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Sample records for quantity ratio

  1. Ratio of critical quantities related to Hawking temperature–entanglement entropy criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Xiong Mo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the Hawking temperature–entanglement entropy criticality of the d-dimensional charged AdS black hole with our attention concentrated on the ratio TcδSEcQc. Comparing the results of this paper with those of the ratio TcScQc, one can find both the similarities and differences. These two ratios are independent of the characteristic length scale l and dependent on the dimension d. These similarities further enhance the relation between the entanglement entropy and the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy. However, the ratio TcδSEcQc also relies on the size of the spherical entangling region. Moreover, these two ratios take different values even under the same choices of parameters. The differences between these two ratios can be attributed to the peculiar property of the entanglement entropy since the research in this paper is far from the regime where the behavior of the entanglement entropy is dominated by the thermal entropy.

  2. Innovations in Mass Spectrometry for Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination from Very Small Analyte Quantities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, N. S.; Bouman, C.; Horstwood, M. S.; Parrish, R. R.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes progress in mass spectrometry for analysing very small analyte quantities, illustrated by example applications from nuclear forensics. In this challenging application, precise and accurate (‰) uranium isotope ratios are required from 1 - 2 µm diameter uranium oxide particles, which comprise less than 40 pg of uranium. Traditionally these are analysed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), and more recently using secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS). Multicollector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can offer higher productivity compared to these techniques, but is traditionally limited by low efficiency of analyte utilisation (sample through to ion detection). Samples can either be introduced as a solution, or sampled directly from solid using laser ablation. Large multi-isotope ratio datasets can help identify provenance and intended use of anthropogenic uranium and other nuclear materials [1]. The Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus (Bremen, Germany) with ‘Jet Interface’ option offers unparalleled MC-ICP-MS sensitivity. An analyte utilisation of c. 4% has previously been reported for uranium [2]. This high-sensitivity configuration utilises a dry high-capacity (100 m3/h) interface pump, special skimmer and sampler cones and a desolvating nebuliser system. Coupled with new acquisition methodologies, this sensitivity enhancement makes possible the analysis of micro-particles and small sample volumes at higher precision levels than previously achieved. New, high-performance, full-size and compact discrete dynode secondary electron multipliers (SEM) exhibit excellent stability and linearity over a large dynamic range and can be configured to simultaneously measure all of the uranium isotopes. Options for high abundance-sensitivity filters on two ion beams are also available, e.g. for 236U and 234U. Additionally, amplifiers with high ohm (1012 - 1013) feedback resistors have been developed to

  3. Secondary Students' Quantification of Ratio and Rate: A Framework for Reasoning about Change in Covarying Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Contributing to a growing body of research addressing secondary students' quantitative and covariational reasoning, the multiple case study reported in this article investigated secondary students' quantification of ratio and rate. This article reports results from a study investigating students' quantification of rate and ratio as…

  4. Secondary Students' Quantification of Ratio and Rate: A Framework for Reasoning about Change in Covarying Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Contributing to a growing body of research addressing secondary students' quantitative and covariational reasoning, the multiple case study reported in this article investigated secondary students' quantification of ratio and rate. This article reports results from a study investigating students' quantification of rate and ratio as…

  5. Discriminación de cantidad: efecto de la razón numérica sobre velocidad y precisión / Quantity discrimination: effect of number ratio over speed and accuracy

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    Jesica Formoso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La habilidad de estimar y discriminar cantidades es de aparición temprana en el desarrollo y previa a la adquisición de un sistema numérico simbólico. El rendimiento en tareas de discriminación está modulado por la razón numérica que diferencia los conjuntos, de forma tal que razones más pequeñas resultan en comparaciones más lentas y menos efectivas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la precisión y velocidad con que niños de 4 y 6 años discriminan entre dos cantidades en función de la razón numérica que las diferencia. Método: se administró una tarea de discriminación no simbólica de cantidades (ad hoc a 60 niños de 4 y 6 años de edad de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se realizó un ANOVA de diseño mixto para analizar la cantidad de aciertos y los tiempos de reacción (TR en función de la edad y la razón numérica que diferencia los conjuntos. Se utilizó la prueba de contraste de Bonferroni para detectar las diferencias en aciertos y TR entre cada razón. Resultados: (a Los niños de 6 años mostraron TR más pequeños y mayor cantidad de aciertos que los niños de 4 años. Esto sugiere que la discriminación de cantidades atraviesa un proceso de desarrollo evolutivo. (b Cuanto mayor fue la razón numérica en la diferenciación de los conjuntos, más efectiva fue la discriminación. Esto sugiere que la razón modula el rendimiento, independientemente de la edad del sujeto. ABSTRACT: The ability to estimate and discriminate quantities is of early onset in the development and prior to the acquisition of a symbolic numerical system. The performance on tasks of discrimination is modulated by the number ratio that differentiates the sets, so that smaller reasons result in slower and less effective comparisons. The objective of the present study is to analyze the precision and speed by which 4 and 6 year old children discriminate between two quantities based on the number ratio that

  6. Different carbon and nitrogen ratio on the quantity of nitrogen cycle bacteria in the landfill unit%不同碳氮比对垃圾填埋单元中氮循环细菌数量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筱茵; 崔俊涛; 王书明; 程伟

    2016-01-01

    垃圾填埋单元微生物碳代谢功能既受垃圾填埋单元有机碳的影响,也与填埋单元氮素水平密切相关。这项工作的目的是研究不同碳和氮的影响比在垃圾填埋场渗滤液微生物群落的数量如氨化、硝化和反硝化细菌,为渗滤液处理提供基础数据。本文研究以黑土进行填埋的垃圾填埋层为研究对象,采用室内试验比较研究了四种施氮处理(自然状态未调碳氮比,碳氮比5:1,20:1,50:1)定期采集样品。用MPN法测定垃圾填埋单元中微生物的数量。实验结果表明:(1)低碳氮比垃圾填埋单元氨化细菌,硝化细菌和反硝化细菌数量较大,高碳氮比垃圾填埋单元则相反。(2)随着时间推移,不同碳氮比改变了垃圾填埋单元中氨化细菌,硝化细菌和反硝化细菌数量均呈现了先增加后降低的趋势。由此可知,垃圾填埋单元中氮循环细菌数量与垃圾填埋单元的碳氮比值有关。%Landfill unit microbial carbon metabolism is not only organically influenced by the impact of landfill unit, but also closely related to the levels of landfill unit nitrogen. This work was undertaken with the aim of investigating the influence of different carbon and nitrogen ratio on the quantity of landfill leachate microbial communities such as ammoniation, nitrification and denitrification bacteria, and to provide a basic data for leachate treatment.In this paper, Black soil was used as the layer of landfill and we use laboratory experiments to comparative and study four kinds of nitrogen treatment which are used to collect samples periodically. Using MPN measured the number of microorganisms of the unit of landfill. Experimental results show:(1)The number of ammonifiers, nitrobacteria and denitrifying bacteria is large in the low carbon nitrogen ratio landfill,but high carbon nitrogen ratio is opposite.(2)Over time, different carbon nitrogen ratio changed the number

  7. Quality or quantity?

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Simler, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The role of school quality in determining educational outcomes has received much research attention in the United States. However, in developing countries, where a significant part of the school age population never attends school, policymakers must consider both quality and quantity when deciding how to maximize the impact of scarce investments. Acknowledging this difference in the policy environment in developing countries, this paper provides comparative estimates of the impact of quality ...

  8. Research on Order Quantity Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; LI Zhi-cheng

    2003-01-01

    The order quantity is often affected by various factors, so it is more valuable to research the problem of evaluating the order quantity based on a less premise. In this paper, a complicated order quantity problem is studied and an order quantity simulation system is established with the simulation software of ARENA. Finally, an example is given.

  9. Prices versus Quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    Weitzman (2002) studies the regulation of a fishery characterised by constant marginal harvest costs and shows that price regulation performs better than quantity regulation when the regulator is uncertain about the biological reproduction function (ecological uncertainty). Here, we initially...... uncertainty. We find that the gain from eliminating compliance uncertainty may be up to 5% of gross profit while the gain from eliminating ecological uncertainty is minimal. Under landing fee regulation, the entire gain from eliminating both types of uncertainty is captured, even if the regulator’s stock...

  10. Intermediate dosimetric quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

    1992-04-01

    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  11. Study on Daily Absorption Quantity and Uptaking Intensity Ratio of N P K Nutrients and the Nutrient Stage of Winter Wheat with High Yield%高产小麦氮磷钾养分强度比和吸收力与营养期的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国梁; 崔秀珍

    2000-01-01

    According to the evaluation of daily absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium quantity and uptaking intensity ratios winter wheat with high yield , nitrogen nutrient critical stage came in wheat tillering stage, and the same stage of phosphorus and potassium appeared ahead of wheat reviving stage; the highest efficiency of nitrogen absorption was in booting-ripening stage, that of phosphorus and potassium was after wheat jointing stage.%根据高产小麦氮、磷、钾养分日吸收力和强度比判断:氮的临界期在分蘖期,磷和钾在小麦返青前,氮最大效率期在孕穗-成熟,磷和钾在拔节后。

  12. Relative quantity judgments in South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a variety of species possess quantitative abilities although their cognitive substrate is still unclear. This study is the first to investigate whether sea lions (Otaria flavescens), in the absence of training, are able to assess and select the larger of two sets of quantities. In Experiment 1, the two sets of quantities were presented simultaneously as whole sets, that is, the subjects could compare them directly. In Experiment 2, the two sets of quantities were presented item-by-item, and the totality of items was never visually available at the time of choice. For each type of presentation, we analysed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities and the total number of items presented. The results showed that (1) sea lions can make relative quantity judgments successfully and (2) there is a predominant influence of the ratio between quantities on the subjects' performance. The latter supports the idea that an analogue representational mechanism is responsible for sea lions' relative quantities judgments. These findings are consistent with previous reports of relative quantities judgments in other species such as monkeys and apes and suggest that sea lions might share a similar mechanism to compare and represent quantities.

  13. Thermal quantities of 46Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-07-01

    Thermodynamic quantities of 46Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework.

  14. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  15. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  16. Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.

  17. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number.

  18. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  19. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  20. Inherently analog quantity representations in olive baboons (Papio anubis

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    Allison M Barnard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1 a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2 an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment -naive olive baboons (Papio anubis to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4, large (>4, or span (small vs. large numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates.

  1. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

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    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  2. Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species.

  3. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility.Design/methodology/approach: Being difference from the traditional research that takes economic value as object, this paper takes carbon footprint as object directly, order quantity as decision variable. By referring to the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper creates logistics carbon footprint model which takes transport and inventory into account. Then it solves the model by calculating the values of order quantity, carbon footprint and revenue using the method of optimization.Findings and Originality/value: By solving and comparing the two models of economic order quantity model and carbon footprint model, it gets some results, such as carbon optimization order quantity, the effects order quantity deviating from economic order quantity or carbon order quantity having on economic or carbon footprint values, which can give some meaningful insight for corporation to search out reduction opportunities by operations adjustment.Originality/value: The study takes carbon footprint as object directly and creates the corresponding quantity model. By comparing with the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper provides quantity methods and obtains some meaningful insights for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility to reduce emissions by operations adjustment.

  4. Conserved quantities in isotropic loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Cartin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We develop an action principle for those models arising from isotropic loop quantum cosmology, and show that there is a natural conserved quantity $Q$ for the discrete difference equation arising from the Hamiltonian constraint. This quantity $Q$ relates the semi-classical limit of the wavefunction at large values of the spatial volume, but opposite triad orientations. Moreover, there is a similar quantity for generic difference equations of one parameter arising from a self-adjoint operator.

  5. Counting on your friends: The role of social environment on quantity discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E McKenna

    2016-07-01

    Quantity discrimination has been established in a range of species. However, most demonstrations of quantity discrimination control for social factors by testing animals individually. I tested whether sociality affects quantity discrimination in the wild by comparing the performances of the highly social Mexican jay (MJ; Aphelocoma wollweberi) and the territorial Western scrub jay (WJ; Aphelocoma californica). The birds were given a choice between two lines of peanuts that differed in initial quantity ranging from 2 vs 8 to 14 vs 16. Their choices were recorded until all peanuts were eaten or cached. Whereas non-social WJ selected the larger quantity across all the trials significantly more than chance, social MJ selected the larger line only when the difference in the number of peanuts between lines was small. In MJ, individual choice when selecting the large or small quantity was influenced by what line the previous bird had chosen when the difference in lines was large, with followers significantly more likely to select the smaller quantity. WJ were not significantly affected by the choices of other individuals. The only factors that influenced WJ choice were ratio and total differences between the two quantities. These results suggests that in certain scenarios, both species can discriminate between different quantities. However, MJ were greatly influenced by social factors, a previously untested factor, while WJ were only influenced by ratio and total difference between the quantities, consistent with findings in other species. Overall, this study demonstrates the important role of sociality in numerical cognitive performance, a previously overlooked factor.

  6. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...

  7. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

  8. Keeping Secrets : Quantity, Quality and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, T.

    2005-01-01

    Keeping Secrets deals with the consequences of an elusive yet everyday phenomenon. It addresses both the quantity and quality of secret-keeping. With respect to quantity, it presents research on the intra- and interpersonal consequences of keeping secrets from parents in adolescence. With respect t

  9. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans. Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical less/more discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family—one domesticated, and one wild—make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition.Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given 9 trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker and colleagues (2011.The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar nonverbal quantitative abilities across

  10. Thermal quantities of {sup 46}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatinejad, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, R., E-mail: rrazavin@ihu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Thermodynamic quantities of {sup 46}Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework.

  11. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-01

    . .... South African Council for Quantity Surveyors (SACQS) to implement a policy of ... In addition to withdrawing the administration/management of the policy .... practice; assisting human resource personnel to set objectives for.

  12. Uncertainty propagation with functionally correlated quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Mosè

    2016-01-01

    Many uncertainty propagation software exist, written in different programming languages, but not all of them are able to handle functional correlation between quantities. In this paper we review one strategy to deal with uncertainty propagation of quantities that are functionally correlated, and introduce a new software offering this feature: the Julia package Measurements.jl. It supports real and complex numbers with uncertainty, arbitrary-precision calculations, mathematical and linear algebra operations with matrices and arrays.

  13. A generalized definition of dosimetric quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Rossi, H H

    1990-04-01

    The current definitions of microdosimetric and dosimetric quantities use the notion of 'ionizing radiation'. However, this notion is not rigorously defined, and its definition would require the somewhat arbitrary choice of specified energy cut-off values for different types of particles. Instead of choosing fixed cut-off values one can extend the system of definitions by admitting the free selection of a category of types and energies of particles that are taken to be part of the field. In this way one extends the system of dosimetric quantities. Kerma and absorbed dose appear then as special cases of a more general dosimetric quantity, and an analogue to kerma can be obtained for charged particle fields; it is termed cema. A modification that is suitable for electron fields is termed reduced cema.

  14. Electromagnetic Quantities in Black Hole Magnetosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定雄; 马任意; 雷卫华; 姚国政

    2004-01-01

    Some electromagnetic quantities in the black hole (BH) magnetosphere are discussed by considering the coexistence of the Blandford-Znajek process and the magnetic coupling process. These quantities are (i) flux of electromagnetic energy and angular momentum transferred between the BH and the disc, (ii) poloidal currents flowing on the horizon and disc, (iii) poloidal electric field on the horizon, (iv) toroidal magnetic field in the BH magnetosphere,and (v) voltage drop across the magnetic coupling region on the horizon. It turns out that these quantities are determined mainly by three parameters: (i) the positions relative to the corotation magnetic surface, (ii) the BH spin, and (iii) the power-law index for the variation of the magnetic field on the disc.

  15. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  16. Exact cosmological solutions from Hojman conservation quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozzie@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Roshan, Mahmood, E-mail: rowshan@alumni.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 1436, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-07

    We present a new approach to find exact solutions for cosmological models. By requiring the existence of a symmetry transformation vector for the equations of motion of the given cosmological model (without using either Lagrangian or Hamiltonian), one can find corresponding Hojman conserved quantities. With the help of these conserved quantities, the analysis of the cosmological model can be simplified. In the case of quintessence scalar–tensor models, we show that the Hojman conserved quantities exist for a wide range of V(ϕ)-potentials and allow to find exact solutions for the cosmic scale factor and the scalar field. Finally, we investigate the general cosmological behavior of solutions by adopting a phase-space view.

  17. Exact cosmological solutions from Hojman conservation quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to find exact solutions for cosmological models. By requiring the existence of a symmetry transformation vector for the equations of motion of the given cosmological model (without using either Lagrangian or Hamiltonian), one can find corresponding Hojman conserved quantities. With the help of these conserved quantities, the analysis of the cosmological model can be simplified. In the case of quintessence scalar-tensor models, we show that the Hojman conserved quantities exist for a wide range of V(\\phi)-potentials and allow to find exact solutions for the cosmic scale factor and the scalar field. Finally, we investigate the general cosmological behavior of solutions by adopting a phase-space view.

  18. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500.19 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING...

  19. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  20. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  1. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  2. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CALL, Prewriting Strategies, and EFL Writing Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Sajad; Koosha, Mansour; Afghar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore the effect of teaching prewriting strategies through different methods of input delivery (i.e. conventional, web-based, and hybrid) on EFL learners' writing quantity. In its quasi-experimental study, the researchers recruited 98 available sophomores, and assigned them to three experimental groups (conventional,…

  4. Practice Makes Perfect: Contracting Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how contract grading promotes quality writing as well as a larger quantity of writing. Considers how teachers can use contract grading to support and promote the behaviors, thinking skills, and writing skills they believe will help students create quality writing. Notes that contract grading leads students to write more, to have fewer…

  5. Measurements of non-physical quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Igor F.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the paper is to suggest an approach to development of a theory of measurements for non-physical quantities. For these measurements it is not possible to ensure traceability because of their exclusive nature as substantiated by the author. This theory is presented as particularly important one for social and human sciences.

  6. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketable quantity. 929.14 Section 929.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... market demand and to provide for an adequate carryover. ...

  7. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  8. Relevance of conserved quantities for data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dubinkina (Svetlana)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we study relevance of quantities conserved by a numerical scheme for data assimilation. We consider three Arakawa discretizations of the quasigeostrophic model that either preserve energy, or enstrophy, or both and an Ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation method.

  9. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of permanent supports. (3) If machine mounted dust collectors or diffuser fans are used, the approved... currents cannot be controlled and air measurements cannot be obtained, the air shall have perceptible... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance...

  10. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  11. Coordinated Lot-sizing and Dynamic Prizing under a Supplier All-units Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Transchel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider an economic order quantity model where the supplier offers an all-units quantity discount and a price sensitive customer demand. We compare a decentralized decision framework where selling price and replenishment policy are determined independently to simultaneous decision making. Constant and dynamic pricing are distinguished. We derive structural properties and develop algorithms that determine the optimal pricing and replenishment policy and show how quantity discounts not only influence the purchasing strategy but also the pricing policy. A sensitivity analysis indicates the impact of the fixed-holding cost ratio, the discount policy, and the customers' price sensitivity on the optimal decisions.

  12. Sleep quantity, quality and optimism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Räikkönen, Katri; Scheier, Michael F; Matthews, Karen A; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Komsi, Niina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Kajantie, Eero

    2011-03-01

    We tested the relationship of objectively measured sleep quantity and quality with positive characteristics of the child. Sleep duration, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were measured by an actigraph for an average of seven (range = 3-14) consecutive nights in 291 8-year-old children (standard deviation = 0.3 years). Children's optimism, self-esteem and social competence were rated by parents and/or teachers. Sleep duration showed a non-linear, reverse J-shaped relationship with optimism (P = 0.02), such that children with sleep duration in the middle of the distribution scored higher in optimism compared with children who slept relatively little. Shorter sleep latency was related to higher optimism (P = 0.01). The associations remained when adjusting for child's age, sex, body mass index, and parental level of education and optimism. In conclusion, sufficient sleep quantity and good sleep quality are related to children's positive characteristics. Our findings may inform why sleep quantity and quality and positive characteristics are associated with wellbeing in children. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. 48 CFR 52.211-16 - Variation in Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Quantity. 52....211-16 Variation in Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(a), insert the following clause: Variation in Quantity (APR 1984) (a) A variation in the quantity of any item called for by this contract will not...

  14. Conformal invariance conserved quantity of Hamilton systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jian-Le; Luo Shao-Kai; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies conformal invariance and comserved quantRies of Hamilton system.The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance for Hamilton system are provided.The relationship between the conformal invariance and the Lie symmetry are discussed,and the necessary and sufficient condition that the conformal invariance would be the Lie symmetry of the system under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group is deduced.It gives the conserved quantities of the system and an example for illustration.

  15. On ADM quantities of multiple black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    In [11] a proposal was made to construct initial data for binary black hole configurations. It was done by using the parabolic-hyperbolic form of the constraints and choosing the free data provided by superposed Kerr-Schild black holes. The proposal of [11] do also apply to multiple systems involving generic Kerr-Schild black holes. Notably, the specific choice made for the free data allows---without making detailed use of the to be solutions to the constraints---to determine explicitly, the ADM quantities of the multiple system in terms of the separations velocities and spins of the individual Kerr-Schild black holes.

  16. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity.

  17. Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.

  18. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  19. Fluctuations of Intensive Quantities in Statistical Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur E. Ruuge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In phenomenological thermodynamics, the canonical coordinates of a physical system split in pairs, with each pair consisting of an extensive quantity and an intensive one. In the present paper, the quasithermodynamic fluctuation theory of a model system of a large number of oscillators is extended to statistical thermodynamics based on the idea of perceiving the fluctuations of intensive variables as the fluctuations of specific extensive ones in a “thermodynamically dual” system. The extension is motivated by the symmetry of the problem in the context of an analogy with quantum mechanics, which is stated in terms of a generalized Pauli problem for the thermodynamic fluctuations. The doubled Boltzmann constant divided by the number of particles plays a similar role as the Planck constant.

  20. Comparing children's Homo sapiens and chimpanzees' Pan troglodytes quantity judgments of sequentially presented sets of items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. BERAN, Julie S. JOHNSON-PYNN, Christopher READY

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We presented a quantity judgment task that involved comparing two sequentially presented sets of items to preschoolers and chimpanzees using nearly identical procedures that excluded verbal instructions to children. Trial difficulty in this task reflected the ratio difference between sets of discrete items where larger ratios (e.g., 0.80 as from comparing 4 to 5 were more difficult than smaller ones (e.g., 0.50 as from comparing 4 to 8. Children also completed verbal-based tasks probing the relationship between counting proficiency and performance on the quantity judgment task of sequentially presented identical sized items. Both species’ performance was best when ratios between comparison sets were small regardless of set size in all types of tasks. Generally, chimpanzees and older children performed better than younger children except at larger ratios. Children’s counting proficiency was not related to success in choosing the larger of two quantities of identical-sized items. These results indicate that chimpanzees and children share an approximate number sense that is reflected through analog magnitude estimation when comparing quantities [Current Zoology 57 (4: 419–428, 2011].

  1. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  2. Relative quantity judgments in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have documented the ability of many species to make relative quantity judgments using an analogue magnitude system. We investigated whether one beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, and three bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, were capable of selecting the larger of two sets of quantities, and analyzed if their performance matched predictions from the object file model versus the analog accumulator model. In Experiment 1, the two sets were presented simultaneously, under water, and they were visually (condition 1) or echoically (condition 2) available at the time of choice. In experiment 2, the two sets were presented above the water, successively (condition 1) or sequentially, item-by-item (condition 2), so that they were not visually available at the time of choice (condition 1) or at any time throughout the experiment (condition 2). We analyzed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities, and the total number of items presented on the subjects' choices. All subjects selected the larger of the two sets of quantities above chance levels in all conditions. However, unlike most previous studies, the subjects' choices did not match the predictions from the accumulator model. Whether these findings reflect interspecies differences in the mechanisms which underpin relative quantity judgments remains to be determined.

  3. How to introduce physical quantities physically

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Serge A

    2015-01-01

    The centuries-long practice of the teaching turned mechanics into an academic construct detached from its underlying science, the physics of macroscopic bodies. In particular, the regularities that delineate the scope of validity of Newtonian mechanics was never used as premises in that construct. Instead, its logical structure has been built with the only purpose to ease the presentation of mechanics as an application of calculus and algebra. This leaves no room for the explicit physical description of the fundamental notions of the construct, such as the ability of (a system of) physical bodies to keep a spatial form, symbolized by a rigid measuring rod, and the possibility to count out even temporal intervals, symbolized by a standard clock, let alone the origin of the basic mechanical quantities. The comparison between (states of) physical objects is possible as far as the natural regularities enable a researcher to define an equivalence relation in a set of these objects. The class of macroscopic (or mac...

  4. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Leach, P. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f (R) gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ (t) = ϕ (a (t)) , which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f (T) teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f (T) functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  5. Nurturing young writers: sustaining quality, not quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M

    2009-11-01

    The exponential growth in scientific journals and advent of the electronic era have led to such information overload that the sustainability of credible and quality publications is more urgent than ever. Editors and academics who commit themselves to nurturing young writers need to reaffirm their focus on quality rather than quantity of papers. Bearing in mind that publications should firstly be founded on good science, there are several approaches in helping the uninitiated develop and hone writing skills. Academic journals faithfully publish instructions to guide potential authors on the preparation and submission of manuscripts. For those with a gift for writing, this may suffice to start them soaring in their writing career. Others find the hands-on approach of writing workshops more effective in clarifying the rules of the writing game and dispelling the fear of writing. Workshops are good at demonstrating the basics, but the forging of a good writer is a long process in which a mentor can play an invaluable role. A nurturing mentor-mentee relationship should not be a stifling one, but one that leads, grows and finally liberates an independent writer. It is inevitable that the nature of scientific publications will change over time. Nonetheless, the sustainability of quality journals will remain linked to the continual generation of writers who uphold scientific truth and good writing values.

  6. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause in... in the estimated quantity of unit-priced items: Variation in Estimated Quantity (APR 1984) If...

  7. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852... Estimated quantities. As prescribed in 816.504(a), insert the following clause: Estimated Quantities (APR... percent of the estimated requirement or which provide that the Government shall guarantee any...

  8. Hwa measurement of turbulent diffusion of a scalar quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Antoš Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with simultaneous measurement of the velocity and the scalar quantity by means of hot-wire anemometry. Statistical moments of the scalar quantity fluctuations can be obtained employing a dual hot-wire probe. An evaluation procedure of the quantity mean values and fluctuations is described. Results from the molar concentration measurement in binary-gas mixture are shown.

  9. Symmetries and Mei Conserved Quantities of Nonholonomic Controllable Mechanical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Li-Li; LI Yuan-Cheng; WANG Jing; HOU Qi-Bao

    2006-01-01

    This paper concentrates on studying the symmetries and a new type of conserved quantities called Mei conserved quantity. The criterions of the Mei symmetry, the Noether symmetry and the Lie symmetry are given. The conditions and the forms of the Mei conserved quantities deduced from these three symmetries are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  10. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paliathanasis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f(R gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ(t=ϕ(a(t, which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f(T teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f(T functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  11. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.

  12. Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao-fu LUO

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code,and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity,and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

  13. Torsor Theory of Physical Quantities and their Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domotor Zoltan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this paper is to provide a torsor theory of physical quantities and basic operations thereon. Torsors are introduced in a bottom-up fashion as actions of scale transformation groups on spaces of unitized quantities. In contrast, the shortcomings of other accounts of quantities that proceed in a top-down axiomatic manner are also discussed. In this paper, quantities are presented as dual counterparts of physical states. States serve as truth-makers of metrological statements about quantity values and are crucial in specifying alternative measurement units for base quantities. For illustration and ease of presentation, the classical notions of length, time, and instantaneous velocity are used as primordial examples. It is shown how torsors provide an effective description of the structure of quantities, systems of quantities, and transformations between them. Using the torsor framework, time-dependent quantities and their unitized derivatives are also investigated. Lastly, the torsor apparatus is applied to deterministic measurement of quantities.

  14. Guidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable-isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2011-01-01

    To minimize confusion in the expression of measurement results of stable isotope and gas-ratio measurements, recommendations based on publications of the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are presented. Whenever feasible, entries are consistent with the Système International d'Unités, the SI (known in English as the International System of Units), and the third edition of the International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology (VIM, 3rd edition). The recommendations presented herein are approved by the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights and are designed to clarify expression of quantities related to measurement of isotope and gas ratios to ensure that quantity equations instead of numerical value equations are used for quantity definitions. Examples of column headings consistent with quantity calculus (also called the algebra of quantities) and examples of various deprecated usages connected with the terms recommended are presented.

  15. Relative quantity judgments between discrete spatial arrays by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Beran, Michael J; McIntyre, Joseph; Low, Jason

    2014-08-01

    Quantity discrimination for items spread across spatial arrays was investigated in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and North Island New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes), with the aim of examining the role of spatial separation on the ability of these 2 species to sum and compare nonvisible quantities which are both temporally and spatially separated, and to assess the likely mechanism supporting such summation performance. Birds and chimpanzees compared 2 sets of discrete quantities of items that differed in number. Six quantity comparisons were presented to both species: 1v2, 1v3, 1v5, 2v3, 2v4, and 2v5. Each was distributed 1 at a time across 2 7-location arrays. Every individual item was viewed 1 at a time and hidden, with no more than a single item in each location of an array, in contrast to a format where all items were placed together into 2 single locations. Subjects responded by selecting 1 of the 2 arrays and received the entire quantity of food items hidden within that array. Both species performed better than chance levels. The ratio of items between sets was a significant predictor of performance in the chimpanzees, but it was not significant for robins. Instead, the absolute value of the smaller quantity of items presented was the significant factor in robin responses. These results suggest a species difference for this task when considering various dimensions such as ratio or total number of items in quantity comparisons distributed across discrete 7-location arrays.

  16. Hwa measurement of turbulent diffusion of a scalar quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoš Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with simultaneous measurement of the velocity and the scalar quantity by means of hot-wire anemometry. Statistical moments of the scalar quantity fluctuations can be obtained employing a dual hot-wire probe. An evaluation procedure of the quantity mean values and fluctuations is described. Results from the molar concentration measurement in binary-gas mixture are shown.

  17. Impact of festival factor on electric quantity multiplication forecast model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to improve the forecasting precision of electric quantity. It is discovered that the total electricity consumption considerably increased during the Spring Festival by the analysis of the electric quantity time series from 2002 to 2007 in Shandong province. The festival factor is ascertained to be one of the important seasonal factors affecting the electric quantity fluctuations, and the multiplication model for forecasting is improved by introducing corresponding variables and parameters...

  18. On the History of Quantity Calculus and the International System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief presentation is given of the most important developments in the history of quantity calculus. Starting with the early introduction of the concept "physical quantity" by Maxwell in his work on electricity and magnetism, attention is focused in particular on the foundations of the calculus with physical quantities given by Wallot in the 1920s. For illustration and better understanding of the praxis of quantity calculus, special attention is paid to the three- and four-dimensional systems of physical quantities used for theoretical description in the fields of electricity and magnetism. Special emphasis is placed on understanding controversies and confusion caused by differences in interpretation of the concepts "quantity" and "unit" in physical language and in the mathematical description of physical phenomena. A short presentation is given of the further development of various studies on the algebraic structure and the axiomatic foundation of the calculus with physical quantities developed by Landolt, Stille, Fleischmann and others. Quantity calculus constituted the basis for obtaining consensus on the introduction of the International System of Units (SI) and allowed the formulation of international standards on definitions and symbols for quantities and units by the various international scientific and standardizing organizations.

  19. Quantity Discount Scheme in Supply Chain under Asymmetric Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-bin; PENG Zuo-he

    2007-01-01

    Quantity discount scheme plays an important role in supply chain management. The different quantity discount schemes under symmetric (full) information and asymmetric information, are analyzed by using principal-agent and optimal control theory. As a result, the research reveals that the optimal quantity discount solution under symmetric information is a special case of that under asymmetric information. At the same price, the critical value of quantity discount under asymmetric information is much lower than that under asymmetric information. Therefore, this leads to less cost for retailers and smaller profit for their supplier.

  20. Quantity of cholesterol in butter from Zagreb market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the quantity of cholesterol in butter - a representative of dairy products with known high quantity of milk fat, is determined. The results show that the quantity of milk fats for the butter samples from domestic production (n=17 was 83.9 %, and from the industrial production (n=5 85.2 %. Average cholesterol quantities, in before mentioned samples, were 227 mg/100g or 22 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of sample. The results show that the increase of milk fats does not strictly influence cholesterol increase in the individual butter sample.

  1. Static Hedging with Uncertain Quantity and Departure from the Cost-of-Carry Valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-wei Liu; Yi Li; Shou-yang Wang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the optimal hedge ratio under quantity risk as well as discrepancies between the futures market price and its theoretical valuation according to the cost-of-carry model.Assuming a geometric Brownian motion for forecasting process, we model mispricing as a specific noise component in the dynamics of futures market prices, based on which the optimal hedging strategy is calculated.Finally, we illustrate optimal strategy and its properties by numerical examples.

  2. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D. Stelmach

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality.

  3. Some Intensive and Extensive Quantities in High-Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2013-01-01

    We review the evolution of some statistical and thermodynamical quantities measured in difference sizes of high-energy collisions at different energies. We differentiate between intensive and extensive quantities and discuss the importance of their distinguishability in characterizing possible critical phenomena of nuclear collisions at various energies with different initial conditions.

  4. Effects of Quantity and Quality Instructions on Brainstorming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Paul B.; Kohn, Nicholas W.; Arditti, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the basic presumptions of brainstorming is that a focus on generating a large number of ideas enhances both the number of ideas generated and the number of good ideas (original and useful). Prior research has not clearly demonstrated the utility of such a quantity focus in comparison to a condition in which quantity is not emphasized. There…

  5. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity... provision at 52.207-4, Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies, and 7.204 for guidance on handling responses...

  6. Household water quantity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Rachel D; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-05-28

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality.

  7. An Algebraic Approach to Unital Quantities and their Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domotor, Zoltan; Batitsky, Vadim

    2016-06-01

    The goals of this paper fall into two closely related areas. First, we develop a formal framework for deterministic unital quantities in which measurement unitization is understood to be a built-in feature of quantities rather than a mere annotation of their numerical values with convenient units. We introduce this idea within the setting of certain ordered semigroups of physical-geometric states of classical physical systems. States are assumed to serve as truth makers of metrological statements about quantity values. A unital quantity is presented as an isomorphism from the target system's ordered semigroup of states to that of positive reals. This framework allows us to include various derived and variable quantities, encountered in engineering and the natural sciences. For illustration and ease of presentation, we use the classical notions of length, time, electric current and mean velocity as primordial examples. The most important application of the resulting unital quantity calculus is in dimensional analysis. Second, in evaluating measurement uncertainty due to the analog-to-digital conversion of the measured quantity's value into its measuring instrument's pointer quantity value, we employ an ordered semigroup framework of pointer states. Pointer states encode the measuring instrument's indiscernibility relation, manifested by not being able to distinguish the measured system's topologically proximal states. Once again, we focus mainly on the measurement of length and electric current quantities as our motivating examples. Our approach to quantities and their measurement is strictly state-based and algebraic in flavor, rather than that of a representationalist-style structure-preserving numerical assignment.

  8. The construction of conserved quantities for linearly coupled oscillators and study of symmetries about the conserved quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lou Zhi-Mei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the conserved quantities are constructed using two methods. The first method is by making an ansatz of the conserved quantity and then using the definition of Poisson bracket to obtain the coefficients in the ansatz. The main procedure for the second method is given as follows. Firstly, the coupled terms in Lagrangian are eliminated by changing the coordinate scales and rotating the coordinate axes, secondly, the conserved quantities are obtain in new coordinate directly, and at last, the conserved quantities are expressed in the original coordinates by using the inverse transform of the coordinates. The Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry of the infinitesimal transformations about the conserved quantities are also studied in this paper.

  9. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  10. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  11. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  12. Comparison of methods for high quantity and quality genomic DNA extraction from raw cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, T; Yu, Y; Liu, C; Fan, Z; Wang, Y

    2014-04-29

    Isolation of sufficient quantities of high quality DNA is a prerequisite for molecular studies. Milk somatic cells can be used; however, inhibitors such as fats and proteins make milk a difficult medium for extracting large amounts of quality DNA. We optimized, evaluated and compared three methods, Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method, Modified TianGen Kit method and Phenol-Chloroform method for genomic DNA extraction from bovine milk. Individual cows' milk and bulk milk samples were collected from a China agricultural university dairy farm. Genomic DNA extracted from each milk sample by the three methods was evaluated for quantity and purity by spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, as well as PCR and sequencing. All the three methods were found suitable for genomic DNA isolation from bovine milk, PCR applications, and sequencing. Comparing the three methods, we found that the Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method was significantly better than the Phenol-Chloroform method in terms of quantity as well as quality (amount, concentration, 260/280 nm and 260/230 nm absorbance ratio), whereas, the Modified TianGen Kit method was more efficient than the Phenol-Chloroform method and cheaper than the Modified Nucleospine Blood Kit method; it yielded reasonably good quantities of good quality DNA and would be suitable for large-scale genotyping of lactating cows.

  13. Exact solutions and conserved quantities in f( R, T) Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Nawazish, Iqra

    2017-06-01

    This paper explores Noether and Noether gauge symmetries of anisotropic universe model in f( R, T) gravity. We consider two particular models of this gravity and evaluate their symmetry generators as well as associated conserved quantities. We also find exact solution by using cyclic variable and investigate its behavior via cosmological parameters. The behavior of cosmological parameters turns out to be consistent with recent observations which indicates accelerated expansion of the universe. Next we study Noether gauge symmetry and corresponding conserved quantities for both isotropic and anisotropic universe models. We conclude that symmetry generators and the associated conserved quantities appear in all cases.

  14. Impact of the Velo 2 half misalignment on physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Roguljic, Matej; Borghi, Silvia; Grillo, Lucia; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the misalignment of the Vertex Locator of the LHCb experiment on the physical quantities of the decay "$D^{*+} \\rightarrow (D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}) \\pi^{+} $" is studied in this note. Different misalignments of the 2 halves are applied to Monte Carlo data and the variations of the physical quantities with respect to the case without misalignment are evaluated. The results show the importance of the VELO 2 half alignment which can significantly affect the physics performance in the large misalignment case. A misalignment equal to the precision of the real-time alignment of the Vertex Locator is found to have a negligible effect on the studied physical quantities.

  15. OpenMath Content Dictionaries for SI Quantities and Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    mole, and candela , corresponding to the seven SI base quantities. There is a necessary one-to-one mapping between the base quantities and the base...kelvin, mole, and candela . The base units, with the inclusion of the unit named one, with symbol, 1, form an abelian generating set for the infinite...BaseUnits1 CD defines metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, and candela . For completeness, in both the SI BaseQuantities1 and SI BaseUnits1 CDs

  16. Hojman Conserved Quantities for Birkhoffian Systems in Event Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying a Hojman conserved quantity directly derived from a Lie symmetry for a Birkhoffian system in the event space.The Birkhoffian parametric equations for the system are established,and the determining equations of Lie symmetry for the system are obtained.The conditions under which a Lie symmetry of Birkhoffian system in the event space can directly lead up to a Hojman conserved quantity and the form of the Hojman conserved quantity are given.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing of tropical grass quality and quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.

    2004-01-01

    Resource distribution is a fundamental factor governing the movement and distribution of herbivores. Specifically, the quality (foliar concentration of nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) and quantity (biomass) of vegetation are important factors. In this regard, the dev

  18. Partial enthalpies and related quantities in mixtures from computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sindzingre, P.; Ciccotti, G.; Massobrio, C.; Frenkel, D.

    1987-01-01

    We report a method of calculating partial molar quantities in mixtures by computer simulation. The method is based on an extension of Widom's potential distribution theorem and provides an alternative way of computing partial enthalpies and volumes.

  19. Assessment of petrophysical quantities inspired by joint multifractal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Z Koohi; Jafari, G R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper joint multifractal random walk approach is carried out to analyze some petrophysical quantities for characterizing the petroleum reservoir. These quantities include Gamma emission (GR), sonic transient time (DT) and Neutron porosity (NPHI) which are collected from four wells of a reservoir. To quantify mutual interaction of petrophysical quantities, joint multifractal random walk is implemented. This approach is based on the mutual multiplicative cascade notion in the multifractal formalism and in this approach $L_0$ represents a benchmark to describe the nature of cross-correlation between two series. The analysis of the petrophysical quantities revealed that GR for all wells has strongly multifractal nature due to the considerable abundance of large fluctuations in various scales. The variance of probability distribution function, $\\lambda_{\\ell}^2$, at scale $\\ell$ and its intercept determine the multifractal properties of the data sets sourced by probability density function. The value of $\\...

  20. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  1. Analysis of an economic order quantity and reorder point inventory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of an economic order quantity and reorder point inventory control model for Siba ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... In addition, a cost estimate was done to compare both her current model and the recommended models.

  2. 49 CFR 173.306 - Limited quantities of compressed gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... charged with compressed air or limited quantities of nitrogen to not over 40 psig for single-trip shipment... and part 177 except § 177.817. (1) The tank must be of steel, welded with heads concave to pressure...

  3. Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Zhong; Fu Hao; Fu Jing-Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Firstly,the discrete generalized Hamiltonian canonical equations and discrete energy equation of nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems are derived from discrete Hamiltonian action.Secondly,the determining equations and structure equation of Lie symmetry of the system are obtained.Thirdly,the Lie theorems and the conservation quantities are given for the discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Finally,an example is discussed to illustrate the application of the results.

  4. The qualitative advantages of quantities of information: bigger is better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LESK Michael

    2005-01-01

    Digitization projects should focus on quantity rather than quality. Increasing quantities of information produce qualitatively more valuable services. Online writing and searching are now common, and it is only online reading that is still limiting our use of online books. New interfaces might increase our willingness to read online, which should be encouraged rather than fought, since it represents an increase both the amount of information available and the participation of more people in the writing and exchange of information.

  5. Charaterisation of function spaces via mollification; fractal quantities for distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Triebel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First we characterise elements f belonging to the Besov spaces Bpqs(ℝn with s∈ℝ,  0quantities for distributions generalising well-known corresponding quantities for Radon measures.

  6. China Limits the Mining Quantity of Tungsten and Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Based on a notice issued by the Ministry of Land Resources, China’s tungsten mining quantity in 2006 will be controlled to 59,060 tons in concentrates form, which include 4,250 tons of recycled tungsten. And the rare earth mining quantity in 2006 will also be controlled to 86,620 tons (REO) including 8,320 tons of heavy rare earth and 78,200 tons of light rare earth.

  7. Principle of limitation of physical quantities and cyclic universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE GuoZhu

    2008-01-01

    A close study of Heisenberg uncertainty principles reveals many significant facts, and all four major physical quantities, energy, time, momentum and length, have both lower and upper limits. Now, many questions come up. What are these limits? Some answers may lead to the understanding of the development of our universe. What is the shortest limit of time? At the beginning of big bang, there exists a tre-mendously short time, the Planck time. This may be just the shortest time limit in our universe. The longest time limit might be the lifetime of our universe. The longest length might be the final diameter of our expanding universe. All these lead to a finite universe. Two more coupling formulae are formed for the other two pairs of physical quantities, mass and speed, thermal energy and temperature. These four physical quantities must also have limits. We already knew that speed has upper limit and temperature has lower limit. By these two formulae, Planck and Einstein equations are derived directly. Since most other physical quantities are somewhat related to these major physical quantities, it seems that there exists a principle of limitation of physical quantities. A quantitative sketch of big bang is described. It also shows that our universe will contract back to another big bang. The principle of limitation opens up some fields of investigation. It may bring nature back to the harmony and determined world described by classical physics.

  8. Development of Digital Computation of Building and Civil Engineering Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderinola, O.S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work of Building and Civil engineering demands a greater knowledge, skill and precision in quantity estimation.The manual method of estimating quantities for building and civil engineering works has posed potential problem areas on work that is undertaken. The low reliability of manual estimation indicates discrepancies in the accuracy of quantities computed manually,hence,the introduction of a digital computation.It is envisaged that this method will greatly reduce the complexities of different aspects when computing quantities for projects, as well as reduce the time to complete the computation and therefore projects can be started earlier.The paper reviewed the procedures involved in the development of a computer program for the digital computation of Building and Civil engineering quantities.The program was developed using Microsoft Visual C SHARP (C# programming language and Microsoft Visual studio. The steps/procedure used in achieving the development of the computer program was (1.designing the application interface,(2 adding controls to the window and (3writing codes behind the interface.The digital computation was tested using a proposed Road project and a proposed administrative buildingand the results showed an average of 100% of the items has 0 to 10 percentage difference for the road and 92% for the building in the final outputs of the quantities obtained through the manual computation and the digital computation and the software could therefore be said to be accurate and reliable.

  9. [Prevalence survey of using characteristics of quality, quantity, origin and composition claims on food labels in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Zhang, Lishi; Fan, Yongxiang; Yan, Weixing

    2013-09-01

    To understand the using characteristics of quality, quantity, origin and composition claims on food labels in China. To get the label samples from different size of supermarket by taking photos in Beijing, and also samples were provided by provincial quality technical supervision, et al. Then extracted the claims from the label samples, classified the samples by determined food categories, and analyzed the using characteristics of these claims. The constituent ratio of quality, quantity, origin and composition claims were 29.48%, 2.24%, 29.21%, 31.81% among all the samples. The constituent ratio of snacks (16.11%) was maximum among all the samples using quality claims, and grain and its products (36.00%) for quantity claims, meat and meat products (22. 09%) for origin claims, snacks (27.04%) for composition claims. "Nature, Natural" (48.63%) was the most used claims among all the samples using quality claims, "Exaggerated capacity" (44.00%) was the most for quantity claims, "Product of , From, Manufactured in" (34.36%) was the most for origin claims, and "Pure, 100% , All" (38.03%) was the most for composition claims. The using of quality, quantity, origin, and composition claims is frequently on food labels in China, and a lot of studies should be taken on this field, government should also enact regulations to regulate the use of this claims.

  10. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  11. Pseudotensor applied to Numerical Relativity in Calculating Global Quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Chung-Chin; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang

    2015-01-01

    In this work we apply the Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensor flux formalism to the calculation of the total mass and the total angular momentum during the evolution of a binary black hole system. We also compare its performance with the traditional integrations for the global quantities. It shows that the advantage of the pseudotensor flux formalism is the smoothness of the numerical value of the global quantities, especially of the total angular momentum. Although the convergence behavior of the global quantities with the pseudotensor flux method is only comparable with the ones with the traditional method, the smoothness of its numerical value allows using a larger radius for surface integration to obtain more accurate result.

  12. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from Korean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eDomahs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese. We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity.

  13. Principle of limitation of physical quantities and cyclic universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A close study of Heisenberg uncertainty principles reveals many significant facts,and all four major physical quantities,energy,time,momentum and length,have both lower and upper limits.Now,many questions come up.What are these limits?Some answers may lead to the understanding of the development of our universe.What is the shortest limit of time?At the beginning of big bang,there exists a tre-mendously short time,the Planck time.This may be just the shortest time limit in our universe.The longest time limit might be the lifetime of our universe.The longest length might be the final diameter of our expanding universe.All these lead to a finite universe.Two more coupling formulae are formed for the other two pairs of physical quantities,mass and speed,thermal energy and temperature.These four physical quantities must also have limits.We already knew that speed has upper limit and temperature has lower limit.By these two formulae,Planck and Einstein equations are derived directly.Since most other physical quantities are somewhat related to these major physical quantities,it seems that there exists a principle of limitation of physical quantities.A quantitative sketch of big bang is described.It also shows that our universe will contract back to another big bang.The principle of limitation opens up some fields of investigation.It may bring nature back to the harmony and determined world described by classical physics.

  14. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eRange

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1 to 4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with a Frank's (1980 hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist.

  15. Effect of RE-Doped and RE Quantity of Ni-Based Catalysts on CH4/CO2 Reforming Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yifeng; Li Xiancai; Dai Chao; Wang Chunfeng; Chen Juanrong

    2004-01-01

    RE-doped Ni-based catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method.These catalysts were applied to the reaction of CO2 reforming CH4 to syngas.The studies reveal that RE-doped ( RE = La, Ce, Sm, Yb) Ni-based catalysts show higher catalytic activity than undoped Ni-based catalyst, and with the increasing of RE-doped quantity, the catalytic activity of catalysts exhibits regular changes.When RE-doped quantity is 0.2% ( molar ratio), the catalysts show the best catalytic activity.

  16. A Characterization of Conserved Quantities in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Romero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The well-known Noether theorem in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics associates symmetries in the evolution equations of a mechanical system with conserved quantities. In this work, we extend this classical idea to problems of non-equilibrium thermodynamics formulated within the GENERIC (General Equations for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling framework. The geometric meaning of symmetry is reviewed in this formal setting and then utilized to identify possible conserved quantities and the conditions that guarantee their strict conservation. Examples are provided that demonstrate the validity of the proposed definition in the context of finite and infinite dimensional thermoelastic problems.

  17. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  18. Covariant Hamiltonian boundary term: Reference and quasi-local quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Jian-Liang; Nester, James M

    2016-01-01

    The Hamiltonian for dynamic geometry generates the evolution of a spatial region along a vector field. It includes a boundary term which determines both the value of the Hamiltonian and the boundary conditions. The value gives the quasi-local quantities: energy-momentum, angular-momentum and center-of-mass. The boundary term depends not only on the dynamical variables but also on their reference values; the latter determine the ground state (having vanishing quasi-local quantities). For our preferred boundary term for Einstein's GR we propose 4D isometric matching and extremizing the energy to determine the reference metric and connection values.

  19. Conformal Invariance and Conserved Quantities of General Holonomic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jian-Le

    2008-01-01

    Conformal invarianee and conserved quantities of general holonomic systems are studied. A one-parameter infinitesimal transformation group and its infinitesimal transformation vector of generators are described.The definition of conformal invariance and determining equation for the system are provided.The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry.The necessary and sufficient condition,that conformal invariance of the system would be Lie symmetry,is obtained under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group. The corresponding conserved quantity is derived with the aid of a structure equation.Lastly,an example is given to demonstrate the application of the result.

  20. SYMMETRIES AND CONSERVED QUANTITIES FOR SYSTEMS OF GENERALIZED CLASSICAL MECHANICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Shang Mei; Mei Feng-xiang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the symmetries and the conserved quantities for systemsof generalized classical mechanics are studied. First, the generalizedNoether's theorem and the generalized Noether's inverse theorem of thesystems are given, which are based upon the invariant properties of thecanonical action with respect to the action of the infinitesimaltransformation of r-parameter finite group of transformation; second,the Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of the systems are studiedin accordance with the Lie's theory of the invariance of differentialequations under the transformation of infinitesimal groups; and finally,the inner connection between the two kinds of symmetries of systems isdiscussed.

  1. Photosynthesis-related quantities for education and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Taras K; Kovalenko, Ilya B; Rubin, Andrew B; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-11-01

    A quantitative understanding of the photosynthetic machinery depends largely on quantities, such as concentrations, sizes, absorption wavelengths, redox potentials, and rate constants. The present contribution is a collection of numbers and quantities related mainly to photosynthesis in higher plants. All numbers are taken directly from a literature or database source and the corresponding reference is provided. The numerical values, presented in this paper, provide ranges of values, obtained in specific experiments for specific organisms. However, the presented numbers can be useful for understanding the principles of structure and function of photosynthetic machinery and for guidance of future research.

  2. Financial Key Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  3. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  4. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  5. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  6. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDeployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  7. Specialized ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, J C; Salzinger, F H

    1983-01-01

    Many common management techniques have little use in managing a medical group practice. Ratio analysis, however, can easily be adapted to the group practice setting. Acting as broad-gauge indicators, financial ratios provide an early warning of potential problems and can be very useful in planning for future operations. The author has gathered a collection of financial ratios which were developed by participants at an education seminar presented for the Virginia Medical Group Management Association. Classified according to the human element, system component, and financial factor, the ratios provide a good sampling of measurements relevant to medical group practices and can serve as an example for custom-tailoring a ratio analysis system for your medical group.

  8. Quality and Quantity of Leachate in Aerobic Pilot-Scale Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Özkaya, Bestamin

    2006-08-01

    In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3 --N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3 - concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor.

  9. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  10. Quality, Quantity, and Age: The Careers of Ten Distinguished Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1985-01-01

    The longitudinal relationship between quality and quantity of productive output is examined over the careers of 10 recipients of the Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award using four alternative models (expertise-acquisition, youthful-enthusiasm, peak-age, and constant-probability-of-success). The results endorsed the…

  11. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  12. Early Numeracy Intervention: Does Quantity Discrimination Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…

  13. Quantity and unit extraction for scientific and technical intelligence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Peter; Hawes, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    Scientific and Technical (S and T) intelligence analysts consume huge amounts of data to understand how scientific progress and engineering efforts affect current and future military capabilities. One of the most important types of information S and T analysts exploit is the quantities discussed in their source material. Frequencies, ranges, size, weight, power, and numerous other properties and measurements describing the performance characteristics of systems and the engineering constraints that define them must be culled from source documents before quantified analysis can begin. Automating the process of finding and extracting the relevant quantities from a wide range of S and T documents is difficult because information about quantities and their units is often contained in unstructured text with ad hoc conventions used to convey their meaning. Currently, even simple tasks, such as searching for documents discussing RF frequencies in a band of interest, is a labor intensive and error prone process. This research addresses the challenges facing development of a document processing capability that extracts quantities and units from S and T data, and how Natural Language Processing algorithms can be used to overcome these challenges.

  14. Mapping among Number Words, Numerals, and Nonsymbolic Quantities in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Anderson, Ursula; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    In mathematically literate societies, numerical information is represented in 3 distinct codes: a verbal code (i.e., number words); a digital, symbolic code (e.g., Arabic numerals); and an analogical code (i.e., quantities; Dehaene, 1992). To communicate effectively using these numerical codes, our understanding of number must involve an…

  15. Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity Inventory Models Without Backordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaobin; TANG Wansheng; ZHAO Ruiqing

    2007-01-01

    In economic order quantity models without backordering, both the stock cost of each unit quantity and the order cost of each cycle are characterized as independent fuzzy variables rather than fuzzy numbers as in previous studies. Based on an expected value criterion or a credibility criterion, a fuzzy expected value model and a fuzzy dependent hance programming (DCP) model are constructed. The purpose of the fuzzy expected value model is to find the optimal order quantity such that the fuzzy expected value of the total cost is minimal. The fuzzy DCP model is used to find the optimal order quantity for maximizing the credibility of an event such that the total cost in the planning periods does not exceed a certain budget level.Fuzzy simulations are designed to calculate the expected value of the fuzzy objective function and the credibility of each fuzzy event. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm based on a fuzzy simulation is designed, by integrating the fuzzy simulation and the PSO algorithm. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Order Quantity Distributions in Make-to-Order Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents both an analytical and a numerical investigation into the order quantities received by a company in the form of customer orders. A discussion of assumptions regarding the behavior of demand in the form of customer orders from various perspectives within manufacturing planning ...

  17. Photographs in Dutch History Textbooks: Quantity, type and educational use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleppe (Martijn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article demonstrates a media scientific approach by studying the use of photographs in Dutch History textbooks for High School pupils in the period 1970 – 2000. The quantity of photos has been determined as well as the types of pictures and its use as educational tool. Results show

  18. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  19. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  20. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  1. Using break quantities for tactical optimisation in multistage distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kleijn (Marcel); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter we discuss a tactical optimisation problem that arises in a multistage distribution system where customer orders can be delivered from any stockpoint. A simple rule to allocate orders to locations is a break quantity rule, which routes large orders to higher-stage stockpo

  2. Threshold quantities for infectious diseases in periodic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Roberts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In this short note we give threshold quantities that determine the stability of the infection-free steady state for periodic deterministic systems that describe the spread of infectious diseases in populations whose individuals can be divided into a finite number of distinct groups. We concentrate o

  3. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.28 Undetermined... reclaimed fibers” or “undetermined reclaimed fibers,” as for example: 75% Recycled Wool—25% Unknown...

  4. Conserved Quantities and Conformal Mechanico-Electrical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-Li; WANG Xian-Jun; XIE Feng-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The conformal mechanico-electrical systems are presented by infinitesimal point transformations of time and generalized coordinates. The necessary and sufficient conditions that the conformal mechanico-electrical systems possess Lie symmetry are given. The Noether conserved quantities of the conformal mechanico-electrical systems are obtained from Lie symmetries.

  5. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  6. On the Economic Order Quantity Model With Transportation Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. Birbil (Ilker); K. Bulbul; J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); H.M. Mulder (Henry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe consider an economic order quantity type model with unit out-of-pocket holding costs, unit opportunity costs of holding, fixed ordering costs and general transportation costs. For these models, we analyze the associated optimization problem and derive an easy procedure for determining

  7. Lie Symmetry and Hojman Conserved Quantity of Maggi Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chu-le; XIE Jia-fang

    2007-01-01

    Lie symmetry of Maggi equations is studied. Its determining equation and restriction equation of nonholonomic constraint are given. A Hojman conserved quantity can be deduced directly by using the Lie symmetry. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  8. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  9. Conserved quantities and symmetries related to stochastic Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Mei; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper symmetries and conservation laws for stochastic dynamical systems are discussed in detail.Determining equations for infinitesimal approximate symmetries of Ito and Stratonovich dynamical systems are derived. It shows how to derive conserved quantities for stochastic dynamical systems by using their symmetries without recourse to Noether's theorem.

  10. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... comparing export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable... section 773(a)(6)(C)(i) of the Act.) (b) Sales with quantity discounts in calculating normal value. The...

  11. Quantity or quality? Knowledge alliances and their effects on patenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hottenrott, H.; Lopes-Bento, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines a sample of R&D-active manufacturing firms over the period 2000-2009 and shows that knowledge alliances have a positive effect on patenting in terms of both quantity and quality. More interestingly, we distinguish between alliances that aim at joint creation of new knowledge and

  12. Quantity versus Price Rationing of Credit: An Empirical Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Waters

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One proxy of price rationing of credit is an aggregation of information on interest rates, while loan officer survey data measures quantity rationing of credit, meaning some borrowers are denied loans. The latter Granger causes real GDP but the former does not. The loan officer survey is a better leading indicator of credit market conditions that affect real activity.

  13. Approximate quantities and exact number words: dissociable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemer, Cathy; Dehaene, Stanislas; Spelke, Elizabeth; Cohen, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Numerical abilities are thought to rest on the integration of two distinct systems, a verbal system of number words and a non-symbolic representation of approximate quantities. This view has lead to the classification of acalculias into two broad categories depending on whether the deficit affects the verbal or the quantity system. Here, we test the association of deficits predicted by this theory, and particularly the presence or absence of impairments in non-symbolic quantity processing. We describe two acalculic patients, one with a focal lesion of the left parietal lobe and Gerstmann's syndrome and another with semantic dementia with predominantly left temporal hypometabolism. As predicted by a quantity deficit, the first patient was more impaired in subtraction than in multiplication, showed a severe slowness in approximation, and exhibited associated impairments in subitizing and numerical comparison tasks, both with Arabic digits and with arrays of dots. As predicted by a verbal deficit, the second patient was more impaired in multiplication than in subtraction, had intact approximation abilities, and showed preserved processing of non-symbolic numerosities.

  14. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  15. Effect of metakaolin on strength and efflorescence quantity of cement-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tsai-Lung; Lin, Wei-Ting; Cheng, An

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the basic mechanical and microscopic properties of cement produced with metakaolin and quantified the production of residual white efflorescence. Cement mortar was produced at various replacement ratios of metakaolin (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% by weight of cement) and exposed to various environments. Compressive strength and efflorescence quantify (using Matrix Laboratory image analysis and the curettage method), scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis were reported in this study. Specimens with metakaolin as a replacement for Portland cement present higher compressive strength and greater resistance to efflorescence; however, the addition of more than 20% metakaolin has a detrimental effect on strength and efflorescence. This may be explained by the microstructure and hydration products. The quantity of efflorescence determined using MATLAB image analysis is close to the result obtained using the curettage method. The results demonstrate the best effectiveness of replacing Portland cement with metakaolin at a 15% replacement ratio by weight.

  16. Isotopic Ratios of Samarium by TIMS for Nuclear Forensic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis Jean, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Inglis, Jeremy David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The isotopic ratio of Nd, Sm, and Gd can provide important information regarding fissile material (nuclear devices, reactors), neutron environment, and device yield. These studies require precise measurement of Sm isotope ratios, by either TIMS or MC-ICP-MS. There has been an increasing trend to measure smaller and smaller quantities of Sm bearing samples. In nuclear forensics 10-100 ng of Sm are needed for precise measurement. To measure sub-ng Sm samples using TIMS for nuclear forensic analysis.

  17. Quantum Physics and Mathematical Debates Concerning the Problem of the Ontological Priority between Continuous Quantity and Discrete Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Victor Gómez

    In his book about the Categories (that is about the ultimate elements of classification and order), in the chapter concerning the quantity (IV, 20) Aristotle says that this concept recovers two kinds of modalities: the discrete quantity and the continuous quantity and he gives as examples the number for the first one; line, surface, solid, times and space for the second one. The main philosophical problem raised by this text is to determine which of the two modalities of the quantity has the ontological priority over the other (given two concepts A and B, we assume that A has ontological priority over B if every entity that possesses the quality B possesses necessarily the quality A). The problem is magnified by the fact that space, which in some part of Aristotle's Physics is mentioned not only as a category properly speaking but even as the main category whose power can be amazing, is in the evoked text of the Categories's Book reduced to expression of the continuum, and sharing this condition with time. In this matter the controversy is constant through the common history of Science and Philosophy.

  18. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0082, Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies, by...

  19. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b − .2713 and variance 2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b − 3.795 − μ2.

  20. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b - .2713 and variance σ2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b - 3.795 μ2.

  1. Dimensions of Organisational Culture in Quantity Surveying Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle Olubunmi Olanipekun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalist paradigm of organisational culture (OC views culture as a variable subject to conscious manipulation and control in order to solve organisational challenges. Therefore, this paper provides information on how OC is a solution to the challenges in Quantity Surveying firms (QSFs.  This was achieved by eliciting the dimensions of OC in forty two QSFs in Lagos, Nigeria, which are the business, people and external environment dimensions. The paper concludes that OC is a relevant solution to the identity and management related challenges in QSFs. Specifically, the paper informs on the implications of business and people dimensions of OC as a solution to the identity challenges, as well as on the implication of the external environment dimension of OC to the management challenges. Based on the findings, practical implications and recommendations were directed at the management and employees QSs in QSFs and Quantity Surveying researchers.

  2. Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of brainstorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Adánez, Alfredo

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to test the chief principle of brainstorming, formulated as "quantity generates quality." The study is included within a broad program whose goal is to detect the strong and weak points of creative techniques. In a sample of 69 groups, containing between 3 and 8 members, the concurrence of two commonly accepted criteria was established as a quality rule: originality and utility or value. The results fully support the quantity-quality relation (r = .893): the more ideas produced to solve a problem, the better quality of the ideas. The importance of this finding, which supports Osborn's theory, is discussed, and the use of brainstorming is recommended to solve the many open problems faced by our society.

  3. Pseudo-quantities, New Public Management and Human Judgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Eric Liedman

    2012-10-01

    and conscientious verbal evaluation. The term pseudo-quantity is new, but the phenomenon is well known to researchers and has become the subject of a rapidly growing stream of literature.1 The new term would primarily be intended to provide insight into the on-going mechanisms and processes that underlie this phenomenon. Furthermore, this term has a critical potential that is urgently needed at a time when many individuals erroneously believe that pseudoquantities can be used to gain both time and perspective. In the first part of the article, I will present the new concept and its background in the concepts of quality and quantity. The importance of this term is pertinent to the founding of New Public Management (NPM in the public sector. NPM will be treated in the following section. I will specifically highlight how this process influences education and research. In the conclusion, I summarise my argument and provide insight regarding a possible alternative.

  4. Quasilocal quantities for GR and other gravity theories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.M.; Nester, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    From a covariant Hamiltonian formulation, by using symplectic ideas, we obtain certain covariant boundary expressions for the quasilocal quantities of general relativity and other geometric gravity theories. The contribution from each of the independent dynamic geometric variables (the frame, metric or connection) has two possible covariant forms associated with the selected type of boundary condition. The quasilocal expressions also depend on a reference value for each dynamic variable and a...

  5. Requirements and Indefinite Quantity Contracts in Government Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-18

    of Master of Laws February 18, 1990 Thesis directed by Ralph Clarke Nash, Jr. and John Cibinic, Jr. Professors of Law 91 2 06 092 TABLE OF CONTENTS...Finally, the Court of Claims had an opportunity co address the Government’s efforts to continue the use of indefinite quantity contracts. In Updike v...Today, it is doubtful such extreme discrepancies would survive scrutiny without a change in circumstances. 201 Womack, Jr. & John R. Vorhies v

  6. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  7. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dietze, G, E-mail: rolf.behrens@ptb.d [Paracelsusstrasse 7, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-21

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  8. Navy Officials Justified the MQ-4C Triton Procurement Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Naval Air Systems Command internal controls over Triton quantity requirements were effective as they applied to the audit objectives, because Navy...Visit us at www.dodig.mil September 16, 2015 Objective This is the first in a series of audits on the Navy MQ-4C Triton (Triton) Unmanned Aircraft...System (UAS) Program. Our overall objective for the series of audits was to determine whether the Navy effectively managed the Triton UAS

  9. Conformal invariance and Hojman conserved quantities of canonical Hamilton systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chang; Liu Shi-Xing; Mei Feng-Xiang; Guo Yong-Xin

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the conformal invariance by infinitesimal transformations of canonical Hamilton systems. The necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance being Lie symmetrical simultaneously by the action of infinitesimal transformations are given. The determining equations of the conformal invariance are gained. Then the Hojman conserved quantities of conformal invariance by special infinitesimal transformations are obtained. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the results.

  10. Physical quantities and dimensional analysis: from mechanics to quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Trancanelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Physical quantities and physical dimensions are among the first concepts encountered by students in their undergraduate career. In this pedagogical review, I will start from these concepts and, using the powerful tool of dimensional analysis, I will embark in a journey through various branches of physics, from basic mechanics to quantum gravity. I will also discuss a little bit about the fundamental constants of Nature, the so-called "cube of Physics", and the natural system of units.

  11. Subleading terms of thermodynamic quantities around static spherical black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gu-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamic quantities for the gases of massless particles with spin s = 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 around static spherical black holes are investigated by using the brick-wall method. The appearance of the spin-dependent subleading terms is demonstrated and the terms are shown to contain not only the linear and quadratic terms of the spins but also a zero-power term of the spins.

  12. Consumer-resource dynamics: quantity, quality, and allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne M Getz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senescence more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the

  13. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  14. Novel Ansatzes and Scalar Quantities in Gravito-Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bakopoulos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the theory of Gravito-Electromagnetism (GEM) -- the theory that describes the dynamics of the gravitational field in terms of quantities met in Electromagnetism -- and we propose two novel forms of metric perturbations. The first one is a generalisation of the traditional GEM ansatz, and succeeds in reproducing the whole set of Maxwell's equations even for a dynamical vector potential A. The second form, the so-called alternative ansatz, goes beyond that leading to an expression for the Lorentz force that matches the one of Electromagnetism and is free of additional terms even for a dynamical scalar potential \\Phi. In the context of the linearised theory, we then search for scalar invariant quantities in analogy to Electromagnetism. We define three novel, 3rd-rank gravitational tensors, and demonstrate that the last two can be employed to construct scalar quantities that succeed in giving results very similar to those found in Electromagnetism. Finally, the gauge invariance of the li...

  15. Novel ansatzes and scalar quantities in gravito-electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, A.; Kanti, P.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we focus on the theory of gravito-electromagnetism (GEM)—the theory that describes the dynamics of the gravitational field in terms of quantities met in electromagnetism—and we propose two novel forms of metric perturbations. The first one is a generalisation of the traditional GEM ansatz, and succeeds in reproducing the whole set of Maxwell's equations even for a dynamical vector potential A. The second form, the so-called alternative ansatz, goes beyond that leading to an expression for the Lorentz force that matches the one of electromagnetism and is free of additional terms even for a dynamical scalar potential Φ. In the context of the linearised theory, we then search for scalar invariant quantities in analogy to electromagnetism. We define three novel, 3rd-rank gravitational tensors, and demonstrate that the last two can be employed to construct scalar quantities that succeed in giving results very similar to those found in electromagnetism. Finally, the gauge invariance of the linearised gravitational theory is studied, and shown to lead to the gauge invariance of the GEM fields E and B for a general configuration of the arbitrary vector involved in the coordinate transformations.

  16. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  17. Spontaneous chlorophyll mutants of Pennisetum americanum: Genetics and chlorophyll quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduru, P R; Rao, M K

    1980-05-01

    Thirteen spontaneously occurring chlorophyll deficient phenotypes have been described and their genetic basis was established. Ten of these - 'white', 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white virescent', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'white striping 4', 'fine striping', 'chlorina' and 'yellow virescent' showed monogenic recessive inheritance and the remaining three - 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' seedling phenotypes showed digenic recessive inheritance. The genes for (i) 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) and (ii) 'patchy white' (pw) and 'white striping 1' (wst 1) showed independent assortment. Further, the genes for 'white' (w), 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) were inherited independently of the gene for hairy leaf margin (Hm).In the mutants - 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' phenotypes total quantity of chlorophyll was significantly less than that in the corresponding controls, while in 'white virescent' there was no reduction in the mature stage. For nine of the mutants the quantity of chlorophyll was also estimated in F1's (mutant x control green). In F1's of six of the mutants - 'white tip', 'patchy white', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'fine striping' and 'yellow striping' the quantity of chlorophyll was almost equal to the wild type. In the F1's of three of the mutants - 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2' and 'light green' an intermediate value between the mutant and wild types was observed. In 'yellow virescent' retarded synthesis of chlorophyll, particularly chlorophyll a was observed in the juvenile stage. Reduced quantity of chlorophyll was associated with defective chloroplasts. In the mutants - 'white tipped green, 'white virescent', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' defective

  18. Gender Ratio in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 11,804 British children (age 10) found that when specified criteria for dyslexia were used, 269 children qualified as dyslexic. These included 223 boys and 46 girls, for a ratio of 4.51 to 1. Difficulties in interpreting these data are discussed and a defense of the criteria is provided. (Author/CR)

  19. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  20. Development of a Scale for Assessing Three Aspects of Sleep: Regularity, Quality, and Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuuki; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Uchimura, Naohisa; Ishida, Tetsuya; Morimatsu, Yoshitaka; Hoshiko, Michiko; Mori, Mihoko; Kushino, Nanae

    2013-07-12

    Objectives: It is difficult to assess sleep habits using one factor (i.e., sleep duration) alone. Regularity and quality of sleep have to be considered to assess sleep accurately. However, to our knowledge there is no scale which scores the three factors simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to inspect the reliability and validity (content, construct, and discriminant validity) of a scale we developed to screen for poor sleep habits. This scale was constructed to assess three aspects of sleep: regularity, quality, and quantity. Methods: Subjects were 563 day workers (370 men and 193 women; average age = 40.4 yr) from the manufacturing and service industries. We created a 21-item questionnaire (7 items for each of 3 factors) based on earlier studies and discussions with specialists. Reliability and construct validity of the questionnaire were assessed through item and factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha. In addition, subjects' scores were using principal component analysis, and subjects were classified according to their scores through a cluster analysis. We compared lifestyles, daytime sleepiness, stress, and chronic disease among the subjects to examine the instrument's discriminant validity. Results: Although our analysis revealed 6 items were invalid, the questionnaire assessed the three factors (regularity, quality and quantity) as expected: Cronbach's alpha was 0.744, 0.757, and 0.548, respectively. Two of the 7 quantity items were identified as assessing regularity instead, but all other items performed as expected. Four items measuring insomnia (disturbance of sleep induction, disturbance of sound sleep, nocturnal awakening, and early morning awakening) included constant burden as a quality factor. Chi-squared tests showed that the ratio of participants who took good care of their health and had less stress and daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the highest-scoring group, while the ratio of people reporting stress and chronic disease was

  1. Guidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable-isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B

    2011-09-15

    To minimize confusion in the expression of measurement results of stable isotope and gas-ratio measurements, recommendations based on publications of the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are presented. Whenever feasible, entries are consistent with the Système International d'Unités, the SI (known in English as the International System of Units), and the third edition of the International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology (VIM, 3rd edition). The recommendations presented herein are approved by the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights and are designed to clarify expression of quantities related to measurement of isotope and gas ratios to ensure that quantity equations instead of numerical value equations are used for quantity definitions. Examples of column headings consistent with quantity calculus (also called the algebra of quantities) and examples of various deprecated usages connected with the terms recommended are presented. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Defining value through quantity and quality-Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) undervalue food quantities when items are broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Decision-making largely is influenced by the relative value of choice options, and the value of such options can be determined by a combination of different factors (e.g., the quantity, size, or quality of a stimulus). In this study, we examined the competing influences of quantity (i.e., the number of food items in a set) and quality (i.e., the original state of a food item) of choice items on chimpanzees' food preferences in a two-option natural choice paradigm. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees chose between sets of food items that were either entirely whole or included items that were broken into pieces before being shown to the chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a bias for whole food items even when such choice options consisted of a smaller overall quantity of food than the sets containing broken items. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees chose between sets of entirely whole food items and sets of initially whole items that were subsequently broken in view of the chimpanzees just before choice time. Chimpanzees continued to exhibit a bias for sets of whole items. In Experiment 3, chimpanzees chose between sets of new food items that were initially discrete but were subsequently transformed into a larger cohesive unit. Here, chimpanzees were biased to choose the discrete sets that retained their original qualitative state rather than toward the cohesive or clumped sets. These results demonstrate that beyond a food set's quantity (i.e., the value dimension that accounts for maximization in terms of caloric intake), other seemingly non-relevant features (i.e., quality in terms of a set's original state) affect how chimpanzees assign value to their choice options.

  3. A generalized Mei conserved quantity and Mei symmetry of Birkhoff system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Peng; Fang Jian-Hui; Wang Xian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a new conserved quantity which can be called generalized Mei conserved quantity and directly deduced by Mei symmetry of Birkhoff system.The conditions under which the Mei symmetry can directly lead to generalized Mei conserved quantity and the form of generalized Mei conserved quantity are given.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  4. Quantity of soap as a variable in handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E L; Eke, P I; Wilder, M P; Laughon, B E

    1987-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of two quantities (1 mL or 3 mL) of four different handwashing products on reductions in log colony-forming units (CFU) from the hands and to determine the amount of liquid soap used for handwashing by personnel in one hospital. First, 40 subjects were assigned by block randomization to one of four handwashing products (4% chlorhexidine gluconate in a detergent base, two alcohol hand rinses, and a liquid, nonantimicrobial soap) to be used in either 1 mL or 3 mL amounts per wash. Each subject washed his or her hands 15 times per day for five days. After one and five days of handwashing there were significant reductions over baseline in log CFU between handwashing products (P less than 0.001). Additionally, subjects using 3 mL of antiseptic soap had significantly greater reductions in log CFU than those using 1 mL (P less than 0.001). Among subjects using control liquid soap there was no such dose response. Second, a survey of 47 members of a hospital nursing staff from nine specialty areas and ten individuals in the general population was conducted to measure amounts of two liquid soaps used for handwashing. Amount of soap ranged from 0.4 to 9 mL per handwash. Personnel working in clinical areas where patients were at high risk for nosocomial infection used significantly more soap than did others (P less than 0.05). We conclude that quantity of soap used for handwashing is one variable influencing the microbial counts on hands, and that the quantity of soap used by health care personnel varies considerably.

  5. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  6. Investigation on Capability of Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Piska, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on reaming using minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) was carried out with the scope of documenting process capability using a metrological approach. Reaming tests were carried out on austenitic stainless steel, using HSS reamers with different cutting data and lubrication conditions....... The reaming operations were compared with respect to a number of evaluation parameters, both hole quality (diameter, roundness, cylindricity and surface roughness) and cutting forces (reaming thrust and torque). Absolute average values as well as experimental standard deviations of the evaluation parameters...

  7. Comparison of simulated and measured quantities of a duplex reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, M.; Kajava, M. [ABB Marine, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of an analog simulator as a design tool when designing new power electric equipment. The purpose of simulation is to predict the functionality of electrical equipment to be constructed. Duplex reactor is an electromagnetic device designed to reduce voltage harmonics and short circuit currents in the ship electrical network. In this report a comparison between simulated and measured electrical quantities of a duplex reactor has been made. The purpose of the measurements was to show the correct functioning of the reactor. The simulation results and the measured waveforms corresponds well to each other. (orig.) 4 refs.

  8. [Key Technology and Quantity Control of Wearable Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongen; Yao, Shaowei

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, because the wearable medical devices can indicate the health monitoring index of blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen content, temperature, respiration of the human body anytime and anywhere, can also be used for the treatment of various diseases, accompanied by the development of large data, which will bring a subversive revolution for the medical device industry. This paper introduces the development of wearable devices, key technical index of main products, and to make a preliminary study on its quantity control.

  9. Application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quantity and quality management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amlan Das; Bithin Datta

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents the state-of-the-art on application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quality and quantity management. In order to solve optimisation-based groundwater management models, researchers have used various mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming (LP), nonlinear programming (NLP), mixed-integer programming (MIP), optimal control theory-based mathematical programming, differential dynamic programming (DDP), stochastic programming (SP), combinatorial optimisation (CO), and multiple objective programming for multipurpose management. Studies reported in the literature on the application of these methods are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Kinematic Quantities and Raychaudhuri Equations in a $5D$ Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Bejancu, Aurel

    2015-01-01

    Based on some ideas emerged from the classical Kaluza-Klein theory, we present a $5D$ universe as a product bundle over the $4D$ spacetime. This enables us to introduce and study two categories of kinematic quantities (expansions, shear, vorticity) in a $5D$ universe. One category is related to the fourth dimension (time), and the other one comes from the assumption of the existence of the fifth dimension. The Raychaudhuri type equations that we obtain in the paper, lead us to results on the evolution of both the $4D$ expansion and $5D$ expansion in a $5D$ universe.

  11. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  12. Klein-Gordon and Dirac Equations with Thermodynamic Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Altuğ; Tezcan, Cevdet; Sever, Ramazan

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermodynamic quantities such as the Helmholtz free energy, the mean energy and the specific heat for both the Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. Our analyze includes two main subsections: (1) statistical functions for the Klein-Gordon equation with a linear potential having Lorentz vector, and Lorentz scalar parts (2) thermodynamic functions for the Dirac equation with a Lorentz scalar, inverse-linear potential by assuming that the scalar potential field is strong ( A ≫ 1). We restrict ourselves to the case where only the positive part of the spectrum gives a contribution to the sum in partition function. We give the analytical results for high temperatures.

  13. Kinematic quantities and Raychaudhuri equations in a 5D universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejancu, Aurel [Kuwait University, Department of Mathematics, Safat (Kuwait)

    2015-07-15

    Based on some ideas that have emerged from the classical Kaluza-Klein theory, we present a 5D universe as a product bundle over the 4D spacetime. This enables us to introduce and study two categories of kinematic quantities (expansions, shear, vorticity) in a 5D universe. One category is related to the fourth dimension (time), and the other one comes from the assumption of the existence of the fifth dimension. The Raychaudhuri type equations that we obtain in the paper, lead us to results on the evolution of both the 4D expansion and the 5D expansion in a 5D universe. (orig.)

  14. Optimizing solution of fault location using single terminal quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG XinZhou; SHI ShenXing; CUI Tao; LU Qiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper firstly evaluated the impedance method and traveling waves method for fault location, and studied the robustness of fault location method based on im-pedance. Then it proposed an assembled fault location method for a transmission line based on single-terminal electrical quantities, in which the fault zone was firstly determined by impedance method with robustness then the accurate fault position was pinpointed by traveling waves method. EMTP (Electromagnetic Transient Pro-gram) simulations showed that the proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of impedance method and traveling waves method when either one is used alone, and improve both the accuracy and the reliability of fault location.

  15. A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hübner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A fully automatic Horizontal Mobile Measuring System (HMMS for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and with any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short/long-wave down/upwelling radiation, HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone. While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions – Intense Observation Period 3 in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every meter on the wooden substructure, allowed (a keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s−1 and (b operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that – due to considerably long response times (between 4 s and 20 s of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors – true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge. Corresponding dynamical (spatial errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of

  16. Regularization of Kerr-NUT spacetimes and their thermodynamical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Nashed, G G L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) theory, continues calculations of the total energy and momentum for Kerr-NUT spacetimes using three different methods, the gravitational energy-momentum, the Riemannian connection 1-form, ${\\widetilde{\\Gamma}_\\alpha}^\\beta$ and the Euclidean continuation method, have been achieved. Many local Lorentz transformations, that play the role of regularizing tool, are given to get the commonly known form of energy and momentum. We calculate the thermodynamic quantities of Kerr-NUT spacetime. We also investigate the first law of thermodynamics and quantum statistical relation.

  17. A New Type of Conserved Quantity of Mei Symmetry for Lagrange Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of conserved quantity, which is induced from the Mei symmetry of Lagrange systems, is studied.The conditions for that the new type of conserved quantity exists and the form of the new type of conserved quantity are obtained. An illustrated example is given. The Noether conserved quantity induced from the Mei symmetry of Lagrange systems is a special case of the new type of conserved quantity given in this paper.

  18. Quantity estimation and comparison in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Torgerson-White, Lauri; McGuire, Molly; Thueme, Melissa; Thomas, Jennifer; Beran, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the quantity judgment abilities of two adult male western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) by presenting discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. Both gorillas chose the larger quantity of two arrays of dot stimuli. On some trials, the relative number of dots was congruent with the relative total area of the two arrays. On other trials, number of dots was incongruent with area. The gorillas were first tested with static dots, then with dots that moved within the arrays, and finally on a task where they were required to discriminate numerically larger subsets within arrays of moving dots. Both gorillas achieved above-chance performance on both congruent and incongruent trials with all tasks, indicating that they were able to use number as a cue even though ratio of number and area significantly controlled responding, suggesting that number was not the only relevant dimension that the gorillas used. The pattern of performance was similar to that found previously with monkeys and chimpanzees but had not previously been demonstrated in gorillas within a computerized test format, and with these kinds of visual stimuli.

  19. Effect of the selected seismic energy dissipation capacity on the materials quantity for reinforced concrete walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Benjumea Royero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Regarding their design of reinforced concrete structural walls, the Colombian seismic design building code allows the engineer to select one of the three seismic energy dissipation capacity (ordinary, moderate, and special depending on the seismic hazard of the site. Despite this, it is a common practice to choose the minor requirement for the site because it is thought that selecting a higher requirement will lead to larger structural materials amounts and, therefore, cost increments.  Method: In this work, an analytical study was performed in order to determine the effect of the selected energy dissipation capacity on the quantity of materials and ductility displacement capacity of R/C walls. The study was done for a region with low seismic hazard, mainly because this permitted to explore and compare the use of the three seismic energy dissipations capacities. The effect of different parameters such as the wall total height and thickness, the tributary loaded area, and the minimum volumetric steel ratio were studied. Results: The total amount of steel required for the walls with moderate and special energy dissipation capacity corresponds, on average, to 77% and 89%, respectively, of the quantity required for walls with minimum capacity. Conclusions: it is possible to achieve reductions in the total steel required weight when adopting either moderated or special seismic energy dissipation instead of the minimum capacity.  Additionally, a significant increment in the seismic ductility displacements capacity of the wall was obtained.

  20. Effect of sample quantity on the results of ferromagnetic resonance studies of lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, J. B.; Crowe, H. R.; Housley, R. M.; Cirlin, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements at 9.5 and 35 GHz were made on lunar fines in order to determine the amount of single domain FE(0) and to ascertain the effect of sample quantity on the results of these experiments. Samples containing more than 10 micrograms of Fe(0) in an X-band TE(104) cavity, or more than 0.11 micrograms in a Ka-band cavity can cause errors greater than 1% in the quantitative determination of Fe(0), as well as cause anomalous broadening of the FMR line. Theoretical calculations were derived to show this effect which results from a nonlinear response of the FMR experiment with the sample quantity. Using samples of nominal weights, the amount of Fe(0) determined at 34 GHz was 1.1-1.8 times greater than at 9.5 GHz, while the linewidths increased by a factor of 1.2. As the particle size increases, the ratio of Fe(0) determined at 35 GHz to that determined at 9.5 GHz increases, suggesting that the additional iron is due to larger spheroidal particles which change from multidomain to single domain at the larger fields.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICANTS IN ALLOY STEEL TURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L B Abhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To eliminate health and environmental problems caused by using conventional cutting fluid in the metal cutting industry, a new economical and practical approach to minimum quantity of lubrication machining technique is developed. Turning is a widely used metal removal process in manufacturing industry that involves generation of high cutting forces and temperature. Lubrication becomes critical to minimize the effects of these forces and temperature on cutting tool and work piece. Strained environment is a global problem. In metalcutting industry the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8-16 % of the total production costs. Development of lubricants that is eco-friendly and economically is acquiring importance. In this context, using minimum quantity of lubrication of boric acid mixed with base oil SAE 40 has proved to be a feasible alternative to the conventional cutting fluid. In the present work 10% boric acid by weight mixed with base oil SAE 40 is used as a MQL in turning process. Variations in cutting (lubricant force, cutting temp, chip thickness and surface roughness are studied under different machining conditions. The results indicate that there is a considerable improvement in machining performance with MQL assisted machining compared to dry machining.

  2. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostipo por Imagem; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods: the study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results: No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (C{sub W}), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (C{sub VOL}), air kerma-length product (P{sub KL,CT}) and effective dose. Conclusion: Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, P{sub KL,CT} and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. (author)

  3. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.

  4. Oscillatory brain activity reveals linguistic prints in the quantity code.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Salillas

    Full Text Available Number representations change through education, although it is currently unclear whether and how language could impact the magnitude representation that we share with other species. The most prominent view is that language does not play any role in modulating the core numeric representation involved in the contrast of quantities. Nevertheless, possible cultural hints on the numerical magnitude representation are currently on discussion focus. In fact, the acquisition of number words provides linguistic input that the quantity system may not ignore. Bilingualism offers a window to the study of this question, especially in bilinguals where the two number wording systems imply also two different numerical systems, such as in Basque-Spanish bilinguals. The present study evidences linguistic prints in the core number representational system through the analysis of EEG oscillatory activity during a simple number comparison task. Gamma band synchronization appears when Basque-Spanish bilinguals compare pairs of Arabic numbers linked through the Basque base-20 wording system, but it does not if the pairs are related through the base-10 system. Crucially, this gamma activity, originated in a left fronto-parietal network, only appears in bilinguals who learned math in Basque and not in equivalent proficiency bilinguals who learned math in Spanish. Thus, this neural index reflected in gamma band synchrony appears to be triggered by early learning experience with the base-20 numerical associations in Basque number words.

  5. Determinants of procurement strategy for construction works: quantity surveyors’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju AbdulLateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the ‘appropriate’ procurement strategy is a prerequisite to the success or failure of a construction project. This paper investigates the factors determining the selection of appropriate procurement strategy for construction works in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected through an online survey questionnaire. The survey administration involves only quantity surveyors. Quantity surveyors were targeted because they advise clients and other stakeholders on procurement and contractual issues on construction works. A total of 33 usable responses were received and analysed for this study. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the selection of procurement strategies for construction depend on complex interrelated factors. The study could not detect a particular factor or few factors responsible for a procurement strategy selection. The findings of this study is useful because it argues that the construction sector needs to broaden its considerations on the procurement strategy’s determinants rather than focusing solely on the client’s type and nature of projects as is often cited. Future research could segment these factors in terms of class of construction works or increase the sample size, which might lead to different findings.

  6. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  7. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  8. Variations in hospital waste quantities and generation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoda, H M; El-Tomi, H N; Bahman, Q Y

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between public health and improper collection, handling, and disposal of solid wastes in general, and hospital wastes in particular, is quite clear. Hazardous and nonhazardous wastes generated from different divisions of two of the largest public hospitals (capacity of approximately 400 beds each) in Kuwait were quantified and generation rates were determined. The generation rates were related to some important factors such as the number of patients, number of beds, and the type of activity conducted in different sections of the hospitals. The relationship between the waste generation rate and the number of patients was more applicable than that expressed in terms of the number of beds. The rates observed were in the range of 4.89 to 5.4 kg/patient/day, which corresponds to 3.65 to 3.97 kg/bed/day, respectively. These generation rates were comparable with those reported in the literature for similar hospitals. Minimal waste quantities were collected in the weekends. The study indicated that the hospitals surveyed provide some segregation of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes contributed about 53% of the total quantity of wastes generated at the hospitals.

  9. The effects of quantum gravity on some thermodynamical quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, A. D.; Shababi, H.; Nozari, K.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, using a deformed algebra [X,P] = iℏ/(1 - α2P2) which is originated from various theories of gravity, we study thermodynamical properties of the classical and extreme relativistic gases in canonical ensembles. In this regards, we exactly calculate the modified partition function, Helmholtz free energy, internal energy, entropy, heat capacity and the thermal pressure which conclude to the familiar form of the equation of state for the ideal gas. The advantage of applying this algebra is not only considering all natural cutoffs but also its structure is similar to the other effective quantum gravity models such as polymer, Snyder and noncommutative space-time frameworks. Moreover, after obtaining some thermodynamical quantities including internal energy and entropy, we conclude at high temperature limits due to the decreasing of the number of microstates, these quantities reach to maximal bounds which do not exist in standard cases and it concludes that at the presence of gravity for both micro-canonic and canonic ensembles, the internal energy and the entropy tend to these upper bounds.

  10. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  11. The orientation distribution of tunneling-related quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, W. M.; Refaie, A. I.; Botros, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    In the nuclear tunneling processes involving deformed nuclei, most of the tunneling-related quantities depend on the relative orientations of the participating nuclei. In the presence of different multipole deformations, we study the variation of a few relevant quantities for the α-decay and the sub-barrier fusion processes, in an orientation degree of freedom. The knocking frequency and the penetration probability are evaluated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. The interaction potential is calculated with Skyrme-type nucleon-nucleon interaction. We found that the width of the potential pocket, the Coulomb barrier radius, the penetration probability, the α-decay width, and the fusion cross-section follow consistently the orientation-angle variation of the radius of the deformed nucleus. The orientation distribution patterns of the pocket width, the barrier radius, the logarithms of the penetrability, the decay width, and the fusion cross-section are found to be highly analogous to pattern of the deformed-nucleus radius. The curve patterns of the orientation angle distributions of the internal pocket depth, the Coulomb barrier height and width, as well as the knocking frequency simulate inversely the variation of the deformed nucleus radius. The predicted orientation behaviors will be of a special interest in predicting the optimum orientations for the tunneling processes.

  12. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  13. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinovskaya Olga Nikolaevna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  14. Evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication grinding with nano-particles and recent related patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhe; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Dongzhou

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, a large number of patents have been devoted to developing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding techniques that can significantly improve both environmentally conscious and energy saving and costeffective sustainable grinding fluid alternatives. Among them, one patent is about a supply system for the grinding fluid in nano-particle jet MQL, which produced MQL lubricant by adding solid nano-particles in degradable grinding fluid. The MQL supply device turns the lubricant to the pulse drops with fixed pressure, unchanged pulse frequency and the same drop diameter. The drops will be produced and injected in the grinding zone in the form of jet flow under high pressure gas and air seal. As people become increasingly demanding on our environment, minimum quantity lubrication has been widely used in the grinding and processing. Yet, it presents the defect of insufficient cooling performance, which confines its development. To improve the heat transfer efficiency of MQL, nano-particles of a certain mass fraction can be added in the minimum quantity of lubricant oil, which concomitantly will improve the lubrication effects in the processing. In this study, the grinding experiment corroborated the effect of nano-particles in surface grinding. In addition, compared with other forms of lubrication, the results presented that the grinding force, the friction coefficient and specific grinding energy of MQL grinding have been significantly weakened, while G ratio greatly rose. These are attributed to the friction oil-film with excellent anti-friction and anti-wear performance, which is generated nano-particles at the wheel/workpiece interface. In this research, the cooling performance of nano-particle jet MQL was analyzed. Based on tests and experiments, the surface temperature was assayed from different methods, including flood lubricating oil, dry grinding, MQL grinding and nano-particle jet MQL grinding. Because of the outstanding heat transfer

  15. Fuzzy economic production quantity model with time dependent demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Indrajitsingha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper, an economic production quantity model is considered under a fuzzy environment. Both the demand cost and holding cost are considered using fuzzy pentagonal numbers. The Signed Distance Method is used to defuzzify the total cost function. Methods: The results obtained by these methods are compared with the help of a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to explore the effect of changes in the values of some of the system parameters. Results and conclusions: The fuzzy EPQ model with time dependent demand rate was presented together with the possible implementation. The behavior of changes in parameters was analyzed. The possible extension of the implementation of this method was presented.

  16. Evidence for a Conserved Quantity in Human Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandretti, Laura; Lehmann, Sune; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Faced with effectively unlimited choices of how to spend their time, humans are constantly balancing a trade-off between exploitation of familiar places and exploration of new locations. Previous analyses have shown that at the daily and weekly timescales individuals are well characterized by an activity space of repeatedly visited locations. How this activity space evolves in time, however, remains unexplored. Here we analyse high-resolution spatio-temporal traces from 850 individuals participating in a 24-month experiment. We find that, although activity spaces undergo considerable changes, the number of familiar locations an individual visits at any point in time is a conserved quantity. We show that this number is similar for different individuals, revealing a substantial homogeneity of the observed population. We point out that the observed fixed size of the activity space cannot be explained in terms of time constraints, and is therefore a distinctive property of human behavior.

  17. Extracting three-body observables from finite-volume quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Maxwell T

    2015-01-01

    Scattering and transition amplitudes with three-hadron final states play an important role in nuclear and particle physics. However, predicting such quantities using numerical Lattice QCD is very difficult, in part because of the effects of Euclidean time and finite volume. In this review we highlight recent formal developments that work towards overcoming these issues. We organize the presentation into three parts: large volume expansions, non-relativistic nonperturbative analyses, and nonperturbative studies based in relativistic field theory. In the first part we discuss results for ground state energies and matrix elements given by expanding in inverse box length, $1/L$. We describe complications that arise at $\\mathcal O(1/L^6)$ and include a table summarizing the results of different calculations. In the second part we summarize three recent non-relativistic non-perturbative studies and highlight the main conclusions of these works. This includes demonstrating that the three-particle finite-volume spect...

  18. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil).

  19. Conserved Quantities of harmonic asymptotic initial data sets

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Po-Ning

    2014-01-01

    In the first half of this article, we survey the new quasi-local and total angular momentum and center of mass defined in [9] and summarize the important properties of these definitions. To compute these conserved quantities involves solving a nonlinear PDE system (the optimal isometric embedding equation), which is rather difficult in general. We found a large family of initial data sets on which such a calculation can be carried out effectively. These are initial data sets of harmonic asymptotics, first proposed by Corvino and Schoen to solve the full vacuum constraint equation. In the second half of this article, the new total angular momentum and center of mass for these initial data sets are computed explicitly.

  20. Measuring Radionuclides in the environment: radiological quantities and sampling designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, G. [ed.] [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    1998-10-01

    One aim of the workshop was to support and provide an ICRU report committee (International Union of Radiation Units) with actual information on techniques, data and knowledge of modern radioecology when radionuclides are to be measured in the environment. It has been increasingly recognised that some studies in radioecology, especially those involving both field sampling and laboratory measurements, have not paid adequate attention to the problem of obtaining representative, unbiased samples. This can greatly affect the quality of scientific interpretation, and the ability to manage the environment. Further, as the discipline of radioecology has developed, it has seen a growth in the numbers of quantities and units used, some of which are ill-defined and which are non-standardised. (orig.)

  1. ATTENTION TO VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN READING:QUANTITY AND QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has long been argued that little or no classroomattention is given to vocabulary(Carter,1987;Zim-merman,1997),whereas the opposite might be saidof Chinese tertiary English majors.But problems stillremain:Does more time spent on vocabulary teachingand learning prove effective?Does more attentionneed to be paid to the quality of teaching and learningof vocabulary?To answer these questions,I argue inthis article for a balance of quality and quantity of at-tention to vocabulary development.In the first partof the article,I present five common procedures invocabulary teaching and learning in Chinese collegesand universities and analyse the reasons for the low ef-ficiency in vocabulary teaching and learning.In thesecond,I put forward three techniques—a semanticmapping activity,creating meaningful contexts andusing an integrated approach in teaching and learningvocabulary.

  2. A Quantities Method of Induction Motor Under Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayong Hiendro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The most complete definition for the voltage unbalance is using complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF that consists of its magnitude and angle. Unfortunately, the definition did not distinguish between undervoltage and overvoltage unbalance conditions. In this paper, the analysis of the motor is performed using the method of symmetrical component and MATLAB software is used to investigate the performance of induction motor. The simulation results show that the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC definition of the voltage unbalance can be applied to evaluate total copper losses precisely. However, the phase angle of unbalance factor must be included for accurate predicting of peak currents and peak copper losses of the phase windings of the motor.The unbalanced conditions which distinguish between under and over voltage unbalance must also be taken into consideration for assessing all the quantities.

  3. Gauge transformations and conserved quantities in classical and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, Bertrand; Malterre, Daniel; Medina, Ernesto

    2016-08-01

    We are taught that gauge transformations in classical and quantum mechanics do not change the physics of the problem. Nevertheless, here we discuss three broad scenarios where under gauge transformations: (i) conservation laws are not preserved in the usual manner; (ii) non-gauge-invariant quantities can be associated with physical observables; and (iii) there are changes in the physical boundary conditions of the wave function that render it non-single-valued. We give worked examples that illustrate these points, in contrast to general opinions from classic texts. We also give a historical perspective on the development of Abelian gauge theory in relation to our particular points. Our aim is to provide a discussion of these issues at the graduate level.

  4. Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A

    2014-09-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from moderately large samples of healthy adults confirmed prior findings of age-related declines in measures of the quantity of word knowledge beginning around age 65. Additional analyses were carried out to investigate the interrelations of different types of vocabulary knowledge at various periods in adulthood. Although the organizational structures were similar in adults of different ages, scores on tests with different formats had weaker relations to a higher-order vocabulary construct beginning when adults were in their 60's. The within-person dispersion among different vocabulary test scores was also greater after about 65 years of age. The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked.

  5. Confidence and certainty: distinct probabilistic quantities for different goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Alexandre; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kepecs, Adam

    2017-01-01

    When facing uncertainty, adaptive behavioral strategies demand that the brain performs probabilistic computations. In this probabilistic framework, the notion of certainty and confidence would appear to be closely related, so much so that it is tempting to conclude that these two concepts are one and the same. We argue that there are computational reasons to distinguish between these two concepts. Specifically, we propose that confidence should be defined as the probability that a decision or a proposition, overt or covert, is correct given the evidence, a critical quantity in complex sequential decisions. We suggest that the term certainty should be reserved to refer to the encoding of all other probability distributions over sensory and cognitive variables. We also discuss strategies for studying the neural codes for confidence and certainty and argue that clear definitions of neural codes are essential to understanding the relative contributions of various cortical areas to decision making. PMID:26906503

  6. Can the Lorenz-gauge potentials be considered physical quantities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Mexico DF 01210 (Mexico)], E-mail: herasgomez@gmail.com, E-mail: guillermo.fernandez@uia.mx

    2010-03-15

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we introduce expressions for the Lorenz-gauge potentials: at the present time in terms of electric and magnetic fields at the retarded time. These expressions provide a third result in favour of a physical interpretation of the Lorenz-gauge potentials: (iii) they can be regarded as causal effects of the observed electric and magnetic fields.

  7. How to Combine Independent Data Sets for the Same Quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ronald F; Miller, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a recent mathematical method called conflation for consolidating data from independent experiments that are designed to measure the same quantity, such as Planck's constant or the mass of the top quark. Conflation is easy to calculate and visualize, and minimizes the maximum loss in Shannon information in consolidating several independent distributions into a single distribution. In order to benefit the experimentalist with a much more transparent presentation than the previous mathematical treatise, the main basic properties of conflation are derived in the special case of normal (Gaussian) data. Included are examples of applications to real data from measurements of the fundamental physical constants and from measurements in high energy physics, and the conflation operation is generalized to weighted conflation for situations when the underlying experiments are not uniformly reliable.

  8. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2007-10-03

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony.

  9. Quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Ishrat, S; Rahman, D; Banu, J; Deeba, F; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Hossain, H B

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is an important health issue which has been neglected in the developing countries. First test-tube babies (triplet) in Bangladesh were born on 30th May, 2001. Although there is no tertiary level infertility center in the public sector, several private centers have come up with the facilities. The objective of the study was to find i) the quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh and ii) the cause of infertility in the attending patients iii) the treatment seeking behaviors iv) and the reasons for not taking treatment among the attending patients. There are now 10 tertiary level Infertility centers in Bangladesh. The information was collected in a preformed datasheet about the facilities and the profile of the patients and the treatment seeking behavior of the attending patients. Out of the ten centers two centers refused to respond and did not disclose their data. Around 16700 new patients are enrolled in a year in the responsive clinics. Five percent (5%) of the patients underwent ART, 7% of the patients gave only one visit, 84% of the patients completed their evaluation, 76% of the patients took treatment. Causes of infertility in the patients taking treatment were male factor in 36.4%, bilateral tubal block in 20.2%, PCOS and anovulation in 31.7%, endometriosis in 19.6%, unexplained in 10.95, combined in 3.5%, ovarian failure in 1.4%, testicular failure in 0.33%, congenital anomaly in 0.3%. The main reason for not taking treatment was financial constrainment. The quality and quantity of infertility care is dependent on the available resources and on the use of the resources by the patients. In developing countries the resources are merging and confined to specified areas which cannot meet the demand of their population. The study gives us the idea of the need and the demand of the services in the country.

  10. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  11. Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. R.

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.

  12. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabus Hans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP [1], the joint research project “Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy” (BioQuaRT [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm, and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  13. High-Ratio Gear Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  14. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantity of Tzénoff Equations for Holonomic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Wang; XIE Jia-Fang; ZHANG Qing-Hua

    2007-01-01

    @@ A new conserved quantity is deduced from Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for holonomic systems. The expression of this new conserved quantity is given, and the determining equation to induce this new conserved quantity is presented. The results exhibit that this new method is easier to find more conserved quantities than the previously reported ones. Finally, application of this new result is presented by a practical example.

  15. Two New Types of Conserved Quantities Deduced from Noether Symmetry for Nonholonomic Mechanical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Ni; FANG Jian-Hui; PANG Ting; LIN Peng

    2009-01-01

    For a nonholonomic mechanical system, the generalized Mei conserved quantity and the new generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced from Noether symmetry of the system are studied.The criterion equation of the Noether symmetry for the system is got.The conditions under which the Noether symmetry can lead to the two new conserved quantities are presented and the forms of the conserved quantities are obtained.Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  16. Hojman conserved quantity deduced by weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jia-Fang; Gang Tie-Qiang; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the Hojman conserved quantity,a non-Noether conserved quantity,deduced by special weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems.Under special infinitesimal transformations in which the time is not variable,its criterion is given and a method of how to seek the Hojman conserved quantity is presented.A Hojman conserved quantity can be found by using the special weak Noether symmetry.

  17. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  18. BIM implementation in a New Zealand consulting quantity surveying practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Harrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 5D BIM - generating cost data via the building information modelling (BIM process - has the potential to be used by quantity surveyors (QSs to streamline their workflows and increase their provision of a quality service. Consultant QSs experienced in the use of 5D BIM, from the New Zealand office of a large global practice, were interviewed on their perceptions of the benefits of, and barriers to, 5D BIM implementation within their firm. Findings suggest that 5D BIM has numerous benefits over traditional methods, chiefly through the increased efficiency and visualisation that BIM provides, along with the rapid identification of design changes. However, realisation of these perceived benefits is limited to date, due to several barriers hindering 5D BIM implementation: incomplete design and insufficient model object data in the BIM model; a lack of standards to facilitate electronic measurement; legal issues, and a lack of government support. Increasing 5D BIM implementation, in tandem with increasing use of collaborative project working through integrated project delivery, will, however, facilitate these benefits being achieved to a far greater extent in the future. Further research is recommended to identify the BIM skills which QSs will need in the future to reach the full potential of 5D BIM.

  19. Quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Ghorbanian, Tahereh; Yousefi, Nader; Dadashzadeh, Dariush; Khalili, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Amin; Raei, Mehdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the generation rate of construction and demolition waste (C&D) has significantly augmented. The aim of this study was to assessed the quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran (capital of Iran). Questionnaire methods were used for estimating the amount of generated C&D wastes national statistical data and typical waste generation data. In order to defining the composition of C&D waste, trucks were randomly selected and their wastes were separated and weighted. According to obtained results, about 82,646,051 m(3) of C&D waste (average 16,529,210 m(3) per year) were generated during 2011 to 2016 which only about 26% of them has been recycled. Mixing sand and cement, concrete, broken bricks and soil have the highest amount of the composition of C&D waste in Tehran that was 30, 19, 18 and 11%, respectively. Based on the results, about 2,784,158 t of the waste will generate in 2025 and this is approximately 122% higher than wastes generate in 2016. Based on MAPSA's data, 360 teams of personnel cruise and control the illegal disposals, but due to the expansion of Tehran this number of teams is inadequate and can't be effective in controlling the situation. In general, the overall condition of C&D waste management in Tehran seems undesirable and needs to be updated based on the experience of successful countries in this field.

  20. China's human resources for health: quantity, quality, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sudhir; Fan, Victoria Y; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Lingling; Ke, Yang; Dong, Zhe; Chen, Lincoln C

    2008-11-15

    In this paper, we analyse China's current health workforce in terms of quantity, quality, and distribution. Unlike most countries, China has more doctors than nurses-in 2005, there were 1.9 million licensed doctors and 1.4 million nurses. Doctor density in urban areas was more than twice that in rural areas, with nurse density showing more than a three-fold difference. Most of China's doctors (67.2%) and nurses (97.5%) have been educated up to only junior college or secondary school level. Since 1998 there has been a massive expansion of medical education, with an excess in the production of health workers over absorption into the health workforce. Inter-county inequality in the distribution of both doctors and nurses is very high, with most of this inequality accounted for by within-province inequalities (82% or more) rather than by between-province inequalities. Urban-rural disparities in doctor and nurse density account for about a third of overall inter-county inequality. These inequalities matter greatly with respect to health outcomes across counties, provinces, and strata in China; for instance, a cross-county multiple regression analysis using data from the 2000 census shows that the density of health workers is highly significant in explaining infant mortality.

  1. A Stochastic Decision Support System for Economic Order Quantity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Yousefli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving decisions efficiency is one of the major concerns of the decision support systems. Specially in the uncertain environment, decision support systems could be implemented efficiently to simplify decision making process. In this paper stochastic economic order quantity (EOQ problem is investigated in which decision variables and objective function are uncertain in nature and optimum probability distribution functions of them are calculated through a geometric programming model. Obtained probability distribution functions of the decision variables and the objective function are used as optimum knowledge to design a new probabilistic rule base (PRB as a decision support system for EOQ model. The developed PRB is a new type of the stochastic rule bases that can be used to infer optimum or near optimum values of the decision variables and the objective function of the EOQ model without solving the geometric programming problem directly. Comparison between the results of the developed PRB and the optimum solutions which is provided in the numerical example illustrates the efficiency of the developed PRB.

  2. Dynamic Coding of Signed Quantities in Cortical Feedback Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eBallard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early sensory and motor areas of the cortex, individual neurons transmit information about specific sensory features via a peaked response. This concept has been crystallized as `labeled lines,' to denote that axons communicate the specific properties of their sensory or motor parent cell. Such cells also can be characterized as being polarized, that is, as representing a signed quantity that is either positive or negative. We show in a model simulation that there are two important consequences when learning receptive fields using such signed codings in circuits that subtract different inputs. The first is that, in feedback circuits using labeled lines, such arithmetic operations need to be distributed across multiple distinct pathways. The second consequence is that such pathways must be necessarily dynamic, i.e. that synapses can grow and retract when forming receptive fields. The model monitors the breaking and growing of new circuit connections when their synapses need to change polarities and predicts that the rate of such changes should be inversely correlated with the progress of receptive field formation.

  3. Preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity by electrochemical exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2014-12-15

    We reported the preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity via the anodic exfoliation of graphite in (NH4)2SO4 aqueous solution. In the currently designed electrochemical exfoliation route, mass high-quality graphene was produced within short reaction time, around 1h. The proposed electrochemical exfoliation mechanism showed that SO4(2-) and H2O can be intercalated into those graphite sheets, monolayer and few-layer graphene were obtained by the formation of gaseous SO2 and O2 within graphite sheets. Stability evaluation showed that our exfoliated colloidal graphene can be perfectly stabilized in DMF solvent more than 1 week. The colloidal graphene can be used to construct various simple and complex patterns by writing it on A4 paper, which can be applied to flexible printed electronic devices. Furthermore, colloidal graphene can show promising applications in the fabrication of binder- and additive-free electrodes for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries. Our present method shows huge potential for industrial-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene and further commercialization of graphene colloid for numerous advanced applications in flexible printed electronics and energy storage devices.

  4. Comment on the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Paliathanasis, A

    2015-01-01

    We comment upon the application of Hojman's method for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been introduced by Capozziello \\& Roshan (Phys. Lett. B 726 (2013) 471 (arXiv:1308.3910)), and has been applied recently in the cosmological scenario of a nonminimally coupled scalar field by Paolella \\& Capozziello (Phys. Lett. A (2015), in press (arXiv:1503.00098)). We apply the Ansatz, $\\phi\\left( t\\right) =\\phi\\left( a\\left( t\\right) \\right) $, which was introduced by the cited authors for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of the Noether conservation law of momentum for the free particle. Finally we show that Hojman's method for Hamiltonian syste...

  5. Static quantities of the W bosons in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Lahanas, Athanasios B

    1995-01-01

    I discuss the static quantities of the W boson, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, in which supersymmetry is broken by soft terms A_o,\\, m_o,\\, M_{1/2}. Following a renormalization group analysis it is found that the supersymmetric values of \\Delta k_{\\gamma} and \\Delta Q_{\\gamma} can be largely different, in some cases, from the standard model predictions but of the same order of magnitude for values of \\quad A_0,m_0,M_{1/2} \\leq {\\cal O}(1 TeV) . Therefore possible supersymmetric structure can be probed provided the accuracy of measurements for \\Delta k_{\\gamma}, \\Delta Q_{\\gamma} reaches 10^{-2}-10^{-3} and hence hard to be detected at LEP2. In cases where M_{1/2} \\ll A_0,m_0 , the charginos and neutralinos may give substantial contributions saturating the LEP2 sensitivity limits. This occurs when their masses m_{\\tilde C},m_{\\tilde Z} turn out to be both light satisfying m_{\\tilde C}+m_{\\tilde Z} \\simeq M_W . However these extreme ...

  6. Ship waste quantities prediction model for the port of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADANKA PRESBURGER ULNIKOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and especially in the port of Belgrade. Data on solid waste, waste oils, oily waters, gray water and black water have been collected for a period of five years. The methodology of data collection is presented. Trends of data were analyzed and the regression model was used to predict the waste quantities in the Belgrade port. This data could be utilized as a basis for the calculation of the equipment capacity for waste selective collection, treatment and storage. The results presented in this study establish the need for an orga¬nized management system for this type of waste which can be achieved either by constructing and providing new specialized terminal or by providing mobile floating facilities and other plants in the Port of Belgrade for these kinds of ser¬vices. In addition to the above, the legislative and organizational strategy of waste management has been explored to complete the study because the im¬pact of good waste management on environment and prevention of environ¬mental accidents would be highly beneficial. This study demonstrated that ad¬dressing these issues should be considered at international as well as national level.

  7. Order Quantity Distributions: Estimating an Adequate Aggregation Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Poul Svante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an investigation into the demand, faced by a company in the form of customer orders, is performed both from an explorative numerical and analytical perspective. The aim of the research is to establish the behavior of customer orders in first-come-first-serve (FCFS systems and the impact of order quantity variation on the planning environment. A discussion of assumptions regarding demand from various planning and control perspectives underlines that most planning methods are based on the assumption that demand in the form of customer orders are independently identically distributed and stem from symmetrical distributions. To investigate and illustrate the need to aggregate demand to live up to these assumptions, a simple methodological framework to investigate the validity of the assumptions and for analyzing the behavior of orders is developed. The paper also presents an analytical approach to identify the aggregation horizon needed to achieve a stable demand. Furthermore, a case study application of the presented framework is presented and concluded on.

  8. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated. S...

  9. 78 FR 5448 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... previously approved information collection requirement concerning Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies. A... ``Submit a Comment'' that corresponds with ``Information Collection 9000-0082 Economic Purchase Quantity..., company name (if any), and ``Information Collection 9000-0082 Economic Purchase Quantity-- Supplies'' on...

  10. A remark on symmetry of stochastic dynamical systems and their conserved quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Albeverio, Sergio A; Albeverio, Sergio; Fei, Shao Ming

    1995-01-01

    Symmetry properties of stochastic dynamical systems described by stochastic differential equation of Stratonovich type and related conserved quantities are discussed, extending previous results by Misawa. New conserved quantities are given by applying symmetry operators to known conserved quantities. Some detailed examples are presented.

  11. Lecturer Quality, Quantity and Gender in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The quality and quantity of lecturers in Tertiary institutions to a great extent determines the quality of graduates. To ensure quality and quantity the Colleges of Education in Nigeria have established internal and external mechanisms. Quantity is determined by the number of students to a given lecturer. Despite the mechanism put forward to…

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-8 - Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated Weights or... Provisions and Clauses 52.247-8 Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. As prescribed in 47.207-3(e... transportation-related services when weights or quantities are estimates: Estimated Weights or Quantities...

  13. Reasoning about Variation in the Intensity of Change in Covarying Quantities Involved in Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends work in the area of quantitative reasoning related to rate of change by investigating numerical and nonnumerical reasoning about covarying quantities involved in rate of change via tasks involving multiple representations of covarying quantities. The findings suggest that by systematically varying one quantity, an individual…

  14. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  15. Two Types of New Conserved Quantities and Mei Symmetry of Mechanical Systems in Phase Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two types of new conserved quantities directly deduced by Mei symmetry in phase space are studied. The conditions under which Mei symmetry can directly lead to the two types of new conserved quantities and the forms of the two types of new conserved quantities are given. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  16. Optimal Inventory Planning under Permissible Delay in Payments When a Larger Order Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuang-Hua; Huang, Hung-Fu; Tu, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Fu

    In the previous related studies, the inventory replenishment problems under permissible delay in payments are independent of the order quantity. In this study, the restrictive assumption of the trade credit independent of the order quantity is relaxed. This study discusses the inventory policies under permissible delay in payments when a larger order quantity.

  17. Together yet Separate: Students' Associating Amounts of Change in Quantities Involved in Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends work about quantitative reasoning related to covarying quantities involved in rate of change. It reports a multiple case study of three students' reasoning about quantities involved in rate of change when working on tasks incorporating multiple representations of covarying quantities. When interpreting relationships between…

  18. Reasoning about Variation in the Intensity of Change in Covarying Quantities Involved in Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends work in the area of quantitative reasoning related to rate of change by investigating numerical and nonnumerical reasoning about covarying quantities involved in rate of change via tasks involving multiple representations of covarying quantities. The findings suggest that by systematically varying one quantity, an individual…

  19. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  20. Novel Rotating Hairy Black Hole in (2+1)-Dimensions and Shear Viscosity to Entropy Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, J.; Heshmatian, S.

    2014-08-01

    The novel rotating hairy black hole metric in (2 + 1) dimensions, which is an exact solution to the field equations of the Einstein-scalar AdS theory with a non-minimal coupling, considered in this paper and some hydrodynamics quantities such as diffusion constant and shear viscosity investigated. By using thermodynamics quantities such as temperature and entropy we can use diffusion constant to obtain shear viscosity and then calculate shear viscosity to entropy ratio.

  1. Maximizing DNA profiling success from sub-optimal quantities of DNA: a staged approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Amy D; Elsmore, Paul; Greenhalgh, Matt; McDonald, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Obtaining genetic profiles from samples containing minimal amounts of DNA can be difficult. In forensic science, the vast majority of genetic profiles are generated using commercial kits that have been optimized for the amplification of a specific range of DNA concentrations. DNA extracted from many forensic samples falls below the kit manufacturers' specified concentrations either because there is not enough total DNA in the extract or the extract is so dilute that not enough volume of the extract can be added to the PCR. In order to develop a method to maximize SGM Plus and Identifiler profiling success from samples with sub-optimal quantities of DNA, thermocycle numbers and/or the amount of PCR product injected during capillary electrophoresis (termed Enhancement) of PCR products were increased. Increasing the number of thermocycles from 28 to 30 and/or two phases of Enhancement of both 28 and 30 thermocycle PCR products resulted in an increased number of scorable peaks. As expected with low template amounts of DNA, many of the samples showed allelic drop-out, heterozygote imbalances and sporadic, large stutter peaks. Enhancement decreased the amount of allelic drop-out observed and did not affect stutter peak or heterozygous peak height ratios. Although the PCR reactions from these samples should always be replicated before a reportable consensus profile is reached, Phase 1 and 2 Enhancement can maximize the profiling success from each reaction. Finally, a flexible, staged approach using 28 or 30 thermocycle PCR in combination with the Enhancement techniques described here is proposed for processing samples with sub-optimal quantities of DNA.

  2. Calculation of uncertainties in influence quantities in biological essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the need of showing the reliability of results from biological essays, such as in health and environmental areas, laboratories have been implementing quality systems, particularly ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001, which include as one of the requirements, the calculation of uncertainty in essays results. It is of common knowledge that estimating uncertainty in essays using organisms, such as animal and vegetal species, is difficult, preventing from meeting that requirement in the standard. The paper shows the calculation of uncertainties in influences quantities in these essays as a tool to allow validating the measuring process, by using the essays performed by Rhodia Environmental Impact Analysis Laboratory and IPEN Ecotoxicology Laboratory as examples.Devido à necessidade de demonstrar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ensaios biológicos como, por exemplo, nas áreas de saúde e ambiental, laboratórios vêm implementando sistemas da qualidade, em especial a ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001 que inclui como um dos requisitos o cálculo da incerteza dos resultados dos ensaios. É reconhecidamente difícil de estimar a incerteza de ensaios que utilizam organismos, como com espécies animais e vegetais o que impede, consequentemente, o atendimento deste requisito da norma. O trabalho apresenta o cálculo de incerteza das grandezas de influências nestes ensaios como uma ferramenta que permite validar o processo de medição, utilizando como exemplos aqueles realizados pelos Laboratórios de Análise de Impacto Ambiental da Rhodia e de Ecologia e Ecotoxicologia do IPEN.

  3. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  4. Application of robots to multi variable and little quantity products. Tahinshu shoryo waku eno robotto tekiyo no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, H. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    However multi variable and little quantity they may be, when they can be loaded on the existing robots, they can be corresponded by the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). The work set up is installed on the robot at random, and subsequently the lengthiness and shortening of the weld line is also solved depending on the contrivance of the jig. Concurrently an introduction of the off line teaching as well supports firmly the application of robots to multi variable and media to little quantity work. The problem is the work which can not be loaded on the existing robot. Viewing from the actual results of the robot introduced enterprises, it is clearly affected by the size of work, and consequently in the industries such as the transportation machineries and construction machineries the actual results are high. It is thought to be because the work shape of machinery type, which will be the main current, was fit to the robot with a highly wide usage. As for the robots for a large size work to multi variable and little quantity products, which is most behind in application, it is necessary that by combining the robot group with the distinctive features such as the big shape and covering the wide range type, high ability type of FMS and so forth, intelligent type, small shape and local guerrilla type and so forth, the robotization ratio should be elevated. 3 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. QUALITY AND QUANTITY SURVEY OF HOSPITAL WASTEWATERS IN HORMOZGAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Sarafraz, M. R. Khani, K. Yaghmaeian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital wastewaters are one of the most contaminating wastewaters and need to be paid more attention due to containing infectious agents. In this study, which had been conducted in a period of one year, 7 public hospitals were selected out of 12 public hospitals in Hormozgan Province of Iran. For studying quality of wastewater in hospitals, both influent and effluent wastewaters of treatment plant, if any, were sampled once in each season and totally 30 mixed samples were obtained. In order to determine the quality of hospital wastewaters in all samples, parameters such as pH, BOD5, COD, TSS and temperature were measured. Results of investigation on annual water consumption indicated that average water consumption in hospitals of the province was 194m3/d., considering water-to-wastewater conversion ratio of 0.8 and green yard ratio of 0.3. Wastewater production rate had been estimated to be 47m3/d and 0.362 m3/d.bed. Results indicated that in 7 hospitals of Hormozgan province, mean values of BOD5 ,COD ,TSS in raw wastewater were 242.25 mg/L, 628.1 mg/L and 231.25 mg/L, respectively, pH=7.42 and temperature=30.17 ºC. In Khalij-e-Fars hospital which had wastewater treatment plant, values of these parameters in effluent were 12.53 mg/L and 51.7 mg/L, 19.68 mg/L, respectively, with pH=7.39 and temperature=26.1 ºC. Comparison between values of influent and effluent wastewaters indicated that in understudy cases, contamination rate was higher than determined limits, as compared to environmental standards of the country and it was necessary to establish appropriate treatment plants in these units.

  6. Influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone quantity on the solubility, crystallinity and oral bioavailability of fenofibrate in solvent-evaporated microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Jong Oh; Youn, Yu Seok; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) quantity on the solubility, crystallinity and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate in solvent-evaporated microspheres. Numerous microspheres were prepared with fenofibrate, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and PVP using the spray-drying technique. Their aqueous solubility, dissolution, physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics in rats were assessed. The drug in the solvent-evaporated microspheres composed of fenofibrate, PVP and SLS at the weight ratio of 1:0.5:0.25 was not entirely changed to the amorphous form and partially in the microcrystalline state. However, the microspheres at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.25 provided the entire conversion to the amorphous form. The latter microspheres, with an improvement of about 115 000-fold in aqueous solubility and 5.6-fold improvement in oral bioavailability compared with the drug powder, gave higher aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability compared with the former. Thus, PVP quantity played an important role in these properties of fenofibrate in the solvent-evaporated microspheres.

  7. The good, the bad and the plenty: interactive effects of food quality and quantity on the growth of different Daphnia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovinszky, Tibor; Verschoor, Antonie M; Helmsing, Nico R; Bezemer, T Martijn; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Vos, Matthijs; de Senerpont Domis, Lisette N

    2012-01-01

    Effects of food quality and quantity on consumers are neither independent nor interchangeable. Although consumer growth and reproduction show strong variation in relation to both food quality and quantity, the effects of food quality or food quantity have usually been studied in isolation. In two experiments, we studied the growth and reproduction in three filter-feeding freshwater zooplankton species, i.e. Daphnia galeata x hyalina, D. pulicaria and D. magna, on their algal food (Scenedesmus obliquus), varying in carbon to phosphorus (C∶P) ratios and quantities (concentrations). In the first experiment, we found a strong positive effect of the phosphorus content of food on growth of Daphnia, both in their early and late juvenile development. Variation in the relationship between the P-content of animals and their growth rate reflected interspecific differences in nutrient requirements. Although growth rates typically decreased as development neared maturation, this did not affect these species-specific couplings between growth rate and Daphnia P-content. In the second experiment, we examined the effects of food quality on Daphnia growth at different levels of food quantity. With the same decrease in P-content of food, species with higher estimated P-content at zero growth showed a larger increase in threshold food concentrations (i.e. food concentration sufficient to meet metabolic requirements but not growth). These results suggest that physiological processes such as maintenance and growth may in combination explain effects of food quality and quantity on consumers. Our study shows that differences in response to variation in food quality and quantity exist between species. As a consequence, species-specific effects of food quality on consumer growth will also determine how species deal with varying food levels, which has implications for resource-consumer interactions.

  8. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research. PMID:28009000

  9. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  10. The quantity and quality of marital interaction related to marital satisfaction: A behavioral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann Marie

    1979-01-01

    An assessment instrument is presented for the evaluation of the quantity and quality of dyadic interaction, as well as for the daily recording of behaviors presented and omitted which influence marital satisfaction. Comparison of data from ten happy couples and from ten couples entering therapy indicated two distinct dysfunctional patterns among distressed couples, with significantly different patterns of time-together and positive/negative ratios differentiating the happy versus therapy groups. Independent behavioral recording for 14 consecutive days significantly increased husband-wife agreement on a traditional adjustment questionnaire without significantly increasing or decreasing the level of satisfaction being assessed. There was no difference between groups as to interspousal agreement on amount of time together. However, the happy couples agreed on daily quality ratings of the 72 15-minute segments significantly more often than did the distressed couples. Couples at the extremes of the happy-distressed continuum reported rewarding and punishing, respectively, in response to the partners presence, regardless of behaviors emitted. Midrange happy couples defined “pleasant” as positive behaviors presented; midrange distressed couples defined “pleasant” as negative behaviors omitted. Theoretical and clinical implications of behavioral analysis of sequential patterns are discussed. PMID:16795620

  11. Quantities of Interest in Jet Stirred Reactor Oxidation of a High-Octane Gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Bingjie

    2017-03-28

    This work examines the oxidation of a well-characterized, high-octane-number FACE (fuel for advanced combustion engines) F gasoline. Oxidation experiments were performed in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) for FACE F gasoline under the following conditions: pressure, 10 bar; temperature, 530-1250 K; residence time, 0.7s; equivalence ratios, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Detailed species profiles were achieved by identification and quantification from gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Four surrogates, with physical and chemical properties that mimic the real fuel properties, were used for simulations, with a detailed gasoline surrogate kinetic model. Fuel and species profiles were well-captured and-predicted by comparisons between experimental results and surrogate simulations. Further analysis was performed using a quantities of interest (QoI) approach to show the differences between experimental and simulation results and to evaluate the gasoline surrogate kinetic model. Analysis of the multicomponent surrogate kinetic model indicated that iso-octane and alkyl aromatic oxidation reactions had impact on species profiles in the high-temperature region;. however, the main production and consumption channels were related to smaller molecule reactions. The results presented here offer new insights into the oxidation chemistry of complex gasoline fuels and provide suggestions for the future development of surrogate kinetic models.

  12. The effect of resource quantity and resource stoichiometry on microbial carbon-use-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiblinger, K.M.; Hall, E.K.; Wanek, W.; Szukics, U.; Hämmerle, I.; Ellersdorfer, G.; Böck, S.; Strauss, J.; Sterflinger, K.; Richter, A.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-use-efficiency (CUE) of microorganisms is an important parameter in determining ecosystem-level carbon (C) cycling; however, little is known about how variance in resources affects microbial CUE. To elucidate how resource quantity and resource stoichiometry affect microbial CUE, we cultured four microorganisms - two fungi (Aspergillus nidulans and Trichoderma harzianum) and two bacteria (Pectobacterium carotovorum and Verrucomicrobium spinosum) - under 12 unique C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) ratios. Whereas the CUE of A. nidulans was strongly affected by C, bacterial CUE was more strongly affected by mineral nutrients (N and P). Specifically, CUE in P. carotovorum was positively correlated with P, while CUE of V. spinosum primarily depended on N. This resulted in a positive relationship between fungal CUE and resource C : nutrient stoichiometry and a negative relationship between bacterial CUE and resource C : nutrient stoichiometry. The difference in the direction of the relationship between CUE and C : nutrient for fungi vs. bacteria was consistent with differences in biomass stoichiometry and suggested that fungi have a higher C demand than bacteria. These results suggest that the links between biomass stoichiometry, resource demand and CUE may provide a mechanism for commonly observed temporal and spatial patterns in microbial community structure and function in natural habitats.

  13. Memory for multiple cache locations and prey quantities in a food-hoarding songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eArmstrong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most animals can discriminate between pairs of numbers that are each less than four without training. However, North Island robins (Petroica longipes, a food hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, can discriminate between quantities of items as high as eight without training. Here we investigate whether robins are capable of other complex quantity discrimination tasks. We test whether their ability to discriminate between small quantities declines with 1. the number of cache sites containing prey rewards and 2. the length of time separating cache creation and retrieval (retention interval. Results showed that subjects generally performed above chance expectations. They were equally able to discriminate between different combinations of prey quantities that were hidden from view in 2, 3 and 4 cache sites from between 1, 10 and 60 seconds. Overall results indicate that North Island robins can process complex quantity information involving more than two discrete quantities of items for up to one minute long retention intervals without training.

  14. Quality vs. Quantity of publications in nanotechnology field from the People's Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronald N. KOSTOFF; Ryan B. BARTH; Clifford G.Y.LAU

    2008-01-01

    Sciences (which consists of many research institutes) wresting the lead from Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999, and thereafter increasing the gap. Over this same time period, the USA institutions constituted about 90% of the top ten most cited papers list. For Chinese institutions specifically in the period 1998-2003, the nanotech-nology publication leading Chinese Academy of Sciences has maintained an average of about 30% of nanotechnology publications over that time frame. The second tier (in terms of quantity) for the last few years has consisted of Tsinghua University, Nanjing University, University of Science and Technology of China, Peking University, Jilin University, Zhejiang University, Shandong University, and Fudan University. Hong Kong institutions have, on average, been strong in ratio, especially City University Hong Kong, and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, indicating significant citations.

  15. Fractal characteristics of resource quantity of cobalt crusts and seamount topography, the West Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiyan; ZHANG Fuyuan; YANG Kehong; HU Guangdao; YANG Shengxiong; CHENG Yongshou; ZHAO Guojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the fractal distribution of topography of seamounts from the West Pacific and the resource quantity of cobalt crust therein. The cobalt resource quantity has three to four variable fractal dimensions, corre- sponding to the distinct slopes and water depths of the sea- mount. The multiple fractal property of resource quantity may have resulted from various factors, such as types and components of cobalt crusts and ages of oceanic crusts host- ing the seamounts. Individual seamounts display complex topography and quantity of cobalt crust, both in the same and different regions.

  16. Patterns in new dimensionless quantities containing melting temperature, and their dependence on pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. WALZER

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships existing between melting temperature and other
    macroscopic physical quantities are investigated. A new dimensionless
    quantity Q(1 not containing the Grtineisen parameter proves to be suited for serving in future studies as a tool for the determination of the melting temperature in the outer core of the Earth. The pressure dependence of more general dimensionless quantities Q„ is determined analytically and, for the chemical elements, numerically, too. The patterns of various interesting dimensionless quantities are shown in the Periodic Table and compared.

  17. Radiation quantities: significance of the angular and energy distribution of the radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, M.; Perks, C.A. (AEA Corporate Safety Directorate, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Thomas, D.J.; Naismith, O.F. (National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of changing from the old to new (ICRP 60 and ICRU 47) dosimetric quantities, and the relationship between quantities, as a function of the energy and angular distribution, for practical radiation fields. It considers: X rays, gamma rays, neutrons and beta rays; reviews the limited data on practical energy and angular distributions for photons and neutrons in the workplace; and calculates relevant dosimetric quantities based on realistic assumptions. The results are used to illustrate how the relationship between quantities might vary in practical fields and to draw conclusions about the implications of recent ICRP and ICRU publications. (Author).

  18. Form Invariance and Conserved Quantity for Non-holonomic Systems with Variable Mass and Unilateral Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; LI Yuan-Cheng; HOU Qi-Bao; XIA Li-Li

    2007-01-01

    The paper studies the form invariance and a type of non-Noether conserved quantity called Mei conserved quantity for non-holonomic systems with variable mass and unilateral constraints.Acoording to the invariance of the form of differential equations of motion under infinitesimal transformations,this paper gives the definition and criterion of the form invariance for non-holonomic systems with variable mass and unilateral constraints.The condition under which a form invariance can lead to Mei conservation quantity and the form of the conservation quantity are deduced.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  19. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  20. Forecasting Model of Coal Requirement Quantity Based on Grey System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继湖

    2001-01-01

    The generally used methods of forecasting coal requirement quantity include the analogy method, the outside-push method and the cause-effect analysis method. However, the precision of forecasting results using these methods is lower. This paper uses the grey system theory, and sets up grey forecasting model GM (1, 3) to coal requirement quantity. The forecasting result for the Chinese coal requirement quantity coincides with the actual values, and this shows that the model is reliable. Finally, this model are used to forecast Chinese coal requirement quantity in the future ten years.

  1. Modality-independent representations of small quantities based on brain activation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarla, Saudamini Roy; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-04-01

    Machine learning or MVPA (Multi Voxel Pattern Analysis) studies have shown that the neural representation of quantities of objects can be decoded from fMRI patterns, in cases where the quantities were visually displayed. Here we apply these techniques to investigate whether neural representations of quantities depicted in one modality (say, visual) can be decoded from brain activation patterns evoked by quantities depicted in the other modality (say, auditory). The main finding demonstrated, for the first time, that quantities of dots were decodable by a classifier that was trained on the neural patterns evoked by quantities of auditory tones, and vice-versa. The representations that were common across modalities were mainly right-lateralized in frontal and parietal regions. A second finding was that the neural patterns in parietal cortex that represent quantities were common across participants. These findings demonstrate a common neuronal foundation for the representation of quantities across sensory modalities and participants and provide insight into the role of parietal cortex in the representation of quantity information.

  2. Energy-like conserved quantity of a nonlinear nonconsevative continuous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liqun

    2004-01-01

    A system whose energy is not conserved is called nonconservative. To investigate if there exists a conserved quantity that has the same dimension as energy and is positively definite, the author analyzed the bending vibration of an axially moving beam with geometric nonlinearity.Based on the governing equation, the energy was proven to be not conserved in the case where the beam has two simply supported or fixed ends. A definitely positive quantity with the energy dimension was defined. The quantity was verified to remain a constant during the motion. The investigation indicates that an energy-like conserved quantity may exist in a nonlinear nonconservative continuous system.

  3. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  4. On the Output-Inflation Relationship When Price and Quantity Adjustments are Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danziger, Leif; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    A vast literature analyzes the real effects of price-adjustment costs assuming that quantity adjustments are costless. In this paper, we analyze whether the presence of quantity-adjustments costs, which presumably are significant, change the traditional results on the impact of inflation....... In particular, recent findings suggest that quantity-adjustment costs may remove the linkage between output and inflation. We show that this is not the case when inflation is anticipated. On the contrary, quantity-adjustment costs may significantly amplify the consequences of price-adjustment costs...

  5. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  6. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reji K Dhaman; V Krishnakumar; V P Mahadevan Pillai; M Satyanarayana; K Raghunath

    2014-02-01

    The study on the optical characteristics of aerosol is carried out using the dual polarization lidar observations from the tropical inland station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) for the period of observation during the year 2010. The summer and monsoon observation days show high scattering ratio at the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and at the lower stratosphere region. The depolarization ratio is also high at this altitude due to the transport of particulates to the TTL layer by the active convection prevailing at the period. The study reveals more dependable values of scattering ratio that are seasonal and range-dependent.

  7. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  8. Antibodies in falciparum malaria: what matters most, quantity or quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnaa Bouharoun-Tayoun

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent demonstration that antibodies that are protective agains Plasmodium falciparum malaria may act in collaboration with blood monocytes, we have investigated the isotype content of sera from individuals with defined clinical states of resistance or susceptibility to malaria. Profound differences in the distribution of each Ig subclass and particulary in the ratio of cytophilic versus noncytophilic antibodies were found. In protected subjects, two cytophilic isotypes, IgG1 and IgG3 were found to predominate. In non-protected subjects, i.e. children and primary attack adults, three different situations were encountered: a an imbalance in which IgG2, a non-cytophilic class, predominated (mostly seen in primary attacks; b imbalance in which mostly IgM antibodies predominated (a frequent event in children or c less frequently, an overall low level of antimalarial antibodies. Of 33 non immune subjects studied all, except one, had one of the above defects. The function of total Ig presenting such an isotype imbalance was studied in vitro in Antibody-Dependent -Cellular-Inhibition assays. Not only did IgG from protected subjects cooperate efficiently with blood monocytes, whilst IgG from non-protected groups did not, but moreover the latter inhibit the in vitro effect of the former: in competition assays whole IgG from primary attack cases with increased IgG2 content, competed with IgG from immune adults, thus suggesting that non-protected subjects had antibodies to epitopes critical for protection, but that these antibodies are non functional.

  9. After trees die: quantities and determinants of necromass across Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-J. Chao

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon basin, one of the most substantial biomass carbon pools on earth, is characterised by strong macroecological gradients in biomass, mortality rates, and wood density from west to east. These gradients could affect necromass stocks, but this has not yet been tested. This study aims to assess the stocks and determinants of necromass across Amazonian forests. Field-based and literature data were used to find relationships between necromass and possible determinants. Furthermore, a simple model was applied to estimate and extrapolate necromass stocks across terra firma Amazonian forests. In eight northwestern and three northeastern Amazonian permanent plots, volumes of coarse woody debris (≥10 cm diameter were measured in the field and the density of each decay class was estimated. Forest structure and historical mortality data were used to determine the factors controlling necromass. Necromass is greater in forests with low stem mortality rates (northeast rather than in forests with high stem mortality rates (northwest (58.5±10.6 and 27.3±3.2 Mg ha−1, respectively. Using all published necromass values, we find that necromass across terra firma forests in Amazonia is positively related to both forest dynamics (mortality mass inputs and a surrogate for decomposition rate (average wood density of living trees and forest structure (biomass, but is better explained by forest dynamics. We propose an improved method to estimate necromass for plots where necromass has not been measured. The estimates, together with other actual measurements of necromass, were scaled-up to project a total Amazonian necromass of 9.6±1.0 Pg C. The ratio of necromass (on average weighted by forest region to coarse aboveground biomass is 0.127. Overall, we find (1 a strong spatial trend in necromass in parallel with other macroecological gradients and (2 that necromass is a substantial component of the carbon pool

  10. Student reasoning about ratio and proportion in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    To many students, introductory physics must seem a fast-moving parade of abstract and somewhat mysterious quantities. Most such quantities are rooted in proportional reasoning. Using ratio, physicists construct the force experienced by a unit charge, and attach the name electric field, or characterize a motion with the velocity change that occurs in a unit time. While physicists reason about these ratios without conscious effort, students tend to resort to memorized algorithms, and at times struggle to match the appropriate algorithm to the situation encountered. Although the term ``proportional reasoning'' is prevalent, skill in reasoning with these ratio quantities is neither acquired nor applied as a single cognitive entity. Expert ability seems to be characterized by the intentional use of a variety of components, or elements of proportional reasoning, by a fluency in shifting from one component to another, and by a skill in selecting from among these components. Based on this perspective, it is natural to expect students to develop proportional reasoning ability in fits and starts as various facets are acquired and integrated into existing understandings. In an ongoing collaboration between Western Washington University, New Mexico State University, and Rutgers, we are attempting to map the rich cognitive terrain of proportional reasoning, and to use our findings to guide the design of instruction that develops fluency. This talk will present a provisional set of proportional reasoning components, along with research tasks that have been developed to measure student ability along these components. Student responses will be presented as evidence of specific modes of thinking. The talk will conclude with a brief outline of our approach to improving student understanding.

  11. Optimal trading quantity integration as a basis for optimal portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper points out the reason behind calculating and using optimal trading quantity in conjunction with Markowitz’s Modern portfolio theory. In the opening part the author presents an example of calculating optimal weights using Markowitz’s Mean-Variance approach, followed by an explanation of basic logic behind optimal trading quantity. The use of optimal trading quantity is not limited to systems with Bernoulli outcome, but can also be used when trading shares, futures, options etc. Optimal trading quantity points out two often-overlooked axioms: (1 a system with negative mathematical expectancy can never be transformed in a system with positive mathematical expectancy, (2 by missing the optimal trading quantity an investor can turn a system with positive expectancy into a negative one. Optimal trading quantity is that quantity which maximizes geometric mean (growth function of a particular system. To determine the optimal trading quantity for simpler systems, with a very limited number of outcomes, a set of Kelly’s formulas is appropriate. In the conclusion the summary of the paper is presented.

  12. Direct and efficient stereological estimation of total cell quantities using electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb

    2006-01-01

    and local stereological probes through arbitrarily fixed points for estimation of total quantities inside cells are presented. The quantities comprise (total) number, length, surface area, volume or 3D spatial distribution for organelles as well as total amount of gold particles, various compounds...

  13. David Hume's Monetary Theory Revisited: Was He Really a Quantity Theorist and an Inflationist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerlind, Carl

    2005-01-01

    David Hume's monetary theory has been controversial since its formulation. Lately, the focus has been on Hume's alleged misapplication of the quantity theory of money. While he appears to subscribe to a simple quantity theory with money neutrality, in a famously contested passage in the essay Of Money, he violates the neutrality condition by…

  14. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar under...

  15. 48 CFR 852.270-2 - Bread and bakery products-quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bread and bakery products-quantities. 852.270-2 Section 852.270-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Bread and bakery products—quantities. As prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Bread and...

  16. Lie Symmetrical Non-Noether Conserved Quantities of Poincaré-Chetaev Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng-Yu; FANG Jian-Hui

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the Poincaré-Chetaev equations under the general infinitesimal transformations of Lie groups is discussed. First, we establish the determining equations of Lie symmetry of the equations. Second, the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the equations is deduced.

  17. The Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of holonomic Hamiltonian system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jian-Hui; Liao Yong-Pan; Peng Yong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of a holonomic Hamiltonian system under the general infinitesimal transformations of groups. Firstly, we establish the determining equations of Lie symmetry of the system. Secondly, the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the system is deduced. Finally,an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  18. Many conserved quantities induced by Lie symmetries of a Lagrangian system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nucci, M.C., E-mail: nucci@unipg.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica and INFN Sezione Perugia, Universita di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2011-03-14

    Lie symmetries along with either Noether theorem or Jacobi Last Multiplier yield all the conserved quantities that one may seek and even more. We show that three new conserved quantities derived in Jian-Hui Fang, Ming-Jiang Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhang (2010) can be algorithmically obtained by these old methods. Even more than three.

  19. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  20. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  1. Vowel quantity and the fortis-lenis distinction in North Low Saxon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prehn, M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this phonological investigation is to establish whether the primary prosodic feature in Low German dialects is tone, quantity, or something else entirely. All in all, we find that Low German employs a combination of vowel quality and vowel quantity, which carries functional load. It is a

  2. Quantity Representation in Children and Rhesus Monkeys: Linear Versus Logarithmic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Ready, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The performances of 4- and 5-year-olds and rhesus monkeys were compared using a computerized task for quantity assessment. Participants first learned two quantity anchor values and then responded to intermediate values by classifying them as similar to either the large anchor or the small anchor. Of primary interest was an assessment of where the…

  3. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  4. Lie Symmetry and Non-Noether Conserved Quantity for Hamiltonian Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠彬

    2004-01-01

    A non-Noether conserved quantity for the Hamiltonian system is studied. A particular infinitesimal transformation is given and the determining equations of Lie symmetry are established. An existence theorem of the non-Noether conserved quantity is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  5. Non-Noether conserved quantity for differential equations of motion in the phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A non-Noether conserved quantity for the differential equations of motion of mechanical systems in the phase space is studied. The differential equations of motion of the systems are established and the determining equations of Lie symmetry are given. An existence theorem of non-Noether conserved quantity is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  7. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  8. The Surface-to-Volume Ratio in Thermal Physics: From Cheese Cube Physics to Animal Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The surface-to-volume ratio is an important quantity in thermal physics. For example it governs the behaviour of heating or cooling of physical objects as a function of size like, e.g. cubes or spheres made of different material. The starting point in our paper is the simple physics problem of how cheese cubes of different sizes behave if heated…

  9. Associations between specific technologies and adolescent sleep quantity, sleep quality, and parasomnias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Teresa; Broglia, Emma; Thomas, G Neil; Taheri, Shahrad

    2014-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that weekday bedtime use of six technologies would be significantly associated with eight sleep parameters studied relating to sleep quantity, sleep quality, and parasomnias. In our cross-sectional study, we previously administered validated age-appropriate questionnaires (School Sleep Habits Survey, Technology Use Questionnaire). Participating adolescents (n=738; 54.5% boys) were aged 11-13 years and were from the Midlands region of the United Kingdom in 2010. Frequent use of all technology types was significantly inversely associated with weekday sleep duration (hours). Frequent music listeners and video gamers had significantly prolonged sleep onset (β=7.03 [standard error {SE}, 2.66]; Ptechnology types. The greatest effect was observed in frequent television viewers (odds ratio [OR], 4.05 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.06-7.98]). Difficulty falling asleep was significantly associated with frequent mobile telephone use, video gaming, and social networking, with music listeners demonstrating the greatest effect (OR, 2.85 [95%CI, 1.58-5.13]). Music listeners were at increased risk for frequent nightmares (OR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.22-3.45]). Frequent use of all technologies except for music and mobile telephones was significantly associated with greater cognitive difficulty in shutting off. Frequent television viewers were almost four times more likely to report higher sleepwalking frequency (OR, 3.70 [95% CI, 1.89-7.27]). Frequent weekday technology use at bedtime was associated with significant adverse effects on multiple sleep parameters. If confirmed in other samples and longitudinally, improving sleep hygiene through better management of technology could enhance the health and well-being of adolescent populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electromyography analysis of natural mastication behavior using varying mouthful quantities of two types of gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Kaoru; Gao, Zhihong; Ishihara, Sayaka; Funami, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of mouthful quantities and mechanical properties of gels on natural mastication behaviors using electromyography (EMG). Two types of hydrocolloid gels (A and K) with similar fracture loads but different moduli and fracture strains were served to eleven normal women in 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-g masses in a randomized order. EMG activities from both masseter muscles were recorded during natural mastication. Because of the similar fracture loads, the numbers of chews, total muscle activities, and entire oral processing times were similar for similar masses of both gel types. Prior to the first swallow, the more elastic K gel with a higher fracture strain required higher muscle activities than the brittle A gel, which had higher modulus. Majority of subjects had preferred sides of chewing, but all subjects with or without preferred sides used both masseters during the consumption of gels. Similar effects of masses and types of gels were observed in EMG activities of both sides of masseters. Contributions of the dominant side of chewing were diminished with increasing masses of gels, and the mass dependency on ratio of the dominant side was more pronounced with K gel. More repetitions of smaller masses required greater muscle activities and longer periods for the consumption of 24-g gel portions. Reduction in the masses with an increased number of repetitions necessitated slower eating and more mastication to consume the gel portions. These observations suggest that chewing using both sides is more effective and unconsciously reduces mastication times during the consumption of gels.

  11. Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity, and mortality risk of individuals with diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. METHODS: This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992-2000 with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.91] and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64-0.89]. No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07-1.88], carbohydrate (1.67[1.18-2.37] and sugar intake (1.53[1.12-2.09] were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI≤25 kg/m(2; 22% of study population but not among overweight individuals (P interaction≤0.04. These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. CONCLUSIONS: High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes.

  12. Estimated quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagros, Annika (Sannio and Riekkola OY (Finland))

    2008-12-15

    The quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H type repository have been estimated in this report. The repository is assumed to be constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Western Finland. Both the total quantities of the materials introduced into the repository and the quantities of materials that remain in the repository after closure have been calculated. The calculations are largely based on a similar work regarding the material quantities in the Finnish KBS-3V repository and the main goal has been to identify the differences between the KBS-3H and KBS-3V repositories with respect to the type and quantities of residual materials. As the design of the KBS-3H repository is not final yet, the results are only preliminary. Several alternative designs were assumed in the calculations, resulting in different total quantities of materials. The design alternatives that had the greatest effect on the total material quantities were the two different tunnel backfill options, bentonite-crushed rock and Friedland clay. If Friedland clay is used instead of a bentonite-crushed rock mixture, the total quantity of pyrite remaining in the repository is 20 times larger and the quantities of organic materials and gypsum are also increased significantly. The other design alternatives did not have a substantial effect on the total material quantities. The remaining quantity of cement can be reduced by some 20% by selecting the silica grouting alternative in the sealing of the rock mass and low-pH cement in the shotcreting of the repository, instead of using the ordinary cement alternatives. If the total quantity of steel should be minimised, the use of the DAWE design alternative would be better than the Basic Design, although the total reduction would be less than 10%. The main difference between the different drift end plug alternatives is related to the total remaining quantity of silica, which is some 80% smaller if the rock plug is used instead of the LHHP (Low Heat High

  13. How high: Quantity as a predictor of cannabis-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on cannabis use has emphasized frequency as a predictor of problems. Studies of other drugs reveal that frequency relates to psychological and physiological outcomes, but quantity also plays an important role. In the study of cannabis, quantity has been difficult to assess due to the wide range of products and means of consumption. Methods The present study introduces three new measures of quantity, and examines their contribution to cannabis-related problems. Over 5,900 adults using cannabis once or more per month completed an internet survey that inquired about use, dependence, social problems and respiratory health. In addition to detailing their frequency of cannabis use, participants also reported three measures of quantity: number of quarter ounces consumed per month, usual intensity of intoxication, and maximum intensity of intoxication. Results Frequency of use, monthly consumption, and levels of intoxication predicted respiratory symptoms, social problems and dependence. What is more, each measure of quantity accounted for significant variance in outcomes after controlling for the effects of frequency. Conclusion These findings indicate that quantity is an important predictor of cannabis-related outcomes, and that the three quantity measures convey useful information about use.

  14. Quantity of plant leaf area on three major public squares in Kunming City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGYan; ZHAOLin-sen; ZHAOYu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Regressive formulae to calculate the quantity of plant leaf area for 13 species of ornamental plants were set up based on investigation data of 30 species on 3 major public squares (Dongfeng square, Shengli square and Guandu square) in Kunruing City, China, which were applied to calculate quantities of plant leaf area of these 13 species. The quantities of plant leaf area for the other 17 ornamental plant species on these squares were directly measured, and the total quantity of plant leaf area of each studied square was obtained individually. The results showed that the quantity of plant leaf area on Shengli square with ornamental plants structure composed of arbor tree species, shrub tree species and turf grass was highest among the three squares. It is believed that the design model of multi-storied vertical structure and proper tending of plant community could not only increase the quantity of plant leaf area, but also play an important role in generating ecological and landscaping benefits.Some corresponding suggestions were put forward on the basis of comprehensive analyses on the plant leaf area quantity of the three representative squares in Kunming urban area.

  15. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  16. Shunting ratios for MHD flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birzvalk, Yu.

    1978-01-01

    The shunting ratio and the local shunting ratio, pertaining to currents induced by a magnetic field in a flow channel, are properly defined and systematically reviewed on the basis of the Lagrange criterion. Their definition is based on the energy balance and related to dimensionless parameters characterizing an MHD flow, these parameters evolving from the Hartmann number and the hydrodynamic Reynolds number as well as the magnetic Reynolds number, and the Lundquist number. These shunting ratios, of current density in the core of a stream (uniform) or equivalent mean current density to the short-circuit (maximum) current density, are given here for a slot channel with nonconducting or conducting walls, for a conduction channel with heavy side rails, and for an MHD-flow around bodies. 5 references, 1 figure.

  17. Form factor ratio from unpolarized elastic electron-proton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Simone; Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle

    2016-11-01

    A reanalysis of unpolarized electron-proton elastic scattering data is done in terms of the electric to magnetic form factor squared ratio. This observable is in principle more robust against experimental correlations and global normalizations. The present analysis shows indeed that it is a useful quantity that contains reliable and coherent information. The comparison with the ratio extracted from the measurement of the longitudinal to transverse polarization of the recoil proton in polarized electron-proton scattering shows that the results are compatible within the experimental errors. Limits are set on the kinematics where the physical information on the form factors can be safely extracted. The results presented in this work bring a decisive piece of information to the controversy on the deviation of the proton form factors from the dipole dependence.

  18. Design of passive vehicle suspensions for maximal least damping ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm C.; Swift, Stuart J.

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the use of the least damping ratio among system poles as a performance metric in passive vehicle suspensions. Methods are developed which allow optimal solutions to be computed in terms of non-dimensional quantities in a quarter-car vehicle model. Solutions are provided in graphical form for convenient use across vehicle types. Three suspension arrangements are studied: the standard suspension involving a parallel spring and damper and two further suspension arrangements involving an inerter. The key parameters for the optimal solutions are the ratios of unsprung mass to sprung mass and suspension static stiffness to tyre vertical stiffness. A discussion is provided of performance trends in terms of the key parameters. A comparison is made with the optimisation of ride comfort and tyre grip metrics for various vehicle types.

  19. Experimental study and modeling of the deuterium releasing quantity in a pulsed vacuum arc discharge with a metal deuteride cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei-Xiang; Long, Ji-Dong; Zheng, Le; Dong, Pan; Li, Chen; Chen, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The pulsed vacuum arc discharge using a metal deuteride cathode is widely applied as a deuterium ion source, where the upper limit of the deuterium ion yield is largely determined by the deuterium releasing quantity (DRQ) from the cathode. This work aims to measure the DRQ at various discharge conditions, and meanwhile develop a simple thermoelectric model to evaluate the deuterium liberation from different sources, such as the crater vicinity during the arc power-on phase and the hot crater in the afterglow. The calculated DRQ are in accordance with the experimental results obtained by measuring the D2 pressure evolution in the early afterglow using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the model reveals that at low arc current (<10 A), the DRQ orginates dominantly from the crater vicinity, leading to a low conversion efficiency of the released deuterium to ions and a high D:Ti elemental ratio in the released cathode vapor.

  20. New non-Noether conserved quantities of mechanical system in phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiang-Hong; Fang Jian-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying non-Noether conserved quantities of Lie symmetry and of form invariance for a mechanical system in phase space under the general infinitesimal transformation of groups. We obtain a new non-Noether conserved quantity of Lie symmetry of the system, and Hojman and Mei's results are of special cases of our conclusion. We find a condition under which the form invariance of the system will lead to a Lie symmetry, and, further,obtain a new non-Noether conserved quantity of form invariance of the system. An example is given finally to illustrate these results.

  1. Exact Solutions and Conserved Quantities in f(R,T) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores Noether and Noether gauge symmetries of anisotropic universe model in $f(R,T)$ gravity. We consider two particular models of this gravity and evaluate their symmetry generators as well as associated conserved quantities. We also find exact solution by using cyclic variable and investigate its behavior via cosmological parameters. The behavior of cosmological parameters turns out to be consistent with recent observations which indicates accelerated expansion of the universe. Next we study Noether gauge symmetry and corresponding conserved quantities for both isotropic and anisotropic universe models. We conclude that symmetry generators and the associated conserved quantities appear in all cases.

  2. Lie symmetries and non-Noether conserved quantities for Hamiltonian canonical equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing-Li; Chen Li-Qun; Xie Feng-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying Lie symmetries and non-Noether conserved quantities of Hamiltonian dynamical systems in phase space. Based on the infinitesimal transformations with respect to the generalized coordinates and generalized momenta, we obtain the determining equations and structure equation of the Lie symmetry for Hamiltonian dynamical systems. This work extends the research of non-Noether conserved quantity for Hamilton canonical equations,and leads directly to a new type of non-Noether conserved quantities of the systems. Finally, an example is given to illustrate these results.

  3. Researching the possibility of production of dried porcine meat with decreased quantity of salt

    OpenAIRE

    Lilić Slobodan; Karan Dragica; Vidanović D.

    2004-01-01

    When manufacturing dried meat products the meat is usualy being conserved with 5-7% salt what results in a pretty high quantity of NaCl in end products (6-11%), and therefore sodium which is one of the major causes of hypertension nowadays. Data regarding the quantity of NaCl in end products are different. In hams at the end of ripening quantity of NaCl is 3,5-11,6% depending on whether the piece of meat was taken from middle or outer part. Dried meat from China usually has 7,6% NaCl (10). Af...

  4. Noether-Lie symmetry and conserved quantities of mechanical system in phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jian-Hui; Liao Yong-Pan; Ding Ning; Wang Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new kind of symmetry and its conserved quantities of a mechanical system in phase space are studied. The definition of this new symmetry, i.e. a Noether-Lie symmetry, is presented, and the criterion of this symmetry is also given. The Noether conserved quantity and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of the NoetherLie symmetry of the system are obtained. The Noether-Lie symmetry contains the Nocthcr symmetry and the Lie symmetry, and has more generalized significance.

  5. Non-Noether symmetries and Lutzky conservative quantities of nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical ystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shi-Wang; Tang Yi-Fa; Fu Jing-Li

    2006-01-01

    Non-Noether symmetries and conservative quantities of nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems are investigated in this paper. Based on the relationships among motion, nonconservative forces, nonholonomic constrained forces and Lagrangian, non-Noether symmetries and Lutzky conservative quantities are presented for nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems. The relation between non-Noether symmetry and Noether symmetry is discussed and it is further shown that non-Noether conservative quantities can be obtained by a complete set of Noether invariants. Finally, an example is given to illustrate these results.

  6. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  7. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...

  8. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which is ...

  9. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  10. Simplifying Chemical Reactor Design by using Molar Quantities Instead of Fractional Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee F.; Falconer, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Explains the advantages of using molar quantities in chemical reactor design. Advocates the use of differential versions of reactor mass balances rather than the integrated forms. Provides specific examples and cases to illustrate the principles. (ML)

  11. 21 CFR 701.13 - Declaration of net quantity of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of net quantity blown, embossed, or molded on a glass or plastic surface is permissible when all... practice or by unavoidable deviations in good manufacturing practice will be recognized. Variations...

  12. New conserved quantities of Noether-Mei symmetry of mechanical system in phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jian-Hui; Liu Yang-Kui; Zhang Xiao-Ni

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two new types of conserved quantities deduced by Noether-Mei symmetry of mechanical system in phase space. The definition and criterion of Noether-Mei symmetry for the system are given. A coordination function is introduced, and the conditions under which the Noether-Mei symmetry leads to the two types of conserved quantities and the forms of the two types of conserved quantities are obtained. An illustrative example is given. The coordination function can be selected according to the demand for finding the gauge function, and the choice of the coordination function has multiformity, so more conserved quantities deduced from Noether-Mei symmetry of mechanical system can be obtained.

  13. Maximization of integral outlet quantities of an axisymmetric synthetic jet actuator based on a loudspeaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordík J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to find an optimal nozzle size of an axisymmetric synthetic jet actuator based on a loudspeaker. The desirable maximized output quantities are: volumetric flow, momentum flux, and kinetic energy flux. To evaluate these quantities velocity profiles were measured using a hot-wire probe at the actuator nozzle exit. Six different nozzle diameters and three supplied real power levels were tested to find the maxima of the quantities. The actuator operated always at resonance during experiments. It was found out that the momentum flux and the kinetic energy flux reach distinguishable local maxima at particular diameters of the nozzle. Besides, the maxima of the particular quantities do not coincide and the best nozzle size slightly increases with the supplied real power to the actuator.

  14. Experimental research on influence of emulsifier on crystallization quantity of emulsion explosives under dynamic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-yao; YAN Shi-long; WU Hong-bo; YUAN Sheng-fang

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic pressure was applied on emulsion explosive by using an underwater explosion measuring apparatus, and the crystallization quantity was measured by dissolution method after emulsion explosive was pressed; the influence of emulsi fier content and type was analyzed. The experimental results show that emulsifier content and type have an important effect on crystallization quantity of emulsion explosive. The crystallization quantity will reduce with Span-80 content from 2% to 4%, so the demulsification and crystallization will decrease if the emulsifier content improves appropriately and the dynamic pressure resistance will increase. For emulsion explosive emulsified by T-152 and Span-80, the crystallization quantity with T-152 is less than that of Span-80 under the same dynamic pressure. This shows that the emulsifying effect of T-152 is better than Span-80.

  15. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Fukunaga

    Full Text Available The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases.

  16. Approximating relational observables by absolute quantities: a quantum accuracy-size trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Loveridge, Leon; Busch, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The notion that any physical quantity is defined and measured relative to a reference frame is traditionally not explicitly reflected in the theoretical description of physical experiments where, instead, the relevant observables are typically represented as ‘absolute’ quantities. However, the emergence of the resource theory of quantum reference frames as a new branch of quantum information science in recent years has highlighted the need to identify the physical conditions under which a quantum system can serve as a good reference. Here we investigate the conditions under which, in quantum theory, an account in terms of absolute quantities can provide a good approximation of relative quantities. We find that this requires the reference system to be large in a suitable sense.

  17. On the five base quantities of nature and SI (The International System of Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaptay G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown here that five base quantities (and the corresponding five base units of nature are sufficient to define all derived quantities (and their units and to describe all natural phenomena. The base quantities (and their base units are: length (m, mass (kg, time (s, temperature (K and electric charge (C. The amount of substance (mole is not taken as a base quantity of nature and the Avogadro constant is not considered as a fundamental constant of nature, as they are both based on an arbitrary definition (due to the arbitrary value of 0.012 kg for the mass of 1 mole of C-12 isotope. Therefore, the amount of substance (mole is moved from the list of base quantities to the category of the supplementary units (to be re-created after its abrogation in 1995. Based on its definition, the luminous intensity (cd is not a base quantity (unit, therefore it is moved to the list of derived quantities (units. The ampere and coulomb are exchanged by places in the list of base and derived units, as ampere is a speed of coulombs (but SI defines meter, not its speed as a base unit. The five base quantities are re-defined in this paper by connecting them to five fundamental constants of nature (the most accurately known frequency of the hydrogen atom, the speed of light, the Planck constant, the Boltzmann constant and the elementary charge with their numerical values fixed in accordance with their CODATA 2006 values (to be improved by further experiments.

  18. Determinants of chestnuts demanded quantities : an empirical estimation using panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Paulo; Mourão, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we studied the economic determinants of chestnuts demanded quantities. It concludes by stating that chestnuts are only demanded in countries with the tradition of their presence in people’s diets, receiving strong challenges from the globalisation process. We also have found a significant dependence on real income per capita of chestnuts demanded quantities. Price effects were concluded as not influencing CDQ in the panel estimations.

  19. Management contracts and competition in prices or quantities as strategic tools for differentiated duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Velosa, Monique; Jácome Liévano, Flavio

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes a differentiated duopoly, in which each business use twos strategic tools to compete with its rival: management incentive contracts, and a choice between prices and quantities. Using the non-cooperative game theory, it is found in equilibrium that (i) when the businesses (i) do not hire managers with substitute (complementary) price contracts are the dominant strategy; with complementary items,quantity (price) contracts become the dominant strategy; (ii) when the compani...

  20. Testing the Children Quantity-Quality Trade-Off in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santosh; Kugler, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a representative sample from India, we test the empirical validity of Quantity-Quality tarde-off model of Becker and Lewis (1973). To address the endogeneity arising from the joint determination of quantity and quality of children by parents, we instrument the family size by sex of the first child. We find a negative relationship between family size and children's educational attainment, even after controlling for parent's characteristics and birth order of children. ...

  1. Lie Symmetrical Non-Noether Conserved Quantity of Mechanical System in Phase Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Hui; PENG Yong; LIAO Yong-Pan; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the differential equations ofmotion of mechanical system in phase space under the general infinitesimal transformations of groups. Firstly, we givethe determining equations of the Lie symmetry of the system. Secondly, the non-Noether conserved quantity of the Liesymmetry is derived. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  2. Lie Symmetrical Non-Noether Conserved Quantity of Mechanical System in Phase Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGJian-Hui; PENGYong; LIAOYong-Pan; LIHong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the differential equations of motion of mechanical system in phase space under the general infinitesimal transformations of groups. Firstly. we give the determining equations of the Lie symmetry of the system. Secondly, the non-Noether conserved quantity of the Lie symmetry is derived. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  3. Conformal invariance and generalized Hojman conserved quantities of mechanico-electrical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuan-Cheng; Xia Li-Li; Wang Xiao-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies conformal invariance and generalized Hojman conserved quantities of mechanico-electrical systems. The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance for mechanico-electrical systems are provided. The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry under the infinitesimal singleparameter transformation group. The generalized Hojman conserved quantities from the conformal invariance of the system are given. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  4. Quantity discount contracts for supply chain coordination under asymmetric information and disruptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The quantity discount contracts are investigated for a one-supplier-one-retailer supply chain with asymmetric information when the retailer's cost is disrupted. While the retailer's cost structure is asymmetric information, two all-unit quantity discount contract models, fixed expected-profit percentage discount(FEPD) and fixed wholesale-pricing percentage discount(FWPD) under asymmetric information are proposed in a regular scenario. When the retailer's cost distribution fluctuates due to disruptions, the ...

  5. The Effect of Quantity, Quality and Timing of Headquarters-Initiated Knowledge Flows on Subsidiary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Mahnke, Volker; Ambos, Björn

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model that explains how the quality, quantity and timing of knowledge flows from headquarters influence subsidiary performance. It extends recent research on vertical knowledge flows between global headquarters and international subsidiaries. We find a positive...... quality/performance relationship and a curvilinear quantity/performance relationship, indicating that too much knowledge sharing can be detrimental to the receiving subsidiary. Most importantly, we show that the timing of a knowledge flow significantly affects subsidiary sales performance....

  6. Critical point quantities and integrability conditions for a class of quintic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一戎; 肖萍

    2004-01-01

    For a class of quintic systems, the first 16 critical point quantities are obtained by computer algebraic system Mathematica, and the necessary and sufficient conditions that there exists an exact integral in a neighborhood of the origin are also given. The technique employed is essentially different from usual ones. The recursive formula for computation of critical point quantities is linear and then avoids complex integral operations. Some results show an interesting contrast with the related results on quadratic systems.

  7. Conformal invariance and a kind of Hojman conserved quantity of the Nambu system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Fang Jian-Hui; Zhang Ke-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Conformal invariance and a kind of Hojman conserved quantity of the Nambu system under infinitesimal transformations are studied. The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance of the system are presented. The necessary and sufficient condition under which the conformal invariance of the system would have Lie symmetry under infinitesimal transformations is derived. Then, the condition of existence and a kind of Hojman conserved quantity are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  8. Non-Noether Conserved Quantity of Poincaré-Chetaev Equations of a Generalized Classical Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng-Yu; FANG Jian-Hui; WANG Peng; DING Ning

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the Poincaré-Chetaev equations of a generalized classical mechanics under the general infinitesimal transformations of Lie groups is discussed. First, we establish the determining equations of Lie symmetry of the equations. Second, the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the equations is deduced. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  9. Automated Decisional Model for Optimum Economic Order Quantity Determination Using Price Regressive Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşu, M. M.; Tarbă, C. I.; Neagu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The current models for inventory management are complementary, but together they offer a large pallet of elements for solving complex problems of companies when wanting to establish the optimum economic order quantity for unfinished products, row of materials, goods etc. The main objective of this paper is to elaborate an automated decisional model for the calculus of the economic order quantity taking into account the price regressive rates for the total order quantity. This model has two main objectives: first, to determine the periodicity when to be done the order n or the quantity order q; second, to determine the levels of stock: lighting control, security stock etc. In this way we can provide the answer to two fundamental questions: How much must be ordered? When to Order? In the current practice, the business relationships with its suppliers are based on regressive rates for price. This means that suppliers may grant discounts, from a certain level of quantities ordered. Thus, the unit price of the products is a variable which depends on the order size. So, the most important element for choosing the optimum for the economic order quantity is the total cost for ordering and this cost depends on the following elements: the medium price per units, the stock cost, the ordering cost etc.

  10. Establishment and Evaluation of Decommissioning Plant Inventory DB and Waste Quantity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Moon, Sang-Rae; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Hoon; Jung, Seung Hyuk [KONES Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) made a decision for permanent shutdown of Kori-1 and has progressed the strategy determination and R and D for the decommissioning of Kori-1. Decommissioning waste, Structure, System and Components (SSCs) is one of the most important elements. Decommissioning waste quantity is calculated based on Plant Inventory Database (PI DB) with activation and contamination data. Due to the largest portion of waste management and disposal in decommissioning, it is necessary to exactly evaluate waste quantity (applying the regulation, guideline and site-specific characterization) for economic feasibility. In this paper, construction of PI DB and evaluation of waste quantity for Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR-1000) are mainly described. Decommissioning waste quantities evaluated are going to be applied to calculation of the project cost. In fact, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) in Korea expected the decommissioning waste quantity in a range of 14,500-18,850 drums, and predicted appropriate liability for decommissioning fund by using waste quantity. The result of this study is also computed by the range of 14,500-18,850 drums. Since there is no site-specific data for the NPP site, this evaluation is the preliminary analysis.

  11. DYNAMIC TEACHING RATIO PEDAGOGIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiaying

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines an innovative pedagogic model, Dynamic Teaching Ratio (DTR Pedagogic Model, for learning design and teaching strategy aimed at the postsecondary technical education. The model draws on the theory of differential learning, which is widely recognized as an important tool for engaging students and addressing the individual needs of all students. The DTR model caters to the different abilities, interest or learning needs of students and provides different learning approaches based on a student’s learning ability. The model aims to improve students’ academic performance through increasing the lecturer-to-student ratio in the classroom setting. An experimental case study on the model was conducted and the outcome was favourable. Hence, a large-scale implementation was carried out upon the successful trial run. The paper discusses the methodology of the model and its application through the case study and the large-scale implementation.

  12. PLC BASED RATIO CONTROLLER AND MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Badwaik Prof. V. M. Umale

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Automation in an industry using programmable logic controller (PLC can be enumerated by optimizing the use of process control equipment, decreases the response time for process and equipment contingencies, provides information about process status, manages process logic at the plant floor level and increases overall productivity and plant efficiency. The primary reason for designing such a system is to eliminate large cost involved in replacing complicated relay based machine control system & to reduce process time. Ratio control system is feed forward system where one variable is controlled in ratio to another to satisfy some higher level objectives. Two difference chemicals are supplied from different tanks in proper ratio by maintaining the flow of quantity. Then desired mixture is obtained &checks the ratio of composition if any unbalanced, controlled by controlled values of supply tanks. Then this mixture is distributed as per requirements. In Industries for ten machines, total cycle time with existing PLC based system is 75 sec. But our modified PLC based system total cycle time is improved as 45 sec. Hence total reach time of distribution system is improved.

  13. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  14. Diversity not quantity in caregiver speech: Using computational modeling to isolate the effects of the quantity and the diversity of the input on vocabulary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Rowland, Caroline F

    2017-11-01

    Children who hear large amounts of diverse speech learn language more quickly than children who do not. However, high correlations between the amount and the diversity of the input in speech samples makes it difficult to isolate the influence of each. We overcame this problem by controlling the input to a computational model so that amount of exposure to linguistic input (quantity) and the quality of that input (lexical diversity) were independently manipulated. Sublexical, lexical, and multi-word knowledge were charted across development (Study 1), showing that while input quantity may be important early in learning, lexical diversity is ultimately more crucial, a prediction confirmed against children's data (Study 2). The model trained on a lexically diverse input also performed better on nonword repetition and sentence recall tests (Study 3) and was quicker to learn new words over time (Study 4). A language input that is rich in lexical diversity outperforms equivalent richness in quantity for learned sublexical and lexical knowledge, for well-established language tests, and for acquiring words that have never been encountered before. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Green space vegetation quantity in workshop area of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Li, Haifang; Zhong, Yingfei

    2006-04-01

    Aimed at the complex community structure and higher fragmentation of urban green space, and based on the investigation of synusia structure and its coverage, this paper studied the vegetation quantity of ornamental green space in the workshop area of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company, with the help of GIS. The results showed that different life forms of ornamental plants in this area had a greater difference in their single leaf area and leaf area index (LAI), and the LAI was not only depended on single leaf area, but also governed by the shape of tree crown and the intensive degree of branches and leaves. The total vegetation quantity was 1 694.2 hm2, with the average LAI being 7.75, and the vegetation quantity of arbor-shrub-herb and arbor-shrub communities accounted for 79.7% and 92.3% of the total, respectively, reflecting that the green space structure was dominated by arbor species and by arbor-shrub-herb and arbor-shrub community types. Single layer-structured lawn had a less percentage, while the vegetation quantity of herb synusia accounted for 22.9% of the total, suggesting an afforestation characteristic of "making use of every bit of space" in the workshop area. The vegetation quantity of urban ornamental green space depended on the area of green space, its synusia structure, and the LAI and coverage of ornamental plants. In enlarging urban green space, ornamental plant species with high LAI should be selected, and community structure should be improved to have a higher vegetation quantity in urban area. To quantify the vegetation quantity of urban ornamental green space more accurately, synusia should be taken as the unit to measure the LAI of typical species, and the synusia structure and its coverage of different community types should be investigated with the help of remote sensing images and GIS.

  16. General survey and conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Publikatie die bestaat uit twee delen: 1. General survey of the relation between water quantity and water quality; 2. Conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

  17. Study of dimensionless quantities to analyse front and rear wall of keyhole formed during laser beam welding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Kumar; S Dash; A K Tyagi; Baldev Raj

    2013-04-01

    Fluid flow mechanisms present in Keyhole (KH) during Laser Beam Welding (LBW) process influence the associated heat and mass transfer. In an attempt to describe these complexities for eventual optimization of LBW parameters, a dimensionless analysis using Mach (Ma), Raleigh (Ra), Reynolds (Re) and Marangoni (Mg) numbers have been carried out. This analysis describes hydrodynamics of melt and vapour phase appearing in the front and rear wall of KH. The non-dimensional hydrodynamic quantities describe the mechanism behind flow pattern present in meltvapour in terms of ratio of convection–conduction heat transfer occurring within KH. The analysis shows that the higher Marangoni number indicates stronger Marangoni convection in the KH causing relatively higher capillary flow in the melt pool. The laminar-turbulent flow of melt-vapour in KH medium is described in terms of ratio of Reynolds and Mach numbers (Re/Ma). The pressure distribution in the KH accounts for the melt-vapour ejection rate. A relationship between depth and radius of KH has been obtained as a function of delivered laser power.

  18. Odds ratios deconstructed: A new way to understand and explain odds ratios as conditional risk ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Fred M; Hoppe, Daniel J; Walter, Stephen D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this analysis was to provide an alternative derivation of the odds ratio (OR) to provide an intuitive meaning, freeing it from any mention of odds, which may make it a more useful concept for clinicians to use when describing treatment effect. By examining the four possible combinations of treatment/control and corresponding outcomes, we considered the conditional risk ratio (RR, also known as relative risk) of an event with the treatment compared with an event with the control for pairs of patients for whom treatment and control would yield different results. Both matched and unmatched studies are considered. We found that the OR could be derived as the RR of an outcome with treatment compared with an outcome with control conditional on the treatment and control resulting in different outcomes, thus providing a measure of the net benefit of treatment. It has been claimed that the OR comparing the effect of treatment vs. control does not have the same clinical interpretability as RR because it involves ratios of odds and so is difficult to explain in terms of patient numbers. This new derivation provides an interpretation of the OR as an RR but conditional on treatment and control resulting in different outcomes. This may help explain the reason ORs cause interpretation difficulties in practice. Moreover, the OR may be a more clinically useful parameter to patients because it deals with only those situations where the outcome differs between the two groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender ratios for reading difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analyzed data from 1,133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had a school-history of reading problems and from 684 twin pairs from a comparison sample with no reading difficulties. Although the difference between...

  20. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  1. Quality versus Quantity Debate in Swimming: Perceptions and Training Practices of Expert Swimming Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches’ perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire. The main findings of this study were that coaches felt quality training programmes would lead to short term results for youth swimmers, but were in many cases more appropriate for senior swimmers. The coaches suggested that quantity training programmes built an aerobic base for youth swimmers, promoted technical development through a focus on slower swimming and helped to enhance recovery from training or competition. However, the coaches continuously suggested that quantity training programmes must be performed with good technique and they felt this was a misunderstood element. This study was a critical step towards gaining a richer and broader understanding on the debate over Quality versus Quantity training from an expert swimming coaches’ perspective which was not currently available in the research literature. PMID:28713467

  2. The role of quantity surveyors in public–private partnerships in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffie Cruywagen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantity surveyors play an important role in providing cost and contractual advice in the built environment. This article seeks to investigate the current extent of their involvement in public–private partnerships (PPPs in South Africa. Aim: The study intends to establish factors that influence quantity surveyors’ participation in PPPs. Methodology: A mixed-methods research approach was followed by firstly conducting a survey amongst South African quantity surveyors in order to determine their level of participation in PPPs. For triangulation purposes, a case study was also conducted. Results: The results of the research show that, although quantity surveyors have the corresponding skills and competencies required in a PPP project, their current involvement in PPPs in South Africa is limited and that there is a greater role they can play in future. Conclusion: Quantity surveyors are uniquely positioned to play a bigger role in the implementation of PPPs in South Africa.

  3. Quality Versus Quantity Debate in Swimming: Perceptions and Training Practices of Expert Swimming Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent Frank J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches’ perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire. The main findings of this study were that coaches felt quality training programmes would lead to short term results for youth swimmers, but were in many cases more appropriate for senior swimmers. The coaches suggested that quantity training programmes built an aerobic base for youth swimmers, promoted technical development through a focus on slower swimming and helped to enhance recovery from training or competition. However, the coaches continuously suggested that quantity training programmes must be performed with good technique and they felt this was a misunderstood element. This study was a critical step towards gaining a richer and broader understanding on the debate over Quality versus Quantity training from an expert swimming coaches’ perspective which was not currently available in the research literature.

  4. Scaling properties of information-theoretic quantities in density functional reactivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Chunying; Lu, Tian; Ayers, Paul W; Chattaraj, Pratim K; Liu, Shubin

    2015-02-21

    Density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) employs the electron density and its related quantities to describe reactivity properties of a molecular system. Quantities from information theory such as Shannon entropy, Fisher information, and Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy are natural descriptors within the DFRT framework. They have been previously employed to quantify electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and the steric effect. In this work, we examine their scaling properties with respect to the total number of electrons. To that end, we considered their representations in terms of both the electron density and the shape function for isolated atoms and neutral molecules. We also investigated their atomic behaviors in different molecules with three distinct partitioning schemes: Bader's zero-flux, Becke's fuzzy atom, and Hirshfeld's stockholder partitioning. Strong linear relationships of these quantities as a function of the total electron population are reported for atoms, molecules, and atoms in molecules. These relationships reveal how these information-theoretic quantities depend on the molecular environment and the electron population. These trends also indicate how these quantities can be used to explore chemical reactivity for real chemical processes.

  5. Economic Order Quantity Model with Two Levels of Delayed Payment and Bad Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Juanjuan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal retailer’s replenishment policies considering the customers’ bad debt and delayed payment in the three-stage supply chain with the dominant retailer. The effect of bad debt is analyzed on the interest earned and interest charged to build the models of the retailer’s decision in two cases. By analyzing the model, the retailer’s optimal replenishment time and the optimal order quantity are obtained. Furthermore, analyze the effect of parameters on the retailer’s optimal order policies. Finally, the numerical analysis is presented to demonstrate the conclusions. The results show that the delayed payment offered by the manufacturer becomes large, the retailer's optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity increases or remains the same; When the delayed payment time offered by the retailer decreases, the retailer's optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity increases or remains the same. When the fixed ordering cost is reduced, the retailer's optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity decreases or remains the same. When the charged interest is greater than the earned interest, with the bad debt rate increasing, the retailer's optimal order cycle and optimal order quantity is converged to a certain value.

  6. Energetics and conserved quantity of an axially moving string undergoing three-dimensional nonlinear vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqun Chen; C.W.Lim; Hu Ding

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear three-dimensional vibration of axially moving strings is investigated in the view of energetics. The governing equation is derived from the Eulerian equation of motion of a continuum for axially accelerating strings. The time-rate of the total mechanical energy associated with the vibration is calculated for the string with its ends moving in a prescribed way. For a string moving in a constant axial speed and constrained by two fixed ends, a conserved quan-tity is proved to remain unchanged during three-dimensional vibration, while the string energy is not conserved. An approximate conserved quantity is derived from the con-served quantity in the neighborhood of the straight equilib-rium configuration. The approximate conserved quantity is applied to verify the Lyapunov stability of the straight equi-librium configuration. Numerical simulations are performed for a rubber string and a steel string. The results demonstrate the variation of the total mechanical energy and the invari-ance of the conserved quantity.

  7. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Quantity and Quality of Education: Focusing on Korea and OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Beom-Ho; Yun, Chung-Il

    2010-01-01

    Quantity and quality have long been recognized as primary factors to explain educational development. However, our understanding of the relationship between quantity and quality of education is quite limited and unclear. In this context, the purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between quantity and quality of education. To achieve…

  8. 10 CFR 30.72 - Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring... § 30.72 Schedule C—Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an emergency plan for responding to a release. Radioactive material 1 Release fraction Quantity...

  9. Effects of Age, Sex, Body Weight, and Quantity of Alcohol Consumption on Occurrence and Severity of Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Puri, Puneet; Shah, Vijay H; Kamath, Patrick; Sanyal, Arun; Urban, Thomas; Ren, Xiaowei; Katz, Barry; Radaeva, Svetlana; Chalasani, Naga; Crabb, David W

    2016-12-01

    Only a minority of heavy drinking individuals develop alcoholic hepatitis (AH), for unclear reasons. We analyzed data from the Translational Research and Evolving Alcoholic Hepatitis Treatment cohort, consisting of subjects who drink heavily with normal results from liver tests (controls) and patients with AH. We examined risk factors for the development of AH including body mass index (BMI), drinking pattern and quantity, and sex. We compared data from 145 patients with AH and 124 controls based on BMI when they joined the cohort; groups were matched for sex and race. Drinking patterns were assessed using the timeline followback method, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 6-question survey. We performed univariable and multivariable analyses to assess the effects of these factors and their interaction in increasing the risk for AH. We also explored the association between PNPLA3 variants and AH. Cases with AH were older (47 vs 44 y; P = .03). For nearly all measures of quantity of alcohol consumed or frequency of binge drinking, controls drank more heavily than cases with AH. We did not find an association between BMI, sex, drinking patterns, and the presence of AH. Age and BMI were independent predictors for the severity of AH. When we analyzed cases and controls of European ancestry, the PNPLA3 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs738409 was associated with risk for AH (odds ratio, 1.89; P = .007). Compared with heavy drinkers without liver disease, subjects with AH consumed lower levels of alcohol and had less binge drinking, suggesting an increased sensitivity to the toxic effects of alcohol. The risk for AH may be associated with the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Neural Network Approach to Fluid Quantity Measurement in Dynamic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Terzic, Edin; Nagarajah, Romesh; Alamgir, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Sloshing causes liquid to fluctuate, making accurate level readings difficult to obtain in dynamic environments. The measurement system described uses a single-tube capacitive sensor to obtain an instantaneous level reading of the fluid surface, thereby accurately determining the fluid quantity in the presence of slosh. A neural network based classification technique has been applied to predict the actual quantity of the fluid contained in a tank under sloshing conditions.   In A neural network approach to fluid quantity measurement in dynamic environments, effects of temperature variations and contamination on the capacitive sensor are discussed, and the authors propose that these effects can also be eliminated with the proposed neural network based classification system. To examine the performance of the classification system, many field trials were carried out on a running vehicle at various tank volume levels that range from 5 L to 50 L. The effectiveness of signal enhancement on the neural network base...

  11. Estimates of critical quantities from an expansion in mass: Ising model on the simple cubic lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    In Ising model on the simple cubic lattice, we describe the inverse temperature $\\beta$ and other quantities relevant for the computation of critical quantities in terms of a dimensionless squared mass $M$. The critical behaviors of those quantities are represented by the linear differential equations with constant coefficients which are related to critical exponents. We estimate the critical temperature and exponents via an expansion in the inverse powers of the mass under the use of $\\delta$-expansion. The critical inverse temperature $\\beta_{c}$ is estimated first in unbiased manner and then critical exponents are also estimated in biased and unbiased self-contained way including $\\omega$, the correction-to-scaling exponent, $\

  12. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  13. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2001-11-15

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  14. Determining order quantity for small traditional wholesale company by considering business environment through a simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkiat Weeraarchakul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to develop a tool to control the quantity of an order, to increase purchasing staff performance from the service level of 70% - 80% nearly to 99% and increase inventory turnover from 2 - 3 times per month to more than 5 times per month. The purposive sample was selected using four stores of a small trading of consumer products in Ampur Muang Chonburi Province with sales of more than 70 million Baht per year. The study used interviews to examine the decision making processes for order quantity. In addition to using the Microsoft Excel Program to develop a tool for calculating order quantity and a simulation tool. From the study, the service level can be increased from 70% - 80% to 97.28% and the inventory turnover can be increased from 2 - 3 times per month to 6.27 times per month.

  15. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2016-05-16

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  16. An adjusted energy-saving quantity calculation method for building energy-efficient retrofit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清勤; 孟冲

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at a comprehensive assessment of energy-saving retrofitting effect on existing buildings,a calculation method is developed to adjust energy-saving quantity in standard condition for comparison under the same conditions. A mathematical model,method theory and calculation steps are given. Error analysis results show that this method can be applied accurately to practical engineering projects. In a case study of energy-saving quantity assessment before and after retrofitting on a certain hospital in Shanghai,with energy simulation software TRNSYS,detailed application of this method is introduced and analyzed. The method is applied to the case of energy-saving quantity assessment to a hospital in Shanghai before and after retrofitting with the energy simulation software TRNSYS.

  17. Shear Strength of Conductive Adhesive Joints on Rigid and Flexible Substrates Depending on Adhesive Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirman, Martin; Steiner, Frantisek

    2016-05-01

    This article deals with the impact of electrically conductive adhesive quantity on the shear strength of joints glued by adhesives "EPO-TEKⓇ H20S" and "MG8331S" on three types of substrates (FR-4, MELINEXⓇST504, DuPont™ PyraluxⓇAC). These joints were made by gluing chip resistors 1206, 0805 and 0603, with two curing profiles for each adhesive. Different thicknesses of stencil and reductions in the size of the hole in stencils were used for this experiment. These differences have an effect on the quantity of conductive adhesives which must be used on the samples. Samples were measured after the curing process by using a shear strength test applied by the device LabTest 3.030. This article presents the effects of different curing profiles, various types of substrates, and different quantities of adhesives on the mechanical strength of the joint.

  18. Implications of adopting plane angle as a base quantity in the SI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincey, Paul; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of angles within the SI is anomalous compared with other quantities, and there is a case for removing this anomaly by declaring plane angle to be an additional base quantity within the system. It is shown that this could bring several benefits in terms of treating angle on an equal basis with other metrics, removing potentially harmful ambiguities, and bringing SI units more in line with concepts in basic physics, but at the expense of significant upheaval to familiar equations within mathematics and physics. This paper sets out the most important of these changes so that an alternative unit system containing angle as a base quantity can be seen in the round, irrespective of whether it is ever widely adopted. The alternative formulas and units can be treated as the underlying, more general equations of mathematical physics, independent of the units used for angle, which are conventionally simplified by implicitly assuming that the unit used for angle is the radian.

  19. Noether conserved quantities and Lie point symmetries of difference Lagrange-Maxwell equations and lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing-Li; Nie Ning-Ming; Huang Jian-Fei; Jiménez Salvador; Tang Yi-Fa; Vázquez Luis; Zhao Wei-Jia

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to find Noether-type conserved quantities and Lie point symmetries for discrete mechanico-electrical dynamical systems, which leave invariant the set of solutions of the corresponding difference scheme.This approach makes it possible to devise techniques for solving the Lagrange-Maxwell equations in differences which correspond to mechanico-electrical systems, by adapting existing differential equations. In particular, it obtains a new systematic method to determine both the one-parameter Lie groups and the discrete Noether conserved quantities of Lie point symmetries for mechanico-electrical systems. As an application, it obtains the Lie point symmetries and the conserved quantities for the difference equation of a model that represents a capacitor microphone.

  20. Application of sensitivity-analysis techniques to the calculation of topological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Stuart

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the corona occurs preferentially at sites where the magnetic connectivity is either discontinuous or has a large spatial gradient. Hence there is a general interest in computing quantities (like the squashing factor) that characterize the gradient in the field-line mapping function. Here we present an algorithm for calculating certain (quasi)topological quantities using mathematical techniques from the field of ``sensitivity-analysis''. The method is based on the calculation of a three dimensional field-line mapping Jacobian from which all the present topological quantities of interest can be derived. We will present the algorithm and the details of a publicly available set of libraries that implement the algorithm.

  1. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design.

  2. Implications of adopting plane angle as a base quantity in the SI

    CERN Document Server

    Quincey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of angles within the SI is anomalous compared with other quantities, and there is a case for removing this anomaly by declaring plane angle to be an additional base quantity within the system. It is shown that this could bring several benefits in terms of treating angle on an equal basis with other metrics, removing potentially harmful ambiguities, and bringing SI units more in line with concepts in basic physics, but at the expense of significant upheaval to familiar equations within mathematics and physics. This paper sets out the most important of these changes so that an alternative unit system containing angle as a base quantity can be seen in the round, irrespective of whether it is ever widely adopted. The alternative formulas and units can be treated as the underlying, more general equations of mathematical physics, independent of the units used for angle, which are conventionally simplified by implicitly assuming that the unit used for angle is the radian.

  3. Thermodynamics as a multistep relaxation process and the role of observables in different scales of quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, V P

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, we introduce the concept of observable quantities associated with a macroinstrument measuring the density and temperature and with a microinstrument determining the radius of a molecule and its free path length, and also the relationship between these observable quantities. The concept of the number of degrees of freedom, which relates the observable quantities listed above, is generalized to the case of low temperatures. An analogy between the creation and annihilation operators for pairs (dimers) and the creation and annihilation operators for particles (molecules) is carried out. A generalization of the concept of a Bose condensate is introduced for classical molecules as an analog of an ideal liquid (without attraction). The negative pressure in the liquid is treated as holes (of exciton type) in the density of the Bose condensate. The phase transition gas-liquid is calculated for an ideal gas (without attraction). A comparison with experimental data is carried out. In the ...

  4. Combined heuristics for determining order quantity under time-varying demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The time-varying demands for a certain period are often assumed to be less than the basic economic order quantity (EOQ) so that total replenishment quantity rather than economic order quantity is normally considered by most of the heuristics.This acticle focuses on a combined heuristics method for determining order quantity under generalized time-varying demands.The independent policy (IP),abnormal independent policy (AIP) and dependent policies are studied and compared.Using the concepts of normal/abnormal periods and the properties of dependent policies,a dependent policy-based heuristics (DPH) is proposed for solving the order quantity problems with a kind of time-varying demands pattern under which the first period is normal.By merging the Silver-Meal (S-M) heuristics and the dependent policy-based heuristics (DPH),a combined heuristics (DPH/S-M) is developed for solving order quantity problems with generalized time-varying demands.The experimentation shows that (1) for the problem with one normal period,no matter which position the normal period stands,the DPH/S-M could not guarantee better than the S-M heuristics,however it is superior to the S-M heuristics in the case that the demands in the abnormal periods are in descending order,and (2) The DPH/S-M is superior to the S-M heuristics for problems with more than one normal period,and the more the number of normal periods,the greater the improvements.

  5. The classical particle coupled to external electromagnetic field: symmetries and conserved quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gabriel Duarte; Ferreira, Renata Rosa; Thibes, Ronaldo [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We consider a classical particle minimally coupled to an external electromagnetic field, in both non-relativistic and relativistic regimes. The coupling is constructed via the electromagnetic potential which is assumed to satisfy the classical Maxwell equations. We review Noether's theorem at classical level associating infinitesimal symmetries to conserved quantities. The fundamental space-time symmetries are investigated considering a non-relativistic action, a relativistic action in a particular reference frame and an explicitly Lorentz invariant Lagrangian. We work out in detail the corresponding conserved quantities for each case. The well-known Noether's theorem establishes a connection between continuous infinitesimal symmetries of the action and conserved quantities - given a particular action, for each infinitesimal symmetry there exists an explicit conserved quantity. In particular, a single particle subjected to an external electromagnetic field gives rise to an action which may enjoy space-time symmetries. For the non-relativistic particle, we analyze translations in space and time and spatial rotations, calculating the conserved quantities - linear momentum, energy and angular momentum. The relativistic particle enjoys space-time Lorentz symmetry. Thus we check the six symmetries of the homogeneous Lorentz group, corresponding to three spatial rotations and three boosts, and the four space-time translations extending to the non-homogeneous Lorentz group (Poincare group). We consider two distinct actions describing the relativistic particle minimally coupled to an external electromagnetic field - the first one describes the particle in a particular frame of reference enforcing the relativistic generalization of Newton's second law with the Lorentz force while the second one is obtained from a Lorentz scalar Lagrangian. In all cases the conserved quantities are explicitly calculated via Noether's theorem. (author)

  6. Temporary zinc oxide-eugenol cement: eugenol quantity in dentin and bond strength of resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tamara; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Malinovskii, Vladimir; Flury, Simon; Häner, Robert; Lussi, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    Uptake of eugenol from eugenol-containing temporary materials may reduce the adhesion of subsequent resin-based restorations. This study investigated the effect of duration of exposure to zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cement on the quantity of eugenol retained in dentin and on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of the resin composite. The ZOE cement (IRM Caps) was applied onto the dentin of human molars (21 per group) for 1, 7, or 28 d. One half of each molar was used to determine the quantity of eugenol (by spectrofluorimetry) and the other half was used for μTBS testing. The ZOE-exposed dentin was treated with either OptiBond FL using phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) or with Gluma Classic using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) conditioning. One group without conditioning (for eugenol quantity) and two groups not exposed to ZOE (for eugenol quantity and μTBS testing) served as controls. The quantity of eugenol ranged between 0.33 and 2.9 nmol mg⁻¹ of dentin (median values). No effect of the duration of exposure to ZOE was found. Conditioning with H₃PO₄ or EDTA significantly reduced the quantity of eugenol in dentin. Nevertheless, for OptiBond FL, exposure to ZOE significantly decreased the μTBS, regardless of the duration of exposure. For Gluma Classic, the μTBS decreased after exposure to ZOE for 7 and 28 d. OptiBond FL yielded a significantly higher μTBS than did Gluma Classic. Thus, ZOE should be avoided in cavities later to be restored with resin-based materials.

  7. Measurements of natural carbonate rare earth elements in femtogram quantities by inductive coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wu, Chung-Che; Liu, Yi; Yu, Jimin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Lam, Doan Dinh; Chou, Chien-Ju; Lo, Li; Wei, Kuo-Yen

    2011-09-01

    A rapid and precise standard-bracketing method has been developed for measuring femtogram quantity rare earth element (REE) levels in natural carbonate samples by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry that does not require chemical separation steps. A desolvation nebulization system was used to effectively reduce polyatomic interference and enhance sensitivity. REE/Ca ratios are calculated directly from the intensities of the ion beams of (46)Ca, (139)La, (140)Ce, (141)Pr, (146)Nd, (147)Sm, (153)Eu, (160)Gd, (159)Tb, (163)Dy, (165)Ho, (166)Er, (169)Tm, (172)Yb, and (175)Lu using external matrix-matched synthetic standards to correct for instrumental ratio drifting and mass discrimination. A routine measurement time of 3 min is typical for one sample containing 20-40 ppm Ca. Replicate measurements made on natural coral and foraminiferal samples with REE/Ca ratios of 2-242 nmol/mol show that external precisions of 1.9-6.5% (2 RSD) can be achieved with only 10-1000 fg of REEs in 10-20 μg of carbonate. We show that different sources for monthly resolved coral ultratrace REE variability can be distinguished using this method. For natural slow growth-rate carbonate materials, such as sclerosponges, tufa, and speleothems, the high sample throughput, high precision, and high temporal resolution REE records that can be produced with this procedure have the potential to provide valuable time-series records to advance our understanding of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental dynamics on different time scales.

  8. The Impact of Product Assortment Size and Attribute Quantity on Information Searches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörnyei, Krisztina Rita; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper investigates the impact of assortment size and attribute quantity on the depth and content of consumer information searches. Design/methodology/approach: For a computer-aided experiment using an information display board, participants (n=393) were placed in a simulated shopping......, this sacrifice comes at the expense of secondary product attributes (e.g., nutrition information, country of origin), whereas primary product attributes (e.g., brand name, price) remain constant. Attribute quantity does not have a significant effect on information search. Practical implications: Provided...

  9. Comparison between Cooling Rate Dependence of Macroscopic and Microscopic Quantities in Simulated Aluminium Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-Song; ZHU Zhen-Gang

    2000-01-01

    Constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulations and an analysis of the local atomic structures have been performed to study the cooling rate dependence of some macroscopic and microscopic quantities in aluminium glass. Macroscopic quantities, enthalpy and density, see an observable but small dependence on the cooling rate. Icosahedral ordering units exhibit strong cooling rate dependence, which is responsible for the dependence of the enthalpy and the density on the cooling rate; while the almost independence of some microstructural units such as the 1541, 1431 and 1421 pairs of the cooling rate may lead to a small dependence of the enthalpy and the density on the cooling rate.

  10. Invariant quantities of a Mueller matrix under rotation and retarder transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, Jose J

    2015-01-01

    Mueller matrices are defined with respect to appropriate Cartesian reference frames for the representation of the states of polarization of the input and output electromagnetic waves. The polarimetric quantities that are invariant under rotations of the said reference frames about the respective directions of propagation (rotation transformations) provide particularly interesting physical information. Moreover, certain properties are also invariant with respect to the action of birefringent devices located at both sides of the medium under consideration (retarder transformations). The polarimetric properties that remain invariant under rotation and retarder transformations are analyzed and interpreted, providing significant parameterizations of Mueller matrices in terms of meaningful physical quantities.

  11. A modified method for isolating mouse islets of an adequate quality, quantity, and purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiejie; Peng, Baogang; Zhang, Caiyun; Xu, Jiwei; Ma, Yi; Lu, Xinjun

    2017-08-01

    Mouse islets are widely used in diabetes research. Thus an adequate quality, quantity, and purity of islets are needed for high-quality investigations. We performed a combination of filtration and density gradient separation and optimized many steps in the islet isolation procedure, including perfusion, digestion, and purification. Our results show that an increased quality, quantity, and purity of isolated islets can be achieved using these modifications. Moreover, this method can guarantee maximal recovery and purity of the isolated islets and is easy to perform with practice.

  12. Noether Symmetry and Noether Conserved Quantity of Nielsen Equation for Dynamical Systems of Relative Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yin-Li; YANG Xin-Fang; JIA Li-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Noether symmetry of Nielsen equation and Noether conserved quantity deduced directly from Noether symmetry for dynamical systems of the relative motion are studied.The definition and criteria of Noether symmetry of a Nielsen equation under the infinitesimal transformations of groups are given.Expression of Noether conserved quantity deduced directly from Noether symmetry of Nielsen equation for the system are obtained.Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.PACS numbers: 11.30.-j, 45.20.Jj, 02.20.Sv

  13. Non-Noether symmetries and conserved quantities of the Lagrange mechano-electrical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing-Li; Chen Li-Qun; Liu Rong-Wan

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying non-Noether symmetries and conserved quantities of Lagrange mechano-electrical dynamical systems. Based on the relationships between the motion and Lagrangian, we present conservation laws on non-Noether symmetries for Lagrange mechano-electrical dynamical systems. A criterion is obtained on which non-Noether symmetry leads to Noether symmetry of the systems. The work also gives connections between the nonNoether symmetries and Lie point symmetries, and further obtains Lie invariants to form a complete set of non-Noether conserved quantity. Finally, an example is discussed to illustrate these results.

  14. FORM INVARIANCE AND NOETHER SYMMETRICAL CONSERVED QUANTITY OF RELATIVISTIC BIRKHOFFIAN SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗绍凯

    2003-01-01

    A form invariance of the relativistic Birkhoffian system is studied, and the conserved quantities of the system are obtained. Under the infinitesimal transformation of groups, the definition and criteria of the form invariance of the system were given. In view of the invariance of relativistic Pfaff-Birkhoff-D'Alembert principle under the infinitesimal transformation of groups, the theory of Noether symmetries of the relativistic Birkhoffian system were constructed. The relation between the form invariance and the Noether symmetry is studied, and the results show that the form invariance can also lead to the Noether symmetrical conserved quantity of the relativistic Birkhoffian system under certain conditions.

  15. Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of general holonomic systems in phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li-Li; Cai Jian-Le; Li Yuan-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the conformed invariance and conserved quantities of general holonomic systems in phase space.The definition and the determining equation of conformed invariance for general holonomic systems in phase space are provided.The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformeal invariance and Lie symmetry.The relationship between the conformed invaxiance and the Lie symmetry is discussed,and the necessary and sufficient condition that the conformal invaxiance would be the Lie symmetry of the system under the infinitesimal single-parameter transformation group is deduced.The conserved quantities of the system axe given.An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  16. Is the Quantity Theory of Money Useful in Forecasting U.S. Inflation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Luoto, Jani; Nyberg, Henri

    We propose a new simple model incorporating the implication of the quantity theory of money that money growth and ináation should move one for one in the long run, and, hence, ináation should be predictable by money growth. The model Öts postwar U.S. data well, and beats common univariate benchma...... models in forecasting ináation. Moreover, this evidence is quite robust, and predictability is found also in the Great moderation period. The detected predictability of ináation by money growth lends support to the quantity theory....

  17. Characteristics Data Base: Programmer's guide to the LWR Quantities Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.E. (DataPhile, Inc., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Quantities Data Base is a menu-driven PC data base developed as part of OCRWM's waste, technical data base on the characteristics of potential repository wastes, which also includes non-LWR spent fuel, high-level and other materials. This programmer's guide completes the documentation for the LWR Quantities Data Base, the user's guide having been published previously. The PC data base itself may be requested from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, using the order form provided in Volume 1 of publication DOE/RW-0184.

  18. Application of the Physical Quantity Field Evolution under Numerical Model in Precipitation Forecast of Yantai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to understand role of the forecast data about physical quantity field in precipitation forecast.[Method] By contrasting forecast and actual situation of the precipitation in Yantai during 2-3 July and 12-15 September,2011,advantages and disadvantages of the different numerical forecast models (Japan fax chart,European center,MM5,Grapes and T639) were analyzed.[Result] MICAPS system could provide live situation of the physical quantity field,but couldn't provide the future evolu...

  19. Generalized Mei Conserved Quantity of Mei Symmetry for Mechanico-electrical Systems with Nonholonomic Controllable Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Li-Li; ZHAO Xian-Lin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the total time derivative along the trajectory, we study the generalized Mei conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for mechanico-electrical systems with nonholonomie controllable constraints. Firstly, the definition and criterion of Mei symmetry for mechanico-electrical systems with nonholonomic controllable constraints are presented. Secondly, a coordination function is introduced, and the conditions of existence of generalized Mei conserved quantity as well as the forms are proposed. Lastly, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  20. Universal bounds for the Holevo quantity, coherent information \\\\ and the Jensen-Shannon divergence

    CERN Document Server

    Roga, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    The Holevo quantity provides an upper bound for the mutual information between the sender of a classical message encoded in quantum carriers and the receiver. Applying the strong sub-additivity of entropy we prove that the Holevo quantity associated with an initial state and a given quantum operation represented in its Kraus form is not larger than the exchange entropy. This implies upper bounds for the coherent information and for the quantum Jensen--Shannon divergence. Restricting our attention to classical information we bound the transmission distance between any two probability distributions by the entropic distance, which is a concave function of the Hellinger distance.

  1. The Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity Problem with a Finite Production Rate and Backorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj-Mikael Björk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The track of developing Economic Order Quantity (EOQ models with uncertainties described as fuzzy numbers has been very lucrative. In this paper, a fuzzy Economic Production Quantity (EPQ model is developed to address a specific problem in a theoretical setting. Not only is the production time finite, but also backorders are allowed. The uncertainties, in the industrial context, come from the fact that the production availability is uncertain as well as the demand. These uncertainties will be handled with fuzzy numbers and the analytical solution to the optimization problem will be obtained. A theoretical example from the process industry is also given to illustrate the new model.

  2. Visualization of the Flux Rope Generation Process Using Large Quantities of MHD Simulation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new concept of analysis using visualization of large quantities of simulation data. The time development of 3D objects with high temporal resolution provides the opportunity for scientific discovery. We visualize large quantities of simulation data using the visualization application 'Virtual Aurora' based on AVS (Advanced Visual Systems and the parallel distributed processing at "Space Weather Cloud" in NICT based on Gfarm technology. We introduce two results of high temporal resolution visualization: the magnetic flux rope generation process and dayside reconnection using a system of magnetic field line tracing.

  3. Estimation on the Total Quantity of Biomass Energy and Its Environmental Benefit Analysis in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to estimate the total quantity of biomass energy and analyze its environmental benefit in Shandong Province.[Method] Based on the data from the statistics yearbook of Shandong Province in 2010,the total quantity of biomass resources and biomass energy in Shandong Province in 2009 was estimated,and its environmental benefit was analyzed.[Result] Biomass resources in Shandong Province mainly refer to crop residues,forest residues,grassland changed from degraded land.If degraded land be...

  4. RBS as a new primary direct reference method for measuring quantity of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, C.

    2017-09-01

    The quantity of material in thin films can be measured reliably, non-destructively, and at an absolute traceable accuracy with a combined standard uncertainty of 1% by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). We have demonstrated a measurement protocol for the determination of quantity of material by RBS that has been accredited at this accuracy to the ISO 17025 standard by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). The method is entirely traceable to SI units relying on no artefacts, and thus qualifies as a primary direct reference method as defined by the ISO Guide 35:1985 (paragraph 9.4.1).

  5. A principle to correlate extreme values of excess thermody-namic functions with partial molar quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Excess thermodynamic properties are widely used quantitatively for fluids. It was found that at constant temperature and pressure a molar excess quantity of a mutually miscible binary mixture at the extreme points equals the excess partial molar quantities of the two components, i.e. , forming a triple cross point. The relationship is hold for properties such as enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, and volume, and is applicable for excess functions with multi extreme points. Solutions at extreme points can be referred to as special mixtures. Particularly for a special mixture of Gibbs free energy, activity coefficients of the two components are identical.

  6. A principle to correlate extreme values of excess thermodynamic functions with partial molar quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉志武; 刘芸; 周蕊; 薛芳渝

    2001-01-01

    Excess thermodynamic properties are widely used quantitatively for fluids. It was found that at constant temperature and pressure a molar excess quantity of a mutually miscible binary mixture at the extreme points equals the excess partial molar quantities of the two components, i.e.F1E = F2E = FmE , forming a triple cross point. The relationship is hold for properties such as en-thalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, and volume, and is applicable for excess functions with multi extreme points. Solutions at extreme points can be referred to as special mixtures. Particularly fora special mixture of Gibbs free energy, activity coefficients of the two components are identical.

  7. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  8. Effect of extrusion ratio on coating extrusion of Pb-GF composite wire by numerical simulation and experimental investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; SUN Hong-fei; FANG Wen-bin

    2009-01-01

    The extrusion ratio is one of the key parameters for manufacturing the lead-glass fiber (Pb-GF) composite wire by coating extrusion. The effect of extrusion ratio on coating extrusion of Pb-GF composite wire was studied by finite element numerical simulation with the use of the DEFOEM simulation software. The simulation result shows that the higher the extrusion ratio, the higher the effective stress that the glass fiber bears during extrusion. It is also observed that the extrusion force increases with the increase of the extrusion ratio. The extrusion experiment of Pb-GF composite wire reveals that extrusion ratio is changed by changing the quantity of glass fiber and composite diameter. The rule that increasing the extrusion ratio enhances the coating speed limit suggests that the load on the glass fiber increases with increasing extrusion ratio. Both the simulation and the extrusion experiments show that the extrusion force increases with increasing extrusion ratio.

  9. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations... necessary to ensure well control. You must determine those quantities based on known or anticipated drilling... drilling fluid material to maintain well control, you must suspend drilling operations....

  10. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern G...

  11. Quantity is nothing without quality: automated QA/QC for streaming sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; Lindsey E. Rustad; John H. Porter; Jeffrey R. Taylor; Ethan W. Dereszynski; James B. Shanley; Corinna Gries; Donald L. Henshaw; Mary E. Martin; Wade. M. Sheldon; Emery R. Boose

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks are revolutionizing environmental monitoring by producing massive quantities of data that are being made publically available in near real time. These data streams pose a challenge for ecologists because traditional approaches to quality assurance and quality control are no longer practical when confronted with the size of these data sets and the...

  12. Anti-Mullerian hormone : a marker for oocyte quantity, oocyte quality and embryo quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fong, S. Lie; Baart, E. B.; Martini, E.; Schipper, I.; Visser, J. A.; Themmen, A. P. N.; de Jong, F. H.; Fauser, B. J. C. M.; Laven, J. S. E.

    2008-01-01

    Serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations decline with increasing age and constitute a Sensitive marker for ovarian ageing. In addition, basal serum AMH concentrations predict ovarian response during IVF cycles. Concomitantly, oocyte quantity and embryo quality decrease with advancing age. H

  13. A Comparison between Quantity Surveying and Information Technology Students on Web Application in Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Tan Chin; Ching, Yeoh Kah

    2015-01-01

    The use of web applications has become a trend in many disciplines including education. In view of the influence of web application in education, this study examines web application technologies that could enhance undergraduates' learning experiences, with focus on Quantity Surveying (QS) and Information Technology (IT) undergraduates. The…

  14. Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

  15. Commonalities for numerical and continuous quantity skills at temporo-parietal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Chamberlain, Rebecca; Freeman, Elliot D; Kanai, Ryota; Butterworth, Brian; Price, Cathy J; Rees, Geraint

    2014-05-01

    How do our abilities to process number and other continuous quantities such as time and space relate to each other? Recent evidence suggests that these abilities share common magnitude processing and neural resources, although other findings also highlight the role of dimension-specific processes. To further characterize the relation between number, time, and space, we first examined them in a population with a developmental numerical dysfunction (developmental dyscalculia) and then assessed the extent to which these abilities correlated both behaviorally and anatomically in numerically normal participants. We found that (1) participants with dyscalculia showed preserved continuous quantity processing and (2) in numerically normal adults, numerical and continuous quantity abilities were at least partially dissociated both behaviorally and anatomically. Specifically, gray matter volume correlated with both measures of numerical and continuous quantity processing in the right TPJ; in contrast, individual differences in number proficiency were associated with gray matter volume in number-specific cortical regions in the right parietal lobe. Together, our new converging evidence of selective numerical impairment and of number-specific brain areas at least partially distinct from common magnitude areas suggests that the human brain is equipped with different ways of quantifying the outside world.

  16. Quantity and Variety of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bas Bueno de Mesquita, H.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Streppel, M.T.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    The recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake includes eating a certain quantity as well as a variety. The evidence for eating a variety is limited. We examined the association with cancer in a prospective cohort study among 730 Dutch men aged 65-84 yr followed for 10 years, resulting in 138 can

  17. 48 CFR 1552.217-74 - Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract. 1552.217-74 Section 1552.217-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.217-74 Option for increased quantity—cost-plus-award-fee contract. As prescribed in 1517.208(e), insert this contract clause in cost-plus-award-fee term contracts when...

  18. 16 CFR 500.23 - Expression of net quantity of contents in SI Metric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expression of net quantity of contents in SI... contents in SI Metric units. (a) The selected multiple or submultiple prefixes for SI metric units shall...” instead of “0.75 L”. (b) The following symbols for SI metric units and none others may be employed in...

  19. The Child Quantity-Quality Trade-Off During the Industrial Revolution in England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marc; Weisdorf, Jacob L.

    We take Gary Becker's child quantity-quality trade-off hypothesis to the historical record, investigating the causal link from family size to the literacy status of offspring using data from Anglican parish registers, c. 1700-1830. Extraordinarily forhistorical data, the parish records enable us ...

  20. [Effects of tillage and straw returning on microorganism quantity, enzyme activities in soils and grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-li; Guo, Hai-bin; Xue, Zhi-wei; Mu, Xin-yuan; Li, Chao-hai

    2015-06-01

    A two-year field study with split plot design was conducted to investigate the effects of different soil tillage (conventional tillage, CT; deep tillage, DT; subsoil tillage, ST) and straw returning (all straw retention, AS; no straw returning, NS) on microorganism quantity, enzyme activities in soil and grain yield. The results showed that, deep or subsoil tillage and straw returning not only reduced the soil bulk density and promoted the content of organic carbon in soil, but increased the soil microbial quantity, soil enzyme activities and grain yield. Furthermore, such influences in maize season were greater than that in wheat season. Compared with CT+NS, DT+AS and ST+AS decreased the soil bulk density at 20-30 cm depth by 8.5% and 6.6%, increased the content of soil organic carbon by 14.8% and 12.4%, increased the microorganism quantity by 45.9% and 33.9%, increased the soil enzyme activities by 34.1% and 25.5%, increased the grain yield by 18.0% and 19.3%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between DT+AS and ST+AS. We concluded that retaining crop residue and deep or subsoil tillage improved soil microorganism quantity, enzyme activities and crop yield.

  1. From quantity to quality : cognitive, motivational and social aspects of creative idea generation and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    The main principles behind brainstorming are the belief that quantity breeds quality, and the deferment of judgment. Adherence to the brainstorming rules, which are derived from these principles, should increase the number of high-quality ideas that are generated in a brainstorming session, and shou

  2. An efficient optimal solution method for the joint replenishment problem with minimum order quantities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Porras Musalem (Eric); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe study the joint replenishment problem (JRP) for M items under deterministic demand, with a minimum order quantity constraint for each item in the replenishment order. We first study an iterative procedure that proves to be not efficient in this case. Further, we derive bounds on the b

  3. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... canned oysters. 161.30 Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions § 161.30 Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters. (a) For many years packers...

  4. Influence of Magnetic Field Amplitude on Quantity and Sizes of Disintegration Fragments of Magnetic Particles Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The disintegration of a mass of magnetic particles is investigated at pulsing switching on a magnetic field. The influence of field value on quantity, sizes and allocation of fragments of disintegration is explored. The presence of two critical fields, defining the process of disintegration, is revealed. The results can be used at manufacture of packings to magnetic filters.

  5. The Quality vs. the Quantity of Schooling: What Drives Economic Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges Hanushek and Woessmann's (2008) contention that the quality and not the quantity of schooling determines a nation's rate of economic growth. I first show that their statistical analysis is flawed. I then show that when a nation's average test scores and average schooling attainment are included in a national income model,…

  6. 48 CFR 2452.216-77 - Estimated quantities-requirements contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated quantities... Provisions and Clauses 2452.216-77 Estimated quantities—requirements contract. As prescribed in 2416.506-70(c), insert the following provision: Estimated Quantities—Requirements Contract (FEB 2006) In accordance...

  7. Assessment of Cost Management Functions of Quantity Surveyors with Lean Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Opeyemi Anifowose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Construction industry in Nigeria is made up of a wide variety of activities which include the provision of professional and technical services to clients in the built environment. Despite the provision of these services to a large number of clients worldwide, the construction industry is still awash by the chronic problems of low productivity, insufficient quality, time over-runs, and poor safety, which hinder customer delivered value. The Just-In-Time phenomenon is a characteristic of lean production systems which operate with very little “fat” (e.g. excess inventory extra workers, wasted space.This study aimed at assessing the construction management function of the quantity surveyor in line with the principle of lean methodology (Just-In-Time. This was achieved by exploring the cost management function of the quantity surveyor, to investigate the current practice of cost management by quantity surveying firms. Data for the study were sourced primarily with the use of questionnaire and the subsequent data analysis, which employed the use of descriptive analysis of presenting the data as obtained on tables during the field survey and attempts a rudimentary establishment of patterns using percentages. The study concluded amongst others, that: all activities involved in the cost management function of the quantity surveyor are important, and value adding, corresponding to conversion activities in line with the Just-In-time/lean methodology

  8. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-2 Section 75.1100-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... nails 25 pounds of 16d nails 3 claw hammers 25 bags of wood fiber plaster or 10 bags of cement...

  9. On The Relationship Between Idea-Quantity and Idea-Quality During Ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinig, B.A.; Briggs, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of research has been conducted to develop methods and techniques to improve group ideation. Most of this research focuses on techniques for increasing the quantity of ideas generated during ideation; less attention has been given to the quality of the ideas produced. This focus stems fr

  10. Price effects of changing quantities supplied at the integrated european fish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Smit, Jos; Guillen, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the effect that changes in the quantities supplied from EU fish stocks have on fish prices. As opposed to earlier studies, this one is European- wide, taking international market integration into account. Average own-price flexibilities for fresh captured fish are found...

  11. The Child Quantity-Quality Trade-Off During the Industrial Revolution in England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marc; Weisdorf, Jacob L.

    We take Gary Becker's child quantity-quality trade-off hypothesis to the historical record, investigating the causal link from family size to the literacy status of offspring using data from Anglican parish registers, c. 1700-1830. Extraordinarily forhistorical data, the parish records enable us...

  12. Effect of immunopotentiator of the Chinese herbal medicine on the quantity of T lymphocyte in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qiumei; SHEN Ping; GAO Guisheng; ZHAO Ruili; TANG Shengling

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of immunopotentiator, the quantity of T lymphocyte was observed. Total 240 1-day chikens were divided into 3 groups randomly: one contrast group and two groups being drunk immunopotentiator according to the concentration 10 mL·L-1 and 5 mL·L-1 lasting for 48 d. The number of T lymphocyte in blood was measured by E-rosette when the chikens were at 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-day. The results showed that the percent of T lymphocyte in the trial group was obviously higher than that of the contrast, and the 10 mL·L-1 group was higher than that of the 5 mL·L-1 group; the quantity distribution of T lymphocyte in intestinal mucosa lymphoid tissue of 14-day, 21-day chiken was surveyed in the contrast group and the 10 mL·L-1 group with the method of routine histology-slices and ANAE, the results showed that the quantity of T lymphocyte in the 10 mL·L-1 group was significantly higher than that of the contrast, which indicated that immunopotentiator increased markedly the quantity of T lymphocyte, and the 10 mL·L-1 group was higher than that of the 5 mL·L-1 group.

  13. Workshop on Comparison of Data and Derived Dynamical Quantities During Northern Hemisphere (PMP-1) Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, J. C.; Labitzke, K.

    1982-01-01

    Atmospheric temperature and geopotential height were compared along with the quantities derived from them for application to stratospheric dynamics. The data for comparison were those gathered from radiosondes and rockets. Data from the Northern Hemisphere winters 1978/79 through 1981/82 were discussed, but most attention was devoted to days during the winter of 1978/79.

  14. Quantity Processing in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Evidence from Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Comparison Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Deaf Children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic…

  15. From quantity to quality : cognitive, motivational and social aspects of creative idea generation and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    The main principles behind brainstorming are the belief that quantity breeds quality, and the deferment of judgment. Adherence to the brainstorming rules, which are derived from these principles, should increase the number of high-quality ideas that are generated in a brainstorming session, and shou

  16. 24 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Definition of Acoustical Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), somewhat as is the ear. With fast time averaging the sound level meter responds particularly to recent sounds almost as quickly as does the ear in judging the loudness of a sound. 2. Average Sound Level... interpreted in seconds. LA(t) is the time varying value of A-weighted sound level, the quantity in decibels...

  17. 21 CFR 501.105 - Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inches and quart, pint, and fluid ounce subdivisions thereof, and shall: (i) In the case of frozen food... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt. 501.105 Section 501.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  18. 21 CFR 101.105 - Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fluid ounce subdivisions thereof, and shall: (i) In the case of frozen food that is sold and consumed in a frozen state, express the volume at the frozen temperature. (ii) In the case of refrigerated food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of net quantity of contents...

  19. Ask and You Will Receive: How Question Type Influences Quantity and Quality of Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Megan E.; Thom, Lindsay R.; Hayes, Jennifer; Hay, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how question types influenced the quantity and quality of undergraduate students' online submissions. Discussion questions were structured based on one of six question types: direct link, course link, brainstorm, limited focal, open focal and application. Transcripts of eight online discussions involving 114 participants were…

  20. Quantity and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Streppel, M.T.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    The recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake includes eating a certain quantity as well as a variety. The evidence for eating a variety is limited. We examined the association with cancer in a prospective cohort study among 730 Dutch men aged 65-84 yr followed for 10 years, resulting in 138 can

  1. 40 CFR 63.5400 - How do I measure the quantity of leather processed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leather processed? 63.5400 Section 63.5400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5400 How do I measure the quantity of leather processed?...

  2. Definition, significance and measurement of quantities pertaining to the oxygen carrying properties of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, WG; Maas, AHJ; Moran, RF

    1996-01-01

    A consistent set of definitions is given of the principal quantities pertaining to the oxygen transport by the blood, and of their mutual relationships, in relation to the methods used in their measurement. At the core is the correct definition of oxygen saturation, the deviation of which has

  3. Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of non-conservative Lagrange systems by point transformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chang; Mei Feng-Xiang; Guo Yong-Xin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the conformal invariance by infinitesimal point transformations of non-conservative Lagrange systems. It gives the necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance by the action of infinitesimal point transformations being Lie symmetric simultaneously. Then the Noether conserved quantities of conformal invariance are obtained. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the results.

  4. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  5. Effect of Changes in Sleep Quantity and Quality on Depressive Symptoms among Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Eun; Park, Sohee; Nam, Jin-Young; Ju, Young Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether changes in sleep quantity and quality in childhood are associated with incidence of depressive symptoms. We used the three waves of the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey (2011-2013). Statistical analysis using a generalized estimating equation model was performed. The 2,605 subjects analyzed included…

  6. Characterization of quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land in Jianghan Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shougeng; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhanqi

    2010-11-01

    Relating supplementary cultivated land (SCL) quantity and quality with the occupied cultivated land (OCL) grade as well as realizing conversion between them are crucial to keep the balance between SCL and OCL, to protect the limited farming resources, to guarantee the security of national food, to harmonize the relationship between human and land resources, and to promote sustainable economic development. The Jianhan plain, one of China's grain production bases, was chosen for a case study to quantify the relationships between the grade index of farmland utilization and standard food output based on the resulting grade of agricultural land. Linear regression is used to model the relationships for 2778 samples from the grade of agricultural land obtained by field mapping. The average of grade index for different utilization grades was estimated by the area weighted average method. The results demonstrate that quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land, and the method used in this study are powerful tools to quantify the relationship between the quantity and quality of the SCL and the grade and realize conversion of OCL. Theses results can be used for protecting the quantity and quality of cultivated land and optimizing design for land consolidation project as well as determining the reasonable scale and layout of land use planning in the Jianghan plain.

  7. "Einstein Moon", "Schrodinger Cat", and "Quantity in Phase Space" - About Quantum Measurement (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN De-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Generalizing the idea involved in a previous paper [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 41 (2004)685], "quantity in phase space" is introduced. Thus starting from quantum mechanics, with standard criteria, the disappearing of interference in a macroscopic system is explicitly shown. Then the confusions involved in "the Einstein Moon" and "the Schrodinger Cat" are clarified, at least principally.

  8. Reflections upon Teacher Education in Severe Difficulties in the USA: Shared Concerns about Quantity and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Phyllis; West, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Phyllis Jones of the Department of Special Education at the University of South Florida and Elizabeth West from the University of Washington explore key issues in respect to teacher education for teachers who teach pupils with severe and profound learning difficulties in the USA. Issues relating to quantity and quality of teachers…

  9. Using the Metropolis Algorithm to Calculate Thermodynamic Quantities: An Undergraduate Computational Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddard, Godfrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities such as the average energy, heat capacity, and entropy are calculated using a Monte Carlo method based on the Metropolis algorithm. This method is illustrated with reference to the harmonic oscillator but is particularly useful when the partition function cannot be evaluated; an example using a one-dimensional spin system…

  10. The Quality vs. the Quantity of Schooling: What Drives Economic Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges Hanushek and Woessmann's (2008) contention that the quality and not the quantity of schooling determines a nation's rate of economic growth. I first show that their statistical analysis is flawed. I then show that when a nation's average test scores and average schooling attainment are included in a national income model,…

  11. MLR will Continue to Control the Total Exploitation Quantity of Advantageous Mineral Resources Including Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>According to Wang Min,Vice Minister of Land and Resources and chief of China Geological Survey,for some time to come the MLR will continue to implement the policy of controlling the total exploitation quantity of advantageous mineral resources,exercising

  12. AUTOMATED MOBILE FACILITY FOR QUANTITY ESTIMATION OF RAW OIL AND OIL GAS, PROSPECTED FROM SUBSOIL

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this article some aspects of the development of automated mobile control facility (MCF), aimed for estimation of raw oil and oil gas quantity that are retrieved from subsoil and transferring data on the estimation results and their indication on central dispatcher’s point.

  13. An Adaptive Information Quantity-Based Broadcast Protocol for Safety Services in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle communication plays a significantly important role in implementing safe and efficient road traffic. When disseminating safety messages in the network, the information quantity on safety packets changes over time and space. However, most of existing protocols view each packet the same to disseminate, preventing vehicles from collecting more recent and precise safety information. Hence, an information quantity-based broadcast protocol is proposed in this paper to ensure the efficiency of safety messages dissemination. In particular, we propose the concept of emergency-degree to evaluate packets’ information quantity. Then we present EDCast, an emergency-degree-based broadcast protocol. EDCast differentiates each packet’s priority for accessing the channel based on its emergency-degree so as to provide vehicles with more safety information timely and accurately. In addition, an adaptive scheme is presented to ensure fast dissemination of messages in different network condition. We compare the performance of EDCast with those of three other representative protocols in a typical highway scenario. Simulation results indicate that EDCast achieves higher broadcast efficiency and less redundancy with less delivery delay. What we found demonstrates that it is feasible and necessary for incorporating information quantity of messages in designing an efficient safety message broadcast protocol.

  14. Making Sense of Rate of Change: Secondary Students' Reasoning about Changing Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Rate of change is an important concept for students to study, and little is known about the ways in which secondary students make sense of rate of change. In this qualitative study I examined how four high school students who have not taken calculus reasoned about changing quantities when interacting with mathematical tasks involving multiple…

  15. From quantity to quality : cognitive, motivational and social aspects of creative idea generation and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    The main principles behind brainstorming are the belief that quantity breeds quality, and the deferment of judgment. Adherence to the brainstorming rules, which are derived from these principles, should increase the number of high-quality ideas that are generated in a brainstorming session, and

  16. Penerapan Metode Economical Order Quantity Untuk Sistem Stok Barang Penggudangan dengan menggunakan teknologi Radio Frequency Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Istanto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of Economical Order Quantity method to stock warehouse system by using Radio Frequency Identification technology can provide information that can minimize stock availability in real time.  The research aims to develop the stock system using the methods of Economical Order Quantity, Reorder Point and Radio Frequency Identification technology. Computation of Economical Order Quantity is used per month with variables covering amount of raw material, ordering cost and storage cost. Reorder Point computation using lead time variable, raw material usage and safety stock. Safety stock is used if there is a delay in delivery of goods from suppliers, so it does not run out of raw materials and the company can still operate. The inventory data is obtained from transactions of incoming and outgoing goods which are recorded automatically when passing through Radio Frequency Identification reader. The computation of Economical Order Quantity, Reorder Point produces safety stock as output stock system. With the stock of goods in accordance with the fulfillment of Safety stock, then there is no delay in the delivery of goods from suppliers, so it does not run out of raw materials, after determination of the value of re-ordering.

  17. Economic Modelling for water Quantity and Quality Management: A Welfare Program Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated economic model which is able to explicitly address both water quantity and quality. We use a welfare program to maximize social welfare subject to the economic and ecological constraints, where interactions, emissions and environmental impacts are incorporated. Such

  18. Determining the maximum charging currents of lithium-ion cells for small charge quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsmann, F.; Gerbert, T.; Brauchle, F.; Gruhle, A.; Parisi, J.; Knipper, M.

    2017-10-01

    In order to optimize the operating parameters of battery management systems for electric and hybrid vehicles, great interest has been shown in achieving the maximum permissible charging currents during recuperation, without causing a cell damage due to lithium plating, in relation to the temperature, charge quantity and state of charge. One method for determining these recuperation currents is measuring the cell thickness, where excessively high charging currents can be detected by an irreversible increase in thickness. It is not possible to measure particularly small charge quantities by employing mechanic dial indicators, which have a limited resolution of 1 μm. This is why we developed a measuring setup that has a resolution limit of less than 10 nm using a high-resolution contactless inductance sensor. Our results show that the permissible charging current I can be approximated in relation to the charge quantity x by a correlating function I =a /√{(x) } which is compliant with the Arrhenius law. Small charge quantities therefore have an optimization potential for energy recovery during recuperation.

  19. Appraisal of Information Technology Requirements in Quantity Surveying Firms in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. U. Datti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A worrisome trend in the adoption of emerging technologies for competitive advantages and improved productivities by QSs have been observed in that there is overwhelming evidence that there is an increasing usage of IT in quantity surveying firms but little or no noticeable benefits on the practice. It however becomes pertinent to ask then, that despite the increases adoption of computing and telecommunication technologies, why isn’t there any noticeable change due to the impacts of IT in the Nigerian Construction Industry with particular reference to Quantity Surveying practices. The study appraised the requirement of IT in quantity surveying practice in Nigeria. It examined the position of IT in quantity surveying firms in terms of its requirement and analyzed IT requirements-based problem constraining quantity surveying firms. The study is a survey research designed to obtain information on information technology in QS firms. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to quantity surveyors in consulting firms for responses. Responses were returned and analyzed using severity index and later ranked in order of importance. The results indicate a high level of computerization of professional services among the firms with greater number of their computers being networked. However, despite high level of networking of available computers, sharing of printers and other scarce tools/technologies are not established. Compared to developed countries such as Canada, Australia, United Kingdom and USA, the position of IT requirements in QS firms in Nigeria can be said to be at basic level with organization possessing and applying basic IT tools and technologies (e.g. scanners, digital cameras, dvd/cd-rom, general purpose software, QS application software, chat programs etc. in their daily operation and processes. While most firms are progressing toward intermediate level by possessing intermediate IT tools and technologies (e.g. teleconferencing

  20. Portfolio Optimization under Local-Stochastic Volatility: Coefficient Taylor Series Approximations & Implied Sharpe Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Lorig; Ronnie Sircar

    2015-01-01

    We study the finite horizon Merton portfolio optimization problem in a general local-stochastic volatility setting. Using model coefficient expansion techniques, we derive approximations for the both the value function and the optimal investment strategy. We also analyze the `implied Sharpe ratio' and derive a series approximation for this quantity. The zeroth-order approximation of the value function and optimal investment strategy correspond to those obtained by Merton (1969) when the risky...

  1. Aerobic digestion reduces the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes in residual municipal wastewater solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker R Burch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous initiatives have been undertaken to circumvent the problem of antibiotic resistance, including the development of new antibiotics, the use of narrow spectrum antibiotics, and the reduction of inappropriate antibiotic use. We propose an alternative but complimentary approach to reduce antibiotic resistant bacteria by implementing more stringent technologies for treating municipal wastewater, which is known to contain large quantities of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs. In this study, we investigated the ability of conventional aerobic digestion to reduce the quantity of ARGs in untreated wastewater solids. A bench-scale aerobic digester was fed untreated wastewater solids collected from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment facility. The reactor was operated under semi-continuous flow conditions for more than 200 days at a residence time of approximately 40 days. During this time, the quantities of tet(A, tet(W, and erm(B decreased by more than 90%. In contrast, intI1 did not decrease, and tet(X increased in quantity by 5-fold. Following operation in semi-continuous flow mode, the aerobic digester was converted to batch mode to determine the first-order decay coefficients, with half-lives ranging from as short as 2.8 days for tet(W to as long as 6.3 days for intI1. These results demonstrated that aerobic digestion can be used to reduce the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes in untreated wastewater solids, but that rates can vary substantially depending on the reactor design (i.e., batch versus continuous-flow and the specific ARG.

  2. Multi-objective optimization for combined quality-quantity urban runoff control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraei Zare, S.; Saghafian, B.; Shamsai, A.

    2012-12-01

    Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs) concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1) minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2) reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid) and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand), representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3) minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II) optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.

  3. Multi-objective optimization for combined quality–quantity urban runoff control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oraei Zare

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1 minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2 reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand, representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3 minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM. The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.

  4. Condensed matter astrophysics: A prescription for determining the species-specific composition and quantity of interstellar dust using x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Julia C.; Xiang, Jingen; Ravel, Bruce; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Flanagan, Kathryn

    2009-01-05

    We present a newtechnique for determining the quantity and composition of dust in astrophysical environments using<6 keV X-rays.We argue that high-resolution X-ray spectra as enabled by the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings should be considered a powerful and viable new resource for delving into a relatively unexplored regime for directlydetermining dust properties: composition, quantity, and distribution.We present initial cross section measurements of astrophysically likely iron-based dust candidates taken at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source synchrotron beamline, as an illustrative tool for the formulation of our technique for determining the quantity and composition of interstellar dust with X-rays. (Cross sections for the materials presented here will be made available for astrophysical modeling in the near future.) Focused at the 700 eV Fe LIII and LII photoelectric edges, we discuss a technique for modeling dust properties in the soft X-rays using L-edge data to complement K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis techniques discussed by Lee& Ravel. The paper is intended to be a techniques paper of interest and useful to both condensed matter experimentalists andastrophysicists. For the experimentalists, we offer a new prescription for normalizing relatively low signal-to-noise ratio L-edge cross section measurements. For astrophysics interests, we discuss the use of X-ray absorption spectra for determining dust composition in cold and ionized astrophysical environments and a new method for determining species-specific gas and dust ratios. Possible astrophysical applications of interest, including relevance to Sagittarius A*, are offered. Prospects for improving on this work in future X-ray missions with higher throughput and spectral resolution are also presented in the context of spectral resolution goals for gratings and calorimeters, for proposed and planned missions such as Astro-H and the International X

  5. A precise Boltzmann distribution law for the fluorescence intensity ratio of two thermally coupled levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Zhao, Hua; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-06-01

    Noncontact monitoring temperature is very important in modern medicine, science, and technologies. The fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique based on the Boltzmann distribution law exhibits excellent application potential, but the observed FIR deviates from the Boltzmann distribution law in the low temperature range. We propose a fluorescence intensity ratio relation FIR* = ηFIR by introducing a quantity η representing thermal population degree, which can be obtained from measured fluorescence decay curves of the upper emitting level. Using Eu3+ as an example, the method is confirmed that the deviated FIR is able to be corrected and return to follow the Boltzmann law.

  6. Correlation between quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate and obesity in a group of women from Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Shishehbor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Obesity and being overweight are one of current nutritional disorders found in many developed and developing countries such as Iran, it seems that recently the role of carbohydrates in the formation of such illness has been considered. Studies conducted in the field of obesity and quality and quantity of carbohydrate (glycemic index and glycemic load have had inconsistent results. Therefore, This study evaluates the relationship between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and some indicators of obesity. Material & Methods: The subjects were 95 healthy Iranian females aged 25-55 y .dietary GI, GL assessed from six24 hour food recalls. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standard methods. Information such as history of disease and genetics was collected by a questionnaire. Independent sample t test, correlation confident ، one–way ANOVA Were used to investigate the correlation between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and anthropometric measurements. Results: The mean dietary GI was 72.8 and the mean dietary GL was 154.4. After making the necessary adjustments for potential dietary and non-dietary confounding factors, no significant association was seen between dietary GI, GL and BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio in healthy women. Conclusion: The fact that there was no relation between dietary GI and GL and anthropometric measurements in healthy women may be due to the fact that results obtained from overweight samples were not reported in the current study.

  7. A new type of Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity for nonholonomic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shao-Kai; Huang Fei-Jiang; Lu Yi-Bing

    2004-01-01

    For a nonholonomic system, a new type of Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity is given under general infinitesimal transformations of groups in which time is variable. On the basis of the invariance theory of differential equations of motion under infinitesimal transformations for t and qs, we construct the Lie symmetrical determining equations, the constrained restriction equations and the additional restriction equations of the system. And a new type of Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity is directly obtained from the Lie symmetry of the system, which only depends on the variables t, qs and qs. A series of deductions are inferred for a holonomic nonconservative system,Lagrangian system and other dynamical systems in the case of vanishing of time variation. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  8. SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING, MODEL 9977, ADDENDUM 3, JUSTIFICATION FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITY CONTENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G.

    2011-10-31

    This Addendum establishes a new family of content envelopes consisting of small quantities of radioactive materials. These content envelopes and specific packing configurations are shown to be subcritical. However, the dose rates of some payloads must be measured and shown to comply with applicable radiation limits. Authorization for shipment of the content envelop requires acceptance of this Addendum by the DOE-HQ certifying official as a supplement to the 9977 SARP Revision 2 and DOE-HQ's subsequent revision of the CoC Revision 10 (which is based on SARP Addendum 2 and SARP Addendum 4) to authorize the additional content envelope. The Small Gram Quantity Content Envelopes and packing configurations will be incorporated in the next revision of the 9977 SARP.

  9. Scientists@Home: what drives the quantity and quality of online citizen science participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nov, Oded; Arazy, Ofer; Anderson, David

    2014-01-01

    Online citizen science offers a low-cost way to strengthen the infrastructure for scientific research and engage members of the public in science. As the sustainability of online citizen science projects depends on volunteers who contribute their skills, time, and energy, the objective of this study is to investigate effects of motivational factors on the quantity and quality of citizen scientists' contribution. Building on the social movement participation model, findings from a longitudinal empirical study in three different citizen science projects reveal that quantity of contribution is determined by collective motives, norm-oriented motives, reputation, and intrinsic motives. Contribution quality, on the other hand, is positively affected only by collective motives and reputation. We discuss implications for research on the motivation for participation in technology-mediated social participation and for the practice of citizen science.

  10. Nucleation site and mechanism leading to growth of bulk-quantity Mn3O4 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. W.; Lai, J. K. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-05-01

    We report a simple and effective method for the generation of bulk-quantity nanorods of manganese oxide, Mn3O4, under surroundings of a suitable surfactant and alkaline solution. It is found that the Mn3O4 nanorod is smooth, straight, and that the geometrical shape is structurally perfect, which is produced with lengths from several hundreds nanometers to a few micrometers, and diameters range from 10nmto30nm. We amazedly found that the dripping speed of the NaOH solution plays an important role in formation of bulk-quantity Mn3O4 nanorods. The difference of dripping speed of the NaOH solution leads to a large difference of Mn3O4 morphologies, which is observed in the transmission electron microscopy images. The growth of the Mn3O4 nanorods is suggested first to follow a self-catalyzed solution-liquid-solid mechanism.

  11. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  12. Quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior and the crack morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the "energy conversion factor" is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris.

  13. Improved quality and quantity of written feedback is associated with a structured feedback proforma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Philip M; Wallace, Melisa J; McKimm, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Facilitating the provision of detailed, deep and useful feedback is an important design feature of any educational programme. Here we evaluate feedback provided to medical students completing short transferable skills projects. Feedback quantity and depth were evaluated before and after a simple intervention to change the structure of the feedback-provision form from a blank free-text feedback form to a structured proforma that asked a pair of short questions for each of the six domains being assessed. Each pair of questions consisted of asking the marker 'what was done well?' and 'what changes would improve the assignment?' Changing the form was associated with a significant increase in the quantity of the feedback and in the amount and quality of feedback provided to students. We also observed that, for these double-marked projects, the marker designated as 'marker 1' consistently wrote more feedback than the marker designated 'marker 2'.

  14. Noether symmetries and conserved quantities for fractional Birkhoffian systems with time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiang-Hua; Zhang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The Noether symmetries and the conserved quantities for fractional Birkhoffian systems with time delay in terms of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives are proposed and studied. First, the fractional Pfaff-Birkhoff principle with time delay is proposed, and the fractional Birkhoff's equations with time delay are obtained. Second, based on the invariance of the fractional Pfaff action with time delay under a group of infinitesimal transformations, the Noether symmetric transformations and the Noether quasi-symmetric transformations of the system are defined, and the criteria of the Noether symmetries are established. Finally, the relationship between the symmetries and the conserved quantities are studied, and the Noether theorems for fractional Birkhoffian systems with time delay are established. Some examples are given to illustrate the application of the results.

  15. Quantity Distortion Effect in Consumers' Perception of Different Volumes and Weights of Money: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Gianluigi; Piper, Luigi; Prete, M Irene; Mileti, Antonio; Fonda, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Consumers tend to misunderstand the physical value of cash money by adopting improper anchors for their judgments (e.g., banknote size and shape, currency denominations, etc.). In a pilot study carried out on a sample of 242 participants (n = 116 men; M age = 29.6 year, SD = 10.8), a quantity distortion effect was demonstrated by evaluating consumers' misperceptions of different monetary quantities, either in terms of volume or weight, using banknotes of the same denomination (€50). A threshold value was found, for both volume (€876,324) and weight (€371,779), above (below) which consumers tend to overrate (underrate) monetary amounts. The theoretical and operative implications are discussed.

  16. Modified economic order quantity (EOQ model for items with imperfect quality: Game-theoretical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Elyasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decade, studying the economic order quantity (EOQ models with imperfect quality has appealed to many researchers. Only few papers are published discussing EOQ models with imperfect items in a supply chain. In this paper, a two-echelon decentralized supply chain consisting of a manufacture and a supplier that both face just in time (JIT inventory problem is considered. It is sought to find the optimal number of the shipments and the quantity of each shipment in a way that minimizes the both manufacturer’s and the supplier’s cost functions. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first paper that deals with imperfect items in a decentralized supply chain. Thereby, three different game theoretical solution approaches consisting of two non-cooperative games and a cooperative game are proposed. Comparing the results of three different scenarios with those of the centralized model, the conclusions are drawn to obtain the best approach.

  17. Improving efficiencies in pharmaceutical distribution channels using the economic order quantity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D L; Schommer, J C

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate empirically the potential cost savings to a pharmaceutical wholesaler using the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model. This model allows for calculating the order quantity that minimizes both ordering and holding costs. A regional pharmaceutical wholesaler was selected for a case analysis study using the EOQ model. Eleven brand name products were randomly selected for the analysis. The average yearly cost savings using EOQ was $31.92 per product. The potential yearly cost savings based on 8500 brand name stock-keeping units was $271,320. Using EOQ can therefore assist pharmaceutical wholesalers in minimizing holding and ordering costs and improve efficiency for pharmaceutical distribution channels.

  18. Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of Birkhoff systems under second-class Mei symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yi-Ping; Fu Jin-Li

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new concept of the conformal invariance and the conserved quantities for Birkhoff systems under second-class Mei symmetry. The definition about conformal invariance of Birkhoff systems under second-class Mei symmetry is given. The conformal factor in the determining equations is found. The relationship between Birkhoff system's conformal invariance and second-class Mei symmetry are discussed. The necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance, which are simultaneously of second-class symmetry, are given. And Birkhoff system's conformal invariance may lead to corresponding Mei conserved quantities, which is deduced directly from the second-class Mei symmetry when the conformal invariance satisfies some conditions. Lastly, an example is provided to illustrate the application of the result.

  19. Conformal invariance, Noether symmetry, Lie symmetry and conserved quantities of Hamilton systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rong; Xu Xue-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the relation of the conformal invariance,the Noether symmetry,and the Lie symmetry for the Hamilton system is discussed in detail. The definition of the conformal invariance for Hamilton systems is given.The relation between the conformal invariance and the Noether symmetry is discussed,the conformal factors of the determining expressions are found by using the Noether symmetry,and the Noether conserved quantity resulted from the conformal invariance is obtained.The relation between the conformal invariance and the Lie symmetry is discussed,the conformal factors are found by using the Lie symmetry,and the Hojman conserved quantity resulted from the conformal invariance of the system is obtained.Two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results.

  20. Determination of Economic Order Quantity in a fuzzy EOQ Model using of GMIR Deffuzification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Salmani Mojaveri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate inventory control policies and its incorrect implementation can cause improper operation and uncompetitive advantage of organization logistic operation in the market. Therefore, analysis inventory control policies are important to be understood, including carrying cost, ordering cost, warehouse renting cost, and buying cost. In this research, Economic Order Quantity (EOQ problem in fuzzy condition is reviewed in two different situations. The first model concerned to costs (carrying cost, ordering cost, warehouse renting cost and buying cost, which is considered as triangular fuzzy numbers. The second model was in addition to inventory the cost system, in which annual demand is also reviewed as fuzzy numbers. In each model, graded mean integration representation (GMIR deffuzification was used for parameters deffuzification. Then, the final objective from this analysis was to obtain economic quantity formula through derivation.

  1. Disruption mitigation by injection of small quantities of noble gas in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, G.; Bernert, M.; Dibon, M.; Duval, B.; Dux, R.; Fable, E.; Fuchs, J. C.; Conway, G. D.; Giannone, L.; Gude, A.; Herrmann, A.; Hoelzl, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; Mlynek, A.; Maraschek, M.; Nardon, E.; Papp, G.; Potzel, S.; Rapson, C.; Sieglin, B.; Suttrop, W.; Treutterer, W.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The most recent experiments of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in ASDEX Upgrade have concentrated on small—relatively to the past—quantities of noble gas injected, and on the search for the minimum amount of gas necessary for the mitigation of the thermal loads on the divertor and for a significant reduction of the vertical force during the current quench. A scenario for the generation of a long-lived runaway electron beam has been established; this allows the study of runaway current dissipation by moderate quantities of argon injected. This paper presents these recent results and discusses them in the more general context of physical models and extrapolation, and of the open questions, relevant for the realization of the ITER disruption mitigation system.

  2. Cross-language similarity and difference in quantity categorization of Finnish and Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Kenji; J de Jong, Kenneth; Kruschke, John K;

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates how listeners of Finnish and Japanese, languages with very similar contrasts in plosive quantity (short vs.long), use language-specific phonetic knowledge of acoustic attributes which covary with closure duration. A fully-crossed perceptual experiment on consonant...... of the language of the listeners or talkers, suggesting a strong influence of cues besides closure duration that are shared by the two languages. However, Japanese listeners were more heavily affected by the acoustic cues concomitant to the quantity contrast in their native language, likely due to robust language......-specific vowel duration effects in the Japanese productions. Word prosody, besides creating subtle shifts in category boundary for both language groups, created confusions in the listener responses, especially when the language-specific word-level prosodic effect is localized in the vowel preceding the target...

  3. Symmetry of Hamiltonian and conserved quantity for a system of generalized classical mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a new symmetry of Hamiltonian and its conserved quantity for a system of generalized classical mechanics. The differential equations of motion of the system are established. The definition and the criterion of the symmetry of Hamiltonian of the system are given. A conserved quantity directly derived from the symmetry of Hamiltonian of the generalized classical mechanical system is given. Since a Hamilton system is a special case of the generalized classical mechanics, the results above are equally applicable to the Hamilton system. The results of the paper are the generalization of a theorem known for the existing nonsingular equivalent Lagrangian. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results.

  4. Development of psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu DL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Da-Li Lu,1 Xiao-Ling Lin2 1Department of Psychiatry, Xiamen Xianyue Hospital, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Nursing, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Psychotic symptoms can occur in some clinical conditions related to alcohol, such as intoxication, withdrawal, and other alcohol-induced neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a case report of a 24-year-old man, without a known psychiatric history, who developed brief psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol repeatedly. To our knowledge, no related previous literature regarding this has been reported. Keywords: Alcohol consumption, psychotic symptoms, behavioral change, minimal quantity, pathological intoxication, schizophrenia 

  5. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of shear flow: invariant quantities and current relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baule, A.; Evans, R. M. L.

    2010-03-01

    In modeling nonequilibrium systems one usually starts with a definition of the microscopic dynamics, e.g., in terms of transition rates, and then derives the resulting macroscopic behavior. We address the inverse question for a class of steady state systems, namely complex fluids under continuous shear flow: how does an externally imposed shear current affect the microscopic dynamics of the fluid? The answer can be formulated in the form of invariant quantities, exact relations for the transition rates in the nonequilibrium steady state, as discussed in a recent letter (Baule and Evans, 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 240601). Here, we present a more pedagogical account of the invariant quantities and the theory underlying them, known as the nonequilibrium counterpart to detailed balance (NCDB). Furthermore, we investigate the relationship between the transition rates and the shear current in the steady state. We show that a fluctuation relation of the Gallavotti-Cohen type holds for systems satisfying NCDB.

  6. Physical meaning of the conserved quantities on anti-de Sitter geodesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotǎescu, Ion I.

    2017-05-01

    The geodesic motion on anti-de Sitter spacetimes is studied, pointing out how the trajectories are determined by the ten independent conserved quantities associated with the specific S O (2 ,3 ) isometries of these manifolds. The new result is that there are two conserved S O (3 ) vectors which play the same role as the Runge-Lenz vector of the Kepler problem, determining the major and minor semiaxes of the ellipsoidal anti-de Sitter geodesics.

  7. The determination of the reference system of a single observer observed quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epikhin, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines various methods for constructing single-observer reference systems in general relativity. The procedure involves the determination on Riemann space of: (1) the world line of the observer, (2) the lines of transfer, and (3) a method for transferring quantities to the world line of the observer. Particular attention is given to the gauge transformation of synchronized single-observer reference systems. The examination is performed in a monad-field framework.

  8. Rotating electrical machines part 4: methods for determining synchronous machine quantities from tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Applies to three-phase synchronous machines of 1 kVA rating and larger with rated frequency of not more than 400 Hz and not less than 15 Hz. An appendix gives unconfirmed test methods for determining synchronous machine quantities. Notes: 1 -Tests are not applicable to synchronous machines such as permanent magnet field machines, inductor type machines, etc. 2 -They also apply to brushless machines, but certain variations exist and special precautions should be taken.

  9. The behaviour of physical quantities in thin films near the Curie point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1982-05-01

    The Valenta model of a thin ferromagnetic film in the critical region above the Curie point has been considered. Spatial and temperature dependence for spin correlation time and magnetic susceptibility has been obtained and discussed. The results have been generalized and expressions describing the behaviour of any physical quantity in more complicated models of a thin ferromagnetic film near the Curie temperature have been given.

  10. Investigation on Capability of the Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Píška, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    An investigation on reaming usingminimal quantity lubrication (MQL) was carried out with the scope of documenting process capability using a metrological approach. Reaming tests were carried out on austenitic stainless steel, using HSS reamers with different cutting data and lubrication conditions....... The reaming operations were compared with respect to a number of evaluation parameters, both hole quality (diameter, roundness, cylindricity and surface roughness) and cutting forces (reaming thrust and torque). Absolute average values as well as experimental standard deviations of the evaluation parameters...

  11. Burden shifting of water quantity and quality stress from megacity Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Junguo; Yang, Hong; Duarte, Rosa; Tillotson, Martin R.; Hubacek, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    Much attention has been paid to burden shifting of CO2 emissions from developed regions to developing regions through trade. However, less discussed is that trade also acts as a mechanism enabling wealthy consumers to shift water quantity and quality stress to their trading partners. In this study, we investigate how Shanghai, the largest megacity in China, draws water resources from all over China and outsources its pollution through virtual quantity and quality water flows associated with trade. The results show that Shanghai's consumption of goods and services in 2007 led to 11.6 billion m3 of freshwater consumption, 796 thousand tons of COD, and 16.2 thousand tons of NH3-N in discharged wastewater. Of this, 79% of freshwater consumption, 82.9% of COD and 82.5% of NH3-N occurred in other Chinese Provinces which provide goods and services to Shanghai. Thirteen Provinces with severe and extreme water quantity stress accounted for 60% of net virtual water import to Shanghai, while 19 Provinces experiencing water quality stress endured 79% of net COD outsourcing and 75.5% of net NH3-N outsourcing from Shanghai. In accordance with the three "redlines" recently put forward by the Chinese central government to control water pollution and cap total water use in all provinces, we suggest that Shanghai should share its responsibility for reducing water quantity and quality stress in its trading partners through taking measures at provincial, industrial, and consumer levels. In the meantime, Shanghai needs to enhance demand side management by promoting low water intensity consumption.

  12. Sleep quantity and quality is not compromised during planned burn shifts of less than 12 h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Grace E; Aisbett, Brad; Hall, Sarah J; Ferguson, Sally A

    Planned burning is a preventative strategy aimed at decreasing fuel loads to reduce the severity of future wildfire events. During planned burn operations, firefighters can work long shifts. Furthermore, remote burning locations may require firefighters to sleep away from home between shifts. The existing evidence surrounding firefighters' sleep during such operations is exclusively anecdotal. The aims of the study were to describe firefighters' sleep during planned burn operations and evaluate the impact of the key operational factors (shift start time, shift length and sleeping location) that may contribute to inadequate sleep. Thirty-three salaried firefighters were recruited from Australia's fire agencies and sleep was measured objectively using wrist actigraphy for four weeks. All variables were examined in two conditions: (1) burn days, and (2) non-burn days. Time in bed, total sleep time, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were evaluated objectively. Subjective reports of pre- and post-sleep fatigue, sleep location, sleep quality, sleep quantity, number of times woken and sleep timing were also recorded. Analyses revealed no differences in measures of sleep quantity and quality when comparing non-burn and burn days. Total sleep time was less when planned burn shifts were >12 h. However, on burn days, work shift start time as well as sleeping location did not impact firefighters' sleep quantity. Self-reported levels of pre- and post-sleep fatigue were greater on burn days compared to non-burn days. These findings indicate that sleep quantity and quality are not compromised during planned burn operations <12 h in duration.

  13. Improved quality and quantity of written feedback is associated with a structured feedback proforma

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Philip M.; Wallace, Melisa J.; Judy McKimm

    2012-01-01

    Facilitating the provision of detailed, deep and useful feedback is an important design feature of any educational programme. Here we evaluate feedback provided to medical students completing short transferable skills projects. Feedback quantity and depth were evaluated before and after a simple intervention to change the structure of the feedback-provision form from a blank free-text feedback form to a structured proforma that asked a pair of short questions for each of the six domains being...

  14. Pharmaceutical quantities of yohimbine found in dietary supplements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Maller, Gregory; DeSouza, Renan; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, botanical dietary supplements are presumed to be safe, but this is not necessarily always the case. Extracts of the evergreen tree yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe, though banned in many countries, are sold in hundreds of dietary supplements in the USA. We analyzed 49 brands of supplements labelled as containing yohimbe or yohimbine available for sale from seven major retailers in the USA. Supplements were analyzed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detectors for quantity of three alkaloids found in P. johimbe (yohimbine, rauwolscine, and corynanthine). The alkaloids were confirmed on the basis of retention time, ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectra against reference standards. The quantity of the most active alkaloid, yohimbine, per recommended serving ranged from none detected to 12.1 mg. Thirty-nine percent of the supplements (19/49) did not contain rauwolscine and corynanthine suggesting that the yohimbine was either from highly processed plant extract or synthetic in origin. Only 11 supplement brands (22%, 11/49) listed a specific quantity of yohimbine on the label. Most of these were inaccurately labelled (actual content ranged from 23% to 147% of the content on the label). Eighteen percent (9/49) of the supplements' labels did not provide any information about yohimbine's adverse effects. Of the 49 yohimbine supplement brands sold at seven major retail chains in the USA, only 4.1% (2/49) provided consumers with both accurate information about the quantity of yohimbine as well as information about yohimbine's known adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of dynamical system of relative motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiang-Wei; Zhao Yong-Hong; Li Yan-Min

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses in detail the conformal invariance by infinitesimal transformations of a dynamical system of relative motion.The necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance and Lie symmetry are given simulta neously by the action of infinitesimal transformations.Then it obtains the conserved quantities of conformal invariance by the infinitesimal transformations.Finally an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  16. Research on the Data Conversion Specification for Chinese Agricultural Product Quantity Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Kaimeng

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: GIS, GPS, RS and Precision Farming; International audience; This paper summarizes the current main methods of heterogeneous data conversion, focuses on the necessity of establishing the data conversion specification for China’s agricultural product quantity safety, as well as specifies the main designs and solutions for data conversion structure, data conversion process and data conversion format in research. Establishing a data conversion specification is a pioneering work of applyin...

  17. Econometric Study of Relationship between Change of Farmland Quantity and Policy of Farmland Protection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data from Investigation Report of Land Use Change in China,The Land Resources Communique of China and Chronicle of Statistical Data for Five Decades of New China issued from Ministry of Land Resources,we select two indices:change of farmland quantity and policy of farmland protection.According to econometric theory,by using Eviewes 5.1 software,co-integration analysis,Granger causality test,impulse response and other analysis methods,we analyze the relationship between change of farmland quantity and policy of farmland protection in China since the reform and opening-up.The results show that there is long-term balanced relationship between change of farmland quantity and policy of farmland protection,and there is a certain mechanism restricting motion of variables between the two so as to make the two deviate from each other little and step towards balance in the long run;there is unilateral causality relationship between farmland change and policy of farmland protection,namely that the farmland change is the Granger cause of policy of farmland protection,while policy of farmland protection is not the Granger cause of farmland change;impulse response and variance decomposition indicate that farmland change plays the role of promoting policy of farmland protection continuously,and the role is strengthened along with prolonged lag period;the policy of farmland protection has strong inertia,because it is impacted by the former level of itself,and the policy of farmland protection plays insignificant role in promoting farmland quantity.Consequently,the important approach of solving problem of rapid decrease of farmland is to formulate long-term strategy,strengthen theoretical research of farmland protection and reinforce degree of formulation,implementation and surveillance of farmland protection policy.

  18. Quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in injury-related paediatric hospitalisations

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie Kirsten; Scott Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While child maltreatment is recognised as a global problem, solid epidemiological data on the prevalence of child maltreatment and risk factors associated with child maltreatment is lacking in Australia and internationally. There have been recent calls for action to improve the evidence-base capturing and describing child abuse, particularly those data captured within the health sector. This paper describes the quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in inju...

  19. Economic production quantity models for imperfect product and service with rework

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Allen H.

    2012-01-01

    When imperfect quality products are produced in a production process, rework may be performed to make them become serviceable. In an inventory system, items may deteriorate. Selling deteriorated items to customers will create negative impact on corporate image. In this paper, two economic production quantity (EPQ) models are proposed for deteriorating items with rework process. A single production-rework plant system and a system consists of $n$ production plants and one rework plant are cons...

  20. Conformal invariance and Hojman conserved quantities of first order Lagrange systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiang-Wei; Liu Chang; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the conformal invaxiance by infinitesimal transformations of first order Lagrange systems is discussed in detail.The necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance and Lie symmetry simultaneously by the action of infinitesimal transformations are given.Then it gets the Hojman conserved quantities of conformal invariance by the infinitesimal transformations.Finally an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.