences. Pursuing this approach, we express Wick’s theorem and calculate Mφller scattering in the one-loop approximation in generalized Krein space. The mathematical consequence of this method is the disappearance of the ultraviolet divergence in the one-loop approximation.

  3. Generalized second law of thermodynamics in presence of interacting tachyonic field and scalar(phantom)field

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit; 10.1139/P10-094

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, we have considered tachyonic field, phantom field and scalar field in both interacting and non-interacting situations and investigated the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in a flat FRW universe. We found that in all cases, excepting the phantom field dominated universe, the derivative of the entropy is remaining at negative level and is increasing with the decrease in the redshift.

  4. Cosmic string interactions induced by gauge and scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between two parallel cosmic strings induced by gauge fields and by scalar fields with non-minimal couplings to curvature. For small deficit angles the gauge field behaves like a collection of non-minimal scalars with a specific value for the non-minimal coupling. We check this equivalence by computing the interaction energy between strings at first order in the deficit angles. This result provides another physical context for the "contact terms" which play an important role in the renormalization of black hole entropy due to a spin-1 field.

  5. Quasinormal Quantization in deSitter Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Lysov, Vyacheslav; Ng, Gim Seng; Strominger, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A scalar field in four-dimensional deSitter spacetime (dS_4) has quasinormal modes which are singular on the past horizon of the south pole and decay exponentially towards the future. These are found to lie in two complex highest-weight representations of the dS_4 isometry group SO(4,1). The Klein-Gordon norm cannot be used for quantization of these modes because it diverges. However a modified `R-norm', which involves reflection across the equator of a spatial S^3 slice, is nonsingular. The quasinormal modes are shown to provide a complete orthogonal basis with respect to the R-norm. Adopting the associated R-adjoint effectively transforms SO(4,1) to the symmetry group SO(3,2) of a 2+1-dimensional CFT. It is further shown that the conventional Euclidean vacuum may be defined as the state annihilated by half of the quasinormal modes, and the Euclidean Green function obtained from a simple mode sum. Quasinormal quantization contrasts with some conventional approaches in that it maintains manifest dS-invariance...

  6. Boundary Liouville Theory: Hamiltonian Description and Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Dorn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the Hamiltonian treatment of classical and quantum properties of Liouville field theory on a timelike strip in 2d Minkowski space. We give a complete description of classical solutions regular in the interior of the strip and obeying constant conformally invariant conditions on both boundaries. Depending on the values of the two boundary parameters these solutions may have different monodromy properties and are related to bound or scattering states. By Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization we find the quasiclassical discrete energy spectrum for the bound states in agreement with the corresponding limit of spectral data obtained previously by conformal bootstrap methods in Euclidean space. The full quantum version of the special vertex operator $e^varphi$ in terms of free field exponentials is constructed in the hyperbolic sector.

  7. Interaction of Mutually Perpendicular Magnetic Fields in HTSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Aleksandr Fedorovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a problem of interaction of the crossed magnetic fields in superconductors is considered. Superconducting materials have nonlinear magnetic properties. It allows using a non-linear magnetic susceptibility for measurement of feeble magnetic fields. We place a wire of superconducting material in a constant parallel uniform magnetic field. Then we let through a wire the alternating current leak. Interaction of mutual and perpendicular variation magnetic fields, with adequate accuracy is described by Ginzburg-Landau's equations. Approximate solution of the written equations is received. The component of a magnetic field parallel to a wire contains a variable component. Frequency of a variable component of the magnetic field is equal to the doubled current frequency. Amplitude of the variable component of the magnetic field is proportional to strength of the constant magnetic field. The experimental installation for research of interaction of mutually perpendicular magnetic fields is created. The cylinder from HTSC of ceramics of the YBa2Cu3O7-x was used as a sensor. Dependence of amplitude of the second harmonica of a variation magnetic field on strength of a constant magnetic field is received.

  8. Effective Field Theory of Interactions on the Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Manuel; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2015-12-01

    We consider renormalization of effective field theory interactions by discretizing the continuum on a tight-binding lattice. After studying the one-dimensional problem, we address s-wave collisions in three dimensions and relate the bare lattice coupling constants to the continuum coupling constants. Our method constitutes a very simple avenue for the systematic renormalization in effective field theory, and is especially useful as the number of interaction parameters increases.

  9. Quantization of empty space

    CERN Document Server

    Zubkov, M A

    2005-01-01

    We suggest to use "minimal" choice of quantum gravity theory, that is the quantum field theory, in which space-time is seen as Riemannian space and metrics (or vierbein field) is the dynamical variable. We then suggest to use the simplest acceptable action, that is the squared curvature action. The correspondent model is renormalizable, has the correct classical limit and can be explored using Euclidian path integral formalism. In order to get nonperturbative results one has to put this model on the lattice. While doing so serious problems with quantum measure are encountered, which were not solved until present. We suggest to solve them using the representation of Riemannian space as a limiting case of Riemann - Cartan space, where the Poincare group connection plays the role of dynamical variable. We construct manifestly gauge invariant discretization of Riemann - Cartan space. Lattice realization of Poincare gauge transformation naturally acts on the dynamical variables of the constructed discretization. T...

  10. Quantizing Constrained Systems New Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L; Heller, E J

    1997-01-01

    We consider quantum mechanics on constrained surfaces which have non-Euclidean metrics and variable Gaussian curvature. The old controversy about the ambiguities involving terms in the Hamiltonian of order hbar^2 multiplying the Gaussian curvature is addressed. We set out to clarify the matter by considering constraints to be the limits of large restoring forces as the constraint coordinates deviate from their constrained values. We find additional ambiguous terms of order hbar^2 involving freedom in the constraining potentials, demonstrating that the classical constrained Hamiltonian or Lagrangian cannot uniquely specify the quantization: the ambiguity of directly quantizing a constrained system is inherently unresolvable. However, there is never any problem with a physical quantum system, which cannot have infinite constraint forces and always fluctuates around the mean constraint values. The issue is addressed from the perspectives of adiabatic approximations in quantum mechanics, Feynman path integrals, a...

  11. Seating Position and Interaction in Triads: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, C. Harris; Stang, David J.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships between seating position, length of acquaintance between subjects, observer bias toward the experimental outcome, and interaction rates are examined in a field study. Subjects with greatest visual centrality spoke most often. Length of acquaintance between subjects was unrelated to interaction rates. (Author/DEP)

  12. The Successive Mean Quantization Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mikael; Dahl, Mattias; Claesson, Ingvar

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the Successive Mean Quantization Transform (SMQT). The transform reveals the organization or structure of the data and removes properties such as gain and bias. The transform is described and applied in speech processing and image processing. The SMQT is considered as an extra processing step for the mel frequency cepstral coefficients commonly used in speech recognition. In image processing the transform is applied in automatic image enhancement and dynamic range compress...

  13. The Successive Mean Quantization Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mikael; Dahl, Mattias; Claesson, Ingvar

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the Successive Mean Quantization Transform (SMQT). The transform reveals the organization or structure of the data and removes properties such as gain and bias. The transform is described and applied in speech processing and image processing. The SMQT is considered as an extra processing step for the mel frequency cepstral coefficients commonly used in speech recognition. In image processing the transform is applied in automatic image enhancement and dynamic range compress...

  14. Hitchin's connection in metaplectic quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Lauridsen, Magnus Roed

    2012-01-01

    We give a differential geometric construction of a connection, which we call the Hitchin connection, in the bundle of quantum Hilbert spaces arising from metaplectically corrected geometric quantization of a prequantizable, symplectic manifold, endowed with a rigid family of Kähler structures, all...... manifold in question. Furthermore, when we are in a setting similar to the moduli space, we give an explicit formula and show that this connection agrees with previous constructions....

  15. Quantization of Equations of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kochan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Classical Newton-Lagrange equations of motion represent the fundamental physical law of mechanics. Their traditional Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian precursors when available are essential in the context of quantization. However, there are situations that lack Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian settings. This paper discusses a description of classical dynamics and presents some irresponsible speculations about its quantization by introducing a certain canonical two-form ?. By its construction ? embodies kinetic energy and forces acting within the system (not their potential. A new type of variational principle employing differential two-form ? is introduced. Variation is performed over “umbilical surfaces“ instead of system histories. It provides correct Newton-Lagrange equations of motion. The quantization is inspired by the Feynman path integral approach. The quintessence is to rearrange it into an “umbilical world-sheet“ functional integral in accordance with the proposed variational principle. In the case of potential-generated forces, the new approach reduces to the standard quantum mechanics. As an example, Quantum Mechanics with friction is analyzed in detail. 

  16. Precanonical Quantization and the Schr\\"odinger Wave Functional Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Kanatchikov, I V

    2011-01-01

    We address the long-standing issue of the relation between the Schr\\"odinger functional representation in quantum field theory and the approach of precanonical field quantization which requires neither a distinguished time variable nor infinite-dimensional spaces of field configurations. The functional Schr\\"odinger equation is derived in the limiting case \\varkappa \\rightarrow \\delta(0) from the Dirac-like covariant generalization of the Schr\\"odinger equation within the precanonical quantization approach, where the constant \\varkappa of the dimension of the inverse spatial volume naturally appears on dimensional grounds. An explicit expression of the Schr\\"odinger wave functional as a continuous product of precanonical wave functions on the finite-dimensional covariant configuration space of the field and space-time variables is obtained.

  17. Consistent interactions in terms of the generalized fields method

    CERN Document Server

    Dayi, O F

    1996-01-01

    The interactions which preserve the structure of the gauge interactions of the free theory are introduced in terms of the generalized fields method of solving the Batalin--Vilkovisky master equation. It is shown that by virtue of this method the solution of the descent equations resulting from the cohomological analysis is provided straightforwardly. The general scheme is illustrated by applying it to spin--1 gauge field in 3 and 4 dimensions, to free BF theory in 2--d and to the antisymmetric tensor field in any dimension. It is shown that it reproduces the results obtained by cohomological techniques.

  18. Derivative self-interactions for a massive vector field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2016-06-01

    In this work we revisit the construction of theories for a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions such that only the 3 desired polarizations corresponding to a Proca field propagate. We start from the decoupling limit by constructing healthy interactions containing second derivatives of the Stueckelberg field with itself and also with the transverse modes. The resulting interactions can then be straightforwardly generalized beyond the decoupling limit. We then proceed to a systematic construction of the interactions by using the Levi-Civita tensors. Both approaches lead to a finite family of allowed derivative self-interactions for the Proca field. This construction allows us to show that some higher order terms recently introduced as new interactions trivialize in 4 dimensions by virtue of the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Moreover, we discuss how the resulting derivative interactions can be written in a compact determinantal form, which can also be regarded as a generalization of the Born-Infeld lagrangian for electromagnetism. Finally, we generalize our results for a curved background and give the necessary non-minimal couplings guaranteeing that no additional polarizations propagate even in the presence of gravity.

  19. Derivative self-interactions for a massive vector field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose, E-mail: jose.beltran@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [CPT, Aix Marseille Université, UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Heisenberg, Lavinia, E-mail: lavinia.heisenberg@eth-its.ethz.ch [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-06-10

    In this work we revisit the construction of theories for a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions such that only the 3 desired polarizations corresponding to a Proca field propagate. We start from the decoupling limit by constructing healthy interactions containing second derivatives of the Stueckelberg field with itself and also with the transverse modes. The resulting interactions can then be straightforwardly generalized beyond the decoupling limit. We then proceed to a systematic construction of the interactions by using the Levi–Civita tensors. Both approaches lead to a finite family of allowed derivative self-interactions for the Proca field. This construction allows us to show that some higher order terms recently introduced as new interactions trivialize in 4 dimensions by virtue of the Cayley–Hamilton theorem. Moreover, we discuss how the resulting derivative interactions can be written in a compact determinantal form, which can also be regarded as a generalization of the Born-Infeld lagrangian for electromagnetism. Finally, we generalize our results for a curved background and give the necessary non-minimal couplings guaranteeing that no additional polarizations propagate even in the presence of gravity.

  20. Light-Cone Quantization of the Liouville Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bienkowska, J R

    1993-01-01

    We present the quantization of the Liouville model defined in light-cone coordinates in (1,1) signature space. We take advantage of the representation of the Liouville field by the free field of the Backl\\"{u}nd transformation and adapt the approch by Braaten, Curtright and Thorn. Quantum operators of the Liouville field $\\partial_{+}\\phi$, $\\partial_{-}\\phi$, $e^{g\\phi}$, $e^{2g\\phi}$ are constructed consistently in terms of the free field. The Liouville model field theory space is found to be restricted to the sector with field momentum $P_{+}=-P_{-}$, $P_{+}> 0$ , which is a closed subspace for the Liouville theory operator algebra.

  1. Effects of an electric field on interaction of aromatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Il Seung; Cho, Woo Jong; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-04-30

    The effect of uniform external electric field on the interactions between small aromatic compounds and an argon atom is investigated using post-HF (MP2, SCS-MP2, and CCSD(T)) and density functional (PBE0-D3, PBE0-TS, and vdW-DF2) methods. The electric field effect is quantified by the difference of interaction energy calculated in the presence and absence of the electric field. All the post-HF methods describe electric field effects accurately although the interaction energy itself is overestimated by MP2. The electric field effect is explained by classical electrostatic models, where the permanent dipole moment from mutual polarization mainly determines its sign. The size of π-conjugated system does not have significant effect on the electric field dependence. We found out that PBE0-based methods give reasonable interaction energies and electric field response in every case, while vdW-DF2 sometimes shows spurious artifact owing to its sensitivity toward the real space electron density. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Six-band k•p calculation of spin-dependent interband tunneling in strained broken-gap heterostructures under a quantizing magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, A.; Nilsson, K.; Chao, K. A.; Yen, S. T.

    2005-09-01

    We investigate spin-dependent interband magnetotunneling processes in strained broken-gap resonant tunneling structures made from InAs, AlSb, and GaSb, which are promising materials for quantum devices. InAs/AlSb/GaSb/InAs/AlSb/GaSb double-barrier structures grown on both InAs and GaSb are considered. Transmission coefficients for interband tunneling processes from individual eigenstates in the InAs emitter as well as current-voltage characteristics were calculated using a six-band k•p model and the scattering matrix method. We predict that due to lattice-mismatch induced strain, the interband tunneling current density for the structure grown on InAs can be one or two orders of magnitude less than that for the structure grown on GaSb. Furthermore, as a consequence of interband magnetotunneling, structures grown on different substrates yield different spin polarization of the tunneling current. It is obtained that the current spin polarization can be greater than 90%. These resonant tunneling structures can be used as spin filters in the rapidly growing field of spintronics.

  3. Cellular studies and interaction mechanisms of extremely low frequency fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the biological effects of ELF (extremely low frequency, electromagnetic fields has grown significantly. Health professionals and government administrators and regulators, scientists and engineers, and, importantly, an increasing number of individuals in the general public are interested in this health issue. The goal of research at the cellular level is to identify cellular responses to ELF fields, to develop a dose threshold for such interactions, and with such information to formulate and test appropriate interaction mechanisms. This review is selective and will discuss the most recent cellular studies directed at these goals which relate to power line, sinusoidal ELF fields. In these studies an interaction site at the cell membrane is by consensus a likely candidate, since changes in ion transport, ligand-receptor events such as antibody binding, and G protein activation have been reported. These changes strongly indicate that signal transduction (ST) can be influenced. Also, ELF fields are reported to influence enzyme activation, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell proliferation, which are triggered by earlier ST events at the cell membrane. The concept of ELF fields altering early cell membrane events and thereby influencing intracellular cell function via the ST cascade is perhaps the most plausible biological framework currently being investigated for understanding ELF effects on cells. For example, the consequence of an increase due to ELF fields in mitogenesis, the final endpoint of the ST cascade, is an overall increase in the probability of mutagenesis and consequently cancer, according to the Ames epigenetic model of carcinogenesis. Consistent with this epigenetic mechanism and the ST pathway to carcinogenesis is recent evidence that ELF fields can alter breast cancer cell proliferation and can act as a copromoter in vitro. The most important dosimetric question being addressed currently is whether the electric (E) or the

  4. Analysis of speech waveform quantization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Predrag R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Digitalization, consisting of sampling and quantization, is the first step in any digital signal processing algorithm. In most cases, the quantization is uniform. However, having knowledge of certain stochastic attributes of the signal (namely, the probability density function, or pdf, quantization can be made more efficient, in the sense of achieving a greater signal to quantization noise ratio. This means that narrower channel bandwidths are required for transmitting a signal of the same quality. Alternatively, if signal storage is of interest, rather than transmission, considerable savings in memory space can be made. This paper presents several available methods for speech signal pdf estimation, and quantizer optimization in the sense of minimizing the quantization error power.

  5. Message-Passing Estimation from Quantized Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Kamilov, Ulugbek; Rangan, Sundeep

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of a vector from quantized linear measurements is a common problem for which simple linear techniques are suboptimal -- sometimes greatly so. This paper develops generalized approximate message passing (GAMP) algorithms for minimum mean-squared error estimation of a random vector from quantized linear measurements, notably allowing the linear expansion to be overcomplete or undercomplete and the scalar quantization to be regular or non-regular. GAMP is a recently-developed class of algorithms that uses Gaussian approximations in belief propagation and allows arbitrary separable input and output channels. Scalar quantization of measurements is incorporated into the output channel formalism, leading to the first tractable and effective method for high-dimensional estimation problems involving non-regular scalar quantization. Non-regular quantization is empirically demonstrated to greatly improve rate--distortion performance in some problems with oversampling or with undersampling combined with a spar...

  6. M-theory and Deformation Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Minic, D

    1999-01-01

    We discuss deformation quantization of the covariant, light-cone and conformal gauge-fixed p-brane actions (p>1) which are closely related to the structure of the classical and quantum Nambu brackets. It is known that deformation quantization of the Nambu bracket is not of the usual Moyal type. Yet the Nambu bracket can be quantized using the Zariski deformation quantization (discovered by Dito, Flato, Sternheimer and Takhtajan) which is based on factorization of polynomials in several real variables. We discuss a particular application of the Zariski deformed quantization in M-theory by considering the problem of a covariant formulation of Matrix theory. We propose that the problem of a covariant formulation of Matrix theory can be solved using the formalism of Zariski deformed quantization of the triple Nambu bracket.

  7. Exact quantization conditions for cluster integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Sebastián; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Mariño, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    We propose exact quantization conditions for the quantum integrable systems of Goncharov and Kenyon, based on the enumerative geometry of the corresponding toric Calabi-Yau manifolds. Our conjecture builds upon recent results on the quantization of mirror curves, and generalizes a previous proposal for the quantization of the relativistic Toda lattice. We present explicit tests of our conjecture for the integrable systems associated to the resolved {{{C}}3}/{{{Z}}5} and {{{C}}3}/{{{Z}}6} orbifolds.

  8. Exact quantization conditions for cluster integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Sebastian; Marino, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We propose exact quantization conditions for the quantum integrable systems of Goncharov and Kenyon, based on the enumerative geometry of the corresponding toric Calabi-Yau manifolds. Our conjecture builds upon recent results on the quantization of mirror curves, and generalizes a previous proposal for the quantization of the relativistic Toda lattice. We present explicit tests of our conjecture for the integrable systems associated to the resolved C^3/Z_5 and C^3/Z_6 orbifolds.

  9. Plasma-satellite interaction driven magnetic field perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed-ur-Rehman, E-mail: surehman@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Marchand, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Marchand@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    We report the first fully kinetic quantitative estimate of magnetic field perturbations caused by the interaction of a spacecraft with space environment. Such perturbations could affect measurements of geophysical magnetic fields made with very sensitive magnetometers on-board satellites. Our approach is illustrated with a calculation of perturbed magnetic fields near the recently launched Swarm satellites. In this case, magnetic field perturbations do not exceed 20 pT, and they are below the sensitivity threshold of the on-board magnetometers. Anticipating future missions in which satellites and instruments would be subject to more intense solar UV radiation, however, it appears that magnetic field perturbations associated with satellite interaction with space environment, might approach or exceed instruments' sensitivity thresholds.

  10. Spinning particles and higher spin field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Relativistic particles with higher spin can be described in first quantization using actions with local supersymmetry on the worldline. First, we present a brief review of these actions and their use in first quantization. In a Dirac quantization scheme the field equations emerge as Dirac constraints on the Hilbert space, and we outline how they lead to the description of higher spin fields in terms of the more standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. Then, we describe how these actions can be extended so that the propagating particle is allowed to take different values of the spin, i.e. carry a reducible representation of the Poincar\\'e group. This way one may identify a four dimensional model that carries the same degrees of freedom of the minimal Vasiliev's interacting higher spin field theory. Extensions to massive particles and to propagation on (A)dS spaces are also briefly commented upon.

  11. Lattice radial quantization: 3D Ising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, R.C., E-mail: brower@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Fleming, G.T., E-mail: george.fleming@yale.edu [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Neuberger, H., E-mail: neuberg@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)

    2013-04-25

    Lattice radial quantization is introduced as a nonperturbative method intended to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories that can be realized as fixed points of known Lagrangians. As an example, we employ a lattice shaped as a cylinder with a 2D Icosahedral cross-section to discretize dilatations in the 3D Ising model. Using the integer spacing of the anomalous dimensions of the first two descendants (l=1,2), we obtain an estimate for η=0.034(10). We also observed small deviations from integer spacing for the 3rd descendant, which suggests that a further improvement of our radial lattice action will be required to guarantee conformal symmetry at the Wilson–Fisher fixed point in the continuum limit.

  12. Covariant Quantization of CPT-violating Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Colladay, D; Noordmans, J P; Potting, R

    2016-01-01

    We perform the covariant canonical quantization of the CPT- and Lorentz-symmetry-violating photon sector of the minimal Standard-Model Extension, which contains a general (timelike, lightlike, or spacelike) fixed background tensor $k_{AF}^\\mu$. Well-known stability issues, arising from complex-valued energy states, are solved by introducing a small photon mass, orders of magnitude below current experimental bounds. We explicitly construct a covariant basis of polarization vectors, in which the photon field can be expanded. We proceed to derive the Feynman propagator and show that the theory is microcausal. Despite the occurrence of negative energies and vacuum-Cherenkov radiation, we do not find any runaway stability issues, because the energy remains bounded from below. An important observation is that the ordering of the roots of the dispersion relations is the same in any observer frame, which allows for a frame-independent condition that selects the correct branch of the dispersion relation. This turns ou...

  13. At Low SNR Asymmetric Quantizers Are Better

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a one-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by 2/pi, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately two decibels. Here it is shown that this power loss can be entirely avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. We prove that in order to avoid this power loss flash-signaling input-distributions are essential. Consequently, one-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: as we prove, at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all one-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case we show that a one-bit output quantizer ...

  14. Is Fundamental Particle Mass 4-pi Quantized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Standard Model lacks an explanation for the specific mass values of the fundamental particles. This is to report that a single spin quantized mass formula can produce the masses of the proton, the $W$, and the three electron generations. The $4pi$ mass quantization pattern limits the electron generations to three, while the particle's generational property is one of the components of the proposed intra-particle quantization process. Although the developed relationships are presently phenomenological, so was Bohr's atomic quantization proposal that lead to quantum mechanics.

  15. Finite-temperature effective boundary theory of the quantized thermal Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Ryota; Ryu, Shinsei; Nomura, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    A finite-temperature effective free energy of the boundary of a quantized thermal Hall system is derived microscopically from the bulk two-dimensional Dirac fermion coupled with a gravitational field. In two spatial dimensions, the thermal Hall conductivity of fully gapped insulators and superconductors is quantized and given by the bulk Chern number, in analogy to the quantized electric Hall conductivity in quantum Hall systems. From the perspective of effective action functionals, two distinct types of the field theory have been proposed to describe the quantized thermal Hall effect. One of these, known as the gravitational Chern-Simons action, is a kind of topological field theory, and the other is a phenomenological theory relevant to the Strěda formula. In order to solve this problem, we derive microscopically an effective theory that accounts for the quantized thermal Hall effect. In this paper, the two-dimensional Dirac fermion under a static background gravitational field is considered in equilibrium at a finite temperature, from which an effective boundary free energy functional of the gravitational field is derived. This boundary theory is shown to explain the quantized thermal Hall conductivity and thermal Hall current in the bulk by assuming the Lorentz symmetry. The bulk effective theory is consistently determined via the boundary effective theory.

  16. Quantum electron self-interaction in a strong laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Meuren, S

    2011-01-01

    The quantum state of an electron in a strong laser field is altered if the interaction of the electron with its own electromagnetic field is taken into account. Starting from the Schwinger-Dirac equation, we determine the states of an electron in a plane-wave field with inclusion, at leading order, of its electromagnetic self-interaction. On the one hand, the electron states show a pure "quantum" contribution to the electron quasi-momentum, conceptually different from the conventional "classical" one arising from the quiver motion of the electron. On the other hand, the electron self-interaction induces a distinct dynamics of the electron spin, whose effects are shown to be measurable in principle with available technology.

  17. Calculation of gluon contribution to the proton spin by using the non-perturbative quantization \\`{a} la Heisenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of gluon fields to the proton spin is calculated. The calculations are performed following non-perturbative Heisenberg's quantization technique. In our approach a proton is considered as consisting of three quarks connected by three flux tubes. The flux tubes contain colour longitudinal electric and transversal electric and magnetic fields. The longitudinal electric field causes the interaction forces between quarks. The quantum superposition of the transversal fields causes the appearance of the angular momentum density. From our calculations, we obtain that the contribution of the gluon field from the flux tubes to the proton spin is of the order of $15\\%$. The dimensionless relation between the angular momentum and the mass of the gluon fields is obtained. The experimental verification of this relation is discussed. Simple numerical relation between the proton mass, the speed of light and the proton radius, which is of the same order as the Planck constant, is discussed.

  18. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezerlis, A; Tews, I; Epelbaum, E; Gandolfi, S; Hebeler, K; Nogga, A; Schwenk, A

    2013-07-19

    We present the first quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations with chiral effective field theory (EFT) interactions. To achieve this, we remove all sources of nonlocality, which hamper the inclusion in QMC calculations, in nuclear forces to next-to-next-to-leading order. We perform auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations for the neutron matter energy up to saturation density based on local leading-order, next-to-leading order, and next-to-next-to-leading order nucleon-nucleon interactions. Our results exhibit a systematic order-by-order convergence in chiral EFT and provide nonperturbative benchmarks with theoretical uncertainties. For the softer interactions, perturbative calculations are in excellent agreement with the AFDMC results. This work paves the way for QMC calculations with systematic chiral EFT interactions for nuclei and nuclear matter, for testing the perturbativeness of different orders, and allows for matching to lattice QCD results by varying the pion mass.

  19. Quantized Abelian principle connections on Lorentzian manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Marco [Pavia Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Dappiaggi, Claudio [Pavia Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Schenkel, Alexander [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachgruppe Mathematik

    2013-03-15

    We construct a covariant functor from a category of Abelian principal bundles over globally hyperbolic spacetimes to a category of *-algebras that describes quantized principal connections. We work within an appropriate differential geometric setting by using the bundle of connections and we study the full gauge group, namely the group of vertical principal bundle automorphisms. Properties of our functor are investigated in detail and, similar to earlier works, it is found that due to topological obstructions the locality property of locally covariant quantum field theory is violated. Furthermore, we prove that, for Abelian structure groups containing a nontrivial compact factor, the gauge invariant Borchers- Uhlmann algebra of the vector dual of the bundle of connections is not separating on gauge equivalence classes of principal connections. We introduce a topological generalization of the concept of locally covariant quantum fields. As examples, we construct for the full subcategory of principal U(1)-bundles two natural transformations from singular homology functors to the quantum field theory functor that can be interpreted as the Euler class and the electric charge. In this case we also prove that the electric charges can be consistently set to zero, which yields another quantum field theory functor that satisfies all axioms of locally covariant quantum field theory.

  20. Quantizing the damped harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latimer, D C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2005-03-04

    We consider the Fermi quantization of the classical damped harmonic oscillator (dho). In past work on the subject, authors double the phase space of the dho in order to close the system at each moment in time. For an infinite-dimensional phase space, this method requires one to construct a representation of the CAR algebra for each time. We show that the unitary dilation of the contraction semigroup governing the dynamics of the system is a logical extension of the doubling procedure, and it allows one to avoid the mathematical difficulties encountered with the previous method.

  1. Deformation quantization of principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Aschieri, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We outline how Drinfeld twist deformation techniques can be applied to the deformation quantization of principal bundles into noncommutative principal bundles, and more in general to the deformation of Hopf-Galois extensions. First we twist deform the structure group in a quantum group, and this leads to a deformation of the fibers of the principal bundle. Next we twist deform a subgroup of the group of authomorphisms of the principal bundle, and this leads to a noncommutative base space. Considering both deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with noncommutative fiber and base space as well.

  2. `Third' Quantization of Vacuum Einstein Gravity and Free Yang-Mills Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Ioannis

    2007-05-01

    Certain pivotal results from various applications of Abstract Differential Geometry (ADG) to gravity and gauge theories are presently collected and used to argue that we already possess a geometrically (pre)quantized, second quantized and manifestly background spacetime manifold independent vacuum Einstein gravitational field dynamics. The arguments carry also mutatis mutandis to the case of free Yang-Mills theories, since from the ADG-theoretic perspective gravity is regarded as another gauge field theory. The powerful algebraico-categorical, sheaf cohomological conceptual and technical machinery of ADG is then employed, based on the fundamental ADG-theoretic conception of a field as a pair ({mathcal{E}},{mathcal{D}}) consisting of a vector sheaf {mathcal{E}} and an algebraic connection {mathcal{D}} acting categorically as a sheaf morphism on {mathcal{E}}'s local sections, to introduce a ‘universal’, because expressly functorial, field quantization scenario coined third quantization. Although third quantization is fully covariant, on intuitive and heuristic grounds alone it formally appears to follow a canonical route; albeit, in a purely algebraic and, in contradistinction to geometric (pre)quantization and (canonical) second quantization, manifestly background geometrical spacetime manifold independent fashion, as befits ADG. All in all, from the ADG-theoretic vantage, vacuum Einstein gravity and free Yang-Mills theories are regarded as external spacetime manifold unconstrained, third quantized, pure gauge field theories. The paper abounds with philosophical smatterings and speculative remarks about the potential import and significance of our results to current and future Quantum Gravity research. A postscript gives a brief account of this author's personal encounters with Rafael Sorkin and his work.

  3. The influence of scalar fields in protogalactic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Meza, M A; Cervantes-Cota, J L; Dehnen, H

    2009-01-01

    We present simulations within the framework of scalar-tensor theories, in the Newtonian limit, to investigate the influence of massive scalar fields on the dynamics of the collision of two equal spherical clouds. We employ a SPH code modified to include the scalar field to simulate two initially non-rotating protogalaxies that approach each other, and as a result of the tidal interaction, intrinsic angular momentum is generated. We have obtained sufficient large values of J/M to suggest that intrinsic angular momentum can be the result of tidal interactions.

  4. Percolation of optical excitation mediated by near-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Naruse, Makoto; Takahashi, Taiki; Aono, Masashi; Akahane, Kouichi; D'Acunto, Mario; Hori, Hirokazu; Thylen, Lars; Katori, Makoto; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation transfer in nanostructured matter has been intensively studied in various material systems for versatile applications. Herein, we discuss the percolation of optical excitations in randomly organized nanostructures caused by optical near-field interactions governed by Yukawa potential in a two-dimensional stochastic model. The model results demonstrate the appearance of two phases of percolation of optical excitation as a function of the localization degree of near-field interaction. Moreover, it indicates sublinear scaling with percolation distance when the light localization is strong. The results provide fundamental insights into optical excitation transfer and will facilitate the design and analysis of nanoscale signal-transfer characteristics.

  5. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  6. Magnetophoretic interaction of ferrofluid droplets in a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingfeng; Afkhami, Shahriar; Chen, Ching-Yao; Feng, James

    2016-11-01

    Recent experiments have discovered a mode of planetary motion of a pair of ferrofluid droplets in a rotating magnetic field. It consists of the self-spin of individual droplets and the global revolution of the pair with a phase lag from the rotating field. This talk describes a volume-of-fluid simulation that explores this phenomenon. By studying the magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions between the droplets, we determine the time scale of the planetary motion under different operating conditions. The numerical results are compared to predictions using a simple dipole interaction model and the experiments. Finally we simulate the motion of a multiple-droplet chain in a rotating field, and compare the results to experimental observations that the drops assemble into a regular and compact array that rotates with the field with a phase lag.

  7. Phase diagram of strong interactions in an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Mizher, Ana Julia; Chernodub, M N

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the phase diagram of strong interactions in the presence of a magnetic field within the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop, and show that the chiral and deconfinement lines can split. We also study the behavior of the chiral condensate in this magnetic environment and find an approximately linear dependence on the external field, in accordance with lattice data.

  8. Noncommutative spaces with twisted symmetries and second quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    In a minimalistic view, the use of noncommutative coordinates can be seen just as a way to better express non-local interactions of a special kind: 1-particle solutions (wavefunctions) of the equation of motion in the presence of an external field may look simpler as functions of noncommutative coordinates. It turns out that also the wave-mechanical description of a system of n such bosons/fermions and its second quantization is simplified if we translate them in terms of their deformed counterparts. The latter are obtained by a general twist-induced *-deformation procedure which deforms in a coordinated way not just the spacetime algebra, but the larger algebra generated by any number n of copies of the spacetime coordinates and by the particle creation and annihilation operators. On the deformed algebra the action of the original spacetime transformations looks twisted. In a non-conservative view, we thus obtain a twisted covariant framework for QFT on the corresponding noncommutative spacetime consistent w...

  9. Many fields interaction: Beam splitters and waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar-Sarao, R.; Soto-Eguibar, F.; Moya-Cessa, H. [INAOE, Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    We study the interaction of many fields. We obtain an effective Hamiltonian for this system by using a method recently introduced that produces a small rotation to the Hamiltonian that allows to neglect some terms in the rotated Hamiltonian. We show that coherent states remain coherent under the action of a quadratic Hamiltonian and by solving the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem for tridiagonal matrices we also show that a system of n interacting harmonic oscillators, initially in coherent states, remain coherent during the interaction. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Number-Phase Quantization Scheme for L-C Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For a mesoscopic L-C circuit, besides the Louisell's quantization scheme in which electric charge q and electric current Ⅰ are respectively quantized as the coordinate operator Q and momentum operator P, in this paper we propose a new quantization scheme in the context of number-phase quantization through the standard Lagrangian formalism. The comparison between this number-phase quantization with the Josephson junction's Cooper pair numberphase-difference quantization scheme is made.

  11. Noncommutative spectral geometry, algebra doubling, and the seeds of quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariadou, Mairi; Stabile, Antonio; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    A physical interpretation of the two-sheeted space, the most fundamental ingredient of noncommutative spectral geometry proposed by Connes as an approach to unification, is presented. It is shown that the doubling of the algebra is related to dissipation and to the gauge structure of the theory, the gauge field acting as a reservoir for the matter field. In a regime of completely deterministic dynamics, dissipation appears to play a key role in the quantization of the theory, according to the ’t Hooft’s conjecture. It is thus argued that the noncommutative spectral geometry classical construction carries the seeds of quantization, implicit in its feature of the doubling of the algebra.

  12. Experimental evidence for a two-dimensional quantized Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke, M.; Shahar, D.; Song, S. H.; Tsui, D. C.; Xie, Y. H.; Monroe, Don

    1998-10-01

    The general theoretical definition of an insulator is a material in which the conductivity vanishes at the absolute zero of temperature. In classical insulators, such as materials with a band gap, vanishing conductivities lead to diverging resistivities. But other insulators can show more complex behaviour, particularly in the presence of a high magnetic field, where different components of the resistivity tensor can display different behaviours: the magnetoresistance diverges as the temperature approaches absolute zero, but the transverse (Hall) resistance remains finite. Such a system is known as a Hall insulator. Here we report experimental evidence for a quantized Hall insulator in a two-dimensional electron system-confined in a semiconductor quantum well. The Hall resistance is quantized in the quantum unit of resistance h/e2, where h is Planck's constant and e the electronic charge. At low fields, the sample reverts to being a normal Hall insulator.

  13. Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, M; Weinstein, Marvin; Akhoury, Ratindranath

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. To clarify the general formalism and explicitly show why we choose to weaken the statement of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, we apply the general formalism to de Sitter space. After exactly solving the relevant Heisenberg equations of motion we give a detailed discussion of the subtleties associated with defining physical states and the emergence of the classi...

  14. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kupriyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  15. Quantization of Presymplectic Manifolds and Circle Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, A C; Tolman, S; Silva, Ana Canas da; Karshon, Yael; Tolman, Susan

    1997-01-01

    We prove several versions of "quantization commutes with reduction" for circle actions on manifolds that are not symplectic. Instead, these manifolds possess a weaker structure, such as a spin^c structure. Our theorems work whenever the quantization data and the reduction data are compatible; this condition always holds if we start from a presymplectic (in particular, symplectic) manifold.

  16. Kähler Quantization and Hitchin Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Gammelgaard, Niels

    such deformation quantization, which uses Feynman graphs to encode the relevant differential operators. In particular, this yields an explicit formula for the Berezin-Toeplitz star product. For geometric quantization, we consider Andersen's generalization of Hitchin's projectively flat connection to a general...

  17. The logical quantization of algebraic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hirokazu

    1995-05-01

    In a previous paper we introduced a highly abstract framework within which the theory of manuals initiated by Foulis and Randall is to be developed. The framework enabled us in a subsequent paper to quantize the notion of a set. Following these lines, this paper is devoted to quantizing algebraic groups viewed from Grothendieck's functorial standpoint.

  18. Bimodules and branes in deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Calaque, Damien; Ferrario, Andrea; Rossi, Carlo A

    2009-01-01

    We prove a version of Kontsevich's formality theorem for two subspaces (branes) of a vector space $X$. The result implies in particular that the Kontsevich deformation quantizations of $\\mathrm{S}(X^*)$ and $\\wedge(X)$ associated with a quadratic Poisson structure are Koszul dual. This answers an open question in Shoikhet's recent paper on Koszul duality in deformation quantization.

  19. Affine Quantization and the Initial Cosmological Singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Fanuel, Michaël

    2012-01-01

    A toy model for quantum cosmology is suggested and quantized in the light of the Affine Coherent State Quantization procedure. The quantum corrections to the classical dynamics seem to provide a potential barrier term, as already suggested in other models studied in the literature. The possible application of this method to more realistic minisuperspace models is envisaged.

  20. Integral quantizations with two basic examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, H., E-mail: herve.bergeron@u-psud.fr [Univ Paris-Sud, ISMO, UMR 8214, 91405 Orsay (France); Gazeau, J.P., E-mail: gazeau@apc.univ-paris7.fr [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris (France)

    2014-05-15

    The paper concerns integral quantization, a procedure based on operator-valued measure and resolution of the identity. We insist on covariance properties in the important case where group representation theory is involved. We also insist on the inherent probabilistic aspects of this classical–quantum map. The approach includes and generalizes coherent state quantization. Two applications based on group representation are carried out. The first one concerns the Weyl–Heisenberg group and the euclidean plane viewed as the corresponding phase space. We show that a world of quantizations exist, which yield the canonical commutation rule and the usual quantum spectrum of the harmonic oscillator. The second one concerns the affine group of the real line and gives rise to an interesting regularization of the dilation origin in the half-plane viewed as the corresponding phase space. -- Highlights: •Original approach to quantization based on (positive) operator-valued measures. •Includes Berezin–Klauder–Toeplitz and Weyl–Wigner quantizations. •Infinitely many such quantizations produce canonical commutation rule. •Set of objects to be quantized is enlarged in order to include singular functions or distributions. •Are given illuminating examples like quantum angle and affine or wavelet quantization.

  1. Extended BRST quantization in general coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Nersessian, A B

    2002-01-01

    We propose an extended BRST invariant Lagrangian quantization scheme of general gauge theories based on explicit realization of "modified triplectic algebra" in general coordinates. All the known Lagrangian quantization schemes based on the extended BRST symmetry are obtained by specifying the (free) parameters of that method.

  2. Covariant Photon Quantization in the SME

    CERN Document Server

    Colladay, Don

    2013-01-01

    The Gupta Bleuler quantization procedure is applied to the SME photon sector. A direct application of the method to the massless case fails due to an unavoidable incompleteness in the polarization states. A mass term can be included into the photon lagrangian to rescue the quantization procedure and maintain covariance.

  3. Modulation and coding for quantized channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Cronie, H.S.; Philips, W.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate reliable communication over quantized channels from an information theoretical point of view. People seldom consider the effect of quantization in conventional coded modulation systems since Analog-to-Digital (AD) converters used in these systems always have high resolution, e.g. 2/3

  4. Coulomb Interaction in Quantum Dot with a Precessing Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We study electronic transport through a quantum dot (QD) with a precessing magnetic field. By using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function method, formulas of local density of states (LDOS) and conductance of QD are derived self-consistently. It shows that the LDOS and conductance have obvious changes with the Coulomb blockade interaction. The intensity and angle of the magnetic field or temperatures, which reflect the mesoscopic structure of the QD are derived. The superiority of this device is that the QD can be controlled easily by the magnetic field, so it is valuable to apply in generating, manipulating and probing spin state.

  5. Causal Poisson bracket via deformation quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra-Montiel, Jasel; Molgado, Alberto; Palacios-García, César D.

    2016-06-01

    Starting with the well-defined product of quantum fields at two spacetime points, we explore an associated Poisson structure for classical field theories within the deformation quantization formalism. We realize that the induced star-product is naturally related to the standard Moyal product through an appropriate causal Green’s functions connecting points in the space of classical solutions to the equations of motion. Our results resemble the Peierls-DeWitt bracket that has been analyzed in the multisymplectic context. Once our star-product is defined, we are able to apply the Wigner-Weyl map in order to introduce a generalized version of Wick’s theorem. Finally, we include some examples to explicitly test our method: the real scalar field, the bosonic string and a physically motivated nonlinear particle model. For the field theoretic models, we have encountered causal generalizations of the creation/annihilation relations, and also a causal generalization of the Virasoro algebra for the bosonic string. For the nonlinear particle case, we use the approximate solution in terms of the Green’s function, in order to construct a well-behaved causal bracket.

  6. Gauge field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    This third edition on the classic Gauge Field Theories is an ideal reference for researchers starting work with the Large Hadron Collider and the future International Linear Collider. This latest title continues to offer an up to date reference containing revised chapters on electroweak interactions and model building including a completely new chapter on conformality. Within this essential reference logical organization of the material on gauge invariance, quantization, and renormalization is also discussed providing necessary reading for Cosmologists and Particle Astrophysicists

  7. Cavity QED with Quantized Center of Mass Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Joe; Rice, P. R.

    2004-09-01

    We investigate the quantum fluctuations of a single atom in a weakly driven cavity, where the center of mass motion of the atom is quantized in one dimension. We present analytic results for the second order intensity correlation function g(2)(τ) and the intensity-field correlation function hθ(τ), for transmitted light in the weak driving field limit. We find that the coupling of the center of mass motion to the intracavity field mode can be deleterious to nonclassical effects in photon statistics and field-intensity correlations, and compare the use of trapped atoms in a cavity to atomic beams.

  8. Higgs particles interacting via a scalar Dark Matter field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Yajnavalkya; Darewych, Jurij

    2016-07-01

    We study a system of two Higgs particles, interacting via a scalar Dark Matter mediating field. The variational method in the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT is used to derive relativistic wave equations for the two-Higgs system, using a truncated Fock-space trial state. Approximate solutions of the two-body equations are used to examine the existence of Higgs bound states.

  9. Effective field theory of interactions on the lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel; Zinner, Nikolaj T.

    2015-01-01

    We consider renormalization of effective field theory interactions by discretizing the continuum on a tight-binding lattice. After studying the one-dimensional problem, we address s-wave collisions in three dimensions and relate the bare lattice coupling constants to the continuum coupling consta...

  10. Background-independent quantization and the uncertainty principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Golam Mortuza; Husain, Viqar; Seahra, Sanjeev S, E-mail: ghossain@unb.c, E-mail: vhusain@unb.c, E-mail: sseahra@unb.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2010-08-21

    It is shown that polymer quantization leads to a modified uncertainty principle similar to that motivated by string theory and non-commutative geometry. When applied to quantum field theory on general background spacetimes, corrections to the uncertainty principle acquire a metric dependence. For Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology this translates to a scale factor dependence which gives a large effect in the early Universe.

  11. Covariant Quantization of the Brink-Schwarz Superparticle

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A; Porrati, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    The quantization of the Brink-Schwarz-Casalbuoni superparticle is performed in an explicitly covariant way using the antibracket formalism. Since an infinite number of ghost fields are required, within a suitable off-shell twistor-like formalism, we are able to fix the gauge of each ghost sector without modifying the physical content of the theory. The computation reveals that the antibracket cohomology contains only the physical degrees of freedom.

  12. Energy quantization for approximate H-surfaces and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhou Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider weakly convergent sequences of approximate H-surface maps defined in the plane with their tension fields bounded in $L^p$ for p> 4/3, and establish an energy quantization that accounts for the loss of their energies by the sum of energies over finitely many nontrivial bubbles maps on $mathbb{R}^2$. As a direct consequence, we establish the energy identity at finite singular time to their H-surface flows.

  13. Quantization Noise Shaping on Arbitrary Frame Expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boufounos Petros T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantization noise shaping is commonly used in oversampled A/D and D/A converters with uniform sampling. This paper considers quantization noise shaping for arbitrary finite frame expansions based on generalizing the view of first-order classical oversampled noise shaping as a compensation of the quantization error through projections. Two levels of generalization are developed, one a special case of the other, and two different cost models are proposed to evaluate the quantizer structures. Within our framework, the synthesis frame vectors are assumed given, and the computational complexity is in the initial determination of frame vector ordering, carried out off-line as part of the quantizer design. We consider the extension of the results to infinite shift-invariant frames and consider in particular filtering and oversampled filter banks.

  14. Correlation Statistics of Quantized Noiselike Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Gwinn, C

    2004-01-01

    I calculate the statistics of correlation of two digitized noiselike signals, which are drawn from complex Gaussian distributions, sampled, quantized, correlated, and averaged. Averaged over many such samples, the correlation r approaches a Gaussian distribution. The mean and variance of r fully characterize the distribution of r. The mean corresponds to the reproducible part of the measurement, and the variance corresponds to the random part, or noise. I investigate the case of nonnegligible covariance rho between the signals. Noise in the correlation can increase or decrease, depending on quantizer parameters, when rho increases. This contrasts with the correlation of continuously valued or unquantized signals, for which the noise in phase with rho increases with increasing rho, and noise out of phase decreases. Indeed, for some quantizer parameters, I find that the correlation of quantized signals provides a more accurate estimate of rho than would correlation without quantization. I present analytic resul...

  15. Plasma effects in electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. P.; Batra, Karuna; Excell, Peter S.

    2011-02-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of the nonlinear behavior of charge carriers in biological tissue under the influence of varying low-intensity electromagnetic (EM) field. The interaction occurs because of the nonlinear force arising due to the gradient of the EM field intensity acting on free electrons in the conduction band of proteins in metabolically active biological cell membrane receptors leading to a redistribution of charge carriers. Field dependence of the resulting dielectric constant is investigated by a suitable modification to include an additional electronic contribution term to the three-term Debye model. The exogenous EM field propagating in this nonlinear cellular medium satisfies the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can be affected significantly. Resulting field effect can be substantially augmented and effective rectification/demodulation can occur. Possible implications of this modification on biological processes in white and grey matter are discussed.

  16. Interacting scale but non-conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Yu

    2016-01-01

    There is a dilemma in constructing interacting scale invariant but not conformal invariant Euclidean field theories. On one hand, scale invariance without conformal invariance seems more generic by requiring only a smaller symmetry. On the other hand, the existence of a non-conserved current with exact scaling dimension $d-1$ in $d$ dimensions seems to require extra fine-tuning. To understand the competition better, we explore some examples without the reflection positivity. We show that a theory of elasticity (a.k.a Riva-Cardy theory) coupled with massless fermions in $d=4-\\epsilon$ dimensions never possess an interacting scale invariant fixed point. We do, however, find interacting scale invariant but non-conformal field theories in gauge fixed versions of the Banks-Zaks fixed points in $d=4$ dimensions.

  17. Self-interacting scalar fields in their strong regime

    CERN Document Server

    Deur, A

    2016-01-01

    We study two self-interacting scalar field theories in their strong regime. We numerically investigate them in the static limit using path integrals on a lattice. We first recall the formalism and then recover known static potentials to validate the method and verify that calculations are independent of the choice of the simulation's arbitrary parameters, such as the space discretization size. The calculations in the strong field regime yield linear potentials for both theories. We discuss how these theories can represent the Strong Interaction and General Relativity in their static and classical limits. In the case of Strong Interaction, the model suggests an origin for the emergence of the confinement scale from the approximately conformal Lagrangian. The model also underlines the role of quantum effects in the appearance of the long-range linear quark-quark potential. For General Relativity, the results have important implications on the nature of Dark Matter. In particular, non-perturbative effects natura...

  18. Pomeron - Odderon interactions in a reggeon field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bartels, J; Vacca, G P

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend our recent non perturbative functional renormalization group analysis of Reggeon Field Theory to the interactions of Pomeron and Odderon fields. We establish the existence of a fixed point and its universal properties, which exhibits a novel symmetry structure in the space of Odderon-Pomeron interactions. As in our previous analysis, this part of our program aims at the investigation of the IR limit of reggeon field theory (the limit of high energies and large transverse distances). It should be seen in the broader context of trying to connect the nonperturbative infrared region (large transverse distances) with the UV region of small transverse distances where the high energy limit of perturbative QCD applies.

  19. Pomeron-Odderon interactions in a Reggeon field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jochen; Contreras, Carlos; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we extend our recent nonperturbative functional renormalization group analysis of Reggeon field theory to the interactions of Pomeron and Odderon fields. We establish the existence of a fixed point and its universal properties, which exhibits a novel symmetry structure in the space of Odderon-Pomeron interactions. As in our previous analysis, this part of our program aims at the investigation of the IR limit of Reggeon field theory (the limit of high energies and large transverse distances). It should be seen in the broader context of trying to connect the nonperturbative infrared region (large transverse distances) with the UV region of small transverse distances where the high energy limit of perturbative QCD applies. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for the existence of an Odderon in high energy scattering.

  20. Canonical quantization of a string describing N branes at angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesando, Igor

    2014-12-01

    We study the canonical quantization of a bosonic string in presence of N twist fields. This generalizes the quantization of the twisted string in two ways: the in and out states are not necessarily twisted and the number of twist fields N can be bigger than 2. In order to quantize the theory we need to find the normal modes. Then we need to define a product between two modes which is conserved. Because of this we need to use the Klein-Gordon product and to separate the string coordinate into the classical and the quantum part. The quantum part has different boundary conditions than the original string coordinates but these boundary conditions are precisely those which make the operator describing the equation of motion self adjoint. The splitting of the string coordinates into a classical and quantum part allows the formulation of an improved overlap principle. Using this approach we then proceed in computing the generating function for the generic correlator with L untwisted operators and N (excited) twist fields for branes at angles. We recover as expected the results previously obtained using the path integral. This construction explains why these correlators are given by a generalization of the Wick theorem.

  1. Quantization function for attractive, singular potential tails; Die Quantisierungsfunktion fuer attraktive, singulaere Potentialschwaenze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Patrick N.

    2010-02-04

    The interaction between atoms and molecules with each other are deep potential wells with attractive, singular tails. Bound state energies are determined by a quantization function according to a simple quantization rule. This function is dominantly determined by the singular potential tail for near-threshold states. General expressions for the low- and high-energy contributions of the singular potential tail to the quantization function, as well as the connection to the scattering length are presented in two and three dimensions. Precise analytical expressions for the quantization function are determined for the case of potential tails proportional to -1/r{sup 4} and -1/r{sup 6} for three dimensions. (orig.)

  2. Adiabatically tuning quantized supercurrents in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junpeng; Luo, Xi-Wang; Sun, Kuei; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2017-07-01

    The ability to generate and tune quantized persistent supercurrents is crucial for building superconducting or atomtronic devices with novel functionalities. In ultracold atoms, previous methods for generating quantized supercurrents are generally based on dynamical processes to prepare atoms in metastable excited states. Here, we show that arbitrary quantized circulation states can be adiabatically prepared and tuned as the ground state of a ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate by utilizing spin-orbital-angular-momentum (SOAM) coupling and an external potential. There exists superfluid hysteresis for tuning supercurrents between different quantization values with nonlinear atomic interactions, which is explained by developing a nonlinear Landau-Zener theory. Our work will provide a powerful platform for studying SOAM-coupled ultracold atomic gases and building atomtronic circuits.

  3. 2D velocity fields of simulated interacting disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberger, T; Schindler, S; Ziegler, B L

    2007-01-01

    We investigate distortions in the velocity fields of disc galaxies and their use to reveal the dynamical state of interacting galaxies at different redshift. For that purpose, we model disc galaxies in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations. 2D velocity fields of the gas are extracted from these simulations which we place at different redshifts from z=0 to z=1 to investigate resolution effects on the properties of the velocity field. To quantify the structure of the velocity field we also perform a kinemetry analysis. If the galaxy is undisturbed we find that the rotation curve extracted from the 2D field agrees well with long-slit rotation curves. This is not true for interacting systems, as the kinematic axis is not well defined and does in general not coincide with the photometric axis of the system. For large (Milky way type) galaxies we find that distortions are still visible at intermediate redshifts but partly smeared out. Thus a careful analysis of the velocity field is necessary before using it for...

  4. Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yndurain, F.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1996-12-01

    The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources.

  5. HBT Pion Interferometry with Phenomenological Mean Field Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, K.

    2010-11-01

    To extract information on hadron production dynamics in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision, the space-time structure of the hadron source has been measured using Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometry. We study the distortion of the source images due to the effect of a final state interaction. We describe the interaction, taking place during penetrating through a cloud formed by evaporating particles, in terms of a one-body mean field potential localized in the vicinity of the source region. By adopting the semiclassical method, the modification of the propagation of an emitted particle is examined. In analogy to the optical model applied to nuclear reactions, our phenomenological model has an imaginary part of the potential, which describes the absorption in the cloud. In this work, we focus on the pion interferometry and mean field interaction obtained using a phenomenological pipi forward scattering amplitude in the elastic channels. The p-wave scattering wit h rho meson resonance leads to an attractive mean field interaction, and the presence of the absorptive part is mainly attributed to the formation of this resonance. We also incorporate a simple time dependence of the potential reflecting the dynamics of the evaporating source. Using the obtained potential, we examine how and to what extent the so-called HBT Gaussian radius is varied by the modification of the propagation.

  6. The Necessity of Quantizing Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The Eppley Hannah thought experiment is often cited as justification for attempts by theorists to develop a complete, consistent theory of quantum gravity. A modification of the earlier "Heisenberg microscope" argument for the necessity of quantized light, the Eppley-Hannah thought experiment purports to show that purely classical gravitational waves would either not conserve energy or else allow for violations of the uncertainty principle. However, several subsequent papers have cast doubt as to the validity of the Eppley-Hannah argument. In this paper, we attempt to resurrect the Eppley-Hannah thought experiment by modifying the original argument in such a manner as to render it immune to the present criticisms levied against it.

  7. Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-01-01

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantised superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localised in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the cross-over range of scales in superfl...

  8. Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, M

    2004-06-03

    This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta} {rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. To clarify the general formalism and explicitly show why we choose to weaken the statement of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, we apply the general formalism to de Sitter space. After exactly solving the relevant Heisenberg equations of motion we give a detailed discussion of the subtleties associated with defining physical states and the emergence of the classical theory. This computation provides the striking result that quantum corrections to this long wavelength limit of gravity eliminate the problem of the big crunch. We also show that the same corrections lead to possibly measurable effects on the CMB radiation. For the sake of completeness, we discuss the special case, {lambda} = 0, and its relation to Minkowski space. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest one can put an experimental lower bound on the distance to a universe with a scale factor very different from our own, by looking at its effects on our CMB

  9. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Ku

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  10. Decoding the hologram: Scalar fields interacting with gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We construct smeared CFT operators which represent a scalar field in AdS interacting with gravity. The guiding principle is micro-causality: scalar fields should commute with themselves at spacelike separation. To O(1/N) we show that a correct and convenient criterion for constructing the appropriate CFT operators is to demand micro-causality in a three-point function with a boundary Weyl tensor and another boundary scalar. The resulting bulk observables transform in the correct way under AdS isometries and commute with boundary scalar operators at spacelike separation, even in the presence of metric perturbations.

  11. Small oscillations of two interacting particles in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino, L. A.; Curilef, S.

    2016-11-01

    The classical behavior of two interacting particles in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is studied in the small oscillations approximation. Using the Lagrangian formalism, the equations of motion are derived, as are their solutions and constants of motion. Normal modes of oscillations and their corresponding normal coordinates are obtained that strongly depend on the initial condition; therefore, we observe that the oscillation along the line that joins the particles is non-isochronous. In addition, particular attention has been paid to the planar motion, without the pseudomomentum component parallel to the magnetic field, where one longitudinal mode and two transversal modes are obtained.

  12. Entanglement of self interacting scalar fields in an expanding spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Helder; Mansfield, Paul; da Paz, I G; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate self-interaction effects on the quantum correlations of field modes of opposite momenta for scalar $\\lambda \\phi^4$ theory in a two-dimensional asymptotically flat Robertson-Walker spacetime. Such correlations are encoded both in the von-Neumann entropy defined through the reduced density matrix in one of the modes and in the covariance expressed in terms of the expectation value of the number operators for each mode in the evolved state. The entanglement between field modes carries information about the underlying spacetime evolution.

  13. Quantization of scalar perturbations in brane-world inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiguchi, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Kazuya

    2005-02-01

    We consider a quantization of scalar perturbations about a de Sitter brane in a 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk spacetime. We first derive the second order action for a master variable Ω for 5-dimensional gravitational perturbations. For a vacuum brane, there is a continuum of normalizable Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes with m>3H/2. There is also a light radion mode with m=√(2)H which satisfies the junction conditions for two branes, but is non-normalizable for a single brane model. We perform the quantization of these bulk perturbations and calculate the effective energy density of the projected Weyl tensor on the barne. If there is a test scalar field perturbation on the brane, the m2=2H2 mode together with the zero-mode and an infinite ladder of discrete tachyonic modes become normalizable in a single brane model. This infinite ladder of discrete modes as well as the continuum of KK modes with m>3H/2 introduce corrections to the scalar field perturbations at first-order in a slow-roll expansion. We derive the second order action for the Mukhanov-Sasaki variable coupled to the bulk perturbations which is needed to perform the quantization and determine the amplitude of scalar perturbations generated during inflation on the brane.

  14. Probing topology by "heating": Quantized circular dichroism in ultracold atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc Thanh; Dauphin, Alexandre; Grushin, Adolfo G; Zoller, Peter; Goldman, Nathan

    2017-08-01

    We reveal an intriguing manifestation of topology, which appears in the depletion rate of topological states of matter in response to an external drive. This phenomenon is presented by analyzing the response of a generic two-dimensional (2D) Chern insulator subjected to a circular time-periodic perturbation. Because of the system's chiral nature, the depletion rate is shown to depend on the orientation of the circular shake; taking the difference between the rates obtained from two opposite orientations of the drive, and integrating over a proper drive-frequency range, provides a direct measure of the topological Chern number (ν) of the populated band: This "differential integrated rate" is directly related to the strength of the driving field through the quantized coefficient η0 = ν/ℏ(2), where h = 2π ℏ is Planck's constant. Contrary to the integer quantum Hall effect, this quantized response is found to be nonlinear with respect to the strength of the driving field, and it explicitly involves interband transitions. We investigate the possibility of probing this phenomenon in ultracold gases and highlight the crucial role played by edge states in this effect. We extend our results to 3D lattices, establishing a link between depletion rates and the nonlinear photogalvanic effect predicted for Weyl semimetals. The quantized circular dichroism revealed in this work designates depletion rate measurements as a universal probe for topological order in quantum matter.

  15. Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Rui

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Hall effect, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the spin Hall effect are fundamental transport processes in solids arising from the Lorentz force and the spin-orbit coupling respectively.The AHE, in which a voltage transverse to the electric current appears even in the absence of an external magnetic field, was first detected in ferromagnetic (FM) metals in 1881 and later found to arise from the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) between the current and magnetic moments.Recent progress on the mechanism of AHE has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall current by adopting the Berry-phase concepts in close analogy to the intrinsic spin Hall effect.Given the experimental discovery of the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects, it is natural to ask whether the AHE can also be quantized.In a quantized anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator, spontaneous magnetic moments and spin-orbit coupling combine to give rise to a topologically non-trivial electronic structure, leading to the quantized Hall effect without any external magnetic field.

  16. Einstein's photoemission emission from heavily-doped quantized structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields  that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials  and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring   physical properties in the presence of intense light waves w...

  17. Nonlinear lepton-photon interactions in external background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2016-02-09

    Nonlinear phenomena of lepton-photon interactions in external backgrounds with a generalised periodic plane-wave geometry are studied. We discuss nonlinear Compton scattering in head-on lepton-photon collisions extended properly to beyond the soft-photon regime. In addition, our results are applied to stimulated lepton-antilepton pair production in photon collisions with unrestricted energies. Derivations are considered semi-classically based on unperturbed fermionic Volkov representations encoding the full interaction with the background field. Closed expressions for total probabilities considering S-matrix elements have been derived. The general formula is applied to Compton scattering by an electron propagating in an external laser-like background. We obtain additive contributions in the extended unconstrained result which turns out to be stringently required in the highly nonlinear regime. A detailed comparison of contributing harmonics is discussed for various field parameters.

  18. Percolation of optical excitation mediated by near-field interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Takahashi, Taiki; Aono, Masashi; Akahane, Kouichi; D'Acunto, Mario; Hori, Hirokazu; Thylén, Lars; Katori, Makoto; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2017-04-01

    Optical excitation transfer in nanostructured matter has been intensively studied in various material systems for versatile applications. Herein, we theoretically and numerically discuss the percolation of optical excitations in randomly organized nanostructures caused by optical near-field interactions governed by Yukawa potential in a two-dimensional stochastic model. The model results demonstrate the appearance of two phases of percolation of optical excitation as a function of the localization degree of near-field interaction. Moreover, it indicates sublinear scaling with percolation distances when the light localization is strong. Furthermore, such a character is maximized at a particular size of environments. The results provide fundamental insights into optical excitation transfer and will facilitate the design and analysis of nanoscale signal-transfer characteristics.

  19. The symplectic camel and phase space quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosson, Maurice de [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden)

    2001-11-30

    We show that a result of symplectic topology, Gromov's non-squeezing theorem, also known as the 'principle of the symplectic camel', can be used to quantize phase space in cells. That quantization scheme leads to the correct energy levels for integrable systems and to Maslov quantization of Lagrangian manifolds by purely topological arguments. We finally show that the argument leading to the proof of the non-squeezing theorem leads to a classical form of Heisenberg's inequalities. (author)

  20. Is Fundamental Particle Mass 4π Quantized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Standard Model lacks an explanation for the specific mass values of the fundamen- tal particles. This is to report that a single spin quantized mass formula can produce the masses of the proton, the W , and the three electron generations. The 4 mass quanti- zation pattern limits the electron generations to three, while the particle’s generational property is one of the components of the proposed intra-particle quantization process. Although the developed relationships are presently phenomenological, so was Bohr’s atomic quantization proposal that lead to quantum mechanics.

  1. A field theory characterization of interacting adiabatic particles in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We explore the adiabatic particle excitations of an interacting field in a cosmological background. By following the time-evolution of the quantum state corresponding to the particle excitation, we show how the basic properties characterizing the particle propagation can be recovered from the two-point propagators. As an application, we study the background-induced dissipative effects on the propagation of a two-level atom in an expanding universe.

  2. A field theory characterization of interacting adiabatic particles in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga, Daniel [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: darteaga@ub.edu

    2008-08-07

    We explore the adiabatic particle excitations of an interacting field in a cosmological background. By following the time evolution of the quantum state corresponding to the particle excitation, we show how the basic properties characterizing the particle propagation can be recovered from the two-point propagators. As an application, we study the background-induced dissipative effects on the propagation of a two-level atom in an expanding universe.

  3. Higgs particles interacting via a scalar Dark Matter field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Yajnavalkya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a system of two Higgs particles, interacting via a scalar Dark Matter mediating field. The variational method in the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT is used to derive relativistic wave equations for the two-Higgs system, using a truncated Fock-space trial state. Approximate solutions of the two-body equations are used to examine the existence of Higgs bound states.

  4. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Ingo

    2015-10-12

    The neutron-matter equation of state connects several physical systems over a wide density range, from cold atomic gases in the unitary limit at low densities, to neutron-rich nuclei at intermediate densities, up to neutron stars which reach supranuclear densities in their core. An accurate description of the neutron-matter equation of state is therefore crucial to describe these systems. To calculate the neutron-matter equation of state reliably, precise many-body methods in combination with a systematic theory for nuclear forces are needed. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) is such a theory. It provides a systematic framework for the description of low-energy hadronic interactions and enables calculations with controlled theoretical uncertainties. Chiral EFT makes use of a momentum-space expansion of nuclear forces based on the symmetries of Quantum Chromodynamics, which is the fundamental theory of strong interactions. In chiral EFT, the description of nuclear forces can be systematically improved by going to higher orders in the chiral expansion. On the other hand, continuum Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are among the most precise many-body methods available to study strongly interacting systems at finite densities. They treat the Schroedinger equation as a diffusion equation in imaginary time and project out the ground-state wave function of the system starting from a trial wave function by propagating the system in imaginary time. To perform this propagation, continuum QMC methods require as input local interactions. However, chiral EFT, which is naturally formulated in momentum space, contains several sources of nonlocality. In this Thesis, we show how to construct local chiral two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions and discuss results of first QMC calculations for pure neutron systems. We have performed systematic auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations for neutron matter using local chiral NN interactions. By

  5. Electron-electron interactions in graphene field-induced quantum dots in a high magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlof, A.; Shylau, Artsem; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of electron-electron interaction in graphene quantum dots defined by an external electrostatic potential and a high magnetic field. To account for the electron-electron interaction, we use the Thomas-Fermi approximation and find that electron screening causes the formation...... of compressible strips in the potential profile and the electron density. We numerically solve the Dirac equations describing the electron dynamics in quantum dots, and we demonstrate that compressible strips lead to the appearance of plateaus in the electron energies as a function of the magnetic field. Finally...

  6. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations.

  7. Interaction field modeling of mini-UAV swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, William W.; Ro, Kapseong; Szu, Harold

    2006-05-01

    A behavior-based, simple interaction model inspired by molecular interaction field depicted by the Lennard-Jones function is examined for the averaged interaction in swarming. The modeled kinematic equation of motion contains only one variable, instead of a multiple state variable dependence a more complete dynamics entails. The model assumes a spatial distribution of the potential associate with the swarm. The model has been applied to examine the formation of swarm and the results are reported. The modeling can be reflected in an equilibrium theory for the operation of a swarm of mini-UAVs pioneered by Szu, where every member serves the mission while exploiting other's loss, resulting in a zero-sum game among the team members.

  8. Interactive Editing of GigaSample Terrain Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Treib, Marc

    2012-05-01

    Previous terrain rendering approaches have addressed the aspect of data compression and fast decoding for rendering, but applications where the terrain is repeatedly modified and needs to be buffered on disk have not been considered so far. Such applications require both decoding and encoding to be faster than disk transfer. We present a novel approach for editing gigasample terrain fields at interactive rates and high quality. To achieve high decoding and encoding throughput, we employ a compression scheme for height and pixel maps based on a sparse wavelet representation. On recent GPUs it can encode and decode up to 270 and 730 MPix/s of color data, respectively, at compression rates and quality superior to JPEG, and it achieves more than twice these rates for lossless height field compression. The construction and rendering of a height field triangulation is avoided by using GPU ray-casting directly on the regular grid underlying the compression scheme. We show the efficiency of our method for interactive editing and continuous level-of-detail rendering of terrain fields comprised of several hundreds of gigasamples. © 2012 The Author(s).

  9. Acceleration and Particle Field Interactions of Cosmic Rays II: Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Ghoneim, M T; Hady, A

    2010-01-01

    Based on the generic acceleration model, which suggests different types of electromagnetic interactions between the cosmic charged particles and the different configurations of the electromagnetic (plasma) fields, the ultra high energy cosmic rays are studied. The plasma fields are assumed to vary, spatially and temporally. The well-known Fermi accelerations are excluded. Seeking for simplicity, it is assumed that the energy loss due to different physical processes is negligibly small. The energy available to the plasma sector is calculated in four types of electromagnetic fields. It has been found that the drift in a time--varying magnetic field is extremely energetic. The energy scale widely exceeds the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff. The polarization drift in a time--varying electric field is also able to raise the energy of cosmic rays to an extreme value. It can be compared with the Hillas mechanism. The drift in a spatially--varying magnetic field is almost as strong as the polarization drift. The...

  10. Space Quantization of Light Transmission by Strong Coupling of Plasmonic Cavity Modes with Photosynthetic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Itai; Hieflero, Omri; Liliach, Igal; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mujica, Vladimiro; Richeter, Shachar

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between molecules and surface plasmons in defined geometries can lead to new light mater hybrid states where light propagation is strongly influenced by molecular photon absorption. Their application range from lasing LEDs to controlling chemical reactions and are relevant in light harvesting. The coupling between the electromagnetic field and molecular excitations may also lead to macroscopic extended coherent states characterized by an increase in temporal and spatial coherency. In this respect, it is intriguing to explore the coherency of the hybrid system for molecules that possess highly efficient exciton energy transfer. Such a molecule, is the photosynthetic light harvesting complex photosystem I which has an extended antenna system dedicated for efficient light harvesting. In this work, we demonstrate space quantization of light transmission through a single slit in free standing Au film coated with several layers of PS I. A self assembly technique for multilayer fabrication is used, e...

  11. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yumin

    2013-12-01

    It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE) is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs), which is more sensitive than previous parameters-shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  12. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yumin, E-mail: ymhou@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-12-15

    It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE) is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs), which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  13. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Hou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs, which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  14. Coordination of Passive Systems under Quantized Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a passivity approach to collective coordination and synchronization problems in the presence of quantized measurements and show that coordination tasks can be achieved in a practical sense for a large class of passive systems.

  15. Binary Biometric Representation through Pairwise Polar Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chun; Veldhuis, Raymond; Tistarelli, M.; Nixon, M.

    2009-01-01

    Binary biometric representations have great significance for data compression and template protection. In this paper, we introduce pairwise polar quantization. Furthermore, aiming to optimize the discrimination between the genuine Hamming distance (GHD) and the imposter Hamming distance (IHD), we pr

  16. Quantization of noncommutative completely integrable Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Giachetta, G; Sardanashvily, G

    2007-01-01

    Integrals of motion of a Hamiltonian system need not be commutative. The classical Mishchenko-Fomenko theorem enables one to quantize a noncommutative completely integrable Hamiltonian system around its invariant submanifold as an abelian completely integrable Hamiltonian system.

  17. Quantization of noncommutative completely integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giachetta, G. [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Italy); Mangiarotti, L. [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Italy); Sardanashvily, G. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University, 117234 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: gennadi.sardanashvily@unicam.it

    2007-02-26

    Integrals of motion of a Hamiltonian system need not commute. The classical Mishchenko-Fomenko theorem enables one to quantize a noncommutative completely integrable Hamiltonian system around its invariant submanifold as the Abelian one.

  18. Quantum bits and superposition of displaced Fock states of the cavity field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo A, L.M. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C., Prolongacion de Constitucion No. 607, Apdo. Postal 507, Aguascalientes (Mexico); Moya C, H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    We study the effects of counter rotating terms in the interaction of quantized light with a two-level atom, by using the method of small rotations. We give an expression for the wave function of the composed system atom plus field and point out one initial wave function that generates a quantum bit of the electromagnetic field with arbitrary amplitudes. (Author)

  19. Color quantization and processing by Fibonacci lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsilovic, A; Soljanin, E

    2001-01-01

    Color quantization is sampling of three-dimensional (3-D) color spaces (such as RGB or Lab) which results in a discrete subset of colors known as a color codebook or palette. It is extensively used for display, transfer, and storage of natural images in Internet-based applications, computer graphics, and animation. We propose a sampling scheme which provides a uniform quantization of the Lab space. The idea is based on several results from number theory and phyllotaxy. The sampling algorithm is very much systematic and allows easy design of universal (image-independent) color codebooks for a given set of parameters. The codebook structure allows fast quantization and ordered dither of color images. The display quality of images quantized by the proposed color codebooks is comparable with that of image-dependent quantizers. Most importantly, the quantized images are more amenable to the type of processing used for grayscale ones. Methods for processing grayscale images cannot be simply extended to color images because they rely on the fact that each gray-level is described by a single number and the fact that a relation of full order can be easily established on the set of those numbers. Color spaces (such as RGB or Lab) are, on the other hand, 3-D. The proposed color quantization, i.e., color space sampling and numbering of sampled points, makes methods for processing grayscale images extendible to color images. We illustrate possible processing of color images by first introducing the basic average and difference operations and then implementing edge detection and compression of color quantized images.

  20. On Quantizing Nilpotent and Solvable Basic Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We prove an algebraic ``no-go theorem'' to the effect that a nontrivial Poisson algebra cannot be realized as an associative algebra with the commutator bracket. Using this, we show that there is an obstruction to quantizing the Poisson algebra of polynomials generated by a nilpotent basic algebra on a symplectic manifold. Finally, we explicitly construct a polynomial quantization of a symplectic manifold with a solvable basic algebra, thereby showing that the obstruction in the nilpotent cas...