WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantity food preparation

  1. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  2. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity.

  3. Preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity by electrochemical exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2014-12-15

    We reported the preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity via the anodic exfoliation of graphite in (NH4)2SO4 aqueous solution. In the currently designed electrochemical exfoliation route, mass high-quality graphene was produced within short reaction time, around 1h. The proposed electrochemical exfoliation mechanism showed that SO4(2-) and H2O can be intercalated into those graphite sheets, monolayer and few-layer graphene were obtained by the formation of gaseous SO2 and O2 within graphite sheets. Stability evaluation showed that our exfoliated colloidal graphene can be perfectly stabilized in DMF solvent more than 1 week. The colloidal graphene can be used to construct various simple and complex patterns by writing it on A4 paper, which can be applied to flexible printed electronic devices. Furthermore, colloidal graphene can show promising applications in the fabrication of binder- and additive-free electrodes for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries. Our present method shows huge potential for industrial-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene and further commercialization of graphene colloid for numerous advanced applications in flexible printed electronics and energy storage devices.

  4. Defining value through quantity and quality-Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) undervalue food quantities when items are broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Decision-making largely is influenced by the relative value of choice options, and the value of such options can be determined by a combination of different factors (e.g., the quantity, size, or quality of a stimulus). In this study, we examined the competing influences of quantity (i.e., the number of food items in a set) and quality (i.e., the original state of a food item) of choice items on chimpanzees' food preferences in a two-option natural choice paradigm. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees chose between sets of food items that were either entirely whole or included items that were broken into pieces before being shown to the chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a bias for whole food items even when such choice options consisted of a smaller overall quantity of food than the sets containing broken items. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees chose between sets of entirely whole food items and sets of initially whole items that were subsequently broken in view of the chimpanzees just before choice time. Chimpanzees continued to exhibit a bias for sets of whole items. In Experiment 3, chimpanzees chose between sets of new food items that were initially discrete but were subsequently transformed into a larger cohesive unit. Here, chimpanzees were biased to choose the discrete sets that retained their original qualitative state rather than toward the cohesive or clumped sets. These results demonstrate that beyond a food set's quantity (i.e., the value dimension that accounts for maximization in terms of caloric intake), other seemingly non-relevant features (i.e., quality in terms of a set's original state) affect how chimpanzees assign value to their choice options.

  5. Memory for multiple cache locations and prey quantities in a food-hoarding songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eArmstrong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most animals can discriminate between pairs of numbers that are each less than four without training. However, North Island robins (Petroica longipes, a food hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, can discriminate between quantities of items as high as eight without training. Here we investigate whether robins are capable of other complex quantity discrimination tasks. We test whether their ability to discriminate between small quantities declines with 1. the number of cache sites containing prey rewards and 2. the length of time separating cache creation and retrieval (retention interval. Results showed that subjects generally performed above chance expectations. They were equally able to discriminate between different combinations of prey quantities that were hidden from view in 2, 3 and 4 cache sites from between 1, 10 and 60 seconds. Overall results indicate that North Island robins can process complex quantity information involving more than two discrete quantities of items for up to one minute long retention intervals without training.

  6. Food quality dominates the impact of food quantity on Daphnia life history : possible implications for re-oligotrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarpe, Dirk; Domis, Lisette N. de Senerpont; Declerck, Steven A. J.; van Donk, Ellen; Ibelings, Bas W.

    2014-01-01

    The elemental composition of phytoplankton is highly variable compared to the relatively narrow stoichiometry of zooplankton grazers. Using a full factorial design, we tested the effects of alterations in algal elemental composition (i.e., food quality) combined with food quantity on the life histor

  7. Food quality dominates the impact of food quantity on Daphnia life history: possible implications for re-oligotrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarpe, D.; Senerpont Domis, de L.N.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Donk, van E.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    The elemental composition of phytoplankton is highly variable compared to the relatively narrow stoichiometry of zooplankton grazers. Using a full factorial design, we tested the effects of alterations in algal elemental composition (i.e., food quality) combined with food quantity on the life histor

  8. Food Preparation, Practices, and Safety In The Hmong Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses are syndromes that are acquired as a result of eating foods that contain sufficient quantities of poisonous substances or pathogens. Cultural practices place the Hmongat an increased risk for food borne illnesses resulting from improper food handling, preparation, and storage. The risk for illness is further complicated by the fact that the Hmong have verylimited knowledge about food-borne disease and they find themselves in a situation in which they cannot control the space in the house available for food preparation. Data for this qualitative study were collected from 25 Hmong individuals aged 18 and over residing in Fresno, California. Participants in this study did not appear to understand the direct relationship between bacteria and food borne illnesses. Similarly, study participants were more likely to reportreliance on traditional medicine to address foodborne illnesses. Results from this study indicate a need to reach the Hmong community with culturally appropriate messages relating to food preparation and practice. Messages must acknowledge the role of food in cultural celebrations, while seeking to decrease the risk for foodborne illnesses.

  9. Haida Food Gathering and Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to the Haida language as well as to traditional Haida foods in this booklet, one in a series of curriculum materials on Southeast Alaska Natives. Ten selections written in simple language describe a Haida barbecue, Indian bread, sea cucumbers, black sea weed, the edible pulp sap of Hemlock, Indian ice cream made from soap…

  10. Arsenic Release from Foodstuffs upon Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyns, Karlien; Waegeneers, Nadia; Van de Wiele, Tom; Ruttens, Ann

    2017-03-22

    In this study the concentration of total arsenic (As) and arsenic species (inorganic As, arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate, and methylarsonate) was monitored in different foodstuffs (rice, vegetables, algae, fish, crustacean, molluscs) before and after preparation using common kitchen practices. By measuring the water content of the foodstuff and by reporting arsenic concentrations on a dry weight base, we were able to distinguish between As release effects due to food preparation and As decrease due to changes in moisture content upon food preparation. Arsenic species were released to the broth during boiling, steaming, frying, or soaking of the food. Concentrations declined with maxima of 57% for total arsenic, 65% for inorganic As, and 32% for arsenobetaine. On the basis of a combination of our own results and literature data, we conclude that the extent of this release of arsenic species is species specific, with inorganic arsenic species being released most easily, followed by the small organic As species and the large organic As species.

  11. The Good, the Bad and the Plenty: Interactive Effects of Food Quality and Quantity on the Growth of Different Daphnia Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Verschoor, A.M.; Helmsing, N.R.; Bezemer, T.M.; Bakker, E.S.; Vos, M.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of food quality and quantity on consumers are neither independent nor interchangeable. Although consumer growth and reproduction show strong variation in relation to both food quality and quantity, the effects of food quality or food quantity have usually been studied in isolation. In two ex

  12. The good, the bad and the plenty: interactive effects of food quality and quantity on the growth of different Daphnia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Verschoor, A.M.; Helmsing, N.R.; Bezemer, T.M.; Bakker, E.S.; Vos, M.; Domis, L.N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of food quality and quantity on consumers are neither independent nor interchangeable. Although consumer growth and reproduction show strong variation in relation to both food quality and quantity, the effects of food quality or food quantity have usually been studied in isolation. In two ex

  13. The good, the bad and the plenty: interactive effects of food quality and quantity on the growth of different Daphnia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Verschoor, A.M.; Helmsing, N.R.; Bezemer, T.M.; Bakker, E.S.; Vos, M.; Domis, L.N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of food quality and quantity on consumers are neither independent nor interchangeable. Although consumer growth and reproduction show strong variation in relation to both food quality and quantity, the effects of food quality or food quantity have usually been studied in isolation. In two

  14. Mating behavior of Daphnia: impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geung-Hwan La

    Full Text Available High predation risk and food depletion lead to sexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia. Mating, the core of sexual reproduction, also occurs under these conditions. Assessment of the environmental conditions and alteration of mating efforts may aid in determining the success of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluated the impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females on the mating behavior of Daphnia obtusa males including contact frequency and duration using video analysis. Mating-related behavior involved male-female contact (mating as well as male-male contact (fighting. Mating frequency increased while unnecessary fighting decreased in the presence of predation risk. In addition, low food concentration reduced fighting between males. Males attempted to attach to sexual females more than asexual females, and fighting occurred more frequently in the presence of sexual females. Duration of mating was relatively long; however, males separated shortly after contact in terms of fighting behavior. Thus, assessment of environmental factors and primary sexing of mates were performed before actual contact, possibly mechanically, and precise sex discrimination was conducted after contact. These results suggest that mating in Daphnia is not a random process but rather a balance between predation risk and energetic cost that results in changes in mating and fighting strategies.

  15. Mating Behavior of Daphnia: Impacts of Predation Risk, Food Quantity, and Reproductive Phase of Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Geung-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Yun; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Jang, Min-Ho; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2014-01-01

    High predation risk and food depletion lead to sexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia. Mating, the core of sexual reproduction, also occurs under these conditions. Assessment of the environmental conditions and alteration of mating efforts may aid in determining the success of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluated the impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females on the mating behavior of Daphnia obtusa males including contact frequency and duration using video analysis. Mating–related behavior involved male–female contact (mating) as well as male–male contact (fighting). Mating frequency increased while unnecessary fighting decreased in the presence of predation risk. In addition, low food concentration reduced fighting between males. Males attempted to attach to sexual females more than asexual females, and fighting occurred more frequently in the presence of sexual females. Duration of mating was relatively long; however, males separated shortly after contact in terms of fighting behavior. Thus, assessment of environmental factors and primary sexing of mates were performed before actual contact, possibly mechanically, and precise sex discrimination was conducted after contact. These results suggest that mating in Daphnia is not a random process but rather a balance between predation risk and energetic cost that results in changes in mating and fighting strategies. PMID:25111600

  16. When is it worth waiting for? Food quantity, but not food quality, affects delay tolerance in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Petrillo, Francesca; Gori, Emanuele; Micucci, Antonia; Ponsi, Giorgia; Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-09-01

    When faced with choices between smaller sooner options and larger later options (i.e. intertemporal choices), both humans and non-human animals discount future rewards. Apparently, only humans consistently show the magnitude effect, according to which larger options are discounted over time at a lower rate than smaller options. Most of the studies carried out in non-human animals led instead to negative results. Here, we tested ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) in a delay choice task to evaluate whether they show a magnitude effect when choosing between different quantities of the same food or when the options are represented by high- and low-preferred foods in different conditions. Whereas food quality did not play a role, we provided the first evidence of an effect of the reward amount on temporal preferences in a non-human primate species, a result with potential implications for the validity of comparative studies on the evolution of delay tolerance. In contrast with human results, but as shown in other animal species, capuchins' choice of the larger later option decreased as the amount of the smaller sooner option increased. Capuchins based their temporal preferences on the quantity of the smaller sooner option, rather than on that of the larger later option, probably because in the wild they virtually never have to choose between the above two options at the same time, but they more often encounter them consecutively. Thus, paying attention to the sooner option and deciding on the basis of its features may be an adaptive strategy rather than an irrational response.

  17. Preparation of high-quality next-generation sequencing libraries from picogram quantities of target DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Nicholas J; Maslau, Siarhei; Ferneyhough, Ben; Zhang, Gang; Gregory, Lorna; Buck, David; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Ponting, Chris P; Fischer, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    New sequencing technologies can address diverse biomedical questions but are limited by a minimum required DNA input of typically 1 μg. We describe how sequencing libraries can be reproducibly created from 20 pg of input DNA using a modified transpososome-mediated fragmentation technique. Resulting libraries incorporate in-line bar-coding, which facilitates sample multiplexes that can be sequenced using Illumina platforms with the manufacturer's sequencing primer. We demonstrate this technique by providing deep coverage sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome that shows equivalent target coverage to a 1-μg input library prepared using standard Illumina methods. Reducing template quantity does, however, increase the proportion of duplicate reads and enriches coverage in low-GC regions. This finding was confirmed with exhaustive resequencing of a mouse library constructed from 20 pg of gDNA input (about seven haploid genomes) resulting in ∼0.4-fold statistical coverage of uniquely mapped fragments. This implies that a near-complete coverage of the mouse genome is obtainable with this approach using 20 genomes as input. Application of this new method now allows genomic studies from low mass samples and routine preparation of sequencing libraries from enrichment procedures.

  18. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings. PMID:28773909

  19. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gould

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w and water-in-oil (w/o emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C. Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9. Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings.

  20. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-09-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3-pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings.

  1. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf E Murgha

    Full Text Available Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  2. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  3. [Prevalence survey of using characteristics of quality, quantity, origin and composition claims on food labels in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Zhang, Lishi; Fan, Yongxiang; Yan, Weixing

    2013-09-01

    To understand the using characteristics of quality, quantity, origin and composition claims on food labels in China. To get the label samples from different size of supermarket by taking photos in Beijing, and also samples were provided by provincial quality technical supervision, et al. Then extracted the claims from the label samples, classified the samples by determined food categories, and analyzed the using characteristics of these claims. The constituent ratio of quality, quantity, origin and composition claims were 29.48%, 2.24%, 29.21%, 31.81% among all the samples. The constituent ratio of snacks (16.11%) was maximum among all the samples using quality claims, and grain and its products (36.00%) for quantity claims, meat and meat products (22. 09%) for origin claims, snacks (27.04%) for composition claims. "Nature, Natural" (48.63%) was the most used claims among all the samples using quality claims, "Exaggerated capacity" (44.00%) was the most for quantity claims, "Product of , From, Manufactured in" (34.36%) was the most for origin claims, and "Pure, 100% , All" (38.03%) was the most for composition claims. The using of quality, quantity, origin, and composition claims is frequently on food labels in China, and a lot of studies should be taken on this field, government should also enact regulations to regulate the use of this claims.

  4. Stonefish "Okoze" envenomation during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Suzuki, Masaru; Hori, Shingo; Aikawa, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Stonefish is a dangerous and venomous fish commonly found in the shallow waters of the Pacific region. Its envenomation is reported worldwide with increasing frequency. Although envenomation usually occurs in those engaged in marine sports, chefs may suffer envenomation during cutting stonefish, which is eaten either sliced raw, boiled, or deep-fried by Japanese. Since many people cook and eat Japanese food, it is important to know that cutting a stonefish for cooking carries the risk of envenomation. However, most primary and emergency physicians have not encountered cases of envenomation during food preparation. Here we describe a case of envenomation occurring while cooking. The patient was a healthy 33-year-old man working as a chef in a Japanese restaurant. He was presented to an academic emergency department after suddenly developing severe pain in his right fourth finger while cutting a stonefish. The finger was reddish, swollen, and tender. The pain reduce d after immersing his hand in hot water, and disappeared within 18 h without any complication. In this report, we describe the history of stonefish envenomation and provide a brief review of the literature related to this form of envenomation.

  5. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  6. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  7. The good, the bad and the plenty: interactive effects of food quality and quantity on the growth of different Daphnia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovinszky, Tibor; Verschoor, Antonie M; Helmsing, Nico R; Bezemer, T Martijn; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Vos, Matthijs; de Senerpont Domis, Lisette N

    2012-01-01

    Effects of food quality and quantity on consumers are neither independent nor interchangeable. Although consumer growth and reproduction show strong variation in relation to both food quality and quantity, the effects of food quality or food quantity have usually been studied in isolation. In two experiments, we studied the growth and reproduction in three filter-feeding freshwater zooplankton species, i.e. Daphnia galeata x hyalina, D. pulicaria and D. magna, on their algal food (Scenedesmus obliquus), varying in carbon to phosphorus (C∶P) ratios and quantities (concentrations). In the first experiment, we found a strong positive effect of the phosphorus content of food on growth of Daphnia, both in their early and late juvenile development. Variation in the relationship between the P-content of animals and their growth rate reflected interspecific differences in nutrient requirements. Although growth rates typically decreased as development neared maturation, this did not affect these species-specific couplings between growth rate and Daphnia P-content. In the second experiment, we examined the effects of food quality on Daphnia growth at different levels of food quantity. With the same decrease in P-content of food, species with higher estimated P-content at zero growth showed a larger increase in threshold food concentrations (i.e. food concentration sufficient to meet metabolic requirements but not growth). These results suggest that physiological processes such as maintenance and growth may in combination explain effects of food quality and quantity on consumers. Our study shows that differences in response to variation in food quality and quantity exist between species. As a consequence, species-specific effects of food quality on consumer growth will also determine how species deal with varying food levels, which has implications for resource-consumer interactions.

  8. The MELISSA food data base: space food preparation and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Pons, A.; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Life Support Systems have to deal with air, water and food requirement for a crew, waste management and also to the crew's habitability and safety constraints. Food can be provided from stocks (open loops) or produced during the space flight or on an extraterrestrial base (what implies usually a closed loop system). Finally it is admitted that only biological processes can fulfil the food requirement of life support system. Today, only a strictly vegetarian source range is considered, and this is limited to a very small number of crops compared to the variety available on Earth. Despite these constraints, a successful diet should have enough variety in terms of ingredients and recipes and sufficiently high acceptability in terms of acceptance ratings for individual dishes to remain interesting and palatable over a several months period and an adequate level of nutrients commensurate with the space nutritional requirements. In addition to the nutritional aspects, others parameters have to be considered for the pertinent selection of the dishes as energy consumption (for food production and transformation), quantity of generated waste, preparation time, food processes. This work concerns a global approach called MELISSA Food Database to facilitate the cre-ation and the management of these menus associated to the nutritional, mass, energy and time constraints. The MELISSA Food Database is composed of a database (MySQL based) con-taining multiple information among others crew composition, menu, dishes, recipes, plant and nutritional data and of a web interface (PHP based) to interactively access the database and manage its content. In its current version a crew is defined and a 10 days menu scenario can be created using dishes that could be cooked from a set of limited fresh plant assumed to be produced in the life support system. The nutritional covering, waste produced, mass, time and energy requirements are calculated allowing evaluation of the menu scenario and its

  9. USAF Food Habits Study. Part 4. Selections, Quantities Selected, and Perceived Portion Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    and beef were also more frequently selected. Whites more frequently selected seafood and pasta . Results were mixed for breakfast meats and fast foods...sandwich. Males also more frequently selected beef, chicken, pork, pasta , and pastry, but females more often than males selected fish portions. Results...onions. 5 H.L. Meiselman. The role of sweetness in the food preferences of young adults. In James M. Weiffenbach (Ed.), National Institute of Dental

  10. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Linking water quality and quantity in environmental flow assessment in deteriorated ecosystems: a food web view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Ma, Lekuan; Guo, Wei; Yang, Ying; Guo, Tong; Feng, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Most rivers worldwide are highly regulated by anthropogenic activities through flow regulation and water pollution. Environmental flow regulation is used to reduce the effects of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. Formulating flow alteration-ecological response relationships is a key factor in environmental flow assessment. Traditional environmental flow models are characterized by natural relationships between flow regimes and ecosystem factors. However, food webs are often altered from natural states, which disturb environmental flow assessment in such ecosystems. In ecosystems deteriorated by heavy anthropogenic activities, the effects of environmental flow regulation on species are difficult to assess with current modeling approaches. Environmental flow management compels the development of tools that link flow regimes and food webs in an ecosystem. Food web approaches are more suitable for the task because they are more adaptive for disordered multiple species in a food web deteriorated by anthropogenic activities. This paper presents a global method of environmental flow assessment in deteriorated aquatic ecosystems. Linkages between flow regimes and food web dynamics are modeled by incorporating multiple species into an ecosystem to explore ecosystem-based environmental flow management. The approach allows scientists and water resources managers to analyze environmental flows in deteriorated ecosystems in an ecosystem-based way.

  12. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Simatende

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Umcombotsi, emahewu, buganu, and emasi were the fermented foods commonly prepared at a household level in the Hhohho region, Swaziland. The main ingredient used for preparing umcombotsi and emahewu was maize meal. Unmilled sorghum malt was also added during preparation of umcombotsi. However, typically no malt was added during the preparation of emahewu. Buganu and emasi also play an important role in the diet and socioeconomic activities of the population in Swaziland.

  13. Preparation Methods: past and Potential Methods of Food Preparation for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The logical progression of development of space food systems during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs is outlined. The preparation methods which include no preparation to heating, cooling and freezing are reviewed. The introduction of some new and exciting technological advances is proposed, which should result in a system providing crew members with appetizing, safe, nutritious and convenient food.

  14. Comparison of Uric Acid Quantity with Different Food in Human Urine by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the inhibitory effect of uric acid (UA on luminol-Co2+ chemiluminescence (CL system, a sensitive method for the determination of UA at nanomolar level by flow injection (FI CL was proposed. The proposed method was successfully applied to real-time monitoring of UA excretion in human 24 h urine with different food intake, showing that meats, vegetables, and porridge intake caused differential UA excretions of 879, 798, and 742 mg, respectively. It was also found that UA concentrations in urine under the three kinds of food intake simultaneously reached maximum at 2 h after meals with the values of 417, 318, and 288 μg mL−1, respectively. The UA concentration in human serum was also determined by this approach, and the possible mechanism of luminol-Co2+-UA CL reaction was discussed in detail.

  15. Gender, Marital Status, and Commercially Prepared Food Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess how per capita expenditure on commercially prepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by the sex and marital status of the head of the household. Design: Prospective cohort study, data collected by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Setting: United States.…

  16. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  18. Combining food type(s) and food quantity choice in a new food choice paradigm based on vice-virtue bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-08-01

    Given the prevalence and rising rates of obesity in many countries, including the United States, much food decision-making research ultimately aims at understanding how consumers can make healthier choices. The two predominant choice paradigms used in food decision-making research ask consumers to choose (a) between a "vice" (or unhealthy food) and a "virtue" (or healthy food) or (b) among varying portion sizes of "vice." We propose a new food choice paradigm that encourages consumers to jointly consider both food type(s) choice and food portion size at each decision point. The purpose of this paradigm is two-fold. First, it aims to allow examination of more comprehensive eating behavior (e.g., to examine the overall composition of a plate of food rather than choice of a single food). Second, it aims to shift consumers towards including large proportions of virtues and smaller proportions of vice in their overall consumption portfolios. For this paradigm, we draw upon a recently introduced food product innovation called "vice-virtue bundles" (Liu et al., 2015) that illustrates the basis of this new food choice paradigm, in which food type(s) and portion decisions are made simultaneously. Accordingly, we first discuss relevant findings on vice-virtue bundles as well as the differences between simultaneous and sequential choice of multiple products. Second, we examine the benefits for managing and controlling one's consumption that are provided by vice-virtue bundles and this joint food choice paradigm more generally. Third and finally, we point out opportunities for future research by discussing (a) multiple factors that influence food choices, (b) decision processes affected by food choice paradigms, and (c) issues of generalizability related to the presence of vice-virtue bundles.

  19. Prevalence of Selected Food Consumption and Preparation Behaviors Associated with Increased Risks of Food-borne Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klontz, Karl C; Timbo, Babgaleh; Fein, Sara; Levy, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Although not well quantified, a portion of food-borne illnesses results from voluntary behaviors that are entirely avoidable, such as eating raw foods of animal origin or engaging in unsafe food preparation practices...

  20. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  1. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    /botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms ‘adverse effect/s’, ‘poisoning/s’, ‘plant food supplement/s’, ‘misidentification/s’ and ‘interaction/s’ in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically......The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned...

  2. Role of quantity of additional food to predators as a control in predator-prey systems with relevance to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2011-10-01

    Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey systems. In this article controllability of the additional food--provided predator-prey system is studied from perspectives of pest eradication and biological conservation. Time optimal paths have been constructed to drive the state of the system to a desired terminal state by choosing quantity of the additional food as control variable. The theory developed in this article has been illustrated by solving problems related to pest eradication and biological conservation.

  3. EVALUATION OF HONEY INCORPORATED FOOD PREPARATION ON THE BASIS OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND THEIR ADVOCACY IN IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Seema

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural sweetener and it is a nature’s gift to mankind. Honey is important edible substance, which contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements, vitamins and sugars as major constituents. Honey is frequently used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as variety of the Ayurvedic preparations are taken along with or in combination with honey. The present study was conducted to determine the glycemic index of food products made with different natural sweeteners including honey. Normal healthy subjects (n = 10 and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 10 were included in the study and administered with equicarbohydrate quantity of glucose and a food preparation ‘sweet roll’ containing different sweeteners at fasted state on various days. Monitoring of blood glucose in normal healthy subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes indicated a significant difference in incremental area under the curve (IAUC of glucose and food preparations made with different sweeteners. The mean incremental area under the curve of food preparations was significantly lower (p = < 0.01 than that of glucose in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance as well as normal healthy subjects. At the same time honey incorporated sweet rolls were found to have lower glycemic index when compared to rolls prepared with cane sugar and jaggery. This indicated honey incorporated foods may be occasionally consumed by subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  4. Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K; Fischler, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans' more personal as opposed to communal food and other values.

  5. Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K.; Fischler, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values. PMID:21845184

  6. Broad themes of difference between French and Americans in attitudes to food and other life domains: Personal versus communal values, quantity versus quality, and comforts versus joys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRozin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier over joys (unique things that make life interesting. The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values.

  7. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, R; Walker, R

    2004-05-20

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; the intended use and consequent exposure; history of use and exposure; product comparison(s); toxicological information gathering; Risk characterisation/safety assessment. As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented.

  8. Food adulteration analysis without laboratory prepared or determined reference food adulterant values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Moira, Marianna; Tsafaras, Ilias; Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Mousdis, George A

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of food adulterants is an important health and economic issue that needs to be fast and simple. Spectroscopy has significantly reduced analysis time. However, still needed are preparations of analyte calibration samples matrix matched to prediction samples which can be laborious and costly. Reported in this paper is the application of a newly developed pure component Tikhonov regularization (PCTR) process that does not require laboratory prepared or reference analysis methods, and hence, is a greener calibration method. The PCTR method requires an analyte pure component spectrum and non-analyte spectra. As a food analysis example, synchronous fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower oil is used. Results are shown to be better than those obtained using ridge regression with reference calibration samples. The flexibility of PCTR allows including reference samples and is generic for use with other instrumental methods and food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food and its preparation conditions in hotels in Accra, Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and its preparation conditions in hotels in Accra, Ghana: A concern for food safety. ... The microbial quality of all the food samples tested was satisfactory with ... management of these hotels are now implementing Good Hygienic Practices ...

  10. Observational trial of safe food handling behavior during food preparation using the example of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ≤10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ≥60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases.

  11. Preparation of food grade carboxymethyl cellulose from corn husk agrowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Ibrahim H; Yeasmin, Mst Sarmina; Rahman, Md Saifur

    2015-08-01

    Alpha-cellulose extracted from corn husks was used as the raw material for the production of food-grade carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Preparation of CMC from husk cellulose was carried out by an etherification process, using sodium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid (MCA), with ethanol as the supporting medium. Characterizations of CMC were carried out by analyzing the spectra of FTIR, XRD patterns and SEM photomicrographs. Degree of substitution (DS) was determined with respect to particle size using chemical methods. Solubility, molecular weight and DS of CMC increased with decreased cellulose particle sizes. Microbiological testing of the prepared CMC was done by the pour plate method. Concentrations of heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury in the purified CMC were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy technique and found to be within the WHO/FAO recommended value. A comparative study with CMC available in the international market was conducted. The purity of the prepared CMC was higher, at 99.99% well above the purity of 99.5% for standard CMC. High purity CMC showed a yield 2.4 g/g with DS 2.41, water holding capacity 5.11 g/g, oil holding capacity 1.59 g/g. The obtained product is well suited for pharmaceutical and food additives.

  12. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  14. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  15. Seasonal changes in food quantity and quality of the common North Sea copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus: a bioassay approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Dutz, Jörg; Klein Breteler, W.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the food quantity and quality over a seasonal cycle for the development and egg production of the common North Sea copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus, using a bioassay approach. Seston was sampled from December to October from a well-mixed water column...... with the seston from the spring bloom in March-April. The juveniles of both species were able to complete their development only in spring experiments. A multiple regression analyses and comparison to a good-quality standard food of the same concentration suggested that, in an annual scale, the egg production...... and development of T longicornis mainly depended on phytoplankton concentration, while the egg production and development of P. elongatus appeared also to benefit from detritus or heterotrophic food sources. The present study did not detect an influence of a specific food quality variable; however, an unexplained...

  16. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz; Marcela Boro Veiros; Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença; Anete Araújo de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The ...

  17. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended.

    La artritis adyuvante es un modelo utilizado en animales y se caracteriza por ser muy parecida a la artritis reumatoide en humanos. Se trata de un modelo de trabajo utilizado con éxito para estudiar nuevos agentes anti-inflamatorios. En estudios previos (animales y clínica hemos demostrado que

  18. Chum-RNA allows preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA without PCR amplification

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is useful in genome-wide analysis of gene expression using DNA microarrays, but exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. We have designed a small RNA molecule called chum-RNA that has enabled us to prepare a single-cell cDNA library after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. Chum-RNA drove cDNA synt...

  19. Preparing School Personnel to Assist Students with Life-Threatening Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Genevieve H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of and preparation for life-threatening food allergies will enable school personnel to better respond to students who have severe allergic reactions. Given the high incidence of food-related anaphylaxis in public places, teachers and school personnel should be aware of and prepared to handle severe food allergy reactions. (SM)

  20. LIPGENE food-exchange model for alteration of dietary fat quantity and quality in free-living participants from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Danielle I; Tierney, Audrey C; McCarthy, Sinead; Upritchard, Jane; Vermunt, Susan; Gulseth, Hanne L; Drevon, Christian A; Blaak, Ellen E; Saris, Wim H M; Karlström, Brita; Helal, Olfa; Defoort, Catherine; Gallego, Raquel; López-Miranda, José; Siedlecka, Dominika; Malczewska-Malec, Małgorzata; Roche, Helen M; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    Controlled human intervention trials are required to confirm the hypothesis that dietary fat quality may influence insulin action. The aim was to develop a food-exchange model, suitable for use in free-living volunteers, to investigate the effects of four experimental diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high SFA (HSFA); high MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat (LF) diets, one supplemented with 1.24 g EPA and DHA/d (LFn-3). A theoretical food-exchange model was developed. The average quantity of exchangeable fat was calculated as the sum of fat provided by added fats (spreads and oils), milk, cheese, biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of UK adults. Most of the exchangeable fat was replaced by specifically designed study foods. Also critical to the model was the use of carbohydrate exchanges to ensure the diets were isoenergetic. Volunteers from eight centres across Europe completed the dietary intervention. Results indicated that compositional targets were largely achieved with significant differences in fat quantity between the high-fat diets (39.9 (sem 0.6) and 38.9 (sem 0.51) percentage energy (%E) from fat for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively) and the low-fat diets (29.6 (sem 0.6) and 29.1 (sem 0.5) %E from fat for the LF and LFn-3 diets respectively) and fat quality (17.5 (sem 0.3) and 10.4 (sem 0.2) %E from SFA and 12.7 (sem 0.3) and 18.7 (sem 0.4) %E MUFA for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively). In conclusion, a robust, flexible food-exchange model was developed and implemented successfully in the LIPGENE dietary intervention trial.

  1. Development of a robust DNA quality and quantity assessment qPCR assay for targeted next-generation sequencing library preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jennifer; Mendez, Pedro; Lee, Sharon; Kim, James W; Yoon, Jun-Hee; Kim, Thomas W; Sailey, Charles J; Jablons, David M; Kim, Il-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming a standard for genetic analyses of clinical samples. DNAs retrieved from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are commonly degraded, and specimens such as core biopsies are sometimes too small to obtain enough DNA for NGS applications. Thus, it is important to measure both the DNA quantity and quality accurately from clinical samples. However, there is no standard method for DNA quantity and quality analyses for NGS library preparation. We tested four different methods (PicoGreen, Qubit® fluorometry, TaqMan and SYBR-Green-based qPCR assay) and compared each to RNase P TaqMan as a reference control. We found that SYBR-Green-based qPCR assay provides a consistent and accurate DNA quantification while keeping its cost relatively low and the throughput high. We designed a dual-probe SYBR-Green qPCR assay for DNA quantity and quality assessment for targeted NGS library preparation. This assay provides a Dscore (degradation score) of the interrogated DNA by analyzing two different sizes of amplicons. We show an example of a clinical sample with a very high Dscore (high degradation). With a regular DNA quantification, without considering the degradation status, no correct NGS libraries were obtained. However, after optimizing the library condition by considering its poor DNA quality, a reasonably good library and sequencing results were obtained. In summary, we developed and presented a new DNA quantity and quality analysis qPCR assay for the targeted NGS library preparation. This assay may be mostly efficient for the clinical samples with high degradation and poor DNA quality.

  2. Microbial characteristics of food preparations in Benevento province

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    Vittoria Ricci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the microbiological quality of pastry products and gastronomic preparations served in food service establishments in Benevento province, Southern Italy. A total of 125 samples were collected from food service establishments. Parameters investigated were: aerobic plate counts (APCs, total Coliform bacteria counts, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia (E. coli counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, coagulase-positive Staphylococci counts, isolation of Salmonella spp., Bacillus (B. cereus counts, and isolation of Listeria (L. monocytogenes. The microbiological quality was good, with absence of the pathogens L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. and extremely rare presence of E. coli. The fresh pastry and the uncooked gastronomy products were the most contaminated groups; also, cooked cold-served gastronomy products were susceptible to microbiological risk, as a result of the inadequate reheating and the interruption of the warm chain. On the contrary, dried pastry and cooked warm-served gastronomy products showed an excellent hygienic profile. In fact, the amount of compliant samples was 74.4%.

  3. Temperature and food quantity effects on the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes: Combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thuy T.; Lundström Belleza, Elin; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes has become a popular model species for toxicity testing over the past few decades. However, the combined influence of temperature and food shortage, two climate change-related stressors, has never been assessed in this species. Consequently, effects of three temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C) and six food regimes (between 0 and 5 × 105 algal cells/mL) on the life cycle of N. spinipes were examined in this study. Similarly to other copepod species, development times and brood sizes decreased with rising temperatures. Mortality was lowest in the 20°C temperature setup, indicating a close-by temperature optimum for this species. Decreasing food concentrations led to increased development times, higher mortality and a reduction in brood size. A sex ratio shift toward more females per male was observed for increasing temperatures, while no significant relationship with food concentration was found. Temperature and food functions for each endpoint were integrated into an existing individual-based population model for N. spinipes which in the future may serve as an extrapolation tool in environmental risk assessment. The model was able to accurately reproduce the experimental data in subsequent verification simulations. We suggest that temperature, food shortage, and potentially other climate change-related stressors should be considered in environmental risk assessment of chemicals to account for non-optimal exposure conditions that may occur in the field. Furthermore, we advocate combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling as a cost effective higher tier approach to assess such considerations. PMID:28334000

  4. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions

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    Araújo Maisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Methods Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids. Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship, which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. Results The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Conclusions Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly

  5. Time spent on home food preparation and indicators of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending <1 hour/day on food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Hybrid Make-to-Stock (MTS) - Make-to-Order (MTO) and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Inventory Control Models in Food and Beverage Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najhan Mohd Nagib, Ahmad; Naufal Adnan, Ahmad; Ismail, Azianti; Halim, Nurul Hayati Abdul; Syuhadah Khusaini, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    The inventory model had been utilized since the early 1900s. The implementation of the inventory management model is generally to ensure that an organisation is able to fulfil customer's demand at the lowest possible cost to improve profitability. This paper focuses on reviewing previous published papers regarding inventory control model mainly in the food and beverage processing industry. The author discusses four inventory models, which are the make-to-stock (MTS), make-to-order (MTO), economic order quantity (EOQ), and hybrid of MTS-MTO models. The issues raised by the researchers on the above techniques as well as the elements need to be considered upon selection have been discussed in this paper. The main objective of the study is to highlight the important role played by these inventory control models in the food and beverage processing industry.

  7. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood.

  8. Assessment of heterogeneity in types of vegetables served by main household food preparers and food decision influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan; Kanetkar, Vinay; Brauer, Paula

    2015-10-01

    While vegetables are often studied as one food group, global measures may mask variation in the types and forms of vegetables preferred by different individuals. To explore preferences for and perceptions of vegetables, we assessed main food preparers based on their preparation of eight specific vegetables and mushrooms. An online self-report survey. Ontario, Canada. Measures included perceived benefits and obstacles of vegetables, convenience orientation and variety seeking in meal preparation. Of the 4517 randomly selected consumers who received the invitation, 1013 responded to the survey (22·4 % response). Data from the main food preparers were analysed (n 756). Latent profile analysis indicated three segments of food preparers. More open to new recipes, the 'crucifer lover' segment (13 %) prepared and consumed substantially more Brussels sprouts, broccoli and asparagus than the other segments. Although similar to the 'average consumer' segment (54 %) in many ways, the 'frozen vegetable user' segment (33 %) used significantly more frozen vegetables than the other segments due to higher prioritization of time and convenience in meal preparation and stronger 'healthy=not tasty' perception. Perception of specific vegetables on taste, healthiness, ease of preparation and cost varied significantly across the three consumer segments. Crucifer lovers also differed with respect to shopping and cooking habits compared with the frozen vegetable users. The substantial heterogeneity in the types of vegetables consumed and perceptions across the three consumer segments has implications for the development of new approaches to promoting these foods.

  9. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.

  10. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Langellier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1 expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2 frequency of consumption of comida corrida or restaurant food and street food. Results. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p menor que 0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses. Conclusions. Consumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  11. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A

    2015-01-01

    To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of 'comida corrida' or restaurant food and street food. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (pConsumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  12. Cloud-point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace quantities of copper in food, water and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Ayman A; Amin, Alaa S

    2014-01-01

    A new, simple and sensitive cloud point extraction procedure was presented for the preconcentration and determination of copper(II) ion in food, water and biological samples. The analyte was complexed with a new synthesized reagent, 2-amino-4-(m-tolylazo)pyridine-3-ol (ATAP) as a new complexing agent and Triton X-114 as the surfactant. After centrifugation, dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with 0.4 mL of ethanol acidified with 1.0M HNO3 was performed after phase separation, and the copper contents were measured by spectrophotometry at λmax 608 nm. The influence of analytical parameters including concentration of complexing agent, Triton X-114, pH, equilibration temperature and time, centrifuge rate and time were optimized. The analytical characteristics of the method (e.g. linear range, molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, optimum Ringbom concentration ranges limits of detection and quantification, preconcentration factor, and improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 4.0-115 ng mL(-1) of Cu(II) ion. The detection and quantification limits of the method were 1.20 and 3.94 ng mL(-1) of Cu(II) ion, respectively. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also tested. The method was applied for determination of copper in food, water and biological samples.

  13. Detection of lead (pb and aluminum (Al metal as contaminant in food prepared by using locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala in Kosti City, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EI Salah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to assess the quantities of Aluminu m; lead released into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots (Aluminium pots in Kosti market. Seven types of pots (Pistons, Cartels, Kettles, Kettles + trays, Pepsi cans, Atmonia and Steel which is locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala were used. Amount of Al and Pb that leaked into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots were assessed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results were indicated that highly significance amount of Aluminum and lead which were leaked into the food that prepared by locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala.The analysis of urine for 10 selected randomly individuals that used locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala for preparation their food were indicated highly amount of Aluminum and Lead in their urine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12621 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 19-26

  14. Rates of energy processing by blowflies: the uses for a joule vary with food quality and quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, F R; Fisher, G; Precup, E

    1990-05-01

    Data on the variation of crop volumes with time for blowflies (Phormia regina Meigen) fed various volumes and concentrations of fructose or sucrose (from Gelperin, 1966, and Edgecomb et al. 1987) were used to characterize energy processing rates to test the assumption of food energy addivity of optimal foraging theories. Six regression models (linear, square root, cube root, hyperbolic, inverse cube root and exponential) were compared for data from Edgecomb et al. (1987) with measurements of crop volumes from 10 min to 5 h after blowflies were fed 9.7 or 14.5 microliters of 0.25 moll-1 sucrose. Only the hyperbolic regression could be discriminated as statistically different, and the linear model was selected as most parsimonious for examining rates of energy processing. About the same volume bypassed the crop for flies fed 9.7 or 14.5 microliters. Volume rates of crop emptying (from Gelperin, 1966) did not change at intermediate concentrations but decreased from lowest and to highest concentrations. Energy processing patterns indicate that long-term storage rates increase with meal size and at intermediate concentrations and decrease (3.0 moll-1 fructose) or remain constant (2.0 moll-1 sucrose) at high concentrations, so the uses for a unit of energy are not additive across concentrations and meal sizes. Animals that process energy in this way should attempt to maximize meal size and include high-energy foods in their diet out of proportion to the amount of energy gained for the time spent foraging.

  15. Bulk-quantity synthesis and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2} nanowires prepared by pulsed delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.W., E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Jiao, Z. [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu, M.H., E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shek, C.H.; Wu, C.M.L.; Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-06-15

    Tin dioxide nanowires have been realized via pulsed laser deposition techniques based on a sintered cassiterite SnO{sub 2} target, being deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction indicated that the nanowires show the tetragonal rutile structure in the form of SnO{sub 2}. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nanowires are structurally perfect and uniform, and diameters range from 10 nm to 30 nm, and lengths of several hundreds nanometers to a few micrometers. Selected area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy verified that the nanowires grow along the [1 1 0] growth direction. Electric properties were investigated by connecting a single SnO{sub 2} nanowire in field-effect transistor configuration. The SnO{sub 2} nanowires based on field-effect transistor devices exhibited that the SnO{sub 2} nanowires prepared by our method hold better electrical properties.

  16. Changes to the quantity and processing of starchy foods in a western diet can increase polysaccharides escaping digestion and improve in vitro fermentation variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, A M; Mathers, J C; Jones, G P; Walker, K Z; Roth, M J; Muir, J G

    2000-07-01

    This study investigated how readily achievable changes to the quantity and processing of starchy foods in a typical Western diet: (1) were reflected in levels of resistant starch (RS) and NSP excreted from the small intestine; and (2) more favourable profiles of butyrate, NH3 and phenol production. Two diets, a low-starch diet (LSD) and a high-starch, low-fat diet (HSLFD) were compared. The LSD with 20% total energy (%E) from starch was based on a 'typical' Australian diet, while the HSLFD (40%E as starch) was the same Australian diet modified by an increased content of legumes, starchy foods and coarsely-ground cereals and by a reduced fat content. Four subjects with iliostomies consumed each diet for 2 d, with ileal effluent collection on the second day. On the HSLFD compared with the LSD, RS in ileal effluent increased from from 0.49 to 1.7 g/MJ per d (P effluents obtained after each diet were incubated for 24 h in vitro with a human faecal innoculum. After fermentation, ileal effluent from the HSLFD produced more butyrate relative to other short-chain fatty acids (17.5 v. 15.8 molar %, P effluent while NSP did not increase, suggesting that the change in RS largely contributed to the fermentation effects. Changes in in vitro variables when the HSLFD ileal effluent was ground before fermentation indicated the importance of physical structure in determining ileal excretion of RS. We conclude that: (1) readily achievable modifications to the amount and processing of starchy foods in an Australian diet would produce potential benefits for in vitro fermentation variables; and (2) the physical structure of grains and cereals is important in determining access by colonic bacteria to a carbohydrate substrate.

  17. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.

  18. Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiri, J. E.; Azubuike, M. C.; Ubbaonu, C. N.; Anyanwu, E. C.; Ibe, K. M.; Ogbonna, M. O.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children's food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts. PMID:11417038

  19. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed.

  20. Technological aspects of preparing affordable fermented complementary foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Ngoddy, P.O.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements and manufacturing procedure of complementary (weaning) foods is discussed. Nutritional requirements for infants (aged 6-12 months) include approx. 3 MJ energy and 14 g digestible protein per litre, of a semi-liquid porridge. Microbiological safety is enhanced by biological acidifica

  1. A Guide to Food Service Operation Planning with Information on Preparing and Submitting Plans and Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    Guidelines are presented for planning a food service operation which is defined as any place kept or maintained for the purpose of preparing or serving meals or lunches for a consideration. Brief discussions are presented pertaining to the value of planning and the preparation and use of plans and specifications. Recommendations and specifications…

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high...... the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given....

  3. Time spent in home meal preparation affects energy and food group intakes among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Addo, O Yaw; Perry, Courtney D; Sudo, Noriko; Reicks, Marla

    2012-04-01

    Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among 1036 midlife women. Participants completed a 1-day food record and eating occasion questionnaires for each meal occasion. ANCOVA was used to identify possible associations. Approximately half of the participants reported spending time spent preparing breakfast was associated with lower energy and fat intakes (ptime spent preparing lunch and dinner was associated with lower vegetable and sodium intakes (ptime spent preparing meals and meal content by weight status. Nutrition education should encourage home meal preparation while stressing the selection of healthier options. The differing associations by meal occasion suggest that interventions should be tailored according to meal type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of Natural Zeolite for Air Dehumidification in Food Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drying with air dehumidification with solid adsorbent improves the quality of food product as well as energy efficiency. The natural zeolite is one of adsorbent having potential to adsorb the water.  Normally, the material was activated to open the pore, remove the organic impurities, and increase Si/Al rate. Hence, it can enhance the adsorbing capacity. This research studied the activation of natural zeolite mined from Klaten, Indonesia as air dehumidification for food drying. Two different methods were used involving activation by heat and NaOH introduction.  As indicators, the porosity and water loaded were evaluated. Results showed both methods improved the adsorbing capacity significantly. With NaOH, the adsorbing capacity was higher. The simple test in onion and corn drying showed the presence of activated natural zeolite can speed up water evaporation positively. This performance was also comparable with Zeolite 3A

  5. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  6. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  7. Food shopping, sensory determinants of food choice and meal preparation by visually impaired people. Obstacles and expectations in daily food experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyra, Eliza; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Śniegocka, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The number of visually impaired and blind people is rising worldwide due to ageing of the global population, but research regarding the impact of visual impairment on the ability of a person to choose food and to prepare meals is scarce. The aim of this study was threefold: to investigate factors determining the choices of food products in people with various levels of impaired vision; to identify obstacles they face while purchasing food, preparing meals and eating out; and to determine what would help them in the areas of food shopping and meal preparation. The data was collected from 250 blind and visually impaired subjects, recruited with the support of the National Association of the Blind. The study revealed that majority of the visually impaired make food purchases at a supermarket or local grocery and they tend to favour shopping for food via the Internet. Direct sale channels like farmers markets were rarely used by the visually impaired. The most frequently mentioned factors that facilitated their food shopping decisions were the assistance of salespersons, product labelling in Braille, scanners that enable the reading of labels and a permanent place for products on the shop shelves. Meal preparation, particularly peeling, slicing and frying, posed many challenges to the visually impaired. More than half of the respondents ate meals outside the home, mainly with family or friends. The helpfulness of the staff and a menu in Braille were crucial for them to have a positive dining out experience. The results of the study provide valuable insights into the food choices and eating experiences of visually impaired people, and also suggest some practical implications to improve their independence and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Slob, Wout; Galli, Corrado; Silano, Vittorio

    2008-08-15

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety experts and regulators of risks associated with the use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in food including food supplements. It is becoming clear that "natural" does not equal "safe" and that, in modern society, adverse health effects can occur as a result of (mis)use. With the growing awareness of these issues efforts to ensure safety of botanicals and botanical ingredients are also increasing. Several guidance documents on safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations to be used as ingredients in food and food supplements have been published, although, at present, relevant legislative frameworks and guidances for risk assessment are not established yet. Furthermore, when defining possible guidance documents for risk assessment of botanicals, several issues emerge that need to be developed beyond the present state-of-the-art. The present paper describes some of the issues to be considered and developed to a further extent to improve risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations, illustrated by examples based on some allylalkoxybenzenes. It is concluded that, for an improved and more accurate future risk assessment of botanicals, it is necessary to further develop and validate: (i) the use of the margin of exposure (MOE) concept for compounds that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic; (ii) new ways to quantify and incorporate matrix effects into risk assessment strategies; (iii) the use of analytical chemistry approaches, enabling complete chemical characterisation of complex mixtures. Defining new approaches in risk assessment would be in line with the inspiring attitude of the late Professor Robert Kroes, who, for example by supporting the

  9. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functio...

  10. Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: An Interdisciplinary Investigation of Microbial Hazards During Food Preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.; Asselt, van E.D.; Jonge, de R.; Frewer, L.J.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    It has been established that, to a considerable extent, the domestic hygiene practices adopted by consumers can result in a greater or lesser microbial load in prepared meals. In the research presented here, an interdisciplinary study is reported in which interviews, observations of consumers prepar

  11. First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingret, Daniella; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Chemat, Farid

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between manufactured food products using conventional and ultrasound-assisted procedures. Three different foam-type products, chocolate Genoise, basic sponge cake, and chocolate mousse were prepared using both methods with subsequent evaluation of the samples using both sensory and physicochemical methods. Ultrasound-assisted preparations were considered superior according to the sensory analysis, and physicochemical data confirmed this finding. This approach of applying an emerging piece of equipment, with potential industrial application to assist food preparation, consists of a new technique that could be of great interest for the development of not only other food products created by molecular gastronomy but also for practical work carried out by students.

  12. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna; Chidambara, Vinayaka Aaydha; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong; Sun, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high loading capacity. MIPs have been intensively employed in classical solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. More recently, MIPs have been combined with magnetic bead extraction, which greatly simplifies sample handling procedures. Studies have consistently shown that MIPs can effectively minimize complex food matrix effects, and improve recoveries and detection limits. In addition to sample preparation, MIPs have also been viewed as promising alternatives to bio-receptors due to the inherent molecular recognition abilities and the high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions. MIPs have been utilized as receptors in biosensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass biosensors to detect various analytes in food. In this review, we will discuss the current state-of-the-art of MIP synthesis and applications in the context of food analysis. We will highlight the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given.

  13. Infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii in northern traditional (country) foods prepared with meat from experimentally infected seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lorry B; Measures, Lena; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2009-08-01

    Serological and clinical evidence of human toxoplasmosis in the Canadian Arctic indicates a food safety risk associated with the consumption of wild game meat. Such meat often is eaten raw or partially cooked in locally prepared traditional (country) foods, but no data have been collected to describe survival of Toxoplasma gondii forms in these foods. The muscle of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts was used to prepare three country foods: igunaq, a fermented product; nikku, a dried product; and sausage, a salted and spiced product. Igunaq and nikku were stored at 4 degrees C and bioassayed in cats at 49, 95, and 140 days postpreparation (DPP) and 41, 84, and 132 DPP, respectively. Raw and cooked sausages were stored at -20 degrees C and bioassayed at 50, 92, and 141 DPP. The source seal meat was infective for cats, but none of the foods prepared with this meat were infective for cats. Some cooked sausages did not reach internal temperatures considered lethal for T. gondii. Data from studies in domestic animals suggested that the negative results in this experiment were due to temperature and duration of storage. Because of the possibility that T. gondii of arctic origin might be more freeze tolerant than the swine-origin isolate used in this experiment, additional studies are necessary to clarify the risks of toxoplasmosis associated with consumption of arctic country foods.

  14. Use of Whey and Whey Preparations in the Food Industry – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Królczyk Jolanta B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in whey and whey preparations has considerably increased in recent years. Whey and whey preparations are the so-called “forgotten treasure” and, because of their unique properties, they have been “rediscovered” and have been increasingly frequently and successfully used by various production plants in the food industry. They have also been eagerly purchased by consumers who are aware of the role of whey preparations in adequate human nutrition. For many years, there has been a tendency in the food processing industry to use substitutes of ingredients in recipes of many products. This situation can be observed in the case of foods with reduced fat and sugar, or products for lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Whey - and more specifically, its preparations - can also be used as a substitute. According to many literature sources, its use can have a positive impact not only on the consumers’ health but also on the finances of many companies, by reducing the costs of raw materials, and thus production costs. This review paper presents selected uses of whey and whey preparations in the food industry. The uses of whey discussed include: meat and meat products, reduced-fat products, yoghurts and ice creams, cheeses, bakery products, confectionery and pastry products, infant formulas, and whey drinks.

  15. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds...

  16. Preparation of stable food-grade double emulsions with a hybrid premix membrane emulsification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Juraite, Dovile; Schroën, Karin; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that food-grade double emulsions can be successfully prepared using a hybrid premix emulsification system. A coarse emulsion containing beetroot juice as inner water phase, sunflower oil as oil phase and 0.5% or 1.0% whey protein isolate solution as outer water phase

  17. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  18. Study on the risk prevention system of food quantity security in China%我国食物数量安全的风险防范体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟来元; 刘黎明

    2011-01-01

    Risk prevention system for food security is one of important parts of national security strategy and risk management system.Population growth,cultivated land area decrease,water shortages,international trade Barrier,and uncertainty of global climate change all factors would become the risk source of integrated food security in China.Here,we exploreded the connotation of integrated food security(IFS).IFS should include "food quantity security","food quality security" and "food sustainability supply security".Food quantity security is the foundation of realizing IFS.We systematically analyzed five risk factors affecting food quantity security,namely,resources restriction,production inputs restriction,natural disasters,consumption demand and international trade.The present paper focused on constructing the risk prevention system and emergency response plan for food quantity security,and some long-term measures were proposed to prevent the risk.%食物安全的风险防范体系是国家安全战略及其风险管理体制的重要组成部分。人口增长、耕地面积减少、水资源短缺、国际贸易壁垒以及全球气候变化所带来的不确定性等,都将成为影响我国未来综合食物安全保障的风险源。研究对综合食物安全的内涵进行了阐述,认为综合食物安全应当包括食物数量安全,其中食物质量安全和食物可持续供给安全,其中食物数量安全是实现综合食物安全的基础。在此基础上,系统分析了影响我国食物数量安全的5大风险因子:即资源约束风险、生产投入性约束风险、自然灾害风险、消费需求风险和国际贸易风险,构建了我国食物数量安全

  19. Study on preparation and quantity determination of Scrophularia ningpoensis dispensing granules%玄参配方颗粒的制备工艺和含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮正睿; 王如峰; 荆宇; 尚明英; 蔡少青

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop the preparation method and to determine the quantity of effective constituents of Scrophularia ningpoensis dispensing granules. Method: Nine experiments were carried out through L_9(3~4)orthogonal design. The contents of harpagoside and cinnamic acid were determined by HPLC method. Result: The optimal extraction process was as follows: the slices were soaked in water in the ratio of 1: 8 for 0.5 h, then they were decocted for 2 h. For the second time, 6 times of water was added and sustained for 1.5 h. Harpagoside and cinnamic acid were linear within the ranges of 0.077 6-1.552 μg (r=0.999 9)and 0.01446-0.4339 μg(r=0.999 9), respectively. The average recoveries were 100.4%(RSD 1.98%, n=6)and 98.27%(RSD1.35%, n=6), respectively. Ten batches of granules were determined. Conclusion: The extraction process is scientific and the determination method is suitable for quality control of Scrophularia ningpoensis dispensing granules.%目的:建立玄参配方颗粒的制备工艺并对其中的有效成分进行含量测定.方法:根据4因素3水平正交表安排试验.用HPLC测定配方颗粒中哈巴俄苷和肉桂酸的含量.结果:优化的提取工艺如下:玄参饮片加入8倍量水浸泡0.5 h,煎煮2 h,药渣再加入6倍量水煎煮1.5 h.哈巴俄苷和肉桂酸的线性范围分别是0.077 6~1.552 μg(r=0.999 9)和0.014 46~0.433 9μg(r=0.999 9).平均回收率分别是100.4%(RSD 1.98%,n=6)和98.27%(RSD 1.35%,n=6).测定了10批配方颗粒中上述两种成分的含量.结论:优化的提取工艺科学可靠,含量测定方法对配方颗粒的质量控制是可行的.

  20. Data-driven Methods for the Study of Food Perception, Preparation, Consumption, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of food consumption, in the broadest sense, intersects with a wide range of academic disciplines. The perception of food involves molecular biology, chemistry, soft-matter physics, neuroscience, psychology, physiology, and even machine learning. Our choices and preparation of food are of interest to anthropologists, social scientists, historians, philosophers, and linguists. The advent of information technology has enabled the accumulation and analysis of large amounts of food-related data, from the interactions of biomolecules and the chemical properties of aroma compounds to online recipes and food-related social media postings. In this perspective article, we outline several areas in which the availability and analysis of data can inform us about general principles that may underlie the perception of food and the diversity of culinary practice. One of these areas is the study of umami taste through a combination of chemical analysis and quantitative sensory evaluation for a wide range of fermented products. Another is the mapping of global culinary diversity by mining online recipes and the analysis of culinary habits recorded by individuals on social media. A third area is the study of the properties of flavor compounds and the application of these insights in the context of high-end gastronomy. These examples illustrate that large-scale data analysis is already transforming our understanding of food perception and consumption, and that it is likely to fundamentally influence our food choices and habits in the future.

  1. Infant food from quality protein maize and chickpea: optimization for preparing and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Valdez, C; Milán-Carrillo, J; Cárdenas-Valenzuela, O G; Mora-Escobedo, R; Bello-Pérez, L A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2005-06-01

    The present study had two objectives: to determine the best combination of nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from quality protein maize and extruded chickpea flour (ECF) for producing an infant food, and to evaluate the nutritional properties of the optimized NMF/ECF mixture and the infant food. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the best combination of NMF/ECF; the experimental design (Lattice simplex) generated 11 assays. Mixtures from each assay were evaluated for true protein and available lysine. Each one of 11 mixtures was used for preparing 11 infant foods that were sensory evaluated for acceptability. A common optimum value for the three response variables was obtained utilizing the desirability method. The best combination of NMF/ECF for producing an infant food was NMF = 26.7%/ECF = 73.3%; this optimized mixture had a global desirability of 0.87; it contained 19.72% dry matter (DM) proteins, 6.10% (DM) lipids, 71.45% (DM) carbohydrates, and 2.83% (DM) minerals; its essential amino acids profile covered the amino acids requirements for children 10-12 years old. The infant food prepared from optimized mixture had an in vitro protein digestibility of 87.9%, and a calculated protein efficiency ratio of 1.86. Infant food could be used to support the growth of infants in developing countries.

  2. Probabilistic risk model for staphylococcal intoxication from pork-based food dishes prepared in food service establishments in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Griffiths, Mansel W; Fazil, Aamir M; Lammerding, Anna M

    2009-09-01

    Foodborne illness contracted at food service operations is an important public health issue in Korea. In this study, the probabilities for growth of, and enterotoxin production by, Staphylococcus aureus in pork meat-based foods prepared in food service operations were estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation. Data on the prevalence and concentration of S. aureus as well as compliance to guidelines for time and temperature controls during food service operations were collected. The growth of S. aureus was initially estimated by using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Pathogen Modeling Program. A second model based on raw pork meat was derived to compare cell number predictions. The correlation between toxin level and cell number as well as minimum toxin dose obtained from published data was adopted to quantify the probability of staphylococcal intoxication. When data gaps were found, assumptions were made based on guidelines for food service practices. Baseline risk model and scenario analyses were performed to indicate possible outcomes of staphylococcal intoxication under the scenarios generated based on these data gaps. Staphylococcal growth was predicted during holding before and after cooking, and the highest estimated concentration (4.59 log CFU/g for the 99.9th percentile value) of S. aureus was observed in raw pork initially contaminated with S. aureus and held before cooking. The estimated probability for staphylococcal intoxication was very low, using currently available data. However, scenario analyses revealed an increased possibility of staphylococcal intoxication when increased levels of initial contamination in the raw meat, andlonger holding time both before and after cooking the meat occurred.

  3. The associations among family meal frequency, food preparation frequency, self-efficacy for cooking, and food preparation techniques in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Kirby, Ashley R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family dinner frequency (FDF) by food preparation frequency (prep), self-efficacy for cooking (SE), and food preparation techniques (techniques) among a small sample in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey was administered under the supervision of the research team. After-school programs, sports programs, and 1 elementary school. The sample included 145 participants (41% boys, 59% girls) in grades 4-8. Demographics, prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors. Exploratory 1-way ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used. An ordinal regression analysis was used to determine the associations between FDF with descriptor variables (sex, grade, and ethnicity) and prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors (P family dinners on 6 or 7 days per week. Half of participants were involved with prep 1-6 times per week. Mean SE was 25.3 (scale 1-32), and girls performed more techniques than boys (P = .02). Participants with greater SE (odds ratio = 1.15) and higher family meal attitudes and behaviors (odds ratio = 1.15) were more likely to have a higher FDF. Future health promotion strategies for family meals should aim at increasing children's and adolescents' SE. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  5. Preparation, storage stability and palatability of spent hen meal based pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, P; Kulkarni, V V; Sivakumar, K

    2010-06-01

    Extruded pet foods were prepared by extrusion process incorporating dry rendered spent hen meal (SHM) at 10 and 20% levels, and packed in LDPE bags before storage at room temperature (35 ± 2°C) up to 45 days. The colour of the pet foods was uniformly brown with pleasant meaty odour. The thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine values, free fatty acid content and acid value and total bacterial counts increased gradually during storage but E.coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp and fungi were not detected during storage. The pet owners rated the pet foods as good. The body weight of the adult pet dogs did not decrease during the feeding trial of one month and the health condition of pets was good. The cost of production per kg of pet food containing 10 and 20% SHM was Rs 18.00 and Rs 22.75, respectively. It was concluded that a pet food (whole meal) with good nutritive quality and palatability to dogs can be prepared by incorporating 10-20% of spent hen meal which can be safely stored up to 45 days at room temperature.

  6. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; Plichta, Jennifer; Zeira, Ohad; Rivera, Randy; Wang, Susan; Pottle, Bill; Leung, Calvin; Vicens, Carrie; Tao, Christine; Beers, Craig; Fung, Grace; Levine, Jacob; Yoo, Jaeshin; Jackson, Joanna; Saikkonen, Kelly; Zimmerman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  7. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; hide

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  8. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 2. ESR analysis of mechanically recovered poultry meat and TL analysis of spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-01-01

    Protocols EN 1786 and EN 1788 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) were not conceived for the detection of irradiated ingredients included in low concentration in nonirradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at

  9. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 2. ESR analysis of mechanically recovered poultry meat and TL analysis of spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-01-01

    Protocols EN 1786 and EN 1788 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) were not conceived for the detection of irradiated ingredients included in low concentration in nonirradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at

  10. The Functional Foods Dossier: Building Solid Health Claims. How to prepare the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional food. Practical Industrial guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Korver, O.; Kühn, M.C.; Richardson, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This practical book explains to the industry manager all the special aspects related to the preparation of the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional foods (science, legislation, communication, product development).

  11. Sample preparation for the analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J G; Conte, E D; Kim, Y; Holcomb, M; Sutherland, J B; Miller, D W

    2000-06-01

    Off-flavors in foods may originate from environmental pollutants, the growth of microorganisms, oxidation of lipids, or endogenous enzymatic decomposition in the foods. The chromatographic analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods usually requires that the samples first be processed to remove as many interfering compounds as possible. For analysis of foods by gas chromatography (GC), sample preparation may include mincing, homogenation, centrifugation, distillation, simple solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, or methylation. For high-performance liquid chromatography of amines in fish, cheese, sausage and olive oil or aldehydes in fruit juice, sample preparation may include solvent extraction and derivatization. Headspace GC analysis of orange juice, fish, dehydrated potatoes, and milk requires almost no sample preparation. Purge-and-trap GC analysis of dairy products, seafoods, and garlic may require heating, microwave-mediated distillation, purging the sample with inert gases and trapping the analytes with Tenax or C18, thermal desorption, cryofocusing, or elution with ethyl acetate. Solid-phase microextraction GC analysis of spices, milk and fish can involve microwave-mediated distillation, and usually requires adsorption on poly(dimethyl)siloxane or electrodeposition on fibers followed by thermal desorption. For short-path thermal desorption GC analysis of spices, herbs, coffee, peanuts, candy, mushrooms, beverages, olive oil, honey, and milk, samples are placed in a glass-lined stainless steel thermal desorption tube, which is purged with helium and then heated gradually to desorb the volatiles for analysis. Few of the methods that are available for analysis of food flavors and off-flavors can be described simultaneously as cheap, easy and good.

  12. Basic Studies on Sponge Cake Making as a Teaching Material of Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    白土, 弘子; 井川, 佳子

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate about the basic condition for sponge cake making usable as a teaching material of food preparation. The results were as follows : 1. Egg foams were stable under high concentration of sucrose and low temperature. The cake with 34% sucrose showed a good appearance. 2. Substituting starch for wheat flour was effective to keep low viscosity of batters. 3. The data for the baking process indicated the importance of the first and second stages in baking, ...

  13. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Influence of Gender, Age, Education, and Household Size on Meal Preparation and Food Shopping Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Anne, Flagg; Bisakha, Sen; Kilgore, Meredith L.; Locher, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which the gendered division of labor persists within households in the US in regard to meal planning/preparation and food shopping activities. Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects Subsample of 3,195 adults at least 20 years old who had a spouse or partner. Results Analyses revealed that the majority of women and men reported that they shared in both meal planning/preparing and food shopping activities (meal planning/preparation: women, 54 % and men, 56 % and food shopping: women, 60 % and men, 57 %). Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to men, women are more likely to take primary responsibility than to share this responsibility and are less likely to report having no responsibility for these tasks. Gender differences were observed for age/cohort, education, and household size. Conclusions This study may have implications for public health nutritional initiatives and the well-being of families in the US. PMID:23988018

  15. Domestic food preparation practices: a review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sakkaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand has a much higher rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases than the rest of the developed world. It has been suggested that New Zealanders have worse home hygiene practices during food preparation than the citizens of other developed countries. Thus, it is necessary to recognize and understand the reasons for consumer's poor practices in order to help develop a more effective message to improve New Zealanders' practices in the domestic environment. This could in turn lead to a reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis cases. The objective is to review cited literature on consumer practices which is related to food poisoning and to attempt to list the factors related to poor consumer practice. There are many internationally identifiable reasons for the poor practices of consumers. These reasons include psychological, demographic and socioeconomic variables; personal interest in new information; prior knowledge; cultural influence; educational background; perception of risk, control and liability; and attitude towards the addressed practices or hazards. The results have indicated that 'optimistic bias', the 'illusion of control', habits and lack of knowledge concerning food safety during domestic food preparation are prevalent among consumers. The research indicated the influence of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income, work hours, race, location, culture), as they play a potential role in determining domestic food safety behaviour. It appears that all these factors are applicable for New Zealand consumers and should be addressed in any future education strategy aimed at improving New Zealanders' food handling practices. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption and separation of vanillin in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fangjian; Peng, Hailong; Dong, Liling; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin; Xiong, Hua

    2014-11-19

    Novel water-compatible superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (M-MIPs) were prepared by coating superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with MIPs in a methanol-water reaction system. The M-MIPs were used for the selective adsorption and separation of vanillin from aqueous solution. The M-MIPs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated that a core-shell structure of M-MIPs was obtained by coating a layer of silica and MIPs on the surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The obtained M-MIPs possess a loose and porous structure and can be rapidly separated from the solution using a magnet. The adsorption experiments showed that the binding capacity of the M-MIPs was significantly higher than that of the superparamagnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (M-NIPs). Meanwhile, the adsorption of M-MIPs reached equilibrium within 100 min, and the apparent maximum adsorption quantity (Qmax) and dissociation constant (Kd) were 64.12 μmol g(-1) and 58.82 μmol L(-1), respectively. The Scatchard analysis showed that homogeneous binding sites were formed on the M-MIP surface. The recoveries of 83.39-95.58% were achieved when M-MIPs were used for the pre-concentration and selective separation of vanillin in spiked food samples. These results provided the possibility for the separation and enrichment of vanillin from complicated food matrices by M-MIPs.

  17. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 1. Extraction and ESR analysis of bones from mechanically recovered poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-05-18

    Protocol EN 1786 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was not conceived for the detection of irradiated bone-containing ingredients included in low concentration in non-irradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at 55 degrees C, has been developed for the extraction of the bone fraction. When followed by a purification of the extracts by an aqueous solution of sodium polytungstate, this method made possible the detection of irradiated mechanically recovered poultry meat at very low inclusions (0.5%, wt/wt by ESR) in various meals (quenelles and precooked meals).

  18. Conventional food preparation, cook and chill and sous-vide as optional methods for institutional kitchens. Perinteinen ruoanvalmistus, cook and chill ja sous-vide toimintavaihtoehdot suurkeittioessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeivaerinta, T., Reisbacka, A., Salminen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to clarify the situation concerning the energy consumption, economics and the appropriateness of the three options when applied in institutional households. The options included in the study were conventional (preparation-cooking-serving), cook and chill and sous-vide (vacuum cooking-chilling). A further aim was to compare industrially produced products to self-made products. Each option was studied in connection with several devices embodying latest technology. The overall price for a portion was found to be cheapest when using the conventional preparation method. The cook and chill method was only slightly more expensive. The result of this study also support the understanding that when appropriately planned, cook and chill and sous-vide food preparation options make possible the rationalisation of kitchen work. The appropriateness of different food preparation methods depends on the versatility of the functions and programmes built into cooking devices. A combination oven is appropriate and conserves energy when cooking or heating up large quantities. Significant waste of water (126-146 1/h) is possible because of the structural solutions and modes of use of such an oven. A microwave oven saves energy when used to heat up ready-made portions. The amount of energy consumed by an air-cooled chilling cabinet in the cooling of food makes it more economical to use than a water-cooled model. The amount of electricity consumed by a refrigerator or an equivalent cold storage is 5-14 times less than that consumed by chilling devices

  19. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin; Reza; Sharmin; Aktar; Hasan; Al; Amin; Mashiur; Rahman; Afroza; Arefin; Nayan; Chandra; Mohanto; Shahnur; Alam; Abdullah; Al; Mamun; Anwar; Habib; Asafudullah; Farjana; Nikkon; Khaled; Hossain; Zahangir; Alam; Saud

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh.The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit.To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose.Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups.Group Ⅰ was used as control,while Groups Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ received hydrose mixing food(5.10 and 25 g/kg food),respectively,and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study(16weeks).Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken.To determine the effect of hydrose on host,blood indices related to liver,heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Result:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly(P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice,whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice.Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation,increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals.Conclusion:The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  20. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin Reza; Asafudullah; Farjana Nikkon; Khaled Hossain; Zahangir Alam Saud; Sharmin Aktar; Hasan Al Amin; Mashiur Rahman; Afroza Arefin; Nayan Chandra Mohanto; Shahnur Alam; Abdullah Al Mamun; Anwar Habib

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh. The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit. To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose, Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. Group I was used as control, while Groups II, III and IV received hydrose mixing food (5, 10 and 25 g/kg food), respectively, and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study (16 weeks). Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken. To determine the effect of hydrose on host, blood indices related to liver, heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Results:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice, whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice. Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation, increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  1. Effects of maternal basking and food quantity during gestation provide evidence for the selective advantage of matrotrophy in a viviparous lizard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Itonaga

    Full Text Available The evolution of matrotrophy (i.e., direct supply of nutrients by the mother during gestation may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation. However, we lack knowledge about the selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity (live-bearing in reptiles. In reptiles, the interaction between body temperature and food intake affect maternal net energy gain. In the present study, we examined the effects of basking and food availability (2 by 2 factorial design during gestation on offspring phenotype in a matrotrophic viviparous lizard (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii. Subsequently, we investigated if the maternal effects were context-dependent using offspring growth rate as an indicator of the adaptive significance of matrotrophy. Offspring were exposed either to the same thermal conditions as their mothers experienced or to thermal conditions different from those experienced by their mothers. We provide the first evidence that an interaction between maternal thermal and maternal food conditions during gestation strongly affects offspring phenotype, including date of birth, body size and performance ability, which affect offspring fitness. Offspring growth rate was dependent on offspring thermal conditions, but was not influenced by maternal effects or offspring sex. Matrotrophic viviparity provided gravid females with the means to enhance offspring fitness through greater energetic input to offspring when conditions allowed it (i.e., extended basking opportunity with high food availability. Therefore, we suggest that selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity in P. entrecasteauxii may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation.

  2. Effects of maternal basking and food quantity during gestation provide evidence for the selective advantage of matrotrophy in a viviparous lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itonaga, Keisuke; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of matrotrophy (i.e., direct supply of nutrients by the mother during gestation) may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation. However, we lack knowledge about the selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity (live-bearing) in reptiles. In reptiles, the interaction between body temperature and food intake affect maternal net energy gain. In the present study, we examined the effects of basking and food availability (2 by 2 factorial design) during gestation on offspring phenotype in a matrotrophic viviparous lizard (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii). Subsequently, we investigated if the maternal effects were context-dependent using offspring growth rate as an indicator of the adaptive significance of matrotrophy. Offspring were exposed either to the same thermal conditions as their mothers experienced or to thermal conditions different from those experienced by their mothers. We provide the first evidence that an interaction between maternal thermal and maternal food conditions during gestation strongly affects offspring phenotype, including date of birth, body size and performance ability, which affect offspring fitness. Offspring growth rate was dependent on offspring thermal conditions, but was not influenced by maternal effects or offspring sex. Matrotrophic viviparity provided gravid females with the means to enhance offspring fitness through greater energetic input to offspring when conditions allowed it (i.e., extended basking opportunity with high food availability). Therefore, we suggest that selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity in P. entrecasteauxii may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation.

  3. [Salmonella destruction by heating during the customary preparation of dehydrated food products (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschke, R

    1980-01-01

    Defined number of S. Senftenberg W 775 (between 300 000 and 16 000 000 colony forming units in relation to 1 ml of the ready-to-serve-product) were added to 21 different dehydrated ready-to-eat-meals (no baby and junior food) cutomary in trade, of which 11 were cooked for a certain period of time, while 10 were prepared with boiling water only. No surviving salmonellae were found in any of the products ready for consumption. All samples were subject to temperature control. In this paper 6 examples are given to show temperature control during the phase of preparation. More than 1800 examinations performed by us on comparable products revealed no salmonellae in samples between 20 and 50 g. However, in view of the ubiquity of salmonaellae today, incidental positive findings in dehydrated products of this type cannot be excluded; but such findings would not defintely mean degredation of the product. If properly prepared, the food concerned is not dangerous to the consumer.

  4. The role of food-related shopping and preparation practices in diet quality and association with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Pedersen, Susanne; Stancu, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    symptoms were measured using the CES-D 20 scale. Quality of diet was based on intake frequencies of seven food categories. Impulse buying tendency, food-related practices on eating food on-the-go, storing foods at home, cooking skills, food choice motives and meal patterns were measured using multi......-item instruments. Data was analysed by using cluster analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results: The results confirmed that impulse buying and eating food on-the-go had a negative association with overall quality of diet, as well as a positive association with depressive......Purpose: Depression has become a major public health concern. Previous research indicates that depression is associated with diet quality and irregularity of meals. Yet, very few studies have addressed the role of food provisioning related behaviours, such as buying, storing and preparing food...

  5. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified b

  6. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  7. IRANIAN AND TURKISH FOOD CULTURES: A COMPARISON THROUGH THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN TERMS OF PREPARATION, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Avcıoğlu, Gamze Gizem; Avcıoğlu, Gürcan Şevket

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a comparative sociological analysis of Iranian and Turkish food cultures in terms of food preparation, distribution and consumption. Moreover, contribution is intended to be made to the field of applied food sociology. The research design carries features of a qualitative research. Of the qualitative research techniques, observation and interview form were used in the study. Research findings were obtained through observations made in Tehran, the capital c...

  8. [Food poisoning following consumption of canned meat prepared by a butcher (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M J; Bijker, P G

    1976-04-01

    A case of food poisoning possibly caused by the ingestion of canned meat is reported. Large numbers of micro-organisms (approximately 10(7)/gram), mainly Enterobacteriaceae and streptococci, were isolated from the contents of three cans. The contents of another can contained approximately 10(5) Bacillus spp. per gram. The meat preserves had been prepared in a butcher's shop and heated in a "cooking pot", the steam holes of which had been stopped up and the lid of which had been made heavier in order to reach a temperature above 100 degrees C. Inadequate sterilization and errors in processing are suggested as possible causes.

  9. Preparation and analysis of styrene oligomers containing migrates from various polystyrenes used in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klärner, P; Klenz, R; Eder, R; Volz, W E; Schnell, H W; Leyendecker, D; Güntner, A; Niessner, N; Morris, C R; Christian, M S

    1998-01-01

    An oligostyrene-like product (F2L5250) was reported to have estrogen-like activity (statistically significant increases in means for absolute uterine weight and the ratios of the uterine weight to terminal body weight) in juvenile female rats provided a dietary concentration of 100 ppm F2L5250 for four consecutive days. The highest no-effect-level (NOEL) for estrogenic activity was 80 ppm in the diet, corresponding to a daily intake of 13.3 mg F2L5250/kg. Although it is unlikely that such estrogenic tetramers would occur in commercial polystyrene, the Styrene Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) sponsored the current extensive project to address any concern that human consumption of styrene oligomers migrating from polystyrene containers into food, e.g., from packaged yoghurt, or from the use of EPS coffee cups and related products, might affect human health. To ensure confidentiality and compliance with the highest scientific and regulatory standards, the entire project was conducted without knowledge of the oligomer migrates tested, and all activities were managed and audited under a contract between the SSC and a third party, Argus International. This paper describes the preparation and analyses of the 23 representative polystyrenes [9 general purpose polystyrenes (GPPS), 8 high impact polystyrenes (HIPS) and 6 expandable polystyrenes (EPS)] evaluated for estrogenicity in an in vivo uterotrophic assay in immature female rats. The polystyrene samples were chosen to represent food packaging applications. They were obtained from participating European Polystyrene Manufacturers, coded at the TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands (TNO) and sent to BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany for preparation of test bars (GPPS and HIPS) or test foam parts (EPS). The prepared polystyrene test bars or test foam parts were submitted to elution with 50% aqueous (v/v) ethanol for 10 days at 40 degrees C, a procedure which

  10. Impact of water fluoride concentration on the fluoride content of infant foods and drinks requiring preparation with liquids before feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Fatemeh V; Moynihan, Paula J; Omid, Narges; Abuhaloob, Lamis; Maguire, Anne

    2012-10-01

    To measure the fluoride (F) content of infant foods and drinks requiring reconstitution with liquids prior to consumption and to determine the impact of water F concentration on their F content, as consumed, by measuring F content before and after preparation. In total, 58 infant powdered formula milks, dry foods and concentrated drinks were prepared with deionized water (pasta and rice', 'breakfast cereals', 'savoury meals' and 'powdered infant formula milks' were 0.38, 0.26, 0.18, 0.16 and 0.15 μg/g, respectively. The corresponding mean F concentrations were 0.97, 1.21, 0.86, 0.74 and 0.91 μg/g, respectively, when the same samples were prepared with fluoridated water. Although some nonreconstituted infant foods/drinks showed a high F concentration in their dry or concentrated forms, the concentration of F in prepared foods/drinks primarily reflected the F concentration of liquid used for their preparation. Some infant foods/drinks, when reconstituted with fluoridated water, may result in a F intake in infants above the suggested optimum range (0.05-0.07 mg F/kg body weight) and therefore may put infants at risk of developing dental fluorosis. Further research is necessary to determine the actual F intake of infants living in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities using reconstituted infant foods and drinks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Tehnika za proizvodnju hrane u terenskim uslovima / Technology for food preparation in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko M. Tešanović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available U terenskim uslovima osnovna sredstva za pripremanje hrane su pokretne kuhinje. One se koriste u miru za vreme izvođenja vežbi, logorovanja, za obuku vojnika kuvara i u vojnim školama za obuku studenata i učenika intendantske službe. Izuzetno, mogu se koristiti za kuvanje jela kada se vojni restorani adaptiraju ili se zbog drugih razloga hrana ne može pripremati u njima. U Vojsci Srbije danas su u upotrebi sledeće vrste pokretnih kuhinja: kuhinja autoprikolica od 250, 200, 300 i 400 l i kuhinja tovarna od 25 l. Za pripremu hrane u terenskim uslovima OS NATO koriste veoma raznovrstan park poljskih tehničkih sredstava. / In field conditions, the basic means for food preparation are mobile kitchens. Mobile kitchens are used in peace time during exercise and camping as well as for training military chefs and students of logistic support in military schools. Exceptionally, they can be used for cooking meals when repairing or adapting military restaurants or for some other valid reasons. In the Army of Serbia today, there are the following types of mobile kitchens: mobile kitchen 250, 200, 300 and 400 l and a kitchen pack of 25 l. For the preparation of food in field conditions, NATO forces use a very versatile choice of field technical resources.

  12. Involvement in home meal preparation is associated with food preference and self-efficacy among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Farmer, Anna; Fung, Christina; Kuhle, Stefan; Storey, Kate E; Veugelers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between frequency of assisting with home meal preparation and fruit and vegetable preference and self-efficacy for making healthier food choices among grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Children were asked how often they helped prepare food at home and rated their preference for twelve fruits and vegetables on a 3-point Likert-type scale. Self-efficacy was measured with six items on a 4-point Likert-type scale asking children their level of confidence in selecting and eating healthy foods at home and at school. Schools (n =151) located in Alberta, Canada. Grade 5 students (n = 3398). A large majority (83-93 %) of the study children reported helping in home meal preparation at least once monthly. Higher frequency of helping prepare and cook food at home was associated with higher fruit and vegetable preference and with higher self-efficacy for selecting and eating healthy foods. Encouraging children to be more involved in home meal preparation could be an effective health promotion strategy. These findings suggest that the incorporation of activities teaching children how to prepare simple and healthy meals in health promotion programmes could potentially lead to improvement in dietary habits.

  13. The importance of hygiene in the domestic kitchen: implications for preparation and storage of food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-03-01

    Public concerns relating to food safety remain high with most attention focused on manufactured foods and those served in catering operations. However, previous data have suggested that the home may be the main location for cases of food-borne disease. The aim of this paper is to review the microbiological risks associated with hygiene in the domestic kitchen related to food and infant formula safety. Compared to other food sectors, research on consumer food hygiene, domestic food-handling and preparation of infant formula is relatively understudied. Behavioural and microbiological studies of consumer hygiene and the domestic kitchen have been reviewed to incorporate research relating to the safety of infant formula. Incidence data identify the home as an important location for acquiring food-borne disease. The domestic kitchen can be used for a variety of purposes and is often contaminated with potentially harmful micro-organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. Consumer hygiene habits have frequently been found to be inadequate and relate both to microbial growth, survival and cross-contamination. Due to the reduced immune response of infants, the activities associated with the preparation of infant formula and associated bottles and equipment are of particular concern. Cumulatively, the data suggest that more effort should be made to educate the consumer in food hygiene, especially when the kitchen is used to reconstitute infant formula. This information needs to be provided in a form appropriate for use by consumers.

  14. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: Emerging issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Slob, W.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.

    2008-01-01

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety

  15. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: Emerging issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Slob, W.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.

    2008-01-01

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety

  16. 蜂王幼虫与工蜂幼虫发育期食物消耗量的研究%Study on the quantity consuming of food in larvae stage of queen and worker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光楠; 张飞; 颜伟玉; 吴小波; 曾志将

    2011-01-01

    以意大利蜜蜂Apis mellifera ligustica雌性幼虫为试验材料,用鲜王浆、葡萄糖、果糖和酵母抽提物分别配制不同日龄的蜂王幼虫食物和工蜂幼虫食物,采用室内人工饲养蜜蜂幼虫技术饲养12 h以内的蜂王幼虫和工蜂幼虫,直到幼虫出现排便和吐丝行为,记录幼虫生长发育期间消耗的总食物量.结果表明:1只蜂王幼虫在生长发育期平均消耗196.8 mg蜂王幼虫食物,而1只工蜂幼虫在生长发育期平均消耗139.4 mg工蜂幼虫食物.%We fed Apis mellifera ligustica queen and worker larvae of different ages with a mixture of royal jelly、glucose 、fructose and yeast extract. The relative amounts of food required by queen and worker larvae were determined by monitoring the food consumption of larvae until they began to defecate and spin their cocoons. The results show that the quantity of food consumed by queen and worker larvae was 196. 8 mg and 139.4 mg respectively.

  17. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable active PLA film for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Avallone, E.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report on the preparation and characterization of a biodegradable active PLA film (aPLA), intended for food packaging applications. The film was obtained by cast extrusion blending a commercial PLA matrix with an active system, developed in our laboratory and based on PLA microparticles containing a-tocopherol (aTCP) as natural antioxidant agent. In order to optimize the film composition and processing, the active microparticles were preliminarily characterized with the aim to evaluate their morphology (size and shape), thermal resistance and a-tocopherol content. The aPLA film, produced with a 5wt% of aTCP, was characterized in terms of performance and activity. The experimental results demonstrated that the aPLA film has mechanical, thermal, barrier and optical properties adequate for packaging applications and shows oxygen scavenging activity and prolonged exhaustion lag time, compared to pure PLA films.

  18. Preparation and storage stability of flaxseed chutney powder, a functional food adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pamidighantam Prabhakara; Rao, Galla Narsing; Mala, Kripanand Sathiya; Balaswamy, Karakala; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2013-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) chutney powder (FSCP), a palatable functional food adjunct was prepared by mixing roasted and powdered flaxseeds with other selected spice ingredients. The protein content of these powders was 24.2% and 23.4% in flaxseed powder (FSP) and FSCP respectively. Total polyphenol content of FSP and FSCP was 439 and 522 mg/100 g respectively. The free fatty acid content of FSCP increased from 0.38 to 1.03 after 6 months storage. The critical moisture content for FSP and FSCP was 10.2 and 13.5%, which were equilibrated at 82 and 68% RH respectively and the ERH studies indicated both the powders are non-hygroscopic in nature. Overall sensory quality of FSCP served with cooked rice scored 'good' (7.4) even after 6 months of storage.

  19. Preparation of Magnetic Hollow Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Detection of Triazines in Food Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aixiang; Lu, Hongzhi; Xu, Shoufang

    2016-06-22

    Novel magnetic hollow molecularly imprinted polymers (M-H-MIPs) were proposed for highly selective recognition and fast enrichment of triazines in food samples. M-H-MIPs were prepared on the basis of multi-step swelling polymerization, followed by in situ growth of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of hollow molecularly imprinted polymers (H-MIPs). Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the successful immobilization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of H-MIPs. M-H-MIPs could be separated simply using an external magnet. The binding adsorption results indicated that M-H-MIPs displayed high binding capacity and fast mass transfer property and class selective property for triazines. Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models fitted the best adsorption models for M-H-MIPs. M-H-MIPs were used to analyze atrazine, simazine, propazine, and terbuthylazine in corn, wheat, and soybean samples. Satisfactory recoveries were in the range of 80.62-101.69%, and relative standard deviation was lower than 5.2%. Limits of detection from 0.16 to 0.39 μg L(-1) were obtained. When the method was applied to test positive samples that were contaminated with triazines, the results agree well with those obtained from an accredited method. Thus, the M-H-MIP-based dispersive solid-phase extraction method proved to be a convenient and practical platform for detection of triazines in food samples.

  20. Porridge deconstructed: a comparative linguistic approach to the history of staple starch food preparations in Bantuphone Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ricquier, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Despite the current interest in food studies, little is known about the culinary history of Central and Southern Africa. Using the methods of historical-comparative linguistics, this dissertation provides the first insights into the culinary traditions of early Bantu speech communities. The dissertation focuses on the history of staple starch food preparations, more specifically, the history of porridge and the integration of cassava into Kongo culinary traditions.

  1. Porridge deconstructed: a comparative linguistic approach to the history of staple starch food preparations in Bantuphone Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ricquier, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Despite the current interest in food studies, little is known about the culinary history of Central and Southern Africa. Using the methods of historical-comparative linguistics, this dissertation provides the first insights into the culinary traditions of early Bantu speech communities. The dissertation focuses on the history of staple starch food preparations, more specifically, the history of porridge and the integration of cassava into Kongo culinary traditions.

  2. Survival of Haplorchis taichui metacercariae in Lab-Pla, Thai traditional food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuboon, Suksan; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Ruamsuk, Archaree; Nithikathkul, Chusak

    2005-01-01

    Lab-Pla is a famous kind of Thai traditional food in northern and northeasthern Thailand. Consumption of uncooked Lab-Pla can lead to trematode infection because cyprinoid fish serve as the 2nd intermediate hosts of trematodes. The preparation of Lab-Pla can be made in different ways, depending on seasonings used in different places. The effect of the seasonings used in Lab-Pla on the survival of Haplorchis taichui metacercariae were, therefore, determined. The methodology was done by the following: 100 g of chopped Siamese mud carp fish (Henicorhynchus siamensis) were used for each experiment of seasonings used for completely mixed Lab-Pla. Mixed materials were blended and digested by 1% pepsin solution to obtain metacercariae and then checked for the movement under a stereomicroscope. The results showed that metacercariae remained active in 5 experimental groups: fermented fish treated, fish sauce treated, chili powder treated, ground roasted rice treated, and complete mixed treated indicated by average as follows: 27, 38.7, 33.3, 42.7 and 21%, respectively. In conclusion, fermented fish and completely mixed methods have more effectiveness in killing metacercariae in Lab-Pla preparation than other seasonings (p < 0.05).

  3. Chemical characterization of Klason lignin preparations from plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Mirko; Schüssler, Anne; Tchetseubu Saha, Gérard

    2011-12-14

    To analyze the accuracy of the Klason lignin method as applied for the determination of lignin contents in plant based-food products, Klason lignin preparations from curly kale, pears, whole wheat grains, and corn bran were chemically characterized. Characterization included routine ash and protein determinations and the extraction of fat/waxes as well as cutin/suberin depolymerization and extraction of the liberated monomers. Fat/wax and cutin/suberin amounts in the Klason lignin preparations were determined gravimetrically, and their compositions were analyzed by using GC-MS. Typical fat, wax, and cutin (and suberin) constituents such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxy and/or epoxy fatty acids, and phenolic acids were identified in all samples, whereas the detection of long-chain hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ketones, sterols, stanols, and dioic acids was dependent on the sample analyzed. Estimation of the contribution of non-lignin compounds to the Klason lignin contents reduced the noncorrected Klason lignin contents of the insoluble fibers from 28.7% (kale), 22.8% (pear), 14.8% (wheat), and 9.9% (corn) to maximum lignin contents of 6.5% (kale), 16.4% (pear), 4.9% (wheat), and 2.3% (corn). These data demonstrate that certain commonly used statements such as "cereal brans are highly lignified" need to be revised.

  4. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms ‘adverse effect/s’, ‘poisoning/s’, ‘plant food supplement/s’, ‘misid...

  5. Rapid Measurement of Food Adulteration with Minimal Sample Preparation and No Chromatography Using Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmia, Avinash

    2017-03-01

    A rapid method, with minimal sample preparation and no chromatography, was developed for analyzing food samples such as olive oil and pomegranate juice to measure adulteration with cheaper ingredients using the novel Direct Sample Analysis™ (DSA) ion source in conjunction with a time-of-flight (TOF)-MS. In less than 30 s, with minimal sample preparation and method development, adulteration of olive oil and pomegranate juice with cheaper seed oils and fruit juices, respectively, was measured with DSA/TOF-MS.

  6. Design and preparation of market baskets of European Union commercial baby foods for the assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals and to their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, R; Pandelova, M; Le Donne, C; Ferrari, M; Schramm, K-W; Leclercq, C

    2010-10-01

    The assessment of acute and chronic dietary exposure to contaminants in baby foods is needed to ensure healthy infant growth. Monthly European Union market baskets of commercial baby foods were designed for the first 9 months of life by the 'babyfood' study group of the CASCADE Network of Excellence for the specific purpose of assessing exposure to potentially toxic substances in infants fed with such foods. The present paper reports the different steps that led to the preparation of monthly pooled samples of commercial baby foods ('Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' and 'Other baby foods') that may constitute the extreme case of the diet for an infant who would not be breast fed at all. Several market baskets were generated for an 'average European Union infant' and for infants of four selected countries (Italy, Sweden, Spain, and the Slovakia), fed with either milk infant formulae, soy infant formulae or hypoallergenic infant formulae and weaned (at the fifth month) with commercial baby foods and beverages available on the European Union market. Market share data for 2007 for baby foods were used to design the baskets. Holding companies and the name of all their products were identified. Monthly diets for European Union infants were elaborated in terms of food categories (e.g. infant cereals) of typologies of products (e.g. infant cereals without gluten) and of a specific product. The number of baskets generated was 30 for 'Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' (including 62 products) and 13 for 'Other baby foods' (including 35 products). These market baskets were designed to be used for the determination of certain contaminants and nutrients in the diet of European Union infants and for the assessment of their effects on infant health.

  7. RECOVERY ASSESSMENT OF DAILY AND LABOUR ACTIVITIES (FOOD PREPARING AND FEEDING IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danelina Vacheva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria is in a leading position concerning morbidity and mortality rate from cerebrovascular disease (CVD. The goal of this research was to examine, follow up and assess the recovery and the ability for food preparation and feeding in patients with CVD.Materials and methods: Sixty one patients were included in the research. All of them underwent physical rehabilitation program, based on their individual status. The program included: kinesitherapy, labour-therapy [(occupational therapy (OT and activities of daily life (ADL]; electrotherapy. The patients were assessed twice: in the beginning and at the end of the rehabilitation course. They self evaluated the basic parameters nevertheless which of the limbs was particularly affected. Wilcoxon rank test was used for the statistical analysis of non parametrical data and distribution. Results and analysis: At the end of the rehabilitation course the Wilcoxon’s curves were found shifted to the right, which confirmes improvement of the main parameter (self independence in the main task set to be fulfilled, no matter which limb was paretic.Conclusion: Early initiation of the rehabilitation course including labour activities and elements of ADL, given as instructions is essential for achieving better results in the rehabilitation of patients with CVD and for enhancing the self service ability. Functional OT stimulates the independence of patients and facilitates their recovering to independent everyday life and social activities.

  8. Non-home prepared foods : contribution to energy and nutrient intake of consumers living in two low-income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the nutritional importance of non-home prepared foods for men, women and schoolchildren living in two low-income residential areas of Nairobi, and the sources of these non-home prepared foods. Design, setting and subjects: A survey was conducted in Korogocho, a slum area, and

  9. Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    peppers from Mexico in the summer of 2008)5 can be an effective vector for illness. The cases mentioned above are due to lapses in food safety, so what...BIOTERRORISM AGENTS AND DISEASES CDC CATEGORY A17 CDC CATEGORY B18 SELECT HHS/USDA19 ANTHRAX CHOLERA BRUCELLOSIS BOTULISM E.COLI EPSILON TOXIN PLAGUE

  10. Sanitation in classroom and food preparation areas in child-care facilities in North Carolina and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgenent, Kelly C; Cates, Sheryl C; Fraser, Angela; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 60% of U.S. children aged five and younger spend time in child-care settings. Such environments increase the risk of diarrheal disease, including diseases caused by enteric pathogens. To describe adherence to sanitation standards in classrooms and food preparation areas in child-care facilities, the authors conducted site visits in 40 North Carolina and South Carolina child-care facilities. Audits in up to two classrooms (rooms providing care for infants and toddlers) and the kitchen were performed using a form similar to a regulatory inspection form. Audit data were used to calculate indices to describe adherence to sanitation standards and were based on state environmental health regulations for child-care centers, the Food and Drug Administration's Food Code 2009, and guidance from food safety experts. Most facilities participating in the authors' study adhered to sanitation standards within the classroom; however, deficiencies with regard to sanitation in food preparation areas and refrigerator operating temperatures were noted. These results provide insight into possible risk factors for enteric disease transmission in child-care facilities.

  11. Three Traditional Fermented Baobab Foods from Benin, Mutchayan, Dikouanyouri and Tayohounta: Preparation, Properties and Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Gayet, D.P.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, M.H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Forest food resources contribute significantly to food supply in areas where they grow. Three fermented baobab foods were studied: Dikouanyouri (from seeds, pH = 6.5); Tayohounta (from seed kernels, pH = 7), and Mutchayan (from baobab pulp and sorghum, pH = 4.2). Bacillus spp. (8.5 and 9.5 Log cfu /

  12. Increasing the isolated quantities and purities of volatile compounds by using a triple Deans-switch multidimensional preparative gas chromatographic system with an apolar-wax-ionic liquid stationary-phase combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Pantò, Sebastiano; Ragonese, Carla; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2012-08-21

    A novel preparative-scale triple gas chromatographic system, equipped with three Deans-switch devices, is herein described. The isolation of volatile compounds was achieved by using a lab-made collection system. Considerations are made on the possibility to inject high volumes of neat sample, maintaining, at the same time, high resolution levels. The degree of recovery of a series of compounds, characterized by a differing volatility, is also reported. In this respect, different collection conditions were evaluated, namely, the presence (or not) of packing material as well as CO(2) cooling, in various combinations. Finally, the interconnected features, that is time requirements and the isolation of "acceptable" analyte quantities (e.g., milligram level for NMR characterization), are related to parameters such as analyte concentration, injected volume, collection conditions, and number of GC runs. The results herein reported will demonstrate the need for a high-resolution GC step, prior to analyte collection, in the prep-GC analysis of complex samples.

  13. Quality or quantity?

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Simler, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The role of school quality in determining educational outcomes has received much research attention in the United States. However, in developing countries, where a significant part of the school age population never attends school, policymakers must consider both quality and quantity when deciding how to maximize the impact of scarce investments. Acknowledging this difference in the policy environment in developing countries, this paper provides comparative estimates of the impact of quality ...

  14. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  15. Research on Order Quantity Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; LI Zhi-cheng

    2003-01-01

    The order quantity is often affected by various factors, so it is more valuable to research the problem of evaluating the order quantity based on a less premise. In this paper, a complicated order quantity problem is studied and an order quantity simulation system is established with the simulation software of ARENA. Finally, an example is given.

  16. Flavour aspects of pea and its protein preparations in relation to novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.

    2005-01-01

    This research is part of the multidisciplinary program, PROFETAS (PROtein Foods Environment Technology And Society), which aimed to feasibly shift from animal proteins to pea proteins for the development of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) with desirable flavour. The aim of this research is to investigate

  17. Prices versus Quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    Weitzman (2002) studies the regulation of a fishery characterised by constant marginal harvest costs and shows that price regulation performs better than quantity regulation when the regulator is uncertain about the biological reproduction function (ecological uncertainty). Here, we initially...... uncertainty. We find that the gain from eliminating compliance uncertainty may be up to 5% of gross profit while the gain from eliminating ecological uncertainty is minimal. Under landing fee regulation, the entire gain from eliminating both types of uncertainty is captured, even if the regulator’s stock...

  18. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  19. Intermediate dosimetric quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

    1992-04-01

    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  20. PAHs in baby food: assessment of three different processing techniques for the preparation of reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Pérez, José Fernando; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Baù, Andrea; Schimmel, Heinz; Dabrio, Marta

    2015-04-01

    A feasibility study for producing a matrix reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in baby food is reported. A commercially available baby food, containing carrots, potatoes, tomato, white beans and meat, was spiked with the so-called 15 + 1 PAHs included in the PAHs priority list for food of the EU, at a mass fraction level of 1 μg/kg. The contaminated baby food was further processed by autoclaving, freezing or freeze drying. The homogeneity of the three materials (bottle-to-bottle variation) and their short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (18 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. To this end, an analytical method based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by cleaning up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) and GC-IDMS determination, was validated in-house. It could be demonstrated that the procedure fulfilled the demands for application to the homogeneity and isochronous stability studies for the candidate reference materials targeted here. All three materials proved to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use. Measurements on the autoclaved material provided the most promising results in terms of envisaged shelf life, although freeze drying was also found to be a suitable processing technique for most of the investigated PAHs. These results are an important step towards the development of a matrix reference material for PAHs in a processed food matrix in a presentation very similar to routine samples.

  1. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  2. The study of the antimicrobial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles prepared using food stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, G V; Suvorov, O A; Shaburova, L N; Podkopaev, D O; Frolova, Yu V; Ermolaeva, G A

    2015-06-01

    The bactericidal effect of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles based on food stabilizers, gum arabic and chitosan, against bacterial cultures of microorganisms in food production is described. The antibacterial activity of nanotechnology products containing different amounts of stabilizing additives when applied to solid pH-neutral substrates is studied. For its evaluation a method making it possible to take into account the capability of nanoparticles to diffuse in solid media was applied. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of nanoparticles used against Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina flava were found. A suggestion was made concerning the influence of the spatial structure of bacteria on the antibacterial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles. The data concerning the antibacterial activity and minimal inhibiting concentrations of nanoparticles may be used for development of products suppressing activity of microorganisms hazardous for food production.

  3. Advanced Cookware and Techniques for Food Preparation at Reduced Pressure and Gravity Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop detailed design requirements for adapting COTS cooking appliances for meal preparation under Lunar 8 psia ambient conditions, and to produce...

  4. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Wednesday, September 11, 2013 (78 FR 55727), announcing the availability of the draft guidance for industry... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations...

  5. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P < 0.001) and from 4% to 7% (P < 0.001), respectively, during the same period. Males aged 30-49 years (34%) and females aged 19-29 years (35%) consumed the highest proportion of daily calories from commercially-prepared meals in 2011. CONCLUSIONS Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health promotion policies and programs.

  6. Research Progress on Prepared Food Sterilization Technology%调理食品杀菌技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慜; 王丽萍

    2012-01-01

    This article was focused on the thermal sterilization and non-ihermal sierilizaiion in the prepared food. Not only has this article formulated the use of thermal sterilization,such as microwave and high radio frequency,hut also it has summarized the application of non-thermal sterilization- including ultra-high pressure,high-pressure carhon dioxide.ecl. Meanwhile,the existing problems and application prospect of various sterilization technologies in prepared food were discussed.%作者主要介绍了调理食品的热杀菌技术和非热杀菌技术,阐述了微波、高频RF等热杀菌技术在调理食品杀菌中的应用现状,综述了超高压、超声波等非热杀菌技术在调理食品杀菌中的应用.另外,作者还分析了两大类杀菌技术在调理食品杀菌中存在的问题,对未来发展方向进行了展望.

  7. Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain--are we prepared to tackle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Premanandh; Bin Salem, Samara

    2015-11-01

    Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes has been increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, the significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions have been presented. Although the concept of substantial equivalence satisfies the technical and nutritional requirements of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animals in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as this will be a valuable tool if a global consensus is not reached on policy regulation.

  8. Consumer food preparation and its implication for survival of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, N.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Zwietering, M.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The disease burden caused by Campylobacter jejuni may be decreased by reduced consumption of undercooked chicken meat. However, little is known about consumer preparation of poultry and the effects of commonly applied cooking times on bacterial inactivation. This study aimed to answer

  9. Consumer food preparation and its implication for survival of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, N.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Zwietering, M.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The disease burden caused by Campylobacter jejuni may be decreased by reduced consumption of undercooked chicken meat. However, little is known about consumer preparation of poultry and the effects of commonly applied cooking times on bacterial inactivation. This study aimed to answer thes

  10. 基于耕地压力指数和GM(1,1)模型的区域粮食安全状况研究——以甘肃省天水市为例%A Case Study of Tianshui City in Gansu: Plantation Preservation Quantity Research Based on Food Security and GM( 1,1 )Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小琛; 石培基; 潘竟虎; 吕立刚

    2011-01-01

    Taking Tianshui city in Cansu province for example, the aera of cultivated land and the plantation preservation quantity were determined based on Land - use changing data, population and food statistics between 1996 and 2005. The plantation preservation quantity of Tianshui the next 15 years was calculated in mathematical method of CM( 1,1)model. The results show that; the minimum area of cultivated land per capita and the plantation preservation quantity decreased between 1996 and 2005. Moreover, the plantation preservation quantity was alawys 1. The reason was that although per capita cultivated land continued to decline in Tianshui,the food production and per capita continued to increase because of increasing food productivity. The plantation preservation quantity will father reduce and the supply of land productivity was higher than the level of food consumption and regional food security risks was smalle in the next 15 years%在分析天水市1996-2005年耕地、人口、粮食动态变化的基础上,计算最小人均耕地面积和耕地压力指数,运用GM(1,1)模型对未来15 a天水市耕地压力指数进行了预测.研究结果显示:1996-2005年,虽然天水人均耕地面积持续减少,但由于耕地生产率不断提高,粮食产量和人均占有量在持续增加,最小人均耕地面积和耕地压力指数呈现降低的趋势,但是耕地压力指数始终在1之上.未来15 a耕地压力指数将进一步降低,耕地生产力的供给水平高于食物消费水平,区域粮食安全隐患较小.图5,表1,参10.

  11. Improving the Supply Chain and Food Quality of Professionally Prepared Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Akkerman, R.; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    An increasing share of the daily meals served in Europe is prepared out-of-home by professionals in foodservice. The quality of such meals is highly debated. This paper presents and discusses obstacles to improving quality in a cost-effective way and suggests solutions: 1) Modularisation of the m......An increasing share of the daily meals served in Europe is prepared out-of-home by professionals in foodservice. The quality of such meals is highly debated. This paper presents and discusses obstacles to improving quality in a cost-effective way and suggests solutions: 1) Modularisation...... of the meal production in order to transfer labour-intensive operations from the kitchens to the industry; 2) Systemic use of a new concept: thawing during distribution, which improves shelf-life and reduces waste; 3) Supply chain modelling to improve delivery schedules and reduce environmental impact...

  12. Homeland security planning: what victory gardens and Fidel Castro can teach us in preparing for food crises in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, A Bryan; Endres, Jody M

    2009-01-01

    Two historical examples provide important insight into how federal government policies can integrate regional and local food systems to achieve food security during a time of acute crisis. During World War II, American home gardeners, through the federal government's Victory Garden program, supplied 40 percent of the nation's fresh produce, while simultaneously maintaining pre-war commodity production policies favoring large agricultural interests. The recent food crisis in Cuba, precipitated by the collapse of Soviet-bloc trade in the early 1990s, is another historical example that could inform U.S. policymakers on how to achieve food self-sufficiency through reemphasis on small farmers using sustainable practices supplemented with urban gardening. This article aims to ignite government action to strengthen and integrate regional and local food systems into federal food security planning so that citizens can be best prepared for a food emergency. The article first examines laws, regulations and policies put in place during World War II that employed regional and local food networks to satisfy a significant amount of civilian food supply needs. The article also looks at more recent Cuban efforts to achieve forced food self-reliance when, after the end of the Cold War, Soviet subsidies and preferential trading of energy and food supplies ceased almost overnight.

  13. Round table part 4: Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for Food production and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Although the two first metabolic needs are based on simple molecule (i.e. oxygen and water), the third metabolic needs considered a tremendously large number and diversity of molecules: food. Today, physical chemical technologies do not allow to synthetize all the spectrum of molecules and biological processes have to be considered. Moreover, the raw material products by plants or by microorganisms are generally not directly edible or palatable and would need either transformation, assembly and/or storage. In other words the challenges of the food cannot be reduced to the plant production but need to include as well the complete chain, from the production conditions and the biomass quality up to the final edible products and its acceptance. In other words all the steps have to be considered and characterize. Today these challenges requires a high level of plants characterization. This round table part 4 would allow the participants to present some of their results and express some domain of activities. Re4serach for collaboration will be identified.

  14. Sample preparation strategies for food and biological samples prior to nanoparticle detection and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Löschner, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    fractionation (AFFF, or AF4) coupled on-line to various detectors including static and dynamic light scattering (LS), UV or fluorescence (FL) spectroscopies and ICP-MS have proven useful and powerful [1, 2, 3]. Furthermore, additional information obtained by an imaging method such as transmission electron...... microscopy (TEM) proved to be necessary for trouble shooting of results obtained from AFFF-LS-ICP-MS. Aqueous and enzymatic extraction strategies were tested for thorough sample preparation aiming at degrading the sample matrix and to liberate the AgNPs from chicken meat into liquid suspension. The resulting...

  15. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  16. Prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar Y Al-Okbi; Doha A Mohamed; Thanaa E Hamed; Reham SH Esmail; Souria M Donya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado, walnut, flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin. Methods:Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant. Six groups of rats were conducted;control healthy, cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids (FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts. Results:Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic. FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA. Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campesterol, stigmasterol andβ-sitosterol in all the studied plants. Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, total protein, catalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance. Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction. Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and sperm-shape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters. Conclusions: Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms. All studied nutraceuticals showed complete safety.

  17. Prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okbi, Sahar Y.; Mohamed, Doha A.; Hamed, Thanaa E.; Esmail, Reham SH.; Donya, Souria M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado, walnut, flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin. Methods Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant. Six groups of rats were conducted; control healthy, cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids (FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts. Results Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic. FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA. Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in all the studied plants. Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, total protein, catalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance. Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction. Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and sperm-shape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters. Conclusions Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms. All studied nutraceuticals showed complete safety. PMID:25183331

  18. Preparing for Veg-04 and Veg-05: Improving Pick-And-Eat Food Capabilities for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Romeyn, M. W.; Hummerick, M. E.; Spencer, L. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Burgner, S.; Williams, T. J.; Young, M. H.; Douglas, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. Studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. Ground testing of Chinese cabbage and dwarf tomato crops under different LED lighting and fertilizer conditions is being conducted to allow for a preliminary down selection of the two best lighting recipes and the best fertilizer treatment. Two trials of Chinese cabbage and one trial on dwarf tomato have been completed in on-going ground tests. Horticultural data on crop growth and productivity and chemical data on specific nutrients have been collected and are being analyzed to allow preliminary down selection. Taste test evaluations are planned on the preliminary down selection treatments to allow a final down selection for flight testing. Microbial assessment for hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) evaluation is also underway to enable implementation of food consumption. Following down selection flight preparation will commence for testing these crops in the Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS. A crew questionnaire has been developed to better understand the impact of crop growth in Veggie on crew behavioral health. A single Veggie plant growth chamber is currently installed on ISS, and preparations are underway to launch a second Veggie, allowing side-by-side testing under different lighting conditions. Veg-04 will be the first mission that will use this

  19. [Intake of folic acid in the total daily diet--effect of food preparation on its folic acid content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H

    1995-03-01

    The folic acid content of total daily diet was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5-methyl-THF and 5-formyl-THF were differentiated. The mean of the folic acid content of the total daily diet samples determined analytically was 205 +/- 60 micrograms and the mean of the individual ingredients of the samples was 401 +/- 78 micrograms, which implies that about 50% of folic acid is destroyed by common household food preparation methods. If the contents of pteroylglutamic acid (PteGlu) and 10-formyl-PteGlu (which cannot be determined analytically) are added, it can be assumed that the folic acid content with only be reduced by about 40%. THF and 5-methyl-THF proved to be less stable than 5-formyl-THF. The monoglutamate portion of the total folat content was higher in the total diet samples than in the individual foodstuffs as a consequence of the action of the enzyme "deconjugase" which is released when the matrix of food-stuffs is destroyed.

  20. Investigation on the hematopoietic effect of functional foods using radiation and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Lee, Song Eun; Jeong, Yong Woon [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We performed this study to determine the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the biological stability of irradiated chinese medical prescriptions, we performed the experiment to determine the effect of irradiated (10kGy) or unirradiated Si-Wu-Tang, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang and San-Ling-Bai-Shu-San in irradiated mice. Further studies are needed to characterize better the protective nature of the total extract and its ingredients and for preparing the provisional product. (author). 61 refs., 3 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar; Y.Al-Okbi; Doha; A.Mohamed; Thanaa; E.Hamed; Reham; SH.Esmail; Souria; M.Donya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado,walnut,flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin.Methods:Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant.Six groups of rats were conducted:control healthy,cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection.Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined.Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals.Total phenolic contents,faity acids(FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts.Results:Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic.FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA.Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campeslerol.stigmaslerol and β—sitosterol in all the studied plants.Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea,creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin,total protein,calalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance.Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction.Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and spermshape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment.Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical,histopathological and cytogenetic parameters.Conclusions:Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin—induced nephrotoxicity,chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms.All studied uutraceuticals showed complete safety.

  2. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  3. Preparation and characteristics of beta-glucan concentrate from brewer's yeast as the additive substance in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The brewer¢s yeast was used for preparation of concentrate with content of β-glucan. Hot water extraction (100°C, 5 hours and subsequently an alkaline extraction of sediment using 1 M NaOH at 90°C for 1 hour were used. β-glucan concentrate containing 59,15 % of β-glucan had good functional properties (water binding capacity 13,34 g water/1 g concentrate, fat binding capacity 6,86 g fat/1 g concentrate and indicated biological action too.  At concentration of 2 mg/ml DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid was viability of murine L1210 leukemic cells reduced to 76.15 %. When observing the antioxidant activity it was identified, that the lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid samples was decreased during the presence of β-glucan concentrate. These results and good sensory properties like a bright colour and the pleasant taste and smell indicate, that prepared β-glucan concentrate has a potential to be used to improve the health – beneficial substances in the foods.doi:10.5219/258

  4. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of k-Carrageenan/SiO$_2$ nanocomposite films for antimicrobial food packaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R VENKATESAN; N RAJESWARI; T THENDRAL THIYAGU

    2017-06-01

    Kappa-Carrageenan (KCG) films have been formulated as a packaging material. This study has been conducted to investigate the effect of incorporating SiO$_2$ nanoparticles inside the KCG matrix, with the aim of enhancing the mechanical and antimicrobial properties of KCG for reinforcement purposes. Films were prepared by solution casting technique with 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt% of SiO$_2$ nano-filler content taking neat KCG as the reference for the study. Structural characterizations of the prepared nanocomposite films were carried out by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope (SEM) andtransmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. SEM and TEM showed homogeneous dispersion of SiO$_2$ nanoparticles in the KCG matrix. The tensile strength increased significantly by introducing the SiO$_2$ nanoparticles into the KCG matrix, in which KCG/SiO$_2$ films have greater tensile strength (53.9 MPa) when compared to the KCG polymer (46.8 MPa). The moisture uptake (MU) of nanocomposites decreased when SiO2 was introduced into the polymer matrix. The barrier property of the prepared KCG-based nanocomposite films decreased oxygen transmission rate with loading of different wt%of SiO$_2$. SiO$_2$ nanoparticle-loaded films produced higher zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains compared to polymer film. This study was intended to find the applications for KCG films containing SiO$_2$ nanoparticles to enhance the shelf-life of foods in the form of biodegradable wrapper.

  5. Ergonomic intervention in aonla pricking operation during preserve preparation in food processing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Kumar, Nitin; Sharma, D K; Garg, M K

    2012-01-01

    Aonla is an important Indian fruit crop with great potential for processing into various quality products. Aonla preserve making is an important economic activity in our country. The pricking methods are age old, hence a hand operated aonla pricking machine was introduced in preserve making industries to speed up the pricking task. OWAS and RULA two of the most commonly used ergonomic assessment tools were evaluated for their efficacy in the assessment pricking along with Rating of perceived exertion scale. Analysis of working posture using RULA revealed that the pricking task with existing methods i.e. fork and hand tool requires immediate investigation and changes in working posture while with machine pricking investigations and changes are required soon. The results of OWAS indicated that the posture maintained while pricking with existing methods need to be changed in future planning while with machine was acceptable. The subjective assessment revealed that machine pricking was less exerting activity as compared to the existing methods. The preserve prepared from machine pricked fruit was most acceptable among consumers. Hence, in the form of machine ergonomic intervention was brought about in preservation industries which have proved beneficial for workers in terms of their safety and productivity.

  6. Thermal quantities of 46Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-07-01

    Thermodynamic quantities of 46Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework.

  7. A rapid HPLC column switching method for sample preparation and determination of β-carotene in food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcová, Ivana; Hlaváčková, Markéta; Satínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2013-11-15

    A simple and automated HPLC column-switching method with rapid sample pretreatment has been developed for quantitative determination of β-carotene in food supplements. Commercially samples of food supplements were dissolved in chloroform with help of saponification with 1M solution of sodium hydroxide in ultrasound bath. A 20-min sample dissolution/extraction step was necessary before chromatography analysis to transfer β-carotene from solid state of food supplements preparations (capsules,tablets) to chloroform solution. Sample volume - 3μL of chloroform phase was directly injected into the HPLC system. Next on-line sample clean-up was achieved on the pretreatment precolumn Chromolith Guard Cartridge RP-18e (Merck), 10×4.6mm, with a washing mobile phase (methanol:water, 92:8, (v/v)) at a flow rate of 1.5mL/min. Valve switch to analytical column was set at 2.5min in a back-flush mode. After column switching to the analytical column Ascentis Express C-18, 30×4.6mm, particle size 2.7μm (Sigma Aldrich), the separation and determination of β-carotene in food supplements was performed using a mobile phase consisting of 100% methanol, column temperature at 60°C and flow rate 1.5mL/min. The detector was set at 450nm. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions standard calibration curve was measured with good linearity - correlation coefficient for β-carotene (r(2)=0.999014; n=6) between the peak areas and concentration of β-carotene 20-200μg/mL. Accuracy of the method defined as a mean recovery was in the range 96.66-102.40%. The intraday method precision was satisfactory at three concentration levels 20, 125 and 200μg/mL and relative standard deviations were in the range 0.90-1.02%. The chromatography method has shown high sample throughput during column-switching pretreatment process and analysis in one step in short time (6min) of the whole chromatographic analysis.

  8. Food protein-stabilized nanoemulsions as potential delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs: preparation, in vitro characterization, and pharmacokinetics in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Tian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei He1, Yanan Tan1, Zhiqiang Tian1, Lingyun Chen2, Fuqiang Hu3, Wei Wu11Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Nanoemulsions stabilized by traditional emulsifiers raise toxicological concerns for long-term treatment. The present work investigates the potential of food proteins as safer stabilizers for nanoemulsions to deliver hydrophobic drugs. Nanoemulsions stabilized by food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, ß-lactoglobulin were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The toxicity of the nanoemulsions was tested in Caco-2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide viability assay. In vivo absorption in rats was also evaluated. Food protein-stabilized nanoemulsions, with small particle size and good size distribution, exhibited better stability and biocompatibility compared with nanoemulsions stabilized by traditional emulsifiers. Moreover, ß-lactoglobulin had a better emulsifying capacity and biocompatibility than the other two food proteins. The pancreatic degradation of the proteins accelerated drug release. It is concluded that an oil/water nanoemulsion system with good biocompatibility can be prepared by using food proteins as emulsifiers, allowing better and more rapid absorption of lipophilic drugs.Keywords: oil in water nanoemulsions, food proteins, poorly water-soluble drugs, biocompatibility, in vivo absorption

  9. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Service Curriculum on Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Grocery Shop, Prepare Food, and Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice R.; Johnston, Jan H.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Jaco, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Shop, Cook and Eat curriculum was designed to provide education about concepts of empowerment and assistive technology for grocery shopping, preparing food, and eating. The curriculum included examples and hands-on demonstrations of assistive technology devices for grocery shopping, food…

  10. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.29)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a liquid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are t...

  11. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.28)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a solid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are to...

  12. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Service Curriculum on Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Grocery Shop, Prepare Food, and Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice R.; Johnston, Jan H.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Jaco, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Shop, Cook and Eat curriculum was designed to provide education about concepts of empowerment and assistive technology for grocery shopping, preparing food, and eating. The curriculum included examples and hands-on demonstrations of assistive technology devices for grocery shopping, food…

  13. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.28)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a solid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are to...

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.29)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a liquid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are t...

  15. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  16. Preparation and Application of Starch/Polyvinyl Alcohol/Citric Acid Ternary Blend Antimicrobial Functional Food Packaging Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ternary blend films were prepared with different ratios of starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/citric acid. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, thermogravimetric analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis. The influence of different ratios of starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/citric acid and different drying times on the performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS, water vapor permeability (WVP, water solubility (WS, color difference (ΔE, and antimicrobial activity of the ternary blends films were investigated. The starch/polyvinyl alcohol/citric acid (S/P/C1:1:0, S/P/C3:1:0.08, and S/P/C3:3:0.08 films were all highly transparent. The S/P/C3:3:0.08 had a 54.31 times water-holding capacity of its own weight and its mechanical tensile strength was 46.45 MPa. In addition, its surface had good uniformity and compactness. The S/P/C3:1:0.08 and S/P/C3:3:0.08 showed strong antimicrobial activity to Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, which were the food-borne pathogenic bacteria used. The freshness test results of fresh figs showed that all of the blends prevented the formation of condensed water on the surface of the film, and the S/P/C3:1:0.08 and S/P/C3:3:0.08 prevented the deterioration of figs during storage. The films can be used as an active food packaging system due to their strong antibacterial effect.

  17. Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen

    2009-06-01

    The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality.

  18. Sample preparation for arsenic speciation analysis in baby food by generation of substituted arsines with atomic absorption spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charles S; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Dessuy, Morgana B; Svoboda, Milan; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiři

    2017-12-01

    A slurry sampling procedure for arsenic speciation analysis in baby food by arsane generation, cryogenic trapping and detection with atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Several procedures were tested for slurry preparation, including different reagents (HNO3, HCl and tetramethylammonium hydroxide - TMAH) and their concentrations, water bath heating and ultrasound-assisted agitation. The best results for inorganic arsenic (iAs) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) were reached when using 3molL(-1) HCl under heating and ultrasound-assisted agitation. The developed method was applied for the analysis of five porridge powder and six baby meal samples. The trueness of the method was checked with a certified reference material (CRM) of total arsenic (tAs), iAs and DMA in rice (ERM-BC211). Arsenic recoveries (mass balance) for all samples and CRM were performed by the determination of the tAs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted digestion and its comparison against the sum of the results from the speciation analysis. The relative limits of detection were 0.44, 0.24 and 0.16µgkg(-1) for iAs, methylarsonate and DMA, respectively. The concentrations of the most toxic arsenic species (iAs) in the analyzed baby food samples ranged between 4.2 and 99µgkg(-1) which were below the limits of 300, 200 and 100µgkg(-1) set by the Brazilian, Chinese and European legislation, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody and Development of Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Specific for Escherichia coli O157 in Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To prepare monoclonal antibodies (Mab) and antisera specific for Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157, and to develop a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect E.coli O157 in foods. Methods Spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with the somatic antigen of E.coli O157:H7 were fused with murine Sp2/0 myeloma cells. The hybridoma cell line specific for E.coli O157 was established after having been subcloned. Antisera specific for E.coli O157 was prepared by intravenous injection into New Zealand rabbits with a stain of E.coli O157:H7. The sandwich ELISA was developed with the polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and the Mab 3A5 as the detection antibody. The inoculated ground poultry meat and pasteurized milk were tested to confirm efficiency of the method. Results Mab 3A5 specific for E.coli O157 and O113:H21 belonged to subtype IgM. The ascetic titers of the antibody was 1:1×106. No cross-reactivity of the Mab was observed with strains of Salmonella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella dysenteriae, etc. The purified polyclonal antibody had a titer of 1:1×105 with E.coli O157. The detection limit of this sandwich ELISA was 103-104 cfu E.coli O157/mL in pure culture with a high specificity, which was characterized by every non-O157 strain with negative response. With 10h enrichment procedure, E.coli O157:H7 recovered well from inoculated ground poultry meat and pasteurized milk at levels of 0.1 cfu/g and 0.1 cfu/mL. Conclusion Mab 3A5 specific for E.coli O157 and O113:H21 can be produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with a strain of E.coli O157:H7. Then a sandwich ELISA can be developed with the polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and the Mab 3A5 as the detection antibody. The method is proved to be a sensitive and specific technique to detect low number of E.coli O157 in food.

  20. Comparison of green sample preparation techniques in the analysis of pyrethrins and pyrethroids in baby food by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Mateus Henrique; Ccanccapa-Cartagena, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Godoy, Helena Teixeira; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-05-12

    A new selective and sensitive liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous analysis of natural pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids residues in baby food. In this study, two sample preparation methods based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) were optimized, and then, compared regarding the performance criteria. Appropriate linearity in solvent and matrix-based calibrations, and suitable recoveries (75-120%) and precision (RSD values≤16%) were achieved for selected analytes by any of the sample preparation procedures. Both methods provided the analytical selectivity required for the monitoring of the insecticides in fruit-, cereal- and milk-based baby foods. SALLE, recognized by cost-effectiveness, and simple and fast execution, provided a lower enrichment factor, consequently, higher limits of quantification (LOQs) were obtained. Some of them too high to meet the strict legislation regarding baby food. Nonetheless, the combination of ultrasound and DLLME also resulted in a high sample throughput and environmental-friendly method, whose LOQs were lower than the default maximum residue limit (MRL) of 10μgkg(-1) set by European Community for baby foods. In the commercial baby foods analyzed, cyhalothrin and etofenprox were detected in different samples, demonstrating the suitability of proposed method for baby food control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional composition, assessed by chemical analyses, of prepared foods available for primary-school children: a comparison of public and private schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Márcia L; Morais, Tania B

    2010-11-01

    To assess the nutritional quality of prepared foods available to primary-school children. Prepared foods available in a public and private school were sampled daily for 4 weeks (a total of forty-five samples) and chemically analysed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, iron, salt and sodium. The results were compared to the nutritional standards for children aged 7-10 years. Alfenas, south-eastern Brazil. The concentration of protein, lipid, iron and sodium and the energy values of the foods at the private school were significantly higher than those at the public school. No differences were seen in the carbohydrate and salt values. The range of macronutrients was more balanced at the public school in relation to fat and protein. Foods at the private school were, in general, energy-dense. At both the public and private school, they provided the minimum energy and iron. Salt content was over twice the maximum amount, and that for sodium was over three times the amount, in both the public and private school. Overall, foods prepared at the public school were better nutritional quality than those at the private school and those offered in public schools in some developed countries. This finding can probably be explained by the fact that a nutritionist, as required by law, was responsible for planning the menus at the public school. However, corrective action is needed to adjust for the wide variability in energy and nutrient content during weekdays and in the sodium content of prepared foods available in both the public and private school.

  2. Rapid sample preparation method for LC-MS/MS or GC-MS analysis of acrylamide in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastovska, Katerina; Lehotay, Steven J

    2006-09-20

    A fast and easy sample preparation procedure for analysis of acrylamide in various food matrices was developed and optimized. In its first step, deuterated acrylamide internal standard is added to 1 g of homogenized sample together with 5 mL of hexane, 10 mL of water, 10 mL of acetonitrile, 4 g of MgSO4, and 0.5 g of NaCl. Water facilitates the extraction of acrylamide; hexane serves for sample defatting; and the salt combination induces separation of water and acetonitrile layers and forces the majority of acrylamide into the acetonitrile layer. After vigorous shaking of the extraction mixture for 1 min and centrifugation, the upper hexane layer is discarded and a 1 mL aliquot of the acetonitrile extract is cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction using 50 mg of primary secondary amine sorbent and 150 mg of anhydrous MgSO4. The final extract is analyzed either by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in positive chemical ionization mode) using the direct sample introduction technique for rugged large-volume injection.

  3. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  4. 21 CFR 501.105 - Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inches and quart, pint, and fluid ounce subdivisions thereof, and shall: (i) In the case of frozen food... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt. 501.105 Section 501.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  5. Food Preparation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    dry mixing, melting ingre- dients such as butter or margarine or shortening, creaming butter or shortening, mixing and blending, dissolving soda in...cooked at the satellite and of various pasta and rice dishes. These latter dishes will require some baking, and, to avoid equip- ment duplication, they...Propeller mixers are made by many companies including Lightnin. · Steamed rice (E-5) and the pasta dishes require a jacketed kettle, preferably with a

  6. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  7. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  8. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans. Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical less/more discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family—one domesticated, and one wild—make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition.Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given 9 trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker and colleagues (2011.The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar nonverbal quantitative abilities across

  9. Characterization of different commercial soybean peroxidase preparations and the use of the enzyme for the N-demethylation of methyl-N-methylanthranilate to produce the food flavour methylanthranilate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandel, van M.J.H.; Saraber, F.C.E.; Boersma, M.G.; Laane, C.; Fleming, Y.; Weenen, H.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of different peroxidase preparations for the N-demethylation of methyl N-methylanthranilate to produce the food flavor methylanthranilate (MA) was investigated. All tested peroxidase preparations were able to catalyze the N-dealkylation. The tested soybean preparations vary widely with

  10. Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.

  11. Selective separation and enrichment of glibenclamide in health foods using surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared via dendritic grafting of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyu; Wang, Yang; Xue, Cheng; Wen, Tingting; Wu, Jinhua; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the novel surface molecularly imprinted polymers based on dendritic-grafting magnetic nanoparticles were developed to enrich and separate glibenclamide in health foods. The density functional theory method was used to give theoretical directions to the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers. The polymers were prepared by using magnetic nanoparticles as supporting materials, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles and polymers were measured by transmission electron microscope and SEM, respectively. The enriching ability of molecularly imprinted polymers was measured by Freundlich Isotherm. The molecularly imprinted polymers were used as dispersive SPE materials to enrich, separate, and detect glibenclamide in health foods by HPLC. The average recoveries of glibenclamide in spiked health foods were 81.46-93.53% with the RSD < 4.07%.

  12. Research opportunities for bioactive natural constituents in agriculture and food prepared for the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Russell J

    2002-11-20

    The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry recently introduced a new subject matter category titled "Bioactive Constituents" to cover investigations of the composition of natural compounds and their biological activity in crops and foods. It is recognized by the Editors that a number of other journals specialize in various aspects of the chemistry of natural products, but the intent of this classification is to emphasize and stimulate submission of manuscripts in such areas of agricultural and food chemistry that have so far been neglected or under-represented. Selected topics dealing with bioactive constituents are given as representative examples of the types of investigations that would be appropriate to the scope of the Journal.

  13. 基于粮食安全和指数平滑模型的耕地保有量预测研究——以福建省宁德市为例%Research on Prediction of Land Quantity Based on Food Security and Exponential Smoothing Model:the Case of Ningde City in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占纪文; 林锦彬

    2012-01-01

    Land quantity has a significant influence on food security, economic security, ecological security, social stability and some related aspects in one area. In this paper, Ningde city was selected as a study area, and its land quantities from 2010 to 2015 were predicted in accordance with the statistical index in land, population and grain, by using the methods of land demand based on food security and exponential smoothing model. The results from comprehensive prediction and analysis were 139 727hm^2 , 136 037 hm^2 , 137 907 hm^2 , 134 962 hm^2 , 134 962 hm^2 , 134 122 hm^2 , 155 496hm^2. Besides,the relevant countermeasures and suggestions were put forward.%耕地保有量对于一个地区粮食安全、经济安全、生态安全和社会稳定等都具有重要意义。本文以福建省宁德市为例,根据耕地、人口、粮食等指标的统计数据,采用基于粮食安全的耕地需求法和指数平滑模型两种方法对2010至2015年的耕地保有量进行预测,并进行综合预测分析,结果分别为139727hm^2、136037hm^2、137907hm^2、134962hm^2、134962hm^2、134122hm^2、155496hm^2。而后提出了加强耕地保护的相关对策建议。

  14. Preparing students for careers in food-supply veterinary medicine: a review of educational programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, R Daniel; Hoffsis, Glen F; Cullor, James S; Naylor, Jonathan M; Chaddock, Michael; Ames, Trevor R

    2012-01-01

    The real and/or perceived shortage of veterinarians serving food-supply veterinary medicine has been a topic of considerable discussion for decades. Regardless of this debate, there are issues still facing colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) about the best process of educating future food-supply veterinarians. Over the past several years, there have been increasing concerns by some that the needs of food-supply veterinary medicine have not adequately been met through veterinary educational institutions. The food-supply veterinary medical curriculum offered by individual CVMs varies depending on individual curricular design, available resident animal population, available food-animal caseload, faculty, and individual teaching efforts of faculty. All of the institutional members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) were requested to share their Food Animal Veterinary Career Incentives Programs. The AAVMC asked all member institutions what incentives they used to attract and educate students interested in, or possibly considering, a career in food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). The problem arises as to how we continue to educate veterinary students with ever shrinking budgets and how to recruit and retain faculty with expertise to address the needs of society. Several CVMs use innovative training initiatives to help build successful FSVM programs. This article focuses on dairy, beef, and swine food-animal education and does not characterize colleges' educational efforts in poultry and aquaculture. This review highlights the individual strategies used by the CVMs in the United States.

  15. Diet composition and blood values of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented meat or commercial food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, Ursula; Mortenson, Jack; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Cheeke, Peter; Keller, Mark; Holick, Michael; Chen, Tai C; Rogers, Quinton

    2002-03-01

    Nutrition most certainly affects health and may play a role in the etiology of growth and reproductive problems in captive cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus) populations. The objective of our research was to examine nutritional differences between two dietary regimens and quantify their physiologic effects on cheetahs held in captivity. Twelve cheetahs were randomly assigned to either a commercial diet (COM) or a supplemented meat diet (SMD) group. These cats were physically examined and had blood samples taken three times over the course of a year. Representative samples of COM and four separate components of the SMD treatment were analyzed over the same time frame for proximate nutrient composition, digestibility, and concentrations of taurine, fat-soluble vitamins, and selected minerals. Concentrations of fat, vitamins A and E, Se, Fe, Cu, Na, and Mn were significantly higher in COM compared with those in SMD samples, with the exception of fat content in turkey. Mg content was lower in COM than in SMD; other nutrients did not differ. Mean concentrations of vitamins A and E in COM were markedly higher than in SMD samples (408,140 vs. 29,696 IU/kg dry matter [DM] and 431 vs. 48 IU/kg DM, respectively) and varied dramatically between sampling periods. Percent crude protein and protein-to-fat ratios were high for SMD compared with either whole prey-based or commercial food preparations. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were above normal reference means for domestic cats. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were significantly higher in COM-fed than in SMD-fed cheetahs. Both plasma retinol and tocopherol levels were almost three times higher in COM-fed cats (1.26 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.03 microg/ml and 17.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, respectively) and exceeded the normal ranges expected for domestic felids. Significant differences between male and female cheetahs were found for plasma concentrations of vitamin E, Se, and Fe after allowing for

  16. Food Allergy Emergencies in Children – To what extent are Early Years Services Prepared? A cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacGiobuin, S

    2017-08-01

    Food allergies are common in preschool children. This study’s aims are to establish prevalence, to clarify management practices, levels of preparedness and the perceived role of General Practitioners amongst Early Years Services providers. This study is an anonymous, quantitative, cross sectional study. An online questionnaire was distributed to 282 Early Years Service providers. Data were analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 35% (n=98). Prevalence of food allergy was 3% (n=119). Allergic reactions to food had occurred on site in 16% (n=15). Written emergency action plans were available in 47% of facilities (n=46). Medications were not kept on site in 63% (n=62) of facilities. General practitioners were felt to have an important role in the management of food allergies by 76% of respondents (n=61). This study identifies significant areas for improvement in the management of food allergic child in Early Years Services

  17. Food preparation methods, drinking water source, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the high-risk area of Golestan, Northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Fazeltabar Malekshah, Akbar; Islami, Farhad; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoosh; Khoshnia, Masoud; Pourshams, Akram; Semnani, Shahriar; Marjani, Haji Amin; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Brennan, Paul; Taylor, Philip; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian; Dawsey, Sanford; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Cooking practices and water sources have been associated with an increased risk of cancer, mainly through exposure to carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitrates. Using data from the Golestan case-control study, carried out between 2003 and 2007 in a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we sought to investigate the association between food preparation and drinking water sources and ESCC. Information on food preparation methods, sources of drinking water, and dietary habits was gathered from 300 cases and 571 controls matched individually for age, sex, and neighborhood using a structured questionnaire and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potential confounders and other known risk factors including socioeconomic status and smoking. More than 95% of the participants reported eating meat, mostly red meat. Red meat consumption above the 75th percentile increased the odds of ESCC by 2.82-fold (95% CI: 1.21-6.57). Fish intake was associated with a significant 68% decrease in ESCC odds (26%, 86%). Among meat eaters, ORs (95% CI) for frying meat (red or white) and fish were 3.34 (1.32-8.45) and 2.62 (1.24-5.5). Drinking unpiped water increased ESCC odds by 4.25 times (2.23-8.11). The OR for each 10-year increase in the duration of drinking unpiped water was 1.47 (1.22-1.78). Our results suggest roles for red meat intake, drinking water source, and food preparation methods in ESCC, even after adjusting for a large number of potential confounders.

  18. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... canned oysters. 161.30 Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions § 161.30 Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters. (a) For many years packers...

  19. 21 CFR 101.105 - Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fluid ounce subdivisions thereof, and shall: (i) In the case of frozen food that is sold and consumed in a frozen state, express the volume at the frozen temperature. (ii) In the case of refrigerated food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of net quantity of contents...

  20. Delay discounting and intake of ready-to-eat and away-from-home foods in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L; DeBiasse, Michelle A; Debiasse, Michelle A; Whited, Matthew C; Lynch, Elizabeth B

    2012-10-01

    A shift from home-prepared to away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods has occurred in recent decades, which has implications for obesity and health. This study tested whether delay discounting, a facet of impulsivity reflecting sensitivity to immediate reward, is associated with the frequency of consumption and typical amount consumed of home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods among overweight and obese women. Seventy-eight participants completed a binary choice task assessing discounting of delayed monetary rewards. Nutrient analysis of weighed food records characterized dietary intake over seven consecutive days. Foods were categorized as home-prepared, away-from-home, or ready-to-eat by a registered dietitian from information provided by participants. Delay discounting was not associated with the frequency of consuming home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods as reflected in the percentages of recorded foods or total energy intake from each category. However, once consuming away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods (but not home-prepared foods), impulsive women consumed more energy than less impulsive women. Exploratory analyses indicated that more impulsive women chose away-from-home foods with a higher energy density (kcal/g). Impulsivity was associated with the quantity of away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods consumed, but not the frequency of their consumption. Home food preparation may be critical to weight control for impulsive individuals.

  1. Influência do modo de preparo de alimentos na prevenção da aterosclerose The influence of food preparation methods on atherosclerosis prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scherr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do modo de preparo na composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol em alimentos. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a composição química do colesterol e ácidos graxos de oito tipos diferentes de carnes e da feijoada, em relação a diferentes métodos de preparo. RESULTADOS: A feijoada preparada com as carnes em separado tem menos colesterol (12,1 e 16,1 mg, respectivamente; p = 0,005 e gordura saturada (1,4 e 1,9 mg; p = 0,046 do que quando preparada junto. O frango grelhado sem pele apresenta menor quantidade de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frango frito sem pele (7645 e 1505 mg; p = 0,049. O camarão grelhado também apresenta menor conteúdo de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frito (532 e 1262 mg; p = 0,049. O contrafilé grelhado sem gordura apresenta menor conteúdo de colesterol quando comparado com o frito (102 e 114 mg; p = 0,049. CONCLUSÃO: As análises aqui realizadas indicam que a forma de preparo influencia no teor de gordura dos alimentos, com potencial impacto na prescrição de dietas com baixo teor de gordura e colesterol.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of food preparation methods on the composition of fatty acids and cholesterol in foods. METHODS: The chemical composition of cholesterol and fatty acids was analyzed in eight different types of meat and feijoada in relation to different methods of preparation. RESULTS: Feijoada, when prepared with the beans and meats in separate pots, has less cholesterol (12.1 vs. 16.1 mg, respectively, p = 0.005 and saturated fat (1.4 vs. 1.9 mg, p = 0.046 than when it is prepared in a single pot. Broiled chicken without the skin has less saturated fat when compared with skinless fried chicken (1,505 vs. 7,645 mg, p = 0.049. Broiled shrimp also has a lower saturated fat content than fried shrimp (532 vs. 1,262 mg, p = 0.049. Broiled ribeye steak without fat has a lower cholesterol content when compared with the fried steak (102 vs. 114 mg, p = 0

  2. Preparation of isotopic molybdenum foils utilizing small quantities of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, A. R.; Lee, L. L.; Liang, J. F.; Mahon, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    A simple method utilizing a small amount of isotopic material for production of molybdenum foils is discussed. An e-gun is used in the procedure. The Mo powder undergoes reduction-sintering and melting-solidifying steps leading to the creation of a metallic droplet suitable for further cold rolling or vacuum deposition.

  3. A strategy for the identification of plants in illegal pharmaceutical preparations and food supplements using chromatographic fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; De Leersnijder, C; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2013-03-01

    The detection of regulated and forbidden herbs in pharmaceutical preparations and nutritional supplements is a growing problem for laboratories charged with the analysis of illegal pharmaceutical preparations and counterfeit medicines. This article presents a feasibility study of the use of chromatographic fingerprints for the detection of plants in pharmaceutical preparations. Fingerprints were developed for three non-regulated common herbal products--Rhamnus purshiana, Passiflora incarnata L. and Crataegus monogyna--and this was done by combining three different types of detection: diode-array detection, evaporative light scattering detection and mass spectrometry. It is shown that these plants could be detected in respective triturations of the dry extracts with lactose and three different herbal matrices as well as in commercial preparations purchased on the open market.

  4. Castanea spp. buds as a phytochemical source for herbal preparations: botanical fingerprint for nutraceutical identification and functional food standardisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Bonvegna, Luca; Bounous, Giancarlo

    2014-11-01

    Many plant species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and health benefits: Castanea spp. is among the most commonly used herbal medicines. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of chestnut bud preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main bioactive compounds, and to obtain a specific chemical fingerprint to evaluate the single class contribution to the herbal preparation phytocomplex. The analyses were performed using a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a diode array detector. Castanea spp. was identified as a rich source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: the observed analytical fingerprint demonstrated that these bud preparations represent a rich source of bioactive compounds (104.77 ± 1.14 g kg(-1) FW) in relation to different genotypes, specific sampling sites and several phenological stages. This study showed that the observed analytical fingerprint can be considered an important tool for assessing the chemical composition and bioactivities of the chestnut-derived products, considering the Castanea genus as a new source of natural health-promoting compounds. This study allowed the development of an effective tool for quality control by fingerprinting the bud preparation in order to develop a new generation of standardised preparations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number.

  6. Comparison of membrane filtration rates and hydrophobic grid membrane filter coliform and Escherichia coli counts in food suspensions using paddle-type and pulsifier sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, A N; Hearn, E M; Kovacs-Nolan, J

    2000-01-01

    Food suspensions prepared by Pulsifier contained less debris and filtered 1.3x to 12x faster through hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) than those prepared by Stomacher 400. Coliform and Escherichia coli counts made by an HGMF method yielded 84 and 36 paired samples, respectively, positive by both suspending methods. Overall counts of pulsificates and stomachates did not differ significantly for either analysis, though coliform counts by Pulsifier were significantly higher in mushrooms and significantly lower in ground pork (P = 0.05). Regression equations for log10 counts of coliform and E. coli by Pulsifier and Stomacher were: Pulsifier = 0.12 + 0.97 x Stomacher, and Pulsifier = 0.01 + 1.01 x Stomacher, respectively.

  7. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of

  8. The influence of product preparation, familiarity and individual traits on the consumer acceptance of insects as food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Berg, van den Eva; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Insects are highly valued as food in many cultures but have only recently gained interest in the West as a sustainable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of meat production. Despite the growing consumer interest in insect consumption, there is still a great disparity between curious

  9. The influence of product preparation, familiarity and individual traits on the consumer acceptance of insects as food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Berg, van den Eva; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Insects are highly valued as food in many cultures but have only recently gained interest in the West as a sustainable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of meat production. Despite the growing consumer interest in insect consumption, there is still a great disparity between curious t

  10. Using Herbs and Spices/Preparing Sauces and Gravies. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.11. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with herbs and spices and the selection and preparation of sauces and gravies. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas:…

  11. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - In vivo test on the effect of functional food for stem cell protection and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Song Eun [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    We performed this study to determine (1) the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients, (2) the biological stability of irradiated Chinese medical prescriptions, and (3) the effect of several proposed prescriptions and its fractions on jejunal crypt survival (12 Gy), endogenous spleen colony formation(6.5 Gy), and apoptosis(2 Gy) in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the radioprotective effects of effective prescriptions, we tried the test on change of survival and hematological changes and finally we prepared the provisional product. 57 refs., 5 figs., 38 tabs. (Author)

  12. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services Desenvolvimento de um método de controle de sal e sódio em unidades de alimentação e nutrição

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz; Marcela Boro Veiros; Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença; Anete Araújo de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The ...

  13. What's the Matter with Food?: A Hands-On Action Research Study on the Effect of Using Food Preparation To Teach Students with Autism about the Three States of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Nicole

    This investigation studied the effectiveness of using food preparation to teach students with Autism about the three states of matter. A hands-on learning approach was used within the home and careers classroom. One class of five students, three boys and two girls, all diagnosed with Autism, participated in a five day academic unit about the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The class received hands-on learning science instruction using food through various differentiated activities. Results indicate that students express focus when using food to learn. In addition, this study acknowledges that hands-on learning in science enhances the learning process of students with Autism. One of the main reasons is that students enjoy learning when this teaching style is used in the classroom, and students that enjoy what they are learning are more likely to be engaged and motivated to learn. After using this approach, all the students in the study increased their scores from the pre-assessments to the post-assessments. Students expressed through actions and words that they enjoyed using hands-on experiences to learn in the classroom. Implications for practice indicate that a variety of manipulatives are needed to teach students with Autism. Future research would help uncover additional information about student motivation and learning in the home and careers classroom.

  14. Multiclass pesticide analysis in fruit-based baby food: A comparative study of sample preparation techniques previous to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Mateus H; Fernandes, José O; Godoy, Helena T; Cunha, Sara C

    2016-12-01

    With the aim to develop a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze 24 pesticide residues in baby foods at the level imposed by established regulation two simple, rapid and environmental-friendly sample preparation techniques based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, robust and safe) were compared - QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and QuEChERS with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Both sample preparation techniques achieved suitable performance criteria, including selectivity, linearity, acceptable recovery (70-120%) and precision (⩽20%). A higher enrichment factor was observed for DLLME and consequently better limits of detection and quantification were obtained. Nevertheless, d-SPE provided a more effective removal of matrix co-extractives from extracts than DLLME, which contributed to lower matrix effects. Twenty-two commercial fruit-based baby food samples were analyzed by the developed method, being procymidone detected in one sample at a level above the legal limit established by EU.

  15. Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Yin; Chi, Ming-Hung; Shen, Chin-Min; Chen, Hwan-Wen; Yang, Wen-Jen; Lee, Mei-Hwa

    2014-07-01

    The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15μM of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15μM. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

  16. 鱼籽调理食品的脱腥和加工工艺%Technology of Deodorization and Processing of Fish Roe Prepared Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何贵山; 方旭波; 陈小娥; 余辉; 虞田

    2011-01-01

    研究了鱼籽脱腥工艺和鱼籽调理食品的加工工艺。实验结果表明,选用臭氧水起始浓度1.8mg/L,pH值8.0,在水温0℃下处理18min,可以达到较好的脱腥效果,最终制成的鱼籽制品是一种腥味低、体表完整紧实、嚢衣少、风味独特、高营养价值的优质调理食品。%Technology of deodorization of fish roe and processing of fish roe prepared food were studied.The result of experiment showed the optimal techniques obtained were initial concentration of ozone water 1.8 mg/L,pH value 8.0,temperature 0 ℃ and enzymatic hydrolysis time 18 min.The final products made of fish roe were high-quality prepared foods with low deodorization,full and tight surface,less membranes,unique flavor and high nutritional value.

  17. Food preservative potential of gassericin A-containing concentrate prepared from a cheese whey culture supernatant from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kawai, Yasushi; Yasuta, Narimi; Chujo, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masamichi; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Tanioka, Masashi; Nishimura, Junko; Kitazawa, Haruki; Tsurumi, Koichi; Saito, Tadao

    2013-02-01

    Gassericin A (GA) is a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39. In this study, GA-containing concentrate was prepared using a cross-flow membrane filtration device (30 kDa cut-off) from the culture supernatant of Lb. gasseri LA39 cultivated in a cheese whey-based food-grade medium. The bacteriocin activity titer in the concentrate was 16 times as high as that of the culture supernatant and was completely maintained through each incubation at 4°C for 3 months, 37°C for 2 months, 60°C for 5 h, and 100°C for 30 min. The GA-containing concentrate was used with glycine powder to make custard creams, and then four representative strains of custard cream spoilage bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Achromobacter denitrificans and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were individually inoculated at c. 10(3) colony forming units/g in the custard creams. Throughout 30 days of incubation at 30°C, all of the inoculated bacteria were completely inhibited by the combination of 5% (w/w) of the GA-containing concentrate and 0.5% (w/w) glycine. This is the first highly practical application of GA to foods as a biopreservative, and the concentration method and the bacteriocin concentrate would contribute to biopreservation of several foods.

  18. Glycemic Responses, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load Values of Some Street Foods Prepared from Plantain (Musa spp., AAB Genome in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Adam Kouamé

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods’ GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage, 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage, 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage; 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage. GI values were inversely correlated with the total sugar and carbohydrate in foods (p < 0.01, and no relationship existed between the GI values and the amount of protein (p = 0.89. Except for Chips (GL = 12, the GLs of the others foods were high (GL > 20. Contrary to Banane braisée, the consumption of Klaclo, Aloco, and Chips may promote the control of postprandial glucose response. Data provides the first GI published values of plantain-based foods commonly consumed in the urban area of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire.

  19. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers.

  20. Intra-family role expectations and reluctance to change identified as key barriers to expanding vegetable consumption patterns during interactive family-based program for Appalachian low-income food preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J Lynne; Wenrich, Tionni R

    2012-08-01

    Few Americans eat sufficient vegetables, especially the protective deep orange and dark green vegetables. To address this, a community-based wellness program to broaden vegetables served at evening meals targeting Appalachian food preparers and their families was tested in a randomized, controlled intervention. Food preparers (n=50) were predominately married (88%), white (98%), and female (94%), with several children living at home. Experimental food preparers (n=25) attended the program sessions and controls (n=25) were mailed relevant handouts and recipes. At program sessions, participants received nutrition information, hands-on cooking instruction, and prepared recipes to take home for family evaluation. As qualitative assessment, 10 couples from each treatment group (n=20 couples) were randomly selected for baseline and immediate post-intervention interviews to explore impact on the food preparer's family. These in-depth interviews with the food preparer and their adult partner were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers conducted thematic analysis using constant comparison. Family flexibility about food choices was assessed using roles, rules, and power concepts from Family Systems Theory. Interviews at baseline revealed dinner vegetable variety was very limited because food preparers served only what everyone liked (a role expectation) and deferred to male partner and children's narrow vegetable preferences (power). Control couples reported no change in vegetable dinner variety post-intervention. Most experimental couples reported in-home tasting and evaluation was worthwhile and somewhat broadened vegetables served at dinners. But the role expectation of serving only what everyone liked and the practice of honoring powerful family members' vegetable preferences remained major barriers to change.

  1. Preparation of NiO-graphene oxide nanosensor for adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of dinoterbon in food samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasaram Roja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO modified NiO electrochemical nanosensor was developed for the determination of the dinoterbon in food samples using adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The modified nanosensor characterized by TEM, XRD, cyclic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Dinoterbon pesticide exhibited a single well-defined cathodic peak at pH 4.0 at Britton–Robinson buffer (-810.0 mV. The voltammetric characterization of the pesti­cide residues is evaluated and the parameter such as the effect of pH, scan rate, pulse amplitude, deposition potential and deposition time were optimized. The current–concen­tration plot obtained using this peak was straight-lined over the range from 0.05 to 50.00 µg mL-1 with limit of detection (LOD 0.028 µg mL-1. The proposed method was efficiently applied to the determination of dinoterbon in food samples. The mean recoveries of the pesticide 97.40 to 99.88 % with a relative standard deviation of 0.114 % in food samples respectively.

  2. Preparation of immunomagnetic iron-dextran nanoparticles and application in rapid isolation of E.coli O157:H7 from foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Li Duan; Zhi-Qiang Shen; Xin-Wei Wang; Fu-Huan Chao; Jun-Wen Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To prepare a kind of magnetic iron-dextran nanopartidesthat was coated with anti-E.coli O157:H7 IgG, analyze its application conditions, and try to use it to isolate E.coli O157:H7 from foods.METHODS: Magnetic iron-dextran nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of a mixture of ferric and ferrous ions with dextran polymers under alkaline conditions. The particles were coated with antiserum against E. coli O157:H7 by the periodate oxidation-borohydride reduction procedure. The oxidation time, amount of antibody coating the particles, amount of nanoparticles, incubation time and isolation time were varied to determine their effects on recovery of the organisms. Finally, the optimumconditions for isolating E. coli O157:H7 from food samples were established.RESULTS: E.coli O157:H7 can be isolated from samples within 15 min with the sensitivity of 101 CFU/mL or even less. In the presence of 108 CFU/mL of other organisms,the sensitivity is 101-102 CFU/mL. Nonspecific binding of other bacteria to the particles was not observed. Two and a half hours of enrichment is enough for the particles to detect the target from the food samples inoculated with 1 CFU/g.CONCLUSION: Isolation of target bacteria by immunomagnetic nanoparticles is an efficient method with high sensitivity and specificity. The technique is so simple that it can be operated in lab and field even by untrained personnel.

  3. Nurturing young writers: sustaining quality, not quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M

    2009-11-01

    The exponential growth in scientific journals and advent of the electronic era have led to such information overload that the sustainability of credible and quality publications is more urgent than ever. Editors and academics who commit themselves to nurturing young writers need to reaffirm their focus on quality rather than quantity of papers. Bearing in mind that publications should firstly be founded on good science, there are several approaches in helping the uninitiated develop and hone writing skills. Academic journals faithfully publish instructions to guide potential authors on the preparation and submission of manuscripts. For those with a gift for writing, this may suffice to start them soaring in their writing career. Others find the hands-on approach of writing workshops more effective in clarifying the rules of the writing game and dispelling the fear of writing. Workshops are good at demonstrating the basics, but the forging of a good writer is a long process in which a mentor can play an invaluable role. A nurturing mentor-mentee relationship should not be a stifling one, but one that leads, grows and finally liberates an independent writer. It is inevitable that the nature of scientific publications will change over time. Nonetheless, the sustainability of quality journals will remain linked to the continual generation of writers who uphold scientific truth and good writing values.

  4. Biological evaluation of a nutritional supplement prepared with QPM Maize cultivar BR 473 and other traditional food items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Heberth de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality Protein Maize (QPM cultivar BR 473 was employed, together with soybean flour, brown sugar, banana meal and oat meal, for the preparation of a nutritional supplement.. 21-day old male Fisher rats were fed diets containing the supplement as a protein source, both with and without soybean flour; casein diets with 10 or 7% protein served as respective controls. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Net Protein Retention (NPR and Digestibility were determined. Blood biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, urea, hemoglobin, albumin and total protein were also measured in the animals and showed that all were in good health condition at the end of the experiment. The obtained results for PER, NPU and NPR indicated that the supplement prepared with QPM maize cultivar BR 473 was a good protein source, especially when soybean flour was added.

  5. Preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters as food emulsifiers and evaluation of their surface active and emulsification properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the preparation of sucrose esters, from fatty acids and the least expensive sucrose, has been conducted. Fatty acids namely lauric, palmitic and oleic were used in their preparation in the absence of any organic solvent. Reasonable yields amounting to 86.5%, 87.3% and 88.6% for sucrose esters of laurate, palmitate and oleate were obtained, respectively. The products were evaluated for their hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB, surface and interfacial tension properties as well as emulsion stability. The results showed that these sucrose esters exhibit similar properties as those of the commercially prepared compounds.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un método simple para la preparación de ésteres de sacarosa a partir de ácidos grasos y sacarosa de bajo coste. Se han usado ácidos laurico, palmítico y oleico en su preparación, en ausencia de solventes orgánicos. Se obtuvieron rendimientos aceptables del 86.5%, 87.3% y 88.6% para los ásteres del láurico, palmítico y oleico respectivamente. En los productos se evaluaron sus balances hidrófilo-lipófilo (HLB, sus propiedades de tensión superficial e interfacial así como su estabilidad en emulsiones. Los resultados mostraron que estos esteres de sacarosa exhiben propiedades similares a las de los compuestos preparados comercialmente.

  6. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  7. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eRange

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1 to 4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with a Frank's (1980 hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist.

  8. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility.Design/methodology/approach: Being difference from the traditional research that takes economic value as object, this paper takes carbon footprint as object directly, order quantity as decision variable. By referring to the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper creates logistics carbon footprint model which takes transport and inventory into account. Then it solves the model by calculating the values of order quantity, carbon footprint and revenue using the method of optimization.Findings and Originality/value: By solving and comparing the two models of economic order quantity model and carbon footprint model, it gets some results, such as carbon optimization order quantity, the effects order quantity deviating from economic order quantity or carbon order quantity having on economic or carbon footprint values, which can give some meaningful insight for corporation to search out reduction opportunities by operations adjustment.Originality/value: The study takes carbon footprint as object directly and creates the corresponding quantity model. By comparing with the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper provides quantity methods and obtains some meaningful insights for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility to reduce emissions by operations adjustment.

  9. Conserved quantities in isotropic loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Cartin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We develop an action principle for those models arising from isotropic loop quantum cosmology, and show that there is a natural conserved quantity $Q$ for the discrete difference equation arising from the Hamiltonian constraint. This quantity $Q$ relates the semi-classical limit of the wavefunction at large values of the spatial volume, but opposite triad orientations. Moreover, there is a similar quantity for generic difference equations of one parameter arising from a self-adjoint operator.

  10. Inherently analog quantity representations in olive baboons (Papio anubis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Barnard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1 a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2 an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment -naive olive baboons (Papio anubis to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4, large (>4, or span (small vs. large numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates.

  11. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores. Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F. A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p  Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  12. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Worthington, Helen V; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-06-21

    To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  13. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation. PMID:22720834

  14. 全自动固相萃取-气相色谱质谱法检测动物性食品中五氯酚钠残留量%Full-automatic Solid-phase Extractions and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry in Detecting the Sodium Pentachlorophenate Residual Quantity in Animal Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄季维; 梅玉琴; 刘天洁; 漆航

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立全自动固相萃取—气质法检测食品中五氯酚钠的方法。方法取20份猪肉、鸡肉样品,经乙酸乙酯—正己烷(50+50)混合液提取,氮气吹干后加2 mL乙腈溶解;通过全自动固相萃取仪以1 mL/min过SLC固相萃取柱萃取,用4 mL乙腈洗脱SLC固相萃取柱上吸附的待测物,氮气吹干,用乙酸酐—吡啶(50+50)衍生后,取有机相供气相色谱质谱测定。结果样品在0~200μg/L范围线性关系良好,相关系数r=0.999,最低检出浓度0.3μg/kg(5 g样品);10μg/L 加标样品五氯酚钠的回收率为108%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为5.3%;100μg/L加标样品五氯酚钠的回收率为102%,RSD为3.5%;200μg/L加标样品五氯酚钠的回收率为105%,RSD为4.8%。结论该方法简便准确,适用于动物性食品中五氯酚钠的检测。%Objective To establish a method of full-automatic solid-phase extractions and gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry in detecting the sodium pentachlorophenate residual quantity in animal food. Methods 20 pieces of pork and chicken samples were selected and extracted by the ethylacetate and normal hexane (50+50) miscible liquid, and dissolved by 2mL acetonitrile after dry under nitrogen, the full-automatic SPE apparatus was adopted for extraction through SLC solid phase extraction column at a 1mL/min rate, the adsorptive determinands on the SLC solid phase extraction column was cleared by 4mL methyl cyanide, and measured by organic phase gas chromatography mass spectrometry after dry under ni-trogen and derived from acetic anhydride- pyridine (50+50). Results The linear relationship of samples was good between 0 and 200 μg/L, and the correlation coefficient r=0.999, and the lowest detecting concentration was 0.3 μg/kg (5g samples), the recovery rate of 10μg/L spiked sample sodium pentachlorophenate was 108%, RSD was 5.3%, and the recovery rate of 10 μg/L spiked sample sodium pentachlorophenate was 102%, RSD was 3.5%, and the the recovery

  15. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Quyen, Than Linh; Hung, Tran Quang; Chin, Wai Hoe; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong

    2015-04-21

    Foodborne disease is a major public health threat worldwide. Salmonellosis, an infectious disease caused by Salmonella spp., is one of the most common foodborne diseases. Isolation and identification of Salmonella by conventional bacterial culture or molecular-based methods are time consuming and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or on site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic bead-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system was capable to detect Salmonella at concentration of 50 cells per test within 40 min. The simple design, together with high level of integration, isothermal amplification, and quantitative analysis of multiple samples in short time, will greatly enhance the practical applicability of the LOC system for rapid on-site screening of Salmonella for applications in food safety control, environmental surveillance, and clinical diagnostics.

  16. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...

  17. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

  18. Keeping Secrets : Quantity, Quality and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, T.

    2005-01-01

    Keeping Secrets deals with the consequences of an elusive yet everyday phenomenon. It addresses both the quantity and quality of secret-keeping. With respect to quantity, it presents research on the intra- and interpersonal consequences of keeping secrets from parents in adolescence. With respect t

  19. Lead (II) detection and contamination routes in environmental sources, cookware and home-prepared foods from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, M; Merino-Sánchez, C; Hall, C; Grieshop, J; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M E; Handley, M A

    2009-04-01

    An interdisciplinary investigation, involving environmental geochemists, epidemiologists, nurses, and anthropologists, was undertaken to determine the contamination source and pathway of an on-going outbreak of lead poisoning among migrants originating from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico and living in Seaside, California, and among their US-born children. An initial investigation in Seaside identified grasshopper foodstuff ("chapulines") imported from Mexico and consumed as snacks, as containing alarmingly high lead concentrations (up to 2300 mg/kg). The focus in the present work concentrates on the Oaxacan area of origin of the problem in Mexico, and two potential sources of contamination were investigated: wind-borne dusts from existing mine residues as potential contaminants of soil, plant, and fauna; and food preparation practices using lead-glazed ceramic cookware. Over a three year period, sampling was conducted in Oaxaca using community-level sampling and also targeted sampling with families of cases with lead poisoning in California. In addition to fresh field chapulines, we analyzed for total lead: soil, water, mine residues, and plant materials, both from areas adjacent to or at an abandoned waste site containing mine tailings, and from fields where chapulines are collected; foodstuffs gathered in community markets or in a food transport business; and foodstuffs and cookware gathered from relatives of case families in California. Also, selected new and used lead-glazed clay cookware was extracted for lead, using 0.02 M citric acid and with 4% acetic acid. The results indicated significant presence of lead in mine wastes, in specific foodstuffs, and in glazed cookware, but no extensive soil contamination was identified. In-situ experiments demonstrated that lead incorporation in food is made very efficient through grinding of spices in glazed cookware, with the combination of a harsh mechanical action and the frequent presence of acidic lime juice, but without

  20. Development of a potential functional food prepared with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), oats and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Yasmina; Márquez, Enrique; Parra, Katynna; Piñero, M Patricia; Medina, Luis M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in creams, prepared with pigeon peas and oat. Products were analysed to determine their content of protein, fibre, fat, carbohydrates and degree of likeness. Viable numbers of L. reuteri and pH were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 4°C. Results showed significant differences (P 0.05) were found on sensory quality between control and creams with L. reuteri. After 28 days, the cell viability was above 7 log cfu/g in all creams. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 had the highest viability in cream with 40% pigeon pea and 20% oat (8.16 log cfu/g). In conclusion, due to its acceptability and highly nutritious value, the product could be used so as to support the growth of L. reuteri.

  1. Microbial growth in dry grain food (Sunsik) beverages prepared with water, milk, soymilk, or honey-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sun-Young

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria such as Cronobacter sakazakii and Bacillus cereus, in Sunsik beverages made of water, milk, soymilk, or honey-water during storage at room temperature. Prepared Sunsik beverages were stored at room temperature and the growth of total aerobic counts, Escherichia coli/coliforms, and yeast and mold were measured. Also, samples inoculated with a cocktail of C. sakazakii or B. cereus spores were stored at room temperature and their growths were determined during storage. Populations of total aerobic counts and coliforms significantly increased with increasing storage time at room temperature, which resulted in higher than 8 log and 7 log after 24 h in all samples except for the honey-water sample, respectively. Levels of total aerobic counts and coliforms were significantly lower in the honey-water sample than in the other samples after 6 and 9 h of storage, respectively. Initial populations of C. sakazakii and B. cereus ranged from 0 to 1 log CFU/mL, respectively, and these populations significantly increased with increasing storage time at room temperature. Therefore, populations of C. sakazakii and B. cereus were approximately 7 to 8 log CFU/mL after 24 h of storage. However, after 12 and 9 h of storage, there were significant differences in levels of C. sakazakii and B. cereus between the honey-water sample and the other samples, respectively. Based on these results, the addition of honey can inhibit microbial growth in Sunsik beverages; however, the best way to avoid pathogen infection would be to consume Sunsik beverages as soon as possible after preparation.

  2. Consumer-resource dynamics: quantity, quality, and allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne M Getz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senescence more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the

  3. Preparation of Modified Magnetic Nanocomposites Dithiooxamide/Fe3O4 for Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Amounts of Cobalt Ions in Food and Natural Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first study on the high efficiency of nanometer-sized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and dithiooxamide as a new sorbent solid phase extraction has been reported. Modified magnetic nanicomposites was used to preconcentrate and separate Co (II ions in food and environmental water samples. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by chemical precipitation of Fe (II and Fe (III salts from aqueous solution by ammonia solution. These magnetic nanoparticles and nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA and elemental analysis CHNS. A micro sample introduction system was employed for the nebulization micro-volume of diluted solution into flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction conditions were optimized by selecting the appropriate extraction parameters including the amount of nanosorbent, pH value, volume of dithiooxamide and condition of eluting solution. The detection limit of this method for Co (II ions was 1.21 ng ml-1 and the R.S.D. was 0.9% (n=6. The advantages of this new method include rapidity, easy preparation of nanosorbents and a high preconcentration factor. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Co (II ions at trace levels in real samples such as, kiwi, orange, cucumber, apple, green pepper, honey, potato, tap water, river water and sea water with satisfactory results.

  4. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water.

  5. Food Insecurity: Limitations of Emergency Food Resources for Our Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Crist, Michael; Moran, Alyssa; Rastogi, Natasha; Leng, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rates of food insecurity are high among medically underserved patients. We analyzed food pantry responsiveness to the needs of medically ill cancer patients in New York City with the intent ofidentifying barriers to available food resources. Our data, collected from 60 pantries, suggest that the emergency food system is currently unable to accommodate patient needs. Accessibility issues include restricted service hours and documentation requirements. Food services were limited in quantity of ...

  6. Food insecurity: limitations of emergency food resources for our patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Crist, Michael; Moran, Alyssa; Rastogi, Natasha; Leng, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Rates of food insecurity are high among medically underserved patients. We analyzed food pantry responsiveness to the needs of medically ill cancer patients in New York City with the intent ofidentifying barriers to available food resources. Our data, collected from 60 pantries, suggest that the emergency food system is currently unable to accommodate patient needs. Accessibility issues include restricted service hours and documentation requirements. Food services were limited in quantity of food provided and the number of nutritious, palatable options. Additional emergency food resources and long-term approaches that provide ongoing food support to patients throughout their treatment period are needed.

  7. Thermal quantities of {sup 46}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatinejad, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, R., E-mail: rrazavin@ihu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Thermodynamic quantities of {sup 46}Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework.

  8. Rationale for using integrated enzymatic preparation for receiving food fibers from secondary resources of vegetable material processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimov A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to establish some rational modes of receipt of the food fibers (FF from secondary resources of vegetable raw materials. Studying chemical properties of research objects has been carried out by standard methods in accordance with the GOST 26183–84, GOST 7636–85, GOST 25555.3–82, GOST 28561–90. Determination of reducing and not reducing sugars content has been performed by the cyanide method; determination of pectinaceous substances' content – by the calcium-pectate method. As an enzyme medicine the earlier not studied complex enzyme medicine of proteolytic and amilolytic action of Bacillus subtilis and Penicillium emersonii cultures has been tested. Studying heat stability of complex enzyme medicine has been carried out at varying of the hydrolysis temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C. The fractional composition of carbohydrates of secondary resources of aubergines, vegetable marrows and onions conversion has been researched. Content of FF (cellulose, gemitsellyuloza, pectin in waste from conversion of vegetable marrows constitutes 42 % of general content of carbohydrates, aubergines – 39,2 %, and onion – 30,4 %. Chemical and carbohydrate structures of secondary resources of vegetable raw materials allow consider them as FF source, and also shows feasibility of their conversion without fractionation by the form of secondary resources. The rational modes of hydrolysis of vegetable raw materials secondary resources' mix for removing the accompanying organic compounds have been determined. The maximum proteolytic activity of enzyme medicine takes place at the temperature of 50 °C, amilolytic activity – at 70 °C. In case of рН increase from 2.0 to 6.0 proteolytic and amilolytic activity reaches the maximum and constitutes 94 % and 95 % respectively, in case of further increase рН the activity decreases. The rational value of рН of reactionary environment when carrying out enzymatic hydrolysis in the

  9. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-01

    . .... South African Council for Quantity Surveyors (SACQS) to implement a policy of ... In addition to withdrawing the administration/management of the policy .... practice; assisting human resource personnel to set objectives for.

  10. Uncertainty propagation with functionally correlated quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Mosè

    2016-01-01

    Many uncertainty propagation software exist, written in different programming languages, but not all of them are able to handle functional correlation between quantities. In this paper we review one strategy to deal with uncertainty propagation of quantities that are functionally correlated, and introduce a new software offering this feature: the Julia package Measurements.jl. It supports real and complex numbers with uncertainty, arbitrary-precision calculations, mathematical and linear algebra operations with matrices and arrays.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher-Implemented Video Prompting on an iPod Touch to Teach Food-Preparation Skills to High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse W.; Blood, Erika; Freeman, Amy; Simmons, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A multiple-probe-across-behaviors design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of video prompts delivered on an iPod Touch to teach food-preparation skills to two high school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability. The special education teacher implemented the procedure in the high school classroom. Student data…

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher-Implemented Video Prompting on an iPod Touch to Teach Food-Preparation Skills to High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse W.; Blood, Erika; Freeman, Amy; Simmons, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A multiple-probe-across-behaviors design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of video prompts delivered on an iPod Touch to teach food-preparation skills to two high school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability. The special education teacher implemented the procedure in the high school classroom. Student data…

  13. Assessment of Female Student’s Satisfaction with the Quality of Food And Environmental Health at Food Services in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ensure students are satisfied with the quantity and quality of food as well as hygienic condition in the university’s food services. For this reason, the present study was conducted to investigate female student’s satisfaction with the quality of food and environmental health at food services in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A number of one hundred of female students, studying at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were randomly selected. All the selected students were proved to be customers of food services located in one the Medicine, Public Health, Pharmacy, paramedical Sciences, Dentistry, Rehabilitation and Nursing schools. A questioner was prepared as a tool for data collection and its validity and reliability was determined. Afterwards, data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 23. Results showed that 22% of female students expressed their satisfaction with the quantity of food as “excellent” and 47% as “moderate”. 28% of students rated the food diversity as “moderate” ok”. Seven percent of students reported at least on a case of food poisoning caused by the consumption of food at the university. On average, the overwhelming majority of students expressed their satisfaction as “good” or “medium” with environmental health in at food services in the university, respectively. All the students were aware of the importance of the presence of insects and animals outside the food services and 95%of students reported the presence of insects like beetle, housefly and mosquito and animals like cats, outside the food services. It was concluded that the majority of female students were satisfied with the quantity of food and ranked the quality of food as “medium”. However, they reported some problems regarding hygienic condition inside and outside the dining services and personal health of staff and stated that more attention should be paid by responsible authorities of the university. The

  14. Study on Ready-to-use Prepared Food of Flammulina velutipes%金针菇即食调理食品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊韬; 孙月娥

    2011-01-01

    Taking fresh flammulina velutipes as raw material, the article studied the control method of the browning of flammulina velutipes, then provided one ready-to-use prepared food processing craft which could maintain the color, smell, taste and shape of flammulina velutipes. The experiment results showed the suitable hardened conditions were: soaking the material with 0.5% calcium chloride and 1.0% sodium chloride mixed solution for 30 min.; the optimal inactivation conditions were: blanching with 0.3% citric acid and 0.07% ascorbic acid mixed solution for 3 min. The optimized formula of the product was dehydrated flammulina velutipes 100 g, monosodium glutamate 1.5 g, pepper oil 30 g, chili oil 30 g, sugar 2 g. Mixing the flammulina velutipes and spice according to above proportion and one ready-to-use prepared food with crisp and delicious, spicy flavor can be obtained.%以新鲜金针菇为原料,首先确定了抑制金针菇酶促褐变的条件,然后提供了一种能够保持金针菇特有色、香、味、形的即食调理食品的生产工艺。适宜的硬化条件为:在0.5%氯化钙和1.0%氯化钠的混合溶液中浸泡30min。最佳杀青条件为:在0.3%的柠檬酸和O.07%的抗坏血酸混合溶液中漂烫3min。产品最佳配方:脱水金针菇100g、味精1.5g、花椒油30g、辣椒油30g、食糖2g,按此比例进行调配,可以得到脆嫩可口、鲜香麻辣风味十足的即食金针菇调理食品。

  15. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...... a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony...

  16. Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... del medio ambiente Even the most casual food shoppers have probably noticed the increased quantity and variety ... and other label information from reputable consumer groups online. Is Organic Food Healthier? The USDA does not ...

  17. Dry season biomass estimation as an indicator of rangeland quantity using multi-scale remote sensing data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For grazing, biomass is the main indicator of rangeland quantity, which is crucial to determine the amount of food available for animals (grazers), including livestock. Livestock production in the rural communities of the world, including Africa...

  18. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Tong, Ou-Yang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-15

    A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg(-1) in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L(-1) DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25°C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH4(+)-N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively.

  19. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  20. A generalized definition of dosimetric quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Rossi, H H

    1990-04-01

    The current definitions of microdosimetric and dosimetric quantities use the notion of 'ionizing radiation'. However, this notion is not rigorously defined, and its definition would require the somewhat arbitrary choice of specified energy cut-off values for different types of particles. Instead of choosing fixed cut-off values one can extend the system of definitions by admitting the free selection of a category of types and energies of particles that are taken to be part of the field. In this way one extends the system of dosimetric quantities. Kerma and absorbed dose appear then as special cases of a more general dosimetric quantity, and an analogue to kerma can be obtained for charged particle fields; it is termed cema. A modification that is suitable for electron fields is termed reduced cema.

  1. Electromagnetic Quantities in Black Hole Magnetosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定雄; 马任意; 雷卫华; 姚国政

    2004-01-01

    Some electromagnetic quantities in the black hole (BH) magnetosphere are discussed by considering the coexistence of the Blandford-Znajek process and the magnetic coupling process. These quantities are (i) flux of electromagnetic energy and angular momentum transferred between the BH and the disc, (ii) poloidal currents flowing on the horizon and disc, (iii) poloidal electric field on the horizon, (iv) toroidal magnetic field in the BH magnetosphere,and (v) voltage drop across the magnetic coupling region on the horizon. It turns out that these quantities are determined mainly by three parameters: (i) the positions relative to the corotation magnetic surface, (ii) the BH spin, and (iii) the power-law index for the variation of the magnetic field on the disc.

  2. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  3. Exact cosmological solutions from Hojman conservation quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozzie@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Roshan, Mahmood, E-mail: rowshan@alumni.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 1436, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-07

    We present a new approach to find exact solutions for cosmological models. By requiring the existence of a symmetry transformation vector for the equations of motion of the given cosmological model (without using either Lagrangian or Hamiltonian), one can find corresponding Hojman conserved quantities. With the help of these conserved quantities, the analysis of the cosmological model can be simplified. In the case of quintessence scalar–tensor models, we show that the Hojman conserved quantities exist for a wide range of V(ϕ)-potentials and allow to find exact solutions for the cosmic scale factor and the scalar field. Finally, we investigate the general cosmological behavior of solutions by adopting a phase-space view.

  4. Exact cosmological solutions from Hojman conservation quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to find exact solutions for cosmological models. By requiring the existence of a symmetry transformation vector for the equations of motion of the given cosmological model (without using either Lagrangian or Hamiltonian), one can find corresponding Hojman conserved quantities. With the help of these conserved quantities, the analysis of the cosmological model can be simplified. In the case of quintessence scalar-tensor models, we show that the Hojman conserved quantities exist for a wide range of V(\\phi)-potentials and allow to find exact solutions for the cosmic scale factor and the scalar field. Finally, we investigate the general cosmological behavior of solutions by adopting a phase-space view.

  5. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  6. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500.19 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING...

  7. Participating in a Food-Assisted Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Program in Rural Guatemala Alters Household Dietary Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Melissa L; Frongillo, Edward A; Leroy, Jef L; Blake, Christine E

    2016-08-01

    Food assistance programs may alter food choices, but factors determining households' decisions regarding food acquisition, preparation, and consumption in the context of food aid are not well understood. This study aimed to understand how the Programa Comunitario Materno Infantil de Diversificación Alimentaria (Mother-Child Community Food Diversification Program; PROCOMIDA), a food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition program in rural Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, altered household food choices. We conducted semistructured interviews and focus groups with 63 households in 3 participating (n = 32 households) and 3 control (n = 31) villages. A last-day food recall (without estimating quantities) and food-frequency questionnaire that used food cards assessed dietary choices. Qualitative analysis used thematic a priori and emergent coding; food group consumption frequencies were analyzed by using 2-level, logistic, mixed modeling, and chi-square testing while accounting for community clustering. Compared with control households, PROCOMIDA changed household food choices through a combination of providing food resources (with monthly food rations) and new knowledge and skills related to health and food (in the program's behavior change communication component) while reinforcing existing knowledge and beliefs. PROCOMIDA families consumed rice, red beans, and oil more frequently than did control families (differences of 2.20 (P foods were in the rations. PROCOMIDA families also ate chicken, local plants, and some vegetables more frequently. The importance of these foods was emphasized in the behavioral change communication component; these foods may have been more accessible because provision of food rations freed resources. Our findings suggest that if a program provides food free of cost to rural indigenous families in the context of a maternal and child nutrition and health program, it may be important to include a well-designed behavioral change communication

  8. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  9. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  10. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  11. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CALL, Prewriting Strategies, and EFL Writing Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Sajad; Koosha, Mansour; Afghar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore the effect of teaching prewriting strategies through different methods of input delivery (i.e. conventional, web-based, and hybrid) on EFL learners' writing quantity. In its quasi-experimental study, the researchers recruited 98 available sophomores, and assigned them to three experimental groups (conventional,…

  13. Practice Makes Perfect: Contracting Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how contract grading promotes quality writing as well as a larger quantity of writing. Considers how teachers can use contract grading to support and promote the behaviors, thinking skills, and writing skills they believe will help students create quality writing. Notes that contract grading leads students to write more, to have fewer…

  14. Measurements of non-physical quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Igor F.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the paper is to suggest an approach to development of a theory of measurements for non-physical quantities. For these measurements it is not possible to ensure traceability because of their exclusive nature as substantiated by the author. This theory is presented as particularly important one for social and human sciences.

  15. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketable quantity. 929.14 Section 929.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... market demand and to provide for an adequate carryover. ...

  16. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  17. Relevance of conserved quantities for data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dubinkina (Svetlana)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we study relevance of quantities conserved by a numerical scheme for data assimilation. We consider three Arakawa discretizations of the quasigeostrophic model that either preserve energy, or enstrophy, or both and an Ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation method.

  18. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of permanent supports. (3) If machine mounted dust collectors or diffuser fans are used, the approved... currents cannot be controlled and air measurements cannot be obtained, the air shall have perceptible... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance...

  19. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  20. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  1. Conversion of Suspected Food Carcinogen 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Sulfotransferases and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases in Postmitochondrial Tissue Preparations of Humans, Mice, and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Benjamin; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Monien, Bernhard H

    2016-01-01

    The food contaminant 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed by heat- and acid-catalyzed reactions from carbohydrates. More than 80% of HMF is metabolized by oxidation of the aldehyde group in mice and rats. Sulfo conjugation yields mutagenic 5-sulfoxymethylfurfural, the probable cause for the neoplastic effects observed in HMF-treated rodents. Considerable metabolic differences between species hinder assessing the tumorigenic risk associated with human dietary HMF uptake. Here, we assayed HMF turnover catalyzed by sulfotransferases or by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) in postmitochondrial preparations from liver, kidney, colon, and lung of humans, mice, and rats. The tissues-specific clearance capacities of HMF sulfo conjugation (CL(SC)) and ALDH-catalyzed oxidation (CL(OX)) were concentrated to the liver. The hepatic clearance CL(SC) in mice (males: 487 µl/min/kg bw, females: 2520 µl/min/kg bw) and rats (males: 430 µl/min/kg bw, females: 198 µl/min/kg bw) were considerably higher than those in humans (males: 21.2 µl/min/kg bw, females: 32.2 µl/min/kg bw). The ALDH-related clearance rates CLOX in mice (males: 3400 ml/min/kg bw, females: 1410 ml/min/kg bw) were higher than those of humans (males: 436 ml/min/kg bw, females: 646 ml/min/kg bw) and rats (males: 627 ml/min/kg bw, females: 679 ml/min/kg bw). The ratio of CL(OX) to CL(SC) was lowest in female mice. This finding indicated that HMF sulfo conjugation was most substantial in the liver of female mice, a target tissue for HMF-induced neoplastic effects, and that humans may be less sensitive regarding HMF sulfo conjugation compared with the rodent models.

  2. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Po-Neng [Experimental Forest, National Taiwan University, Chushan, Nantou County, 55750, Taiwan (China); Tong, Ou-Yang [Department of Environment Engineering, College of the Environment and Ecology, and The Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ming-Kuang [Department of Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Liu, Cheng-Chung, E-mail: ccliu@niu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in soil are substantially increased after the DOC washing. • The removal of Zn is dominated by proton replacement at pH 2.0, rather than by complexation with DOC. • The removal of Zn is dominated by DOC complexation between pH 3.0 and pH 5.0. - Abstract: A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg{sup −1} in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L{sup −1} DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25 °C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively.

  3. 平菇果蔬复合即食片的研制%Preparation of instant food made from Pleurotus ostreatus, hawthorn and carrot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦菲; 郭晓晓; 李波; 孙俊良

    2014-01-01

    以平菇为主要原料,配以山楂、胡萝卜等辅料,将其加工成酸甜可口、营养丰富、食用方便的片状凝胶食品.工艺流程为:平菇经切片、预煮、打浆后,与山楂浆、胡萝卜浆按一定比例混合,添加适量辅料后,经熬煮、摊片、干燥、揭片、切片、包装等工序即得成品.通过单因素试验,采用感官评定方法,确定了最佳配料组成:平菇浆100 g,山楂浆50 g,胡萝卜浆30 g,蔗糖20 g,淀粉3 g,卡拉胶0.2 g.研究为平菇和山楂的精深加工提供了有效途径.%A kind of instant food was prepared by using Pleurotus ostreatus,howthorn and carrot as the main materials.Fresh P. ostreatus was sliced,precooked,pulped,mixed with the pulps of howthorn and carrot,cooked,spread, dried,sliced and packed to obtain the final product.The optimal ingredients were acquired by single factor experiment:mushroom pulp 100 g,howthorn pulp 50 g,carrot pulp 30 g,sucrose 20 g,starch 3 g and carrageenan 0.2 g. This study provides an effective way for deep processing of P. ostreatus and howthorn.

  4. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  5. The impact of food processing on the nutritional quality of vitamins and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M B; Love, M

    1999-01-01

    Processing (including preparation) makes food healthier, safer, tastier and more shelf-stable. While the benefits are numerous, processing can also be detrimental, affecting the nutritional quality of foods. Blanching, for example, results in leaching losses of vitamins and minerals. Also, milling and extrusion can cause the physical removal of minerals during processing. The nutritional quality of minerals in food depends on their quantity as well as their bioavailability. The bioavailability of key minerals such as iron, zinc and calcium is known to be significantly affected by the fiber, phytic acid, and tannin content of foods. Concentrations of these constituents are altered by various processing methods including milling, fermentation, germination (sprouting), extrusion, and thermal processing. Vitamins, especially ascorbic acid, thiamin and folic acid, are highly sensitive to the same processing methods. The time and temperature of processing, product composition and storage are all factors that substantially impact the vitamin status of our foods.

  6. What counts for dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in a quantity discrimination task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Wynne, Clive D L

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that animals reliably discriminate quantities of more or less food. However, little attention has been given to the relative salience of numerosity compared to the total amount of food when animals are making their choices. Here we investigated this issue in dogs. Dogs were given choices between two quantities of food items in three different conditions. In the Congruent condition, the total amount of food co-varied with the number of food items; in the Incongruent condition the total amount was pitted against the numerosity; and in the Controlled condition the total amount between the sets was equal. Results show that dogs based their choice on the total amount of edible food rather than on the number of food items, suggesting that, in food choice tasks, amount counts more than number. The presence of the largest individual item in a set did not bias dogs' choices. A control test excluded the possibility that dogs based their choices on olfactory cues alone.

  7. Sleep quantity, quality and optimism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Räikkönen, Katri; Scheier, Michael F; Matthews, Karen A; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Komsi, Niina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Kajantie, Eero

    2011-03-01

    We tested the relationship of objectively measured sleep quantity and quality with positive characteristics of the child. Sleep duration, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were measured by an actigraph for an average of seven (range = 3-14) consecutive nights in 291 8-year-old children (standard deviation = 0.3 years). Children's optimism, self-esteem and social competence were rated by parents and/or teachers. Sleep duration showed a non-linear, reverse J-shaped relationship with optimism (P = 0.02), such that children with sleep duration in the middle of the distribution scored higher in optimism compared with children who slept relatively little. Shorter sleep latency was related to higher optimism (P = 0.01). The associations remained when adjusting for child's age, sex, body mass index, and parental level of education and optimism. In conclusion, sufficient sleep quantity and good sleep quality are related to children's positive characteristics. Our findings may inform why sleep quantity and quality and positive characteristics are associated with wellbeing in children. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Food governance transformation : aligning food security with sustainable farming practices in developing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is

  9. Food governance transformation : aligning food security with sustainable farming practices in developing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is que

  10. Older Adults and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as take-out foods, leftovers from a restaurant meal, and meals-on wheels deliveries. Thoroughly cook ... to use 3 to 4 months Deli prepared convenience foods such as egg, chicken, ham, and macaroni ...

  11. 48 CFR 52.211-16 - Variation in Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Quantity. 52....211-16 Variation in Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(a), insert the following clause: Variation in Quantity (APR 1984) (a) A variation in the quantity of any item called for by this contract will not...

  12. Conformal invariance conserved quantity of Hamilton systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jian-Le; Luo Shao-Kai; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies conformal invariance and comserved quantRies of Hamilton system.The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance for Hamilton system are provided.The relationship between the conformal invariance and the Lie symmetry are discussed,and the necessary and sufficient condition that the conformal invariance would be the Lie symmetry of the system under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group is deduced.It gives the conserved quantities of the system and an example for illustration.

  13. On ADM quantities of multiple black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    In [11] a proposal was made to construct initial data for binary black hole configurations. It was done by using the parabolic-hyperbolic form of the constraints and choosing the free data provided by superposed Kerr-Schild black holes. The proposal of [11] do also apply to multiple systems involving generic Kerr-Schild black holes. Notably, the specific choice made for the free data allows---without making detailed use of the to be solutions to the constraints---to determine explicitly, the ADM quantities of the multiple system in terms of the separations velocities and spins of the individual Kerr-Schild black holes.

  14. Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.

  15. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of processed and prepared foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--frozen lasagna, custard, frozen mixed vegetables, frozen hashbrowns, and frozen batter-coated mushrooms--were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  16. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  17. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  18. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  19. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  20. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  1. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... prepared food. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  2. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  3. Fluctuations of Intensive Quantities in Statistical Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur E. Ruuge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In phenomenological thermodynamics, the canonical coordinates of a physical system split in pairs, with each pair consisting of an extensive quantity and an intensive one. In the present paper, the quasithermodynamic fluctuation theory of a model system of a large number of oscillators is extended to statistical thermodynamics based on the idea of perceiving the fluctuations of intensive variables as the fluctuations of specific extensive ones in a “thermodynamically dual” system. The extension is motivated by the symmetry of the problem in the context of an analogy with quantum mechanics, which is stated in terms of a generalized Pauli problem for the thermodynamic fluctuations. The doubled Boltzmann constant divided by the number of particles plays a similar role as the Planck constant.

  4. Evaluation of the MicroSEQ™ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit with the PrepSEQ™ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for Detection of Salmonella spp. in Dry Pet Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Flannery, Jonathan; Bastin, Benjamin; Bird, Patrick; Crowley, Erin Sutphin; Benzinger, M Joseph; Agin, James R; Goins, David; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A method modification validation study was conducted to validate the Applied Biosystems MicroSEQ™ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit for the detection of Salmonella spp. in 375 g samples of dried pet food. The MicroSEQ assay protocol, using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Rapid Spin DNA Sample Preparation Kit, was compared to the reference method detailed in the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM; Chapter 5, Salmonella) for detection of Salmonella spp. For each method, 20 replicates were analyzed at a low contamination level of 0.2-2 CFU/test portion, five replicates were analyzed at a high level of contamination of 2-5 CFU/test portion, and five control replicates were also analyzed at 0 CFU/test portion (uninoculated). Statistical analysis was conducted using the Probability of Detection statistical test to determine the ability of the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit to detect Salmonella from 375 g samples of dried pet food in comparison to the FDA-BAM reference method. The results demonstrated that the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit was able to accurately detect Salmonella spp. present in dry pet food after an enrichment time of 20 h.

  5. 马铃薯氧化淀粉制备及在食品中的应用进展%Preparation and application of oxidized potato starch in food industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高鹏; 吴立根; 屈凌波; 刘亚伟; 刘洁

    2015-01-01

    马铃薯氧化淀粉是马铃薯淀粉与氧化剂在一定温度、时间、pH等作用下产生的一种淀粉衍生物。该文论述了以次氯酸盐、过氧化氢、高锰酸钾、二氧化氯等氧化剂制备马铃薯氧化淀粉的最佳工艺,阐述了马铃薯氧化淀粉在焙烤食品、蒸煮食品、油炸食品、冷冻食品等中的应用,并展望马铃薯氧化淀粉在食品行业中的发展趋势。%Oxidized potato starch is a starch derivativeof potato starch andoxidants in the roleof acertain temperature,time,pH andotherconditions. In this paper,theoxidized starch preparation processoptimization with hypochlorite,hydrogen peroxide,potassium permanganate,chlorine dioxide asoxidation were reviewed,and the applicationsofoxidized potato starch were discussed in bakery products,steamed foods,fried foods,frozen foods and soon. Lastly this paper focusedon looking forward to the development prospects and trendsofoxidized potato starch in the food industry.

  6. The Evaluation Index System Establishment of the Food Security in Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Hui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the evaluation index system establishment of the food security in developing country. The developing country should consider the food production, consumption and storage, food trade and self-support rate, average food amount and the food of the poor, the quantity security of food and the quality security of food, the cost and benefit of food security, the relation between stationary security and dynamic stationary of the food, and establish the food securi...

  7. Does school size affect interest for purchasing local foods in the midwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sylvia; Wleklinski, Danielle; Roth, Sara Long; Tragoudas, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    Due to the recent surge in environmental consciousness and the need to address childhood obesity, Farm to School programs have gained momentum. Even though Farm to School programs have increased in popularity, many schools still fail to take advantage of the benefits from such programs. School food service employees' lack of familiarity with the benefits of Farm to School programs or the means to overcome obstacles to implement such programs, along with school size, may represent key variables that serve to explain why more schools do not purchase more local foods for their schools. This study used a convenience sampling methodology to gather information regarding food service employees' perceptions of the benefits and obstacles and their attitudes to purchasing and serving local foods in their schools. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from school food service employees in southern Illinois. Data (n=151) were collected from 60 schools, representing 16 counties during the month of December, 2009. Purchasers from large- and medium-size schools perceived the "ability to know product sources" as a greater benefit to purchasing local food and perceived "cost of food," "adequate volume," "reliable supply of food quantity," "payment arrangement," and "packing material" as greater obstacles (p<0.05) compared to small schools. In addition, results indicated that food service employees were interested in receiving training to prepare and serve more local foods. Findings from this study indicate a need for continued education, development, and training to better prepare school food service purchasers in southern Illinois for how to buy more local foods to meet the 2020 legislation requiring schools to purchase at least 10% locally.

  8. Qualities of food

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Mark; McMeekin, Andrew; Warde, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This book addresses current controversial debates about food quality. What is it that makes people decide that food is of good, or alternatively of dubious, 'quality'? How food is produced, how it is prepared, how it tastes and in what circumstances it is consumed are all dimensions of its quality. Chapters address a number of intriguing questions: how do people make judgements about taste?; how do such judgements come to be shared by groups or people?; what social and organisational processe...

  9. Food waste reduction at Restaurant De Pleats: Small steps for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food waste reduction at Restaurant De Pleats: Small steps for mankind. ... Research in Hospitality Management. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... Every year, large quantities of food are thrown away in the catering industry. Restaurant De ...

  10. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  11. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  12. The impact of kitchen and food service preparation practices on the volatile aroma profile in ripe tomatoes: Effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both refrigeration and blanching of red stage tomatoes are common practices in Japan home kitchens and in food service operations. However, little is reported on the impact of such practices on aroma profiles in tomato fruits. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at red stage were dipped in 50 °C hot wat...

  13. Getting Started for Preparing Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers in Terms of Sustainable Food Consumption: The Current Situation at a Public University in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Nur; Sahin, Elvan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the food consumption and nutrition perceptions of pre-service early childhood teachers using a mixed method research design. Data was gathered from 37 pre-service early childhood teachers through survey consisting of items in rating scale and open-ended questions. Descriptive analyses were conducted to report pre-service…

  14. Characterization of quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land in Jianghan Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shougeng; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhanqi

    2010-11-01

    Relating supplementary cultivated land (SCL) quantity and quality with the occupied cultivated land (OCL) grade as well as realizing conversion between them are crucial to keep the balance between SCL and OCL, to protect the limited farming resources, to guarantee the security of national food, to harmonize the relationship between human and land resources, and to promote sustainable economic development. The Jianhan plain, one of China's grain production bases, was chosen for a case study to quantify the relationships between the grade index of farmland utilization and standard food output based on the resulting grade of agricultural land. Linear regression is used to model the relationships for 2778 samples from the grade of agricultural land obtained by field mapping. The average of grade index for different utilization grades was estimated by the area weighted average method. The results demonstrate that quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land, and the method used in this study are powerful tools to quantify the relationship between the quantity and quality of the SCL and the grade and realize conversion of OCL. Theses results can be used for protecting the quantity and quality of cultivated land and optimizing design for land consolidation project as well as determining the reasonable scale and layout of land use planning in the Jianghan plain.

  15. How to introduce physical quantities physically

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Serge A

    2015-01-01

    The centuries-long practice of the teaching turned mechanics into an academic construct detached from its underlying science, the physics of macroscopic bodies. In particular, the regularities that delineate the scope of validity of Newtonian mechanics was never used as premises in that construct. Instead, its logical structure has been built with the only purpose to ease the presentation of mechanics as an application of calculus and algebra. This leaves no room for the explicit physical description of the fundamental notions of the construct, such as the ability of (a system of) physical bodies to keep a spatial form, symbolized by a rigid measuring rod, and the possibility to count out even temporal intervals, symbolized by a standard clock, let alone the origin of the basic mechanical quantities. The comparison between (states of) physical objects is possible as far as the natural regularities enable a researcher to define an equivalence relation in a set of these objects. The class of macroscopic (or mac...

  16. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Leach, P. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f (R) gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ (t) = ϕ (a (t)) , which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f (T) teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f (T) functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  17. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause in... in the estimated quantity of unit-priced items: Variation in Estimated Quantity (APR 1984) If...

  18. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852... Estimated quantities. As prescribed in 816.504(a), insert the following clause: Estimated Quantities (APR... percent of the estimated requirement or which provide that the Government shall guarantee any...

  19. Hwa measurement of turbulent diffusion of a scalar quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Antoš Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with simultaneous measurement of the velocity and the scalar quantity by means of hot-wire anemometry. Statistical moments of the scalar quantity fluctuations can be obtained employing a dual hot-wire probe. An evaluation procedure of the quantity mean values and fluctuations is described. Results from the molar concentration measurement in binary-gas mixture are shown.

  20. Symmetries and Mei Conserved Quantities of Nonholonomic Controllable Mechanical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Li-Li; LI Yuan-Cheng; WANG Jing; HOU Qi-Bao

    2006-01-01

    This paper concentrates on studying the symmetries and a new type of conserved quantities called Mei conserved quantity. The criterions of the Mei symmetry, the Noether symmetry and the Lie symmetry are given. The conditions and the forms of the Mei conserved quantities deduced from these three symmetries are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  1. Study on preparation of food grade sodium trimetaphosophate by multi-step calcination%分段煅烧法制备食品级三偏磷酸钠试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国生; 郭玲

    2016-01-01

    High purty food grade sodium trimetaphosophate was prepared by multi-step calcination from anhy-drous sodium dihydrogen phosphate. The optimal calcination method was determined by multi-step calcination ex-periment in different conditions,and the reaction mechanism of calcination was analyzed.It was found that high pur-ty food grade products can be prepared from sodium dihydrogen phosphate by the optimal calcination method, the content of sodium trimetaphosphate in products can reach more than 99.5%.%以无水NaH2PO4为原料,通过分段煅烧制备出了高纯度食品级Na3(PO3)3。通过设计在不同条件下的分段煅烧试验,确定了较优煅烧方法,并对其反应机理进行了分析。试验表明,以无水NaH2PO4为原料,采用较优煅烧方法可以制得高纯度食品级产品,产品中三偏磷酸钠的含量可达99.5%以上。

  2. Food-related behavior and intake of adult main meal preparers of 9-10 year-old children participating in iCook 4-H: A five-state childhood obesity prevention pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ashley; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina; Krehbiel, Michelle; Colby, Sarah; Kattelmann, Kendra; Olfert, Melissa D; Mathews, Douglas; White, Adrienne

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand adult outcomes in childhood obesity prevention programs as parents and caregivers have a significant influence on the eating and physical activity habits of youth. Grounded in the social cognitive theory, the iCook 4-H study was centered on a dyad model (9-10 year-olds and their primary meal preparers) to teach healthy cooking skills, shopping and meal habits, and being active as a family. The program took place in five states and dyads (n = 54) were recruited through flyers, e-mails, and in-person contact. The focus of this article is to provide findings from adult program participants. Demographics and self-reported food intake, procurement, preparation and safety practices, feeding relationships, mealtime routines, and height and weight were collected through surveys at baseline and program completion, which spanned 3 months. Descriptive statistics including two-related samples tests and paired samples t tests were used to assess pre- and post-program survey data responses at p choices, shopping with a grocery list, and reading Nutrition Facts Labels. There were also significant, positive differences noted in cooking skill confidence (p = 0.015), desire to cook more meals at home, and fewer fast food meals. Adult-youth feeding interactions also significantly improved. There were also significant increases in fruit juice (100%), vegetable soup, and whole grain consumption. Based on results, adults reported improvements in meal planning, cooking, and purchasing skills that were taught in classes.

  3. 广州市家庭食品安全操作及影响因素分析%Safe preparation of food and its influencing actors among families in Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蔚云; 曾美玲; 林洁如

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the status of safe preparation of food and its influencing factors among families in Guangzhou city. Methods One school was selected randomly from each of five urban districts in Guangzhou and four or five classes were sampled randomly from every school. The questionaires were distributed to the students of the classes selected and filled by the food processor in the students' family. SPSS 17.0 was used in data analysis. Results Totally 1 050 questionnaires were distributed and 1 006 eligible questionnaires were collected. The total score of safe food preparation was 15 and the median was 9. The scores for the food processors of different gender (Z = 4.594, P = 0.000), age (x2 =16.790,P = 0.001),education(x2 =16.967,P =0.002), medical background(Z = 2.426,P=0.015) ,and income of the family (x2 =21.389,P =0.000) were significantly different. Only 46.1% (464/1 006) of the subjects washed thenhands in adequate frequency and correct way and 22.4% (225/1 006) sanitized the equipment and protected the kitchen area and food from insects and pests. There were 25. 2% (254/1 006) of the subjects using separate knives and cutting boards for handling raw and cooked food and 58.3% (255/1 006) cooking food thoroughly. Only 53.0% (533/1 006) of the subjects kept the food at safe temperature. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that factors significantly related to safe food preparation were gender,income of the family,knowledge, attitude, and desire for safe food preparation. Conclusion The education on knowledge and practice about safe food preparation should be implemented in Guangzhou city, especially for the residents with low education level,low income,and male.%目的 了解广东省广州市家庭食品安全操作情况及其影响因素.方法 在广州市5个城区各随机抽取1所学校,每校随机抽取4~5个班学生,由所抽取学生的家庭食品制备者匿名填写食品操作调查表.结果 共发问卷1 050

  4. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paliathanasis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f(R gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ(t=ϕ(a(t, which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f(T teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f(T functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  5. Research development of preparation natural functional food additives from bacteria%利用细菌开发天然功能性食品添加剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李述日; 吴清平; 吴军林

    2011-01-01

    主要从两个方面介绍了利用细菌开发天然功能性食品添加剂的发展状况:一方面是关于益生菌(双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌)的作用机理、医疗保健功能,以及开发针对不同人群的特定益生菌功能性食品添加剂的发展前景;另一方面是关于细菌代谢产物(乳酸链球菌素、溶菌酶、聚赖氨酸)的作用机理、医疗保健功能,以及开发细菌素相关的新型功能性食品添加剂的发展前景.%The progress of preparation natural functional food additives from bacteria was introduced from two aspects. On the one hand is about the mechanism and health care functions of probiotics (lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) ,and the prospects of developing specific probiotic functional food additives for different groups of people. On the other hand is about the mechanism and health care functions of bacterial metabolites (nisin,lysozyme, polylysine) ,and the prospects of developing the new bacteriocin-related functional food additives.

  6. 食品接触材料高分子材料中钡、钴、铜、铁、锂、锰和锌的迁移量测定%Determination of Barium, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Lithium, Manganese, and Zinc Migration Quantity in Food Contact Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方邢有; 路东琪; 马青; 周明辉; 郑朝辉

    2012-01-01

    Migration quantity of Barium, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Lithium, Manganese, and Zinc was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The influence of analysis line, incident power, pump speed, and carrier gas pressure of ICP-AES, and matrix ion interference and coexistence were studied. The results showed that the method is simple and rapid; recovery for the elements determined is from 85.9% to 108%; and RSDs are in the range of 2.92%-6. 78%.%采用电感耦等离子体原子发射光谱仪(ICP—AES),同时测定了食品接触材料高分子材料中钡、钴、铜、铁、锂、锰和锌的迁移量,并对ICP—AES法测定时分析线的选择和入射功率、泵速、栽气压力的影响,以及基体和共存离子的干扰情况等进行了研究。研究表明,此方法简便快速,回收率为85.9%-108%,相对标准偏差为2.92%-6.78%。

  7. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang

    2015-01-01

    and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or at site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic beads-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal...

  8. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.

  9. Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao-fu LUO

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code,and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity,and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

  10. Consumer food system participation: a community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Mary K; Sobal, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and health associations of consumer participation in different stages of the food system using a survey of 663 adults in one U.S. county. Consumer food system participation by stage was 43% in food production, 47% in food processing, 65% in food distribution, 62% in food acquisition, 61% in food preparation, and 100% in food consumption. Consumers participated in an average of 3.7 of these 6 possible stages. Women and unmarried people participated in more stages. Food system participation was associated with few health problems, although people reporting some illnesses had higher food system participation.

  11. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency.

  12. Produção animal e o meio ambiente: uma comparação entre potencial de emissão de metano dos dejetos e a quantidade de alimento produzido Animal production and environment: a comparison between potential of methane emission from waste and quantity of produced food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi efetuar a comparação das principais espécies de interesse agropecuário, em relação à eficiência de conversão das dietas em produtos de origem animal (carne ou ovo, produção de resíduo e potencial de emissão de metano, a partir da fermentação dos resíduos. Para isso, foram selecionadas cinco espécies de animais durante a fase de produção: 1 suínos, do nascimento ao abate (peso vivo (PV final de 90 kg ; 2 bovinos, do desmame ao abate (PV: 520 kg; 3 caprinos, do desmame ao abate (PV: 30 kg; 4 aves, durante toda a fase de postura (14,7 kg de ovos; 5 frango de corte, do nascimento ao abate (PV: 3,1 kg. Para a estimativa dos parâmetros propostos, foram medidos os dados do desempenho e efetuou-se a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos produzidos pelos animais. De maneira geral, os dejetos dos ruminantes apresentaram altas concentrações de fibra e baixos potenciais de produção de biogás; no entanto, o menor desempenho destes animais na conversão do alimento em produto e a maior produção de dejetos fizeram com que eles apresentassem maiores produções de metano por kg de alimento produzido.The aim of this study was to compare the main species of husbandry interest, in relation to the efficiency of food conversion into animal origin products (meat and egg, residue production and potential of methane emission from residue fermentation. This way, five species of animal during production phase were selected: 1 pigs, from birth to slaughter (final live weight (LW of 90 kg; 2 cattle, from weaning to slaughter (LW: 520 kg; 3 goat, from weaning to slaughter (LW: 30 kg; 4 poultry, during the complete phase of laying (14.7 kg of eggs; 5 broiler, from birth to slaughter (LW: 3.1 Kg. For estimating proposed parameters, data of performance were measured and anaerobic digestion of produced waste by animals was done. In a general way, ruminant waste showed height concentration of fiber and low potential of biogas

  13. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  14. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang;

    2015-01-01

    amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system...... was capable to detect Salmonella at concentration of 50 cells per test within 40 min. The simple design, together with high level of integration, isothermal amplification, and quantitative analysis of multiple samples in short time will greatly enhance the practical applicability of the LOC system for rapid...

  15. Torsor Theory of Physical Quantities and their Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domotor Zoltan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this paper is to provide a torsor theory of physical quantities and basic operations thereon. Torsors are introduced in a bottom-up fashion as actions of scale transformation groups on spaces of unitized quantities. In contrast, the shortcomings of other accounts of quantities that proceed in a top-down axiomatic manner are also discussed. In this paper, quantities are presented as dual counterparts of physical states. States serve as truth-makers of metrological statements about quantity values and are crucial in specifying alternative measurement units for base quantities. For illustration and ease of presentation, the classical notions of length, time, and instantaneous velocity are used as primordial examples. It is shown how torsors provide an effective description of the structure of quantities, systems of quantities, and transformations between them. Using the torsor framework, time-dependent quantities and their unitized derivatives are also investigated. Lastly, the torsor apparatus is applied to deterministic measurement of quantities.

  16. Relative quantity judgments in South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a variety of species possess quantitative abilities although their cognitive substrate is still unclear. This study is the first to investigate whether sea lions (Otaria flavescens), in the absence of training, are able to assess and select the larger of two sets of quantities. In Experiment 1, the two sets of quantities were presented simultaneously as whole sets, that is, the subjects could compare them directly. In Experiment 2, the two sets of quantities were presented item-by-item, and the totality of items was never visually available at the time of choice. For each type of presentation, we analysed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities and the total number of items presented. The results showed that (1) sea lions can make relative quantity judgments successfully and (2) there is a predominant influence of the ratio between quantities on the subjects' performance. The latter supports the idea that an analogue representational mechanism is responsible for sea lions' relative quantities judgments. These findings are consistent with previous reports of relative quantities judgments in other species such as monkeys and apes and suggest that sea lions might share a similar mechanism to compare and represent quantities.

  17. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  18. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  19. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest foods, such as soda crackers, toast, gelatin, bananas and rice. Stop eating if your nausea returns. ... food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/the-big-thaw-safe-defrosting- ...

  20. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively......, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis...... with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude...

  1. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively......, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis...... with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude...

  2. A simple sample preparation for simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products using high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, Vasiliy; Korotkov, Anton

    2017-02-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products. Examination of food products using high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry showed the presence not only of chloramphenicol but also of its succinate forms. A scheme is proposed for determining chloramphenicol and its succinate esters (calculated as chloramphenicol) in meat (beef, pork, poultry), milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey. Analytes are extracted from a 1.0 g sample with 5 ml acetonitrile. It was found that using the method of standard addition and diluting the extract with water leads to the elimination of matrix effects and also eliminates errors associated with peak splitting due to the separate elution of the differing forms of the analyte. Validation results were satisfactory, with recoveries from 85% to 111% (meat, milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey) and a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 13% for spiked levels of 0.3, 1.0 and 5 µg kg(-)(1). The limits of detection and quantification (calculated as chloramphenicol for all forms) were 0.1 and 0.3 µg kg(-)(1), respectively. The RSD of the results of the analysis was < 10%. The duration of the analysis was less than 1 h.

  3. Milk and dairy products in the 21st century. Prepared for the 50th anniversary of the journal of agricultural and food chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Lawrence K; Pearce, Lindsay E; Hill, Jeremy P; Boland, Mike J

    2002-12-04

    Dairying into the 21st century will largely continue with the trends seen in the past few decades, although there is always the possibility of an unlikely but disruptive event. The politics of globalization will potentially be important in freeing up global trade in dairy products. Production on the farm will become increasingly efficient, resulting in continuing price benefits to the consumer. At the same time, increasing attention will be paid by the consumer, producer, and manufacturer to safety and quality issues. Environmental concerns will increase in importance, and the issue of methane production may be important for the industry over the next two decades. It is unlikely that genetically modified milk will be introduced soon, even if public acceptance ceases to be an issue; however, the use of genetic markers for accelerated genetic improvement of cows will have rapidly increasing importance. Despite increasing pressure from nonmilk alternatives, milk and dairy will still be the best sources of nutrition for the young and for traditional dairy products. Consumer concerns will be of overriding importance for the industry, and the safety of dairy foods must become absolute. Recent advances in the chemical, physical, and information sciences and technologies will be utilized to gain greater understanding of the increasingly complex food systems and to support the consumer objectives.

  4. Fluoranthene and phenantrene, two predominant PAHs in heat-prepared food, do not influence the frequency of micronucleated mouse erythrocytes induced by other PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs occur in complex mixtures present in the human environment. Because of the carcinogenic properties of some of these PAHs, they raise concerns regarding health and food safety. Because the occurrence of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene (PAH4 are considered markers for other genotoxic PAHs in foodstuffs, the European Union has put a maximum level of PAH4 in some foodstuffs. Fluoranthene (Flu and phenanthrene (Phe, two other PAHs, are not classified as genotoxic and are abundant at rather high concentrations in food. Inasmuch as PAH4, Flu, and Phe are metabolized by the same cytochrome P450 pathway system, it is important to clarify whether Phe and Flu influence the genotoxicity of PAH4. We have analyzed the genotoxic response of Phe and Flu, separately and together, as well as in combination with different low doses of PAH4. In all experiments we used the flow cytometer-based micronucleus test in vivo. Phe and Flu, when administered separately, did not show any dose-related effect on the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE. Nor did a mixture of Phe and Flu change the fMNPCEs. Phe and Flu did not significantly change the fMNPCE of PAH4-exposed FVB and BALB/c mice.

  5. 新食品原料壳寡糖的酶法生产研究%Enzymatic preparation of chitooligosaccharide, a new food raw material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游清徽; 杨萍; 徐贤柱; 裘梁; 董德刚; 王曼莹

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo solve the problem of the applications of chitosan, which is a polymer, in food industry, we focused on two issues: the cleaner production process and the food security. The characters of en-do-type chitosanase EC.3.2.1.132, and its applications were studied in the production of chitosan saccharide, a new food raw material.Methods Through the extensive screening, a strain with high enzyme activity and stable performance was got, then the endo-type chitosanase was purified . By various methods of biological engineering technology, we built a recombinant engineering yeast, which can efficiently express the aimed en-zyme after the optimization of fermentation conditions, and then a simple and easy purification method was es-tablished, with a circular cleaner production process, and was applied to the industrial production of the chito-san saccharide, a new food raw material.Results The wild type Aspergillus strains Jxsd -01 could produce enzyme about 10 U/mL, and the recombinant of the gene in the engineering yeast could improve the expression system, the enzyme protein expression was 0.95 g/L. The content of the chitosan saccharide in enzymatic pro-duction was as high as 98%, with the polymers from 2 to 10. The conversion rate of raw material was more than 95%, without waste water or waste residue in the process of production.Conclusion The application of en-do-type chitosanase in food industry can make the production process of the chitosan saccharide cleaner, safer and more efficient, so it has the value of wide application.%目的:针对高分子原料壳聚糖在食品工业应用中的两大难题--清洁生产与安全食用,研究了内切壳聚糖酶EC.3.2.1.132在新食品原料壳寡糖工业生产中的应用。方法通过广泛筛查,选育产酶活性高、性能稳定、具有单一内切模式的野生菌种。综合应用生物工程技术构建高效表达的基因重组工程菌,经优化发酵条件、建立简易纯化方法,获得

  6. The Sweet Escape: Effects of Mortality Salience on Consumption Quantities for High- and Low-Self-Esteem Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Mandel (Naomi); D.H.R.V. Smeesters (Dirk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis research demonstrates that exposure to death-related stimuli can increase consumers' amounts of purchasing and consumption. We demonstrate that consumers who have been recently reminded of their own impending mortality wish to purchase higher quantities of food products (and actuall

  7. Food Follies: Food Safety for College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This project involves the production and dissemination of a basic food storage and safety course geared toward college students. The course covers basic preparation, sanitation, proper cooking temperatures, chilling and storage, as well as common pathogens to be aware of. MALS

  8. Hwa measurement of turbulent diffusion of a scalar quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoš Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with simultaneous measurement of the velocity and the scalar quantity by means of hot-wire anemometry. Statistical moments of the scalar quantity fluctuations can be obtained employing a dual hot-wire probe. An evaluation procedure of the quantity mean values and fluctuations is described. Results from the molar concentration measurement in binary-gas mixture are shown.

  9. Impact of festival factor on electric quantity multiplication forecast model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to improve the forecasting precision of electric quantity. It is discovered that the total electricity consumption considerably increased during the Spring Festival by the analysis of the electric quantity time series from 2002 to 2007 in Shandong province. The festival factor is ascertained to be one of the important seasonal factors affecting the electric quantity fluctuations, and the multiplication model for forecasting is improved by introducing corresponding variables and parameters...

  10. Wasted Food, Wasted Energy: The Embedded Energy in Food Waste in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cuéllar, Amanda D.; Michael E. Webber

    2010-01-01

    This work estimates the energy embedded in wasted food annually in the United States. We calculated the energy intensity of food production from agriculture, transportation, processing, food sales, storage, and preparation for 2007 as 8080 ± 760 trillion BTU. In 1995 approximately 27% of edible food was wasted. Synthesizing these food loss figures with our estimate of energy consumption for different food categories and food production steps, while normalizing for different production volumes...

  11. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services ­ Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1993-01-01

    means reduced expenses on most kinds of foodstuffs, possibly due to obtaining quantity discounts. 7. Ownership of household appliances and hiring domestic help decreases the probability of eating out. 8. Singles spend money on meals away from home more frequently than couples, whereas the spending...... on fast food and fast lunch/breakfast does not vary between singles and couples. 9. Gender is not a significant factor in relation to the purchase of convenient foodstuffs.......; this is supported by the fact that the relative expense on preparation food indeed falls with increasing income. 3. More children in the household generally mean less per-unit expenditure on both convenient and non-convenient food. This may be explained by economies of scale and by buying cheaper products...

  12. On the History of Quantity Calculus and the International System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief presentation is given of the most important developments in the history of quantity calculus. Starting with the early introduction of the concept "physical quantity" by Maxwell in his work on electricity and magnetism, attention is focused in particular on the foundations of the calculus with physical quantities given by Wallot in the 1920s. For illustration and better understanding of the praxis of quantity calculus, special attention is paid to the three- and four-dimensional systems of physical quantities used for theoretical description in the fields of electricity and magnetism. Special emphasis is placed on understanding controversies and confusion caused by differences in interpretation of the concepts "quantity" and "unit" in physical language and in the mathematical description of physical phenomena. A short presentation is given of the further development of various studies on the algebraic structure and the axiomatic foundation of the calculus with physical quantities developed by Landolt, Stille, Fleischmann and others. Quantity calculus constituted the basis for obtaining consensus on the introduction of the International System of Units (SI) and allowed the formulation of international standards on definitions and symbols for quantities and units by the various international scientific and standardizing organizations.

  13. Quantity Discount Scheme in Supply Chain under Asymmetric Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-bin; PENG Zuo-he

    2007-01-01

    Quantity discount scheme plays an important role in supply chain management. The different quantity discount schemes under symmetric (full) information and asymmetric information, are analyzed by using principal-agent and optimal control theory. As a result, the research reveals that the optimal quantity discount solution under symmetric information is a special case of that under asymmetric information. At the same price, the critical value of quantity discount under asymmetric information is much lower than that under asymmetric information. Therefore, this leads to less cost for retailers and smaller profit for their supplier.

  14. Quantity of cholesterol in butter from Zagreb market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the quantity of cholesterol in butter - a representative of dairy products with known high quantity of milk fat, is determined. The results show that the quantity of milk fats for the butter samples from domestic production (n=17 was 83.9 %, and from the industrial production (n=5 85.2 %. Average cholesterol quantities, in before mentioned samples, were 227 mg/100g or 22 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of sample. The results show that the increase of milk fats does not strictly influence cholesterol increase in the individual butter sample.

  15. Preparation of magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups for the extraction and analysis of lead in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Huanhuan; Tang, Jie; Ye, Guiqin; Ge, Huali; Hu, Xiaoya

    2015-08-15

    A novel magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups was synthesized and developed for extraction and spectrophotometric determination of trace lead. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results indicated the adsorbents exhibited high adsorption capacities for lead due to the chelation mechanism between metal cations and mercapto groups. Meanwhile, the lead sorption onto the adsorbents could be easily separated from aqueous solution using a magnetic separation method. Under the optimal conditions, a linear calibration curve in the range from 1 to 20 μg L(-1) was achieved with an enrichment factor of 100. The limits of detection and quantitation for lead were found to be 0.29 and 0.97 μg L(-1), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of lead in food samples and certified reference material with satisfactory results.

  16. Color of whole-wheat foods prepared from a bright-white hard winter wheat and the phenolic acids in its coarse bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxin; Martin, Joe; Okot-Kotber, Moses; Seib, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    The color of wheat kernels often impacts the color and thereby the value of wheat-based foods. A line of hard white winter wheat (B-W HW) with bright appearing kernels has been developed at the Kansas State Agricultural Research Center. The objective of this study was to compare the color of several foods made from the B-W HW wheat with those of 2 hard white wheat cultivars, Trego and Lakin. The B-W HW kernels showed higher lightness (L*, 57.6) than Trego (55.5) and Lakin (56.8), and the increased lightness was carried over to its bran and whole-wheat flour. Alkaline noodle and bread crumb made from the B-W HW whole-wheat flour showed slightly higher lightness (L*) than those made from Trego and Lakin. The sum of soluble and bound phenolics extracted from the 3 wheat brans, which had not been preextracted to remove lipids, was found to be 17.22 to 18.98 mg/g. The soluble phenolic acids in the brans were principally vanillic, ferulic, and syringic. The bound phenolic acids in the brans were dominated by ferulic, which accounted for 50.1% to 82.2% of total identified bound phenolic acids. Other bound phenolic acids were protocatechuic, caffeic, syringic, trans-cinnamic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, and vanillic. The lightness (L*) values of coarse wheat brans correlated positively with their levels of bound protocatechuic (r = 0.72, P < 0.01) and p-hydroxybenzoic acids (r = 0.75, P < 0.01).

  17. Preparation of a Microbial Time-temperature Indicator by Using the Vegetative Form of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for Monitoring the Quality of Chilled Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Shahrokh Esfahani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Time-temperature indicators are used in smart packaging, and described as intelligent tools attached to the label of food products to monitor their timetemperature history. Since the previous studies on microbial time-temperature indicators were only based on pH-dependent changes, and they were long-time response indicators, in the present work, a new microbial time-temperature indicator was designed by using the alpha amylase activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens vegetative cells.Material and Methods: The designed time-temperature indicator system consists of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, specific substrate medium and iodine reagent. The relation of the timetemperatureindicator’ response to the growth and metabolic activity (starch consumption and production of reduced sugars of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was studied. In addition, the temperature dependence of the time-temperature indicator was considered at 8 and 28˚C. Finally, in order to adjust time-temperature indicator endpoint, the effect of the inoculum level was investigated at 8ºC.Results and Conclusion: In the designed system, a color change of an iodine reagent to yellow progressively occurs due to the starch hydrolysis. The effect of the inoculum level showed the negative linear relationship between the levels of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens inoculated in the medium and the endpoints of the time-temperature indicators. The endpoints were adjusted to 156, 72 and 36 hours at the inoculum levels of 102, 104 and 106 CFU ml-1, respectively. The main advantages of the time-temperature indicator is low cost and application for monitoring the quality of chilled food products.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  18. Relative quantity judgments between discrete spatial arrays by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Beran, Michael J; McIntyre, Joseph; Low, Jason

    2014-08-01

    Quantity discrimination for items spread across spatial arrays was investigated in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and North Island New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes), with the aim of examining the role of spatial separation on the ability of these 2 species to sum and compare nonvisible quantities which are both temporally and spatially separated, and to assess the likely mechanism supporting such summation performance. Birds and chimpanzees compared 2 sets of discrete quantities of items that differed in number. Six quantity comparisons were presented to both species: 1v2, 1v3, 1v5, 2v3, 2v4, and 2v5. Each was distributed 1 at a time across 2 7-location arrays. Every individual item was viewed 1 at a time and hidden, with no more than a single item in each location of an array, in contrast to a format where all items were placed together into 2 single locations. Subjects responded by selecting 1 of the 2 arrays and received the entire quantity of food items hidden within that array. Both species performed better than chance levels. The ratio of items between sets was a significant predictor of performance in the chimpanzees, but it was not significant for robins. Instead, the absolute value of the smaller quantity of items presented was the significant factor in robin responses. These results suggest a species difference for this task when considering various dimensions such as ratio or total number of items in quantity comparisons distributed across discrete 7-location arrays.

  19. PRACTICAL PREPARATION OF RESVERATROL 3-O-β-D-GLUCURONIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Jungong, Christian S.; Novikov, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    A practical synthesis of resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucuronide, suitable for preparation of large quantities, was developed using selective deacetylation of resveratrol triacetate with ammonium acetate. A simplified procedure for large scale preparation of resveratrol is also reported.

  20. PRACTICAL PREPARATION OF RESVERATROL 3-O-β-D-GLUCURONIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Jungong, Christian S.; Novikov, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    A practical synthesis of resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucuronide, suitable for preparation of large quantities, was developed using selective deacetylation of resveratrol triacetate with ammonium acetate. A simplified procedure for large scale preparation of resveratrol is also reported.

  1. Multi-functional sample preparation procedure for measuring phytoestrogens in milk, cereals, and baby-food by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with subsequent determination of their estrogenic activity using transcriptomic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Gaudin-Hirret, Isabelle; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Cariou, Ronan; Elliott, Christopher; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    A method dedicated to the determination of a multiple range of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptor compounds in infant food products was developed, with as double objective the specific measurement of 13 parameters and the evaluation of the estrogenic potency associated to this quantitative profile. A combined enzymatic and acidic chemical hydrolysis followed by a double purification on two successive C(18) and SiOH Solid Phase Extraction cartridges permitted to efficiently purify milk, cereals and baby-food samples while eliminating naturally occurring estrogen hormones. A specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric measurement authorised unambiguous identification and quantification of the target compounds. The proposed methodology was fully validated and applied to a set of around 30 real samples, demonstrating the presence of phytoestrogens at levels globally ranging from several microgkg(-1) (ppb) to several tens mgkg(-1) (ppm). The prepared sample extracts were proven to be suitable and compatible with the evaluation of their induced biological transcriptional activity on MCF-7 cell lines. Because permitting to cope with difficult issues such as low-dose and mixture effects, this proposed methodology may appear of particular interest for further exposure assessment studies and hazard characterisation investigations related to this class of endocrine disruptor compounds.

  2. Food oral processing: conversion of food structure to textural perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, H; Vinyard, C J; Essick, G K; Foegeding, E A

    2013-01-01

    Food oral processing includes all muscle activities, jaw movements, and tongue movements that contribute to preparing food for swallowing. Simultaneously, during the transformation of food structure to a bolus, a cognitive representation of food texture is formed. These physiological signals detected during oral processing are highly complex and dynamic in nature because food structure changes continuously due to mechanical and biochemical breakdown coupled with the lubricating action of saliva. Multiple and different sensations are perceived at different stages of the process. Although much work has focused on factors that determine mechanical (e.g., rheological and fracture) and sensory properties of foods, far less attention has been paid to linking food transformations that occur during oral processing with sensory perception of texture. Understanding how food structure influences specific patterns of oral processing and how these patterns relate to specific textural properties and their cognitive representations facilitates the design of foods that are nutritious, healthy, and enjoyable.

  3. FOOD SAFETY AT HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Griglio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5. After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were visited and data on hygiene (check-lists, samples from equipment and fridge surfaces, and fridge temperatures were collected. Questionnaires showed a lack of knowledge on correct food storage, handling, and kitchen hygiene. Households visits showed fridge temperatures above 4°C, highly contaminated washing sponges, and the presence of Listeria spp. in a fridge of a high risk consumer. These results evidence the role of consumer training in reducing foodborne diseases incidence.

  4. [New food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml).

  5. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  6. Food consumption in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today’s industrial food system has created a food supply that is more plentiful and inexpensive than at any time in history. Nearly a fifth of the U.S. workforce is engaged in producing, manufacturing, distributing, preparing, or selling this food. Food is at the nexus of some of the most signific...

  7. Food Waste in the Food-Energy-Water Nexus: Energy and Water Footprints of Wasted Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, K. M.; Sarker, T.; Reinhart, D.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of wasted food to the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus is not well conceptualized or quantified, and is thus poorly understood. While improved understanding of water and energy requirements for food production may be applied to estimate costs associated with production of wasted food, the post-disposal costs of food waste to energy and water sectors are unknown. We apply both theoretical methods and direct observation of landfill leachate composition to quantify the net energy and water impact of food waste that is disposed in landfills. We characterize necessary energy inputs and biogas production to compute net impact to the energy sector. With respect to water, we quantify the volumes of water needed to attain permitted discharge concentrations of treated leachate, as well as the gray water footprint necessary for waste assimilation to the ambient regulatory standard. We find that approximately three times the energy produced as biogas (4.6E+8 kWh) is consumed in managing food waste and treating contamination from wasted food (1.3E+9 kWh). This energy requirement represents around 3% of the energy consumed in food production. The water requirement for leachate treatment and assimilation may exceed the amount of water needed to produce food. While not a consumptive use, the existence and replenishment of sufficient quantities of water in the environment for waste assimilation is an ecosystem service of the hydrosphere. This type of analysis may be applied to create water quality-based standards for necessary instream flows to perform the ecosystem service of waste assimilation. Clearer perception of wasted food as a source/sink for energy and water within the FEW nexus could be a powerful approach towards reducing the quantities of wasted food and more efficiently managing food that is wasted. For instance, comparative analysis of FEW impact across waste management strategies (e.g. landfilling, composting, anaerobic digestion) may assist local governments

  8. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D. Stelmach

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality.

  9. Some Intensive and Extensive Quantities in High-Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2013-01-01

    We review the evolution of some statistical and thermodynamical quantities measured in difference sizes of high-energy collisions at different energies. We differentiate between intensive and extensive quantities and discuss the importance of their distinguishability in characterizing possible critical phenomena of nuclear collisions at various energies with different initial conditions.

  10. Effects of Quantity and Quality Instructions on Brainstorming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Paul B.; Kohn, Nicholas W.; Arditti, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the basic presumptions of brainstorming is that a focus on generating a large number of ideas enhances both the number of ideas generated and the number of good ideas (original and useful). Prior research has not clearly demonstrated the utility of such a quantity focus in comparison to a condition in which quantity is not emphasized. There…

  11. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity... provision at 52.207-4, Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies, and 7.204 for guidance on handling responses...

  12. Household water quantity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Rachel D; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-05-28

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality.

  13. Role of research and regulation in 50 years of pest management in agriculture. Prepared for the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Willis B

    2002-07-17

    Pest management techniques have evolved over the past 50 years. Inorganic chemical pesticides were replaced by synthetic organic chemicals, and now biopesticides constitute a significant part of pest management technology. Requirements for the regulatory approval of pesticides changed dramatically in 1996 with the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). The FQPA directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to make more rigorous and conservative evaluation of risks and hazards and mandates a special emphasis on the safety of infants and children. The EPA provides incentives for the industry to register materials that are designated "reduced risk". The future for the registrant industry will include continued reduction in numbers of registrants through mergers and acquisitions. Conventional chemicals will remain as important pest management components, and the processes of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput bioassays will allow the rapid synthesis and testing of large numbers of candidate compounds. Biopesticides will become more important tools in pest management, with microbial pesticides and transgenic crops being likely to play important crop protection roles. There will be a continuing need for research-based approaches to pest control.

  14. 双螺杆挤压制备谷物营养早餐的研究%Preparation of a nutritional Eereal Breakfast Food through Extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋长兴; 魏益民

    2012-01-01

    The mixture of com, rice, and millet was extruded in Brabender Lab-station of DSE-25 Twin-Screw Extruder. The effects of multi-grain, sucrose, and distilled monoglyceride on the extrudate qualities and extrusion system parameters were studied. The best recipe for the nutritional cereal breakfast food was determined as follows: corn 60%, rice 20%, millet 20%, sucrose 8%, saccharin 0.1% and salt 0.5%. Under these conditions, the product obtained had improved qualities of color, texutre and flavor.%以玉米、大米、小米的混合粉为材料,采用DSE-25型双螺杆挤压膨化实验室工作站加工谷物营养早餐食品,研究物料配比、蔗糖和单干酯添加量对产品质量指标和设备系统参数的影响,获得谷物营养早餐食品较优配方:玉米、大米、小米混合比例6∶2∶2(m/m),砂糖8%,甜蜜素0.1%,食盐0.5%.在此条件下,产品口感酥脆、颜色金黄、风味独特.

  15. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  16. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  17. An Algebraic Approach to Unital Quantities and their Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domotor, Zoltan; Batitsky, Vadim

    2016-06-01

    The goals of this paper fall into two closely related areas. First, we develop a formal framework for deterministic unital quantities in which measurement unitization is understood to be a built-in feature of quantities rather than a mere annotation of their numerical values with convenient units. We introduce this idea within the setting of certain ordered semigroups of physical-geometric states of classical physical systems. States are assumed to serve as truth makers of metrological statements about quantity values. A unital quantity is presented as an isomorphism from the target system's ordered semigroup of states to that of positive reals. This framework allows us to include various derived and variable quantities, encountered in engineering and the natural sciences. For illustration and ease of presentation, we use the classical notions of length, time, electric current and mean velocity as primordial examples. The most important application of the resulting unital quantity calculus is in dimensional analysis. Second, in evaluating measurement uncertainty due to the analog-to-digital conversion of the measured quantity's value into its measuring instrument's pointer quantity value, we employ an ordered semigroup framework of pointer states. Pointer states encode the measuring instrument's indiscernibility relation, manifested by not being able to distinguish the measured system's topologically proximal states. Once again, we focus mainly on the measurement of length and electric current quantities as our motivating examples. Our approach to quantities and their measurement is strictly state-based and algebraic in flavor, rather than that of a representationalist-style structure-preserving numerical assignment.

  18. Dental wear quantity and direction in Chalcolithic and Medieval populations from southwest France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimoud, Anne-Marie; Gibbon, Victoria E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if dental wear changed due to the dietary shift between the Chalcolithic and Middle Ages from relatively hard and fibrous foods to soft cooked cereals. This was accomplished by comparing dental wear quantity and direction between people from two archaeological sites, Les Treilles during the Chalcolithic (mixed subsistence farmers) and Marsan from the Middle Ages (agriculturalists) in southwest France. The materials studied include 65 mandibles, 32 from Les Treilles and 33 from Marsan; 549 teeth were studied. The results show statistically significant difference in wear quantity and direction, the Chalcolithic population (Les Treilles) had the greatest levels of wear in a mainly oblique direction, with the anterior teeth heavily affected by wear. Comparatively, the Medieval sample (Marsan) had lesser levels of wear in a mainly horizontal direction, and the most heavily worn teeth were the molars and incisors. The quantity of wear seems to correlate well with changes in diet, the high level of wear on the anterior teeth in the Chalcolithic sample corresponds with the consumption of a mixed diet of fibrous and tough foods. At Marsan, the lower wear quantity was likely due to a diet of soft boiled cereals, requiring less mastication. However, wear direction appears dependent on several factors and may correlate with more mixed subsistence practices. This study demonstrates the need for additional research into the complex actions of mastication and its effect on dental wear, as well as standardised methodology for the examination of dental wear in archaeological samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of a pilot cooking intervention for parent-child dyads on the consumption of foods prepared away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of a parent-child dyad cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home. Eating away from home often results in consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that can contribute to excess energy consumption in children. A pre-post design to evaluate a 10-week cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home, energy intake, and improving diet quality was implemented. The intervention was delivered at an instructional kitchen on a university campus and assessments were completed at a children's academic medical center. Subjects included six parent-child dyads whom reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times/week and in which the parent was overweight based on their body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m(2). Parents were a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 3.9) years, and children were a mean age of 8.7 (SD = 2.0) years. Two-thirds of parents self-identified themselves and their children as White. Results showed the proportion of dinners consumed by parent-child dyads away from home significantly decreased (F (1,161) = 16.1, p < 0.05) from 56% at baseline to 25% at post-treatment. Dyad cholesterol intake at dinner also significantly decreased over time; however, changes in energy intake, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium at dinner were not significant. A large effect size was found for changes in parent ratings of enjoyment of cooking between baseline and post-treatment. A cooking intervention that involves parent-child dyads and incorporates behavior management strategies and nutrition education may be an innovative obesity prevention intervention.

  20. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Planning: Addressing 21st-Century Public Health Challenges Seasonal Food Safety Fact Sheets Keep your food safe - prepare now ...

  1. Preparation and characterization of magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds for vortex-assisted magnetic solid-phase extraction of ziram in food and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    A simple and rapid vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction (VA-MSPE) method for the separation and preconcentration of ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate), subsequent detection of the zinc in complex structure of ziram by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) has been developed. The ziram content was calculated by using stoichiometric relationship between the zinc and ziram. Magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds (MCNDs) as solid-phase extraction adsorbent was prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds carrying the ziram could be easily separated from the aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field; no filtration or centrifugation was necessary. Some important factors influencing the extraction efficiency of ziram such as pH of sample solution, amount of adsorbent, type and volume of eluent, extraction and desorption time and sample volume were studied and optimized. The total extraction and detection time was lower than 10min The preconcentration factor (PF), the precision (RSD, n=7), the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 160, 7.0%, 5.3µgL(-1) and 17.5µgL(-1), respectively. The interference of various ions has been examined and the method has been applied for the determination of ziram in various waters, foodstuffs samples and synthetic mixtures.

  2. Synbiotic preparation with Lactic acid bacteria and inulin as a functional food: In vivo evaluation of microbial activities, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    Full Text Available Abstract Host microbiome and metabolome are associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CC, one of the major health problems in developed countries. The pro and prebiotic supplementation helps to improve the host health. Inulin is one such prebiotic used for the enhancement of naïve probiotic bacterial population. This paper explains the impact of inulin (PRE extracted from Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Lactobacillus plantarum HII11 (PRO, and synbiotic (SYN; inulin + L. plantarum HII11 preparation on Azoxymethane mediated CC induced rat model with respect to changes in microbial load, microbial enzymes, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci. The results suggested that the PRE and SYN supplementation effectively reduced the selected pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli, microbial enzymes and increased the probiotic load. The intervention of SYN significantly reduced the colonic ACF in CC model. The study results revealed that the supplementation of SYN diet (inulin and L. plantarum HII11 protects the AOM-mediated colon cancer induced host.

  3. Food processing as a means for pesticide residue dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. However, their inadequate application may produce large quantities of residues in the environment and, once the environment is contaminated with pesticides, they may easily enter into the human food chain through plants, creating a potentially serious health hazard. Nowadays, consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of safe and high quality food products. Thus it is pertinent to explore simple, cost-effective strategies for decontaminating food from pesticides. Various food processing techniques, at industrial and/or domestical level, have been found to significantly reduce the contents of pesticide residues in most food materials. The extent of reduction varies with the nature of pesticides, type of commodity and processing steps. Pesticides, especially those with limited movement and penetration ability, can be removed with reasonable efficiency by washing, and the effectiveness of washing depends on pesticide solubility in water or in different chemical solvents. Peeling of fruit and vegetable skin can dislodge pesticide residues to varying degrees, depending on constitution of a commodity, chemical nature of the pesticide and environmental conditions. Different heat treatments (drying, pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, steaming, boiling, cooking, frying or roasting during various food preparation and preservation processes can cause losses of pesticide residues through evaporation, co-distillation and/or thermal degradation. Product manufactures, from the simplest grain milling, through oil extraction and processing, juicing/pureeing or canning of fruits and vegetables, to complex bakery and dairy production, malting and brewing, wine making and various fermentation processes, play a role in the reduction of pesticide contents, whereby each operation involved during processing usually adds to a cumulative effect of reduction of

  4. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  5. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  6. The construction of conserved quantities for linearly coupled oscillators and study of symmetries about the conserved quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lou Zhi-Mei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the conserved quantities are constructed using two methods. The first method is by making an ansatz of the conserved quantity and then using the definition of Poisson bracket to obtain the coefficients in the ansatz. The main procedure for the second method is given as follows. Firstly, the coupled terms in Lagrangian are eliminated by changing the coordinate scales and rotating the coordinate axes, secondly, the conserved quantities are obtain in new coordinate directly, and at last, the conserved quantities are expressed in the original coordinates by using the inverse transform of the coordinates. The Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry of the infinitesimal transformations about the conserved quantities are also studied in this paper.

  7. Food-poverty status and food insecurity in rural West Lombok based on mothers' food expenditure equivalency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalina, Tina; Wibowo, Lindawati; Kielmann, Arnfried A; Usfar, Avita Aliza

    2007-06-01

    When the Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS) developed a national food-poverty line for Indonesia, some aspects, such as food availability,food beliefs, and food habits, were not considered. In addition, the reference population was determined on the basis of their nonfood expenditures. To develop and use a method applicable in any given sociocultural setting, as well as to determine food-poverty status in rural West Lombok, Indonesia, using mothers'food expenditure equivalency (FEE). Mothers' actual food intake determined by a modified 24-hour recall served to establish FEE. The results were verified with household food-security measures based on the US Household Food Security/Hunger Measurement (US HFSSM), and the mothers' nutritional status was assessed by the body-mass index (BMI). Most mothers (72%) were food-poor and 79% were also food-insecure. Food poverty has a positive correlation with household food insecurity. The severely food poor also had the highest risk of household food insecurity. The nutritional status of mothers showed no correlation with food-poverty status and therefore was not found to be an appropriate indicator of food poverty in this cultural setting. Because most food consumed by mothers was purchased, financial security plays a key role in determining family food sufficiency, in terms of both quantity and variety. Mothers' BMI status differed between the food-poor and non-food-poor groups, but the difference was not statistically significant, suggesting that in our setting the food-poverty line cannot be used to identify physiological need but is rather more of a social and economic indicator. We suggest the use of US HFSSM questionnaires as a simple alternative means to assess both food-poverty and food-security status, mainly because the method is simple to apply and corroborates our findings using area-specific FEEs. Finally, our study results suggest a number of follow-up investigations.

  8. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

  9. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

  10. Preparation of modified magnetic nanoparticles as a sorbent for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium ions in food and environmental water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabi, Ali; Dalirandeh, Zeinab [Department of Chemistry, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rad, Ali Shokuhi, E-mail: a.shokuhi@qaemshahriau.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    A new method has been developed for the separation/preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions using diphenyl carbazone/sodium dodecyl sulfate immobilized on magnetic nanoparticle Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as a new sorbent SPE and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Various influencing parameters on the separation and preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions such as, pH value, amount of nanoparticles, amount of diphenyl carbazone, condition of eluting solution, the effects of matrix ions were examined. The cadmium ions can be eluted from the modified magnetic nanoparticle using 1 mol L{sup −1} HCl as a desorption reagent. The detection limit of this method for cadmium was 3.71 ng ml{sup −1} and the R.S.D. was 0.503% (n=6). The advantages of this new method include rapidity, easy preparation of sorbents and a high concentration factor. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cd ions at trace levels in real samples such as, green tea, rice, tobacco, carrot, lettuce, ginseng, spice, tap water, river water, sea water with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • MNPs method is economical, simple, rapid and sensitive for trace analysis of Cd. • High preconcentration factor was obtained easily through this method. • A detection limit at ng mL{sup −1} level was achieved with 100.0 mL of sample. • This method provides good repeatability and extraction efficiency in a short time.

  11. Diversity and technological properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermented cassava used for the preparation of Gari, a traditional African food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinek, Melanie; Specht, Ingrid; Edward, Vinodh A; Schillinger, Ulrich; Hertel, Christian; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2005-08-01

    Traditional fermentation of cassava is dominated by a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population. Fermentation is important for improving product flavour and aroma as well as safety, especially by reduction of its toxic cyanogenic glucosides. The production of Gari from cassava in Benin typically occurs on a household or small industrial scale, and consequently suffers from inconsistent product quality and may not always be safe for consumption. Therefore, the diversity of LAB from a typical cassava fermentation for the preparation of Gari, and their technologically relevant characteristics were investigated with a view towards selection of appropriate starter cultures. A total of 139 predominant strains isolated from fermenting cassava were identified using phenotypic tests and genotypic methods such as rep-PCR and RAPD-PCR. DNA-DNA hybridisation and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes were done for selected strains. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundantly isolated species (54.6% of isolates), followed by Leuconostoc fallax (22.3%) and Lactobacillus fermentum (18.0%). Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Weissella paramesenteroides were sporadically isolated. The L. plantarum strains were shown to be better acid producers and capable of faster acid production than the L. fallax or L. fermentum strains. The incidence of beta-glucosidase (linamarase) activity was also highest among strains of this species. Production of antagonistic substances such as H2O2 and bacteriocins, however, was more common among L. fallax and L. fermentum strains. Strains of all three species were capable of utilising the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose. Therefore, a starter culture containing a mixture of strains from all three species was recommended.

  12. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  13. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  14. 以牡蛎壳为原料制备食品级乳酸钙%Preparation of Food Grade Calcium lactate From Wasted Oysters Shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨栩; 蒙芸

    2015-01-01

    It’s a very efficient approach to produce food grade calcium lactate from wasted oysters shells by direct method. Single factor experiments and variance analysis of main factors were adopted to explore the action law and influence level of particle size of shell powder, shell-acid ratio, water-shell ratio and reaction time on the content and yield of products. The process condition was systemically optimized in virtue of multi-target orthogonal design. The experimental results show that the reaction can be prominently affected by three key factors including shell-acid ratio, water-shell ratio and reaction time. The optimum production conditions are as follows: shell-acid ratio 1.1, water-shell ratio 15 and reaction time 140 min. Under above conditions, the yield of calcium lactate products can reach to 98.28%.%用废弃的牡蛎壳生产食品级乳酸钙,是一种变废为宝的方法。通过单因素和正交实验分析探讨了壳粉粒径、壳酸比、水壳比、反应时间对乳酸钙产品收率的作用规律和影响大小,并借助正交实验对其工艺条件进行了系统优化。结果表明,壳酸比、水壳比和反应时间这3个关键因素对该反应的影响最为显著,生产乳酸钙的最适宜条件为:壳酸比为1.1,水壳比为15,反应时间为150 min,此条件下的乳酸钙收率可达98.28%。

  15. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  16. Fortification of foods with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    A $600 million nutritional supplements market growing at 30% every year attests to consumer awareness of, and interests in, health benefits attributed to these supplements. For over 80 years the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption for human health has been established. The FDA recently approved the use of ω-3 PUFAs in supplements. Additionally, the market for ω-3 PUFA ingredients grew by 24.3% last year, which affirms their popularity and public awareness of their benefits. PUFAs are essential for normal human growth; however, only minor quantities of the beneficial ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are synthesized by human metabolism. Rather PUFAs are obtained via dietary or nutritional supplementation and modified into other beneficial metabolites. A vast literature base is available on the health benefits and biological roles of ω-3 PUFAs and their metabolism; however, information on their dietary sources and palatability of foods incorporated with ω-3 PUFAs is limited. DHA and EPA are added to many foods that are commercially available, such as infant and pet formulae, and they are also supplemented in animal feed to incorporate them in consumer dairy, meat, and poultry products. The chief sources of EPA and DHA are fish oils or purified preparations from microalgae, which when added to foods, impart a fishy flavor that is considered unacceptable. This fishy flavor is completely eliminated by extensively purifying preparations of n-3 PUFA sources. While n-3 PUFA lipid autoxidation is considered the main cause of fishy flavor, the individual oxidation products identified thus far, such as unsaturated carbonyls, do not appear to contribute to fishy flavor or odor. Alternatively, various compound classes such as free fatty acids and volatile sulfur compounds are known to impart fishy flavor to foods. Identification of the causative compounds to reduce and eventually eliminate fishy flavor is important

  17. Exact solutions and conserved quantities in f( R, T) Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Nawazish, Iqra

    2017-06-01

    This paper explores Noether and Noether gauge symmetries of anisotropic universe model in f( R, T) gravity. We consider two particular models of this gravity and evaluate their symmetry generators as well as associated conserved quantities. We also find exact solution by using cyclic variable and investigate its behavior via cosmological parameters. The behavior of cosmological parameters turns out to be consistent with recent observations which indicates accelerated expansion of the universe. Next we study Noether gauge symmetry and corresponding conserved quantities for both isotropic and anisotropic universe models. We conclude that symmetry generators and the associated conserved quantities appear in all cases.

  18. Impact of the Velo 2 half misalignment on physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Roguljic, Matej; Borghi, Silvia; Grillo, Lucia; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the misalignment of the Vertex Locator of the LHCb experiment on the physical quantities of the decay "$D^{*+} \\rightarrow (D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}) \\pi^{+} $" is studied in this note. Different misalignments of the 2 halves are applied to Monte Carlo data and the variations of the physical quantities with respect to the case without misalignment are evaluated. The results show the importance of the VELO 2 half alignment which can significantly affect the physics performance in the large misalignment case. A misalignment equal to the precision of the real-time alignment of the Vertex Locator is found to have a negligible effect on the studied physical quantities.

  19. OpenMath Content Dictionaries for SI Quantities and Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    mole, and candela , corresponding to the seven SI base quantities. There is a necessary one-to-one mapping between the base quantities and the base...kelvin, mole, and candela . The base units, with the inclusion of the unit named one, with symbol, 1, form an abelian generating set for the infinite...BaseUnits1 CD defines metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, and candela . For completeness, in both the SI BaseQuantities1 and SI BaseUnits1 CDs

  20. Hojman Conserved Quantities for Birkhoffian Systems in Event Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying a Hojman conserved quantity directly derived from a Lie symmetry for a Birkhoffian system in the event space.The Birkhoffian parametric equations for the system are established,and the determining equations of Lie symmetry for the system are obtained.The conditions under which a Lie symmetry of Birkhoffian system in the event space can directly lead up to a Hojman conserved quantity and the form of the Hojman conserved quantity are given.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  1. Green Brand Development in Sports Nutrition Food

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study is to research the current situation and the effect which is brought by the nutrition food of the green band development in sports nutrition food. Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to athletic performance. It is concerned with the type and quantity of fluid and food taken by an athlete and deals with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, supplements and organic substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Although an important pa...

  2. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  3. 休闲食品果蔬咀嚼片的研制%Preparation of Snack Food Fruit-vegetable Chewing Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华霄; 康佳琪; 唐乐乐; 田莉娟; 徐航; 杨瑞金; 钱建瑛

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索制作果蔬咀嚼片的最优配方.[方法]以新鲜番茄、胡萝卜、橘子、南瓜为原料,经过打浆、真空冷冻干燥、粉碎后制成果蔬粉.考察淀粉、糊精、β-环糊精、微晶纤维素作为咀嚼片填充剂对产品硬度的影响;比较甘露醇、山梨醇、蔗糖为矫味剂对产品口感的影响;研究各种浓度聚乙烯吡咯烷酮溶液对软材品质的影响.并通过L9(33)正交试验对果蔬咀嚼片配方进行优化.[结果]最佳配方为果蔬粉用量50%(W/W),β-环糊精用量21%(W/W),淀粉用量9%(W/W),甘露醇用量10%(W/W),山梨醇用重10%(W/W),用10%(W/V)聚乙烯吡咯烷酮溶液作为润湿剂喷洒9次.[结论]制备得到的片剂表面光滑完整,酸甜适中,咀嚼性良好.%[Objective] The aim was to explore the optimal formula for manufacturing fruit-vegetable chewing tablets. [Method] Fresh fruits and vegetables including tomato,carrot,orange and pumpkin were beat and vacuum-freezing-dried to powders. The effects of starch,dextrin,β-cyclo-dextrin,and microcrystalline cellulose on tablet hardness, the effects of mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose on the taste of tablets, the effects of polyvinyl pyrrolidone solution of different concentrations on the quality of soft materials were investigated respectively. Moreover, using L9(33) orthogonal test to optimize the formula of fruit-vegetable chewing tablets. [ Result] The optimal ingredient formula were fruit-vegetable powder 50% ( W/W) ,β-cyclodextrin 21% (W/W) .starch 9% ( W/W) ,mannitol 10% ( W/W) , sorbitol 10% ( W/W) ,with 10% ( W/V) polyvinyl pyrrolidone solution sparing for 9 times as humectants. [Conclusion] The prepared chewing tablets were smooth,good taste with fine chewiness.

  4. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  6. Hyperspectral remote sensing of tropical grass quality and quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.

    2004-01-01

    Resource distribution is a fundamental factor governing the movement and distribution of herbivores. Specifically, the quality (foliar concentration of nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) and quantity (biomass) of vegetation are important factors. In this regard, the dev

  7. Partial enthalpies and related quantities in mixtures from computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sindzingre, P.; Ciccotti, G.; Massobrio, C.; Frenkel, D.

    1987-01-01

    We report a method of calculating partial molar quantities in mixtures by computer simulation. The method is based on an extension of Widom's potential distribution theorem and provides an alternative way of computing partial enthalpies and volumes.

  8. Assessment of petrophysical quantities inspired by joint multifractal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Z Koohi; Jafari, G R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper joint multifractal random walk approach is carried out to analyze some petrophysical quantities for characterizing the petroleum reservoir. These quantities include Gamma emission (GR), sonic transient time (DT) and Neutron porosity (NPHI) which are collected from four wells of a reservoir. To quantify mutual interaction of petrophysical quantities, joint multifractal random walk is implemented. This approach is based on the mutual multiplicative cascade notion in the multifractal formalism and in this approach $L_0$ represents a benchmark to describe the nature of cross-correlation between two series. The analysis of the petrophysical quantities revealed that GR for all wells has strongly multifractal nature due to the considerable abundance of large fluctuations in various scales. The variance of probability distribution function, $\\lambda_{\\ell}^2$, at scale $\\ell$ and its intercept determine the multifractal properties of the data sets sourced by probability density function. The value of $\\...

  9. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  10. Analysis of an economic order quantity and reorder point inventory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of an economic order quantity and reorder point inventory control model for Siba ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... In addition, a cost estimate was done to compare both her current model and the recommended models.

  11. 49 CFR 173.306 - Limited quantities of compressed gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... charged with compressed air or limited quantities of nitrogen to not over 40 psig for single-trip shipment... and part 177 except § 177.817. (1) The tank must be of steel, welded with heads concave to pressure...

  12. 纳米高岭土/PE的制备及其在食品包装膜中的应用%Preparation of Nano-kaolin/PE and Its Application to Food Packaging Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国喜; 宋海南; 章于川; 刘言顺

    2011-01-01

    The nano-kaolin was modified by a new kind of macromolecular surface treatment The results of FTIR and XPS spectra show that the macromolecules are bound on the surface of nano-kaolin particles through chemical bond. Nano-kaolin/PE composites were prepared by melt-mixing process, and the composites were characterized. The composites were applied to food packaging film with three layers as middle and outer layers. The detection results show that the mechanical properties, heat sealing performance and friction coefficient of the food packaging film are better than those of PE film, the amount of steam and oxygen permeation decrease by 46.4%, 31.7%, respectively.%采用新型大分子表面处理剂对纳米高岭土进行表面处理,红外光谱仪(FTIR)和光电子能谱仪(XPS)分析表明,大分子表面处理剂和纳米高岭土的表面发生化学键合.将处理后的高岭土与聚乙烯(PE)熔融共混,制备纳米高岭土/PE复合材料,并对复合材料进行表征.将复合材料作为3层共挤出膜的中间层及外层,制备食品包装膜.检测结果显示:用复合材料制备的食品包装膜的力学性能、热封性能、摩擦因数均优于PE膜;复合膜的水蒸气透过量降低46.4%,氧气透过量降低31.7%.

  13. {sup 26}Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing {sup 26}Al as an aluminum tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokel, Robert A. [College of Pharmacy, 511C Pharmacy Building 725 Rose Street, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082 (United States) and Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)]. E-mail: ryokel@email.uky.edu; Urbas, Aaron A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Lodder, Robert A. [College of Pharmacy, 511C Pharmacy Building 725 Rose Street, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Selegue, John P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Florence, Rebecca L. [College of Pharmacy, 511C Pharmacy Building 725 Rose Street, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized {sup 26}Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down ({approx}3000- and 850-fold) to prepare {approx}300-400 mg of each SALP. The {sup 26}Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize {sup 26}Al and {sup 27}Al equilibration and incorporate the {sup 26}Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The {sup 26}Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the {sup 26}Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was {approx}0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese {approx}0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, {approx}0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  14. Consumers and Food Choice: Quality, Nutrition and Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Iztok Ostan, I.; Borut Poljsak, B.; Simcic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and quality of food needed for reproduction differs from nutritional needs for health and longevity. The choice of food type and amount is driven by our genetic need for growth and reproduction, not for long term health. So, fast digestible food, rich in energy is searched for. We

  15. Consumers and Food Choice: Quality, Nutrition and Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Iztok Ostan, I.; Borut Poljsak, B.; Simcic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and quality of food needed for reproduction differs from nutritional needs for health and longevity. The choice of food type and amount is driven by our genetic need for growth and reproduction, not for long term health. So, fast digestible food, rich in energy is searched for. We human

  16. Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Zhong; Fu Hao; Fu Jing-Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Firstly,the discrete generalized Hamiltonian canonical equations and discrete energy equation of nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems are derived from discrete Hamiltonian action.Secondly,the determining equations and structure equation of Lie symmetry of the system are obtained.Thirdly,the Lie theorems and the conservation quantities are given for the discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Finally,an example is discussed to illustrate the application of the results.

  17. The qualitative advantages of quantities of information: bigger is better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LESK Michael

    2005-01-01

    Digitization projects should focus on quantity rather than quality. Increasing quantities of information produce qualitatively more valuable services. Online writing and searching are now common, and it is only online reading that is still limiting our use of online books. New interfaces might increase our willingness to read online, which should be encouraged rather than fought, since it represents an increase both the amount of information available and the participation of more people in the writing and exchange of information.

  18. Charaterisation of function spaces via mollification; fractal quantities for distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Triebel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First we characterise elements f belonging to the Besov spaces Bpqs(ℝn with s∈ℝ,  0quantities for distributions generalising well-known corresponding quantities for Radon measures.

  19. China Limits the Mining Quantity of Tungsten and Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Based on a notice issued by the Ministry of Land Resources, China’s tungsten mining quantity in 2006 will be controlled to 59,060 tons in concentrates form, which include 4,250 tons of recycled tungsten. And the rare earth mining quantity in 2006 will also be controlled to 86,620 tons (REO) including 8,320 tons of heavy rare earth and 78,200 tons of light rare earth.

  20. Nutritional value of locally produced foods and potential for developing age-appropriate complementary foods for children under 2 years of age in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Kodio, Joseph; Iknane, Akory Ag; Sodjinou, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Promotion of dietary diversity using locally available nutritious foods is an effective approach in low-income areas to improve the quality of young children's diet and, hence, their growth and development. To identify the nutritional values of locally acceptable, feasible, affordable, and sustainable foods and develop a number of recipes that could be used to complement effectively nutrient intakes provided through breastfeeding to children 6 to 23 months of age in Bandiagara, Mali. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain lists of all locally available foods during village assembly meetings and identify the food basket of households and child feeding practices during interviews with mothers and fathers. The nutritional values of the foods were estimated, and the Malian food composition table was used to identify the combinations that would result in the most nutritious recipes. Breastfeeding was widely practiced, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was extremely low (7%). The practice of early introduction of water and complementary foods was a problem. Forty recipes for improved dishes, including puddings, drinks and juices, purees, salads, and soups, were proposed. The nutritional values of the 10 most nutritious of these recipes, the types and quantities of the ingredients, and the method of preparation of each recipe are described. Locally produced indigenous foods in rural Mali were used to develop energy- and nutrient-dense complementary foods for children. Further research is needed to test the short- and long-term effects of consuming these dishes on the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age in Mali.

  1. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 (formerly Docket No. 2002F-0316) Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage Preparation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; response to objections and denial of requests...

  2. Principle of limitation of physical quantities and cyclic universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE GuoZhu

    2008-01-01

    A close study of Heisenberg uncertainty principles reveals many significant facts, and all four major physical quantities, energy, time, momentum and length, have both lower and upper limits. Now, many questions come up. What are these limits? Some answers may lead to the understanding of the development of our universe. What is the shortest limit of time? At the beginning of big bang, there exists a tre-mendously short time, the Planck time. This may be just the shortest time limit in our universe. The longest time limit might be the lifetime of our universe. The longest length might be the final diameter of our expanding universe. All these lead to a finite universe. Two more coupling formulae are formed for the other two pairs of physical quantities, mass and speed, thermal energy and temperature. These four physical quantities must also have limits. We already knew that speed has upper limit and temperature has lower limit. By these two formulae, Planck and Einstein equations are derived directly. Since most other physical quantities are somewhat related to these major physical quantities, it seems that there exists a principle of limitation of physical quantities. A quantitative sketch of big bang is described. It also shows that our universe will contract back to another big bang. The principle of limitation opens up some fields of investigation. It may bring nature back to the harmony and determined world described by classical physics.

  3. Development of Digital Computation of Building and Civil Engineering Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderinola, O.S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work of Building and Civil engineering demands a greater knowledge, skill and precision in quantity estimation.The manual method of estimating quantities for building and civil engineering works has posed potential problem areas on work that is undertaken. The low reliability of manual estimation indicates discrepancies in the accuracy of quantities computed manually,hence,the introduction of a digital computation.It is envisaged that this method will greatly reduce the complexities of different aspects when computing quantities for projects, as well as reduce the time to complete the computation and therefore projects can be started earlier.The paper reviewed the procedures involved in the development of a computer program for the digital computation of Building and Civil engineering quantities.The program was developed using Microsoft Visual C SHARP (C# programming language and Microsoft Visual studio. The steps/procedure used in achieving the development of the computer program was (1.designing the application interface,(2 adding controls to the window and (3writing codes behind the interface.The digital computation was tested using a proposed Road project and a proposed administrative buildingand the results showed an average of 100% of the items has 0 to 10 percentage difference for the road and 92% for the building in the final outputs of the quantities obtained through the manual computation and the digital computation and the software could therefore be said to be accurate and reliable.

  4. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  5. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  6. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... IgG4 » Clinical Cases: Food Allergy » CME P.I. Pro: Food Allergy » Food allergy: a practice parameter update ( ...

  7. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hoffman; Mariette Gerber

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanist...

  8. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  9. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented......Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...

  10. Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is often added to prepared foods. It is important for people with very low tolerance for lactose to know about the many foods that contain lactose, even in small amounts, including: Bread and other baked goods. Processed breakfast cereals. Instant potatoes, soups and breakfast drinks. Margarine. ...

  11. Food packaging in South Africa: reducing, re-using and recycling.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging is essential for maintaining food quality, freshness and integrity. It also allows for convenient transport, storage and sale in discrete quantities. Finally, it can be used as a means of product differentiation, marketing...

  12. Is your choice my choice? The owners' effect on pet dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) performance in a food choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S; Valsecchi, P

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of owners on their dogs' performance in a food choice task using either different or equal quantities of food. Fifty-four pet dogs were tested in three different conditions. In Condition 1 we evaluated their ability to choose between a large and small amount of food (quantity discrimination task). In Condition 2 dogs were again presented with a choice between the large and small food quantity, but only after having witnessed their owner favouring the small quantity. In Condition 3 dogs were given a choice between two equally small quantities of food having witnessed their owner favouring either one or the other. A strong effect of the owner on the dogs' performance was observed. In Condition 1 dogs as a group chose significantly more often the large food quantity, thus showing their ability to solve the quantity discrimination task. After observing their owner expressing a preference for the small food quantity they chose the large quantity of food significantly less than in the independent choice situation. The tendency to conform to the owner's choice was higher when the dogs had to choose between equally small quantities of food (Condition 3) rather than between a large and a small one (Condition 2). These results provide evidence that dogs can be influenced by their owners even when their indications are clearly in contrast with direct perceptual information, thus leading dogs to ultimately make counterproductive choices.

  13. Effect of RE-Doped and RE Quantity of Ni-Based Catalysts on CH4/CO2 Reforming Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yifeng; Li Xiancai; Dai Chao; Wang Chunfeng; Chen Juanrong

    2004-01-01

    RE-doped Ni-based catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method.These catalysts were applied to the reaction of CO2 reforming CH4 to syngas.The studies reveal that RE-doped ( RE = La, Ce, Sm, Yb) Ni-based catalysts show higher catalytic activity than undoped Ni-based catalyst, and with the increasing of RE-doped quantity, the catalytic activity of catalysts exhibits regular changes.When RE-doped quantity is 0.2% ( molar ratio), the catalysts show the best catalytic activity.

  14. Comparing Food Provided and Wasted before and after Implementing Measures against Food Waste in Three Healthcare Food Service Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Strotmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to reduce food waste in a hospital, a hospital cafeteria, and a residential home by applying a participatory approach in which the employees were integrated into the process of developing and implementing measures. Initially, a process analysis was undertaken to identify the processes and structures existing in each institution. This included a 2-week measurement of the quantities of food produced and wasted. After implementing the measures, a second measurement was conducted and the results of the two measurements were compared. The average waste rate in the residential home was significantly reduced from 21.4% to 13.4% and from 19.8% to 12.8% in the cafeteria. In the hospital, the average waste rate remained constant (25.6% and 26.3% during the reference and control measurements. However, quantities of average daily food provided and wasted per person in the hospital declined. Minimizing overproduction, i.e., aligning the quantity of meals produced to that required, is essential to reducing serving losses. Compliance of meal quality and quantity with customer expectations, needs, and preferences, i.e., the individualization of food supply, reduces plate waste. Moreover, establishing an efficient communication structure involving all actors along the food supply chain contributes to decreasing food waste.

  15. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133... Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese with other foods is the class of foods prepared by mixing, with or without the aid of heat, cream cheese...

  16. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  17. IRON CONTENT OF FOOD COOKED IN IRON UTENSILS: A TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibifatima Bawakhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since most of the Indian population depends on vegetarian diet, prevalence of iron deficiency status is higher in India compared to other developing countries. In spite of many national programs and treatment options available in correcting this, the incidence is increasing due to poor patient compliance and intolerance to treatment. This study was an effort to show how iron content of Indian food can be increased just by following the traditional way of cooking. OBJECTIVE To compare the iron levels in the Jowar roti cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted at KIMS, Hubli. Jowar rotis were prepared from equal quantity of jowar flour in iron and non-iron tawa. Another sample of roti was prepared in iron tawa after treating with lemon juice. Six samples were homogenised and filtered. The filtrates were replicated and analysed for iron levels by FerroZine method. RESULTS In the present study, we found no change in iron levels in the roti prepared in non-iron utensil, 1.45 and 1.94 fold increase in the roti prepared in new iron tawa without water boiled in it and with water boiled in it for dough preparation respectively when compared with iron levels of plain jowar flour. There was 5.77 fold rise in iron levels in lemon juice treated roti which signifies the bioavailability of iron in food. The study showed statistical significance at ‘p’- value < 0.05. CONCLUSION Several studies have shown the similar results and this was done to strengthen the findings in our staple food. Hence, the daily iron requirement can be met easily and effectively by taking the food cooked with lemon juice in iron utensils.

  18. Food masquerade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself.

  19. Unhealthy Fat in Street and Snack Foods in Low-Socioeconomic Settings in India: A Case Study of the Food Environments of Rural Villages and an Urban Slum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vidhu; Downs, Shauna M.; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Lock, Karen; Singh, Archna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the food environment in rural villages and an urban slum setting in India with reference to commercially available unbranded packaged snacks and street foods sold by vendors, and to analyze the type and quantity of fat in these foods. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two low-income villages in Haryana and an urban slum in Delhi. Participants Street vendors (n = 44) were surveyed and the nutritional content of snacks (n = 49) sold by vendors was analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Vendors' awareness and perception of fats and oils, as well as the type of snacks sold, along with the content and quality of fat present in the snacks. Analysis Descriptive statistics of vendor survey and gas chromatography to measure fatty acid content in snacks. Results A variety of snacks were sold, including those in unlabeled transparent packages and open glass jars. Mean fat content in snacks was 28.8 g per 100-g serving in rural settings and 29.6 g per 100-g serving in urban settings. Sampled oils contained high levels of saturated fats (25% to 69% total fatty acids) and trans fats (0.1% to 30% of total fatty acids). Conclusions and Implications Interventions need to target the manufacturers of oils and fats used in freshly prepared products to improve the quality of foods available in the food environment of low-socioeconomic groups in India. PMID:26872553

  20. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  1. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  2. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  3. Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species.

  4. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  5. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2017-07-19

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Economic aspects of provision country household with food

    OpenAIRE

    Brunšek, Urška

    2016-01-01

    Food provides us satisfaction for our basic needs. We can buy or produce food, which is healthy and safe. Production of food can provide satisfaction for food for household or local population, such food is also easy to get. The purpose of diploma is to determinate if household save money with producing food and how much is it. I have analysed self providing rural household.. I collected information about quantity and sort of produced food and gained prices on the current market. This way ...

  7. 反复煎炸大豆油的食品安全性及制备O/W乳化剂的研究%Research on Food Safety of Repeated Fried Soybean Oil and Preparation of O/W Emulsifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志明; 张丽媛; 孙清瑞; 类彦波

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exploited the new uses of repeated frying soybean oil and made it depart from food market. Methods: The physical and chemical inspection was underway for the acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, carbonyl value and sensory properties of soybean oil and repeated frying soybean oil. The components and its change of soybean oil and repeated frying soybean oil were analysed by gas chromatograph and infrared spectrum. Saponification of repeated frying soybean oil to produce the 0/W emulsifier. Emulsifier quality was evaluated by determination of saponification rate, surface tension and krafft point of emulsifiers. O/W emulsion was prepared with the emulsifier and repeated frying soybean oil. Emulsifying effect was evaluated by the viscosity and stability of emulsion, application value of 0/W emulsifier and emulsion were judged combined with relevant research. Results: Acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, carbonyl value and sensory properties of repeated frying soybean oil were not all in keeping with national standards, that was not suitable for continue using in process food, but it content a large number of fatty acids, has the value of resources. Repeated frying soybean oil saponificated with NaOH can be obtained 0/W emulsifier that have good surface active and good emulsify properties. The emulsifying effect of emulsifier prepared by repeated frying soybean oil under the conditions of 961, mass ratio of oil to NaOH was 7=1, reaction time 130 min was better than emulsifier prepared by soybean oil under same conditions. The properties of O/W emulsion prepared by repeated frying soybean oil was better than emulsion prepared by soybean oil. Conclusion: preparation of 0/W emulsifier and emulsion with repeated frying soybean oil, can eliminated its edible hazards and have application value.%目的:开发反复煎炸大豆油的新用途,将其引离食品市场.方法:对大豆油和反复煎炸大豆油的感官性能、酸价、过

  8. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  9. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  10. Pseudotensor applied to Numerical Relativity in Calculating Global Quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Chung-Chin; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang

    2015-01-01

    In this work we apply the Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensor flux formalism to the calculation of the total mass and the total angular momentum during the evolution of a binary black hole system. We also compare its performance with the traditional integrations for the global quantities. It shows that the advantage of the pseudotensor flux formalism is the smoothness of the numerical value of the global quantities, especially of the total angular momentum. Although the convergence behavior of the global quantities with the pseudotensor flux method is only comparable with the ones with the traditional method, the smoothness of its numerical value allows using a larger radius for surface integration to obtain more accurate result.

  11. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from Korean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eDomahs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese. We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity.

  12. Principle of limitation of physical quantities and cyclic universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A close study of Heisenberg uncertainty principles reveals many significant facts,and all four major physical quantities,energy,time,momentum and length,have both lower and upper limits.Now,many questions come up.What are these limits?Some answers may lead to the understanding of the development of our universe.What is the shortest limit of time?At the beginning of big bang,there exists a tre-mendously short time,the Planck time.This may be just the shortest time limit in our universe.The longest time limit might be the lifetime of our universe.The longest length might be the final diameter of our expanding universe.All these lead to a finite universe.Two more coupling formulae are formed for the other two pairs of physical quantities,mass and speed,thermal energy and temperature.These four physical quantities must also have limits.We already knew that speed has upper limit and temperature has lower limit.By these two formulae,Planck and Einstein equations are derived directly.Since most other physical quantities are somewhat related to these major physical quantities,it seems that there exists a principle of limitation of physical quantities.A quantitative sketch of big bang is described.It also shows that our universe will contract back to another big bang.The principle of limitation opens up some fields of investigation.It may bring nature back to the harmony and determined world described by classical physics.

  13. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food.

  14. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unsafe food can also spread foodborne illnesses like salmonellosis and Campylobacter (pronounced: kam-pye-low-BAK-tur) ... Why Should I Care About Germs? Food Poisoning Salmonellosis Cooking Tips and Resources Contact Us Print Resources ...

  15. A Characterization of Conserved Quantities in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Romero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The well-known Noether theorem in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics associates symmetries in the evolution equations of a mechanical system with conserved quantities. In this work, we extend this classical idea to problems of non-equilibrium thermodynamics formulated within the GENERIC (General Equations for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling framework. The geometric meaning of symmetry is reviewed in this formal setting and then utilized to identify possible conserved quantities and the conditions that guarantee their strict conservation. Examples are provided that demonstrate the validity of the proposed definition in the context of finite and infinite dimensional thermoelastic problems.

  16. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  17. Covariant Hamiltonian boundary term: Reference and quasi-local quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Jian-Liang; Nester, James M

    2016-01-01

    The Hamiltonian for dynamic geometry generates the evolution of a spatial region along a vector field. It includes a boundary term which determines both the value of the Hamiltonian and the boundary conditions. The value gives the quasi-local quantities: energy-momentum, angular-momentum and center-of-mass. The boundary term depends not only on the dynamical variables but also on their reference values; the latter determine the ground state (having vanishing quasi-local quantities). For our preferred boundary term for Einstein's GR we propose 4D isometric matching and extremizing the energy to determine the reference metric and connection values.

  18. Conformal Invariance and Conserved Quantities of General Holonomic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jian-Le

    2008-01-01

    Conformal invarianee and conserved quantities of general holonomic systems are studied. A one-parameter infinitesimal transformation group and its infinitesimal transformation vector of generators are described.The definition of conformal invariance and determining equation for the system are provided.The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry.The necessary and sufficient condition,that conformal invariance of the system would be Lie symmetry,is obtained under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group. The corresponding conserved quantity is derived with the aid of a structure equation.Lastly,an example is given to demonstrate the application of the result.

  19. SYMMETRIES AND CONSERVED QUANTITIES FOR SYSTEMS OF GENERALIZED CLASSICAL MECHANICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Shang Mei; Mei Feng-xiang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the symmetries and the conserved quantities for systemsof generalized classical mechanics are studied. First, the generalizedNoether's theorem and the generalized Noether's inverse theorem of thesystems are given, which are based upon the invariant properties of thecanonical action with respect to the action of the infinitesimaltransformation of r-parameter finite group of transformation; second,the Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of the systems are studiedin accordance with the Lie's theory of the invariance of differentialequations under the transformation of infinitesimal groups; and finally,the inner connection between the two kinds of symmetries of systems isdiscussed.

  20. Photosynthesis-related quantities for education and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Taras K; Kovalenko, Ilya B; Rubin, Andrew B; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-11-01

    A quantitative understanding of the photosynthetic machinery depends largely on quantities, such as concentrations, sizes, absorption wavelengths, redox potentials, and rate constants. The present contribution is a collection of numbers and quantities related mainly to photosynthesis in higher plants. All numbers are taken directly from a literature or database source and the corresponding reference is provided. The numerical values, presented in this paper, provide ranges of values, obtained in specific experiments for specific organisms. However, the presented numbers can be useful for understanding the principles of structure and function of photosynthetic machinery and for guidance of future research.

  1. State Skill Standards: Foods and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeanette; Black, Sara; Capdeville, Elsie; Grover, Janice; Killion, Marlene; Martin, Jan; Mathews, Carol; Moen, Julie; Reynolds, Penny; Chessell, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The mission of Foods and Nutrition Education is to prepare students for family life, community life and careers in the foods and nutrition fields by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Analyze career paths within the foods and nutrition industry; (2) Examine factors that influence food…

  2. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  3. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  4. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  5. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDeployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  6. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Colin K.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Guarino, Luigi; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security. PMID:24591623

  7. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods.

  8. Food Poisioning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdilBasukiAhza

    2001-01-01

    Food poisoning characteristics and patterns were studied in six vulnerable provinces of Indonesia to identify the typicality of food poisonings.Units of analysis were district level,gender,type of food,and place of events,using the data of incidence of food poisoning from 1987to 1998 period(ten year),Multivariate analysis and bi-plot technique were used to characterize the vulnerability of the areas based on the following variables:(1) time of symptom perceived,(2) number of cases for each kind of poison,(3) incidence of chemicals poisoning,and (4)incidence the microbial poisonings,It was found that the three provinces most vulnerable to food poisoning are Central Java,West Java and Jogyakarta.The causes of food poisoning incidence are microbial poisonings(49.36%),chemicals(24.50%),natural toxicant(4.66%),and other causes or indications(21.37%),The poisoning symptoms were perceived within 1.0-144 hrs with incubation time of 0.08 to 33.00 hrs after food intake,depedn on the type of poison.The type of foods that caused poisoning are family prepared foods(30.57%),preserved food(industrial products) (29.94%),food from catering services(21.66%),traditional foods(10.83%) and street foods(7.00%),WOmen are more vulnerable(67.84)than men(32.16%),The most vulnerable places for food poisoning are respectively at home(family)(44.16%),at workplaces (16.23%),party venue(14.29%),school(12.99%),and in public places(12.34%).The results lead to the urgent needs of a better formulation,more stringent food control policy and regulation at district levels,the use of different approach towards a more locally oriented food poisoning safety measures and actions.

  9. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  10. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  11. On Ultra-High Dilutions: Global Effects Caused by Minimal Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Vannucci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role played by minimum quantities, generating large scale effects, and even of catastrophic consequence, is very commonly observed in many areas of science. In Physics, for example, the doping of impurities in materials like silicon (as low as one atom per billion results in spectacular semiconductor properties. In Biology, the effects of pheromones produced by insects and other animals are so dramatic that females of the emperor moth can attract mating males from kilometers away. And, concerning human health, severe body reactions may occur following the ingestion of very diminutive quantity of some allergic food. In this paper, the question of how Nature provides mechanisms for developing such dramatic and many times unexpected results, from very faint stimulus, will be proposed and discussed. In particular, a model for the controversial issue of how homeopathic remedies can influence and impose organic responses will also be addressed. This model particularly rely on the here named infotrans mechanism, which is based on a type of resonant property that may induce living organisms to promptly over-react after a pseudo environmental aggression. Finally, arguments will be provided to demonstrate that water, mainly due to its very high dielectric constant, can be considered a very good mediator for the infotrans. The Role of Water in Important Biological Mechanisms: Assuming that water molecules can indeed rearrange themselves to form larger clusters, it is reasonable to accept that different external excitations might induce these structures to assemble in distinctive ways. As matter of fact, experimental evidences already exist in literature showing that ultra-high dilutions of different substances, when compared to pure water, do exhibit relevant physico-chemical differences. More recently, investigations have shown that water plays a crucial role in biological systems such as the protein folding process or the twisting

  12. Precision agriculture and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  13. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  14. Quality, Quantity, and Age: The Careers of Ten Distinguished Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1985-01-01

    The longitudinal relationship between quality and quantity of productive output is examined over the careers of 10 recipients of the Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award using four alternative models (expertise-acquisition, youthful-enthusiasm, peak-age, and constant-probability-of-success). The results endorsed the…

  15. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  16. Early Numeracy Intervention: Does Quantity Discrimination Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…

  17. Quantity and unit extraction for scientific and technical intelligence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Peter; Hawes, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    Scientific and Technical (S and T) intelligence analysts consume huge amounts of data to understand how scientific progress and engineering efforts affect current and future military capabilities. One of the most important types of information S and T analysts exploit is the quantities discussed in their source material. Frequencies, ranges, size, weight, power, and numerous other properties and measurements describing the performance characteristics of systems and the engineering constraints that define them must be culled from source documents before quantified analysis can begin. Automating the process of finding and extracting the relevant quantities from a wide range of S and T documents is difficult because information about quantities and their units is often contained in unstructured text with ad hoc conventions used to convey their meaning. Currently, even simple tasks, such as searching for documents discussing RF frequencies in a band of interest, is a labor intensive and error prone process. This research addresses the challenges facing development of a document processing capability that extracts quantities and units from S and T data, and how Natural Language Processing algorithms can be used to overcome these challenges.

  18. Mapping among Number Words, Numerals, and Nonsymbolic Quantities in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Anderson, Ursula; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    In mathematically literate societies, numerical information is represented in 3 distinct codes: a verbal code (i.e., number words); a digital, symbolic code (e.g., Arabic numerals); and an analogical code (i.e., quantities; Dehaene, 1992). To communicate effectively using these numerical codes, our understanding of number must involve an…

  19. Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity Inventory Models Without Backordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaobin; TANG Wansheng; ZHAO Ruiqing

    2007-01-01

    In economic order quantity models without backordering, both the stock cost of each unit quantity and the order cost of each cycle are characterized as independent fuzzy variables rather than fuzzy numbers as in previous studies. Based on an expected value criterion or a credibility criterion, a fuzzy expected value model and a fuzzy dependent hance programming (DCP) model are constructed. The purpose of the fuzzy expected value model is to find the optimal order quantity such that the fuzzy expected value of the total cost is minimal. The fuzzy DCP model is used to find the optimal order quantity for maximizing the credibility of an event such that the total cost in the planning periods does not exceed a certain budget level.Fuzzy simulations are designed to calculate the expected value of the fuzzy objective function and the credibility of each fuzzy event. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm based on a fuzzy simulation is designed, by integrating the fuzzy simulation and the PSO algorithm. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Order Quantity Distributions in Make-to-Order Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents both an analytical and a numerical investigation into the order quantities received by a company in the form of customer orders. A discussion of assumptions regarding the behavior of demand in the form of customer orders from various perspectives within manufacturing planning ...