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Sample records for quantitatively assess tissue

  1. Using Non-Invasive Multi-Spectral Imaging to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A; Chernomordik, V; Riley, J; Hassan, M; Amyot, F; Dasgeb, B; Demos, S G; Pursley, R; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Tao, Y; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2007-10-04

    This research describes a non-invasive, non-contact method used to quantitatively analyze the functional characteristics of tissue. Multi-spectral images collected at several near-infrared wavelengths are input into a mathematical optical skin model that considers the contributions from different analytes in the epidermis and dermis skin layers. Through a reconstruction algorithm, we can quantify the percent of blood in a given area of tissue and the fraction of that blood that is oxygenated. Imaging normal tissue confirms previously reported values for the percent of blood in tissue and the percent of blood that is oxygenated in tissue and surrounding vasculature, for the normal state and when ischemia is induced. This methodology has been applied to assess vascular Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and the surrounding tissue before and during experimental therapies. The multi-spectral imaging technique has been combined with laser Doppler imaging to gain additional information. Results indicate that these techniques are able to provide quantitative and functional information about tissue changes during experimental drug therapy and investigate progression of disease before changes are visibly apparent, suggesting a potential for them to be used as complementary imaging techniques to clinical assessment.

  2. Quality Assessments of Long-Term Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Breast Cancer Xenograft Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Bai; Tian, Yuan; Liu, Tao; Thomas, Stefani N.; Chen, Li; Schnaubelt, Michael; Boja, Emily; Hiltket, Tara; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rodriguez, Henry; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Tabb, David L.; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Carr, Steven A.; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W.; Zhang, Hui

    2017-09-21

    The identification of protein biomarkers requires large-scale analysis of human specimens to achieve statistical significance. In this study, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) based quantitative proteomics strategy using one channel for universal normalization across all samples. A total of 307 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analyses were completed, generating 107 one-dimensional (1D) LC-MS/MS datasets and 8 offline two-dimensional (2D) LC-MS/MS datasets (25 fractions for each set) for human-in-mouse breast cancer xenograft tissues representative of basal and luminal subtypes. Such large-scale studies require the implementation of robust metrics to assess the contributions of technical and biological variability in the qualitative and quantitative data. Accordingly, we developed a quantification confidence score based on the quality of each peptide-spectrum match (PSM) to remove quantification outliers from each analysis. After combining confidence score filtering and statistical analysis, reproducible protein identification and quantitative results were achieved from LC-MS/MS datasets collected over a 16 month period.

  3. Supersonic transient magnetic resonance elastography for quantitative assessment of tissue elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Liu, Jingfei; Fite, Brett Z; Foiret, Josquin; Ilovitsh, Asaf; Leach, J Kent; Dumont, Erik; Caskey, Charles F; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2017-05-21

    Non-invasive, quantitative methods to assess the properties of biological tissues are needed for many therapeutic and tissue engineering applications. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has historically relied on external vibration to generate periodic shear waves. In order to focally assess a biomaterial or to monitor the response to ablative therapy, the interrogation of a specific region of interest by a focused beam is desirable and transient MRE (t-MRE) techniques have previously been developed to accomplish this goal. Also, strategies employing a series of discrete ultrasound pulses directed to increasing depths along a single line-of-sight have been designed to generate a quasi-planar shear wave. Such 'supersonic' excitations have been applied for ultrasound elasticity measurements. The resulting shear wave is higher in amplitude than that generated from a single excitation and the properties of the media are simply visualized and quantified due to the quasi-planar wave geometry and the opportunity to generate the wave at the site of interest. Here for the first time, we extend the application of supersonic methods by developing a protocol for supersonic transient magnetic resonance elastography (sst-MRE) using an MR-guided focused ultrasound system capable of therapeutic ablation. We apply the new protocol to quantify tissue elasticity in vitro using biologically-relevant inclusions and tissue-mimicking phantoms, compare the results with elasticity maps acquired with ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging (US-SWEI), and validate both methods with mechanical testing. We found that a modified time-of-flight (TOF) method efficiently quantified shear modulus from sst-MRE data, and both the TOF and local inversion methods result in similar maps based on US-SWEI. With a three-pulse excitation, the proposed sst-MRE protocol was capable of visualizing quasi-planar shear waves propagating away from the excitation location and detecting differences in shear

  4. Supersonic transient magnetic resonance elastography for quantitative assessment of tissue elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Liu, Jingfei; Fite, Brett Z.; Foiret, Josquin; Ilovitsh, Asaf; Leach, J. Kent; Dumont, Erik; Caskey, Charles F.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2017-05-01

    Non-invasive, quantitative methods to assess the properties of biological tissues are needed for many therapeutic and tissue engineering applications. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has historically relied on external vibration to generate periodic shear waves. In order to focally assess a biomaterial or to monitor the response to ablative therapy, the interrogation of a specific region of interest by a focused beam is desirable and transient MRE (t-MRE) techniques have previously been developed to accomplish this goal. Also, strategies employing a series of discrete ultrasound pulses directed to increasing depths along a single line-of-sight have been designed to generate a quasi-planar shear wave. Such ‘supersonic’ excitations have been applied for ultrasound elasticity measurements. The resulting shear wave is higher in amplitude than that generated from a single excitation and the properties of the media are simply visualized and quantified due to the quasi-planar wave geometry and the opportunity to generate the wave at the site of interest. Here for the first time, we extend the application of supersonic methods by developing a protocol for supersonic transient magnetic resonance elastography (sst-MRE) using an MR-guided focused ultrasound system capable of therapeutic ablation. We apply the new protocol to quantify tissue elasticity in vitro using biologically-relevant inclusions and tissue-mimicking phantoms, compare the results with elasticity maps acquired with ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging (US-SWEI), and validate both methods with mechanical testing. We found that a modified time-of-flight (TOF) method efficiently quantified shear modulus from sst-MRE data, and both the TOF and local inversion methods result in similar maps based on US-SWEI. With a three-pulse excitation, the proposed sst-MRE protocol was capable of visualizing quasi-planar shear waves propagating away from the excitation location and detecting differences in shear

  5. Quantitative assessment of optical properties in healthy cartilage and repair tissue by optical coherence tomography and histology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sanne M. A.; Cernohorsky, Paul; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van der Pol, Edwin; Savci-Heijink, Cemile D.; Strackee, Simon D.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantification of the OCT signal is an important step toward clinical implementation of a diagnostic tool in cartilage imaging. Discrimination of structural cartilage differences in patients with osteoarthritis is critical, yet challenging. This study assesses the variation in the optical attenuation coefficient (μOCT) between healthy cartilage, repair tissue, bone and layers within repair tissue in a controlled setting. OCT and histology was used to assess goat talus articular surfaces in which central osteochondral defects were created. Exact matches of OCT and histology were selected for research. μOCT measurements were taken from healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Measured μOCT in healthy cartilage was higher compared to both repair tissue and bone tissue. Two possible mechanisms for the difference in attenuation were investigated. We studied morphological parameters in terms of nucleus count, nucleus size and inter-nucleus distance. Collagen content in healthy cartilage and repair tissue was assessed using polarization microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the nuclei did not demonstrate a difference in nucleus size and count between healthy cartilage and repair tissue. In healthy cartilage, cells were spaced farther apart and had a lower variation in local nuclear density compared to repair tissue. Polarization microscopy suggested higher collagen content in healthy cartilage compared to repair tissue. μOCT measurements can distinguish between healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Results suggest that cartilage OCT attenuation measurements could be of great impact in clinical diagnostics of osteoarthritis.

  6. Quantitative assessment of the mechanical properties of prostate tissue with optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yuting; Li, Chunhui; Zhou, Kanheng; Guan, Guangying; Lang, Stephen; McGloin, David; Nabi, Ghulam; Huang, Zhihong

    2018-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a heterogeneous disease with multifocal origin. In current clinical care, the Gleason scoring system is the well-established diagnosis by microscopic evaluation of the tissue from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsies. Nevertheless, the sensitivity and specificity in detecting PCa can range from 40 to 50% for conventional TRUS B-mode imaging. Tissue elasticity is associated with the disease progression and elastography technique has recently shown promise in aiding PCa diagnosis. However, many cancer foci in the prostate gland has very small size less than 1 mm and those detected by medical elastography were larger than 2 mm. Hereby, we introduce optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify the prostate stiffness with high resolution in the magnitude of 10 µm. Following our feasibility study of 10 patients reported previously, we recruited 60 more patients undergoing 12-core TRUS guided biopsies for suspected PCa with a total of 720 biopsies. The stiffness of cancer tissue was approximately 57.63% higher than that of benign ones. Using histology as reference standard and cut-off threshold of 600kPa, the data analysis showed sensitivity and specificity of 89.6% and 99.8% respectively. The method also demonstrated potential in characterising different grades of PCa based on the change of tissue morphology and quantitative mechanical properties. In conclusion, quantitative OCE can be a reliable technique to identify PCa lesion and differentiate indolent from aggressive cancer.

  7. Quantitative assessment of submicron scale anisotropy in tissue multifractality by scattering Mueller matrix in the framework of Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Meglinski, Igor; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2018-04-01

    A number of tissue-like disordered media exhibit local anisotropy of scattering in the scaling behavior. Scaling behavior contains wealth of fractal or multifractal properties. We demonstrate that the spatial dielectric fluctuations in a sample of biological tissue exhibit multifractal anisotropy. Multifractal anisotropy encoded in the wavelength variation of the light scattering Mueller matrix and manifesting as an intriguing spectral diattenuation effect. We developed an inverse method for the quantitative assessment of the multifractal anisotropy. The method is based on the processing of relevant Mueller matrix elements in Fourier domain by using Born approximation, followed by the multifractal analysis. The approach promises for probing subtle micro-structural changes in biological tissues associated with the cancer and precancer, as well as for non-destructive characterization of a wide range of scattering materials.

  8. A risk assessment-driven quantitative comparison of gene expression profiles in PBMCs and white adipose tissue of humans and rats after isoflavone supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velpen, van der V.; Veer, van 't P.; Islam, M.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Leeuwen, F.X.R.; Afman, L.A.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schouten, A.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative insight into species differences in risk assessment is expected to reduce uncertainty and variability related to extrapolation from animals to humans. This paper explores quantification and comparison of gene expression data between tissues and species from intervention studies with

  9. Critical assessment of bone scan quantitation (bone to soft tissue ratios) in the diagnosis of metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelman, I.; Gordon, D.; Bessent, R.G.

    1981-03-01

    Accurate quantitation from the bone scan image of skeletal uptake of radiopharmaceutical would be of value in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disease. Repeat measurements of bone to soft tissue (B/ST) ratios on the one set of images were made for 103 subjects, a) by the same observer using lumbar vertebra 2 for the area of bone; b) by the same observer using lumbar vertebra 2 then lumbar vertebra 4; c) by two observers both using lumbar vertebra 2. The median difference between repeat measurements by the same observer was well under 1% but the 5-95 percentile range was -13 to +14%. Between the two observers there was a median difference of 10.6% with a 5-95 percentile range of -11 to +44%. We also measured B/ST ratios in 150 control subjects and 139 patients with various metabolic bone disorders. While statistically significant differences for B/ST ratios were found between the osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, Paget's groups, and the control population (P < 0.001 in all cases), there was appreciable overlap between individual patient results and the control range. It is concluded, therefore, that measurement of B/ST ratios for the individual is of limited value in clinical practice.

  10. Alpha-particle autoradiography in CR-39: a technique for quantitative assessment of alpha-emitters in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fews, A.P.; Henshaw, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques for α-particle autoradiography based on the plastic nuclear track detector CR-39, previously reported, have been developed considerably. The techniques are applied to α-autoradiography of human lung tissue in particular but are applicable to any biological tissue. The most important developments are: (i) Improvements in the manufacture and pre-etching of the plastic. (ii) High resolution α-particle spectroscopy in CR-39 plastic based on the analysis of the structure of the etched track. (iii) Calculation of the effective thickness of tissue sampled by the plastic. (iv) A deconvolution analysis which takes the distributions of track length and dip angle in the plastic and determines the α-particle range spectrum and distribution of tissue activity with height above the plastic surface. (v) The analysis of radon diffusion in tissue to determine the mean radon diffusion distance in tissue and plastic. (author)

  11. Quantitative assessment of selective in-plane shielding of tissues in computed tomography through evaluation of absorbed dose and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleijns, J.; Veldkamp, W.J.H.; Salvado Artells, M.; Lopez Tortosa, M.; Calzado Cantera, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at assessment of efficacy of selective in-plane shielding in adults by quantitative evaluation of the achieved dose reduction and image quality. Commercially available accessories for in-plane shielding of the eye lens, thyroid and breast, and an anthropomorphic phantom were used for the evaluation of absorbed dose and image quality. Organ dose and total energy imparted were assessed by means of a Monte Carlo technique taking into account tube voltage, tube current, and scanner type. Image quality was quantified as noise in soft tissue. Application of the lens shield reduced dose to the lens by 27% and to the brain by 1%. The thyroid shield reduced thyroid dose by 26%; the breast shield reduced dose to the breasts by 30% and to the lungs by 15%. Total energy imparted (unshielded/shielded) was 88/86 mJ for computed tomography (CT) brain, 64/60 mJ for CT cervical spine, and 289/260 mJ for CT chest scanning. An increase in image noise could be observed in the ranges were bismuth shielding was applied. The observed reduction of organ dose and total energy imparted could be achieved more efficiently by a reduction of tube current. The application of in-plane selective shielding is therefore discouraged. (orig.)

  12. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  13. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Maccabi

    Full Text Available Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E, long term shear modulus (η, and time constant (τ in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research.

  14. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Shin, Andrew; Namiri, Nikan K; Bajwa, Neha; St John, Maie; Taylor, Zachary D; Grundfest, Warren; Saddik, George N

    2018-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA) and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E), long term shear modulus (η), and time constant (τ) in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research.

  15. Segmentation and Quantitative Analysis of Epithelial Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Umetsu, Daiki; Eaton, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics.

  16. Inhibition of tissue angiotensin converting enzyme. Quantitation by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, K.; Chai, S.Y.; Jackson, B.; Johnston, C.I.; Mendelsohn, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in serum and tissues of rats was studied after administration of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor. Tissue ACE was assessed by quantitative in vitro autoradiography using the ACE inhibitor [ 125 I]351A, as a ligand, and serum ACE was measured by a fluorimetric method. Following oral administration of lisinopril (10 mg/kg), serum ACE activity was acutely reduced but recovered gradually over 24 hours. Four hours after lisinopril administration, ACE activity was markedly inhibited in kidney (11% of control level), adrenal (8%), duodenum (8%), and lung (33%; p less than 0.05). In contrast, ACE in testis was little altered by lisinopril (96%). In brain, ACE activity was markedly reduced 4 hours after lisinopril administration in the circumventricular organs, including the subfornical organ (16-22%) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (7%; p less than 0.05). In other areas of the brain, including the choroid plexus and caudate putamen, ACE activity was unchanged. Twenty-four hours after administration, ACE activity in peripheral tissues and the circumventricular organs of the brain had only partially recovered toward control levels, as it was still below 50% of control activity levels. These results establish that lisinopril has differential effects on inhibiting ACE in different tissues and suggest that the prolonged tissue ACE inhibition after a single oral dose of lisinopril may reflect targets involved in the hypotensive action of ACE inhibitors

  17. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of amount of fibroglandular breast tissue with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison to automated quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengert, G.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Woitek, R.; Kapetas, P.; Clauser, P.; Baltzer, P.A.; Vogl, W.D.; Weber, M.; Meyer-Baese, A.; Pinker, Katja

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the inter-/intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to investigate whether FGT assessment benefits from an automated, observer-independent, quantitative MRI measurement by comparing both approaches. Eighty women with no imaging abnormalities (BI-RADS 1 and 2) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective study. All women underwent un-enhanced breast MRI. Four radiologists independently assessed FGT with MRI by subjective visual estimation according to BI-RADS. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT with MRI was performed using a previously described measurement system. Inter-/intra-observer agreements of qualitative and quantitative FGT measurements were assessed using Cohen's kappa (k). Inexperienced readers achieved moderate inter-/intra-observer agreement and experienced readers a substantial inter- and perfect intra-observer agreement for subjective visual estimation of FGT. Practice and experience reduced observer-dependency. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT was successfully performed and revealed only fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.209-0.497) with subjective visual estimations of FGT. Subjective visual estimation of FGT with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement, which can be improved by practice and experience. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements of FGT are necessary to allow a standardized risk evaluation. (orig.)

  18. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of amount of fibroglandular breast tissue with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison to automated quantitative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengert, G.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Woitek, R.; Kapetas, P.; Clauser, P.; Baltzer, P.A. [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Vogl, W.D. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Computational Imaging Research Lab, Wien (Austria); Weber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of General and Pediatric Radiology, Wien (Austria); Meyer-Baese, A. [State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Pinker, Katja [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Services, New York City, NY (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the inter-/intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to investigate whether FGT assessment benefits from an automated, observer-independent, quantitative MRI measurement by comparing both approaches. Eighty women with no imaging abnormalities (BI-RADS 1 and 2) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective study. All women underwent un-enhanced breast MRI. Four radiologists independently assessed FGT with MRI by subjective visual estimation according to BI-RADS. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT with MRI was performed using a previously described measurement system. Inter-/intra-observer agreements of qualitative and quantitative FGT measurements were assessed using Cohen's kappa (k). Inexperienced readers achieved moderate inter-/intra-observer agreement and experienced readers a substantial inter- and perfect intra-observer agreement for subjective visual estimation of FGT. Practice and experience reduced observer-dependency. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT was successfully performed and revealed only fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.209-0.497) with subjective visual estimations of FGT. Subjective visual estimation of FGT with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement, which can be improved by practice and experience. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements of FGT are necessary to allow a standardized risk evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Quantitative image analysis of synovial tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hall, Pascal O.; Kraan, Maarten C.; Tak, Paul Peter

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative image analysis is a form of imaging that includes microscopic histological quantification, video microscopy, image analysis, and image processing. Hallmarks are the generation of reliable, reproducible, and efficient measurements via strict calibration and step-by-step control of the

  20. Quantitative polarized Raman spectroscopy in highly turbid bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D; Wilson, Robert H; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H; Morris, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy allows measurement of molecular orientation and composition and is widely used in the study of polymer systems. Here, we extend the technique to the extraction of quantitative orientation information from bone tissue, which is optically thick and highly turbid. We discuss multiple scattering effects in tissue and show that repeated measurements using a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be employed to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field on polarized Raman measurements. A high numerical aperture objective minimizes the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering. We test and validate the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy using wild-type and genetically modified (oim/oim model of osteogenesis imperfecta) murine bones. Mineral orientation distribution functions show that mineral crystallites are not as well aligned (pbones (28+/-3 deg) compared to wild-type bones (22+/-3 deg), in agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering results. In wild-type mice, backbone carbonyl orientation is 76+/-2 deg and in oim/oim mice, it is 72+/-4 deg (p>0.05). We provide evidence that simultaneous quantitative measurements of mineral and collagen orientations on intact bone specimens are possible using polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert M (Inventor); Smidts, Carol S (Inventor); Mosleh, Ali (Inventor); Chang, Yung-Hsien (Inventor); Swaminathan, Sankaran (Inventor); Groen, Francisco J (Inventor); Tan, Zhibin (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) builds a risk model of a system for which risk of failure is being assessed, then analyzes the risk of the system corresponding to the risk model. The QRAS performs sensitivity analysis of the risk model by altering fundamental components and quantifications built into the risk model, then re-analyzes the risk of the system using the modifications. More particularly, the risk model is built by building a hierarchy, creating a mission timeline, quantifying failure modes, and building/editing event sequence diagrams. Multiplicities, dependencies, and redundancies of the system are included in the risk model. For analysis runs, a fixed baseline is first constructed and stored. This baseline contains the lowest level scenarios, preserved in event tree structure. The analysis runs, at any level of the hierarchy and below, access this baseline for risk quantitative computation as well as ranking of particular risks. A standalone Tool Box capability exists, allowing the user to store application programs within QRAS.

  2. Quantitative assessment of protein activity in orphan tissues and single cells using the metaVIPER algorithm. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    We and others have shown that transition and maintenance of biological states is controlled by master regulator proteins, which can be inferred by interrogating tissue-specific regulatory models (interactomes) with transcriptional signatures, using the VIPER algorithm. Yet, some tissues may lack molecular profiles necessary for interactome inference (orphan tissues), or, as for single cells isolated from heterogeneous samples, their tissue context may be undetermined.

  3. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be de...

  4. Quantitative frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in tissues and tissue-like media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerussi, Albert Edward

    1999-09-01

    In the never-ending quest for improved medical technology at lower cost, modern near-infrared optical spectroscopy offers the possibility of inexpensive technology for quantitative and non-invasive diagnoses. Hemoglobin is the dominant chromophore in the 700-900 nm spectral region and as such it allows for the optical assessment of hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygenation by absorption spectroscopy. However, there are many other important physiologically relevant compounds or physiological states that cannot be effectively sensed via optical methods because of poor optical contrast. In such cases, contrast enhancements are required. Fluorescence spectroscopy is an attractive component of optical tissue spectroscopy. Exogenous fluorophores, as well as some endogenous ones, may furnish the desperately needed sensitivity and specificity that is lacking in near-infrared optical tissue spectroscopy. The main focus of this thesis was to investigate the generation and propagation of fluorescence photons inside tissues and tissue-like media (i.e., scattering dominated media). The standard concepts of fluorescence spectroscopy have been incorporated into a diffusion-based picture that is sometimes referred to as photon migration. The novelty of this work lies in the successful quantitative recovery of fluorescence lifetimes, absolute fluorescence quantum yields, fluorophore concentrations, emission spectra, and both scattering and absorption coefficients at the emission wavelength from a tissue-like medium. All of these parameters are sensitive to the fluorophore local environment and hence are indicators of the tissue's physiological state. One application demonstrating the capabilities of frequency-domain lifetime spectroscopy in tissue-like media is a study of the binding of ethidium bromide to bovine leukocytes in fresh milk. Ethidium bromide is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used to label DNA, and hence visualize chromosomes in cells. The lifetime of

  5. Quantitative assessment of breast density from mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, N.; Ng, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is known that breast density is increasingly used as a risk factor for breast cancer. This study was undertaken to develop and validate a semi-automated computer technique for the quantitative assessment of breast density from digitised mammograms. A computer technique had been developed using MATLAB (Version 6.1) based GUI applications. This semi-automated image analysis tool consists of gradient correction, segmentation of breast region from background, segmentation of fibroglandular and adipose region within the breast area and calculation of breast density. The density is defined as the percentage of fibroglandular tissue area divided by the total breast area in the mammogram. This technique was clinically validated with 122 normal mammograms; these were subjectively evaluated and classified according to the five parenchyma patterns of the Tabar's scheme (Class I- V) by a consultant radiologist. There was a statistical significant correlation between the computer technique and subjective classification (r 2 = 0.84, p<0.05). 71.3% of subjective classification was correctly classified using the computer technique. We had developed a computer technique for the quantitative assessment of breast density and validated its accuracy for computerized classification based on Tabar's scheme. This quantitative tool is useful for the evaluation of a large dataset of mammograms to predict breast cancer risk based on density. Furthermore it has the potential to provide an early marker for success or failure in chemoprevention studies such as hormonal replacement therapy. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  6. Quantitative analysis of myocardial tissue with digital autofluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The opportunity offered by whole slide scanners of automated histological analysis implies an ever increasing importance of digital pathology. To go beyond the importance of conventional pathology, however, digital pathology may need a basic histological starting point similar to that of hematoxylin and eosin staining in conventional pathology. This study presents an automated fluorescence-based microscopy approach providing highly detailed morphological data from unstained microsections. This data may provide a basic histological starting point from which further digital analysis including staining may benefit. Methods: This study explores the inherent tissue fluorescence, also known as autofluorescence, as a mean to quantitate cardiac tissue components in histological microsections. Data acquisition using a commercially available whole slide scanner and an image-based quantitation algorithm are presented. Results: It is shown that the autofluorescence intensity of unstained microsections at two different wavelengths is a suitable starting point for automated digital analysis of myocytes, fibrous tissue, lipofuscin, and the extracellular compartment. The output of the method is absolute quantitation along with accurate outlines of above-mentioned components. The digital quantitations are verified by comparison to point grid quantitations performed on the microsections after Van Gieson staining. Conclusion: The presented method is amply described as a prestain multicomponent quantitation and outlining tool for histological sections of cardiac tissue. The main perspective is the opportunity for combination with digital analysis of stained microsections, for which the method may provide an accurate digital framework.

  7. Aspects of Quantitation in Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigated on Cryo-Sections of Spiked Tissue Homogenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi Toft; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    for differences in tissue types in, for example, whole-body imaging, a set of tissue homogenates of different tissue types (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and brain) from rabbit was spiked to the same concentration with the drug amitriptyline and imaged in the same experiment using isotope labeled amitriptyline...... for these results range approximately within a factor of 3 (but for other compounds in other tissues could be higher), underscore the importance of preparing the standard curve in the same matrix as the unknown sample whenever possible. In, for example, whole-body imaging where a diversity of tissue types...... are present, this variation across tissue types will therefore add to the overall uncertainty in quantitation. The tissue homogenates were also used in a characterization of various phenomena in quantitative MSI, such as to study how the signal depends of the thickness of the cryo-section, and to assess...

  8. Simultaneous qualitative assessment and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in various tissues of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quad mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Fang, Linchuan; Xi, Huifen; Guan, Le; Fang, Jinbao; Liu, Yanling; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua

    2012-04-29

    Flavonoid composition and concentration were investigated in 12 different tissues of 'Ti-1' lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) by high performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detection tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)). A total of 20 flavonoids belonging to six groups (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, isohamnetin, diosmetin derivatives) were separated and identified. Myricetin 3-O-galactoside, myricetin 3-O-glucuronide, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucuronide and free aglycone diometin (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone) were first reported in lotus. Flavonoid composition varied largely with tissue type, and diverse compounds (5-15) were found in leaf and flower stalks, flower pistils, seed coats and embryos. Flower tissues including flower petals, stamens, pistils, and, especially, reproductive tissue fruit coats had more flavonoid compounds (15-17) than leaves (12), while no flavonoids were detectable in seed kernels. The flavonoid content of seed embryos was high, 730.95 mg 100g(-1) DW (dry weight). As regards the other tissues, mature leaf pulp (771.79 mg 100 g(-1) FW (fresh weight)) and young leaves (650.67 mg 100 g(-1) FW) had higher total flavonoid amount than flower stamens (359.45 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and flower petals (342.97 mg 100g(-1) FW), while leaf stalks, flower stalks and seed coats had much less total flavonoid (less than 40 mg 100 g(-1) FW). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative assessment of hemodynamic and structural characteristics of in vivo brain tissue using total diffuse reflectance spectrum measured in a non-contact fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinchen; Garcia, Sarahy; Frometa, Yisel; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Soltani, Mohammad; Almadi, Mohamed; Riera, Jorge J; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new methodology that investigates the intrinsic structural and hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo brain tissue, in a non-contact fashion, and can be easily incorporated in an intra-operative environment. Within this methodology, relative total diffuse reflectance spectra (R TD (λ)) were acquired from targets using a hybrid spectroscopy imaging system. A spectral interpretation algorithm was subsequently applied to R TD (λ) to retrieve optical properties related to the compositional and structural characteristics of each target. Estimation errors of the proposed methodology were computationally evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation model for photon migration under various conditions. It was discovered that this new methodology could handle moderate noise and achieve very high accuracy, but only if the refractive index of the target is known. The accuracy of the technique was also validated using a series of tissue phantom studies, and consistent and accurate estimates of μ s '(λ)/μ a (λ) were obtained from all the phantoms tested. Finally, a small-scale animal study was conducted to demonstrate the clinical utility of the reported method, wherein a forepaw stimulation model was utilized to induce transient hemodynamic responses in somatosensory cortices. With this approach, significant stimulation-related changes (p < 0.001) in cortical hemodynamic and structural characteristics were successfully measured.

  10. Suitable reference tissues for quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Sina; Schneider, Till M; Emmerich, Julian; Freitag, Martin T; Ziener, Christian H; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark E; Laun, Frederik B

    2017-07-01

    Since quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantifies magnetic susceptibility relative to a reference value, a suitable reference tissue has to be available to compare different subjects and stages of disease. To find such a suitable reference tissue for QSM of the brain, melanoma patients with and without brain metastases were measured. Twelve reference regions were chosen and assessed for stability of susceptibility values with respect to multiple intra-individual and inter-individual measurements, age, and stage of disease. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the internal capsule and one region in the splenium of the corpus callosum are the regions with the smallest standard deviations of the mean susceptibility value. The mean susceptibility is 0.010 ± 0.014 ppm for CSF in the atrium of the lateral ventricles (csf post ), -0.060 ± 0.019 ppm for the posterior limb of the internal capsule (ci2), and -0.008 ± 0.019 ppm for the splenium of the corpus callosum. csf post and ci2 show nearly no dependence on age or stage of disease, whereas some other regions, e.g., the red nucleus, show moderate dependence on age or disease. The internal capsule and CSF appear to be the most suitable reference regions for QSM of the brain in the melanoma patients studied. Both showed virtually no dependence on age or disease and small variations among patients. Magn Reson Med 78:204-214, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial - Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) primer that organizes QMRA tutorials. The tutorials describe functionality of a QMRA infrastructure, guide the user through software use and assessment options, provide step-by-step instructions for implementi...

  12. Quantitative analysis of myocardial tissue with digital autofluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Holten-Rossing, Henrik; Svendsen, Ida M H

    2016-01-01

    to that of hematoxylin and eosin staining in conventional pathology. This study presents an automated fluorescence-based microscopy approach providing highly detailed morphological data from unstained microsections. This data may provide a basic histological starting point from which further digital analysis including...... staining may benefit. METHODS: This study explores the inherent tissue fluorescence, also known as autofluorescence, as a mean to quantitate cardiac tissue components in histological microsections. Data acquisition using a commercially available whole slide scanner and an image-based quantitation algorithm......BACKGROUND: The opportunity offered by whole slide scanners of automated histological analysis implies an ever increasing importance of digital pathology. To go beyond the importance of conventional pathology, however, digital pathology may need a basic histological starting point similar...

  13. A novel semi-quantitative method for measuring tissue bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcevic, G; Volarevic, V; Raicevic, S; Tanaskovic, I; Milicic, B; Vulovic, T; Arsenijevic, S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we describe a new semi-quantitative method for measuring the extent of bleeding in pathohistological tissue samples. To test our novel method, we recruited 120 female patients in their first trimester of pregnancy and divided them into three groups of 40. Group I was the control group, in which no dilation was applied. Group II was an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using classical mechanical dilators. Group III was also an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using a hydraulic dilator. Tissue samples were taken from the patients' cervical canals using a Novak's probe via energetic single-step curettage prior to any dilation in Group I and after dilation in Groups II and III. After the tissue samples were prepared, light microscopy was used to obtain microphotographs at 100x magnification. The surfaces affected by bleeding were measured in the microphotographs using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program and its "polylines" function. The lines were used to mark the area around the entire sample (marked A) and to create "polyline" areas around each bleeding area on the sample (marked B). The percentage of the total area affected by bleeding was calculated using the formula: N = Bt x 100 / At where N is the percentage (%) of the tissue sample surface affected by bleeding, At (A total) is the sum of the surfaces of all of the tissue samples and Bt (B total) is the sum of all the surfaces affected by bleeding in all of the tissue samples. This novel semi-quantitative method utilizes the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program, which is simple to use and widely available, thereby offering a new, objective and precise approach to estimate the extent of bleeding in tissue samples.

  14. Aspects of Quantitation in Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigated on Cryo-Sections of Spiked Tissue Homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Heidi Toft; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-12-06

    Internal standards have been introduced in quantitative mass spectrometry imaging in order to compensate for differences in intensities throughout an image caused by, for example, difference in ion suppression or analyte extraction efficiency. To test how well the internal standards compensate for differences in tissue types in, for example, whole-body imaging, a set of tissue homogenates of different tissue types (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and brain) from rabbit was spiked to the same concentration with the drug amitriptyline and imaged in the same experiment using isotope labeled amitriptyline as internal standard. The results showed, even after correction with internal standard, significantly lower intensities from brain and to some extent also lung tissue, differences which may be ascribed to binding of the drug to proteins or lipids as known from traditional bioanalysis. The differences, which for these results range approximately within a factor of 3 (but for other compounds in other tissues could be higher), underscore the importance of preparing the standard curve in the same matrix as the unknown sample whenever possible. In, for example, whole-body imaging where a diversity of tissue types are present, this variation across tissue types will therefore add to the overall uncertainty in quantitation. The tissue homogenates were also used in a characterization of various phenomena in quantitative MSI, such as to study how the signal depends of the thickness of the cryo-section, and to assess the accuracy of calibration by droplet deposition. For experiments on liver tissue, calibration by spiked tissue homogenates and droplet deposition was found to provide highly similar results and in both cases linearity with R 2 values of 0.99. In the process, a new method was developed for preparation of standard curves of spiked tissue homogenates, based on the drilling of holes in a block of frozen liver homogenate, providing easy cryo-slicing and good quantitative

  15. Challenges in Risk Assessment: Quantitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The process of risk analysis consists out of three components, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. These components are internationally well spread by Codex Alimentarius Commission as being the basis for setting science based standards, criteria on food safety hazards, e.g. setting maximum limits of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. However, the technical component risk assessment is hard to elaborate and to understand. Key in a risk assessment is the translation of biological or...

  16. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Contact Sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Api, Anne Marie; Belsito, Donald; Bickers, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Contact hypersensitivity quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients is being used to establish new international standards for all fragrance ingredients that are potential skin sensitizers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the retrospective clinical data...... as potential sensitizers. Methods: This article reviews clinical data for three fragrance ingredients cinnamic aldehyde, citral, and isoeugenol to assess the utility of the QRA approach for fragrance ingredients. Results: This assessment suggests that had the QRA approach been available at the time standards...

  17. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  18. Deforestation since independence: A quantitative assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deforestation since independence: A quantitative assessment of four decades of land-cover change in Malawi. ... pressure and demographic factors are important predictors of deforestation rate within our study area. Keywords: afforestation, Africa, deforestation, drivers, land-use change, reforestation, rural, urban ...

  19. Radiological interpretation 2020: Toward quantitative image assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of medical images by radiologists is primarily and fundamentally a subjective activity, but there are a number of clinical applications such as tumor imaging where quantitative imaging (QI) metrics (such as tumor growth rate) would be valuable to the patient’s care. It is predicted that the subjective interpretive environment of the past will, over the next decade, evolve toward the increased use of quantitative metrics for evaluating patient health from images. The increasing sophistication and resolution of modern tomographic scanners promote the development of meaningful quantitative end points, determined from images which are in turn produced using well-controlled imaging protocols. For the QI environment to expand, medical physicists, physicians, other researchers and equipment vendors need to work collaboratively to develop the quantitative protocols for imaging, scanner calibrations, and robust analytical software that will lead to the routine inclusion of quantitative parameters in the diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of human health. Most importantly, quantitative metrics need to be developed which have genuine impact on patient diagnosis and welfare, and only then will QI techniques become integrated into the clinical environment.

  20. A Stereological Method for the Quantitative Evaluation of Cartilage Repair Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Lind, Martin; Spector, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Objective To implement stereological principles to develop an easy applicable algorithm for unbiased and quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair. Design Design-unbiased sampling was performed by systematically sectioning the defect perpendicular to the joint surface in parallel planes providing 7 to 10 hematoxylin–eosin stained histological sections. Counting windows were systematically selected and converted into image files (40-50 per defect). The quantification was performed by two-step point counting: (1) calculation of defect volume and (2) quantitative analysis of tissue composition. Step 2 was performed by assigning each point to one of the following categories based on validated and easy distinguishable morphological characteristics: (1) hyaline cartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in hyaline matrix), (2) fibrocartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in fibrous matrix), (3) fibrous tissue (elongated cells in fibrous tissue), (4) bone, (5) scaffold material, and (6) others. The ability to discriminate between the tissue types was determined using conventional or polarized light microscopy, and the interobserver variability was evaluated. Results We describe the application of the stereological method. In the example, we assessed the defect repair tissue volume to be 4.4 mm3 (CE = 0.01). The tissue fractions were subsequently evaluated. Polarized light illumination of the slides improved discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage and increased the interobserver agreement compared with conventional transmitted light. Conclusion We have applied a design-unbiased method for quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair, and we propose this algorithm as a natural supplement to existing descriptive semiquantitative scoring systems. We also propose that polarized light is effective for discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. PMID:26069715

  1. Quantitatively differentiating microstructural variations of skeletal muscle tissues by multispectral Mueller matrix imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Ma, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Polarized light is sensitive to the microstructures of biological tissues and can be used to detect physiological changes. Meanwhile, spectral features of the scattered light can also provide abundant microstructural information of tissues. In this paper, we take the backscattering polarization Mueller matrix images of bovine skeletal muscle tissues during the 24-hour experimental time, and analyze their multispectral behavior using quantitative Mueller matrix parameters. In the processes of rigor mortis and proteolysis of muscle samples, multispectral frequency distribution histograms (FDHs) of the Mueller matrix elements can reveal rich qualitative structural information. In addition, we analyze the temporal variations of the sample using the multispectral Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters. The experimental results indicate that the different stages of rigor mortis and proteolysis for bovine skeletal muscle samples can be judged by these MMT parameters. The results presented in this work show that combining with the multispectral technique, the FDHs and MMT parameters can characterize the microstructural variation features of skeletal muscle tissues. The techniques have the potential to be used as tools for quantitative assessment of meat qualities in food industry.

  2. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies

  3. Quantitative Elastography for Cervical Stiffness Assessment during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fruscalzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Feasibility and reliability of tissue Doppler imaging-(TDI- based elastography for cervical quantitative stiffness assessment during all three trimesters of pregnancy were evaluated. Materials and Methods. Prospective case-control study including seventy-four patients collected between the 12th and 42nd weeks of gestation. The tissue strain (TS was measured by two independent operators as natural strain. Intra- and interoperator intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC agreements were evaluated. Results. TS measurement was always feasible and exhibited a high performance in terms of reliability (intraoperator ICC-agreement = 0.93; interoperator ICC agreement = 0.89 and 0.93 for a single measurement and for the average of two measurements, resp.. Cervical TS showed also a significant correlation with gestational age, cervical length, and parity. Conclusions. TS measurement during pregnancy demonstrated high feasibility and reliability. Furthermore, TS significantly correlated with gestational age, cervical length, and parity.

  4. Quantitative Ultrasond in the assessment of Osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Terlizzi, Francesca de

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is used in the clinical setting to identify changes in bone tissue connected with menopause, osteoporosis and bone fragility. The versatility of the technique, its low cost and lack of ionizing radiation have led to the use of this method worldwide. Furthermore, with increased clinical interest among clinicians, QUS has been applied to several field of investigation of bone, in various pathologies of bone metabolism, in paediatrics, neonatology, genetics and other fields. Several studies have been carried out in recent years to investigate the potential of QUS, with important positive results. The technique is able to predict osteoporotic fractures; some evidence of the ability to monitor therapies has been reported; the usefulness in the management of secondary osteoporosis has been confirmed; studies in paediatrics have reported reference curves for some QUS devices, and there have been relevant studies in conditions involving metabolic bone disorders. This article is an overview of the most relevant developments in the field of QUS, both in the clinical and in the experimental settings. The advantages and limitations of the present technique have been outlined, together with suggestions for the use in the clinical practice.

  5. Quantitative Ultrasond in the assessment of Osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, Giuseppe [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Viale L. Pinto, 71100 Foggia (Italy); Department of Radiology, Scientific Institute Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy)], E-mail: g.guglielmi@unifg.it; Terlizzi, Francesca de [IGEA srl, Via Parmenide 10/A 41012 Carpi, MO (Italy)], E-mail: f.deterlizzi@igeamedical.com

    2009-09-15

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is used in the clinical setting to identify changes in bone tissue connected with menopause, osteoporosis and bone fragility. The versatility of the technique, its low cost and lack of ionizing radiation have led to the use of this method worldwide. Furthermore, with increased clinical interest among clinicians, QUS has been applied to several field of investigation of bone, in various pathologies of bone metabolism, in paediatrics, neonatology, genetics and other fields. Several studies have been carried out in recent years to investigate the potential of QUS, with important positive results. The technique is able to predict osteoporotic fractures; some evidence of the ability to monitor therapies has been reported; the usefulness in the management of secondary osteoporosis has been confirmed; studies in paediatrics have reported reference curves for some QUS devices, and there have been relevant studies in conditions involving metabolic bone disorders. This article is an overview of the most relevant developments in the field of QUS, both in the clinical and in the experimental settings. The advantages and limitations of the present technique have been outlined, together with suggestions for the use in the clinical practice.

  6. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0-4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative determination of enrofloxacin residues in fish tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Vesna; Baltić M.; Ćirković M.; Kilibarda Nataša; Glamočlija Nataša; Stefanović S.; Miščević Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Presence of enrofloxacin residues in fish liver, kidney and muscle tissue was investigated after per os application of the drug. For the purpose of determination of enrofloxacin, the following analytical methods were used: microbiological method - plate pH 8 with Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 and HPLC method with fluorescence detection. After a 5-day oral treatment of carps, enrofloxacin residues in tissues were determined up to the 10th day after the end of the drug application. Enrofloxacin c...

  8. Quantitative imaging of single upconversion nanoparticles in biological tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Nadort

    Full Text Available The unique luminescent properties of new-generation synthetic nanomaterials, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs, enabled high-contrast optical biomedical imaging by suppressing the crowded background of biological tissue autofluorescence and evading high tissue absorption. This raised high expectations on the UCNP utilities for intracellular and deep tissue imaging, such as whole animal imaging. At the same time, the critical nonlinear dependence of the UCNP luminescence on the excitation intensity results in dramatic signal reduction at (∼1 cm depth in biological tissue. Here, we report on the experimental and theoretical investigation of this trade-off aiming at the identification of optimal application niches of UCNPs e.g. biological liquids and subsurface tissue layers. As an example of such applications, we report on single UCNP imaging through a layer of hemolyzed blood. To extend this result towards in vivo applications, we quantified the optical properties of single UCNPs and theoretically analyzed the prospects of single-particle detectability in live scattering and absorbing bio-tissue using a human skin model. The model predicts that a single 70-nm UCNP would be detectable at skin depths up to 400 µm, unlike a hardly detectable single fluorescent (fluorescein dye molecule. UCNP-assisted imaging in the ballistic regime thus allows for excellent applications niches, where high sensitivity is the key requirement.

  9. Quantitative risk assessment of drinking water contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.; Coniglio, W.A.; Marcus, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    The development of criteria and standards for the regulation of drinking water contaminants involves a variety of processes, one of which is risk estimation. This estimation process, called quantitative risk assessment, involves combining data on the occurrence of the contaminant in drinking water and its toxicity. The human exposure to a contaminant can be estimated from occurrence data. Usually the toxicity or number of health effects per concentration level is estimated from animal bioassay studies using the multistage model. For comparison, other models will be used including the Weibull, probit, logit and quadratic ones. Because exposure and toxicity data are generally incomplete, assumptions need to be made and this generally results in a wide range of certainty in the estimates. This range can be as wide as four to six orders of magnitude in the case of the volatile organic compounds in drinking water and a factor of four to five for estimation of risk due to radionuclides in drinking water. As examples of the differences encountered in risk assessment of drinking water contaminants, discussions are presented on benzene, lead, radon and alachlor. The lifetime population risk estimates for these contaminants are, respectively, in the ranges of: <1 - 3000, <1 - 8000, 2000-40,000 and <1 - 80. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  10. Quantitative assessment of integrated phrenic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2016-06-01

    Integrated electrical activity in the phrenic nerve is commonly used to assess within-animal changes in phrenic motor output. Because of concerns regarding the consistency of nerve recordings, activity is most often expressed as a percent change from baseline values. However, absolute values of nerve activity are necessary to assess the impact of neural injury or disease on phrenic motor output. To date, no systematic evaluations of the repeatability/reliability have been made among animals when phrenic recordings are performed by an experienced investigator using standardized methods. We performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting integrated phrenic nerve activity in many rat groups by the same experienced investigator; comparisons were made during baseline and maximal chemoreceptor stimulation in 14 wild-type Harlan and 14 Taconic Sprague Dawley groups, and in 3 pre-symptomatic and 11 end-stage SOD1(G93A) Taconic rat groups (an ALS model). Meta-analysis results indicate: (1) consistent measurements of integrated phrenic activity in each sub-strain of wild-type rats; (2) with bilateral nerve recordings, left-to-right integrated phrenic activity ratios are ∼1.0; and (3) consistently reduced activity in end-stage SOD1(G93A) rats. Thus, with appropriate precautions, integrated phrenic nerve activity enables robust, quantitative comparisons among nerves or experimental groups, including differences caused by neuromuscular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative methods for reconstructing tissue biomechanical properties in optical coherence elastography: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Sudheendran, Narendran; Larin, Kirill V; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Twa, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the accuracy of five different methods for extracting the biomechanical properties of soft samples using optical coherence elastography (OCE). OCE is an emerging noninvasive technique, which allows assessment of biomechanical properties of tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. However, in order to accurately extract biomechanical properties from OCE measurements, application of a proper mechanical model is required. In this study, we utilize tissue-mimicking phantoms with controlled elastic properties and investigate the feasibilities of four available methods for reconstructing elasticity (Young’s modulus) based on OCE measurements of an air-pulse induced elastic wave. The approaches are based on the shear wave equation (SWE), the surface wave equation (SuWE), Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE), and finite element method (FEM), Elasticity values were compared with uniaxial mechanical testing. The results show that the RLFE and the FEM are more robust in quantitatively assessing elasticity than the other simplified models. This study provides a foundation and reference for reconstructing the biomechanical properties of tissues from OCE data, which is important for the further development of noninvasive elastography methods. (paper)

  12. Expert judgement models in quantitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosqvist, T. [VTT Automation, Helsinki (Finland); Tuominen, R. [VTT Automation, Tampere (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    Expert judgement is a valuable source of information in risk management. Especially, risk-based decision making relies significantly on quantitative risk assessment, which requires numerical data describing the initiator event frequencies and conditional probabilities in the risk model. This data is seldom found in databases and has to be elicited from qualified experts. In this report, we discuss some modelling approaches to expert judgement in risk modelling. A classical and a Bayesian expert model is presented and applied to real case expert judgement data. The cornerstone in the models is the log-normal distribution, which is argued to be a satisfactory choice for modelling degree-of-belief type probability distributions with respect to the unknown parameters in a risk model. Expert judgements are qualified according to bias, dispersion, and dependency, which are treated differently in the classical and Bayesian approaches. The differences are pointed out and related to the application task. Differences in the results obtained from the different approaches, as applied to real case expert judgement data, are discussed. Also, the role of a degree-of-belief type probability in risk decision making is discussed.

  13. Expert judgement models in quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosqvist, T.; Tuominen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Expert judgement is a valuable source of information in risk management. Especially, risk-based decision making relies significantly on quantitative risk assessment, which requires numerical data describing the initiator event frequencies and conditional probabilities in the risk model. This data is seldom found in databases and has to be elicited from qualified experts. In this report, we discuss some modelling approaches to expert judgement in risk modelling. A classical and a Bayesian expert model is presented and applied to real case expert judgement data. The cornerstone in the models is the log-normal distribution, which is argued to be a satisfactory choice for modelling degree-of-belief type probability distributions with respect to the unknown parameters in a risk model. Expert judgements are qualified according to bias, dispersion, and dependency, which are treated differently in the classical and Bayesian approaches. The differences are pointed out and related to the application task. Differences in the results obtained from the different approaches, as applied to real case expert judgement data, are discussed. Also, the role of a degree-of-belief type probability in risk decision making is discussed

  14. Heritability and tissue specificity of expression quantitative trait loci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petretto, E.; Mangion, J.; Dickens, N. J.; Cook, S.A.; Kumaran, M. K.; Lu, H.; Fischer, J.; Maatz, H.; Křen, Vladimír; Pravenec, Michal; Hubner, N.; Aitman, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 10 (2006), s. 1625-1633 ISSN 1553-7390 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0028; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0390 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 55005624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : expression QTL * heritability * tissue specificity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.671, year: 2006

  15. Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Tuan H.; Coquoz, Olivier; Fishkin, Joshua B.; Anderson, Eric; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical properties of turbid media, e.g., tissue, can be accurately quantified noninvasively using methods based on diffuse reflectance or transmittance, such as frequency domain photon migration (FDPM). Factors which govern the accuracy and sensitivity of FDPM-measured optical properties include instrument performance, the light propagation model, and fitting algorithms used to calculate optical properties from measured data. In this article, we characterize instrument, model, and fitting uncertaintics of an FDPM system designed for clinical use and investigate how each of these factors affects the quantification of NIR absorption (μ a ) and reduced scattering (μ s ' ) parameters in tissue phantoms. The instrument is based on a 500 MHz, multiwavelength platform that sweeps through 201 discrete frequencies in as little as 675 ms. Phase and amplitude of intensity modulated light launched into tissue, i.e., diffuse photon density waves (PDW), are measured with an accuracy of ±0.30 degree sign and ±3.5%, while phase and amplitude precision are ±0.025 degree sign and ±0.20%, respectively. At this level of instrument uncertainty, simultaneous fitting of frequency-dependent phase and amplitude nonlinear model functions derived from a photon diffusion approximation provides an accurate and robust strategy for determining optical properties from FDPM data, especially for media with high absorption. In an optical property range that is characteristic of most human tissues in the NIR (5x10 -3 a -2 mm -1 , 0.5 s ' -1 ), we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the multifrequency, simultaneous-fit approach allows μ a and μ s ' to be quantified with an accuracy of ±5% and ±3%, respectively. Although exceptionally high levels of precision can be obtained using this approach ( a and μ s ' . (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  16. urrent status and assessment of quantitative and qualitative one leg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of only a quantitative assessment. These findings indicate that, when evaluating the one leg balance in children aged 3-6 years, a quantitative and qualitative assessment should be used in combination together to assure a more accurate assessment. (S. African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Ed. and Recreation: 2001 ...

  17. Simulation evaluation of quantitative myocardial perfusion assessment from cardiac CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R.; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Alessio, Adam M.

    2014-03-01

    blood flow estimation. In conclusion, quantitative model-based dynamic cardiac CT perfusion assessment is capable of accurately estimating MBF across a range of cardiac outputs and tissue perfusion states, outperforms comparable static perfusion estimates, and is relatively robust to noise and temporal subsampling.

  18. Quantitative image analysis reveals distinct structural transitions during aging in Caenorhabditis elegans tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Josiah; Iser, Wendy B; Chow, David K; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2008-07-30

    Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in many body systems, even in the absence of underlying disease. In particular, skeletal muscles experience severe declines during aging, a phenomenon termed sarcopenia. Despite the high incidence and severity of sarcopenia, little is known about contributing factors and development. Many studies focus on functional aspects of aging-related tissue decline, while structural details remain understudied. Traditional approaches for quantifying structural changes have assessed individual markers at discrete intervals. Such approaches are inadequate for the complex changes associated with aging. An alternative is to consider changes in overall morphology rather than in specific markers. We have used this approach to quantitatively track tissue architecture during adulthood and aging in the C. elegans pharynx, the neuromuscular feeding organ. Using pattern recognition to analyze aged-grouped pharynx images, we identified discrete step-wise transitions between distinct morphologies. The morphology state transitions were maintained in mutants with pharynx neurotransmission defects, although the pace of the transitions was altered. Longitudinal measurements of pharynx function identified a predictive relationship between mid-life pharynx morphology and function at later ages. These studies demonstrate for the first time that adult tissues undergo distinct structural transitions reflecting postdevelopmental events. The processes that underlie these architectural changes may contribute to increased disease risk during aging, and may be targets for factors that alter the aging rate. This work further demonstrates that pattern analysis of an image series offers a novel and generally accessible approach for quantifying morphological changes and identifying structural biomarkers.

  19. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Jensen, B.R.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2006-01-01

    Background: The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: ( 1) to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and ( 2) to use th...

  20. Quantitative redox imaging biomarkers for studying tissue metabolic state and its heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NAD+/NADH redox state has been implicated in many diseases such as cancer and diabetes as well as in the regulation of embryonic development and aging. To fluorimetrically assess the mitochondrial redox state, Dr. Chance and co-workers measured the fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp including flavin–adenine–dinucleotide (FAD and demonstrated their ratio (i.e. the redox ratio is a sensitive indicator of the mitochondrial redox states. The Chance redox scanner was built to simultaneously measure NADH and Fp in tissue at submillimeter scale in 3D using the freeze-trap protocol. This paper summarizes our recent research experience, development and new applications of the redox scanning technique in collaboration with Dr. Chance beginning in 2005. Dr. Chance initiated or actively involved in many of the projects during the last several years of his life. We advanced the redox scanning technique by measuring the nominal concentrations (in reference to the frozen solution standards of the endogenous fluorescent analytes, i.e., [NADH] and [Fp] to quantify the redox ratios in various biological tissues. The advancement has enabled us to identify an array of the redox indices as quantitative imaging biomarkers (including [NADH], [Fp], [Fp]/([NADH]+[Fp], [NADH]/[Fp], and their standard deviations for studying some important biological questions on cancer and normal tissue metabolism. We found that the redox indices were associated or changed with (1 tumorigenesis (cancer versus non-cancer of human breast tissue biopsies; (2 tumor metastatic potential; (3 tumor glucose uptake; (4 tumor p53 status; (5 PI3K pathway activation in pre-malignant tissue; (6 therapeutic effects on tumors; (7 embryonic stem cell differentiation; (8 the heart under fasting. Together, our work demonstrated that the tissue redox indices obtained from the redox scanning technique may provide useful information about tissue metabolism and physiology status in normal

  1. ACVP-12: Quantitative Assessment of HIV/SIV Viral DNA in Laser Capture Microdissected (LCM) CD4+ T cell and/or Macrophage Populations from Formalin-Fixed Tissue Specimens | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tissue Analysis Core (TAC) within the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program will process, embed, and perform microtomy on fixed tissue samples presented in ethanol. CD4 (DAB) and CD68/CD163 (FastRed) double immunohistochemistry will be performed, allowin

  2. Quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms into Tabar's patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, N [Medical Technology Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Ng, K-H [Department of Radiology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Looi, L-M [Department of Pathology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); McLean, D [Medical Physics Department, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2145 (Australia); Zulfiqar, A [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Malaysia); Tan, S-P [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Malaysia); Liew, W-F [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Malaysia); Shantini, A [Department of Radiology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, 50586 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ranganathan, S [Department of Radiology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-11-21

    We describe a semi-automated technique for the quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms in comparison with patterns suggested by Tabar. It was developed using the MATLAB-based graphical user interface applications. It is based on an interactive thresholding method, after a short automated method that shows the fibroglandular tissue area, breast area and breast density each time new thresholds are placed on the image. The breast density is taken as a percentage of the fibroglandular tissue to the breast tissue areas. It was tested in four different ways, namely by examining: (i) correlation of the quantitative assessment results with subjective classification, (ii) classification performance using the quantitative assessment technique, (iii) interobserver agreement and (iv) intraobserver agreement. The results of the quantitative assessment correlated well (r{sup 2} = 0.92) with the subjective Tabar patterns classified by the radiologist (correctly classified 83% of digitized mammograms). The average kappa coefficient for the agreement between the readers was 0.63. This indicated moderate agreement between the three observers in classifying breast density using the quantitative assessment technique. The kappa coefficient of 0.75 for intraobserver agreement reflected good agreement between two sets of readings. The technique may be useful as a supplement to the radiologist's assessment in classifying mammograms into Tabar's pattern associated with breast cancer risk.

  3. Quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms into Tabar's patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, N; Ng, K-H; Looi, L-M; McLean, D; Zulfiqar, A; Tan, S-P; Liew, W-F; Shantini, A; Ranganathan, S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a semi-automated technique for the quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms in comparison with patterns suggested by Tabar. It was developed using the MATLAB-based graphical user interface applications. It is based on an interactive thresholding method, after a short automated method that shows the fibroglandular tissue area, breast area and breast density each time new thresholds are placed on the image. The breast density is taken as a percentage of the fibroglandular tissue to the breast tissue areas. It was tested in four different ways, namely by examining: (i) correlation of the quantitative assessment results with subjective classification, (ii) classification performance using the quantitative assessment technique, (iii) interobserver agreement and (iv) intraobserver agreement. The results of the quantitative assessment correlated well (r 2 = 0.92) with the subjective Tabar patterns classified by the radiologist (correctly classified 83% of digitized mammograms). The average kappa coefficient for the agreement between the readers was 0.63. This indicated moderate agreement between the three observers in classifying breast density using the quantitative assessment technique. The kappa coefficient of 0.75 for intraobserver agreement reflected good agreement between two sets of readings. The technique may be useful as a supplement to the radiologist's assessment in classifying mammograms into Tabar's pattern associated with breast cancer risk

  4. Quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury using circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kideog; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2017-08-01

    We report the quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury using the circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CP-CARS) technique together with Stokes parameters in the Poincaré sphere. The pump and Stokes excitation beams are circularly polarized to suppress both the linear polarization-dependent artifacts and the nonresonant background of tissue CARS imaging, enabling quantitative CP-CARS image analysis. This study shows that CP-CARS imaging uncovers significantly increased phase retardance of injured spinal cord tissue as compared to normal tissue, suggesting that CP-CARS is an appealing label-free imaging tool for determining the degree of tissue phase retardance, which could serve as a unique diagnostic parameter associated with nervous tissue injury.

  5. Quantitative Volumetric K-Means Cluster Segmentation of Fibroglandular Tissue and Skin in Breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niukkanen, Anton; Arponen, Otso; Nykänen, Aki; Masarwah, Amro; Sutela, Anna; Liimatainen, Timo; Vanninen, Ritva; Sudah, Mazen

    2017-10-18

    Mammographic breast density (MBD) is the most commonly used method to assess the volume of fibroglandular tissue (FGT). However, MRI could provide a clinically feasible and more accurate alternative. There were three aims in this study: (1) to evaluate a clinically feasible method to quantify FGT with MRI, (2) to assess the inter-rater agreement of MRI-based volumetric measurements and (3) to compare them to measurements acquired using digital mammography and 3D tomosynthesis. This retrospective study examined 72 women (mean age 52.4 ± 12.3 years) with 105 disease-free breasts undergoing diagnostic 3.0-T breast MRI and either digital mammography or tomosynthesis. Two observers analyzed MRI images for breast and FGT volumes and FGT-% from T1-weighted images (0.7-, 2.0-, and 4.0-mm-thick slices) using K-means clustering, data from histogram, and active contour algorithms. Reference values were obtained with Quantra software. Inter-rater agreement for MRI measurements made with 2-mm-thick slices was excellent: for FGT-%, r = 0.994 (95% CI 0.990-0.997); for breast volume, r = 0.985 (95% CI 0.934-0.994); and for FGT volume, r = 0.979 (95% CI 0.958-0.989). MRI-based FGT-% correlated strongly with MBD in mammography (r = 0.819-0.904, P K-means clustering-based assessments of the proportion of the fibroglandular tissue in the breast at MRI are highly reproducible. In the future, quantitative assessment of FGT-% to complement visual estimation of FGT should be performed on a more regular basis as it provides a component which can be incorporated into the individual's breast cancer risk stratification.

  6. Quantitative assessment of optic nerve head pallor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilser, W; Seifert, B U; Riemer, T; Nagel, E; Weisensee, J; Hammer, M

    2008-01-01

    Ischaemia, loss of neural tissue, glial cell activation and tissue remodelling are symptoms of anterior ischaemic as well as glaucomatous optic neuropathy leading to pallor of the optic nerve head. Here, we describe a simple method for the pallor measurement using a fundus camera equipped with a colour CCD camera and a special dual bandpass filter. The reproducibility of the determined mean pallor value was 11.7% (coefficient of variation for repeated measurements in the same subject); the variation over six healthy subjects was 14.8%. A significant difference between the mean pallor of an atrophic disc and that of the contralateral eye of the same individual was found. However, even the clinically unaffected eye showed a significantly increased pallor compared to the mean of the healthy control group. Thus, optic disc pallor measurement, as described here, may be helpful in the early detection and follow-up of optic neuropathy

  7. Enhancing quantitative approaches for assessing community resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, W. C.; Garmestani, A.S.; Eason, T. N.; Spanbauer, T. L.; Fried-Peterson, H. B.; Roberts, C.P.; Sundstrom, Shana M.; Burnett, J.L.; Angeler, David G.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Gunderson, L.; Twidwell, Dirac; Allen, Craig R.

    2018-01-01

    Scholars from many different intellectual disciplines have attempted to measure, estimate, or quantify resilience. However, there is growing concern that lack of clarity on the operationalization of the concept will limit its application. In this paper, we discuss the theory, research development and quantitative approaches in ecological and community resilience. Upon noting the lack of methods that quantify the complexities of the linked human and natural aspects of community resilience, we identify several promising approaches within the ecological resilience tradition that may be useful in filling these gaps. Further, we discuss the challenges for consolidating these approaches into a more integrated perspective for managing social-ecological systems.

  8. Quantitative Assessment of the IT Agile Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowski Cezary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the quantitative perspective of the agile transformation processes in IT organisations. The phenomenon of agile transformation becomes a complex challenge for an IT organisation since it has not been analysed in detail so far. There is no research on the readiness of IT organisations to realise agile transformation processes. Such processes also prove to have uncontrolled character. Therefore, to minimise the risk of failure referring to the realisation of transformation processes, it is necessary to monitor them. It is also necessary to identify and analyse such processes to ensure their continuous character.

  9. Quantitative image analysis reveals distinct structural transitions during aging in Caenorhabditis elegans tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Johnston

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in many body systems, even in the absence of underlying disease. In particular, skeletal muscles experience severe declines during aging, a phenomenon termed sarcopenia. Despite the high incidence and severity of sarcopenia, little is known about contributing factors and development. Many studies focus on functional aspects of aging-related tissue decline, while structural details remain understudied. Traditional approaches for quantifying structural changes have assessed individual markers at discrete intervals. Such approaches are inadequate for the complex changes associated with aging. An alternative is to consider changes in overall morphology rather than in specific markers. We have used this approach to quantitatively track tissue architecture during adulthood and aging in the C. elegans pharynx, the neuromuscular feeding organ. Using pattern recognition to analyze aged-grouped pharynx images, we identified discrete step-wise transitions between distinct morphologies. The morphology state transitions were maintained in mutants with pharynx neurotransmission defects, although the pace of the transitions was altered. Longitudinal measurements of pharynx function identified a predictive relationship between mid-life pharynx morphology and function at later ages. These studies demonstrate for the first time that adult tissues undergo distinct structural transitions reflecting postdevelopmental events. The processes that underlie these architectural changes may contribute to increased disease risk during aging, and may be targets for factors that alter the aging rate. This work further demonstrates that pattern analysis of an image series offers a novel and generally accessible approach for quantifying morphological changes and identifying structural biomarkers.

  10. Brillouin microscopy: assessing ocular tissue biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seok Hyun; Chernyak, Dimitri

    2018-07-01

    Assessment of corneal biomechanics has been an unmet clinical need in ophthalmology for many years. Many researchers and clinicians have identified corneal biomechanics as source of variability in refractive procedures and one of the main factors in keratoconus. However, it has been difficult to accurately characterize corneal biomechanics in patients. The recent development of Brillouin light scattering microscopy heightens the promise of bringing biomechanics into the clinic. The aim of this review is to overview the progress and discuss prospective applications of this new technology. Brillouin microscopy uses a low-power near-infrared laser beam to determine longitudinal modulus or mechanical compressibility of tissue by analyzing the return signal spectrum. Human clinical studies have demonstrated significant difference in the elastic properties of normal corneas versus corneas diagnosed with mild and severe keratoconus. Clinical data have also shown biomechanical changes after corneal cross-linking treatment of keratoconus patients. Brillouin measurements of the crystalline lens and sclera have also been demonstrated. Brillouin microscopy is a promising technology under commercial development at present. The technique enables physicians to characterize the biomechanical properties of ocular tissues.

  11. Quantitative assessment of target dependence of pion fluctuation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. December 2012 physics pp. 1395–1405. Quantitative assessment ... The analysis reveals the erratic behaviour of the produced pions signifying ..... authors (Sitaram Pal) gratefully acknowledges the financial help from the University.

  12. Some quantitative studies on the transplantation of human tissues into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, A.; Suit, H.D.; Sedlacek, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative cell transplantation assays (TD/sub 50/) were performed for human tumors xenografted into athymic NCr(nμ/nμ) nude mice. Transplantation assays for FaDu when transplanted into brain and when transplanted into subcutaneous tissues are compared. Effects of immunization are discussed and results are given

  13. Modeling optical behavior of birefringent biological tissues for evaluation of quantitative polarized light microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative polarized light microscopy (qPLM) is a popular tool for the investigation of birefringent architectures in biological tissues. Collagen, the most abundant protein in mammals, is such a birefringent material. Interpretation of results of qPLM in terms of collagen network architecture and

  14. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.; Acha, Moshe Ray; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Pfeufer, Arne; Lyneh, Stacey N.; Olesen, Soren-Peter; Brunak, Soren; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Daly, Mark J.; Asselbergs, Ikea W.; van der Harst, Pim; Milan, David J.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Lage, Kasper; Olsen, Jesper V.

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes

  15. Quantitative risk assessment of digitalized safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hym Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jun [UNIST, Ulasn (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A report published by the U.S. National Research Council indicates that appropriate methods for assessing reliability are key to establishing the acceptability of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in safety-critical plants such as NPPs. Since the release of this issue, the methodology for the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems has been studied. However, there is still no widely accepted method. Kang and Sung found three critical factors for safety assessment of digital systems: detection coverage of fault-tolerant techniques, software reliability quantification, and network communication risk. In reality the various factors composing digitalized I and C systems are not independent of each other but rather closely connected. Thus, from a macro point of view, a method that can integrate risk factors with different characteristics needs to be considered together with the micro approaches to address the challenges facing each factor.

  16. An effective method for the quantitative detection of porcine endogenous retrovirus in pig tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Yu, Ping; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Shengfu; Bu, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Xenotransplantation shows great promise for providing a virtually limitless supply of cells, tissues, and organs for a variety of therapeutical procedures. However, the potential of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) as a human-tropic pathogen, particularly as a public health risk, is a major concern for xenotransplantation. This study focus on the detection of copy number in various tissues and organs in Banna Minipig Inbreed (BMI) from 2006 to 2007 in West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SYBR Green I) was performed in this study. The results showed that the pol gene had the most copy number in tissues compared with gag, envA, and envB. Our experiment will offer a rapid and accurate method for the detection of the copy number in various tissues and was especially suitable for the selection of tissues or organs in future clinical xenotransplantation.

  17. Detection and quantitation analysis of cocaine and metabolites in fixed liver tissue and formalin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Mariano; Cippitelli, Marcello; Froldi, Rino; Gambaro, Veniero; Tassoni, Giovanna

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the results of the detection and quantitation of cocaine and its metabolites in liver tissues fixed in formalin and in the formalin solutions in which the same tissues were fixed. Toxicological analyses were performed on formalin-fixed liver samples from four cases of death of cocaine abusers and on formalin solutions (10% buffered, pH 7) in which the samples were preserved. Analyses carried out at the time of autopsy on body fluids and tissues allowed identification of cocaine and the metabolite benzoylecgonine. Liver tissue samples were preserved in formalin solutions for four weeks before analysis. Results only showed the presence of benzoylecgonine in the studied materials. The mean levels of recovery of benzoylecgonine in fixed tissues were 12.31% in liver and 84.47% in formalin from liver. Results indicated that benzoylecgonine has good stability, even in biological specimens subjected to chemical fixation.

  18. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Veerman (Lennert); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health

  19. The use of quantitative risk assessment in HACCP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornstra, E.; Northolt, M.D.; Notermans, S.; Barendsz, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    During the hazard analysis as part of the development of a HACCP-system, first the hazards (contaminants) have to be identified and then the risks have to be assessed. Often, this assessment is restricted to a qualitative analysis. By using elements of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) the hazard

  20. High-performance liquid chromatographic quantitation of desmosine plus isodesmosine in elastin and whole tissue hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soskel, N.T.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitation of desmosine and isodesmosine, the major crosslinks in elastin, has been of interest because of their uniqueness and use as markers of that protein. Accurate measurement of these crosslinks may allow determination of elastin degradation in vivo and elastin content in tissues, obviating lengthy extraction procedures. We have developed a method of quantitating desmosine plus isodesmosine in hydrolysates of tissue and insoluble elastin using high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and absorbance detection that is rapid (21-35 min) and sensitive (accurate linearity from 100 pmol to 5 nmol). This method has been used to quantitate desmosines in elastin from bovine nuchal ligament and lung and in whole aorta from hamsters. The ability to completely separate [ 3 H]lysine from desmosine plus isodesmosine allows the method to be used to study incorporation of lysine into crosslinks in elastin

  1. Quantitative assessment of periodontal bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelt, P.F. van der; Geraets, W.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radiographs are a well-accepted tool in diagnosing periodontal bone lesions and making an accurate evaluation of the treatment. However, the assessment of bone is hampered by the complicated and as it were unpredictable pattern of bone structure. Therefore, and to compensate for the bias always present in human observations, a computer aided procedure was developed to detect and describe periodontal bone lesions. This paper describes a comparison of the performance by human observers and of the computer program. Two series of artificial periodontal bone lesions served as material for the assessments. This study shows that the automated lesion detection program enables an assessment of periodontal bone lesions, which is at least comparable with the results of a group of experienced observers and probably better. It is considerably better than the results of observers individually, and decreases the time-dependent variability appearing in repeated assessments of a single observer. The computer aided detection of periodontal lesions can be considered as a useful and reliable tool in periodontal diagnosis. 9 ref.; 2 figs

  2. MRI and image quantitation for drug assessment - growth effects of anabolic steroids and precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Wu, Ed; Vasselli, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    MRI and image quantitation play an expanding role in modern drug research, because MRI offers high resolution and non-invasive ability, and provides excellent soft tissue contrast. Moreover, with development of effective image segmentation and analysis methods, in-vivo and serial tissue growth measurements could be assessed. In the study, MR image acquisition and analysis protocol were established and validated for investigating the effects of anabolic steroids and precursors on muscle growth and body composition in a guinea pig model. Semi-automatic and interactive segmentation methods were developed to accurately label the tissue of interest for tissue volume estimation. In addition, a longitudinal tissue area outlining procedure was proposed for study of tissue geometric features in relation to tissue growth. Finally, a fully automatic data retrieval and analysis scheme was implemented to facilitate the overall huge amount of image quantitation, statistical analysis, as well as study group comparisons. As a result, highly significant differences in muscle and organ growth were detected between intact and castrated guinea pigs using the selected anabolic steroids, indicating the viability of employing such protocol to assess other anabolic steroids. Furthermore, the anabolic potential of selected steroid precursors and their effects on muscle growth, in comparison with that in respective positive control groups of castrated guinea pigs, were evaluated with the proposed protocol.

  3. Quantitative assessment of mineralization in distraction osteogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, Sunit; Biswal, Sandeep; Jang, Ki-Mo; Modi, Hitesh N.; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Suk-Ha; Lee, Seok Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The most important decision in distraction osteogenesis is the timing of fixator removal. Various methods have been tried, such as radiographic appearance of callus and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment, but none has acquired gold standard status. The purpose of this study was to develop another objective method of assessment of callus stiffness to help clinicians in taking the most important decision of when to remove the fixator. We made a retrospective study of 70 patients to compare the BMD ratio and pixel value ratio. These ratios were calculated at the time of fixator removal, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to show the comparability. Inter- and intra-observer variability of the new method was also tested. Good correlation was found between BMD ratio and pixel value ratio, with a Pearson's coefficient of correlation of 0.79. The interobserver variability was also low, with high intra-observer reproducibility, suggesting that this test was simple to perform. Pixel value ratio is a good method for assessing callus stiffness, and it can be used to judge the timing of fixator removal. (orig.)

  4. Quantitation of stress echocardiography by tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging: a dream come true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Maurizio; Mele, Donato; Marino, Paolo Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TD) is an ultrasound tool providing a quantitative agreement of left ventricular regional myocardial function in different modalities. Spectral pulsed wave (PW) TD, performed online during the examination, measures instantaneous myocardial velocities. By means of color TD, velocity images are digitally stored for subsequent off-line analysis and mean myocardial velocities are measured. An implementation of color TD includes strain rate imaging (SRI), based on post-processing conversion of regional velocities in local myocardial deformation rate (strain rate) and percent deformation (strain). These three modalities have been applied to stress echocardiography for quantitative evaluation of regional left ventricular function and detection of ischemia and viability. They present advantages and limitations. PWTD does not permit the simultaneous assessment of multiple walls and therefore is not compatible with clinical stress echocardiography while it could be used in a laboratory setting. Color TD provides a spatial map of velocity throughout the myocardium but its results are strongly affected by the frame rate. Both color TD and PWTD are also influenced by overall cardiac motion and tethering from adjacent segments and require reference velocity values for interpretation of regional left ventricular function. High frame rate (i.e. > 150 ms) post-processing-derived SRI can potentially overcome these limitations, since measurements of myocardial deformation have not any significant apex-to-base gradient. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results about the ability of SRI to detect ischemia and viability, in terms of both strain rate changes and/or evidence of post-systolic thickening. SRI is, however, Doppler-dependent and time-consuming. Further technical refinements are needed to improve its application and introduce new ultrasound modalities to overcome the limitations of the Doppler-derived deformation analysis.

  5. Critical temperature: A quantitative method of assessing cold tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. DeHayes; M.W., Jr. Williams

    1989-01-01

    Critical temperature (Tc), defined as the highest temperature at which freezing injury to plant tissues can be detected, provides a biologically meaningful and statistically defined assessment of the relative cold tolerance of plant tissues. A method is described for calculating critical temperatures in laboratory freezing studies that use...

  6. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  7. Comparison of commercial DNA preparation kits for the detection of Brucellae in tissue using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Eberhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of Brucellae in tissue specimens using PCR assays is difficult because the amount of bacteria is usually low. Therefore, optimised DNA extraction methods are critical. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial kits for the extraction of Brucella DNA. Methods Five kits were evaluated using clinical specimens: QIAamp™ DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN, peqGold™ Tissue DNA Mini Kit (PeqLab, UltraClean™ Tissue and Cells DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio, DNA Isolation Kit for Cells and Tissues (Roche, and NucleoSpin™ Tissue (Macherey-Nagel. DNA yield was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting IS711 that included an internal amplification control. Results Kits of QIAGEN and Roche provided the highest amount of DNA, Macherey-Nagel and Peqlab products were intermediate whereas MoBio yielded the lowest amount of DNA. Differences were significant (p Conclusions We observed differences in DNA yield as high as two orders of magnitude for some samples between the best and the worst DNA extraction kits and inhibition was observed occasionally. This indicates that DNA purification may be more relevant than expected when the amount of DNA in tissue is very low.

  8. Hyperspectral Imaging and SPA-LDA Quantitative Analysis for Detection of Colon Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Zhang, D.; Wang, Ch.; Dai, B.; Zhao, M.; Li, B.

    2018-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been demonstrated to provide a rapid, precise, and noninvasive method for cancer detection. However, because HSI contains many data, quantitative analysis is often necessary to distill information useful for distinguishing cancerous from normal tissue. To demonstrate that HSI with our proposed algorithm can make this distinction, we built a Vis-NIR HSI setup and made many spectral images of colon tissues, and then used a successive projection algorithm (SPA) to analyze the hyperspectral image data of the tissues. This was used to build an identification model based on linear discrimination analysis (LDA) using the relative reflectance values of the effective wavelengths. Other tissues were used as a prediction set to verify the reliability of the identification model. The results suggest that Vis-NIR hyperspectral images, together with the spectroscopic classification method, provide a new approach for reliable and safe diagnosis of colon cancer and could lead to advances in cancer diagnosis generally.

  9. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Bova, George Steven; Li, Qing Kay; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advancement of high-throughput tools for quantitative measurement of proteins has demonstrated the potential for the identification of proteins associated with cancer. However, the quantitative results on cancer tissue specimens are usually confounded by tissue heterogeneity, e.g. regions with cancer usually have significantly higher epithelium content yet lower stromal content. It is therefore necessary to develop a tool to facilitate the interpretation of the results of protein measurements in tissue specimens. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two epithelial proteins whose expressions in normal and tumorous prostate tissues were confirmed by measuring staining intensity with immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expressions of these proteins were measured by ELISA in protein extracts from OCT embedded frozen prostate tissues. To eliminate the influence of tissue heterogeneity on epithelial protein quantification measured by ELISA, a color-based segmentation method was developed in-house for estimation of epithelium content using H&E histology slides from the same prostate tissues and the estimated epithelium percentage was used to normalize the ELISA results. The epithelium contents of the same slides were also estimated by a pathologist and used to normalize the ELISA results. The computer based results were compared with the pathologist's reading. We found that both EpCAM and CTSL levels, measured by ELISA assays itself, were greatly affected by epithelium content in the tissue specimens. Without adjusting for epithelium percentage, both EpCAM and CTSL levels appeared significantly higher in tumor tissues than normal tissues with a p value less than 0.001. However, after normalization by the epithelium percentage, ELISA measurements of both EpCAM and CTSL were in agreement with IHC staining results, showing a significant increase only in EpCAM with no difference in CTSL expression in cancer tissues. These results

  10. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Brouwer, D.H.; Kromhout, H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others,

  11. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of telomerase activity in benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Rongxiu; Fang Peihua; Tan Jian; Lu Mei; Li Yigong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the status of telomerase activity during the development of thyroid tumors, and to determine whether telomerase activity can be used clinically as a molecular marker in the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Methods: Telomerase activity was measured in 37 thyroid carcinomas, 33 benign thyroid lesions and 30 normal thyroid tissue samples by means of a modified TRAP-PCR. The assay was also applied to 15 fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of thyroid carcinomas to test its sensitivity. Results: Thirty-one of 37 thyroid carcinomas (83.8%), 7 of 33 benign thyroid lesions (21.2%), and 4 of 30 adjacent normal thyroid tissue samples expressed telomerase activity, 15 FNAs also had positive telomerase activity, just as their corresponding tissue specimens. The quantitative analysis showed that the telomerase activity was significantly higher in thyroid carcinomas than that in benign thyroid tissue samples. And medullary carcinomas and anaplastic carcinomas had higher levels of telomerase activity than papillary carcinomas. Conclusions: Telomerase activity is a good marker for thyroid carcinomas. The quantitative TRAP-PCR might have more potential application in the differential diagnosis of tumors and the estimation of tumor progression and prognosis. And this sensitive assay could become a useful new modality for supplementing microscopic cytopathology in the detection of cancer cells in small tissue samples and FNAs

  12. Quantitative radiation dose-response relationships for normal tissues in man - I. Gustatory tissues response during photon and neutron radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative radiation dose-response curves for normal gustatory tissue in man were studied. Taste function, expressed as taste loss, was evaluated in 84 patients who were given either photon or neutron radiotherapy for tumors in the head and neck region. Patients were treated to average tumor doses of 6600 cGy (photon) or 2200 cGy intervals for photon patients and 320-cGy intervals for neutron patients during radiotherapy. The dose-response curves for photons and neutrons were analyzed by fitting a four-parameter logistic equation to the data. Photon and neutron curves differed principally in their relative position along the dose axis. Comparison of the dose-response curves were made by determination of RBE. At 320 cGy, the lowest neutron dose at which taste measurements were made, RBE = 5.7. If this RBE is correct, then the therapeutic gain factor may be equal to or less than 1, indicating no biological advantage in using neutrons over photons for this normal tissue. These studies suggest measurements of taste function and evaluation of dose-response relationships may also be useful in quantitatively evaluating the efficacy of chemical modifiers of radiation response such as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and radioprotectors

  13. Tissue-based quantitative proteome analysis of human hepatocellular carcinoma using tandem mass tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megger, Dominik Andre; Rosowski, Kristin; Ahrens, Maike; Bracht, Thilo; Eisenacher, Martin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Weber, Frank; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Meyer, Helmut E; Baba, Hideo A; Sitek, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a severe malignant disease, and accurate and reliable diagnostic markers are still needed. This study was aimed for the discovery of novel marker candidates by quantitative proteomics. Proteomic differences between HCC and nontumorous liver tissue were studied by mass spectrometry. Among several significantly upregulated proteins, translocator protein 18 (TSPO) and Ras-related protein Rab-1A (RAB1A) were selected for verification by immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort. For RAB1A, a high accuracy for the discrimination of HCC and nontumorous liver tissue was observed. RAB1A was verified to be a potent biomarker candidate for HCC.

  14. Assessment of biological leaf tissue using biospeckle laser imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. Z.; Mujeeb, A.; Nirala, A. K.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the application of an optical imaging technique, the biospeckle laser, as a potential tool to assess biological and medicinal plant leaves. The biospeckle laser technique is a non-invasive and non-destructive optical technique used to investigate biological objects. Just after their removal from plants, the torn leaves were used for biospeckle laser imaging. Quantitative evaluation of the biospeckle data using the inertia moment (IM) of the time history speckle pattern, showed that the IM can be utilized to provide a biospeckle signature to the plant leaves. It showed that leaves from different plants can have their own characteristic IM values. We further investigated the infected regions of the leaves that display a relatively lower biospeckle activity than the healthy tissue. It was easy to discriminate between the infected and healthy regions of the leaf tissue. The biospeckle technique can successfully be implemented as a potential tool for the taxonomy of quality leaves. Furthermore, the technique can help boost the quality of ayurvedic medicines.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While the effe......The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While...... the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models allow quantified assessment, their reliance on the ‘moisture penetration depth’ necessitates comprehensive material properties and hampers their application to multi-dimensional interior objects. On the other hand, while various recently...... an alternative basis for quantitative evaluation of interior moisture buffering by the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models. The presented methodology uses simple and fast measurements only and can also be applied to multimaterial and/or multidimensional interior elements....

  16. Automatic quantitative micro-computed tomography evaluation of angiogenesis in an axially vascularized tissue-engineered bone construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus Patrick; Pryymachuk, Galyna; Hoereth, Tobias; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Polykandriotis, Elias; Hess, Andreas; Gulle, Heinz; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    We invented an automatic observer-independent quantitative method to analyze vascularization using micro-computed tomography (CT) along with three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction in a tissue engineering model. An arteriovenous loop was created in the medial thigh of 30 rats and was placed in a particulated porous hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate matrix, filled with fibrin (10 mg/mL fibrinogen and 2 IU/mL thrombin) without (group A) or with (group B) application of fibrin-gel-immobilized angiogenetic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF¹⁶⁵) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The explantation intervals were 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Specimens were investigated by means of micro-CT followed by an automatic 3D analysis, which was correlated to histomorphometrical findings. In both groups, the arteriovenous loop led to generation of dense vascularized connective tissue with differentiated and functional vessels inside the matrix. Quantitative analysis of vascularization using micro-CT showed to be superior to histological analysis. The micro-CT analysis also allows the assessment of different other, more complex vascularization parameters within 3D constructs, demonstrating an early improvement of vascularization by application of fibrin-gel-immobilized VEGF¹⁶⁵ and bFGF. In this study quantitative analysis of vascularization using micro-CT along with 3D reconstruction and automatic analysis exhibit to be a powerful method superior to histological evaluation of cross sections.

  17. A Novel Qualitative and Quantitative Biofilm Assay Based on 3D Soft Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Hakonen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of predictable in vitro methods to analyze antimicrobial activity could play a role in the development of resistance to antibiotics. Current used methods analyze planktonic cells but for the method to be clinically relevant, biofilm in in vivo like conditions ought to be studied. Hence, our group has developed a qualitative and quantitative method with in vivo like 3D tissue for prediction of antimicrobial activity in reality. Devices (wound dressings were applied on top of Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated Muller-Hinton (MH agar or 3D synthetic soft tissues (SST and incubated for 24 hours. The antibacterial activity was then analyzed visually and by viable counts. On MH agar two out of three silver containing devices showed zone of inhibitions (ZOI and on SST, ZOI were detected for all three. Corroborating results were found upon evaluating the bacterial load in SST and shown to be silver concentration dependent. In conclusion, a novel method was developed combining visual rapid screening and quantitative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity in both tissue and devices. It uses tissue allowing biofilm formation thus mimicking reality closely. These conditions are essential in order to predict antimicrobial activity of medical devices in the task to prevent device related infections.

  18. Determination of quantitative tissue composition by iterative reconstruction on 3D DECT volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Maria [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV); Malusek, Alexandr [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV); Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry; Muhammad, Arif [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Carlsson, Gudrun Alm [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV)

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative tissue classification using dual-energy CT has the potential to improve accuracy in radiation therapy dose planning as it provides more information about material composition of scanned objects than the currently used methods based on single-energy CT. One problem that hinders successful application of both single- and dual-energy CT is the presence of beam hardening and scatter artifacts in reconstructed data. Current pre- and post-correction methods used for image reconstruction often bias CT attenuation values and thus limit their applicability for quantitative tissue classification. Here we demonstrate simulation studies with a novel iterative algorithm that decomposes every soft tissue voxel into three base materials: water, protein, and adipose. The results demonstrate that beam hardening artifacts can effectively be removed and accurate estimation of mass fractions of each base material can be achieved. Our iterative algorithm starts with calculating parallel projections on two previously reconstructed DECT volumes reconstructed from fan-beam or helical projections with small conebeam angle. The parallel projections are then used in an iterative loop. Future developments include segmentation of soft and bone tissue and subsequent determination of bone composition. (orig.)

  19. Quantitative segmentation of fluorescence microscopy images of heterogeneous tissue: Approach for tuning algorithm parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna L.; Harmany, Zachary T.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Kim, Yongbaek; Dodd, Leslie; Geradts, Joseph; Kirsch, David G.; Willett, Rebecca M.; Brown, J. Quincy; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2013-02-01

    The combination of fluorescent contrast agents with microscopy is a powerful technique to obtain real time images of tissue histology without the need for fixing, sectioning, and staining. The potential of this technology lies in the identification of robust methods for image segmentation and quantitation, particularly in heterogeneous tissues. Our solution is to apply sparse decomposition (SD) to monochrome images of fluorescently-stained microanatomy to segment and quantify distinct tissue types. The clinical utility of our approach is demonstrated by imaging excised margins in a cohort of mice after surgical resection of a sarcoma. Representative images of excised margins were used to optimize the formulation of SD and tune parameters associated with the algorithm. Our results demonstrate that SD is a robust solution that can advance vital fluorescence microscopy as a clinically significant technology.

  20. BBN based Quantitative Assessment of Software Design Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung-Seop; Park, Gee-Yong; Kang, Hyun-Gook; Kwon, Kee-Choon; Chang, Seung-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), which is one of the important methods in assessing the overall safety of a nuclear power plant (NPP), requires quantitative reliability information of safety-critical software, but the conventional reliability assessment methods can not provide enough information for PSA of a NPP. Therefore current PSA which includes safety-critical software does not usually consider the reliability of the software or uses arbitrary values for it. In order to solve this situation this paper proposes a method that can produce quantitative reliability information of safety-critical software for PSA by making use of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). BBN has generally been used to model an uncertain system in many research fields including the safety assessment of software. The proposed method was constructed by utilizing BBN which can combine the qualitative and the quantitative evidence relevant to the reliability of safety critical software. The constructed BBN model can infer a conclusion in a formal and a quantitative way. A case study was carried out with the proposed method to assess the quality of software design specification (SDS) of safety-critical software that will be embedded in a reactor protection system. The intermediate V and V results of the software design specification were used as inputs to the BBN model

  1. Modeling Logistic Performance in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, H.; Tromp, S.O.; Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    In quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), food safety in the food chain is modeled and simulated. In general, prevalences, concentrations, and numbers of microorganisms in media are investigated in the different steps from farm to fork. The underlying rates and conditions (such as storage

  2. Method for quantitative assessment of nuclear safety computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearien, J.A.; Davis, C.B.; Matthews, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the quantitative assessment of nuclear safety computer codes and tested by comparison of RELAP4/MOD6 predictions with results from two Semiscale tests. This paper describes the developed procedure, the application of the procedure to the Semiscale tests, and the results obtained from the comparison

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Hippocampal MRI Assessments in Intractable Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To acquire normative data of hippocampal volumes and T2 relaxation times, to evaluate and compare qualitative and quantitative assessments in evaluating hippocampi in patients with different durations of intractable epilepsy, and to propose an imaging protocol based on performance of these techniques. Methods. MRI analysis was done in 50 nonepileptic controls and 30 patients with intractable epilepsy on 1.5T scanner. Visual assessment and hippocampal volumetry were done on oblique coronal IR/T2W and T1W MP-RAGE images, respectively. T2 relaxation times were measured using 16-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. Volumetric data was normalized for variation in head size between individuals. Patients were divided into temporal ( and extratemporal ( groups based on clinical and EEG localization. Results. In controls, right hippocampal volume was slightly more than the left with no effect of age or gender. In TLE patients, hippocampal volumetry provided maximum concordance with EEG. Visual assessment of unilateral pathology concurred well with measured quantitative values but poorly in cases with bilateral pathologies. There were no significant differences of mean values between extratemporal group and controls group. Quantitative techniques detected mild abnormalities, undetected on visual assessment. Conclusions. Quantitative techniques are more sensitive to diagnose bilateral and mild unilateral hippocampal abnormalities.

  4. Quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Olsen, Jesper V

    2007-01-01

    Technical limitations have prevented proteomic analyses of events occurring less than 30 s after signal initiation. We developed an automated, continuous quench-flow system allowing quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events (qPACE) with a time resolution of 1 s...

  5. Multiparametric Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging in Assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Perlman, Alan; Kalache, Safa; Berman, Nathaniel; Seshan, Surya; Salvatore, Steven; Smith, Lindsey; Wehrli, Natasha; Waldron, Levi; Kodali, Hanish; Chevalier, James

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the value of multiparametric quantitative ultrasound imaging in assessing chronic kidney disease (CKD) using kidney biopsy pathologic findings as reference standards. We prospectively measured multiparametric quantitative ultrasound markers with grayscale, spectral Doppler, and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in 25 patients with CKD before kidney biopsy and 10 healthy volunteers. Based on all pathologic (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, arteriosclerosis, and edema) scores, the patients with CKD were classified into mild (no grade 3 and quantitative ultrasound parameters included kidney length, cortical thickness, pixel intensity, parenchymal shear wave velocity, intrarenal artery peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index. We tested the difference in quantitative ultrasound parameters among mild CKD, moderate to severe CKD, and healthy controls using analysis of variance, analyzed correlations of quantitative ultrasound parameters with pathologic scores and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using Pearson correlation coefficients, and examined the diagnostic performance of quantitative ultrasound parameters in determining moderate CKD and an estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. There were significant differences in cortical thickness, pixel intensity, PSV, and EDV among the 3 groups (all P quantitative ultrasound parameters, the top areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for PSV and EDV were 0.88 and 0.97, respectively, for determining pathologic moderate to severe CKD, and 0.76 and 0.86 for estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Moderate to good correlations were found for PSV, EDV, and pixel intensity with pathologic scores and estimated GFR. The PSV, EDV, and pixel intensity are valuable in determining moderate to severe CKD. The value of shear wave velocity in

  6. Fiber optic based multiparametric spectroscopy in vivo: Toward a new quantitative tissue vitality index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutai-Asis, Hofit; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Deutsch, Assaf; Mayevsky, Avraham

    2006-02-01

    In our previous publication (Mayevsky et al SPIE 5326: 98-105, 2004) we described a multiparametric fiber optic system enabling the evaluation of 4 physiological parameters as indicators of tissue vitality. Since the correlation between the various parameters may differ in various pathophysiological conditions there is a need for an objective quantitative index that will integrate the relative changes measured in real time by the multiparametric monitoring system into a single number-vitality index. Such an approach to calculate tissue vitality index is critical for the possibility to use such an instrument in clinical environments. In the current presentation we are reporting our preliminary results indicating that calculation of an objective tissue vitality index is feasible. We used an intuitive empirical approach based on the comparison between the calculated index by the computer and the subjective evaluation made by an expert in the field of physiological monitoring. We used the in vivo brain of rats as an animal model in our current studies. The rats were exposed to anoxia, ischemia and cortical spreading depression and the responses were recorded in real time. At the end of the monitoring session the results were analyzed and the tissue vitality index was calculated offline. Mitochondrial NADH, tissue blood flow and oxy-hemoglobin were used to calculate the vitality index of the brain in vivo, where each parameter received a different weight, in each experiment type based on their significance. It was found that the mitochondrial NADH response was the main factor affected the calculated vitality index.

  7. Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cerussi, A E; Tromberg, B J [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine 92612, CA (United States); Merritt, S I [Masimo Corporation, 40 Parker, Irvine, CA 92618 (United States); Ruth, J, E-mail: bjtrombe@uci.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 210 S. 33rd Street, Room 240, Skirkanich Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R = 0.96) with a difference of 1.1 {+-} 0.91 {sup 0}C over a range of 28-48 {sup 0}C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics.

  8. Multivariate reference technique for quantitative analysis of fiber-optic tissue Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-12-03

    We report a novel method making use of multivariate reference signals of fused silica and sapphire Raman signals generated from a ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe for quantitative analysis of in vivo tissue Raman measurements in real time. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression modeling is applied to extract the characteristic internal reference Raman signals (e.g., shoulder of the prominent fused silica boson peak (~130 cm(-1)); distinct sapphire ball-lens peaks (380, 417, 646, and 751 cm(-1))) from the ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe for quantitative analysis of fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy. To evaluate the analytical value of this novel multivariate reference technique, a rapid Raman spectroscopy system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe is used for in vivo oral tissue Raman measurements (n = 25 subjects) under 785 nm laser excitation powers ranging from 5 to 65 mW. An accurate linear relationship (R(2) = 0.981) with a root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.5 mW can be obtained for predicting the laser excitation power changes based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation, which is superior to the normal univariate reference method (RMSE = 6.2 mW). A root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.4 mW (R(2) = 0.985) can also be achieved for laser power prediction in real time when we applied the multivariate method independently on the five new subjects (n = 166 spectra). We further apply the multivariate reference technique for quantitative analysis of gelatin tissue phantoms that gives rise to an RMSEP of ~2.0% (R(2) = 0.998) independent of laser excitation power variations. This work demonstrates that multivariate reference technique can be advantageously used to monitor and correct the variations of laser excitation power and fiber coupling efficiency in situ for standardizing the tissue Raman intensity to realize quantitative analysis of tissue Raman measurements in vivo, which is particularly appealing in

  9. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  10. Quantitative images of metals in plant tissues measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietrich, R.C.; Matusch, A.; Pozebon, D.; Dressler, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for quantitative imaging of toxic and essential elements in thin sections (thickness of 30 or 40 μm) of tobacco plant tissues. Two-dimensional images of Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Rh, Pt and Pb in leaves, shoots and roots of tobacco were produced. Sections of the plant tissues (fixed onto glass slides) were scanned by a focused beam of a Nd:YAG laser in a laser ablation chamber. The ablated material was transported with argon as carrier gas to the ICP ion source at a quadrupole ICP-MS instrument. Ion intensities of the investigated elements were measured together with 13 C + , 33 S + and 34 S + within the entire plant tissue section. Matrix matching standards (prepared using powder of dried tobacco leaves) were used to constitute calibration curves, whereas the regression coefficient of the attained calibration curves was typically 0.99. The variability of LA-ICP-MS process, sample heterogeneity and water content in the sample were corrected by using 13 C + as internal standard. Quantitative imaging of the selected elements revealed their inhomogeneous distribution in leaves, shoots and roots

  11. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of estrogen receptor gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Thomas J; Li, Geng; McCulloch, Thomas A; Seth, Rashmi; Powe, Desmond G; Bishop, Michael C; Rees, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of laser microdissected tissue is considered the most accurate technique for determining tissue gene expression. The discovery of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has focussed renewed interest on the role of estrogen receptors in prostate cancer, yet few studies have utilized the technique to analyze estrogen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer. Fresh tissue was obtained from 11 radical prostatectomy specimens and from 6 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Pure populations of benign and malignant prostate epithelium were laser microdissected, followed by RNA isolation and electrophoresis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using primers for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PGR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), with normalization to two housekeeping genes. Differences in gene expression were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation coefficients were analyzed using Spearman's test. Significant positive correlations were seen when AR and AR-dependent PSA, and ERalpha and ERalpha-dependent PGR were compared, indicating a representative population of RNA transcripts. ERbeta gene expression was significantly over-expressed in the cancer group compared with benign controls (P cancer group (P prostate cancer specimens. In concert with recent studies the findings suggest differential production of ERbeta splice variants, which may play important roles in the genesis of prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. A Room Temperature Ultrasensitive Magnetoelectric Susceptometer for Quantitative Tissue Iron Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hao; Qian, Xiaoshi; Lu, Meng-Chien; Mei, Lei; Rupprecht, Sebastian; Yang, Qing X.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-07-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that plays a vital role in the human body. However, absorbing and accumulating excessive iron in body organs (iron overload) can damage or even destroy an organ. Even after many decades of research, progress on the development of noninvasive and low-cost tissue iron detection methods is very limited. Here we report a recent advance in a room-temperature ultrasensitive biomagnetic susceptometer for quantitative tissue iron detection. The biomagnetic susceptometer exploits recent advances in the magnetoelectric (ME) composite sensors that exhibit an ultrahigh AC magnetic sensitivity under the presence of a strong DC magnetic field. The first order gradiometer based on piezoelectric and magnetostrictive laminate (ME composite) structure shows an equivalent magnetic noise of 0.99 nT/rt Hz at 1 Hz in the presence of a DC magnetic field of 0.1 Tesla and a great common mode noise rejection ability. A prototype magnetoelectric liver susceptometry has been demonstrated with liver phantoms. The results indicate its output signals to be linearly responsive to iron concentrations from normal iron dose (0.05 mg Fe/g liver phantom) to 5 mg Fe/g liver phantom iron overload (100X overdose). The results here open up many innovative possibilities for compact-size, portable, cost-affordable, and room-temperature operated medical systems for quantitative determinations of tissue iron.

  13. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret; Loai, Yasir; Beaumont, Marine; Farhat, Walid A

    2010-08-01

    Bladder acellular matrices (ACMs) derived from natural tissue are gaining increasing attention for their role in tissue engineering and regeneration. Unlike conventional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers or gels, ACMs possess native biomechanical and many acquired biologic properties. Efforts to optimize ACM-based scaffolds are ongoing and would be greatly assisted by a noninvasive means to characterize scaffold properties and monitor interaction with cells. MRI is well suited to this role, but research with MRI for scaffold characterization has been limited. This study presents initial results from quantitative MRI measurements for bladder ACM characterization and investigates the effects of incorporating hyaluronic acid, a natural biomaterial useful in tissue-engineering and regeneration. Measured MR relaxation times (T(1), T(2)) and diffusion coefficient were consistent with increased water uptake and glycosaminoglycan content observed on biochemistry in hyaluronic acid ACMs. Multicomponent MRI provided greater specificity, with diffusion data showing an acellular environment and T(2) components distinguishing the separate effects of increased glycosaminoglycans and hydration. These results suggest that quantitative MRI may provide useful information on matrix composition and structure, which is valuable in guiding further development using bladder ACMs for organ regeneration and in strategies involving the use of hyaluronic acid.

  14. Assessment of post-implantation integration of engineered tissues using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Sakib F.; Lee, Seung Y.; Lloyd, William R.; Chen, Leng-Chun; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Zhou, Ying; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Kennedy, Robert; Marcelo, Cynthia; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2018-02-01

    Clinical translation of engineered tissue constructs requires noninvasive methods to assess construct health and viability after implantation in patients. However, current practices to monitor post-implantation construct integration are either qualitative (visual assessment) or destructive (tissue histology). As label-free fluorescence lifetime sensing can noninvasively characterize pre-implantation construct viability, we employed a handheld fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy probe to quantitatively and noninvasively assess tissue constructs that were implanted in a murine model. We designed the system to be suitable for intravital measurements: portability, localization with precise maneuverability, and rapid data acquisition. Our model tissue constructs were manufactured from primary human cells to simulate patient variability and were stressed to create a range of health states. Secreted amounts of three cytokines that relate to cellular viability were measured in vitro to assess pre-implantation construct health. In vivo optical sensing assessed tissue integration of constructs at one-week and three-weeks post-implantation. At one-week post-implantation, optical parameters correlated with in vitro pre-implantation secretion levels of all three cytokines (p clinical optical diagnostic tools based on label-free fluorescence lifetime sensing of endogenous tissue fluorophores could noninvasively monitor post-implantation integration of engineered tissues.

  15. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology.

  16. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-30

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology.

  17. Simple preparation of plant epidermal tissue for laser microdissection and downstream quantitative proteome and carbohydrate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eFalter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The outwardly directed cell wall and associated plasma membrane of epidermal cells represent the first layers of plant defense against intruding pathogens. Cell wall modifications and the formation of defense structures at sites of attempted pathogen penetration are decisive for plant defense. A precise isolation of these stress-induced structures would allow a specific analysis of regulatory mechanism and cell wall adaption. However, methods for large-scale epidermal tissue preparation from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which would allow proteome and cell wall analysis of complete, laser-microdissected epidermal defense structures, have not been provided. We developed the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation from A. thaliana, which is also applicable on grass leaves. This method is compatible with subsequent staining techniques to visualize stress-related cell wall structures, which were precisely isolated from the epidermal tissue layer by laser microdissection coupled to laser pressure catapulting. We successfully demonstrated that these specific epidermal tissue samples could be used for quantitative downstream proteome and cell wall analysis. The development of the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation and the compatibility to laser microdissection and downstream quantitative analysis opens new possibilities in the precise examination of stress- and pathogen-related cell wall structures in epidermal cells. Because the developed tissue processing is also applicable on A. thaliana, well-established, model pathosystems that include the interaction with powdery mildews can be studied to determine principal regulatory mechanisms in plant-microbe interaction with their potential outreach into crop breeding.

  18. Towards Developing a Quantitative Literacy/Reasoning Assessment Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gaze

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the development and implementation of a non-proprietary assessment instrument for Quantitative Literacy/Reasoning. This instrument was based on prior work by Bowdoin College, Colby-Sawyer College, and Wellesley College and was piloted in 2012 and 2013. This article presents a discussion of its development as well as the results of the pilot implementation. This work was supported by a TUES Type 1 grant from the National Science Foundation.

  19. Quantitative Security Risk Assessment of Android Permissions and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Yang; Zheng , Jun; Sun , Chen; Mukkamala , Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Part 6: Mobile Computing; International audience; The booming of the Android platform in recent years has attracted the attention of malware developers. However, the permissions-based model used in Android system to prevent the spread of malware, has shown to be ineffective. In this paper, we propose DroidRisk, a framework for quantitative security risk assessment of both Android permissions and applications (apps) based on permission request patterns from benign apps and malware, which aims ...

  20. A hybrid approach to advancing quantitative prediction of tissue distribution of basic drugs in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, Patrick; Ekins, Sean; Theil, Frank-Peter

    2011-01-01

    A general toxicity of basic drugs is related to phospholipidosis in tissues. Therefore, it is essential to predict the tissue distribution of basic drugs to facilitate an initial estimate of that toxicity. The objective of the present study was to further assess the original prediction method that consisted of using the binding to red blood cells measured in vitro for the unbound drug (RBCu) as a surrogate for tissue distribution, by correlating it to unbound tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kpu) of several tissues, and finally to predict volume of distribution at steady-state (V ss ) in humans under in vivo conditions. This correlation method demonstrated inaccurate predictions of V ss for particular basic drugs that did not follow the original correlation principle. Therefore, the novelty of this study is to provide clarity on the actual hypotheses to identify i) the impact of pharmacological mode of action on the generic correlation of RBCu-Kpu, ii) additional mechanisms of tissue distribution for the outlier drugs, iii) molecular features and properties that differentiate compounds as outliers in the original correlation analysis in order to facilitate its applicability domain alongside the properties already used so far, and finally iv) to present a novel and refined correlation method that is superior to what has been previously published for the prediction of human V ss of basic drugs. Applying a refined correlation method after identifying outliers would facilitate the prediction of more accurate distribution parameters as key inputs used in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and phospholipidosis models.

  1. Absolute quantitative autoradiography of low concentrations of [125I]-labeled proteins in arterial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzer, J.J.; Morrel, E.M.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.; Stemerman, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    We developed a method for absolute quantitative autoradiographic measurement of very low concentrations of [ 125 I]-labeled proteins in arterial tissue using Kodak NTB-2 nuclear emulsion. A precise linear relationship between measured silver grain density and isotope concentration was obtained with uniformly labeled standard sources composed of epoxy-embedded gelatin containing glutaraldehyde-fixed [ 125 I]-albumin. For up to 308-day exposures of 1 micron-thick tissue sections, background grain densities ranged from about two to eight grains/1000 micron 2, and the technique was sensitive to as little as about one grain/1000 micron 2 above background, which correspond to a radioactivity concentration of about 2 x 10(4) cpm/ml. A detailed statistical analysis of variability was performed and the sum of all sources of variation quantified. The half distance for spatial resolution was 1.7 micron. Both visual and automated techniques were employed for quantitative grain density analysis. The method was illustrated by measurement of in vivo transmural [ 125 I]-low-density lipoprotein [( 125 I]-LDL) concentration profiles in de-endothelialized rabbit thoracic aortic wall

  2. Quantitative reliability assessment for safety critical system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Won; Kwon, Soon Man

    2005-01-01

    An essential issue in the replacement of the old analogue I and C to computer-based digital systems in nuclear power plants is the quantitative software reliability assessment. Software reliability models have been successfully applied to many industrial applications, but have the unfortunate drawback of requiring data from which one can formulate a model. Software which is developed for safety critical applications is frequently unable to produce such data for at least two reasons. First, the software is frequently one-of-a-kind, and second, it rarely fails. Safety critical software is normally expected to pass every unit test producing precious little failure data. The basic premise of the rare events approach is that well-tested software does not fail under normal routine and input signals, which means that failures must be triggered by unusual input data and computer states. The failure data found under the reasonable testing cases and testing time for these conditions should be considered for the quantitative reliability assessment. We will present the quantitative reliability assessment methodology of safety critical software for rare failure cases in this paper

  3. Assessing the quality of force feedback in soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basafa, Ehsan; Sefati, Shahin; Okamura, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Many types of deformable models have been proposed for simulation of soft tissue in surgical simulators, but their realism in comparison to actual tissue is rarely assessed. In this paper, a nonlinear mass-spring model is used for realtime simulation of deformable soft tissues and providing force feedback to a human operator. Force-deformation curves of real soft tissue samples were obtained experimentally, and the model was tuned accordingly. To test the realism of the model, we conducted two human-user experiments involving palpation with a rigid probe. First, in a discrimination test, users identified the correct category of real and virtual tissue better than chance, and tended to identify the tissues as real more often than virtual. Second, users identified real and virtual tissues by name, after training on only real tissues. The sorting accuracy was the same for both real and virtual tissues. These results indicate that, despite model limitations, the simulation could convey the feel of touching real tissues. This evaluation approach could be used to compare and validate various soft-tissue simulators.

  4. Fuzzy logic algorithm for quantitative tissue characterization of diffuse liver diseases from ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, A M; Derbala, A S; Youssef, A M

    1999-08-01

    Computerized ultrasound tissue characterization has become an objective means for diagnosis of liver diseases. It is difficult to differentiate diffuse liver diseases, namely cirrhotic and fatty liver by visual inspection from the ultrasound images. The visual criteria for differentiating diffused diseases are rather confusing and highly dependent upon the sonographer's experience. This often causes a bias effects in the diagnostic procedure and limits its objectivity and reproducibility. Computerized tissue characterization to assist quantitatively the sonographer for the accurate differentiation and to minimize the degree of risk is thus justified. Fuzzy logic has emerged as one of the most active area in classification. In this paper, we present an approach that employs Fuzzy reasoning techniques to automatically differentiate diffuse liver diseases using numerical quantitative features measured from the ultrasound images. Fuzzy rules were generated from over 140 cases consisting of normal, fatty, and cirrhotic livers. The input to the fuzzy system is an eight dimensional vector of feature values: the mean gray level (MGL), the percentile 10%, the contrast (CON), the angular second moment (ASM), the entropy (ENT), the correlation (COR), the attenuation (ATTEN) and the speckle separation. The output of the fuzzy system is one of the three categories: cirrhosis, fatty or normal. The steps done for differentiating the pathologies are data acquisition and feature extraction, dividing the input spaces of the measured quantitative data into fuzzy sets. Based on the expert knowledge, the fuzzy rules are generated and applied using the fuzzy inference procedures to determine the pathology. Different membership functions are developed for the input spaces. This approach has resulted in very good sensitivities and specificity for classifying diffused liver pathologies. This classification technique can be used in the diagnostic process, together with the history

  5. Separation and Quantitation of Polyamines in Plant Tissue by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Their Dansyl Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary A.; Davies, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectrophotometry can be used to separate and quantitate polyamines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine), prepared as their dansyl derivatives, from plant tissue. The procedure gives sensitive and consistent results for polyamine determinations in plant tissue. In a standard mixture, the minimal detection level was less than 1 picomole of polyamines. PMID:16664216

  6. Energy potential of region and its quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Kovalenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the development of the concept of the energy potential of the region (EPR, the analysis of the existing structure of relationships for the EPR elements in Ukraine and improvement of a quantitative assessment of energy potential of the region (country. The methods of an assessment of the existing condition of energy potential of the territory are the subject matter of the research. As a result of the analysis of concept’s definitions of energy potential of the region, it has further development and included the consumer potential of energy resources and capacity of management. The structure of relationships between elements of energy potential is developed for the Ukraine region. The new economic indicator — the realized energy potential is offered for an EPR assessment. By means of this indicator, the assessment of energy potential for the different countries of the world and a number of Ukraine areas of is performed.

  7. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: (1 to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and (2 to use the method for characterization of ultrasound images of the supraspinatus muscle, and the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods Computerized texture analyses employing first-order and higher-order grey-scale statistics were developed to objectively characterize ultrasound images of m. supraspinatus and m. vastus lateralis from 9 healthy participants. Results The mean grey-scale intensity was higher in the vastus lateralis muscle (p -2 and for m. supraspinatus: 0.016 mm-2. Conclusion The higher intensity and the higher number of blobs in the vastus lateralis muscle indicates that the thigh muscle contained more non-contractile components than the supraspinatus muscle, and that the muscle was coarser. The image analyses supplemented each other and gave a more complete description of the tissue composition in the muscle than the mean grey-scale value alone.

  8. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of Human Brain Reflects Spatial Variation in Tissue Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Liu, Chunlei

    2011-01-01

    Image phase from gradient echo MRI provides a unique contrast that reflects brain tissue composition variations, such as iron and myelin distribution. Phase imaging is emerging as a powerful tool for the investigation of functional brain anatomy and disease diagnosis. However, the quantitative value of phase is compromised by its nonlocal and orientation dependent properties. There is an increasing need for reliable quantification of magnetic susceptibility, the intrinsic property of tissue. In this study, we developed a novel and accurate susceptibility mapping method that is also phase-wrap insensitive. The proposed susceptibility mapping method utilized two complementary equations: (1) the Fourier relationship of phase and magnetic susceptibility; and (2) the first-order partial derivative of the first equation in the spatial frequency domain. In numerical simulation, this method reconstructed the susceptibility map almost free of streaking artifact. Further, the iterative implementation of this method allowed for high quality reconstruction of susceptibility maps of human brain in vivo. The reconstructed susceptibility map provided excellent contrast of iron-rich deep nuclei and white matter bundles from surrounding tissues. Further, it also revealed anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in brain white matter. Hence, the proposed susceptibility mapping method may provide a powerful tool for the study of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Further elucidation of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in vivo may allow us to gain more insight into the white matter microarchitectures. PMID:21224002

  9. Qualitative and quantitative observations of bone tissue reactions to anodised implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Young-Taeg; Johansson, Carina B; Röser, Kerstin; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2002-04-01

    Research projects focusing on biomaterials related factors; the bulk implant material, the macro-design of the implant and the microsurface roughness are routinely being conducted at our laboratories. In this study, we have investigated the bone tissue reactions to turned commercially pure (c.p.) titanium implants with various thicknesses of the oxide films after 6 weeks of insertion in rabbit bone. The control c.p. titanium implants had an oxide thickness of 17-200 nm while the test implants revealed an oxide thickness between 600 and 1000 nm. Routine histological investigations of the tissue reactions around the implants and enzyme histochemical detections of alkaline and acid phosphatase activities demonstrated similar findings around both the control and test implants. In general, the histomorphometrical parameters (bone to implant contact and newly formed bone) revealed significant quantitative differences between the control and test implants. The test implants demonstrated a greater bone response histomorphometrically than control implants and the osteoconductivity was more pronounced around the test implant surfaces. The parameters that differed between the implant surfaces, i.e. the oxide thickness, the pore size distribution, the porosity and the crystallinity of the surface oxides may represent factors that have an influence on the histomorphometrical results indicated by a stronger bone tissue response to the test implant surfaces, with an oxide thickness of more than 600 nm.

  10. Quantitation of Na+, K+-atpase Enzymatic Activity in Tissues of the Mammalian Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, T. P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to quantify vestibular Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, a microassay technique was developed which is sufficiently sensitive to measure the enzymatic activity in tissue from a single animal. The assay was used to characterize ATPase in he vestibular apparatus of the Mongolian gerbil. The quantitative procedure employs NPP (5 mM) as synthetic enzyme substrate. The assay relies upon spectrophotometric measurement (410 nm) of nitrophenol (NP) released by enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate. Product formation in the absence of ouabain reflects both specific (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and non-specific (Mg(++)-ATPase) enzymatic activity. By measuring the accumulation of reaction product (NP) at three-minute intervals during the course of incubation, it is found that the overall enzymatic reaction proceeds linearly for at least 45 minutes. It is therefore possible to determine two separate reaction rates from a single set of tissues. Initial results indicate that total activity amounts to 53.3 + or - 11.2 (S.E.M.) nmol/hr/mg dry tissue, of which approximately 20% is ouabain-sensitive.

  11. HERMES docking/berthing system pilot study. Quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Blasco, J.; Goicoechea Sanchez, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study falls within the framework of the incorporation of quantitative risk assessment to the activities planned for the ESA-HERMES project (ESA/ CNES). The main objective behind the study was the analysis and evaluation of the potential contribution of so-called probabilistic or quantitative safety analysis to the optimization of the safety development process for the systems carrying out the safety functions required by the new and complex HERMES Space Vehicle. For this purpose, a pilot study was considered a good start in quantitative safety assessments (QSA), as this approach has been frequently used in the past to establish a solid base in large-scale QSA application programs while avoiding considerable economic risks. It was finally decided to select the HERMES docking/berthing system with Man Tender Free Flyer as the case-study. This report describes the different steps followed in the study, along with the main insights obtained and the general conclusions drawn from the study results. (author)

  12. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger: a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Good

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP (robotic and laparoscopic, have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc. We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized [E-finger] capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection.Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point.Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = < 0.001. Intra-class correlation (ICC reliability tests showed good reliability (average ICC = 0.851. Sensitivity and specificity for tissue identification was 77% and 70% respectively to a resolution of 6 mm2.This cadaveric study has evaluated the ability of our elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to

  13. A probe-based quantitative PCR assay for detecting Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in fish tissue and environmental DNA water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Patrick; Sepulveda, Adam; Martin, Renee; Hopper, Lacey

    2017-01-01

    A probe-based quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to detect Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which causes proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish, in kidney tissue and environmental DNA (eDNA) water samples. The limits of detection and quantification were 7 and 100 DNA copies for calibration standards and T. bryosalmonae was reliably detected down to 100 copies in tissue and eDNA samples. The assay presented here is a highly sensitive and quantitative tool for detecting T. bryosalmonae with potential applications for tissue diagnostics and environmental detection.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, Flora Margarida Barra; Pansani, Patrícia Luísa; Silveira, Luciano Alves Matias da; Naves, Aline de Araújo; Peixoto, Ana Cristina Abdu; Lima, Hellen Moreira de; Martins, Laura Bisinotto

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  15. Quantitative tissue parameters of Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in healthy subjects using a handheld myotonometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orner, Sarah; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Schmidberger, Julian; Grüner, Beate

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the quantitative tissue properties of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia using a handheld, non-invasive MyotonPRO device, in order to generate normal values and examine the biomechanical relationship of both structures. Prospective study of a large, healthy sample population. The study sample included 207 healthy subjects (87 males and 120 females) for the Achilles tendon and 176 healthy subjects (73 males and 103 females) for the plantar fascia. For the correlations of the tissue parameters of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia an intersection of both groups was formed which included 150 healthy subjects (65 males and 85 females). All participants were measured in a prone position. Consecutive measurements of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia were performed by MyotonPRO device at defined sites. For the left and right Achilles tendons and plantar fasciae all five MyotonPRO parameters (Frequency [Hz], Decrement, Stiffness [N/m], Creep and Relaxation Time [ms]) were calculated of healthy males and females. The correlation of the tissue parameters of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia showed a significant positive correlation of all parameters on the left as well as on the right side. The MyotonPRO is a feasible device for easy measurement of passive tissue properties of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in a clinical setting. The generated normal values of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia are important for detecting abnormalities in patients with Achilles tendinopathy or plantar fasciitis in the future. Biomechanically, both structures are positively correlated. This may provide new aspects in the diagnostics and therapy of plantar fasciitis and Achilles tendinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Objective, Quantitative, Data-Driven Assessment of Chemical Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, Albert A; Tym, Joseph E; Komianou, Angeliki; Collins, Ian; Workman, Paul; Al-Lazikani, Bissan

    2018-02-15

    Chemical probes are essential tools for understanding biological systems and for target validation, yet selecting probes for biomedical research is rarely based on objective assessment of all potential compounds. Here, we describe the Probe Miner: Chemical Probes Objective Assessment resource, capitalizing on the plethora of public medicinal chemistry data to empower quantitative, objective, data-driven evaluation of chemical probes. We assess >1.8 million compounds for their suitability as chemical tools against 2,220 human targets and dissect the biases and limitations encountered. Probe Miner represents a valuable resource to aid the identification of potential chemical probes, particularly when used alongside expert curation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes...... involved in the Mendelian disorder long QT syndrome (LOTS). We integrated the LOTS network with GWAS loci from the corresponding common complex trait, QT-interval variation, to identify candidate genes that were subsequently confirmed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and zebrafish. We used the LOTS protein...... network to filter weak GWAS signals by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to genes in the network supported by strong proteomic evidence. Three SNPs passing this filter reached genome-wide significance after replication genotyping. Overall, we present a general strategy...

  18. New developments in quantitative risk assessment of campylobacteriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie; Nauta, Maarten

    meat to ready-to-eat foods is the main pathway of consumer exposure. Undercooking appears to be of minor importance. However, this conclusion may need to be reconsidered in the light of increasing consumption of minced meat preparations. Five QMRA models have been compared in detail, and detailed......Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) is now broadly accepted as an important decision support tool in food safety risk management. It has been used to support decision making at the global level (Codex Alimentarius, FAO and WHO), at the European level (European Food Safety Authority...

  19. Shear Wave Elastography--A New Quantitative Assessment of Post-Irradiation Neck Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K H; Bhatia, K; Chu, W; He, L T; Leung, S F; Ahuja, A T

    2015-08-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a new technique which provides quantitative assessment of soft tissue stiffness. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of SWE stiffness measurements and its usefulness in evaluating post-irradiation neck fibrosis. 50 subjects (25 patients with previous radiotherapy to the neck and 25 sex and age-matched controls) were recruited for comparison of SWE stiffness measurements (Aixplorer, Supersonic Imagine). 30 subjects (16 healthy individuals and 14 post-irradiated patients) were recruited for a reliability study of SWE stiffness measurements. SWE stiffness measurements of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the overlying subcutaneous tissues of the neck were made. The cross-sectional area and thickness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the overlying subcutaneous tissue thickness of the neck were also measured. The post-irradiation duration of the patients was recorded. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the intraoperator and interoperator reliability of deep and subcutaneous tissue SWE stiffness ranged from 0.90-0.99 and 0.77-0.94, respectively. The SWE stiffness measurements (mean +/- SD) of deep and subcutaneous tissues were significantly higher in the post-irradiated patients (64.6 ± 46.8 kPa and 63.9 ± 53.1 kPa, respectively) than the sex and age-matched controls (19.9 ± 7.8 kPa and 15.3 ± 8.37 respectively) (p < 0.001). The SWE stiffness increased with increasing post-irradiation therapy duration in the Kruskal Wallis test (p < 0.001) and correlated with muscle atrophy and subcutaneous tissue thinning (p < 0.01). SWE is a reliable technique and may potentially be an objective and specific tool in quantifying deep and subcutaneous tissue stiffness, which in turn reflects the severity of neck fibrosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of T2DM Rhesus Macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfu Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder that severely affects human health, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. The high-fat/high-sucrose diets combined with streptozotocin- (STZ- induced nonhuman primate animal model of diabetes are a valuable research source of T2DM. Here, we present a study of a STZ rhesus macaque model of T2DM that utilizes quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic method. We compared the protein profiles in the liver of STZ-treated macaques as well as age-matched healthy controls. We identified 171 proteins differentially expressed in the STZ-treated groups, about 70 of which were documented as diabetes-related gene in previous studies. Pathway analyses indicated that the biological functions of differentially expressed proteins were related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, complements, and coagulation cascades. Expression change in tryptophan metabolism pathway was also found in this study which may be associations with diabetes. This study is the first to explore genome-wide protein expression in hepatic tissue of diabetes macaque model using HPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology. In addition to providing potential T2DM biomarkers, this quantitative proteomic study may also shed insights regarding the molecular pathogenesis of T2DM.

  1. A rapid and quantitative method to determine the tritium content in DNA from small tissue sampes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasche, V.; Zoellner, R.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative two-step procedure to isolate double-strand DNA from small (10-100 mg) animal tissue samples is presented. The method is developed for investigations to evaluate the relative importance of organically bound tritium for the dose factors used to calculate dose commitments due to this nuclide. In the first step the proteins in the homogenized sample are hydrolysed, at a high pH (9.0) and ionic strength (1.5) to dissociate protein from DNA, using immobilized Proteinase K as a proteolytic enzyme. The DNA is then absorbed to hydroxylapatite and separated from impurities by step-wise elution with buffers of increasing ionic strength. More than 90% of the DNA in the samples could be isolated in double-strand form by this procedure. The method has been applied to determine pool-sizes and biological half-life times of tritium in DNA from various animal (mouse) tissues. It has also been shown to be suitable in other radiobiological studies where effects on DNA are investigated. (author)

  2. Short Course Introduction to Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    This is an abbreviated text supplementing the content of three sets of slides used in a short course that has been presented by the author at several workshops. The slides should be viewed in the order of (1) Introduction and models, (2) Delineation and estimation, and (3) Combining estimates and summary. References cited in the slides are listed at the end of this text. The purpose of the three-part form of mineral resource assessments discussed in the accompanying slides is to make unbiased quantitative assessments in a format needed in decision-support systems so that consequences of alternative courses of action can be examined. The three-part form of mineral resource assessments was developed to assist policy makers evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action with respect to land use and mineral-resource development. The audience for three-part assessments is a governmental or industrial policy maker, a manager of exploration, a planner of regional development, or similar decision-maker. Some of the tools and models presented here will be useful for selection of exploration sites, but that is a side benefit, not the goal. To provide unbiased information, we recommend the three-part form of mineral resource assessments where general locations of undiscovered deposits are delineated from a deposit type's geologic setting, frequency distributions of tonnages and grades of well-explored deposits serve as models of grades and tonnages of undiscovered deposits, and number of undiscovered deposits are estimated probabilistically by type. The internally consistent descriptive, grade and tonnage, deposit density, and economic models used in the design of the three-part form of assessments reduce the chances of biased estimates of the undiscovered resources. What and why quantitative resource assessments: The kind of assessment recommended here is founded in decision analysis in order to provide a framework for making decisions concerning mineral

  3. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger): a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Daniel W; Khan, Ashfaq; Hammer, Steven; Scanlan, Paul; Shu, Wenmiao; Phipps, Simon; Parson, Simon H; Stewart, Grant D; Reuben, Robert; McNeill, S Alan

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP) (robotic and laparoscopic), have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc). We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized) [E-finger]) capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection. Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point. Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to examine the use of elasticity assessment devices for tissue quality assessment with the aim of giving haptic feedback to surgeons performing complex surgery.

  4. Quantitative cholescintigraphy in the assessment of choledochoduodenal bile flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicala, M.; Scopinaro, F.; Corazziari, E.; Vignoni, A.; Viscardi, A.; Habib, F.I.; Torsoli, A.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative cholescintigraphy has been proposed as a noninvasive method to assess function of the sphincter of Oddi in cholecystectomized subjects. The present study evaluated several quantitative cholescintigraphic variables to assess their time-related variability as well as their capability to detect delay of choledochoduodenal bile flow. Cholescintigraphy with 2,6-diethylphenylcarbahoylmethyl diacetic acid 99mTc was performed in 24 cholecystectomized patients with recurrent biliary-like pain, laboratory evidence of bile stasis, normal hepatocellular function tests, and no evidence of choledocholithiasis. The study was also performed in 26 asymptomatic cholecystectomized subjects and repeated at 2-week intervals during identical experimental conditions in 10 of them. Of the following quantitative cholescintigraphic variables investigated, (a) hepatic T peak, (b) 50% hepatic retention (T peak, 1/2), (c) percent hepatic retention at 30 minutes, (d) percent hepatic retention at 40 minutes, (e) vein-hepatic hilum transit time, (f) vein-duodenum transit time, and (g) hepatic hilum-duodenum transit time, only the hepatic hilum-duodenum transit time showed a statistically significant correlation between the duplicate studies. Only vein-duodenum transit time and hepatic hilum-duodenum transit time discriminated the symptomatic from the asymptomatic patients; of the two variables, however, hepatic hilum-duodenum transit time showed less intrasubject variability and no overlap between the two groups of patients. Hepatic hilum-duodenum transit time showed a positive linear correlation with the maximum diameter of the choledochus. It is concluded that in cholecystectomized patients, the hepatic hilum-duodenum transit time appears to detect a delay of bile flow into the intestine better than any other cholescintigraphic variable

  5. NecroQuant: quantitative assessment of radiological necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Darryl H.; Mohamed, Passant; Varghese, Bino A.; Cen, Steven Y.; Duddalwar, Vinay

    2017-11-01

    Clinicians can now objectively quantify tumor necrosis by Hounsfield units and enhancement characteristics from multiphase contrast enhanced CT imaging. NecroQuant has been designed to work as part of a radiomics pipelines. The software is a departure from the conventional qualitative assessment of tumor necrosis, as it provides the user (radiologists and researchers) a simple interface to precisely and interactively define and measure necrosis in contrast-enhanced CT images. Although, the software is tested here on renal masses, it can be re-configured to assess tumor necrosis across variety of tumors from different body sites, providing a generalized, open, portable, and extensible quantitative analysis platform that is widely applicable across cancer types to quantify tumor necrosis.

  6. Quantitative Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security for Distribution Automation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaming Ye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution automation system (DAS is vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to the widespread use of terminal devices and standard communication protocols. On account of the cost of defense, it is impossible to ensure the security of every device in the DAS. Given this background, a novel quantitative vulnerability assessment model of cyber security for DAS is developed in this paper. In the assessment model, the potential physical consequences of cyber-attacks are analyzed from two levels: terminal device level and control center server level. Then, the attack process is modeled based on game theory and the relationships among different vulnerabilities are analyzed by introducing a vulnerability adjacency matrix. Finally, the application process of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a case study based on bus 2 of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS. The results demonstrate the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  7. Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques.

  8. Quantitative Cardiac Assessment in Fetal Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatavan, Phudit; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Luewan, Suchaya; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee; Tongsong, Theera

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess cardiac function and biometric parameters in fetuses with a diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot and compare them to those in healthy fetuses. Two hundred healthy fetuses and 20 fetuses with a diagnosis of classic tetralogy of Fallot were quantitatively assessed for 16 cardiac parameters, including morphologic characteristics and functions. All recruited fetuses were in the second trimester with correct gestational ages. The measured values that were out of normal reference ranges were considered abnormal. Rates of abnormalities of these parameters were compared between the groups. The significant parameters were further analyzed for their sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio. Of the 16 parameters, rates of abnormalities in 7 parameters, including right ventricular wall thickness, peak systolic velocities (PSVs) in the pulmonary artery and aorta, time to peak velocity, or acceleration time, in the pulmonary artery, aortic valve diameter, pulmonary valve diameter, and aortic-to-pulmonary valve diameter ratio, were significantly higher in fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot (P tetralogy of Fallot.

  9. Quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation using radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Rongfang

    1992-01-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography has been used to assess quantitatively the extent of mitral and aortic regurgitation in 70 patients and compared to echocardiography and the finding of surgery. Two radionuclide parameters were measured: regurgitant index (RI) = left ventricular stroke counts/right ventricular stroke counts; and regurgitant fraction (RF) = left ventricular stroke counts-right ventricular stroke counts/left ventricular stroke counts. In 28 patients without valvular heart disease, the RI was 1.10 ± 0.15 and Rf was 10.3 ± 15.0%, respectively. However, in patients with valvular regurgitation, the RI and RF were 3.41 ± 1.73 and 61.1 ± 21.2%, respectively. A good correlation was found between the results obtained by radionuclide techniques and the findings of surgery and doppler studies. The level of concordance between RI and surgical findings was 91.7%. Follow up studies in 10 patients after valvular replacement surgery showed the RI and RF return to normal. These data suggested that radionuclide ventriculography is very useful for quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation

  10. Is epicardial adipose tissue, assessed by echocardiography, a reliable method for visceral adipose tissue prediction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Alina Cristina; Poantă, Laura; Valea, Ana; Pais, Raluca; Silaghi, Horatiu

    2011-03-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is an ectopic fat storage at the heart surface in direct contact with the coronary arteries. It is considered a metabolically active tissue, being a local source of pro-inflammatory factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The AIM of our study was to establish correlations between echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue and anthropometric and ultrasound measurements of the central and peripheral fat depots. The study was conducted on 22 patients with or without coronaropathy. Epicardial adipose tissue was measured using Aloka Prosound α 10 machine with a 3.5-7.5 MHz variable-frequency transducer and subcutaneous and visceral fat with Esaote Megas GPX machine and 3.5-7.5 MHz variable frequency transducer. Epicardial adipose tissue measured by echocardiography is correlated with waist circumference (p < 0.05), visceral adipose tissue thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and is not correlated with body mass index (p = 0.315), hip and thigh circumference or subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US. Our study confirms that US assessment of epicardial fat correlates with anthropometric and US measurements of the central fat, representing an indirect but reliable marker of the visceral fat.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Margarida Barra Bisinotto

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. Method: A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Conclusion: Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  12. Incorporating assumption deviation risk in quantitative risk assessments: A semi-quantitative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorsandi, Jahon; Aven, Terje

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) of complex engineering systems are based on numerous assumptions and expert judgments, as there is limited information available for supporting the analysis. In addition to sensitivity analyses, the concept of assumption deviation risk has been suggested as a means for explicitly considering the risk related to inaccuracies and deviations in the assumptions, which can significantly impact the results of the QRAs. However, challenges remain for its practical implementation, considering the number of assumptions and magnitude of deviations to be considered. This paper presents an approach for integrating an assumption deviation risk analysis as part of QRAs. The approach begins with identifying the safety objectives for which the QRA aims to support, and then identifies critical assumptions with respect to ensuring the objectives are met. Key issues addressed include the deviations required to violate the safety objectives, the uncertainties related to the occurrence of such events, and the strength of knowledge supporting the assessments. Three levels of assumptions are considered, which include assumptions related to the system's structural and operational characteristics, the effectiveness of the established barriers, as well as the consequence analysis process. The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation. - Highlights: • An approach for assessing the risk of deviations in QRA assumptions is presented. • Critical deviations and uncertainties related to their occurrence are addressed. • The analysis promotes critical thinking about the foundation and results of QRAs. • The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation.

  13. Quantitatively characterizing the microstructural features of breast ductal carcinoma tissues in different progression stages by Mueller matrix microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Qi, Ji; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wu, Jian; Elson, Daniel S; Ma, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Polarization imaging has been recognized as a potentially powerful technique for probing the microstructural information and optical properties of complex biological specimens. Recently, we have reported a Mueller matrix microscope by adding the polarization state generator and analyzer (PSG and PSA) to a commercial transmission-light microscope, and applied it to differentiate human liver and cervical cancerous tissues with fibrosis. In this paper, we apply the Mueller matrix microscope for quantitative detection of human breast ductal carcinoma samples at different stages. The Mueller matrix polar decomposition and transformation parameters of the breast ductal tissues in different regions and at different stages are calculated and analyzed. For more quantitative comparisons, several widely-used image texture feature parameters are also calculated to characterize the difference in the polarimetric images. The experimental results indicate that the Mueller matrix microscope and the polarization parameters can facilitate the quantitative detection of breast ductal carcinoma tissues at different stages.

  14. Multifactorial Optimization of Contrast-Enhanced Nanofocus Computed Tomography for Quantitative Analysis of Neo-Tissue Formation in Tissue Engineering Constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Sonnaert

    Full Text Available To progress the fields of tissue engineering (TE and regenerative medicine, development of quantitative methods for non-invasive three dimensional characterization of engineered constructs (i.e. cells/tissue combined with scaffolds becomes essential. In this study, we have defined the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography for three dimensional visualization and quantitative analysis of in vitro engineered neo-tissue (i.e. extracellular matrix containing cells in perfusion bioreactor-developed Ti6Al4V constructs. A fractional factorial 'design of experiments' approach was used to elucidate the influence of the staining time and concentration of two contrast agents (Hexabrix and phosphotungstic acid and the neo-tissue volume on the image contrast and dataset quality. Additionally, the neo-tissue shrinkage that was induced by phosphotungstic acid staining was quantified to determine the operating window within which this contrast agent can be accurately applied. For Hexabrix the staining concentration was the main parameter influencing image contrast and dataset quality. Using phosphotungstic acid the staining concentration had a significant influence on the image contrast while both staining concentration and neo-tissue volume had an influence on the dataset quality. The use of high concentrations of phosphotungstic acid did however introduce significant shrinkage of the neo-tissue indicating that, despite sub-optimal image contrast, low concentrations of this staining agent should be used to enable quantitative analysis. To conclude, design of experiments allowed us to define the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography to be used as a routine screening tool of neo-tissue formation in Ti6Al4V constructs, transforming it into a robust three dimensional quality control methodology.

  15. Facilitated assessment of tissue loss following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eHånell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI result in a progressive loss of brain tissue. The extent of tissue loss reflects the injury severity and can be measured to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of experimental treatments. Quantitation of tissue volumes is commonly performed using evenly spaced brain sections stained using routine histochemical methods and digitally captured. The brain tissue areas are then measured and the corresponding volumes are calculated using the distance between the sections. Measurements of areas are usually performed using a general purpose image analysis software and the results are then transferred to another program for volume calculations. To facilitate the measurement of brain tissue loss we developed novel algorithms which automatically separate the areas of brain tissue from the surrounding image background and identify the ventricles. We implemented these new algorithms by creating a new computer program (SectionToVolume which also has functions for image organization, image adjustments and volume calculations. We analyzed brain sections from mice subjected to severe focal TBI using both SectionToVolume and ImageJ, a commonly used image analysis program. The volume measurements made by the two programs were highly correlated and analysis using SectionToVolume required considerably less time. The inter-rater reliability was high. Given the extensive use of brain tissue loss measurements in TBI research, SectionToVolume will likely be a useful tool for TBI research. We therefore provide both the source code and the program as attachments to this article.

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Obstructive Uropathy with Diuretic Renography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Lee, Dong Soo; Kwark, Cheol Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Chang Woon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Choi, Yong; Choi, Hwang

    1993-01-01

    Differentiating the various causes of hydronephrosis from that of obstruction can be very difficult. The decision-marking process for those instances of urinary tract dilatation that require surgical correction and those that do not is based in part on the findings of diuresis renography. The methodology for performing this test has differed among nuclear medicine practitioners and the surgical findings are occasionally discrepant from the diuretic renogram interpretation. Consequently we made an automatic computer software program that calculates the slope of the response curve. The quantitative indices, such as the injection and response t1/2 by linear-fitting and monoexponential-fitting, were compared with the visual assessment of the diuretic cinerenography and clinical outcome in 50 children (62 kidneys) with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Pooled diuresis renogram data indicated that: (1) Visual evaluation of the diuretic cinerenography is a sensitive (87%, 54/62) tool to differentiate obstruction in suspected ureteropelvic junction obstruction. (2) The cut-off value (maximum washout t1/2 with non-obstruction) of injection and response t1/2 by linear-fitting were 40 min. (3) The sensitivity and specificity using injection and response t1/2 by linear-fitting for obstruction were 89%(23/26) and 100%(30/30), respectively. (4) Response t1/2 as well as injection t1/2 by monoexponential-fitting do not stratify children with possible ureteropelivic junction obstruction. In conclusion, quantitative assessment of diuretic renography as well as visual assessment of diuretic cinerenography correlate well with surgical and clinical outcome of suspected ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

  17. Quantitative assessment of breast density: comparison of different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Naishan; Guo Li; Dang Yi; Song Luxin; Wang Xiaoying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To Compare different methods of quantitative breast density measurement. Methods: The study included sixty patients who underwent both mammography and breast MRI. The breast density was computed automatically on digital mammograms with R2 workstation, Two experienced radiologists read the mammograms and assessed the breast density with Wolfe and ACR classification respectively. Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCM) was used to assess breast density on MRI. Each assessment method was repeated after 2 weeks. Spearman and Pearson correlations of inter- and intrareader and intermodality were computed for density estimates. Results: Inter- and intrareader correlation of Wolfe classification were 0.74 and 0.65, and they were 0.74 and 0.82 for ACR classification respectively. Correlation between Wolfe and ACR classification was 0.77. High interreader correlation of 0.98 and intrareader correlation of 0.96 was observed with MR FCM measurement. And the correlation between digital mammograms and MRI was high in the assessment of breast density (r=0.81, P<0.01). Conclusion: High correlation of breast density estimates on digital mammograms and MRI FCM suggested the former could be used as a simple and accurate method. (authors)

  18. Quantitative assessment of myofibroblast in severe dysplasia, microinvasion and oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapse, Sonam C; Rathod, Nanita; Baad, Rajendra; Mandlik, Jyoti; Sharma, Anupam S; Bommanavar, Sushma

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblast are essential for the integrity of human body by virtue of its role in wound healing and pathological organ remodeling. Myofibroblast is a universal cellular component in mammalian lesions, but not a typical component of normal untraumatized tissues. Therefore its presence in abundance in case of cancer is a matter of concern. Tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in tumor progression. These so called cancer associated fibroblast or myofibroblast are the major components and occur in stromal tissue during carcinogenesis processes. This study is a quantitative assessment of presence and distribution of myofibroblast in severe dysplasia, microinvasion and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Myofibroblast, Vimentin, α-SMA, OSCC, Severe dysplasia, Microinvasion. How to cite this article: Kapse SC, Rathod N, Baad R, Mandlik J, Sharma AS, Bommanavar S. Quantitative Assessment of Myofibroblast in Severe Dysplasia, Microinvasion and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(1):34-38. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  19. Role of computed tomography in quantitative assessment of emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choromańska, Agnieszka; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema, together with chronic bronchitis is a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide. There are many methods to diagnose emphysema. Unfortunately many of them, for example pulmonary function tests (PFTs), clinical signs and conventional radiology are able to detect emphysema usually in its late stages when a great portion of lung parenchyma has been already destroyed by the disease. Computed tomography (CT) allows for early detection of emphysema. CT also makes it possible to quantify the total amount of emphysema in the lungs which is important in order to precisely estimate the severity of the disease. Those abilities of CT are important in monitoring the course of the disease and in attempts to prevent its further progression. In this review we discuss currently available methods for imaging emphysema with emphasis on the quantitative assessment of emphysema. To date, quantitative methods have not been widely used clinically, however, the initial results of several research studies regarding this subject are very encouraging

  20. Quantitative assessment of videolaryngostroboscopic images in patients with glottic pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kopczynski, Bartosz; Strumillo, Pawel; Morawska, Joanna; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2017-07-01

    Digital imaging techniques enable exploration of novel visualization modalities of the vocal folds during phonation and definition of parameters, facilitating more precise diagnosis of voice disorders. Application of computer vision algorithms for analysis of videolaryngostroboscopic (VLS) images aimed at qualitative and quantitative description of phonatory vibrations. VLS examinations were conducted for 45 females, including 15 subjects with vocal nodules, 15 subjects with glottal incompetence, and 15 normophonic females. The recorded VLS images were preprocessed, the glottis area was segmented out, and the glottal cycles were identified. The glottovibrograms were built, and then the glottal area waveforms (GAW) were quantitatively described by computing the following parameters: open quotient (OQ), closing quotient (CQ), speed quotient (SQ), minimal relative glottal area (MRGA), and a new parameter termed closure difference index (CDI). Profiles of the glottal widths assessed along the glottal length differentiated the study groups (P diagnostics. Results of the performed ROC curve analysis suggest that the evaluated parameters can distinguish patients with voice disorders from normophonic subjects.

  1. Clinical applicability of quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy in differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Po-Chang; Huang, Min-Nung; Kuo, Yu-Min; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Yu, Chia-Li

    2013-08-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a useful tool to distinguish primary from secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) by examining the morphology of nailfold capillaries but its role in disease diagnosis is not clearly established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the roles of quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy in differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs) with RP. The data between the year 2005 and 2009 were retrieved from the nailfold capillaroscopic database of National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Only the data from the patients with RP were analyzed. The criteria for interpretation of capillaroscopic findings were predefined. The final diagnoses of the patients were based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for individual diseases, independent of nailfold capillaroscopic findings. The sensitivity and the specificity of each capillaroscopic pattern to the diseases were determined. The data from a total of 67 patients were qualified for the current study. We found the sensitivity and specificity of scleroderma pattern for systemic sclerosis (SSc) were 89.47% and 80%, and the specificity of the early, active, and late scleroderma patterns for SSc reached 87.5%, 97.5%, and 95%, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pattern for SLE and polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) pattern for PM/DM were 33.33%/95.45% and 60%/96.3%, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) pattern for MCTD were 20%/100%. The nailfold capillaroscopic (NC) patterns may be useful in the differential diagnosis of CTDs with RP. The NC patterns for SSc and PM/DM are both sensitive and specific to the diseases, while the SLE and MCTD patterns exhibit high specificity but relatively low sensitivity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM): Decoding MRI data for a tissue magnetic biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Tian

    2015-01-01

    In MRI, the main magnetic field polarizes the electron cloud of a molecule, generating a chemical shift for observer protons within the molecule and a magnetic susceptibility inhomogeneity field for observer protons outside the molecule. The number of water protons surrounding a molecule for detecting its magnetic susceptibility is vastly greater than the number of protons within the molecule for detecting its chemical shift. However, the study of tissue magnetic susceptibility has been hindered by poor molecular specificities of hitherto used methods based on MRI signal phase and T2* contrast, which depend convolutedly on surrounding susceptibility sources. Deconvolution of the MRI signal phase can determine tissue susceptibility but is challenged by the lack of MRI signal in the background and by the zeroes in the dipole kernel. Recently, physically meaningful regularizations, including the Bayesian approach, have been developed to enable accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for studying iron distribution, metabolic oxygen consumption, blood degradation, calcification, demyelination, and other pathophysiological susceptibility changes, as well as contrast agent biodistribution in MRI. This paper attempts to summarize the basic physical concepts and essential algorithmic steps in QSM, to describe clinical and technical issues under active development, and to provide references, codes, and testing data for readers interested in QSM. Magn Reson Med 73:82–101, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Medicine in Resonance. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:25044035

  3. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.

    2005-01-01

    Prognostic estimations of the expected number of killed or injured people and about the approximate cost associated with the damages caused by earthquakes are made following a suitable methodology of wide-ranging application. For the preliminary assessment of human life losses due to the occurrence...... of a relatively strong earthquake we use a quantitative model consisting of a correlation between the number of casualties and the earthquake magnitude as a function of population density. The macroseismic intensity field is determined in accordance with an updated anelastic attenuation law, and the number...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...

  4. Integrating a quantitative risk appraisal in a health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs; Molnár, Agnes; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the quantification of health outcomes in a health impact assessment (HIA) is scarce in practice, it is preferred by policymakers, as it assists various aspects of the decision-making process. This article provides an example of integrating a quantitative risk appraisal...... in an HIA performed for the recently adopted Hungarian anti-smoking policy which introduced a smoking ban in closed public places, workplaces and public transport vehicles, and is one of the most effective measures to decrease smoking-related ill health. METHODS: A comprehensive, prospective HIA...... to decrease the prevalence of active and passive smoking and result in a considerably positive effect on several diseases, among which lung cancer, chronic pulmonary diseases, coronary heart diseases and stroke have the greatest importance. The health gain calculated for the quantifiable health outcomes...

  5. Possibility of laboratory assessment of the state of connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Berezovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibilities of laboratory assessment of the state of the connective tissue. It contains brief information about its structure, functions and roles of the various components in the development of pathological processes, and provides laboratory diagnostic methods of these changes.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis by Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-bo Zhang; En-ze Qu; Ji-Bin Liu; Jin-rui Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic features for quantitative assessment of hepatic fibrosis.Methods 86 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B were enrolled in this study from March 2007 to August 2009.The patients were classified into 5 groups (S0-S4) according to fibrosis stage evaluated with ultrasound guided liver biopsy.New contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) features including area under the time-intensity curve (TIC) of portal venous phase/hepatic arterial phase (Qp/Qa) and intensity of portal venons phase/hepatic arterial phase (Ip/Ia) were used to detect the blood supply ratio (portal vein/hepatic artery) in each group.Arrival time of portal vein trunk (Tp) and decreasing rate of TIC (β) were also analyzed.Results Qp/Qa and Ip/Ia decreased from So to S4,while Tp and β increased These 4 features were significantly correlated with the degree of fibrosis (P<0.001) and were significantly different among the five groups (P<0.001).Sensitivity and specificity of Ip/Ia were 80% and 86% for groups ≥S1,75% and 86% for groups ≥ S2,71% and 84% for groups ≥ S3,and 76% and 80% for group S4,respectively.Sensitivity and specificity of Qp/Qa were 70% and 88% for groups ≥ S1,80% and 76% for groups ≥ S2,74% and 70% for groups ≥ S3,and 81% and 95% for group S4,respectively.Conclusion Ip/Ia and Qp/Qa could be adopted as reliable,non-invasive features for quantitative assessment of hepatic fibrosis.

  7. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  8. A highly sensitive quantitative cytosensor technique for the identification of receptor ligands in tissue extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkei, Z; Beaudet, A; Chartrel, N; De Mota, N; Irinopoulou, T; Braun, B; Vaudry, H; Llorens-Cortes, C

    2000-11-01

    Because G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute excellent putative therapeutic targets, functional characterization of orphan GPCRs through identification of their endogenous ligands has great potential for drug discovery. We propose here a novel single cell-based assay for identification of these ligands. This assay involves (a) fluorescent tagging of the GPCR, (b) expression of the tagged receptor in a heterologous expression system, (c) incubation of the transfected cells with fractions purified from tissue extracts, and (d) imaging of ligand-induced receptor internalization by confocal microscopy coupled to digital image quantification. We tested this approach in CHO cells stably expressing the NT1 neurotensin receptor fused to EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein), in which neurotensin promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor in a dose-dependent fashion (EC(50) = 0.98 nM). Similarly, four of 120 consecutive reversed-phase HPLC fractions of frog brain extracts promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor. The same four fractions selectively contained neurotensin, an endogenous ligand of the NT1 receptor, as detected by radioimmunoassay and inositol phosphate production. The present internalization assay provides a highly specific quantitative cytosensor technique with sensitivity in the nanomolar range that should prove useful for the identification of putative natural and synthetic ligands for GPCRs.

  9. Quantitation of Brown Adipose Tissue Perfusion in Transgenic Mice Using Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nakayama

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT; brown fat is the principal site of adaptive thermogenesis in the human newborn and other small mammals. Of paramount importance for thermogenesis is vascular perfusion, which controls the flow of cool blood in, and warmed blood out, of BAT. We have developed an optical method for the quantitative imaging of BAT perfusion in the living, intact animal using the heptamethine indocyanine IR-786 and near-infrared (NIR fluorescent light. We present a detailed analysis of the physical, chemical, and cellular properties of IR-786, its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics, and its uptake into BAT. Using transgenic animals with homozygous deletion of Type II iodothyronine deiodinase, or homozygous deletion of uncoupling proteins (UCPs 1 and 2, we demonstrate that BAT perfusion can be measured noninvasively, accurately, and reproducibly. Using these techniques, we show that UCP 1/2 knockout animals, when compared to wild-type animals, have a higher baseline perfusion of BAT but a similar maximal response to β3-receptor agonist. These results suggest that compensation for UCP deletion is mediated, in part, by the control of BAT perfusion. Taken together, BAT perfusion can now be measured noninvasively using NIR fluorescent light, and pharmacological modulators of thermogenesis can be screened at relatively high throughput in living animals.

  10. Development of CD3 cell quantitation algorithms for renal allograft biopsy rejection assessment utilizing open source image analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Andres; Smith, Geoffrey H; Kong, Jun; Rogers, Thomas E; Ellis, Carla L; Farris, Alton B Brad

    2018-02-01

    Renal allograft rejection diagnosis depends on assessment of parameters such as interstitial inflammation; however, studies have shown interobserver variability regarding interstitial inflammation assessment. Since automated image analysis quantitation can be reproducible, we devised customized analysis methods for CD3+ T-cell staining density as a measure of rejection severity and compared them with established commercial methods along with visual assessment. Renal biopsy CD3 immunohistochemistry slides (n = 45), including renal allografts with various degrees of acute cellular rejection (ACR) were scanned for whole slide images (WSIs). Inflammation was quantitated in the WSIs using pathologist visual assessment, commercial algorithms (Aperio nuclear algorithm for CD3+ cells/mm 2 and Aperio positive pixel count algorithm), and customized open source algorithms developed in ImageJ with thresholding/positive pixel counting (custom CD3+%) and identification of pixels fulfilling "maxima" criteria for CD3 expression (custom CD3+ cells/mm 2 ). Based on visual inspections of "markup" images, CD3 quantitation algorithms produced adequate accuracy. Additionally, CD3 quantitation algorithms correlated between each other and also with visual assessment in a statistically significant manner (r = 0.44 to 0.94, p = 0.003 to algorithms presents salient correlations with established methods of CD3 quantitation. These analysis techniques are promising and highly customizable, providing a form of on-slide "flow cytometry" that can facilitate additional diagnostic accuracy in tissue-based assessments.

  11. Quantitative determination of localized tissue oxygen concentration in vivo by two-photon excitation phosphorescence lifetime measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mik, Egbert G.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Raat, Nicolaas J.; Ince, Can

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the use of two-photon excitation phosphorescence lifetime measurements for quantitative oxygen determination in vivo. Doubling the excitation wavelength of Pd-porphyrin from visible light to the infrared allows for deeper tissue penetration and a more precise and confined

  12. Quantitative study of the penetration of insoluble particles into the tissue of the conducting airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, D J; Patrick, G [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative study is presented of the spatial distribution of both inhaled UO/sub 2/ particles and intra-tracheally administered BaSO/sub 4/ particles in the wall of the airways in the rat. The results show that in the intrapulmonary airways between 7 and 17 days after inhalation, UO/sub 2/ particles are situated most frequently at a depth of 8-10 ..mu..m from the luminal surface. At 24 h in the trachea, BaSO/sub 4/ particles concentrate between 10 and 15 ..mu..m beneath the surface, corresponding to the zone immediately beneath the basement membrane; by 7 days the distribution is broader but otherwise similar. This pattern of retention should assist in assessing the dose from radioactive particles absorbed by the basal cells of the epithelium, which are likely to be the origin of carcinoma of the airways.

  13. Quantitative assessment of finger motor performance: Normative data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Signori

    Full Text Available Finger opposition movements are the basis of many daily living activities and are essential in general for manipulating objects; an engineered glove quantitatively assessing motor performance during sequences of finger opposition movements has been shown to be useful to provide reliable measures of finger motor impairment, even subtle, in subjects affected by neurological diseases. However, the obtained behavioral parameters lack published reference values.To determine mean values for different motor behavioral parameters describing the strategy adopted by healthy people in performing repeated sequences of finger opposition movements, examining associations with gender and age.Normative values for finger motor performance parameters were obtained on a sample of 255 healthy volunteers executing sequences of finger-to-thumb opposition movements, stratified by gender and over a wide range of ages. Touch duration, inter-tapping interval, movement rate, correct sequences (%, movements in advance compared with a metronome (% and inter-hand interval were assessed.Increasing age resulted in decreased movement speed, advance movements with respect to a cue, correctness of sequences, and bimanual coordination. No significant performance differences were found between male and female subjects except for the duration of the finger touch, the interval between two successive touches and their ratio.We report age- and gender-specific normal mean values and ranges for different parameters objectively describing the performance of finger opposition movement sequences, which may serve as useful references for clinicians to identify possible deficits in subjects affected by diseases altering fine hand motor skills.

  14. A quantitative method for assessing resilience of interdependent infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Cen; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The importance of understanding system resilience and identifying ways to enhance it, especially for interdependent infrastructures our daily life depends on, has been recognized not only by academics, but also by the corporate and public sectors. During recent years, several methods and frameworks have been proposed and developed to explore applicable techniques to assess and analyze system resilience in a comprehensive way. However, they are often tailored to specific disruptive hazards/events, or fail to properly include all the phases such as absorption, adaptation, and recovery. In this paper, a quantitative method for the assessment of the system resilience is proposed. The method consists of two components: an integrated metric for system resilience quantification and a hybrid modeling approach for representing the failure behavior of infrastructure systems. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed method are tested using an electric power supply system as the exemplary infrastructure. Simulation results highlight that the method proves effective in designing, engineering and improving the resilience of infrastructures. Finally, system resilience is proposed as a proxy to quantify the coupling strength between interdependent infrastructures. - Highlights: • A method for quantifying resilience of interdependent infrastructures is proposed. • It combines multi-layer hybrid modeling and a time-dependent resilience metric. • The feasibility of the proposed method is tested on the electric power supply system. • The method provides insights to decision-makers for strengthening system resilience. • Resilience capabilities can be used to engineer interdependencies between subsystems.

  15. Approaches to quantitative risk assessment with applications to PP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, G.; Schaefer, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience with accidents such as Goiania in Brazil and indications of a considerable number of orphan sources suggest that improved protection would be desirable for some types of radioactive material of wide-spread use such as radiation sources for civil purposes. Regarding large potential health and economic consequences (in particular, if terrorists attacks cannot be excluded), significant costs of preventive actions, and large uncertainties about both the likelihood of occurrence and the potential consequences of PP safety and security incidents, an optimum relationship between preventive and mitigative efforts is likely to be a key issue for successful risk management in this field. Thus, possible violations of physical protection combined with threats of misuse of nuclear materials, including terrorist attack, pose considerable challenges to global security from various perspectives. In view of these challenges, recent advance in applied risk and decision analysis suggests methodological and procedural improvements in quantitative risk assessment, the demarcation of acceptable risk, and risk management. Advance is based on a recently developed model of optimal risky choice suitable for assessing and comparing the cumulative probability distribution functions attached to safety and security risks. Besides quantification of risk (e. g., in economic terms), the standardization of various risk assessment models frequently used in operations research can be approached on this basis. The paper explores possible applications of these improved methods to the safety and security management of nuclear materials, cost efficiency of risk management measures, and the establishment international safety and security standards of PP. Examples will be presented that are based on selected scenarios of misuse involving typical radioactive sources. (author)

  16. Assessing quantitative EEG spectrograms to identify non-epileptic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Ajay; Boro, Alexis; Yozawitz, Elissa

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of quantitative EEG (QEEG) spectrograms in order to distinguish epileptic from non-epileptic events. Seventeen patients with paroxysmal non-epileptic events, captured during EEG monitoring, were retrospectively assessed using QEEG spectrograms. These patients were compared to a control group of 13 consecutive patients (ages 25-60 years) with epileptic seizures of similar semiology. Assessment of raw EEG was employed as the gold standard against which epileptic and non-epileptic events were validated. QEEG spectrograms, available using Persyst 12 EEG system integration software, were each assessed with respect to their usefulness to distinguish epileptic from non-epileptic seizures. The given spectrogram was interpreted as indicating a seizure if, at the time of the clinically identified event, it showed a visually significant change from baseline. Eighty-two clinically identified paroxysmal events were analysed (46 non-epileptic and 36 epileptic). The "seizure detector trend analysis" spectrogram correctly classified 33/46 (71%) non-epileptic events (no seizure indicated during a clinically identified event) vs. 29/36 (81%) epileptic seizures (seizure indicated during a clinically identified event) (p=0.013). Similarly, "rhythmicity spectrogram", FFT spectrogram, "asymmetry relative spectrogram", and integrated-amplitude EEG spectrogram detected 28/46 (61%), 30/46 (65%), 22/46 (48%) and 27/46 (59%) non-epileptic events vs. 27/36 (75%), 25/36 (69%), 25/36 (69%) and 27/36 (75%) epileptic events, respectively. High sensitivities and specificities for QEEG seizure detection analyses suggest that QEEG may have a role at the bedside to facilitate early differentiation between epileptic seizures and non-epileptic events in order to avoid unnecessary administration of antiepileptic drugs and possible iatrogenic consequences.

  17. Assessment value of quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Xia Lei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the assessment value of the quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer. Methods: A total of 58 patients with space-occupying pancreatic lesions were divided into 20 patients with pancreatic cancer and 38 patients with benign pancreatic lesions after pancreatic CT perfusion. Patients with pancreatic cancer received palliative surgery, and the cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue specimens were collected during operation. The differences in pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and serum tumor marker levels were compared between patients with pancreatic cancer and patients with benign pancreatic lesions, mRNA expression levels of malignant molecules in pancreatic cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were further determined, and the correlation between pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and malignant degree of pancreatic cancer was analyzed. Results: CT perfusion scanning BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were lower than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions; serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels were higher than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions (P<0.05; mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue samples were higher than those in paracarcinoma tissue samples, and mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax were lower than those in para-carcinoma tissue samples (P<0.05; CT perfusion scanning parameters BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were negatively correlated with CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels in serum as well as mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue, and positively correlated with mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax in pancreatic cancer tissue (P<0.05. Conclusions: Pancreatic CT perfusion scanning is a reliable way to judge the malignant degree of pancreatic cancer and plays a

  18. Investigation of the feasibility of non-invasive optical sensors for the quantitative assessment of dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Cobus; Kieser, Eduard; Dellimore, Kiran; van den Heever, Dawie; Smith, Johan

    2017-10-01

    This study explores the feasibility of prospectively assessing infant dehydration using four non-invasive, optical sensors based on the quantitative and objective measurement of various clinical markers of dehydration. The sensors were investigated to objectively and unobtrusively assess the hydration state of an infant based on the quantification of capillary refill time (CRT), skin recoil time (SRT), skin temperature profile (STP) and skin tissue hydration by means of infrared spectrometry (ISP). To evaluate the performance of the sensors a clinical study was conducted on a cohort of 10 infants (aged 6-36 months) with acute gastroenteritis. High sensitivity and specificity were exhibited by the sensors, in particular the STP and SRT sensors, when combined into a fusion regression model (sensitivity: 0.90, specificity: 0.78). The SRT and STP sensors and the fusion model all outperformed the commonly used "gold standard" clinical dehydration scales including the Gorelick scale (sensitivity: 0.56, specificity: 0.56), CDS scale (sensitivity: 1.0, specificity: 0.2) and WHO scale (sensitivity: 0.13, specificity: 0.79). These results suggest that objective and quantitative assessment of infant dehydration may be possible using the sensors investigated. However, further evaluation of the sensors on a larger sample population is needed before deploying them in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative assessment of finger motor impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bonzano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To address the disability impact on fine hand motor functions in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS by quantitatively measuring finger opposition movements, with the aim of providing a new "score" integrating current methods for disability assessment. METHODS: 40 MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS: 0-7 and 80 healthy controls (HC performed a repetitive finger-to-thumb opposition sequence with their dominant hand at spontaneous and maximal velocity, and uni- and bi-manually metronome-paced. A sensor-engineered glove was used to measure finger motor performance. Twenty-seven HC were tested twice, one month apart, to assess test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The motor parameters showed a good reproducibility in HC and demonstrated significantly worse performance in MS patients with respect to HC. A multivariate model revealed that rate of movement in the spontaneous velocity condition and inter-hand interval (IHI, indicating bimanual coordination, contributed independently to differentiate the two groups. A finger motor impairment score based on these two parameters was able to discriminate HC from MS patients with very low EDSS scores (p<0.001: a significant difference was already evident for patients with EDSS = 0. Further, in the MS group, some motor performance parameters correlated with the clinical scores. In particular, significant correlations were found between IHI and EDSS (r = 0.56; p<0.0001, MS Functional Composite (r = -0.40; p = 0.01, Paced Auditory Serial Addition (r = -0.38; p = 0.02. No motor performance parameter correlated with Timed 25-Foot Walk. CONCLUSIONS: A simple, quantitative, objective method measuring finger motor performance could be used to define a score discriminating healthy controls and MS patients, even with very low disability. This sensitivity might be of crucial importance for monitoring the disease course and the treatment effects in early MS patients, when

  20. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Biren J; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shajudeen, Peer Shafeeq; Nair, Sanjay P; Righetti, Raffaella; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing. (paper)

  1. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Biren J.; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shafeeq Shajudeen, Peer; Nair, Sanjay P.; Weiner, Bradley K.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing.

  2. Quantitative MRI and strength measurements in the assessment of muscle quality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, B H; van den Bergen, J C; Versluis, M J; Niks, E H; Milles, J; Webb, A G; van Zwet, E W; Aartsma-Rus, A; Verschuuren, J J; Kan, H E

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess leg muscle quality and give a detailed description of leg muscle involvement in a series of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients using quantitative MRI and strength measurements. Fatty infiltration, as well as total and contractile (not fatty infiltrated) cross sectional areas of various leg muscles were determined in 16 Duchenne patients and 11 controls (aged 8-15). To determine specific muscle strength, four leg muscle groups (quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, anterior tibialis and triceps surae) were measured and related to the amount of contractile tissue. In patients, the quadriceps femoris showed decreased total and contractile cross sectional area, attributable to muscle atrophy. The total, but not the contractile, cross sectional area of the triceps surae was increased in patients, corresponding to hypertrophy. Specific strength decreased in all four muscle groups of Duchenne patients, indicating reduced muscle quality. This suggests that muscle hypertrophy and fatty infiltration are two distinct pathological processes, differing between muscle groups. Additionally, the quality of remaining muscle fibers is severely reduced in the legs of Duchenne patients. The combination of quantitative MRI and quantitative muscle testing could be a valuable outcome parameter in longitudinal studies and in the follow-up of therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative sonoelastography for the in vivo assessment of skeletal muscle viscoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Kneezel, Timothy; Castaneda, Benjamin; Parker, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    A novel quantitative sonoelastography technique for assessing the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle tissue was developed. Slowly propagating shear wave interference patterns (termed crawling waves) were generated using a two-source configuration vibrating normal to the surface. Theoretical models predict crawling wave displacement fields, which were validated through phantom studies. In experiments, a viscoelastic model was fit to dispersive shear wave speed sonoelastographic data using nonlinear least-squares techniques to determine frequency-independent shear modulus and viscosity estimates. Shear modulus estimates derived using the viscoelastic model were in agreement with that obtained by mechanical testing on phantom samples. Preliminary sonoelastographic data acquired in healthy human skeletal muscles confirm that high-quality quantitative elasticity data can be acquired in vivo. Studies on relaxed muscle indicate discernible differences in both shear modulus and viscosity estimates between different skeletal muscle groups. Investigations into the dynamic viscoelastic properties of (healthy) human skeletal muscles revealed that voluntarily contracted muscles exhibit considerable increases in both shear modulus and viscosity estimates as compared to the relaxed state. Overall, preliminary results are encouraging and quantitative sonoelastography may prove clinically feasible for in vivo characterization of the dynamic viscoelastic properties of human skeletal muscle

  4. Assessment of right ventricular systolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This thesis summarizes a series of studies performed in order to assess the clinical usefulness of a novel echocardiographic technology that allows non-invasive assessment of regional right ventricular myocardial velocities and deformation: tissue Doppler echocardiography. While the technology...... is a promising tool for improving our understanding of right ventricular hemodynamics, several aspects of the technology must be evaluated. The accuracy and reproducibility of the technology is evaluated in vitro, and normal values, impact of changes in loading of the right ventricle, response to exercise...... on right ventricular hemodynamics: pulmonary embolism, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and pulmonary regurgitation, the latter in an animal model. The conclusions of the thesis are: Color tissue Doppler echocardiography accurately measures velocities, SR and strain in vitro. No systematic...

  5. Robust tissue classification for reproducible wound assessment in telemedicine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannous, Hazem; Treuillet, Sylvie; Lucas, Yves

    2010-04-01

    In telemedicine environments, a standardized and reproducible assessment of wounds, using a simple free-handled digital camera, is an essential requirement. However, to ensure robust tissue classification, particular attention must be paid to the complete design of the color processing chain. We introduce the key steps including color correction, merging of expert labeling, and segmentation-driven classification based on support vector machines. The tool thus developed ensures stability under lighting condition, viewpoint, and camera changes, to achieve accurate and robust classification of skin tissues. Clinical tests demonstrate that such an advanced tool, which forms part of a complete 3-D and color wound assessment system, significantly improves the monitoring of the healing process. It achieves an overlap score of 79.3 against 69.1% for a single expert, after mapping on the medical reference developed from the image labeling by a college of experts.

  6. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Mengele, Karin; Schueren, Elisabeth; Sweep, Fred C G J; Foekens, John A; Brünner, Nils; Laabs, Juliane; Malik, Abha; Harbeck, Nadia

    2007-03-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk assessment, treatment response identification, or to identifying those patients who are expected to respond to certain anticancer drugs. As the field of tumour-associated biomarkers has expanded rapidly over the last years, it has become increasingly apparent that a strong need exists to establish guidelines on how to easily disintegrate the tumour tissue for assessment of the presence of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. Several mechanical tissue (cell) disruption techniques exist, ranging from bead mill homogenisation and freeze-fracturing through to blade or pestle-type homogenisation, to grinding and ultrasonics. Still, only a few directives have been given on how fresh-frozen tumour tissues should be processed for the extraction and determination of tumour biomarkers. The PathoBiology Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer therefore has devised a standard operating procedure for the standardised preparation of human tumour tissue extracts which is designed for the quantitative analysis of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. The easy to follow technical steps involved require 50-300 mg of deep-frozen cancer tissue placed into small size (1.2 ml) cryogenic tubes. These are placed into the shaking flask of a Mikro-Dismembrator S machine (bead mill) to pulverise the tumour tissue in the capped tubes in the deep-frozen state by use of a stainless steel ball, all within 30 s of exposure. RNA is isolated from the pulverised tissue following standard procedures. Proteins are extracted from the still frozen pulverised tissue by addition of Tris-buffered saline to obtain the cytosol fraction of the tumour or by the Tris buffer supplemented with

  7. Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, D.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

  8. Quantitative Segmentation of Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Heterogeneous Tissue: Application to the Detection of Residual Disease in Tumor Margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna L; Harmany, Zachary T; Mito, Jeffrey K; Kennedy, Stephanie A; Kim, Yongbaek; Dodd, Leslie; Geradts, Joseph; Kirsch, David G; Willett, Rebecca M; Brown, J Quincy; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2013-01-01

    To develop a robust tool for quantitative in situ pathology that allows visualization of heterogeneous tissue morphology and segmentation and quantification of image features. TISSUE EXCISED FROM A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MOUSE MODEL OF SARCOMA WAS IMAGED USING A SUBCELLULAR RESOLUTION MICROENDOSCOPE AFTER TOPICAL APPLICATION OF A FLUORESCENT ANATOMICAL CONTRAST AGENT: acriflavine. An algorithm based on sparse component analysis (SCA) and the circle transform (CT) was developed for image segmentation and quantification of distinct tissue types. The accuracy of our approach was quantified through simulations of tumor and muscle images. Specifically, tumor, muscle, and tumor+muscle tissue images were simulated because these tissue types were most commonly observed in sarcoma margins. Simulations were based on tissue characteristics observed in pathology slides. The potential clinical utility of our approach was evaluated by imaging excised margins and the tumor bed in a cohort of mice after surgical resection of sarcoma. Simulation experiments revealed that SCA+CT achieved the lowest errors for larger nuclear sizes and for higher contrast ratios (nuclei intensity/background intensity). For imaging of tumor margins, SCA+CT effectively isolated nuclei from tumor, muscle, adipose, and tumor+muscle tissue types. Differences in density were correctly identified with SCA+CT in a cohort of ex vivo and in vivo images, thus illustrating the diagnostic potential of our approach. The combination of a subcellular-resolution microendoscope, acriflavine staining, and SCA+CT can be used to accurately isolate nuclei and quantify their density in anatomical images of heterogeneous tissue.

  9. Quantitative assessment of periimplant bone density (HU) on CBCT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Jong Gook; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    The primary aims of this retrospective study were to compare subjective bone quality and bone quality based on the Hounsfield scale in different segments of the edentulous jaw, and to establish quantitative and objective assessment of the bone quality. Twenty eight randomly selected cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans were analyzed. For evaluation one hundred and twelve edentulous areas were selected. Implant recipient sites were evaluated visually for Lekholm and Zarb classification. The same sites were subsequently evaluated digitally using the Hounsfield scale with Vimplant 2.0 TM , and the results were correlated with visual classification. Data was subject for statistical analysis in order to determine correlation between recorded HU and the regions of the mouth with the Kruskal-Wallis test. The highest unit/mean density value (311 HU) was found in the anterior mandible, followed by 259 HU for the posterior mandible, 216 HU for the anterior maxilla, and 127 HU for the posterior maxilla. These results demonstrate a strong correlation for HU depending on the region of the mouth (p TM with Vimplant TM software.

  10. Quantitative risk assessment of foods containing peanut advisory labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Marx, David B; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-12-01

    Foods with advisory labeling (i.e. "may contain") continue to be prevalent and the warning may be increasingly ignored by allergic consumers. We sought to determine the residual levels of peanut in various packaged foods bearing advisory labeling, compare similar data from 2005 and 2009, and determine any potential risk for peanut-allergic consumers. Of food products bearing advisory statements regarding peanut or products that had peanut listed as a minor ingredient, 8.6% and 37.5% contained detectable levels of peanut (>2.5 ppm whole peanut), respectively. Peanut-allergic individuals should be advised to avoid such products regardless of the wording of the advisory statement. Peanut was detected at similar rates and levels in products tested in both 2005 and 2009. Advisory labeled nutrition bars contained the highest levels of peanut and an additional market survey of 399 products was conducted. Probabilistic risk assessment showed the risk of a reaction to peanut-allergic consumers from advisory labeled nutrition bars was significant but brand-dependent. Peanut advisory labeling may be overused on some nutrition bars but prudently used on others. The probabilistic approach could provide the food industry with a quantitative method to assist with determining when advisory labeling is most appropriate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling logistic performance in quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijgersberg, Hajo; Tromp, Seth; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    In quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), food safety in the food chain is modeled and simulated. In general, prevalences, concentrations, and numbers of microorganisms in media are investigated in the different steps from farm to fork. The underlying rates and conditions (such as storage times, temperatures, gas conditions, and their distributions) are determined. However, the logistic chain with its queues (storages, shelves) and mechanisms for ordering products is usually not taken into account. As a consequence, storage times-mutually dependent in successive steps in the chain-cannot be described adequately. This may have a great impact on the tails of risk distributions. Because food safety risks are generally very small, it is crucial to model the tails of (underlying) distributions as accurately as possible. Logistic performance can be modeled by describing the underlying planning and scheduling mechanisms in discrete-event modeling. This is common practice in operations research, specifically in supply chain management. In this article, we present the application of discrete-event modeling in the context of a QMRA for Listeria monocytogenes in fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. We show the potential value of discrete-event modeling in QMRA by calculating logistic interventions (modifications in the logistic chain) and determining their significance with respect to food safety.

  12. Assessment of immunotoxicity using precision-cut tissue slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    1. When the immune system encounters incoming infectious agents, this generally leads to immunity. The evoked immune response is usually robust, but can be severely perturbed by potentially harmful environmental agents such as chemicals, pharmaceuticals and allergens. 2. Immunosuppression, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity may occur due to changed immune activity. Evaluation of the immunotoxic potency of agents as part of risk assessment is currently established in vivo with animal models and in vitro with cell lines or primary cells. 3. Although in vivo testing is usually the most relevant situation for many agents, more and more in vitro models are being developed for assessment of immunotoxicity. In this context, hypersensitivity and immunosuppression are considered to be a primary focus for developing in vitro methods. Three-dimensional organotypic tissue models are also part of current research in immunotoxicology. 4. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in organotypic tissue models. In the context of immunotoxicity testing, precision-cut lung slices in particular have been intensively studied. Therefore, this review is very much focused on pulmonary immunotoxicology. Respiratory hypersensitivity and inflammation are further highlighted aspects of this review. Immunotoxicity assessment currently is of limited use in other tissue models, which are therefore described only briefly within this review. PMID:23199366

  13. Assessment of cancer and virus antigens for cross-reactivity in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaravine, Victor; Raffegerst, Silke; Schendel, Dolores J; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2017-01-01

    Cross-reactivity (CR) or invocation of autoimmune side effects in various tissues has important safety implications in adoptive immunotherapy directed against selected antigens. The ability to predict CR (on-target and off-target toxicities) may help in the early selection of safer therapeutically relevant target antigens. We developed a methodology for the calculation of quantitative CR for any defined peptide epitope. Using this approach, we performed assessment of 4 groups of 283 currently known human MHC-class-I epitopes including differentiation antigens, overexpressed proteins, cancer-testis antigens and mutations displayed by tumor cells. In addition, 89 epitopes originating from viral sources were investigated. The natural occurrence of these epitopes in human tissues was assessed based on proteomics abundance data, while the probability of their presentation by MHC-class-I molecules was modelled by the method of Keşmir et al. which combines proteasomal cleavage, TAP affinity and MHC-binding predictions. The results of these analyses for many previously defined peptides are presented as CR indices and tissue profiles. The methodology thus allows for quantitative comparisons of epitopes and is suggested to be suited for the assessment of epitopes of candidate antigens in an early stage of development of adoptive immunotherapy. Our method is implemented as a Java program, with curated datasets stored in a MySQL database. It predicts all naturally possible self-antigens for a given sequence of a therapeutic antigen (or epitope) and after filtering for predicted immunogenicity outputs results as an index and profile of CR to the self-antigens in 22 human tissues. The program is implemented as part of the iCrossR webserver, which is publicly available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/icrossr/ CONTACT: d.frishman@wzw.tum.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  14. The quantitative assessment of epicardial fat distribution on human hearts: Implications for epicardial electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Alexander R; Soto, Mario J; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2018-07-01

    Epicardial electrophysiological procedures rely on dependable interfacing with the myocardial tissue. For example, epicardial pacing systems must generate sustainable chronic pacing capture, while epicardial ablations must effectively deliver energy to the target hyper-excitable myocytes. The human heart has a significant adipose layer which may impede epicardial procedures. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the relative location of epicardial adipose on the human heart, to define locations where epicardial therapies might be performed successfully. We studied perfusion-fixed human hearts (n = 105) in multiple isolated planes including: left ventricular margin, diaphragmatic surface, and anterior right ventricle. Relative adipose distribution was quantitatively assessed via planar images, using a custom-generated image analysis algorithm. In these specimens, 76.7 ± 13.8% of the left ventricular margin, 72.7 ± 11.3% of the diaphragmatic surface, and 92.1 ± 8.7% of the anterior right margin were covered with superficial epicardial adipose layers. Percent adipose coverage significantly increased with age (P history of coronary artery disease (P history of hypertension, and/or history of congestive heart failure. Additionally, we describe two-dimensional probability distributions of epicardial adipose coverage for each of the three analysis planes. In this study, we detail the quantitative assessment and probabilistic mapping of the distribution of superficial epicardial adipose on the adult human heart. These findings have implications relative to performing epicardial procedures and/or designing procedures or tools to successfully perform such treatments. Clin. Anat. 31:661-666, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Is there a place for quantitative risk assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Eric J [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The use of ionising radiations is so well established, especially in the practice of medicine, that it is impossible to imagine contemporary life without them. At the same time, ionising radiations are a known and proven human carcinogen. Exposure to radiation in some contexts elicits fear and alarm (nuclear power for example) while in other situations, until recently at least, it was accepted with alacrity (diagnostic x-rays for example). This non-uniform reaction to the potential hazards of radiation highlights the importance of quantitative risk estimates, which are necessary to help put things into perspective. Three areas will be discussed where quantitative risk estimates are needed and where uncertainties and limitations are a problem. First, the question of diagnostic x-rays. CT usage over the past quarter of a century has increased about 12 fold in the UK and more than 20 fold in the US. In both countries, more than 90% of the collective population dose from diagnostic x-rays comes from the few high dose procedures, such as interventional radiology, CT scans, lumbar spine x-rays and barium enemas. These all involve doses close to the lower limit at which there are credible epidemiological data for an excess cancer incidence. This is a critical question; what is the lowest dose at which there is good evidence of an elevated cancer incidence? Without low dose risk estimates the risk-benefit ratio of diagnostic procedures cannot be assessed. Second, the use of new techniques in radiation oncology. IMRT is widely used to obtain a more conformal dose distribution, particularly in children. It results in a larger total body dose, due to an increased number of monitor units and to the application of more radiation fields. The Linacs used today were not designed for IMRT and are based on leakage standards that were decided decades ago. It will be difficult and costly to reduce leakage from treatment machines, and a necessary first step is to refine the available

  16. Is there a place for quantitative risk assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    The use of ionising radiations is so well established, especially in the practice of medicine, that it is impossible to imagine contemporary life without them. At the same time, ionising radiations are a known and proven human carcinogen. Exposure to radiation in some contexts elicits fear and alarm (nuclear power for example) while in other situations, until recently at least, it was accepted with alacrity (diagnostic x-rays for example). This non-uniform reaction to the potential hazards of radiation highlights the importance of quantitative risk estimates, which are necessary to help put things into perspective. Three areas will be discussed where quantitative risk estimates are needed and where uncertainties and limitations are a problem. First, the question of diagnostic x-rays. CT usage over the past quarter of a century has increased about 12 fold in the UK and more than 20 fold in the US. In both countries, more than 90% of the collective population dose from diagnostic x-rays comes from the few high dose procedures, such as interventional radiology, CT scans, lumbar spine x-rays and barium enemas. These all involve doses close to the lower limit at which there are credible epidemiological data for an excess cancer incidence. This is a critical question; what is the lowest dose at which there is good evidence of an elevated cancer incidence? Without low dose risk estimates the risk-benefit ratio of diagnostic procedures cannot be assessed. Second, the use of new techniques in radiation oncology. IMRT is widely used to obtain a more conformal dose distribution, particularly in children. It results in a larger total body dose, due to an increased number of monitor units and to the application of more radiation fields. The Linacs used today were not designed for IMRT and are based on leakage standards that were decided decades ago. It will be difficult and costly to reduce leakage from treatment machines, and a necessary first step is to refine the available

  17. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  18. Assessment of tissue polarimetric properties using Stokes polarimetric imaging with circularly polarized illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; He, Honghui; Lin, Jianyu; Dong, Yang; Chen, Dongsheng; Ma, Hui; Elson, Daniel S

    2018-04-01

    Tissue-depolarization and linear-retardance are the main polarization characteristics of interest for bulk tissue characterization, and are normally interpreted from Mueller polarimetry. Stokes polarimetry can be conducted using simpler instrumentation and in a shorter time. Here, we use Stokes polarimetric imaging with circularly polarized illumination to assess the circular-depolarization and linear-retardance properties of tissue. Results obtained were compared with Mueller polarimetry in transmission and reflection geometry, respectively. It is found that circular-depolarization obtained from these 2 methods is very similar in both geometries, and that linear-retardance is highly quantitatively similar for transmission geometry and qualitatively similar for reflection geometry. The majority of tissue circular-depolarization and linear-retardance image information (represented by local image contrast features) obtained from Mueller polarimetry is well preserved from Stokes polarimetry in both geometries. These findings can be referred to for further understanding tissue Stokes polarimetric data, and for further application of Stokes polarimetry under the circumstances where short acquisition time or low optical system complexity is a priority, such as polarimetric endoscopy and microscopy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Assessing diabetic foot ulcer development risk with hyperspectral tissue oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Schomacker, Kevin; Pilon, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    Foot ulceration remains a serious health concern for diabetic patients and has a major impact on the cost of diabetes treatment. Early detection and preventive care, such as offloading or improved hygiene, can greatly reduce the risk of further complications. We aim to assess the use of hyperspectral tissue oximetry in predicting the risk of diabetic foot ulcer formation. Tissue oximetry measurements are performed during several visits with hyperspectral imaging of the feet in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus subjects that are at risk for foot ulceration. The data are retrospectively analyzed at 21 sites that ulcerated during the course of our study and an ulceration prediction index is developed. Then, an image processing algorithm based on this index is implemented. This algorithm is able to predict tissue at risk of ulceration with a sensitivity and specificity of 95 and 80%, respectively, for images taken, on average, 58 days before tissue damage is apparent to the naked eye. Receiver operating characteristic analysis is also performed to give a range of sensitivity/specificity values resulting in a Q-value of 89%.

  20. Quantitative assessment of 201TlCl myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa

    1987-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of the quantitative analysis of Tl-201 myocardial tomography by SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) was performed in comparison with visual evaluation. The method of quantitative analysis has been already reported in our previous paper. In this study, the program of re-standardization in the case of lateral myocardial infarction was added. This program was useful mainly for the evaluation of lesions in the left circumflex coronary artery. Regarding the degree of diagnostic accuracy of myocardial infarction in general, quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images was highest followed by visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images, and visual evaluation of myocardial planar images. However, in the case of anterior myocardial infarction, visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images has almost the same detectability as quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images. In the case of infero-posterior myocardial infarction, quantitative evaluation was superior to visual evaluation. As for specificity, quantitative evaluation of SPECT images was slightly inferior to visual evaluation of SPECT images. An infarction map was made by quantitative analysis and this enabled us to determine the infarction site, extent and degree according to easily recognizable patterns. As a result, the responsible coronary artery lesion could be inferred correctly and the calculated infarction score could be correlated with the residual left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. (author)

  1. Quantitative evaluation of vertebral marrow adipose tissue in postmenopausal female using MRI chemical shift-based water–fat separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.-W.; Xu, Z.; Chen, Q.-W.; Tian, Y.-N.; Wang, X.-Y.; Zhou, L.; Chang, S.-X.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the feasibility of assessing vertebral marrow adipose tissue using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water–fat separation technique at 3 T. Material and methods: A modified Dixon technique was performed to obtain the vertebral marrow fat fraction (FF) in a study of 58 postmenopausal females (age range 49.2–77.4 years), including 24 normal bone density, 19 osteopaenia, and 15 osteoporosis as documented with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The reliability of FF measurements performed by two radiologists independently was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Ten participants were scanned twice to assess the reproducibility of FF measurements. FF values were compared between each vertebral level and between groups. Results: The mean coefficient of variation of FF measurements was 2.1%. According to the ICC, the measurements were reliable (ICC = 0.900 for normal bone density, ICC = 0.937 for osteopaenia and ICC = 0.909 for osteoporosis, p < 0.001 for all). There was an inverse association between mean FF at L1–L4 vertebrae and lumbar spine BMD (r = −0.459, p = 0.006), which remained significant even after controlling for confounders (age, height, and body weight). FF values at different vertebral levels were significantly correlated to each other (r = 0.703–0.921, p < 0.05 for all). There was a general trend toward increased marrow adiposity for more inferior vertebral bodies. Patients with osteopaenia and osteoporosis had a higher marrow fat content compared with normal bone mass after adjusting for confounders, although no significant differences in each vertebral level and average marrow fat content were found between the osteopaenia and osteoporosis groups. Conclusion: Chemical shift-based water–fat separation enables the quantitation of vertebral marrow adiposity with excellent reproducibility, which appears to be a useful method to provide complementary information to osteoporosis

  2. Novel 1H NMR approach to quantitative tissue oximetry using hexamethyldisiloxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodibagkar, Vikram D; Cui, Weina; Merritt, Matthew E; Mason, Ralph P

    2006-04-01

    19F NMR spin-lattice relaxometry of hexafluorobenzene (HFB) has been shown to be a highly sensitive indicator of tumor oxygenation. In this study hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) was identified as a proton NMR analog, and its potential as a probe for investigating dynamic changes in tissue oxygen tension (pO2) was evaluated. HMDSO has a single proton resonance (delta= -0.3 ppm) and the spin-lattice relaxation rate, Rl (= 1/T1) exhibits a linear dependence on pO2: R1 (s(-1)) = 0.1126 + 0.0013* pO2 (torr) at 37 degrees C. To demonstrate application in vivo, HMDSO was administered into healthy rat thigh muscle (100 microl) and tumors (50 microl). Local pO2 was determined by using pulse-burst saturation recovery (PBSR) 1H NMR spectroscopy to assess R1. Water and fat signals were effectively suppressed by frequency-selective excitation of the HMDSO resonance. Rat thigh muscle had a mean baseline pO2 of 35 +/- 11 torr, with a typical stability of +/-3 torr over 20 min, when the rats breathed air. Altering the inhaled gas to oxygen produced a significant increase in pO2 to 100-200 torr. In tumors, altering the inspired gas also produced significant (albeit generally smaller) changes. This new pO2 reporter molecule offers a potentially valuable new tool for investigating pO2 in vivo. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguí luz, Victor M.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant

  4. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, P. Van der; Oosterveld, P.; Schols, J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation

  5. Quantitative maps of protein phosphorylation sites across 14 different rat organs and tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Secher, Anna; Lage, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Deregulated cellular signalling is a common hallmark of disease, and delineating tissue phosphoproteomes is key to unravelling the underlying mechanisms. Here we present the broadest tissue catalogue of phosphoproteins to date, covering 31,480 phosphorylation sites on 7,280 proteins quantified ac...

  6. Distribution and Quantitative Estimates of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Prions in Tissues of Clinical and Asymptomatic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Jean Y; Lacroux, Caroline; Aron, Naima; Head, Mark W; Lugan, Séverine; Tillier, Cécile; Huor, Alvina; Cassard, Hervé; Arnold, Mark; Beringue, Vincent; Ironside, James W; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    In the United-Kingdom, ≈1 of 2,000 persons could be infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Therefore, risk of transmission of vCJD by medical procedures remains a major concern for public health authorities. In this study, we used in vitro amplification of prions by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to estimate distribution and level of the vCJD agent in 21 tissues from 4 patients who died of clinical vCJD and from 1 asymptomatic person with vCJD. PMCA identified major levels of vCJD prions in a range of tissues, including liver, salivary gland, kidney, lung, and bone marrow. Bioassays confirmed that the quantitative estimate of levels of vCJD prion accumulation provided by PMCA are indicative of vCJD infectivity levels in tissues. Findings provide critical data for the design of measures to minimize risk for iatrogenic transmission of vCJD.

  7. Reference genes for reverse transcription quantitative PCR in canine brain tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, Quirine E M; Riemers, Frank M; Reijmerink, Hannah; Leegwater, Peter A J; Penning, Louis C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the last decade canine models have been used extensively to study genetic causes of neurological disorders such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease and unravel their pathophysiological pathways. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a sensitive and

  8. Assessment of deep tissue hyperalgesia in the groin – a method comparison of electrical vs. pressure stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Werner, M U; Kehlet, H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deep pain complaints are more frequent than cutaneous in post-surgical patients, and a prevalent finding in quantitative sensory testing studies. However, the preferred assessment method - pressure algometry - is indirect and tissue unspecific, hindering advances in treatment and prev......BACKGROUND: Deep pain complaints are more frequent than cutaneous in post-surgical patients, and a prevalent finding in quantitative sensory testing studies. However, the preferred assessment method - pressure algometry - is indirect and tissue unspecific, hindering advances in treatment...... thresholds to pressure algometry, by performing identical test-retest sequences 10 days apart, in deep tissues in the groin region. Electrical stimulation was performed by five up-and-down staircase series of single impulses of 0.04 ms duration, starting from 0 mA in increments of 0.2 mA until a threshold......: The presented tissue-specific direct deep tissue electrical stimulation technique has equal or superior reliability compared with the indirect tissue-unspecific stimulation by pressure algometry. This method may facilitate advances in mechanism based preventive and treatment strategies in acute and chronic post...

  9. Quantitative analysis of microbicide concentrations in fluids, gels and tissues using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranat Chuchuen

    Full Text Available Topical vaginal anti-HIV microbicides are an important focus in female-based strategies to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Understanding microbicide pharmacokinetics is essential to development, characterization and implementation of efficacious microbicide drug delivery formulations. Current methods to measure drug concentrations in tissue (e.g., LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry are highly sensitive, but destructive and complex. This project explored the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy to detect microbicide drugs and to measure their local concentrations in fluids, drug delivery gels, and tissues. We evaluated three candidate microbicide drugs: tenofovir, Dapivirine and IQP-0528. Measurements were performed in freshly excised porcine buccal tissue specimens, gel vehicles and fluids using two Horiba Raman microscopes, one of which is confocal. Characteristic spectral peak calibrations for each drug were obtained using serial dilutions in the three matrices. These specific Raman bands demonstrated strong linear concentration dependences in the matrices and were characterized with respect to their unique vibrational signatures. At least one specific Raman feature was identified for each drug as a marker band for detection in tissue. Sensitivity of detection was evaluated in the three matrices. A specific peak was also identified for tenofovir diphosphate, the anti-HIV bioactive product of tenofovir after phosphorylation in host cells. Z-scans of drug concentrations vs. depth in excised tissue specimens, incubated under layers of tenofovir solution in a Transwell assay, showed decreasing concentration with depth from the surface into the tissue. Time-dependent concentration profiles were obtained from tissue samples incubated in the Transwell assay, for times ranging 30 minutes - 6 hours. Calibrations and measurements from tissue permeation studies for tenofovir showed good correlation with gold

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Microbicide Concentrations in Fluids, Gels and Tissues Using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchuen, Oranat; Henderson, Marcus H.; Sykes, Craig; Kim, Min Sung; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Katz, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Topical vaginal anti-HIV microbicides are an important focus in female-based strategies to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Understanding microbicide pharmacokinetics is essential to development, characterization and implementation of efficacious microbicide drug delivery formulations. Current methods to measure drug concentrations in tissue (e.g., LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) are highly sensitive, but destructive and complex. This project explored the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy to detect microbicide drugs and to measure their local concentrations in fluids, drug delivery gels, and tissues. We evaluated three candidate microbicide drugs: tenofovir, Dapivirine and IQP-0528. Measurements were performed in freshly excised porcine buccal tissue specimens, gel vehicles and fluids using two Horiba Raman microscopes, one of which is confocal. Characteristic spectral peak calibrations for each drug were obtained using serial dilutions in the three matrices. These specific Raman bands demonstrated strong linear concentration dependences in the matrices and were characterized with respect to their unique vibrational signatures. At least one specific Raman feature was identified for each drug as a marker band for detection in tissue. Sensitivity of detection was evaluated in the three matrices. A specific peak was also identified for tenofovir diphosphate, the anti-HIV bioactive product of tenofovir after phosphorylation in host cells. Z-scans of drug concentrations vs. depth in excised tissue specimens, incubated under layers of tenofovir solution in a Transwell assay, showed decreasing concentration with depth from the surface into the tissue. Time-dependent concentration profiles were obtained from tissue samples incubated in the Transwell assay, for times ranging 30 minutes - 6 hours. Calibrations and measurements from tissue permeation studies for tenofovir showed good correlation with gold standard LC-MS/MS data

  11. Quantitative assessment of deep gas migration in Fennoscandian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delos, Anne; Trinchero, Paolo; Richard, Laurent; Molinero, Jorge; Dentz, Marco; Pitkaenen, Petteri

    2010-11-01

    The origin and migration of gases in the geosphere is of interest for performance assessment studies of deep geological repositories of nuclear waste. The presence of dissolved gases in groundwater relates with some safety issues linked to chemical processes. Noble gases, such as helium isotopes, are commonly used as a marker of the paleo hydrogeological evolution, and are good tracers to give information on hydrogeological conditions and groundwater residence time. There are also reactive (non-inert) gases CH 4 , H 2 O, CO 2 , H 2 S, NH 3 , H 2 , and N 2 dissolved in the groundwaters. CH 4 and H 2 are strong reducing agents that may consume oxygen and be involved in microbial sulphate reduction processes. The integrity of the copper canisters in the repository is one of the major issues to be analyzed in the framework of the Swedish program for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel and dissolved oxygen and sulphide in groundwater are the most damaging components for copper corrosion. Therefore, quantification of flow rates of both, inert and reactive gases, such as helium, methane and hydrogen, in the bedrock would be important for performance assessment calculations. Fluxes of Helium, Methane and Hydrogen at three Fennoscandian sites (Forsmark and Laxemar in Sweden, and Olkiluoto in Finland) have been modelled using Fick's law and measured gradients of gas concentration. Under this hypothesis the concentration is a linear function of depth and hence the gradients can be easily inferred by linear regression. The uncertainty stemming from the scarcity of data and from the diffusivity value used in the analysis has been addressed by sensitivity analysis. Finally, estimates of steady-state gas fluxes of the three Fennoscandian sites are provided. The same data-set has been modelled using the analytical solution provided by Andrews et al. (1989). This solution requires gas production to be constant throughout the domain (which, strictly speaking, is infinite). It

  12. Quantitative assessment of deep gas migration in Fennoscandian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delos, Anne; Trinchero, Paolo; Richard, Laurent; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain)); Dentz, Marco (IDAEA-CSIC Instituto de Diagnostico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua, Barcelona (Spain)); Pitkaenen, Petteri (Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2010-11-15

    The origin and migration of gases in the geosphere is of interest for performance assessment studies of deep geological repositories of nuclear waste. The presence of dissolved gases in groundwater relates with some safety issues linked to chemical processes. Noble gases, such as helium isotopes, are commonly used as a marker of the paleo hydrogeological evolution, and are good tracers to give information on hydrogeological conditions and groundwater residence time. There are also reactive (non-inert) gases CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} dissolved in the groundwaters. CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} are strong reducing agents that may consume oxygen and be involved in microbial sulphate reduction processes. The integrity of the copper canisters in the repository is one of the major issues to be analyzed in the framework of the Swedish program for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel and dissolved oxygen and sulphide in groundwater are the most damaging components for copper corrosion. Therefore, quantification of flow rates of both, inert and reactive gases, such as helium, methane and hydrogen, in the bedrock would be important for performance assessment calculations. Fluxes of Helium, Methane and Hydrogen at three Fennoscandian sites (Forsmark and Laxemar in Sweden, and Olkiluoto in Finland) have been modelled using Fick's law and measured gradients of gas concentration. Under this hypothesis the concentration is a linear function of depth and hence the gradients can be easily inferred by linear regression. The uncertainty stemming from the scarcity of data and from the diffusivity value used in the analysis has been addressed by sensitivity analysis. Finally, estimates of steady-state gas fluxes of the three Fennoscandian sites are provided. The same data-set has been modelled using the analytical solution provided by Andrews et al. (1989). This solution requires gas production to be constant throughout the domain

  13. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q G; Xu, Y; Zhu, H H; Chen, H; Lin, B

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565–750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565–750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as <0.66, 0.66–1.06, 1.06–1.62, and >1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems. (paper)

  14. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. G.; Zhu, H. H.; Xu, Y.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565-750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565-750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as 1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems.

  15. Quantitative Segmentation of Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Heterogeneous Tissue: Application to the Detection of Residual Disease in Tumor Margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L Mueller

    Full Text Available To develop a robust tool for quantitative in situ pathology that allows visualization of heterogeneous tissue morphology and segmentation and quantification of image features.TISSUE EXCISED FROM A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MOUSE MODEL OF SARCOMA WAS IMAGED USING A SUBCELLULAR RESOLUTION MICROENDOSCOPE AFTER TOPICAL APPLICATION OF A FLUORESCENT ANATOMICAL CONTRAST AGENT: acriflavine. An algorithm based on sparse component analysis (SCA and the circle transform (CT was developed for image segmentation and quantification of distinct tissue types. The accuracy of our approach was quantified through simulations of tumor and muscle images. Specifically, tumor, muscle, and tumor+muscle tissue images were simulated because these tissue types were most commonly observed in sarcoma margins. Simulations were based on tissue characteristics observed in pathology slides. The potential clinical utility of our approach was evaluated by imaging excised margins and the tumor bed in a cohort of mice after surgical resection of sarcoma.Simulation experiments revealed that SCA+CT achieved the lowest errors for larger nuclear sizes and for higher contrast ratios (nuclei intensity/background intensity. For imaging of tumor margins, SCA+CT effectively isolated nuclei from tumor, muscle, adipose, and tumor+muscle tissue types. Differences in density were correctly identified with SCA+CT in a cohort of ex vivo and in vivo images, thus illustrating the diagnostic potential of our approach.The combination of a subcellular-resolution microendoscope, acriflavine staining, and SCA+CT can be used to accurately isolate nuclei and quantify their density in anatomical images of heterogeneous tissue.

  16. In vivo EPR oximetry using an isotopically-substituted nitroxide: Potential for quantitative measurement of tissue oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, John; Burks, Scott R.; Liu, Ke Jian; Kao, Joseph P.Y.; Rosen, Gerald M.

    2017-01-01

    Variations in brain oxygen (O2) concentration can have profound effects on brain physiology. Thus, the ability to quantitate local O2 concentrations noninvasively in vivo could significantly enhance understanding of several brain pathologies. However, quantitative O2 mapping in the brain has proven difficult. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxides are sensitive to molecular O2 and can be used to estimate O2 concentrations in aqueous media. We recently synthesized labile-ester-containing nitroxides, such as 3-acetoxymethoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxyl (nitroxide 4), which accumulate in cerebral tissue after in situ hydrolysis, and thus enable spatial mapping of O2 concentrations in the mouse brain by EPR imaging. In an effort to improve O2 quantitation, we prepared 3-acetoxymethox ycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetra(2H3)methyl-1-(3,4,4-2H3,1-15N)pyrrolidinyloxyl (nitroxide 2), which proved to be a more sensitive probe than its normo-isotopic version for quantifying O2 in aqueous solutions of various O2 concentrations. We now demonstrate that this isotopically substituted nitroxide is ~2-fold more sensitive in vivo than the normo-isotopic nitroxide 4. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo EPR spectral-spatial imaging results with nitroxide 2 demonstrate significant improvement in resolution, reconstruction and spectral response to local O2 concentrations in cerebral tissue. Thus, isotopic-substituted nitroxides, such as 2, are excellent sensors for in vivo O2 quantitation in tissues, such as the brain. PMID:27567323

  17. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Hemmen, J.J. van; Meijster, T.; Major, V.; London, L.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed

  18. A preliminary quantitative assessment of gillnet fishing in subtropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between January 1998 and January 1999 a quantitative investigation was done on the fish populations of Lake Tzaneen, Northern Province, South Africa. Two graded series of multi-filament gillnets were set overnight every six weeks capturing 14 species of fish. Of the 2 692 fish caught, Schilbe intermedius was most ...

  19. Early Quantitative Assessment of Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, Maia; Ormandjieva, O.

    2007-01-01

    Non-functional requirements (NFRs) of software systems are a well known source of uncertainty in effort estimation. Yet, quantitatively approaching NFR early in a project is hard. This paper makes a step towards reducing the impact of uncertainty due to NRF. It offers a solution that incorporates

  20. Edge detection versus densitometry for assessing coronary stenting quantitatively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.H. Strauss (Bradley); Y. Juilliere; B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe optimal method used to analyze quantitatively the immediate angiographic results of coronary stenting in the coronary arteries has not been studied. Accordingly, minimal luminal cross-sectional area was determined by 2 methods, edge detection and densitometry, in 19 patients who

  1. A potential quantitative method for assessing individual tree performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2014-01-01

    By what standard should a tree be judged? This question, perhaps unknowingly, is posed almost daily by practicing foresters. Unfortunately, there are few cases in which clearly defined quantitative (i.e., directly measurable) references have been established in forestry. A lack of common references may be an unnecessary source of error in silvicultural application and...

  2. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geld, Pieter; Oosterveld, Paul; Schols, Jan; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation according to a standard categorization are more practical for regular diagnostics. Our objective in this study was to compare 2 semiquantitative methods with quantitative measurements for reliability and agreement. The faces of 122 male participants were individually registered by using digital videography. Spontaneous and posed smiles were captured. On the records, maxillary lip line heights and tooth display were digitally measured on each tooth and also visually estimated according to 3-grade and 4-grade scales. Two raters were involved. An error analysis was performed. Reliability was established with kappa statistics. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability values were high, with median kappa values from 0.79 to 0.88. Agreement of the 3-grade scale estimation with quantitative measurement showed higher median kappa values (0.76) than the 4-grade scale estimation (0.66). Differentiating high and gummy smile lines (4-grade scale) resulted in greater inaccuracies. The estimation of a high, average, or low smile line for each tooth showed high reliability close to quantitative measurements. Smile line analysis can be performed reliably with a 3-grade scale (visual) semiquantitative estimation. For a more comprehensive diagnosis, additional measuring is proposed, especially in patients with disproportional gingival display. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative Ultrasound Assessment of Cartilage Degeneration in Ovariectomized Rats with Low Estrogen Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Liu, Zhiwei; Wang, Yinong; Pan, Qingya; Feng, Qianjin; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Wufan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess quantitatively the site-specific degeneration of articular cartilage in ovariectomized rats with low estrogen levels using a high-frequency ultrasound system. Fourteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 per group): a sham group in which only the peri-ovarian fatty tissue was exteriorized and an ovariectomized group that underwent bilateral ovariectomy to create a menopause model with low estrogen levels. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the third week after ovariectomy. Hindlimbs were harvested. The articular cartilage from five anatomic sites (i.e., femoral caput [FC], medial femoral condyle [MFC], lateral femoral condyle [LFC], medial tibial plateau [MTP] and lateral tibial plateau [LTP]) was examined with ultrasound. Four parameters were extracted from the ultrasound radiofrequency data: reflection coefficient of the cartilage surface (RC1), reflection coefficient of the cartilage-bone interface (RC2), ultrasound roughness index (URI) and thickness of the cartilage tissue. The results indicated significant (p reduction induces morphologic and acoustic alterations in the articular cartilage of the hip and knee joints in ovariectomized rats. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, E.C.; Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found

  5. Qualitative versus quantitative assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuguchi, Taku

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) combined with a acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge have defined a subgroup of patients with symptomatic carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive diseases who are at an increased risk for stroke. Recent reports suggest that qualitative CBF techniques could also define the same high-risk subgroup. To evaluate the accuracy of the qualitative method, we compared qualitative ratios with quantitative CBF data, obtained using iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We analyzed qualitative and quantitative IMP SPECT images for 50 patients with symptomatic carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusive diseases. Quantitative CBF data were measured by the autoradiographic technique. One region-of-interest within each hemisphere was within the MCA territory. Relative cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) obtained using qualitative images before and after the intravenous administration of 1 g of ACZ was defined as follows: ( ACZ C occl / ACZ C non )/( baseline C occl / baseline C non ). The threshold for abnormal relative CVRC was defined as less than 1.0. Quantitative CBF was considered abnormal when the response to ACZ (percent change) on the symptomatic side (absolute CVRC) was a decrease of more than 10%. Of 39 patients whose relative CVRC were considered abnormal, 29 (74%) were normal in absolute CVRC (i.e., false positive). Two of 12 (17%) who were not considered compromised by qualitative criteria had abnormal absolute CVRC (i.e., false negative). This study demonstrates that this important subgroup cannot be accurately defined with qualitative methodology. (author)

  6. Qualitative versus quantitative assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuguchi, Taku [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-06-01

    Quantitative studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) combined with a acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge have defined a subgroup of patients with symptomatic carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive diseases who are at an increased risk for stroke. Recent reports suggest that qualitative CBF techniques could also define the same high-risk subgroup. To evaluate the accuracy of the qualitative method, we compared qualitative ratios with quantitative CBF data, obtained using iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We analyzed qualitative and quantitative IMP SPECT images for 50 patients with symptomatic carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusive diseases. Quantitative CBF data were measured by the autoradiographic technique. One region-of-interest within each hemisphere was within the MCA territory. Relative cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) obtained using qualitative images before and after the intravenous administration of 1 g of ACZ was defined as follows: ({sub ACZ}C{sub occl}/{sub ACZ}C{sub non})/({sub baseline}C{sub occl}/{sub baseline}C{sub n}= {sub on}). The threshold for abnormal relative CVRC was defined as less than 1.0. Quantitative CBF was considered abnormal when the response to ACZ (percent change) on the symptomatic side (absolute CVRC) was a decrease of more than 10%. Of 39 patients whose relative CVRC were considered abnormal, 29 (74%) were normal in absolute CVRC (i.e., false positive). Two of 12 (17%) who were not considered compromised by qualitative criteria had abnormal absolute CVRC (i.e., false negative). This study demonstrates that this important subgroup cannot be accurately defined with qualitative methodology. (author)

  7. Qualitative and quantitative expression status of the human chromosome 20 genes in cancer tissues and the representative cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanhui; Wen, Bo; Yan, Guangrong; Wei, Junying; Xie, Liqi; Xu, Shaohang; Jiang, Dahai; Wang, Tingyou; Lin, Liang; Zi, Jin; Zhang, Ju; Zhou, Ruo; Zhao, Haiyi; Ren, Zhe; Qu, Nengrong; Lou, Xiaomin; Sun, Haidan; Du, Chaoqin; Chen, Chuangbin; Zhang, Shenyan; Tan, Fengji; Xian, Youqi; Gao, Zhibo; He, Minghui; Chen, Longyun; Zhao, Xiaohang; Xu, Ping; Zhu, Yunping; Yin, Xingfeng; Shen, Huali; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Chengpu; Li, Liwei; Chang, Cheng; Ma, Jie; Yan, Guoquan; Yao, Jun; Lu, Haojie; Ying, Wantao; Zhong, Fan; He, Qing-Yu; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-04

    Under the guidance of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP), (1, 2) we conducted a systematic survey of the expression status of genes located at human chromosome 20 (Chr.20) in three cancer tissues, gastric, colon, and liver carcinoma, and their representative cell lines. We have globally profiled proteomes in these samples with combined technology of LC-MS/MS and acquired the corresponding mRNA information upon RNA-seq and RNAchip. In total, 323 unique proteins were identified, covering 60% of the coding genes (323/547) in Chr.20. With regards to qualitative information of proteomics, we overall evaluated the correlation of the identified Chr.20 proteins with target genes of transcription factors or of microRNA, conserved genes and cancer-related genes. As for quantitative information, the expression abundances of Chr.20 genes were found to be almost consistent in both tissues and cell lines of mRNA in all individual chromosome regions, whereas those of Chr.20 proteins in cells are different from tissues, especially in the region of 20q13.33. Furthermore, the abundances of Chr.20 proteins were hierarchically evaluated according to tissue- or cancer-related distribution. The analysis revealed several cancer-related proteins in Chr.20 are tissue- or cell-type dependent. With integration of all the acquired data, for the first time we established a solid database of the Chr.20 proteome.

  8. Quantitative radiomics studies for tissue characterization: a review of technology and methodological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Ruben T H M; Defraene, Gilles; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Lambin, Philippe; van Elmpt, Wouter

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative analysis of tumour characteristics based on medical imaging is an emerging field of research. In recent years, quantitative imaging features derived from CT, positron emission tomography and MR scans were shown to be of added value in the prediction of outcome parameters in oncology, in what is called the radiomics field. However, results might be difficult to compare owing to a lack of standardized methodologies to conduct quantitative image analyses. In this review, we aim to present an overview of the current challenges, technical routines and protocols that are involved in quantitative imaging studies. The first issue that should be overcome is the dependency of several features on the scan acquisition and image reconstruction parameters. Adopting consistent methods in the subsequent target segmentation step is evenly crucial. To further establish robust quantitative image analyses, standardization or at least calibration of imaging features based on different feature extraction settings is required, especially for texture- and filter-based features. Several open-source and commercial software packages to perform feature extraction are currently available, all with slightly different functionalities, which makes benchmarking quite challenging. The number of imaging features calculated is typically larger than the number of patients studied, which emphasizes the importance of proper feature selection and prediction model-building routines to prevent overfitting. Even though many of these challenges still need to be addressed before quantitative imaging can be brought into daily clinical practice, radiomics is expected to be a critical component for the integration of image-derived information to personalize treatment in the future.

  9. Quantitatively characterizing microstructural variations of skin tissues during ultraviolet radiation damaging process based on Mueller matrix polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wei; He, Honghui; Dong, Yang; Ma, Hui

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most fundamental features of light, polarization can be used to develop imaging techniques which can provide insight into the optical and structural properties of tissues. Especially, the Mueller matrix polarimetry is suitable to detect the changes in collagen and elastic fibres, which are the main compositions of skin tissue. Here we demonstrate a novel quantitative, non-contact and in situ technique to monitor the microstructural variations of skin tissue during ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced photoaging based on Mueller matrix polarimetry. Specifically, we measure the twodimensional (2D) backscattering Mueller matrices of nude mouse skin samples, then calculate and analyze the Mueller matrix derived parameters during the skin photoaging and self-repairing processes. To induce three-day skin photoaging, the back skin of each mouse is irradiated with UVR (0.05J/cm2) for five minutes per day. After UVR, the microstructures of the nude mouse skin are damaged. During the process of UV damage, we measure the backscattering Mueller matrices of the mouse skin samples and examine the relationship between the Mueller matrix parameters and the microstructural variations of skin tissue quantitatively. The comparisons between the UVR damaged groups with and without sunscreens show that the Mueller matrix derived parameters are potential indicators for fibrous microstructure variation in skin tissue. The pathological examinations and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the relationship between the values of Mueller matrix parameters and the changes of fibrous structures. Combined with smart phones or wearable devices, this technique may have a good application prospect in the fields of cosmetics and dermatological health.

  10. Assessing framing assumptions in quantitative health impact assessments: a housing intervention example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Foss, Anna M

    2013-09-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is often used to determine ex ante the health impact of an environmental policy or an environmental intervention. Underpinning any HIA is the framing assumption, which defines the causal pathways mapping environmental exposures to health outcomes. The sensitivity of the HIA to the framing assumptions is often ignored. A novel method based on fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is developed to quantify the framing assumptions in the assessment stage of a HIA, and is then applied to a housing intervention (tightening insulation) as a case-study. Framing assumptions of the case-study were identified through a literature search of Ovid Medline (1948-2011). The FCM approach was used to identify the key variables that have the most influence in a HIA. Changes in air-tightness, ventilation, indoor air quality and mould/humidity have been identified as having the most influence on health. The FCM approach is widely applicable and can be used to inform the formulation of the framing assumptions in any quantitative HIA of environmental interventions. We argue that it is necessary to explore and quantify framing assumptions prior to conducting a detailed quantitative HIA during the assessment stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simple Macroeconomic Policies and Welfare: A Quantitative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurilton Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We quantitatively compare three macroeconomic policies in a cash-credit goods framework. The policies are: the optimal one; another one that fully smoothes out oscillations in output; and a simple one that prescribes constant values for tax and monetary growth rates. As often found in the related literature, the welfare gains or losses from changing from a given policy to another are small. We also show that the simple policy dominates the one that leads to constant output.

  12. Quantitative assessments of distributed systems methodologies and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bruneo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Distributed systems employed in critical infrastructures must fulfill dependability, timeliness, and performance specifications. Since these systems most often operate in an unpredictable environment, their design and maintenance require quantitative evaluation of deterministic and probabilistic timed models. This need gave birth to an abundant literature devoted to formal modeling languages combined with analytical and simulative solution techniques The aim of the book is to provide an overview of techniques and methodologies dealing with such specific issues in the context of distributed

  13. In vivo quantitative NMR imaging of fruit tissues during growth using Spoiled Gradient Echo sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenouche, S.; Perrier, M.; Bertin, N.

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to design a robust and accurate quantitative measurement method based on NMR imaging combined with contrast agent (CA) for mapping and quantifying water transport in growing cherry tomato fruits. A multiple flip-angle Spoiled Gradient Echo (SGE) imaging sequence was used to evaluate...

  14. Exploring a new quantitative image marker to assess benefit of chemotherapy to ovarian cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirniaharikandehei, Seyedehnafiseh; Patil, Omkar; Aghaei, Faranak; Wang, Yunzhi; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Accurately assessing the potential benefit of chemotherapy to cancer patients is an important prerequisite to developing precision medicine in cancer treatment. The previous study has shown that total psoas area (TPA) measured on preoperative cross-section CT image might be a good image marker to predict long-term outcome of pancreatic cancer patients after surgery. However, accurate and automated segmentation of TPA from the CT image is difficult due to the fuzzy boundary or connection of TPA to other muscle areas. In this study, we developed a new interactive computer-aided detection (ICAD) scheme aiming to segment TPA from the abdominal CT images more accurately and assess the feasibility of using this new quantitative image marker to predict the benefit of ovarian cancer patients receiving Bevacizumab-based chemotherapy. ICAD scheme was applied to identify a CT image slice of interest, which is located at the level of L3 (vertebral spines). The cross-sections of the right and left TPA are segmented using a set of adaptively adjusted boundary conditions. TPA is then quantitatively measured. In addition, recent studies have investigated that muscle radiation attenuation which reflects fat deposition in the tissue might be a good image feature for predicting the survival rate of cancer patients. The scheme and TPA measurement task were applied to a large national clinical trial database involving 1,247 ovarian cancer patients. By comparing with manual segmentation results, we found that ICAD scheme could yield higher accuracy and consistency for this task. Using a new ICAD scheme can provide clinical researchers a useful tool to more efficiently and accurately extract TPA as well as muscle radiation attenuation as new image makers, and allow them to investigate the discriminatory power of it to predict progression-free survival and/or overall survival of the cancer patients before and after taking chemotherapy.

  15. Texture analysis in quantitative MR imaging. Tissue characterisation of normal brain and intracranial tumours at 1.5 T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Ring, P; Thomsen, C

    1995-01-01

    The diagnostic potential of texture analysis in quantitative tissue characterisation by MR imaging at 1.5 T was evaluated in the brain of 6 healthy volunteers and in 88 patients with intracranial tumours. Texture images were computed from calculated T1 and T2 parameter images by applying groups o...... to be successful in some cases of clinical importance. However, no discrimination between benign and malignant tumour growth was possible. Much texture information seems to be contained in MR images, which may prove useful for classification and image segmentation....

  16. Quantitative phylogenetic assessment of microbial communities indiverse environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Mering, C.; Hugenholtz, P.; Raes, J.; Tringe, S.G.; Doerks,T.; Jensen, L.J.; Ward, N.; Bork, P.

    2007-01-01

    The taxonomic composition of environmental communities is an important indicator of their ecology and function. Here, we use a set of protein-coding marker genes, extracted from large-scale environmental shotgun sequencing data, to provide a more direct, quantitative and accurate picture of community composition than traditional rRNA-based approaches using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By mapping marker genes from four diverse environmental data sets onto a reference species phylogeny, we show that certain communities evolve faster than others, determine preferred habitats for entire microbial clades, and provide evidence that such habitat preferences are often remarkably stable over time.

  17. Risk management and analysis: risk assessment (qualitative and quantitative)

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Mazareanu

    2007-01-01

    We use to define risk as the possibility of suffering a loss. Starting this, risk management is defined as a business process whose purpose is to ensure that the organization is protected against risks and their effects. In order to prioritize, to develop a response plan and after that to monitor the identified risks we need to asses them. But at this point a question is born: should I choose a qualitative approach or a quantitative one? This paper will make a short overview over the risk eva...

  18. Isotope coded protein labeling coupled immunoprecipitation (ICPL-IP): a novel approach for quantitative protein complex analysis from native tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Andreas; Fuerholzner, Bettina; Kinkl, Norbert; Boldt, Karsten; Ueffing, Marius

    2013-05-01

    High confidence definition of protein interactions is an important objective toward the understanding of biological systems. Isotope labeling in combination with affinity-based isolation of protein complexes has increased in accuracy and reproducibility, yet, larger organisms--including humans--are hardly accessible to metabolic labeling and thus, a major limitation has been its restriction to small animals, cell lines, and yeast. As composition as well as the stoichiometry of protein complexes can significantly differ in primary tissues, there is a great demand for methods capable to combine the selectivity of affinity-based isolation as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of isotope-based labeling with its application toward analysis of protein interactions from intact tissue. Toward this goal, we combined isotope coded protein labeling (ICPL)(1) with immunoprecipitation (IP) and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS). ICPL-IP allows sensitive and accurate analysis of protein interactions from primary tissue. We applied ICPL-IP to immuno-isolate protein complexes from bovine retinal tissue. Protein complexes of immunoprecipitated β-tubulin, a highly abundant protein with known interactors as well as the lowly expressed small GTPase RhoA were analyzed. The results of both analyses demonstrate sensitive and selective identification of known as well as new protein interactions by our method.

  19. Isotope Coded Protein Labeling Coupled Immunoprecipitation (ICPL-IP): A Novel Approach for Quantitative Protein Complex Analysis From Native Tissue*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Andreas; Fuerholzner, Bettina; Kinkl, Norbert; Boldt, Karsten; Ueffing, Marius

    2013-01-01

    High confidence definition of protein interactions is an important objective toward the understanding of biological systems. Isotope labeling in combination with affinity-based isolation of protein complexes has increased in accuracy and reproducibility, yet, larger organisms—including humans—are hardly accessible to metabolic labeling and thus, a major limitation has been its restriction to small animals, cell lines, and yeast. As composition as well as the stoichiometry of protein complexes can significantly differ in primary tissues, there is a great demand for methods capable to combine the selectivity of affinity-based isolation as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of isotope-based labeling with its application toward analysis of protein interactions from intact tissue. Toward this goal, we combined isotope coded protein labeling (ICPL)1 with immunoprecipitation (IP) and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS). ICPL-IP allows sensitive and accurate analysis of protein interactions from primary tissue. We applied ICPL-IP to immuno-isolate protein complexes from bovine retinal tissue. Protein complexes of immunoprecipitated β-tubulin, a highly abundant protein with known interactors as well as the lowly expressed small GTPase RhoA were analyzed. The results of both analyses demonstrate sensitive and selective identification of known as well as new protein interactions by our method. PMID:23268931

  20. Development of a new quantitative gas permeability method for dental implant-abutment connection tightness assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Most dental implant systems are presently made of two pieces: the implant itself and the abutment. The connection tightness between those two pieces is a key point to prevent bacterial proliferation, tissue inflammation and bone loss. The leak has been previously estimated by microbial, color tracer and endotoxin percolation. Methods A new nitrogen flow technique was developed for implant-abutment connection leakage measurement, adapted from a recent, sensitive, reproducible and quantitative method used to assess endodontic sealing. Results The results show very significant differences between various sealing and screwing conditions. The remaining flow was lower after key screwing compared to hand screwing (p = 0.03) and remained different from the negative test (p = 0.0004). The method reproducibility was very good, with a coefficient of variation of 1.29%. Conclusions Therefore, the presented new gas flow method appears to be a simple and robust method to compare different implant systems. It allows successive measures without disconnecting the abutment from the implant and should in particular be used to assess the behavior of the connection before and after mechanical stress. PMID:21492459

  1. Her-2/neu expression in node-negative breast cancer: direct tissue quantitation by computerized image analysis and association of overexpression with increased risk of recurrent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, M F; Pike, M C; Chazin, V R; Hung, G; Udove, J A; Markowicz, M; Danyluk, J; Godolphin, W; Sliwkowski, M; Akita, R

    1993-10-15

    The HER-2/neu proto-oncogene (also known as c-erb B-2) is homologous with, but distinct from, the epidermal growth factor receptor. Amplification of this gene in node-positive breast cancers has been shown to correlate with both earlier relapse and shorter overall survival. In node-negative breast cancer patients, the subgroup for which accurate prognostic data could make a significant contribution to treatment decisions, the prognostic utility of HER-2/neu amplification and/or overexpression has been controversial. The purpose of this report is to address the issues surrounding this controversy and to evaluate the prognostic utility of overexpression in a carefully followed group of patients using appropriately characterized reagents and methods. In this report we present data from a study of HER-2/neu expression designed specifically to test whether or not overexpression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in node-negative breast cancers. From a cohort of 704 women with node-negative breast cancer who experienced recurrent disease (relapsed cases) 105 were matched with 105 women with no recurrence (disease-free controls) after the equivalent follow-up period. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess HER-2/neu expression in archival tissue blocks from both relapsed cases and their matched disease-free controls. Importantly, a series of molecularly characterized breast cancer specimens were used to confirm that the antibody used was of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to identify those cancers overexpressing the HER-2/neu protein in this formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue cohort. In addition, a quantitative approach was developed to more accurately assess the amount of HER-2/neu protein identified by immunostaining tumor tissue. This was done using a purified HER-2/neu protein synthesized in a bacterial expression vector and protein lysates derived from a series of cell lines, engineered to express a defined range of HER-2/neu oncoprotein

  2. Quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for the assessment of vascular parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Meiburger, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the development of quantitative techniques for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in the assessment of architectural and vascular parameters. It presents morphological vascular research based on the development of quantitative imaging techniques for the use of clinical B-mode ultrasound images, and preclinical architectural vascular investigations on quantitative imaging techniques for ultrasounds and photoacoustics. The book is divided into two main parts, the first of which focuses on the development and validation of quantitative techniques for the assessment of vascular morphological parameters that can be extracted from B-mode ultrasound longitudinal images of the common carotid artery. In turn, the second part highlights quantitative imaging techniques for assessing the architectural parameters of vasculature that can be extracted from 3D volumes, using both contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and photoacoustic imaging without the addition of any contrast agent. Sharing and...

  3. Distinguishing nanomaterial particles from background airborne particulate matter for quantitative exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Serita, Fumio; Takaya, Mitsutoshi

    2009-10-01

    As the production of engineered nanomaterials quantitatively expands, the chance that workers involved in the manufacturing process will be exposed to nanoparticles also increases. A risk management system is needed for workplaces in the nanomaterial industry based on the precautionary principle. One of the problems in the risk management system is difficulty of exposure assessment. In this article, examples of exposure assessment in nanomaterial industries are reviewed with a focus on distinguishing engineered nanomaterial particles from background nanoparticles in workplace atmosphere. An approach by JNIOSH (Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) to quantitatively measure exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials is also introduced. In addition to real-time measurements and qualitative analysis by electron microscopy, quantitative chemical analysis is necessary for quantitatively assessing exposure to nanomaterials. Chemical analysis is suitable for quantitative exposure measurement especially at facilities with high levels of background NPs.

  4. Single x-ray absorptiometry method for the quantitative mammographic measure of fibroglandular tissue volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Wang, Jeff; Kerlikowske, Karla; Cummings, Steven R.; Shepherd, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the design and characteristics of a highly accurate, precise, and automated single-energy method to quantify percent fibroglandular tissue volume (%FGV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) using digital screening mammography. Methods: The method uses a breast tissue-equivalent phantom in the unused portion of the mammogram as a reference to estimate breast composition. The phantom is used to calculate breast thickness and composition for each image regardless of x-ray technique or the presence of paddle tilt. The phantom adheres to the top of the mammographic compression paddle and stays in place for both craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique screening views. We describe the automated method to identify the phantom and paddle orientation with a three-dimensional reconstruction least-squares technique. A series of test phantoms, with a breast thickness range of 0.5-8 cm and a %FGV of 0%-100%, were made to test the accuracy and precision of the technique. Results: Using test phantoms, the estimated repeatability standard deviation equaled 2%, with a ±2% accuracy for the entire thickness and density ranges. Without correction, paddle tilt was found to create large errors in the measured density values of up to 7%/mm difference from actual breast thickness. This new density measurement is stable over time, with no significant drifts in calibration noted during a four-month period. Comparisons of %FGV to mammographic percent density and left to right breast %FGV were highly correlated (r=0.83 and 0.94, respectively). Conclusions: An automated method for quantifying fibroglandular tissue volume has been developed. It exhibited good accuracy and precision for a broad range of breast thicknesses, paddle tilt angles, and %FGV values. Clinical testing showed high correlation to mammographic density and between left and right breasts.

  5. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Helene, E-mail: helene.rahn@gmail.com [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [ENT-Department, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftungsprofessur), University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstraße 1, Erlangen 91054 (Germany); Trahms, Lutz [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, Berlin 10587 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration. - Highlights: • Local cancer treatments are promising in reducing negative side effects occurring during conventional chemotherapy. • The nanoparticles play an important role in delivering drugs to the designated area during local cancer treatments as magnetic drug targeting. • We study the nanoparticles distribution in tumor tissue after magnetic drug targeting with X-ray computed tomography. • We achieved a 3-dimensional quantification of the nanoparticles content in tumor tissue out of digital tomographic data.

  6. Microlocalization and Quantitation of Risk Associated Elements in Gleason Graded Prostate Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    ORGANIZATION: Regents of the University of California Maya Conn Los Angeles CA 90024 REPORT DATE: March 2007 TYPE OF REPORT...California Maya Conn Los Angeles CA 90024 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...carcinoma of different histological grading in comparison to normal prostate tissue and adenofibromyomatosis (BPH) Uro Res 10:301-303. 5. Feustel A

  7. Quantitative dynamic ¹⁸FDG-PET and tracer kinetic analysis of soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusten, Espen; Rødal, Jan; Revheim, Mona E; Skretting, Arne; Bruland, Oyvind S; Malinen, Eirik

    2013-08-01

    To study soft tissue sarcomas using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog tracer [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)FDG), to investigate correlations between derived PET image parameters and clinical characteristics, and to discuss implications of dynamic PET acquisition (D-PET). D-PET images of 11 patients with soft tissue sarcomas were analyzed voxel-by-voxel using a compartment tracer kinetic model providing estimates of transfer rates between the vascular, non-metabolized, and metabolized compartments. Furthermore, standard uptake values (SUVs) in the early (2 min p.i.; SUVE) and late (45 min p.i.; SUVL) phases of the PET acquisition were obtained. The derived transfer rates K1, k2 and k3, along with the metabolic rate of (18)FDG (MRFDG) and the vascular fraction νp, was fused with the computed tomography (CT) images for visual interpretation. Correlations between D-PET imaging parameters and clinical parameters, i.e. tumor size, grade and clinical status, were calculated with a significance level of 0.05. The temporal uptake pattern of (18)FDG in the tumor varied considerably from patient to patient. SUVE peak was higher than SUVL peak for four patients. The images of the rate constants showed a systematic pattern, often with elevated intensity in the tumors compared to surrounding tissue. Significant correlations were found between SUVE/L and some of the rate parameters. Dynamic (18)FDG-PET may provide additional valuable information on soft tissue sarcomas not obtainable from conventional (18)FDG-PET. The prognostic role of dynamic imaging should be investigated.

  8. Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Y; Elvins, D M; Ring, E F; McHugh, N J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and quantify the morphological characteristics of nailfold capillaries that distinguish different forms of connective tissue disease from healthy controls. METHODS: A CCD video microscope with fibreoptic illumination and PC based image processing was used to visualise nailfold capillaries and to quantify findings in 23 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), and 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Capillary density was reduced in SSc (5.2 (SD 1.3) capillaries/mm) compared with other patient groups and controls. The average number of enlarged capillaries/finger was high in all disease groups (5.5-6.6) compared with controls (2). However, giant capillaries were most frequent in SSc (43%) and were not present in controls. Mild and moderate avascular areas were present in all groups (35%-68%), but severe avascularity was most frequent in SSc (44%) compared with other patients (18%-19%) and controls (0%). The greatest frequency of extensive haemorrhage was in SSc (35%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a range of abnormal capillary findings in patients with connective tissue disease and healthy controls. However, certain abnormalities such as a reduced number of capillaries, severe avascularity, giant capillaries, and haemorrhage are most commonly associated with SSc. Videomicroscopy with image processing offers many technical advantages that can be exploited in further studies of nailfold capillaries. Images PMID:8774177

  9. Identification and quantitive analysis of calcium phosphate microparticles in intestinal tissue by nuclear microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada; Thoree, Vinay; Powell, Jonathan J.; Kirkby, Karen J.; Grime, Geoffrey W.

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic particles (0.5-2 μm diameter), rich in calcium and phosphorus, are found in the lumen of the mid-distal gut of all mammals investigated, including humans, and these may play a role in immuno-surveillance and immune regulation of antigens from food and symbiotic bacteria that are contained in the gut. Whether these particles can cross in to tissue of the intestinal mucosa is unclear. If so, characterising their morphology and chemical composition is an important task in elucidating their function. The analysis of calcium phosphate in biological tissues has been approached in several ways including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and, most recently in this work, with nuclear microscopy. In this paper, we describe the use of microPIXE and microRBS to locate these particles and to determine, accurately, the ratio of phosphorus to calcium using the information on sample thickness obtained from RBS to allow the PIXE ratios to be corrected. A commercial sample of hydroxy apatite was used to demonstrate accuracy and precision of the technique. Then, in a pilot study on intestinal tissue of mice, we demonstrated the presence of calcium phosphate microparticles, consistent with confocal microscopy observations, and we identified the average molar P:Ca molar ratio as 1.0. Further work will confirm the exact chemical speciation of these particles and will examine the influence of differing calcium containing diets on the formation of these microparticles

  10. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products, considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS. These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies.

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Approach Targeted to Fibrinogen β Chain in Tissue Gastric Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Repetto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels and tumor progression in patients with gastric cancer (GC have been largely reported. However, distinct fibrinogen chains and domains have different effects on coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize fibrinogen β chain (FGB in GC tissues. Retrospectively we analyzed the data of matched pairs of normal (N and malignant tissues (T of 28 consecutive patients with GC at diagnosis by combining one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE with immunoblotting and mass spectrometry together with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. 1DE showed bands of the intact FGB at 50 kDa and the cleaved forms containing the fragment D at ~37–40 kDa, which corresponded to 19 spots in 2DE. In particular, spot 402 at ~50 kDa and spots 526 and 548 at ~37 kDa were of interest by showing an increased expression in tumor tissues. A higher content of spot 402 was associated with stomach antrum, while spots 526 and 548 amounts correlated with corpus and high platelet count (>208 × 109/L. The quantification of FGB and cleaved products may help to further characterize the interconnections between GC and platelet/coagulation pathways.

  13. Identification and quantitive analysis of calcium phosphate microparticles in intestinal tissue by nuclear microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: i.gomez-morilla@surrey.ac.uk; Thoree, Vinay [Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Powell, Jonathan J. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL (United Kingdom); Kirkby, Karen J. [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Grime, Geoffrey W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Microscopic particles (0.5-2 {mu}m diameter), rich in calcium and phosphorus, are found in the lumen of the mid-distal gut of all mammals investigated, including humans, and these may play a role in immuno-surveillance and immune regulation of antigens from food and symbiotic bacteria that are contained in the gut. Whether these particles can cross in to tissue of the intestinal mucosa is unclear. If so, characterising their morphology and chemical composition is an important task in elucidating their function. The analysis of calcium phosphate in biological tissues has been approached in several ways including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and, most recently in this work, with nuclear microscopy. In this paper, we describe the use of microPIXE and microRBS to locate these particles and to determine, accurately, the ratio of phosphorus to calcium using the information on sample thickness obtained from RBS to allow the PIXE ratios to be corrected. A commercial sample of hydroxy apatite was used to demonstrate accuracy and precision of the technique. Then, in a pilot study on intestinal tissue of mice, we demonstrated the presence of calcium phosphate microparticles, consistent with confocal microscopy observations, and we identified the average molar P:Ca molar ratio as 1.0. Further work will confirm the exact chemical speciation of these particles and will examine the influence of differing calcium containing diets on the formation of these microparticles.

  14. Reproducibility of radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies using quantitative parameters and potential role of quantitative assessment in follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khursheed, K.; Nasir, W.; Saeed, M.A.; Fatmi, S.; Jafri, S.; Asghar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies have been widely used in the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters have been used for the interpretation of reflux studies but there is little consensus on the use of these parameters in routine gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphic studies. Aim of this study was to evaluate the methodological issues underlying the qualitative and quantitative assessment of gastroesophageal reflux and to determine the potential power of the reflux index calculation in follow-up assessment of the reflux positive patients. Methods: Total 147 patients suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, asthma and having strong clinical suspicion of GER were recruited in the study. Dynamic scintigraphic study was acquired for 30 minutes after oral administration of 99mTc phytate. Each study was analyzed three times by two nuclear medicine physicians. Clinical symptoms were graded according to predefined criteria and there correlation with severity reflux was done. Time activity curves were generated by drawing ROIs from esophagus. Reflux index was calculated by the standard formula and cut off value of 4% was used for RI calculation. Reflux indices were used for follow-up assessments in reflux positive patients. Kappa statistics and chi square test were used to evaluate the agreement and concordance between qualitative and quantitative parameters. Results: Tlae over all incidence of reflux in total study population was 63.94 %( 94 patients). The kappa value for both qualitative and quantitative parameters showed good agreement for intra and inter-observer reproducibility (kappa value > 0.75). Concordance between visual analysis and time activity curves was not observed. Reflux index and visuat interpretation shows concordance in the interpretation. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to the severity of the reflux observed in the

  15. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  16. Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Clark E; DeLapp, Scott; Jacques, Steven; Anders, Juanita

    2015-04-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level light therapy has been used successfully for the treatment of injury and disease of the nervous system. The use of PBM to treat injury and diseases of the brain requires an in-depth understanding of light propagation through tissues including scalp, skull, meninges, and brain. This study investigated the light penetration gradients in the human cadaver brain using a Transcranial Laser System with a 30 mm diameter beam of 808 nm wavelength light. In addition, the wavelength-dependence of light scatter and absorbance in intraparenchymal brain tissue using 660, 808, and 940 nm wavelengths was investigated. Intact human cadaver heads (n = 8) were obtained for measurement of light propagation through the scalp/skull/meninges and into brain tissue. The cadaver heads were sectioned in either the transverse or mid-sagittal. The sectioned head was mounted into a cranial fixture with an 808 nm wavelength laser system illuminating the head from beneath with either pulsed-wave (PW) or continuous-wave (CW) laser light. A linear array of nine isotropic optical fibers on a 5 mm pitch was inserted into the brain tissue along the optical axis of the beam. Light collected from each fiber was delivered to a multichannel power meter. As the array was lowered into the tissue, the power from each probe was recorded at 5 mm increments until the inner aspect of the dura mater was reached. Intraparenchymal light penetration measurements were made by delivering a series of wavelengths (660, 808, and 940 nm) through a separate optical fiber within the array, which was offset from the array line by 5 mm. Local light penetration was determined and compared across the selected wavelengths. Unfixed cadaver brains provide good anatomical localization and reliable measurements of light scatter and penetration in the CNS tissues. Transcranial application of 808 nm wavelength light penetrated the scalp, skull, meninges, and brain

  17. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for monitoring Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and tissue tropism in experimentally infected tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y-L; Feng, J; Li, Y-W; Bai, J-S; Li, A-X

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae has become one of the most important emerging pathogens in the aquaculture industry and has resulted in large economic losses for tilapia farms in China. In this study, three pairs of specific primers were designed and tested for their specificities and sensitivities in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) after optimization of the annealing temperature. The primer pair IGS-s/IGS-a, which targets the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, was finally chosen, having a detection limit of 8.6 copies of S. agalactiae DNA in a 20 μL reaction mixture. Bacterial tissue tropism was demonstrated by qPCR in Oreochromis niloticus 5 days post-injection with a virulent S. agalactiae strain. Bacterial loads were detected at the highest level in brain, followed by moderately high levels in kidney, heart, spleen, intestines, and eye. Significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in muscle, gill and liver. In addition, significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in the brain of convalescent O. niloticus 14 days post-injection with several different S. agalactiae strains. The qPCR for the detection of S. agalactiae developed in this study provides a quantitative tool for investigating bacterial tissue tropism in infected fish, as well as for monitoring bacterial colonization in convalescent fish. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Endotyping early childhood asthma by quantitative symptom assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Asthmatic symptoms in young children reflect a heterogeneous group of diseases. Symptoms remain the primary end-point in both research and clinical management, but there is a need for standardized symptom assessment.......Asthmatic symptoms in young children reflect a heterogeneous group of diseases. Symptoms remain the primary end-point in both research and clinical management, but there is a need for standardized symptom assessment....

  19. Quantitative risk assessment: an emerging tool for emerging foodborne pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lammerding, A. M.; Paoli, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    New challenges to the safety of the food supply require new strategies for evaluating and managing food safety risks. Changes in pathogens, food preparation, distribution, and consumption, and population immunity have the potential to adversely affect human health. Risk assessment offers a framework for predicting the impact of changes and trends on the provision of safe food. Risk assessment models facilitate the evaluation of active or passive changes in how foods are produced, processed, d...

  20. Use of quantitative uncertainty analysis for human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, F.L.W.; Gordon, J.W.; Kelly, M.

    1994-01-01

    Current human health risk assessment method for environmental risks typically use point estimates of risk accompanied by qualitative discussions of uncertainty. Alternatively, Monte Carlo simulations may be used with distributions for input parameters to estimate the resulting risk distribution and descriptive risk percentiles. These two techniques are applied for the ingestion of 1,1=dichloroethene in ground water. The results indicate that Monte Carlo simulations provide significantly more information for risk assessment and risk management than do point estimates

  1. Target and Tissue Selectivity Prediction by Integrated Mechanistic Pharmacokinetic-Target Binding and Quantitative Structure Activity Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlot, Anna H C; de Witte, Wilhelmus E A; Danhof, Meindert; van der Graaf, Piet H; van Westen, Gerard J P; de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2017-12-04

    Selectivity is an important attribute of effective and safe drugs, and prediction of in vivo target and tissue selectivity would likely improve drug development success rates. However, a lack of understanding of the underlying (pharmacological) mechanisms and availability of directly applicable predictive methods complicates the prediction of selectivity. We explore the value of combining physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling with quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling to predict the influence of the target dissociation constant (K D ) and the target dissociation rate constant on target and tissue selectivity. The K D values of CB1 ligands in the ChEMBL database are predicted by QSAR random forest (RF) modeling for the CB1 receptor and known off-targets (TRPV1, mGlu5, 5-HT1a). Of these CB1 ligands, rimonabant, CP-55940, and Δ 8 -tetrahydrocanabinol, one of the active ingredients of cannabis, were selected for simulations of target occupancy for CB1, TRPV1, mGlu5, and 5-HT1a in three brain regions, to illustrate the principles of the combined PBPK-QSAR modeling. Our combined PBPK and target binding modeling demonstrated that the optimal values of the K D and k off for target and tissue selectivity were dependent on target concentration and tissue distribution kinetics. Interestingly, if the target concentration is high and the perfusion of the target site is low, the optimal K D value is often not the lowest K D value, suggesting that optimization towards high drug-target affinity can decrease the benefit-risk ratio. The presented integrative structure-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling provides an improved understanding of tissue and target selectivity.

  2. Quantitative tissue-specific dynamics of in vivo GILZ mRNA expression and regulation by endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, Vivaswath S; Almon, Richard R; Jusko, William J; DuBois, Debra C

    2015-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are steroid hormones, which regulate metabolism and immune function. Synthetic GCs, or corticosteroids (CS), have appreciable clinical utility via their ability to suppress inflammation in immune-mediated diseases like asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent work has provided insight to novel GC-induced genes that mediate their anti-inflammatory effects, including glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ). Since GILZ comprises an important part of GC action, its regulation by both drug and hormone will influence CS therapy. In addition, GILZ expression is often employed as a biomarker of GC action, which requires judicious selection of sampling time. Understanding the in vivo regulation of GILZ mRNA expression over time will provide insight into both the physiological regulation of GILZ by endogenous GC and the dynamics of its enhancement by CS. A highly quantitative qRT-PCR assay was developed for measuring GILZ mRNA expression in tissues obtained from normal and CS-treated rats. This assay was applied to measure GILZ mRNA expression in eight tissues; to determine its endogenous regulation over time; and to characterize its dynamics in adipose tissue, muscle, and liver following treatment with CS. We demonstrate that GILZ mRNA is expressed in several tissues. GILZ mRNA expression in adipose tissue displayed a robust circadian rhythm that was entrained with the circadian oscillation of endogenous corticosterone; and is strongly enhanced by acute and chronic dosing. Single dosing also enhanced GILZ mRNA in muscle and liver, but the dynamics varied. In conclusion, GILZ is widely expressed in the rat and highly regulated by endogenous and exogenous GCs. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Application of Quantitative MRI for Brain Tissue Segmentation at 1.5 T and 3.0 T Field Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Janne; Blystad, Ida; Engström, Maria; Warntjes, Jan B. M.; Lundberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain tissue segmentation of white matter (WM), grey matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are important in neuroradiological applications. Quantitative Mri (qMRI) allows segmentation based on physical tissue properties, and the dependencies on MR scanner settings are removed. Brain tissue groups into clusters in the three dimensional space formed by the qMRI parameters R1, R2 and PD, and partial volume voxels are intermediate in this space. The qMRI parameters, however, depend on the main magnetic field strength. Therefore, longitudinal studies can be seriously limited by system upgrades. The aim of this work was to apply one recently described brain tissue segmentation method, based on qMRI, at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T field strengths, and to investigate similarities and differences. Methods In vivo qMRI measurements were performed on 10 healthy subjects using both 1.5 T and 3.0 T MR scanners. The brain tissue segmentation method was applied for both 1.5 T and 3.0 T and volumes of WM, GM, CSF and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) were calculated on both field strengths. Repeatability was calculated for each scanner and a General Linear Model was used to examine the effect of field strength. Voxel-wise t-tests were also performed to evaluate regional differences. Results Statistically significant differences were found between 1.5 T and 3.0 T for WM, GM, CSF and BPF (p3.0 T. The mean differences between 1.5 T and 3.0 T were -66 mL WM, 40 mL GM, 29 mL CSF and -1.99% BPF. Voxel-wise t-tests revealed regional differences of WM and GM in deep brain structures, cerebellum and brain stem. Conclusions Most of the brain was identically classified at the two field strengths, although some regional differences were observed. PMID:24066153

  4. Correlation of X-Ray Computed Tomography with Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods for Pre-Clinical Measurement of Adipose and Lean Tissues in Living Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. Metzinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity studies have coupled murine models with non-invasive methods to quantify body composition in longitudinal experiments, including X-ray computed tomography (CT or quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (QMR. Both microCT and QMR have been separately validated with invasive techniques of adipose tissue quantification, like post-mortem fat extraction and measurement. Here we report a head-to-head study of both protocols using oil phantoms and mouse populations to determine the parameters that best align CT data with that from QMR. First, an in vitro analysis of oil/water mixtures was used to calibrate and assess the overall accuracy of microCT vs. QMR data. Next, experiments were conducted with two cohorts of living mice (either homogenous or heterogeneous by sex, age and genetic backgrounds to assess the microCT imaging technique for adipose tissue segmentation and quantification relative to QMR. Adipose mass values were obtained from microCT data with three different resolutions, after which the data were analyzed with different filter and segmentation settings. Strong linearity was noted between the adipose mass values obtained with microCT and QMR, with optimal parameters and scan conditions reported herein. Lean tissue (muscle, internal organs was also segmented and quantified using the microCT method relative to the analogous QMR values. Overall, the rigorous calibration and validation of the microCT method for murine body composition, relative to QMR, ensures its validity for segmentation, quantification and visualization of both adipose and lean tissues.

  5. Using integrated environmental modeling to automate a process-based Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) organizes multidisciplinary knowledge that explains and predicts environmental-system response to stressors. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is an approach integrating a range of disparate data (fate/transport, exposure, an...

  6. Using Integrated Environmental Modeling to Automate a Process-Based Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) organizes multidisciplinary knowledge that explains and predicts environmental-system response to stressors. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is an approach integrating a range of disparate data (fate/transport, exposure, and...

  7. QUANTITATIVE DIFFERENCES IN ASSESSMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Georgiev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available he research was carried out on 89 female students at first-year who regularly attended the course sport and sport activities. The aim was to see whether there are differences between the grades gained during the teaching and assessments received during the survey. As indicators in the evaluation of assessment during the research into account were taken techniques of performance of several sport disciplines: athletics (high start and gymnastics (rolling forward, from the sport games , basketball (leading the ball with a jump shot towards the basket and test - polygon for checking of the motor skills and habits of the female pupils. The determination of the significance of the differences was performed by t-test. After receiving the survey results, were identified statistically significant differences in the assessment of pupils.

  8. Assessment of spinal trabecular bone by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soya, Toshio; Seto, Hikaru; Futatsuya, Ryusuke; Kamei, Tetsuya; Kakishita, Masao

    1987-01-01

    151 normal values of spinal trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) for 79 men and 72 women were studied by single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The BMC value has a great relation to age. It has a maximum in the age of 20 years in men and in the age of 20 ∼ 30 years in women, and decreases gradually after these ages with a more rapid reduction in women (1.1 % per year in men and 1.6 % per year in women). In younger generation (under 50 years of age) the average value of the BMC is 180 mg/ml K 2 HPO 4 equivalent in men, 189 mg/ml in women, and in older generation, is 123 mg/ml and 112 mg/ml respectively. In the individual case, the fluctuation of inter-vertebrae (L1, L2 and L3) has large variation, therefore, to estimate one's BMC enoughly the measurement of at least three vertebrae should be done. There found no physical factor which attributes to the BMC value. It is suggested that the BMC are affected by age and sex. (author)

  9. Assessment of spinal trabecular bone by quantitative CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshiki; Kozakura, Yoshihiro; Kato, Isamu; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    1988-01-01

    127 normal values of spinal trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) for 67 males (age range : 20 ∼ 77) and 60 females (age range : 23 ∼ 76) were studied by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). We have measured L1, L2 and L3 vertebrae, but there is no significant difference between L1, L2 and L3 BMC, so we caliculated the individual BMC from the average of the three vertebrae data. The BMC value was found to be greatly enfluenced by age. Its maximum at the age of 20 years for males and females, and decreases gradually with an increase in age with a much more reduction seen in the females. The mean value of BMC for the males was approximately 171 mg/ml K 2 HPO 4 equivalent to the 20 - 40 age range years and the females was approximately 183 mg/ml, so that by the age 70, the males were reduced by 35 % to approximately 110 mg/ml, the females were reduced by 50 % to approximately 92 mg/ml. The interrelation was analyzed by using a cubic regression study which revealed an adequate correlation (r = 0.77 in the males, r = 0.85 in the females) between BMC and age. (author)

  10. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  11. Quantitative assessment of caffeine partial clearances in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelo, A; Miners, J O; Robson, R A; Birkett, D J

    1986-01-01

    Five subjects who participated in an earlier study (Lelo et al., 1986b) of the comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CA) and its primary monodemethylated metabolites paraxanthine (PX), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) were administered CA to steady-state. Using areas under the plasma concentration-time curves for each of the dimethylxanthines derived from CA in the steady-state study and individual plasma clearances of PX, TB and TP determined in the previous study, the fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP and the individual partial clearances of CA have been defined. The mean (+/- s.d.) fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP was 79.6 +/- 21.0%, 10.8 +/- 2.4% and 3.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. When only demethylation pathways are considered PX, TB and TP accounted for 83.9 +/- 5.4%, 12.1 +/- 4.1% and 4.0 +/- 1.4%, respectively of the CA demethylations. The mean partial clearance of CA to PX was approximately 8-fold and 23-fold greater than those to TB and TP respectively. These data confirm earlier reports that PX is the major metabolite of CA in humans but suggest that PX formation is quantitatively more important than previously believed. PMID:3756066

  12. Quantitative accuracy assessment of thermalhydraulic code predictions with SARBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosek, A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, the nuclear reactor industry has focused significant attention on nuclear reactor systems code accuracy and uncertainty issues. A few methods suitable to quantify code accuracy of thermalhydraulic code calculations were proposed and applied in the past. In this study a Stochastic Approximation Ratio Based Method (SARBM) was adapted and proposed for accuracy quantification. The objective of the study was to qualify the SARBM. The study compare the accuracy obtained by SARBM with the results obtained by widely used Fast Fourier Transform Based Method (FFTBM). The methods were applied to RELAP5/MOD3.2 code calculations of various BETHSY experiments. The obtained results showed that the SARBM was able to satisfactorily predict the accuracy of the calculated trends when visually comparing plots and comparing the results with the qualified FFTBM. The analysis also showed that the new figure-of-merit called accuracy factor (AF) is more convenient than stochastic approximation ratio for combining single variable accuracy's into total accuracy. The accuracy results obtained for the selected tests suggest that the acceptability factors for the SAR method were reasonably defined. The results also indicate that AF is a useful quantitative measure of accuracy.(author)

  13. Quantitative assessment of dynamic PET imaging data in cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzi, Mark; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Mankoff, David A; Doot, Robert K; Pierce, Larry A; Kurland, Brenda F; Linden, Hannah M; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    Clinical imaging in positron emission tomography (PET) is often performed using single-time-point estimates of tracer uptake or static imaging that provides a spatial map of regional tracer concentration. However, dynamic tracer imaging can provide considerably more information about in vivo biology by delineating both the temporal and spatial pattern of tracer uptake. In addition, several potential sources of error that occur in static imaging can be mitigated. This review focuses on the application of dynamic PET imaging to measuring regional cancer biologic features and especially in using dynamic PET imaging for quantitative therapeutic response monitoring for cancer clinical trials. Dynamic PET imaging output parameters, particularly transport (flow) and overall metabolic rate, have provided imaging end points for clinical trials at single-center institutions for years. However, dynamic imaging poses many challenges for multicenter clinical trial implementations from cross-center calibration to the inadequacy of a common informatics infrastructure. Underlying principles and methodology of PET dynamic imaging are first reviewed, followed by an examination of current approaches to dynamic PET image analysis with a specific case example of dynamic fluorothymidine imaging to illustrate the approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Nuclear Morphology and Heterochromatin Organization from Whole-Mount Plant Tissue Using NucleusJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desset, Sophie; Poulet, Axel; Tatout, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Image analysis is a classical way to study nuclear organization. While nuclear organization used to be investigated by colorimetric or fluorescent labeling of DNA or specific nuclear compartments, new methods in microscopy imaging now enable qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatin pattern, and nuclear size and shape. Several procedures have been developed to prepare samples in order to collect 3D images for the analysis of spatial chromatin organization, but only few preserve the positional information of the cell within its tissue context. Here, we describe a whole mount tissue preparation procedure coupled to DNA staining using the PicoGreen ® intercalating agent suitable for image analysis of the nucleus in living and fixed tissues. 3D Image analysis is then performed using NucleusJ, an open source ImageJ plugin, which allows for quantifying variations in nuclear morphology such as nuclear volume, sphericity, elongation, and flatness as well as in heterochromatin content and position in respect to the nuclear periphery.

  15. Quantitative radiation dose-response relationships for normal tissues in man. II. Response of the salivary glands during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative dose-response curve for salivary gland function in patients during radiotherapy is presented. Salivary-function data used in this study were obtained from four previously published reports. All patients were treated with 60 Co teletherapy to the head and neck using conventional treatment techniques. Salivary dysfunction was determined at specific dose levels by comparing salivary flow rates before therapy with flow rates at specific dose intervals during radiotherapy up to a total dose of 6000 cGy. Fifty percent salivary dysfunction occurred after 1000 cGy and eighty percent dysfunction was observed by the end of the therapy course (6000 cGy). The salivary-function curve was also compared to the previously published dose-response curve for taste function. Comparisons of the two curves indicate that salivary dysfunction precedes taste loss and that the shapes of the dose-response curves are different. A new term, tissue tolerance ratio, defined as the ratio of responses of two tissues given the same radiation dose, was used to make the comparisons between gustatory and salivary gland tissue effects. Measurements of salivary gland function and analysis of dose-response curves may be useful in evaluating chemical modifiers of radiation response

  16. Quantitative assessment of calf circumference in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; de Vries, Joeke; Fock, JM; van Tol, M; Brouwer, OF; Maurits, NM; van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is clinically characterised by progressive muscle weakness and a gradual increase in the size of some affected muscles, especially calf muscles. The extent of calf enlargement is usually determined by subjective visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Spray Deposition with Water-Sensitive Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray droplets, discharged from the lower six nozzles of an airblast sprayer, were sampled on pairs of absorbent filter and water-sensitive papers at nine distances from sprayer. Spray deposition on filter targets were measured by fluorometry and spray distribution on WSP targets were assessed by t...

  18. Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation at all human imprinted regions reveals preservation of epigenetic stability in adult somatic tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodfine Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes subject to genomic imprinting are mono-allelically expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. Each imprinted locus has at least one differentially methylated region (DMR which has allele specific DNA methylation and contributes to imprinted gene expression. Once DMRs are established, they are potentially able to withstand normal genome reprogramming events that occur during cell differentiation and germ-line DMRs are stably maintained throughout development. These DMRs, in addition to being either maternally or paternally methylated, have differences in whether methylation was acquired in the germ-line or post fertilization and are present in a variety of genomic locations with different Cytosine-phosphate guanine (CpG densities and CTCF binding capacities. We therefore examined the stability of maintenance of DNA methylation imprints and determined the normal baseline DNA methylation levels in several adult tissues for all imprinted genes. In order to do this, we first developed and validated 50 highly specific, quantitative DNA methylation pyrosequencing assays for the known DMRs associated with human imprinted genes. Results Remarkable stability of the DNA methylation imprint was observed in all germ-line DMRs and paternally methylated somatic DMRs (which maintained average methylation levels of between 35% - 65% in all somatic tissues, independent of gene expression. Maternally methylated somatic DMRs were found to have more variation with tissue specific methylation patterns. Most DMRs, however, showed some intra-individual variability for DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood, suggesting that more than one DMR needs to be examined in order to get an overall impression of the epigenetic stability in a tissue. The plasticity of DNA methylation at imprinted genes was examined in a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. All cell lines showed changes in DNA methylation, especially at the paternal germ

  19. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in soybean tissues under various abiotic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Tien Le

    Full Text Available Quantitative RT-PCR can be a very sensitive and powerful technique for measuring differential gene expression. Changes in gene expression induced by abiotic stresses are complex and multifaceted, which make determining stably expressed genes for data normalization difficult. To identify the most suitable reference genes for abiotic stress studies in soybean, 13 candidate genes collected from literature were evaluated for stability of expression under dehydration, high salinity, cold and ABA (abscisic acid treatments using delta CT and geNorm approaches. Validation of reference genes indicated that the best reference genes are tissue- and stress-dependent. With respect to dehydration treatment, the Fbox/ABC, Fbox/60s gene pairs were found to have the highest expression stability in the root and shoot tissues of soybean seedlings, respectively. Fbox and 60s genes are the most suitable reference genes across dehydrated root and shoot tissues. Under salt stress the ELF1b/IDE and Fbox/ELF1b are the most stably expressed gene pairs in roots and shoots, respectively, while 60s/Fbox is the best gene pair in both tissues. For studying cold stress in roots or shoots, IDE/60s and Fbox/Act27 are good reference gene pairs, respectively. With regard to gene expression analysis under ABA treatment in either roots, shoots or across these tissues, 60s/ELF1b, ELF1b/Fbox and 60s/ELF1b are the most suitable reference genes, respectively. The expression of ELF1b/60s, 60s/Fbox and 60s/Fbox genes was most stable in roots, shoots and both tissues, respectively, under various stresses studied. Among the genes tested, 60s was found to be the best reference gene in different tissues and under various stress conditions. The highly ranked reference genes identified from this study were proved to be capable of detecting subtle differences in expression rates that otherwise would be missed if a less stable reference gene was used.

  20. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in oil palm elite planting materials propagated by tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek-Lan Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. RESULTS: In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569 outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN. PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection

  1. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Oil Palm Elite Planting Materials Propagated by Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J.; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Background The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. Results In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Conclusions Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate

  2. Quantitative Assessment of Hyaline Cartilage Elasticity During Optical Clearing Using Optical Coherence Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Hao Liu; Manmohan Singh; Jiasong Li; Zhaolong Han; Chen Wu; Shang Wang; Rita Idugboe; Raksha Raghunathan; Emil N. Sobol; Valery V. Tuchin; Michael Twa; Kirill V. Larin

    2015-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing is an emerging technique for dynamically modifying tissue optical properties to increase imaging depth, which is useful in applications such as imaging and functional diagnostics of many diseases. For example, optical clearing of cartilage allowed imaging of subchondral bone that is used to assess orthopedic diseases. However, the effect of the clearing processes on tissue elastic properties has not been investigated yet. In this study we report the first use of phase-...

  3. Quantitative assessment of early diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ning; Donaghue, Kim C; Liew, Gerald; Rogers, Sophie L; Wang, Jie Jin; Lim, Shueh-Wen; Jenkins, Alicia J; Hsu, Wynne; Li Lee, Mong; Wong, Tien Y

    2009-01-01

    Fractal analysis can quantify the geometric complexity of the retinal vascular branching pattern and may therefore offer a new method to quantify early diabetic microvascular damage. In this study, we examined the relationship between retinal fractal dimension and retinopathy in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 729 patients with type 1 diabetes (aged 12-20 years) who had seven-field stereoscopic retinal photographs taken of both eyes. From these photographs, retinopathy was graded according to the modified Airlie House classification, and fractal dimension was quantified using a computer-based program following a standardized protocol. In this study, 137 patients (18.8%) had diabetic retinopathy signs; of these, 105 had mild retinopathy. Median (interquartile range) retinal fractal dimension was 1.46214 (1.45023-1.47217). After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, A1C, blood pressure, and total cholesterol, increasing retinal vascular fractal dimension was significantly associated with increasing odds of retinopathy (odds ratio 3.92 [95% CI 2.02-7.61] for fourth versus first quartile of fractal dimension). In multivariate analysis, each 0.01 increase in retinal vascular fractal dimension was associated with a nearly 40% increased odds of retinopathy (1.37 [1.21-1.56]). This association remained after additional adjustment for retinal vascular caliber. Greater retinal fractal dimension, representing increased geometric complexity of the retinal vasculature, is independently associated with early diabetic retinopathy signs in type 1 diabetes. Fractal analysis of fundus photographs may allow quantitative measurement of early diabetic microvascular damage.

  4. Floods characterization: from impact data to quantitative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Marcos, Raül; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco

    2015-04-01

    This study is based on the following flood databases from Catalonia: INUNGAMA (1900-2010) which considers 372 floods (Llasat et al, 2014), PRESSGAMA (1981-2010) and HISTOGAMA (from XIV Century on) - built as part of SPHERE project and recently updated. These databases store information about flood impacts (among others) and classify them by their severity (catastrophic, extraordinary and ordinary) by means of an indicators matrix based on other studies (i.e. Petrucci et al, 2013; Llasat et al, 2013). On this research we present a comparison between flood impacts, flow data and rainfall data on a Catalan scale and particularly for the basins of Segre, Muga, Ter and Llobregat (Western Mediterranean). From a bottom-up approach, a statistical methodology has been built (trend analysis, measures of position, cumulative distribution functions and geostatistics) in order to identify quantitative thresholds that will make possible to classify the floods. The purpose of this study is to establish generic thresholds for the whole Catalan region, for this we have selected rainfall maximums of flooding episodes stored at INUNGAMA and they have been related to flood categories by boxplot diagrams. Regarding the stream flow, we have established a relation between impacts and return periods at the day when the flow is maximum. The aim is to homogenize and compare the different drainage basins and to obtain general thresholds. It is also presented detailed analyses of relations between flooding episodes, flood classification and weather typing schemes - based in Jenkinson and Collison classification (applied to the Iberian Peninsula by Spellmann, 2000). In this way it could be analyzed whether patterns for the different types of floods exist or not. Finally, this work has pointed out the need of defining a new category for the most severe episodes.

  5. A new method of quantitative cavitation assessment in the field of a lithotripter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöchle, K; Debus, J; Lorenz, W J; Huber, P

    1996-01-01

    Transient cavitation seems to be a very important effect regarding the interaction of pulsed high-energy ultrasound with biologic tissues. Using a newly developed laser optical system we are able to determine the life-span of transient cavities (relative error less than +/- 5%) in the focal region of a lithotripter (Lithostar, Siemens). The laser scattering method is based on the detection of scattered laser light reflected during a bubble's life. This method requires no sort of sensor material in the pathway of the sound field. Thus, the method avoids any interference with bubble dynamics during the measurement. The knowledge of the time of bubble decay allows conclusions to be reached on the destructive power of the cavities. By combining the results of life-span measurements with the maximum bubble radius using stroboscopic photographs we found that the measured time of bubble decay and the predicted time using Rayleigh's law only differs by about 13% even in the case of complex bubble fields. It can be shown that the laser scattering method is feasible to assess cavitation events quantitatively. Moreover, it will enable us to compare different medical ultrasound sources that have the capability to generate cavitation.

  6. Aligning qualitative and quantitative approaches in professional translation quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Mateo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Translation Quality Assessment in professional translation is a long-debated issue that is still unsettled today, partly, due to the wide range of possible approaches. Given the elusive nature of the quality concept, first, it must be defined from a multifaceted and all-embracing viewpoint. Simultaneously and from a textual perspective, the quality notion must be defined as a notion of relative (and not absolute) adequacy with respect to a framework previously agreed by parties at...

  7. Quantitative imaging of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG in selected histological tissue areas by a novel bioluminescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Fabienne Voelxen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPatients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis with average survival of less than one year. Whereas in other tumor entities the characteristics of tumor metabolism are successfully used for therapeutic approaches, such developments are very rare in brain tumors, notably in gliomas. One metabolic feature characteristic of gliomas, in particular diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors, is the variable content of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG, a metabolite, which was discovered first in this tumor entity. D2HG is generated in large amounts due to various gain-of–function mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH-1 and IDH-2. Meanwhile, D2HG has been detected in several other tumor entities including intrahepatic bile-duct cancer, chondrosarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. D2HG is barely detectable in healthy tissue (< 0.1 mM, but its concentration increases up to 35 mM in malignant tumor tissues. Consequently, the oncometabolite D2HG has gained increasing interest in the field of tumor metabolism. To facilitate its quantitative measurement without loss of spatial resolution at a microscopical level, we have developed a novel bioluminescence assay for determining D2HG in sections of snap-frozen tissue. The assay was verified independently by photometric tests and liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The novel technique allows the microscopically resolved determination of D2HG in a concentration range of 0 – 10 µmol/g tissue (wet weight. In combination with the already established bioluminescence imaging techniques for ATP, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate, the novel D2HG assay enables a comparative characterization of the metabolic profile of individual tumors in a further dimension.

  8. A Review of Quantitative Situation Assessment Models for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Situation assessment is the process of developing situation awareness and situation awareness is defined as 'the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future.' Situation awareness is an important element influencing human actions because human decision making is based on the result of situation assessment or situation awareness. There are many models for situation awareness and those models can be categorized into qualitative or quantitative. As the effects of some input factors on situation awareness can be investigated through the quantitative models, the quantitative models are more useful for the design of operator interfaces, automation strategies, training program, and so on, than the qualitative models. This study presents the review of two quantitative models of situation assessment (SA) for nuclear power plant operators

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by In-111 Antimyosin Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yoon Ho; Chung, June Key; Park, Young Bae; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Hyuk [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Infarct size is a major determinant of prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Up to date, however, clinically available tests to estimate this size have not been sufficiently accurate. Twelve lead electrocardiogram and wall motion abnormality measurement are not quantitative, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) measurement is inaccurate in the presence of reperfusion or right ventricular infarction. Methods have been developed to localize and size acute myocardial infarcts with agents that are selectively sequestered in areas of myocardial damage, but previously used agents have lacked sufficient specificity. Antibodies that bind specifically only to damaged myocardial cells may resolve this problem and provide an accurate method for noninvasively measuring infarct size. We determined the accuracy with which infarcted myocardial mass can be measured using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and radiolabeled antimyosin antibodies. Seven patients with acute myocardial infarction and one stable angina patient were injected with 2 mCi of Indium-111 labeled antimyosin antibodies. Planar image and SPECT was performed 24 hours later. None of the patients had history of prior infarcts, and none had undergone reperfusion techniques prior to the study, which was done within 4 days of the attack. Planar image showed all infarct patients to have positive uptakes in the cardiac region. The location of this uptake correlated to the infarct site as indicated by electrocardiography in most of the cases. The angina patient, however, showed no such abnormal uptake. Infarct size was determined from transverse slices of the SPECT image using a 45% threshold value obtained from a phantom study. Measured infarct size ranged from 40 to 192 gr. There was significant correlation between the infarct size measured by SPECT and that estimated from serial measurements of CPK (r=0.73, p<0,05). These date suggest that acute myocardial infarct size can be accurately measured

  10. Quantitative risk assessment using the capacity-demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenroth, M.; Donnelly, C.R.; Westermann, G.D.; Huang, J.H.S.; Lam, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The hydroelectric industry's recognition of the importance of avoiding unexpected failure, or forced outages, led to the development of probabilistic, or risk-based, methods in order to attempt to quantify exposures. Traditionally, such analysis has been carried out by qualitative assessments, relying on experience and sound engineering judgment to determine the optimum time to maintain, repair or replace a part or system. Depending on the nature of the problem, however, and the level of experience of those included in the decision making process, it is difficult to find a balance between acting proactively and accepting some amount of risk. The development of a practical means for establishing the probability of failure of any part or system, based on the determination of the statistical distribution of engineering properties such as acting stresses, is discussed. The capacity-demand analysis methodology, coupled with probablistic, risk-based analysis, permits all the factors associated with a decision to rehabilitate or replace a part, including the risks associated with the timing of the decision, to be assessed in a transparent and defendable manner. The methodology does not eliminate judgment altogether, but does move it from the level of estimating the risk of failure to the lower level of estimating variability in material properties, uncertainty in loading, and the uncertainties inherent in any engineering analysis. The method was successfully used in 1998 to carry out a comprehensive, economic risk analysis for the entire water conveyance system of a 90 year old hydropower station. The analysis included a number of diverse parts ranging from rock slopes and aging steel and concrete conduits, and the method allowed a rational assessment of the risks associated with reach of these varied parts to be determined, permitting the essential remedial works to be prioritized. 14 refs., 4 figs

  11. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for in Natural and Processed Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyoung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10−11 was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α1 = 1, α2 = 91; α1 = 1, α2 = 309×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8 to be −2.35 and −2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10−14 and 3.58×10−14, respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens

  12. Visual and quantitative assessment of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipola, Petri; Vanninen, Ritva; Manninen, Hannu (Univ. of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Clinical Imaging Centre, Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland)), email: petri.sipola@kuh.fi; Leinonen, Ville (Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland)); Niemelaeinen, Riikka (Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Clinical Imaging Centre, Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)); Aalto, Timo (Kyyhkylae Rehabilitation Center and Hospital, Mikkeli (Finland)); Airaksinen, Olavi (Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine and Univ. of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Kuopio (Finland)); Battie, Michele C. (Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

    2011-11-15

    Background. Lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis is a common etiology of lumbar radicular symptoms. Quantitative measurements have commonly demonstrated better repeatability than visual assessments. We are not aware of any studies examining the repeatability of quantitative assessment of the lateral canal. Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of visual assessments and newly developed quantitative measurements of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods. Twenty-eight patients with lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis or prior spinal surgery with recurrent symptoms were imaged with MRI. A radiologist, a neurosurgeon and a spine research trainee graded visually and quantitatively subarticular (n = 188) and foraminal zones (n = 260) of the lateral spinal canal. Quantitative measurements included the minimal subarticular width and the cross-sectional area of the foramen. Results. The repeatability of visual assessment at the subarticular zone and foraminal zones between raters varied from 0.45-0.59 and 0.42-0.53, respectively. Similarly, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the quantitative measurements varied from 0.67-0.71 and 0.66-0.76, respectively. The intra-rater repeatability for the visual assessments of the subarticular and foraminal zones was 0.70 and 0.62, respectively, while the corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients for quantitative measurements were 0.83 and 0.81, respectively. Conclusion. Inter-rater repeatability of visual assessments of lateral stenosis is moderate, whereas quantitative measurements of both subarticular width and the cross-sectional area of the foramen have substantial reproducibility and may be particularly useful for longitudinal studies and research purposes. The clinical value of these parameters requires further study

  13. Visual and quantitative assessment of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipola, Petri; Vanninen, Ritva; Manninen, Hannu; Leinonen, Ville; Niemelaeinen, Riikka; Aalto, Timo; Airaksinen, Olavi; Battie, Michele C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis is a common etiology of lumbar radicular symptoms. Quantitative measurements have commonly demonstrated better repeatability than visual assessments. We are not aware of any studies examining the repeatability of quantitative assessment of the lateral canal. Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of visual assessments and newly developed quantitative measurements of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods. Twenty-eight patients with lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis or prior spinal surgery with recurrent symptoms were imaged with MRI. A radiologist, a neurosurgeon and a spine research trainee graded visually and quantitatively subarticular (n = 188) and foraminal zones (n = 260) of the lateral spinal canal. Quantitative measurements included the minimal subarticular width and the cross-sectional area of the foramen. Results. The repeatability of visual assessment at the subarticular zone and foraminal zones between raters varied from 0.45-0.59 and 0.42-0.53, respectively. Similarly, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the quantitative measurements varied from 0.67-0.71 and 0.66-0.76, respectively. The intra-rater repeatability for the visual assessments of the subarticular and foraminal zones was 0.70 and 0.62, respectively, while the corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients for quantitative measurements were 0.83 and 0.81, respectively. Conclusion. Inter-rater repeatability of visual assessments of lateral stenosis is moderate, whereas quantitative measurements of both subarticular width and the cross-sectional area of the foramen have substantial reproducibility and may be particularly useful for longitudinal studies and research purposes. The clinical value of these parameters requires further study

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Histone Deacetylases in Kidney Tissue Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, Katherine; Marzully, Selly; Samuel, Chrishan S; Hewitson, Tim D; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent microscope imaging technologies are increasing in their applications and are being used on a wide scale. However methods used to quantify the level of fluorescence intensity are often not utilized-perhaps given the result may be immediately seen, quantification of the data may not seem necessary. However there are a number of reasons given to quantify fluorescent images including the importance of removing potential bias in the data upon observation as well as quantification of large numbers of images gives statistical power to detect subtle changes in experiments. In addition discreet localization of a protein could be detected without selection bias that may not be detectable by eye. Such data will be deemed useful when detecting the levels of HDAC enzymes within cells in order to develop more effective HDAC inhibitor compounds for use against multiple diseased states. Hence, we discuss a methodology devised to analyze fluorescent images using Image J to detect the mean fluorescence intensity of the 11 metal-dependent HDAC enzymes using murine kidney tissue sections as an example.

  15. Tissue sources of serum alkaline phosphatase in 34 hyperthyroid cats: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D J; Thoday, K L

    2000-02-01

    The concentration of serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is commonly elevated in hyperthyroid cats. Agarose gel electrophoresis, in tris -barbital-sodium barbital buffer, with and without the separation enhancer neuraminidase, was used to investigate the sources of the constituent isoenzymes of SALP in serum samples from 34 hyperthyroid cats, comparing them to sera from five healthy cats and to tissue homogenates from liver, kidney, bone and duodenum. Contrary to previous reports, treatment of serum with neuraminidase made differentiation of the various isoenzymes more difficult to achieve. A single band corresponding to the liver isoenzyme (LALP) was found in 100 per cent of healthy cats. Eighty-eight per cent of the hyperthyroid cats showed two bands, corresponding to the liver and bone (BALP) isoenzymes while 12 per cent showed a LALP band alone. In hyperthyroid cats, there was a significant correlation between the serum L-thyroxine concentrations and the SALP concentrations. These findings suggest pathological changes in both bone and liver in most cases of feline thyrotoxicosis. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers LtdCopyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. Quantitative assessment of workload and stressors in clinical radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D; Jones, Ellen L; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-08-01

    Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045). Workload level and sources of stressors vary

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Lukasz M.; Mosaly, Prithima R.; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Lukasz M., E-mail: lukasz_mazur@ncsu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Mosaly, Prithima R. [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Xu, Jing [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  19. How predictive quantitative modelling of tissue organisation can inform liver disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasdo, Dirk; Hoehme, Stefan; Hengstler, Jan G

    2014-10-01

    From the more than 100 liver diseases described, many of those with high incidence rates manifest themselves by histopathological changes, such as hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, fatty liver disease, fibrosis, and, in its later stages, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, primary biliary cirrhosis and other disorders. Studies of disease pathogeneses are largely based on integrating -omics data pooled from cells at different locations with spatial information from stained liver structures in animal models. Even though this has led to significant insights, the complexity of interactions as well as the involvement of processes at many different time and length scales constrains the possibility to condense disease processes in illustrations, schemes and tables. The combination of modern imaging modalities with image processing and analysis, and mathematical models opens up a promising new approach towards a quantitative understanding of pathologies and of disease processes. This strategy is discussed for two examples, ammonia metabolism after drug-induced acute liver damage, and the recovery of liver mass as well as architecture during the subsequent regeneration process. This interdisciplinary approach permits integration of biological mechanisms and models of processes contributing to disease progression at various scales into mathematical models. These can be used to perform in silico simulations to promote unravelling the relation between architecture and function as below illustrated for liver regeneration, and bridging from the in vitro situation and animal models to humans. In the near future novel mechanisms will usually not be directly elucidated by modelling. However, models will falsify hypotheses and guide towards the most informative experimental design. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method...... to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...... different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique...

  1. The assessment of castings quality using selected quantitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kuchariková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium alloys represent an important category of materials due to their high technological value and wide range of applications. The alloys of the Al-Si-Cu system have become increasingly important in recent years, mainly in automotive industry that uses secondary aluminium (recycled in the form of various motor mounts, pistons, cylinder heads, heat exchangers, air conditioners due to their high strength at room and high temperature. This work deals with possibilities of quick and correct assessment of aluminium castings microstructure, especially focused on volume, size and shape of structural parameters – eutectic Si and ntermetallic phases different chemical compositions. These structural parameters affect the properties of castings and it is important to study their features. The features were studied by using image analyser software NIS Elements.

  2. Quantitative assessment of hyaline cartilage elasticity during optical clearing using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Wu, Chen; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Zakharov, Valery P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Twa, Michael; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    We report the first study on using optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantitatively monitor the elasticity change of the hyaline cartilage during the optical clearing administrated by glucose solution. The measurement of the elasticity is verified using uniaxial compression test, demonstrating the feasibility of using OCE to quantify the Young's modulus of the cartilage tissue. As the results, we found that the stiffness of the hyaline cartilage increases during the optical clearing of the tissue. This study might be potentially useful for the early detection of osteoarthritis disease.

  3. Three-dimensional assessment of brain tissue morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Germann, Marco; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Morel, Anne

    2006-08-01

    The microstructure of brain tissues becomes visible using different types of optical microscopy after the tissue sectioning. This preparation procedure introduces stress and strain in the anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft tissue slices, which are several 10 μm thick. Consequently, the three-dimensional dataset, generated out of the two-dimensional images with lateral submicrometer resolution, needs algorithms to correct the deformations, which can be significant for mellow tissue such as brain segments. The spatial resolution perpendicular to the slices is much worse with respect to the lateral sub-micrometer resolution. Therefore, we propose as complementary method the synchrotron-radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT), which avoids any kind of preparation artifacts due to sectioning and histological processing and yields true micrometer resolution in the three orthogonal directions. The visualization of soft matter by the use of SRμCT, however, is often based on elaborate staining protocols, since the tissue exhibits (almost) the same x-ray absorption as the surrounding medium. Therefore, it is unexpected that human tissue from the pons and the medulla oblongata in phosphate buffer show several features such as the blood vessels and the inferior olivary nucleus without staining. The value of these tomograms lies especially in the precise non-rigid registration of the different sets of histological slices. Applications of this method to larger pieces of brain tissue, such as the human thalamus are planned in the context of stereotactic functional neurosurgery.

  4. Assessment of permeation of lipoproteins in human carotid tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Mohamad G.; Syed, Saba H.; Leba, Michael; Morrisett, Joel D.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in the United States. Specifically, atherosclerosis is an increasingly devastating contributor to the tally and has been found to be a byproduct of arterial permeability irregularities in regards to lipoprotein penetration. To further explore arterial physiology and molecular transport, the imaging technique of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was employed. With OCT, the permeation of glucose (MW = 180 Da), low density lipoprotein (LDL; MW = 2.1 × 106 Da), and high density lipoprotein (HDL; MW = 2.5 × 105 Da) in human carotid tissue was studied to determine the effect of different molecular characteristics on permeation in atherosclerotic tissues. The permeability rates calculated from the diffusion of the molecular agents into the abnormal carotid tissue samples is compared to those of normal, healthy tissue. The results show that in the abnormal tissue, the permeation of agents correlate to the size constraints. The larger molecules of LDL diffuse the slowest, while the smallest molecules of glucose diffuse the fastest. However, in normal tissue, LDL permeates at a faster rate than the other two agents, implying the existence of a transport mechanism that facilitates the passage of LDL molecules. These results highlight the capability of OCT as a sensitive and specific imaging technique as well as provide significant information to the understanding of atherosclerosis and its effect on tissue properties.

  5. How to assess the plasma delivery of RONS into tissue fluid and tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Szili, Endre J.; Gaur, Nishtha; Hong, Sung-Ha; Furuta, Hiroshi; Kurita, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Akira; Hatta, Akimitsu; Short, Robert D.

    2016-08-01

    The efficacy of helium (He) and argon (Ar) plasma jets are being investigated for different healthcare applications including wound and cancer therapy, sterilisation and surface disinfections. Current research points to a potential link between the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and outcomes in a range of biological and medical applications. As new data accrue, further strengthening this link, it becomes important to understand the controlled delivery of RONS into solutions, tissue fluids and tissues. This paper investigates the use of He and Ar plasma jets to deliver three RONS (hydrogen peroxide—H2O2, nitrite—\\text{NO}2- and nitrate—\\text{NO}3- ) and molecular oxygen (O2) directly into deionised (DI) water, or indirectly into DI water through an agarose target. The DI water is used in place of tissue fluid and the agarose target serves as a surrogate of tissue. Direct plasma jet treatments deliver more RONS and O2 than the through-agarose treatments for equivalent treatments times. The former only deliver RONS whilst the plasma jets are ignited; the latter continues to deliver RONS into the DI water long after the plasmas are extinguished. The He plasma jet is more effective at delivering H2O2 and \\text{NO}2- directly into DI water, but the Ar plasma jet is more effective at nitrating the DI water in both direct and through-agarose treatments. DI water directly treated with the plasma jets is deoxygenated, with the He plasma jet purging more O2 than the Ar plasma jet. This effect is known as ‘sparging’. In contrast, for through-agarose treatments both jets oxygenated the DI water. These results indicate that in the context of direct and indirect plasma jet treatments of real tissue fluids and tissue, the choice of process gas (He or Ar) could have a profound effect on the concentrations of RONS and O2. Irrespective of operating gas, sparging of tissue fluid (in an open wound) for long prolonged periods during direct plasma

  6. Real-time elastography with a novel quantitative technology for assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Juan; Guo Long; Shi Xiuying; Pan Wenqian; Bai Yunfei; Ai Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background: The accurate evaluation of liver fibrosis stage is important in determining the treatment strategy. The limitations of percutaneous liver biopsy as the gold standard are obvious for invasion. Real-time elastography with conventional ultrasound probes and a new quantitative technology for diffuse histological lesion is a novel approach for staging of liver fibrosis. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the value of real-time tissue elastography with a new quantitative technology for the assessment of liver fibrosis stage. Materials and methods: Real-time elastography was performed in 55 patients with liver fibrosis and chronic hepatitis B and in 20 healthy volunteers. Eleven parameters for every patient in colorcode image obtained from the real-time elastography were analyzed with principal components analysis. We analyzed the correlation between elasticity index and liver fibrosis stage and the accuracy of real-time elastography for liver fibrosis staging. Additionally, aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index was also included in the analysis. Results: The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the elasticity index and the histologic fibrosis stage was 0.81, which is highly significant (p 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: Real-time elastography with a new quantitative technology for diffuse histological lesion is a new and promising sonography-based noninvasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  7. Quantitative assessment of aquatic impacts of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Arnold, E.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Baker, K.S.

    1979-08-01

    Progress is reported in a continuing study of the design and analysis of aquatic environmental monitoring programs for assessing the impacts of nuclear power plants. Analysis of data from Calvert Cliffs, Pilgrim, and San Onofre nuclear power plants confirmed the generic applicability of the control-treatment pairing design suggested by McKenzie et al. (1977). Substantial progress was made on the simulation model evaluation task. A process notebook was compiled in which each model equation was translated into a standardized notation. Individual model testing and evaluating was started. The Aquatic Generalized Environmental Impact Simulator (AGEIS) was developed and will be tested using data from Lake Keowee, South Carolina. Further work is required to test the various models and perfect AGEIS for impact analyses at actual power plant sites. Efforts on the hydrologic modeling task resulted in a compendium of models commonly applied to nuclear power plants and the application of two well-received hydrodynamic models to data from the Surry Nuclear Power Plant in Virginia. Conclusions from the study of these models indicate that slight inaccuracies of boundary data have little influence on mass conservation and accurate bathymetry data are necessary for conservation of mass through the model calculations. The hydrologic modeling task provides valuable reference information for model users and monitoring program designers.

  8. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  9. A quantitative measure of handwriting dysfluency for assessing tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Michael P; Teulings, Hans-Leo; Dean, Charles E; Lohr, James B

    2015-04-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder commonly associated with chronic exposure to antidopaminergic medications, which may be in some cases disfiguring and socially disabling. The consensus from a growing body of research on the incidence and prevalence of TD in the modern era of antipsychotics indicates that this disorder has not disappeared continues to challenge the effective management of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A fundamental component in an effective strategy for managing TD is its reliable and accurate assessment. In the present study, we examined the clinical utility of a brief handwriting dysfluency measure for quantifying TD. Digitized samples of handwritten circles and loops were obtained from 62 psychosis patients with or without TD and from 50 healthy subjects. Two measures of dysfluent pen movements were extracted from each vertical pen stroke, including normalized jerk and the number of acceleration peaks. Tardive dyskinesia patients exhibited significantly higher dysfluency scores than non-TD patients and controls. Severity of handwriting movement dysfluency was correlated with Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale severity ratings for some tasks. The procedure yielded high degrees of test-retest reliability. These results suggest that measures of handwriting movement dysfluency may be particularly useful for objectively evaluating the efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treating TD.

  10. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A [Statoil (Norway)

    1999-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Quantitative assessment of aquatic impacts of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Arnold, E.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Baker, K.S.

    1979-08-01

    Progress is reported in a continuing study of the design and analysis of aquatic environmental monitoring programs for assessing the impacts of nuclear power plants. Analysis of data from Calvert Cliffs, Pilgrim, and San Onofre nuclear power plants confirmed the generic applicability of the control-treatment pairing design suggested by McKenzie et al. (1977). Substantial progress was made on the simulation model evaluation task. A process notebook was compiled in which each model equation was translated into a standardized notation. Individual model testing and evaluating was started. The Aquatic Generalized Environmental Impact Simulator (AGEIS) was developed and will be tested using data from Lake Keowee, South Carolina. Further work is required to test the various models and perfect AGEIS for impact analyses at actual power plant sites. Efforts on the hydrologic modeling task resulted in a compendium of models commonly applied to nuclear power plants and the application of two well-received hydrodynamic models to data from the Surry Nuclear Power Plant in Virginia. Conclusions from the study of these models indicate that slight inaccuracies of boundary data have little influence on mass conservation and accurate bathymetry data are necessary for conservation of mass through the model calculations. The hydrologic modeling task provides valuable reference information for model users and monitoring program designers

  12. Quantitative food frequency questionnaire and assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, S; Goyle, A; Gupta, R

    1998-01-01

    India is a land of varied foods and food habits. This makes the task of collecting dietary and nutrient intake data difficult. Methods need to be devised to improve the accuracy in reporting intakes by various population subgroups. There is an urgent need to develop a questionnaire that is simple enough to be administered on a large sample and whose validity and reproducibility has been quantified. Regional differences in food habits and availability will have to be taken into account in the questionnaire design. Packaging of food items with definite portion sizes is not a common practice in Indian markets and labels on food products are neither very informative nor descriptive. Epidemiologists addressing the effects of diet have generally used questionnaires that inquire about the frequency of specified foods consumed and sometimes also attempt to quantify usual portion sizes. A number of investigators have conveyed, apparently independently, that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a method of dietary assessment is best suited for most epidemiological applications. A food frequency list can form the basis for nutrition education and allows the dietician and the patient to relate individual eating patterns to specific foods. Other advantages of the FFQ are that it is independent of the ability or inclination of an individual to maintain a diary and also provides immediate feedback to patients, physicians and counsellors.

  13. Quantitative assessment of urban transport development – a spatial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czech Artur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban transport is considered the basis of properly functioning cities and their development. The main aim of the paper is to attempt the assessment of urban transport development in selected voivodeships (provinces as a crucial factor of macro logistics. The research also aimed to identify the underdeveloped areas of urban transport in Poland as the basis for the implementation of support policy. The source of information in the investigation process was data drawn from the Central Statistical Office in Poland for 2013–2016. In the scope of dealing with the research problem, chosen classical and order multivariate statistical measures were implemented into the research process. Next, the taxonomic measures for the years of interest served as the basis for the construction of the total (general synthetic measure applicable to the entire period. The main results and findings of the research indicate that the level of urban transport development is correlated with the whole transportation system which affects the socio-economic development of some regions of Poland. The research can lead to a better understanding of Polish urban transportation development in selected regions. Hence, the results can be helpful in the investment process and for shaping the right transportation policy to improve the use of financial resources.

  14. Temperature dependence of the shear modulus of soft tissues assessed by ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapin-de Brosses, E; Gennisson, J-L; Pernot, M; Fink, M; Tanter, M [Langevin Institute (CNRS UMR 7587), INSERM ERL U979, ESPCI ParisTech, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75 005 Paris (France)], E-mail: emilie.sapin@espci.fr

    2010-03-21

    Soft tissue stiffness was shown to significantly change after thermal ablation. To better understand this phenomenon, the study aims (1) to quantify and explain the temperature dependence of soft tissue stiffness for different organs, (2) to investigate the potential relationship between stiffness changes and thermal dose and (3) to study the reversibility or irreversibility of stiffness changes. Ex vivo bovine liver and muscle samples (N = 3 and N = 20, respectively) were slowly heated and cooled down into a thermally controlled saline bath. Temperatures were assessed by thermocouples. Sample stiffness (shear modulus) was provided by the quantitative supersonic shear imaging technique. Changes in liver stiffness are observed only after 45 deg. C. In contrast, between 25 deg. C and 65 deg. C, muscle stiffness varies in four successive steps that are consistent with the thermally induced proteins denaturation reported in the literature. After a 6 h long heating and cooling process, the final muscle stiffness can be either smaller or bigger than the initial one, depending on the stiffness at the end of the heating. Another important result is that stiffness changes are linked to thermal dose. Given the high sensitivity of ultrasound to protein denaturation, this study gives promising prospects for the development of ultrasound-guided HIFU systems.

  15. Temperature dependence of the shear modulus of soft tissues assessed by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin-de Brosses, E; Gennisson, J-L; Pernot, M; Fink, M; Tanter, M

    2010-01-01

    Soft tissue stiffness was shown to significantly change after thermal ablation. To better understand this phenomenon, the study aims (1) to quantify and explain the temperature dependence of soft tissue stiffness for different organs, (2) to investigate the potential relationship between stiffness changes and thermal dose and (3) to study the reversibility or irreversibility of stiffness changes. Ex vivo bovine liver and muscle samples (N = 3 and N = 20, respectively) were slowly heated and cooled down into a thermally controlled saline bath. Temperatures were assessed by thermocouples. Sample stiffness (shear modulus) was provided by the quantitative supersonic shear imaging technique. Changes in liver stiffness are observed only after 45 deg. C. In contrast, between 25 deg. C and 65 deg. C, muscle stiffness varies in four successive steps that are consistent with the thermally induced proteins denaturation reported in the literature. After a 6 h long heating and cooling process, the final muscle stiffness can be either smaller or bigger than the initial one, depending on the stiffness at the end of the heating. Another important result is that stiffness changes are linked to thermal dose. Given the high sensitivity of ultrasound to protein denaturation, this study gives promising prospects for the development of ultrasound-guided HIFU systems.

  16. Sebaceous lipid profiling of bat integumentary tissues: quantitative analysis of free Fatty acids, monoacylglycerides, squalene, and sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Gilmore, David F; Fuller, Nathan W; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2013-12-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans and is devastating North American bat populations. Sebaceous lipids secreted from host integumentary tissues are implicated in the initial attachment and recognition of host tissues by pathogenic fungi. We are interested in determining if ratios of lipid classes in sebum can be used as biomarkers to diagnose severity of fungal infection in bats. To first establish lipid compositions in bats, we isolated secreted and integral lipid fractions from the hair and wing tissues of three species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), Eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), and evening bats (Nycticeius humeralis). Sterols, FFAs, MAGs, and squalene were derivatized as trimethylsilyl esters, separated by gas chromatography, and identified by mass spectrometry. Ratios of sterol to squalene in different tissues were determined, and cholesterol as a disease biomarker was assessed. Free sterol was the dominant lipid class of bat integument. Squalene/sterol ratio is highest in wing sebum. Secreted wing lipid contained higher proportions of saturated FFAs and MAGs than integral wing or secreted hair lipid. These compounds are targets for investigating responses of P. destructans to specific host lipid compounds and as biomarkers to diagnose WNS. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Quantitative measurement of radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction by multidetector CT in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadir, Osman; Kosucu, Polat

    2012-12-01

    To objectively assess the efficacy of radiofrequency thermal ablation of inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Thirty-five patients with nasal obstruction secondary to inferior turbinate hypertrophy were prospectively enrolled. Radiofrequency energy was delivered to four sites in each inferior turbinate. Patients were evaluated before and 8 weeks after intervention. Subjective evaluation of nasal obstruction was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and objective evaluation of the turbinate volume reduction was calculated using multidetector CT. Volumetric measurements of the preoperative inferior turbinate were compared with postoperative values on both sides. The great majority of patients (91.4%) exhibited subjective postoperative improvement. Mean obstruction (VAS) improved significantly from 7.45±1.48 to 3.54±1.96. Significant turbinate volume reduction was achieved by the surgery on both right and left sides [(preoperative vs. postoperative, right: 6.55±1.62cm(3) vs. 5.10±1.47cm(3), (PRadiofrequency is a safe and effective surgical procedure in reducing turbinate volume in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Multidetector CT is an objective method of assessment in detecting radiofrequency turbinate volume reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Research progress and development trend of quantitative assessment techniques for urban thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tie Gang; Xiao, Rong Bo; Cai, Yun Nan; Wang, Yao Wu; Wu, Chang Guang

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative assessment of urban thermal environment has become a focus for urban climate and environmental science since the concept of urban heat island has been proposed. With the continual development of space information and computer simulation technology, substantial progresses have been made on quantitative assessment techniques and methods of urban thermal environment. The quantitative assessment techniques have been developed to dynamics simulation and forecast of thermal environment at various scales based on statistical analysis of thermal environment on urban-scale using the historical data of weather stations. This study reviewed the development progress of ground meteorological observation, thermal infrared remote sensing and numerical simulation. Moreover, the potential advantages and disadvantages, applicability and the development trends of these techniques were also summarized, aiming to add fundamental knowledge of understanding the urban thermal environment assessment and optimization.

  19. Correction of Gradient Nonlinearity Bias in Quantitative Diffusion Parameters of Renal Tissue with Intra Voxel Incoherent Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarenko, Dariya I; Pang, Yuxi; Senegas, Julien; Ivancevic, Marko K; Ross, Brian D; Chenevert, Thomas L

    2015-12-01

    Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting bias due to gradient nonlinearity (GNL) causes substantial errors in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for anatomical regions imaged distant from magnet isocenter. Our previously-described approach allowed effective removal of spatial ADC bias from three orthogonal DWI measurements for mono-exponential media of arbitrary anisotropy. The present work evaluates correction feasibility and performance for quantitative diffusion parameters of the two-component IVIM model for well-perfused and nearly isotropic renal tissue. Sagittal kidney DWI scans of a volunteer were performed on a clinical 3T MRI scanner near isocenter and offset superiorly. Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting due to GNL resulted both in shift and broadening of perfusion-suppressed ADC histograms for off-center DWI relative to unbiased measurements close to isocenter. Direction-average DW-bias correctors were computed based on the known gradient design provided by vendor. The computed bias maps were empirically confirmed by coronal DWI measurements for an isotropic gel-flood phantom. Both phantom and renal tissue ADC bias for off-center measurements was effectively removed by applying pre-computed 3D correction maps. Comparable ADC accuracy was achieved for corrections of both b -maps and DWI intensities in presence of IVIM perfusion. No significant bias impact was observed for IVIM perfusion fraction.

  20. Correlation between average tissue depth data and quantitative accuracy of forensic craniofacial reconstructions measured by geometric surface comparison method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Joon; Wilkinson, Caroline M; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Lee, Sang-Mi

    2015-05-01

    Accuracy is the most important factor supporting the reliability of forensic facial reconstruction (FFR) comparing to the corresponding actual face. A number of methods have been employed to evaluate objective accuracy of FFR. Recently, it has been attempted that the degree of resemblance between computer-generated FFR and actual face is measured by geometric surface comparison method. In this study, three FFRs were produced employing live adult Korean subjects and three-dimensional computerized modeling software. The deviations of the facial surfaces between the FFR and the head scan CT of the corresponding subject were analyzed in reverse modeling software. The results were compared with those from a previous study which applied the same methodology as this study except average facial soft tissue depth dataset. Three FFRs of this study that applied updated dataset demonstrated lesser deviation errors between the facial surfaces of the FFR and corresponding subject than those from the previous study. The results proposed that appropriate average tissue depth data are important to increase quantitative accuracy of FFR. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Early recognition of autonomous thyroid tissue by a combination of quantitative thyroid pertechnetate scintigraphy with the free T4 equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, K.; Mahlstedt, J.; Welcke, U.

    1980-01-01

    A suspicion of AFTT can be raised in 80% of still euthyroid patients by a combined evaluation of an equivalent to the free T 4 (FTE) and an equavilant to the clearance using a quantitative evaluation of the thyroid technetium scan (TcTU). The suppression test not only confirms the autonomy in a qualitative manner but also provides an estimate of the volume of autonomous tissue because The TcTU after suppression strictly correlates linearly with the volume of the AFTT. Since after iodine administration FTE increases proportionally to the volume of AFTT, the procedure can be of some prognostic value: those with autonomous tissue in excess of a critical volume will almost certainly develop hyperthyroidism following a certain minimum rate of iodine administration. A prospective study of patients under age 50 whose thyroids contained various amounts of AFTT has shown that prophylactic dietary iodine supplementation will not cause hyperthyroidism to develop provided the additional iodine intake does not exceed 100 μg per day. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Quantitative Assessment of a Field-Based Course on Integrative Geology, Ecology and Cultural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paul R.; Donaldson, Brad A.; Huckleberry, Gary

    2010-01-01

    A field-based course at the University of Arizona called Sense of Place (SOP) covers the geology, ecology and cultural history of the Tucson area. SOP was quantitatively assessed for pedagogical effectiveness. Students of the Spring 2008 course were given pre- and post-course word association surveys in order to assess awareness and comprehension…

  3. In situ FTIR assessment of desiccation-tolerant tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, W.F.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    This essay shows how Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy can be applied to study thermodynamic parameters and conformation of endogenous biomolecules in desiccation-tolerant biological tissues. Desiccation tolerance is the remarkable ability of some organisms to survive complete

  4. Quantitative and informatics tools for studying the effect of low dose radiation on tissue and cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvin, B.; Yang, Q.; Fontenay, G.; Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The challenge of the post-genomic era is functional genomics, i.e., understanding how the genome is expressed to produce myriad cell phenotypes. To use genomic information to understand the biology of complex organisms, one must understand the dynamics of phenotype generation and maintenance. A phenotype is the result of selective expression of the genome. In order to define cell 'phenomes,' one would track the kinetics and quantities of multiple constituent proteins, their cellular context and morphological features in large populations. Our aim is to extend the development of the BioSig imaging bioinformatics system for understanding how ionizing radiation alters tissue homeostasis and responses in cell culture experiments. Given several thousand antibodies and reagents for differentiating cell-specific protein components, biological heterogeneity, and other variables that affect cellular responses, there is a clear requirements for managing images and information about these images. Our focus is on the development of (1) quantitative methods for protein expression either in tissue or cell culture studies, (2) a adequate data model that couples quantitative results with the experimental variables, and (3) browsing and visualization tools that enable exploration of large scale image data in feature space in the context of biological heterogeneity. The framework provides the basis for studying the effect of low-dose radiation on the cellular microenvironment, inter-cell communication, and the underlying mechanisms. In turn, this information can then be used to more accurately predict more complex multicellular biological responses following exposure to different types of inhibitors. The BioSig informatics approach to microscopy and quantitative image analysis has been used to build a more detailed picture of the signaling that occurs between cells, as a result of an exogenous stimulus such as radiation, or as a consequence of endogenous programs leading

  5. MO-DE-303-03: Session on quantitative imaging for assessment of tumor response to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, S.

    2015-01-01

    This session will focus on quantitative imaging for assessment of tumor response to radiation therapy. This is a technically challenging method to translate to practice in radiation therapy. In the new era of precision medicine, however, delivering the right treatment, to the right patient, and at the right time, can positively impact treatment choices and patient outcomes. Quantitative imaging provides the spatial sensitivity required by radiation therapy for precision medicine that is not available by other means. In this Joint ESTRO -AAPM Symposium, three leading-edge investigators will present specific motivations for quantitative imaging biomarkers in radiation therapy of esophageal, head and neck, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Experiences with the use of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI, diffusion- weighted (DW) MRI, PET/CT, and SPECT/CT will be presented. Issues covered will include: response prediction, dose-painting, timing between therapy and imaging, within-therapy biomarkers, confounding effects, normal tissue sparing, dose-response modeling, and association with clinical biomarkers and outcomes. Current information will be presented from investigational studies and clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Learn motivations for the use of quantitative imaging biomarkers for assessment of response to radiation therapy Review the potential areas of application in cancer therapy Examine the challenges for translation, including imaging confounds and paucity of evidence to date Compare exemplary examples of the current state of the art in DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging for assessment of response to radiation therapy Van der Heide: Research grants from the Dutch Cancer Society and the European Union (FP7) Bowen: RSNA Scholar grant

  6. MO-DE-303-03: Session on quantitative imaging for assessment of tumor response to radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, S. [University of Washington, School of Medicine: PET/CT and SPECT/CT for Lung and Liver Radiation Therapy Response Assessment of Tumor and Normal Tissue (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This session will focus on quantitative imaging for assessment of tumor response to radiation therapy. This is a technically challenging method to translate to practice in radiation therapy. In the new era of precision medicine, however, delivering the right treatment, to the right patient, and at the right time, can positively impact treatment choices and patient outcomes. Quantitative imaging provides the spatial sensitivity required by radiation therapy for precision medicine that is not available by other means. In this Joint ESTRO -AAPM Symposium, three leading-edge investigators will present specific motivations for quantitative imaging biomarkers in radiation therapy of esophageal, head and neck, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Experiences with the use of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI, diffusion- weighted (DW) MRI, PET/CT, and SPECT/CT will be presented. Issues covered will include: response prediction, dose-painting, timing between therapy and imaging, within-therapy biomarkers, confounding effects, normal tissue sparing, dose-response modeling, and association with clinical biomarkers and outcomes. Current information will be presented from investigational studies and clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Learn motivations for the use of quantitative imaging biomarkers for assessment of response to radiation therapy Review the potential areas of application in cancer therapy Examine the challenges for translation, including imaging confounds and paucity of evidence to date Compare exemplary examples of the current state of the art in DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging for assessment of response to radiation therapy Van der Heide: Research grants from the Dutch Cancer Society and the European Union (FP7) Bowen: RSNA Scholar grant.

  7. Towards quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes: Insights from Australian marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Prue F E; Flander, Louisa B; Cook, Carly N

    2017-08-01

    Protected area management effectiveness (PAME) evaluation is increasingly undertaken to evaluate governance, assess conservation outcomes and inform evidence-based management of protected areas (PAs). Within PAME, quantitative approaches to assess biodiversity outcomes are now emerging, where biological monitoring data are directly assessed against quantitative (numerically defined) condition categories (termed quantitative condition assessments). However, more commonly qualitative condition assessments are employed in PAME, which use descriptive condition categories and are evaluated largely with expert judgement that can be subject to a range of biases, such as linguistic uncertainty and overconfidence. Despite the benefits of increased transparency and repeatability of evaluations, quantitative condition assessments are rarely used in PAME. To understand why, we interviewed practitioners from all Australian marine protected area (MPA) networks, which have access to long-term biological monitoring data and are developing or conducting PAME evaluations. Our research revealed that there is a desire within management agencies to implement quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes in Australian MPAs. However, practitioners report many challenges in transitioning from undertaking qualitative to quantitative condition assessments of biodiversity outcomes, which are hampering progress. Challenges include a lack of agency capacity (staff numbers and money), knowledge gaps, and diminishing public and political support for PAs. We point to opportunities to target strategies that will assist agencies overcome these challenges, including new decision support tools, approaches to better finance conservation efforts, and to promote more management relevant science. While a single solution is unlikely to achieve full evidence-based conservation, we suggest ways for agencies to target strategies and advance PAME evaluations toward best practice. Copyright

  8. The differentiation of benign from malignant soft tissue lesions using FDG-PET: comparison between semi-quantitative indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Choe, Yearn Seong; Choi, Yong; Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Byung Tae; Seo, Jae Gon

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of various quantitative indices for the differentiation of benign from malignant primary soft tissue tumors by FDG-EPT. A series of 32 patients with a variety of histologically or clinically confirmed benign (20) or malignant (12) soft tissue lesions were evaluated with emission whole body (5min/bed position) PET after injection of [ 18 F]FDG. Regional 20min transmission scan for the attenuation correction and calculation of SUV was performed in 16 patients (10 benign, 6 malignnant) followed by dynamic acquisition for 56 min. Postinjection transmission scan for the attenuation correction and calculation of SUV was executed in the other 16 patients (10 benign, 6 malignant ). The following indices were obtained: the peak and average SUV (pSUV, aSUV) of lesions, tumor-to-background ratio acquired at images of 51 min p.i. (TBR 51 ), tumor-to-background ratio of areas under time-activity curves (TBR area ) and the ratio between the activities of tumor ROI at 51 min p.i. and at the time which background ROI reaches maximum activity on the time-activity curves (T 51 /T max ). The pSUV, aSUV, TBR 51 , and TBR area in malignant lesions were significantly higher than those in benign lesions. We set the cut-off values of pSUV, aSUV, TBR 51 , TBR area and T 51 /max for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions at 3.5, 2.8, 5.1, 4.3 and 1.55, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 91.7%, 80.0%, 84.4% by pSUV and aSUV, 83.3%, 85.0%, 84.4% by TBR 51 , 83.3%, 100%, 93.8% by TBR area and 66.7%, 70.0%, 68.8% by T 51 /T max . The time-activity curves did not give additional information compared to SUV or TBR. The one false negative was a case with low-grade fibrosarcoma and all four false positives were cases with inflammatory change on histology. The visual analysis of FDG-PET also detected the metastatic lesions in malignant cases with comparable accuracy. In conclusion, all pSUV, a

  9. Histologic assessment of peritumoral edema in soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lawrence M.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Catton, Charles; Ferguson, Peter; Blackstein, Martin; Kandel, Rita A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether satellite tumor cells can be identified histologically in the tissues surrounding a soft tissue sarcoma and whether their presence correlates with increased T 2 -weighted signal intensity on MRI. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with a high-grade extremity or truncal soft tissue sarcoma underwent preoperative MRI. The extent of high T 2 -weighted signal changes in the tissues surrounding tumor, thought to represent peritumoral edema/reactive changes, was determined. Twelve patients received i.v. gadolinium, and contrast enhancement was determined. All patients underwent surgical resection in the absence of preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The presence of tumor cells in the surrounding tissues was determined histologically in representative paraffin-embedded sections and correlated with the MRI findings. Results: The extent of peritumoral T 2 -weighted MRI signal changes ranged from 0 to 7.1 cm (mean, 2.5 cm); contrast enhancement ranged from 0 to 5.3 cm (mean, 1.1 cm). Sarcoma cells were identified histologically in the tissues beyond the tumor in 10 of 15 cases. In 6 cases, tumor cells were located within 1 cm of the tumor margin, and in 4 cases, malignant cells were found at a distance >1 cm and up to a maximum of 4 cm. The location of tumor cells beyond the margin did not correlate with tumor size nor did it correlate with the location or extent of peritumoral changes. Conclusion: The ability to identify tumor cells beyond the margin of a soft tissue sarcoma has important implications in planning appropriate targets for treatment. This could influence the use of new radiotherapy technologies such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy that aim to minimize treatment volumes through conformal planning

  10. The Assessment of Structural Changes in MS Plaques and Normal Appearing White Matter Using Quantitative Magnetization Transfer Imaging (MTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Fooladi

    2007-12-01

    breakdown in the macromolecular structure of MS lesions. There was also a significant difference in MTR histogram parameters between the patients and control groups, accompanied by a total shift of NAWM-MTR histogram to the left. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on theobtained result itcan be stated that MS has a diffused nature and the white matter abnormalities occurring outside T2-visible lesions affect the whole brain tissue. Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging can be used as a reliable method to assess both the overall disease burden and the intrinsic nature of the individual lesions in MS patients

  11. Automated Tissue Classification Framework for Reproducible Chronic Wound Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to develop a computer assisted tissue classification (granulation, necrotic, and slough scheme for chronic wound (CW evaluation using medical image processing and statistical machine learning techniques. The red-green-blue (RGB wound images grabbed by normal digital camera were first transformed into HSI (hue, saturation, and intensity color space and subsequently the “S” component of HSI color channels was selected as it provided higher contrast. Wound areas from 6 different types of CW were segmented from whole images using fuzzy divergence based thresholding by minimizing edge ambiguity. A set of color and textural features describing granulation, necrotic, and slough tissues in the segmented wound area were extracted using various mathematical techniques. Finally, statistical learning algorithms, namely, Bayesian classification and support vector machine (SVM, were trained and tested for wound tissue classification in different CW images. The performance of the wound area segmentation protocol was further validated by ground truth images labeled by clinical experts. It was observed that SVM with 3rd order polynomial kernel provided the highest accuracies, that is, 86.94%, 90.47%, and 75.53%, for classifying granulation, slough, and necrotic tissues, respectively. The proposed automated tissue classification technique achieved the highest overall accuracy, that is, 87.61%, with highest kappa statistic value (0.793.

  12. Assessment of quantitative FDG PET data in primary colorectal tumours: which parameters are important with respect to tumour detection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Ludwig G.; Pan, Leyun; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Klippel, Sven; Schoenleben, Klaus; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    The impact of quantitative parameters on the differentiation of primary colorectal tumours from normal colon tissue was assessed. Dynamic PET data (DPET) were acquired, and compartment and non-compartment modelling applied. The discriminant power of single parameters and the combination of PET parameters was assessed. All lesions were confirmed by histology. FDG DPET studies were acquired in 22 patients with colorectal tumours prior to surgery. Five of these patients also had liver metastases at the time of the PET study. The SUV 56-60 min p.i. was included in the evaluation. A two-tissue compartment model was applied and the parameters k 1 -k 4 as well as the fractional blood volume (V B ) were obtained. The FDG influx was calculated from the compartment data. Non-compartment modelling was used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) of the time-activity data. FD, SUV, influx and k 3 were the most important single parameters for lesion differentiation. The highest accuracy was achieved for FD (88.78%). The overall tracer uptake was mainly dependent on k 3 and not on k 1 or V B . The support vector machines (SVM) algorithm was used to predict the classification based on the combination of individual PET parameters. The overall accuracy was 97.3%, with only one false positive case and no false negative results. The analysis of the subgroup of five patients with primary tumours and synchronous metastases revealed no significant differences for the individual PET parameters. However, V B tended to be lower while k 1 and k 2 were higher in patients with synchronous metastases. The SVM classification analysis predicted the presence of metastases based on the PET data of the primary tumour in three of five patients. Quantitative FDG PET studies provide very accurate data for the differentiation of primary colorectal tumours from normal tissue. The use of quantitative data has the advantage that the detection of a colorectal tumour is not primarily dependent on the

  13. Quantitative analysis of rat adipose tissue cell recovery, and non-fat cell volume, in primary cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Rotondo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown. Experimental Design Epididymal WAT of four young adult rats was used to isolate adipocytes with collagenase. Careful recording of lipid content of tissue, and all fraction volumes and weights, allowed us to trace the amount of initial WAT fat remaining in the cell preparation. Functionality was estimated by incubation with glucose and measurement of glucose uptake and lactate, glycerol and NEFA excretion rates up to 48 h. Non-adipocyte cells were also recovered and their sizes (and those of adipocytes were measured. The presence of non-nucleated cells (erythrocytes was also estimated. Results Cell numbers and sizes were correlated from all fractions to intact WAT. Tracing the lipid content, the recovery of adipocytes in the final, metabolically active, preparation was in the range of 70–75%. Cells showed even higher metabolic activity in the second than in the first day of incubation. Adipocytes were 7%, erythrocytes 66% and other stromal (nucleated cells 27% of total WAT cells. However, their overall volumes were 90%, 0.05%, and 0.2% of WAT. Non-fat volume of adipocytes was 1.3% of WAT. Conclusions The methodology presented here allows for a direct quantitative reference to the original tissue of studies using isolated cells. We have also found that the “live cell mass” of adipose tissue is very small: about 13 µL/g for adipocytes and 2 µL/g stromal, plus about 1 µL/g blood (the rats were killed by exsanguination. These data translate (with

  14. A Bayesian belief nets based quantitative software reliability assessment for PSA: COTS case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Sung, T. Y.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K

    2002-03-01

    Current reliability assessments of safety critical software embedded in the digital systems in nuclear power plants are based on the rule-based qualitative assessment methods. Then recently practical needs require the quantitative features of software reliability for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) that is one of important methods being used in assessing the whole safety of nuclear power plant. But conventional quantitative software reliability assessment methods are not enough to get the necessary results in assessing the safety critical software used in nuclear power plants. Thus, current reliability assessment methods for these digital systems exclude the software part or use arbitrary values for the software reliability in the assessment. This reports discusses a Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) based quantification method that models current qualitative software assessment in formal way and produces quantitative results required for PSA. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software dedication process that KAERI developed was applied to the discussed BBN based method for evaluating the plausibility of the proposed method in PSA

  15. Quantitative assessment of multi-isocentric radiosurgical irradiation based on the f factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefkopoulos, D.; Schlienger, M.; Hancilar, T.; Keraudy, K.; Touboul, E.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate quantitatively the stereotactic irradiations, we defined a DVH parameter (f) resulting from the lesion underdosage and healthy tissues overdosage curves. The Lesion Underdose Factor (LUF) is the ratio of the lesion volume receiving dose inferior to a reference isodose to the lesion volume. The Healthy Tissue Overdose Factor HTOF quantitates the amount of tissue external to the lesion receiving dose equal to or greater than a given reference isodose relatively to the lesion volume. The LUF and HTOF curves represent the variation of the LUF and HTOF factors as a function of the reference isodose. The f factor is the surface situated below the intersection of the two curves. The optimization goal of the planification procedure could consist in the minimization of f. We have correlated them with clinical results (obliteration of the nidus) of a series of 34 multi-isocenters AVMs linac irradiation. The treatment dose protocol was a peripheral dose of 20 - 25 Gy (50 to 70% isodose range). According to this preliminary study, it seems that f factor provides clinically useful quantitative indices for the treatment plan evaluation. The choice of the optimal treatment plan and reference isodose is realized as follows. For a same patient different treatment plans are calculated by successive modifications of the irradiation parameters, as the number of isocenters, the distances between isocenters, the collimators diameter, the number of arcs and their angular length etc. The choice of optimal treatment plan is based on a clinically validated quantitative factor such as the f factor. According to our preliminary results one should select the treatment plan corresponding to the smallest value of f. The choice of the optimal reference isodose is based on the clinical data (lesion volume and topography, adjacent critical structures) and the LUF and HTOF factors following a well-defined protocol

  16. Determination of glutamate dehydrogenase activity and its kinetics in mouse tissues using metabolic mapping (quantitative enzyme histochemistry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botman, Dennis; Tigchelaar, Wikky; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2014-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyses the reversible conversion of glutamate into α-ketoglutarate with the concomitant reduction of NAD(P)(+) to NAD(P)H or vice versa. GDH activity is subject to complex allosteric regulation including substrate inhibition. To determine GDH kinetics in situ, we assessed the effects of various glutamate concentrations in combination with either the coenzyme NAD(+) or NADP(+) on GDH activity in mouse liver cryostat sections using metabolic mapping. NAD(+)-dependent GDH V(max) was 2.5-fold higher than NADP(+)-dependent V(max), whereas the K(m) was similar, 1.92 mM versus 1.66 mM, when NAD(+) or NADP(+) was used, respectively. With either coenzyme, V(max) was determined at 10 mM glutamate and substrate inhibition was observed at higher glutamate concentrations with a K(i) of 12.2 and 3.95 for NAD(+) and NADP(+) used as coenzyme, respectively. NAD(+)- and NADP(+)-dependent GDH activities were examined in various mouse tissues. GDH activity was highest in liver and much lower in other tissues. In all tissues, the highest activity was found when NAD(+) was used as a coenzyme. In conclusion, GDH activity in mice is highest in the liver with NAD(+) as a coenzyme and highest GDH activity was determined at a glutamate concentration of 10 mM. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Assessing College Students’ Quantitative and Scientific Reasoning: The James Madison University Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hathcoat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and scientific reasoning is a critical student learning outcome in higher education. Data are presented for large samples of undergraduate students who were assessed as entering freshmen and then again after completing 45-70 credit hours. Results are presented around four key issues that are central to educational assessment. First, entering freshmen with transfer credits for quantitative and scientific reasoning courses that fulfill general education requirements, on average, score similar to entering freshmen without such credit. About 97% of entering freshmen who had transfer credits received their credits through dual enrollment programs. As a sophomore-junior, students who had completed their general education requirements performed similar to students who had started, but not yet finished these requirements. Second, small to moderate correlations were observed between grade-point averages in relevant general education coursework and quantitative and scientific reasoning. Third, students’ quantitative and scientific reasoning, on average, increases from freshmen to sophomore/junior years. Finally, the proportion of students who meet faculty-set standards substantially increases from pre-test to post-test. Taken together, results suggest that changes in quantitative and scientific reasoning are a function of relevant courses. Additional research is needed to examine the role of lower-level versus higher-level courses in student performance. Results also indicate a need to investigate how differences in the quality of dual enrollment courses facilitate quantitative and scientific reasoning.

  18. Quantitative analysis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEGylated proteins in animal tissues by LC-MS/MS coupled with in-source CID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiachang; Gu, Xiaomei; Achanzar, William E; Chadwick, Kristina D; Gan, Jinping; Brock, Barry J; Kishnani, Narendra S; Humphreys, W Griff; Iyer, Ramaswamy A

    2014-08-05

    The covalent conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG, typical MW > 10k) to therapeutic peptides and proteins is a well-established approach to improve their pharmacokinetic properties and diminish the potential for immunogenicity. Even though PEG is generally considered biologically inert and safe in animals and humans, the slow clearance of large PEGs raises concerns about potential adverse effects resulting from PEG accumulation in tissues following chronic administration, particularly in the central nervous system. The key information relevant to the issue is the disposition and fate of the PEG moiety after repeated dosing with PEGylated proteins. Here, we report a novel quantitative method utilizing LC-MS/MS coupled with in-source CID that is highly selective and sensitive to PEG-related materials. Both (40K)PEG and a tool PEGylated protein (ATI-1072) underwent dissociation in the ionization source of mass spectrometer to generate a series of PEG-specific ions, which were subjected to further dissociation through conventional CID. To demonstrate the potential application of the method to assess PEG biodistribution following PEGylated protein administration, a single dose study of ATI-1072 was conducted in rats. Plasma and various tissues were collected, and the concentrations of both (40K)PEG and ATI-1072 were determined using the LC-MS/MS method. The presence of (40k)PEG in plasma and tissue homogenates suggests the degradation of PEGylated proteins after dose administration to rats, given that free PEG was absent in the dosing solution. The method enables further studies for a thorough characterization of disposition and fate of PEGylated proteins.

  19. In-vivo nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) of epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) reveals quantitative measures of neoplasia in hamster oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Ortiz, Daniel; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) plays an integral role in epithelial neoplasia, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This interface undergoes significant alterations due to hyperproliferating epithelium that supports the transformation of normal epithelium to precancers and cancer. We present a method based on nonlinear optical microscopy to directly assess the ECTI and quantify dysplastic alterations using a hamster model for oral carcinogenesis. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic normal mucosa were imaged in-vivo by both multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) to obtain cross-sectional reconstructions of the oral epithelium and lamina propria. Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histopathological grading and measurement of ECTI parameters. An ECTI shape parameter was calculated based on deviation from the linear geometry (ΔLinearity) seen in normal mucosa was measured using MPAM-SHGM and histology. The ECTI was readily visible in MPAM-SHGM and quantitative shape analysis showed ECTI deformation in dysplasia but not in normal mucosa. ΔLinearity was significantly (p tissue with 87.9% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity, while calculations from histology provided 96.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. Among other quantifiable architectural changes, a progressive statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness was seen with increasing grade of dysplasia. MPAM-SHGM provides new noninvasive ways for direct characterization of ECTI which may be used in preclinical studies to investigate the role of this interface in early transformation. Further development of the method may also lead to new diagnostic approaches to differentiate non-neoplastic tissue from precancers and neoplasia, possibly with other cellular and layer based indicators of abnormality.

  20. A qualitative and quantitative assessment for a bone marrow harvest simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Liliane S; Moraes, Ronei M

    2009-01-01

    Several approaches to perform assessment in training simulators based on virtual reality have been proposed. There are two kinds of assessment methods: offline and online. The main requirements related to online training assessment methodologies applied to virtual reality systems are the low computational complexity and the high accuracy. In the literature it can be found several approaches for general cases which can satisfy such requirements. An inconvenient about those approaches is related to an unsatisfactory solution for specific cases, as in some medical procedures, where there are quantitative and qualitative information available to perform the assessment. In this paper, we present an approach to online training assessment based on a Modified Naive Bayes which can manipulate qualitative and quantitative variables simultaneously. A special medical case was simulated in a bone marrow harvest simulator. The results obtained were satisfactory and evidenced the applicability of the method.

  1. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N

    2013-01-01

    a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein...... conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all...... protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows...

  2. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level

  3. The value of quantitative methods for assessment of renal transplant and comparison with physician expertness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firouzi, F.; Fazeli, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radionuclide renal diagnostic studies play an important role in assessing renal allograft. Various quantitative parameters have been derived from the Radionuclide renogram to facilitate and confirm the changes in perfusion and/or function of kidney allograft. These quantitative methods were divided into parameters used for assessing renal graft perfusion and parameters used for evaluating parenchymal function. The blood flow in renal transplants can be quantified by measuring the rate of activity appearance in the kidney graft and the ratio of the integral activity under the transplanted kidney and arterial curves e.g. Hilton's perfusion index and Karachi's kidney/aortic ratio. Quantitative evaluation of graft extraction and excretion was assessed by parameters derived from 123 I/ 131 I-OH, 99 mTc-DTPA or 99 mTc-Mag renogram. In this study we review retrospectively renal transplanted patients scintigraphies that all of them under gone to renal allograft needle biopsy nearly to date of allograft scan. We performed quantitative methods for all patients. We observed perfusion parameters affected by quality of bolus injection and numerical aviations related to changes in the site and size of region of interest. Quantitative methods for renal parenchymal functions were nonspecific and far from defining a specific cause of graft dysfunction. In conclusion, neither perfusion nor parenchymal parameters have not enough diagnostic power for specific diagnosis of graft dysfunction. Physician expertness by using scintigraphic images and renogram curves is more sensitive and specific for diagnosis of renal allograft dysfunction

  4. Assessment of DNA quality in processed tuna muscle tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Piskatá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Authentication of tuna fish products is necessary to assure consumers of accurate labelling of food products. The quality of species specific DNA crucially affects the efficiency of amplification during the subsequent PCR. The problem in DNA detection in canned products lies in the possibility of the fragmentation of DNA during the processing technologies and the use of ingredients (oil, salt, spice, that may inhibit the PCR reaction. In this study three DNA extraction methods were compared: DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, DNeasy mericon Food Kit and Chemagic DNA tissue 10 Kit. The quantity and quality of DNA were evaluated by measuring DNA concentration and ratios A260/A280. Several parameters were estimated: the effect of whole and mechanically treated muscle, sterilization procedure used in canned process (high temperature in combination with high pressure and addition of raw materials. The highest DNA concentrations were observed in non-processed muscle that is not influenced by the sterilization process. Canned whole muscle demonstrated lower DNA yield, and furthermore, the mechanical treatment (canned ground resulted in lower values of DNA concentration that was registered by using all three types of DNA extraction kits. DNeasy mericon Food Kit produced DNA of higher concentration in non-processed sample, Chemagic DNA tissue 10 Kit delivered higher DNA yields than kits DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit and DNeasy mericon Food Kit in canned samples, although the purity was lower, but still within the range 1.7 - 2.0. DNA was considered to be satisfactorily pure in all three types of samples and using all three types of DNA isolation. In case of the samples enriched of ingredients and treated with sterilization process as whole or ground muscle Chemagic DNA tissue 10 Kit produced in all samples (whole and ground muscle the highest values of DNA concentration, but almost all values of A260/A280 were lower than 1.7. Therefore DNeasy mericon Food Kit

  5. Genetic toxicology at the crossroads-from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul A; Johnson, George E

    2016-05-01

    Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA). A host of pertinent issues were discussed relating to the use of in vitro and in vivo dose-response data, the development of methods for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and approaches to use in vivo dose-response data to determine human exposure limits for regulatory evaluations and decision-making. This Special Issue, which was inspired by the workshop, contains a series of papers that collectively address topics related to the aforementioned themes. The Issue includes contributions that collectively evaluate, describe and discuss in silico, in vitro, in vivo and statistical approaches that are facilitating the shift from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment. The use and application of the benchmark dose approach was a central theme in many of the workshop presentations and discussions, and the Special Issue includes several contributions that outline novel applications for the analysis and interpretation of genetic toxicity data. Although the contents of the Special Issue constitutes an important step towards the adoption of quantitative methods for regulatory assessment of genetic toxicity, formal acceptance of quantitative methods for HHRA and regulatory decision-making will require consensus regarding the

  6. Quantitative and qualitative differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue stores across lipodystrophy types shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Attar, Salam A; Pollex, Rebecca L; Robinson, John F; Miskie, Brooke A; Walcarius, Rhonda; Little, Cynthia Harper; Rutt, Brian K; Hegele, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Lipodystrophies are characterized by redistributed subcutaneous fat stores. We previously quantified subcutaneous fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the legs of two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy subtypes 2 and 3 (FPLD2 and FPLD3, respectively). We now extend the MRI analysis across the whole body of patients with different forms of lipodystrophy. We studied five subcutaneous fat stores (supraclavicular, abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf) and the abdominal visceral fat stores in 10, 2, 1, 1 and 2 female subjects with, respectively, FPLD2, FPLD3, HIV-related partial lipodystrophy (HIVPL), acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL), congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and in six normal control subjects. Compared with normal controls, FPLD2 subjects had significantly increased supraclavicular fat, with decreased abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf subcutaneous fat. FPLD3 subjects had increased supraclavicular and abdominal subcutaneous fat, with less severe reductions in gluteal, thigh and calf fat compared to FPLD2 subjects. The repartitioning of fat in the HIVPL subject closely resembled that of FPLD3 subjects. APL and CGL subjects had reduced upper body, gluteal and thigh subcutaneous fat; the APL subject had increased, while CGL subjects had decreased subcutaneous calf fat. Visceral fat was markedly increased in FPLD2 and APL subjects. Semi-automated MRI-based adipose tissue quantification indicates differences between various lipodystrophy types in these studied clinical cases and is a potentially useful tool for extended quantitative phenomic analysis of genetic metabolic disorders. Further studies with a larger sample size are essential for confirming these preliminary findings

  7. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Assays in Aortic Tissue of Syrian Hamsters with Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Martínez, Carmen; Fernández, M Carmen; Soto-Navarrete, María Teresa; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Fernández, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation in humans, and appears frequently associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta. This association is likely the result of a common aetiology. Currently, a Syrian hamster strain with a relatively high (∼40%) incidence of BAV constitutes the only spontaneous animal model of BAV disease. The characterization of molecular alterations in the aorta of hamsters with BAV may serve to identify pathophysiological mechanisms and molecular markers of disease in humans. In this report, we evaluate the expression of ten candidate reference genes in aortic tissue of hamsters in order to identify housekeeping genes for normalization using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) assays. A total of 51 adult (180-240 days old) and 56 old (300-440 days old) animals were used. They belonged to a control strain of hamsters with normal, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV; n = 30), or to the affected strain of hamsters with TAV (n = 45) or BAV (n = 32). The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by RT-qPCR using three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable reference genes for the three algorithms employed were Cdkn1β, G3pdh and Polr2a. We propose the use of Cdkn1β, or both Cdkn1β and G3pdh as reference genes for mRNA expression analyses in Syrian hamster aorta.

  8. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Assays in Aortic Tissue of Syrian Hamsters with Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rueda-Martínez

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation in humans, and appears frequently associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta. This association is likely the result of a common aetiology. Currently, a Syrian hamster strain with a relatively high (∼40% incidence of BAV constitutes the only spontaneous animal model of BAV disease. The characterization of molecular alterations in the aorta of hamsters with BAV may serve to identify pathophysiological mechanisms and molecular markers of disease in humans. In this report, we evaluate the expression of ten candidate reference genes in aortic tissue of hamsters in order to identify housekeeping genes for normalization using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR assays. A total of 51 adult (180-240 days old and 56 old (300-440 days old animals were used. They belonged to a control strain of hamsters with normal, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV; n = 30, or to the affected strain of hamsters with TAV (n = 45 or BAV (n = 32. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by RT-qPCR using three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable reference genes for the three algorithms employed were Cdkn1β, G3pdh and Polr2a. We propose the use of Cdkn1β, or both Cdkn1β and G3pdh as reference genes for mRNA expression analyses in Syrian hamster aorta.

  9. Canine serum C-reactive protein as a quantitative marker of the inflammatory stimulus of aseptic elective soft tissue surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Strom, Henriette; Mikkelsen, Lars F; Eriksen, Thomas; Jensen, Asger L; Luntang-Jensen, Michael

    2013-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established serum marker for the presence of systemic inflammation in dogs. Results from previous experimental and clinical studies suggest that CRP concentrations also quantitatively reflect the degree and progress of an inflammatory process, suggesting its use for inflammation monitoring. The objective was to investigate whether the canine CRP response in serum correlates with the amount of trauma and the consequent inflammatory response after 3 standard aseptic soft-tissue surgical procedures in 3 groups of dogs. A total of 24 client-owned intact female dogs of various breeds were enrolled in a clinical study with random allocation into 2 surgical groups, for either conventional, open-approach ovariohysterectomy (OVH; n = 14) or laparoscopic assisted OVH (n = 10). In addition, a group of 8 male Beagles from a laboratory animal facility underwent vasectomy, serving as the third and mildest surgical trauma group. Serum CRP was measured pre- and at 4, 8, 12, 23, and 27 hours postsurgery. Cumulative concentration over time and point concentrations of CRP were correlated with the surgical trauma impact level. There was a significant surgery trauma-related difference in cumulative CRP concentrations among the 3 groups, and also in the 12 hours postsurgery concentration. The CRP response varied according to the degree of surgical trauma on 3 standardized levels, thus supporting the use of canine serum concentrations of CRP as an inflammatory activity indicator and monitoring marker. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Assessing agreement between preclinical magnetic resonance imaging and histology: An evaluation of their image qualities and quantitative results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Cindy; Korn, Paula; Hauptstock, Maria; Schulz, Matthias C.; Range, Ursula; Jünger, Diana; Scheler, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    One consequence of demographic change is the increasing demand for biocompatible materials for use in implants and prostheses. This is accompanied by a growing number of experimental animals because the interactions between new biomaterials and its host tissue have to be investigated. To evaluate novel materials and engineered tissues the use of non-destructive imaging modalities have been identified as a strategic priority. This provides the opportunity for studying interactions repeatedly with individual animals, along with the advantages of reduced biological variability and decreased number of laboratory animals. However, histological techniques are still the golden standard in preclinical biomaterial research. The present article demonstrates a detailed method comparison between histology and magnetic resonance imaging. This includes the presentation of their image qualities as well as the detailed statistical analysis for assessing agreement between quantitative measures. Exemplarily, the bony ingrowth of tissue engineered bone substitutes for treatment of a cleft-like maxillary bone defect has been evaluated. By using a graphical concordance analysis the mean difference between MRI results and histomorphometrical measures has been examined. The analysis revealed a slightly but significant bias in the case of the bone volume (biasHisto−MRI:Bone volume=2.40 %, p<0.005) and a clearly significant deviation for the remaining defect width (biasHisto−MRI:Defect width=−6.73 %, p≪0.005). But the study although showed a considerable effect of the analyzed section position to the quantitative result. It could be proven, that the bias of the data sets was less originated due to the imaging modalities, but mainly on the evaluation of different slice positions. The article demonstrated that method comparisons not always need the use of an independent animal study, additionally. PMID:28666026

  11. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden.…

  12. A Quantitative Needs Assessment Technique for Cross-Cultural Work Adjustment Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, Lyn

    2000-01-01

    A study of 67 Swedish expatriate bosses and 104 local Hong Kong middle managers tested a quantitative needs assessment technique measuring work values. Two-thirds of middle managers' work values were not correctly estimated by their bosses, especially instrumental values (pay, benefits, security, working hours and conditions), indicating a need…

  13. Anatomic and Quantitative Temporal Bone CT for Preoperative Assessment of Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, D T; Ferro, L; Gluth, M B

    2016-12-01

    We describe the temporal bone computed tomography (CT) findings of an unusual case of branchio-oto-renal syndrome with ectopic ossicles that are partially located in the middle cranial fossa. We also describe quantitative temporal bone CT assessment pertaining to cochlear implantation in the setting of anomalous cochlear anatomy associated with this syndrome.

  14. Quantitative Approach to Collaborative Learning: Performance Prediction, Individual Assessment, and Group Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…

  15. A spatially explicit and quantitative vulnerability assessment of ecosystem service change in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, M.J.; Schröter, D.; Leemans, R.; Cramer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental change alters ecosystem functioning and may put the provision of services to human at risk. This paper presents a spatially explicit and quantitative assessment of the corresponding vulnerability for Europe, using a new framework designed to answer multidisciplinary policy relevant

  16. A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinet, C.; Kehlenbeck, H.; Werf, van der W.

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of the EU project PRATIQUE (KBBE-2007-212459 Enhancements of pest risk analysis techniques) a suite of models was developed to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis. This dataset contains the model codes (R language) for the four models in the suite. Three

  17. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: An application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the

  18. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: an application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the

  19. Development, validation and implementation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess habitual vitamin D intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Collins, A.; Lucey, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A well-designed, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) could offer an efficient and cost-effective method for assessing habitual vitamin D intake. The present study aimed to describe the development, validation and implementation of a vitamin D FFQ. Methods National...

  20. The additive prognostic value of perfusion and functional data assessed by quantitative gated SPECT in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.G.C.J. America (Yves); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); H. Boersma (Eric); M. Stokkel (Marcel); E.E. van der Wall (Ernst)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated SPECT imaging in women using quantitative gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Methods: We followed 453 consecutive female patients. Average follow-up was

  1. Quantitative MR imaging of intra-orbital structures: Tissue-specific measurements and age dependency compared to extra-orbital structures using multispectral quantitative MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Memi; Buch, Karen; Fujita, Akifumi; Jara, Hernán; Qureshi, Muhammad Mustafa; Sakai, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    The orbit can be affected by unique pathologic conditions and often requires MRI evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in multiple intra-orbital structures using quantitative MRI (qMRI). Thirty-eight subjects (20 males, 18 females; ages 0.5-87 years) underwent MRI with a mixed turbo spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 measurements were obtained within ROI in 6 intra-orbital structures (medial and lateral rectus muscles, medial and lateral retrobulbar fat, lacrimal gland, and optic nerve), and compared with those of corresponding extra-orbital structures (masseter muscle, subcutaneous cheek fat, buccal fat, parotid gland, and frontal white matter). Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. T1 and T2 values of the extra-ocular muscles increased with age, with higher T1 and T2 values compared to the masseter muscles. Retrobulbar fat showed significant age-associated increases in T1 values in the lateral side and in T2 values in both sides. T1 and T2 values in the lacrimal gland increased with age, while the parotid gland showed an age-associated increase in T2 values and decrease in T1 values. Optic nerves demonstrated age-related changes, similar to that of frontal white matter; rapid decreases with age in T1 and T2 times in early stages of life, and slight increases in T1 and T2 times later in life. Intra-orbital structures demonstrated specific qMRI measurements and aging patterns, which were different from extra-orbital structures. Location-specific age-related changes of intra-orbital structures should be considered in the qMRI assessment of the orbital pathology.

  2. Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial imaging in assessing right ventricular pressure in patients with congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovitch, M.; Fischer, K.C.; Treves, S.

    1981-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in patients with congenital heart defects to determine whether, by quantification of right ventricular isotope uptake, one could assess the degree of right ventricular hypertrophy and so predict the level of right ventricular pressure. It is shown that quantitative analysis of myocardial imaging with thallium-201 is of use clinically in patients with congenital heart defects, in assessing the severity of pulmonary stenosis or the presence of pulmonary artery hypertension. (author)

  3. EFFICIENT QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JUMP PROCESSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic framework for efficient quantitative risk assessment from the simplest general risk, combining three parameters (contamination, exposure, and dose response) in a Kataoka safety-first model and a Poisson probability representing the uncertainty effect or jump processes associated with food safety. Analysis indicates that incorporating jump processes in food safety risk assessment provides more efficient cost/risk tradeoffs. Nevertheless, increased margin of safety...

  4. Quantitative assessment of exposure and risk for three carcinogenics in long-standing pollution sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.; Wuppertal Univ.; Ihme, W.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Wuppertal Univ.

    1993-01-01

    The project attempts a quantitative assessment of risks for three carcinogenics that are common in sites of long-standing pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene stands for the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium for heavy metals, and benzene for volatile aromatic compounds. The report discusses the general fundamentals of exposure and risk assessment. The exposure model is described in detail and applied to the three test substances. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Simultaneous separation and quantitation of amino acids and polyamines of forest tree tissues and cell cultures within a single high-performance liquid chromatography run using dansyl derivatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a rapid HPLC method for simultaneous separation and quantitation of dansylated amino acids and common polyamines in the same matrix for analyzing forest tree tissues and cell cultures. The major modifications incorporated into this method as compared to previously published HPLC methods for separation of only dansyl...

  6. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for technical performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunig, David L; McShane, Lisa M; Pennello, Gene; Gatsonis, Constantine; Carson, Paul L; Voyvodic, James T; Wahl, Richard L; Kurland, Brenda F; Schwarz, Adam J; Gönen, Mithat; Zahlmann, Gudrun; Kondratovich, Marina V; O'Donnell, Kevin; Petrick, Nicholas; Cole, Patricia E; Garra, Brian; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    Technological developments and greater rigor in the quantitative measurement of biological features in medical images have given rise to an increased interest in using quantitative imaging biomarkers to measure changes in these features. Critical to the performance of a quantitative imaging biomarker in preclinical or clinical settings are three primary metrology areas of interest: measurement linearity and bias, repeatability, and the ability to consistently reproduce equivalent results when conditions change, as would be expected in any clinical trial. Unfortunately, performance studies to date differ greatly in designs, analysis method, and metrics used to assess a quantitative imaging biomarker for clinical use. It is therefore difficult or not possible to integrate results from different studies or to use reported results to design studies. The Radiological Society of North America and the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance with technical, radiological, and statistical experts developed a set of technical performance analysis methods, metrics, and study designs that provide terminology, metrics, and methods consistent with widely accepted metrological standards. This document provides a consistent framework for the conduct and evaluation of quantitative imaging biomarker performance studies so that results from multiple studies can be compared, contrasted, or combined. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Quantitative Reasoning in Environmental Science: Rasch Measurement to Support QR Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Mayes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of middle and high school students to reason quantitatively within the context of environmental science was investigated. A quantitative reasoning (QR learning progression, with associated QR assessments in the content areas of biodiversity, water, and carbon, was developed based on three QR progress variables: quantification act, quantitative interpretation, and quantitative modeling. Diagnostic instruments were developed specifically for the progress variable quantitative interpretation (QI, each consisting of 96 Likert-scale items. Each content version of the instrument focused on three scale levels (macro scale, micro scale, and landscape scale and four elements of QI identified in prior research (trend, translation, prediction, and revision. The QI assessments were completed by 362, 6th to 12th grade students in three U.S. states. Rasch (1960/1980 measurement was used to determine item and person measures for the QI instruments, both to examine validity and reliability characteristics of the instrument administration and inform the evolution of the learning progression. Rasch methods allowed identification of several QI instrument revisions, including modification of specific items, reducing number of items to avoid cognitive fatigue, reconsidering proposed item difficulty levels, and reducing Likert scale to 4 levels. Rasch diagnostics also indicated favorable levels of instrument reliability and appropriate targeting of item abilities to student abilities for the majority of participants. A revised QI instrument is available for STEM researchers and educators.

  8. Rapid and Quantitative Assessment of Cancer Treatment Response Using In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assessment of orthotopic tumor models in animals utilizes survival as the primary therapeutic end point. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies [1 ]. Using human tumor cell lines constitutively expressing luciferase, the kinetics of tumor growth and response to therapy have been assessed in intraperitoneal [2], subcutaneous, and intravascular [3] cancer models. However, use of this approach for evaluating orthotopic tumor models has not been demonstrated. In this report, the ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth and therapeuticinduced cell kill of orthotopic rat brain tumors derived from 9L gliosarcoma cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase (9LLuc was investigated. Intracerebral tumor burden was monitored over time by quantitation of photon emission and tumor volume using a cryogenically cooled CCD camera and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, respectively. There was excellent correlation (r=0.91 between detected photons and tumor volume. A quantitative comparison of tumor cell kill determined from serial MRI volume measurements and BLI photon counts following 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU treatment revealed that both imaging modalities yielded statistically similar cell kill values (P=.951. These results provide direct validation of BLI imaging as a powerful and quantitative tool for the assessment of antineoplastic therapies in living animals.

  9. Comparison study on qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitative method is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitative method is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitative method proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Organ Fat Content by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, rapid and accurate tools for assessing abdominal body and organ fat quantity and distribution are critically needed to assist researchers investigating therapeutic and preventive measures against obesity and its comorbidities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most promising modality to address such need. It is non-invasive, utilizes no ionizing radiation, provides unmatched 3D visualization, is repeatable, and is applicable to subject cohorts of all ages. This article is aimed to provide the reader with an overview of current and state-of-the-art techniques in MRI and associated image analysis methods for fat quantification. The principles underlying traditional approaches such as T1-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as more modern chemical-shift imaging techniques are discussed and compared. The benefits of contiguous 3D acquisitions over 2D multi-slice approaches are highlighted. Typical post-processing procedures for extracting adipose tissue depot volumes and percent organ fat content from abdominal MRI data sets are explained. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each MRI approach with respect to imaging parameters, spatial resolution, subject motion, scan time, and appropriate fat quantitative endpoints are also provided. Practical considerations in implementing these methods are also presented. PMID:21348916

  11. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for assessing biochemical changes of cervical tissue associated with precarcinogenic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Mo, Jianhua; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-11-07

    Raman spectroscopy measures the inelastically scattered light from tissue that is capable of identifying native tissue biochemical constituents and their changes associated with disease transformation. This study aims to characterize the Raman spectroscopic properties of cervical tissue associated with the multi-stage progression of cervical precarcinogenic sequence. A rapid-acquisition fiber-optic near-infrared (NIR) Raman diagnostic system was employed for tissue Raman spectral measurements at 785 nm excitation. A total of 68 Raman spectra (23 benign, 29 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 16 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)) were measured from 25 cervical tissue biopsy specimens, as confirmed by colposcopy-histopathology. The semi-quantitative biochemical modeling based on the major biochemicals (i.e., DNA, proteins (histone, collagen), lipid (triolein) and carbohydrates (glycogen)) in cervical tissue uncovers the stepwise accumulation of biomolecular changes associated with progressive cervical precarcinogenesis. Multi-class partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one tissue site-out, cross-validation yielded the diagnostic sensitivities of 95.7%, 82.8% and 81.3%; specificities of 100.0%, 92.3% and 88.5%,for discrimination among benign, LSIL and HSIL cervical tissues, respectively. This work suggests that the Raman spectral biomarkers have identified the potential to be used for monitoring the multi-stage cervical precarcinogenesis, forming the foundation of applying NIR Raman spectroscopy for the early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at the molecular level.

  12. Quantitative PET Imaging of Tissue Factor Expression Using 18F-labled Active Site Inhibited Factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten H; Erlandsson, Maria; Jeppesen, Troels E

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is up regulated in many solid tumors and its expression is linked to tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and prognosis. A non-invasive assessment of tumor TF expression status is therefore of obvious clinical relevance. Factor VII (FVII) is the natural ligand to TF. Here we...... report the development of a new PET tracer for specific imaging of TF using an (18)F-labeled derivative of FVII. METHODS: Active site inhibited factor VIIa (FVIIai) was obtained by inactivation with phenylalanine-phenylalanine-arginine-chloromethyl ketone. FVIIai was radiolabeled with N-succinimidyl 4......-[(18)F]-fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) and purified. The corresponding product, [(18)F]FVIIai, was injected into nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic xenograft tumors (BxPC-3) and investigated using small animal PET/CT imaging 1, 2 and 4 hours after injection. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed...

  13. Quantitative risk assessment of continuous liquid spill fires based on spread and burning behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Huang, Hong; Li, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Spill fires usually occur during the storage and transportation of hazardous materials, posing a threat to the people and environment in their immediate proximity. In this paper, a classical Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) method is used to assess the risk of spill fires. In this method......, the maximum spread area and the steady burning area are introduced as parameters to clearly assess the range of influence of the spill fire. In the calculations, a modified spread model that takes into consideration the burning rate variation is established to calculate the maximum spread area. Furthermore......, large-scale experiments of spill fires on water and a glass sheet were conducted to verify the accuracy and application of the model. The results show that the procedure we developed can be used to quantitatively calculate the risk associated with a continuous spill fire....

  14. Data on the quantitative assessment pulmonary ground-glass opacification from coronary computed tomography angiography datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Kristensen, Thomas S; Thomsen, Anna F

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the CT attenuation density of the pulmonary tissue adjacent to the heart in patients with acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (J.T. Kuhl, T.S. Kristensen, A.F. Thomsen et al., 2016) [1]. This data was related to the level of ground-glass opacification evaluated by a r...

  15. Functional imaging and assessment of the glucose diffusion rate in epithelial tissues in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, K V; Tuchin, V V

    2008-01-01

    Functional imaging, monitoring and quantitative description of glucose diffusion in epithelial and underlying stromal tissues in vivo and controlling of the optical properties of tissues are extremely important for many biomedical applications including the development of noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensors as well as for therapy and diagnostics of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Recent progress in the development of a noninvasive molecular diffusion biosensor based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is described. The diffusion of glucose was studied in several epithelial tissues both in vitro and in vivo. Because OCT provides depth-resolved imaging of tissues with high in-depth resolution, the glucose diffusion is described not only as a function of time but also as a function of depth. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  16. [Histologic assessment of tissue healing of hyaline cartilage by use of semiquantitative evaluation scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasović, Andreja; Ivković, Alan; Jezek, Davor; Cerovecki, Ivan; Vnuk, Drazen; Kreszinger, Mario; Hudetz, Damir; Pećina, Marko

    2011-01-01

    samples were the errors in histologic preparation, for which some samples had to be discarded and significantly impaired the analytical quality of the others. Defects of structures surrounding the articular cartilage, e.g., subchondral bone or connective tissue, might also impair the quality of histologic analysis. Additional analyses, i.e. polarizing microscopy should be performed to determine the degree of integration of the newly formed tissue with the surrounding cartilage. The semiquantitative ICRS scale, although of great practical value, has limitations as to the objectivity of the assessment, taking into account the analytical ability of the evaluator, as well as the accuracy of semiquantitative analysis in comparison to the methods of quantitative analysis. Overall results of histologic analysis indicated that the application of TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot could have measurable clinical effects on articular cartilage repair. The ICRS visual histological assessment scale is a valuable analytical method for cartilage repair evaluation. In this respect, further analyses of the method value would be of great importance.

  17. Relationship between Plaque Echo, Thickness and Neovascularization Assessed by Quantitative and Semi-quantitative Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Different Stenosis Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Feng, Jun; Dang, Ying; Zhao, Chao; Zheng, Jie; Ruan, Litao

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plaque echo, thickness and neovascularization in different stenosis groups using quantitative and semi-quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in patients with carotid atherosclerosis plaque. A total of 224 plaques were divided into mild stenosis (Quantitative and semi-quantitative methods were used to assess plaque neovascularization and determine the relationship between plaque echo, thickness and neovascularization. Correlation analysis revealed no relationship of neovascularization with plaque echo in the groups using either quantitative or semi-quantitative methods. Furthermore, there was no correlation of neovascularization with plaque thickness using the semi-quantitative method. The ratio of areas under the curve (RAUC) was negatively correlated with plaque thickness (r = -0.317, p = 0.001) in the mild stenosis group. With the quartile method, plaque thickness of the mild stenosis group was divided into four groups, with significant differences between the 1.5-2.2 mm and ≥3.5 mm groups (p = 0.002), 2.3-2.8 mm and ≥3.5 mm groups (p quantitative and quantitative CEUS methods characterizing neovascularization of plaque are equivalent with respect to assessing relationships between neovascularization, echogenicity and thickness. However, the quantitative method could fail for plaque <3.5 mm because of motion artifacts. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact Assessment of Abiotic Resources in LCA: Quantitative Comparison of Selected Characterization Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbech, Jakob Thaysen; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Resources have received significant attention in recent years resulting in development of a wide range of resource depletion indicators within life cycle assessment (LCA). Understanding the differences in assessment principles used to derive these indicators and the effects on the impact assessment...... results is critical for indicator selection and interpretation of the results. Eleven resource depletion methods were evaluated quantitatively with respect to resource coverage, characterization factors (CF), impact contributions from individual resources, and total impact scores. We included 2247...... groups, according to method focus and modeling approach, to aid method selection within LCA....

  19. High-level expression of podoplanin in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors: immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjun; Ogose, Akira; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hotta, Tetsuo; Ariizumi, Takashi; Li, Guidong; Umezu, Hajime; Endo, Naoto

    2011-03-01

    Podoplanin is a 38 kDa mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that was first identified in rat glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes). It is expressed in normal lymphatic endothelium, but is absent from vascular endothelial cells. D2-40 is a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody which binds to an epitope on human podoplanin. D2-40 immunoreactivity is therefore highly sensitive and specific for lymphatic endothelium. Recent investigations have shown widespread applications of immunohistochemical staining with D2-40 in evaluating podoplanin expression as an immunohistochemical marker for diagnosis and prognosis in various tumors. To determine whether the podoplanin (D2-40) antibody may be useful for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, 125 cases, including 4 kinds of benign tumors, 15 kinds of malignant tumors and 3 kinds of tumor-like lesions were immunostained using the D2-40 antibody. Total RNA was extracted from frozen tumor tissue obtained from 41 corresponding soft tissue tumor patients and 12 kinds of soft tissue tumor cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR reactions were performed. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated the expression of the podoplanin protein and mRNA in the majority of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions examined, with the exception of alveolar soft part sarcoma, embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor and lipoma, which were completely negative for podoplanin. Since it is widely and highly expressed in nearly all kinds of soft tissue tumors, especially in spindle cell sarcoma, myxoid type soft tissue tumors and soft tissue tumors of the nervous system, podoplanin is considered to have little value in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors.

  20. 2008-09 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2008-09 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, Selenium, PBDEs, PCBs, Pesticides and PFCs.

  1. Quantitative assessment of oral orbicular muscle deformation after cleft lip reconstruction: an ultrasound elastography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Chris L; van Hees, Nancy; Lopata, Richard G P; Weijers, Gert; Katsaros, Christos; Thijssen, Johan M

    2009-08-01

    Reconstruction of a cleft lip leads inevitably to scar tissue formation. Scar tissue within the restored oral orbicular muscle might be assessed by quantification of the local contractility of this muscle. Furthermore, information about the contraction capability of the oral orbicular muscle is crucial for planning the revision surgery of an individual patient. We used ultrasound elastography to determine the local deformation (strain) of the upper lip and to differentiate contracting muscle from passive scar tissue. Raw ultrasound data (radio-frequency format; rf-) were acquired, while the lips were brought from normal state into a pout condition and back in normal state, in three patients and three normal individuals. During this movement, the oral orbicular muscle contracts and, consequently, thickens in contrast to scar tissue that will not contract, or even expand. An iterative coarse-to-fine strain estimation method was used to calculate the local tissue strain. Analysis of the raw ultrasound data allows estimation of tissue strain with a high precision. The minimum strain that can be assessed reproducibly is 0.1%. In normal individuals, strain of the orbicular oral muscle was in the order of 20%. Also, a uniform strain distribution in the oral orbicular muscle was found. However, in patients deviating values were found in the region of the reconstruction and the muscle tissue surrounding that. In two patients with a successful reconstruction, strain was reduced by 6% in the reconstructed region with respect to the normal parts of the muscle (from 22% to 16% and from 25% to 19%). In a patient with severe aesthetical and functional disability, strain decreased from 30% in the normal region to 5% in the reconstructed region. With ultrasound elastography, the strain of the oral orbicular muscle can be quantified. In healthy subjects, the strain profiles and maximum strain values in all parts of the muscle were similar. The maximum strain of the muscle during

  2. Histological and MR quantitative analysis of repaired tissue following microfracture treatment for knee joint osteochondritis dissecans in rabbit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hongyue; Chen Shuang; Feng Xiaoyuan; Wang Zhan; Li Hong; Hua Yinghui; Chen Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively analyze the histological and MR images of repaired tissue (RT) following microfracture for knee joint osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in rabbit models at different time points, make comparisons with the RT performances of joint debridement, explore the efficiency of the microfracture treatment for OCD. Methods: Twenty-seven New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into 3 groups (sacrificed at the end of 3, 5 and 7 weeks post-operation respectively), with 9 in each group. For each rabbit, one knee joint was made into an OCD model. In each group, 6 were for microfracture treatment, and the other 3 were for joint debridement as control. MR scan, which mainly included sequences of 3D double echo steady state sequence (3D-DESS) and T_2-mapping, was taken at 3, 5 and 7 weeks postoperation. The thickness index and T_2 value index of RT were calculated and T_2-mapping of repaired region was drafted. Then the operation sites were removed to make histological sections of HE and Masson staining. The modified O'Driscoll score system was employed to make semi-quantitative evaluation for the histological performance of RT. Comparisons were made with respect to MR and histological findings between two treatments at each time point using unpaired Student t test. Effects of two treatments were evaluated longitudinally by comparing the results of three time points using one-way ANOVA. Results: The post-operation thickness indexes of two groups increased gradually (F = 33.940, 28.841, P < 0.05), T_2 value indexes decreased (F = 80.183, 206.206, P < 0.05), and O'driscoll scores increased gradually (F = 29.867, 17.167, P < 0.05). At each time point, the thickness index of microfracture was higher than that of debridement group (3-week: 0.743 ± 0.048 vs 0.624 ± 0.013, t = 4.077; 5-week: 0.813 ± 0.031 vs 0.734 ± 0.015, t = 4.107; 7-week: 0.972 ± 0.064 vs 0.777 ± 0.039, t = 4.782; P < 0.05), and the defects of microfracture in 7-week group were almost

  3. Early Assessment of Treatment Responses During Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Using Quantitative Analysis of Daily Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jijo; Yang, Cungeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wu, Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Tai, An [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Dalah, Entesar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Medical Diagnostic Imaging, College of Health Science, University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Zheng, Cheng [Biostatistics, Joseph. J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Johnstone, Candice [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Kong, Feng-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Gore, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate early tumor and normal tissue responses during the course of radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer using quantitative analysis of daily computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods and Materials: Daily diagnostic-quality CT scans acquired using CT-on-rails during CT-guided RT for 20 lung cancer patients were quantitatively analyzed. On each daily CT set, the contours of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and lungs were generated and the radiation dose delivered was reconstructed. The changes in CT image intensity (Hounsfield unit [HU]) features in the GTV and the multiple normal lung tissue shells around the GTV were extracted from the daily CT scans. The associations between the changes in the mean HUs, GTV, accumulated dose during RT delivery, and patient survival rate were analyzed. Results: During the RT course, radiation can induce substantial changes in the HU histogram features on the daily CT scans, with reductions in the GTV mean HUs (dH) observed in the range of 11 to 48 HU (median 30). The dH is statistically related to the accumulated GTV dose (R{sup 2} > 0.99) and correlates weakly with the change in GTV (R{sup 2} = 0.3481). Statistically significant increases in patient survival rates (P=.038) were observed for patients with a higher dH in the GTV. In the normal lung, the 4 regions proximal to the GTV showed statistically significant (P<.001) HU reductions from the first to last fraction. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the daily CT scans indicated that the mean HUs in lung tumor and surrounding normal tissue were reduced during RT delivery. This reduction was observed in the early phase of the treatment, is patient specific, and correlated with the delivered dose. A larger HU reduction in the GTV correlated significantly with greater patient survival. The changes in daily CT features, such as the mean HU, can be used for early assessment of the radiation response during RT delivery for lung cancer.

  4. A novel iris transillumination grading scale allowing flexible assessment with quantitative image analysis and visual matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Brancusi, Flavia; Valivullah, Zaheer M; Anderson, Michael G; Cunningham, Denise; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Power, Bradley; Simeonov, Dimitre; Gahl, William A; Zein, Wadih M; Adams, David R; Brooks, Brian

    2018-01-01

    To develop a sensitive scale of iris transillumination suitable for clinical and research use, with the capability of either quantitative analysis or visual matching of images. Iris transillumination photographic images were used from 70 study subjects with ocular or oculocutaneous albinism. Subjects represented a broad range of ocular pigmentation. A subset of images was subjected to image analysis and ranking by both expert and nonexpert reviewers. Quantitative ordering of images was compared with ordering by visual inspection. Images were binned to establish an 8-point scale. Ranking consistency was evaluated using the Kendall rank correlation coefficient (Kendall's tau). Visual ranking results were assessed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance (Kendall's W) analysis. There was a high degree of correlation among the image analysis, expert-based and non-expert-based image rankings. Pairwise comparisons of the quantitative ranking with each reviewer generated an average Kendall's tau of 0.83 ± 0.04 (SD). Inter-rater correlation was also high with Kendall's W of 0.96, 0.95, and 0.95 for nonexpert, expert, and all reviewers, respectively. The current standard for assessing iris transillumination is expert assessment of clinical exam findings. We adapted an image-analysis technique to generate quantitative transillumination values. Quantitative ranking was shown to be highly similar to a ranking produced by both expert and nonexpert reviewers. This finding suggests that the image characteristics used to quantify iris transillumination do not require expert interpretation. Inter-rater rankings were also highly similar, suggesting that varied methods of transillumination ranking are robust in terms of producing reproducible results.

  5. A comparative study between subjective assessment and quantitative evaluation of CT findings with cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugie, Yoko; Sugie, Hideo; Kitai, Akiko; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Yukio

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 200 children with children palsy with Hitachi CT-H250. The CT scans of 136 cases revealed cerebral atrophy with ventricular and/or subarachnoid space enlargement. The lateral ventricles, the third ventricle and the two parts of subarachnoid space on the CT picture were subjectively evaluated and divided into five grades ranging from no enlargement to marked enlargement. In addition, the size of the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces were quantitatively determined; the transverse diameter of brain (b), the largest width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles (c), the bicaudate nuclear distance (d), the greatest width of the third ventricle, the longitudinal cerebral fissure and sylvian fissures as described by Miyao et al. (1978). Comparison of these quantitative techniques confirmed the initial subjective evaluation. However, in some cases, amendment of the subjective evaluation was needed. As mentioned before (Miyao et al.), the cerebral longitudinal fissure was relatively wide in normal infants. Accordingly, it was often difficult to find out abnormal widening only by subjective evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to establish the criteria of quantitative measuring and assessing of the lateral and third ventricles, the cerebral longitudinal fissurem, and the sylvian fissures enlargement. Interpretation of some problem cases associated with measuring was also discussed. The quantitative CT evaluation may be a good reference in assessing cerebral atrophy in cerebral palsy and other neurological diseases. (author)

  6. Assessment of acute myocarditis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriaco, Massimo; Nappi, Carmela; Puglia, Marta; De Giorgi, Marco; Dell'Aversana, Serena; Cuocolo, Renato; Ponsiglione, Andrea; De Giorgi, Igino; Polito, Maria Vincenza; Klain, Michele; Piscione, Federico; Pace, Leonardo; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2017-10-26

    To compare cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) qualitative and quantitative analysis methods for the noninvasive assessment of myocardial inflammation in patients with suspected acute myocarditis (AM). A total of 61 patients with suspected AM underwent coronary angiography and CMR. Qualitative analysis was performed applying Lake-Louise Criteria (LLC), followed by quantitative analysis based on the evaluation of edema ratio (ER) and global relative enhancement (RE). Diagnostic performance was assessed for each method by measuring the area under the curves (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic analyses. The final diagnosis of AM was based on symptoms and signs suggestive of cardiac disease, evidence of myocardial injury as defined by electrocardiogram changes, elevated troponin I, exclusion of coronary artery disease by coronary angiography, and clinical and echocardiographic follow-up at 3 months after admission to the chest pain unit. In all patients, coronary angiography did not show significant coronary artery stenosis. Troponin I levels and creatine kinase were higher in patients with AM compared to those without (both P quantitative (ER 0.89 and global RE 0.80) analyses were also similar. Qualitative and quantitative CMR analysis methods show similar diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of AM. These findings suggest that a simplified approach using a shortened CMR protocol including only T2-weighted STIR sequences might be useful to rule out AM in patients with acute coronary syndrome and normal coronary angiography.

  7. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltussen, Elisabeth J. M.; Snaebjornsson, Petur; de Koning, Susan G. Brouwer; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Aalbers, Arend G. J.; Kok, Niels; Beets, Geerard L.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Kuhlmann, Koert F. D.; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Colorectal surgery is the standard treatment for patients with colorectal cancer. To overcome two of the main challenges, the circumferential resection margin and postoperative complications, real-time tissue assessment could be of great benefit during surgery. In this ex vivo study, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to differentiate tumor tissue from healthy surrounding tissues in patients with colorectal neoplasia. DRS spectra were obtained from tumor tissue, healthy colon, or rectal wall and fat tissue, for every patient. Data were randomly divided into training (80%) and test (20%) sets. After spectral band selection, the spectra were classified using a quadratic classifier and a linear support vector machine. Of the 38 included patients, 36 had colorectal cancer and 2 had an adenoma. When the classifiers were applied to the test set, colorectal cancer could be discriminated from healthy tissue with an overall accuracy of 0.95 (±0.03). This study demonstrates the possibility to separate colorectal cancer from healthy surrounding tissue by applying DRS. High classification accuracies were obtained both in homogeneous and inhomogeneous tissues. This is a fundamental step toward the development of a tool for real-time in vivo tissue assessment during colorectal surgery.

  8. Microwave tomography for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues: feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Althausen, Peter; Williams, Thomas; Abubakar, Aria; Bulyshev, Alexander; Sizov, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    It is important to assess the viability of extremity soft tissues, as this component is often the determinant of the final outcome of fracture treatment. Microwave tomography (MWT) and sensing might be able to provide a fast and mobile assessment of such properties. MWT imaging of extremities possesses a complicated, nonlinear, high dielectric contrast inverse problem of diffraction tomography. There is a high dielectric contrast between bone and soft tissue in the extremities. A contrast between soft tissue abnormalities is less pronounced when compared with the high bone-soft tissue contrast. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of MWT for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, i.e. to detect a relatively small contrast within soft tissues in closer proximity to high contrast boney areas. Both experimental studies and computer simulation were performed. Experiments were conducted using live pigs with compromised blood flow and compartment syndrome within an extremity. A whole 2D tomographic imaging cycle at 1 GHz was computer simulated and images were reconstructed using the Newton, MR-CSI and modified Born methods. Results of experimental studies demonstrate that microwave technology is sensitive to changes in the soft tissue blood content and elevated compartment pressure. It was demonstrated that MWT is feasible for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, circulatory-related changes, blood flow and elevated compartment pressure

  9. Comparative assessment of the interfacial soft and hard tissues investing implants and natural teeth in the macaque mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siar, Chong Huat; Toh, Chooi Gait; Romanos, Georgios E; Ng, Kok Han

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative qualitative and quantitative assessment of the interfacial soft and hard tissues investing implants and natural teeth. The test sample consisted of six adult healthy male Macaca fascicularis with three-unit splinted crowns, each crown supported by an Ankylos screw-shaped titanium implant. These implants were placed in the mandibular premolar-second molar region, one side by an immediate-loading (IL) and the other by delayed-loading (DL) protocol. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months of functional loading. Another two monkeys with natural dentition served as controls. Nondecalcified sections were prepared for assessment of optical intensities (OI) under a confocal laser scanning microscope. In both the test (IL and DL) and control, the soft tissue complexes demonstrated a highly fluorescent keratinized layer and diminished cytoplasmic and enhanced membranous fluorescence in the remaining epithelium. Peri-implant mucosa was further characterized by an intense fluorescence at the junctional epithelium-implant interface and in the stromal mononuclear infiltrate. Connective tissue contact and periodontal ligament were weakly fluorescent. In hard tissues, a high fluorescence was observed in peri-implant woven bone and along the implant-bone interface. Mean OI was significantly higher in peri-implant woven bone than around teeth (P  0.05). Present findings suggest that peri-implant woven bone is highly mineralized, while the peri-implant and gingival mucosa share structural similarities. Optical intensities of interfacial tissues investing implants and teeth are related to their biological properties.

  10. Quantitative assessment for pneumoconiosis severity diagnosis using 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Koki; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Kato, Katsuya; Kishimoto, Takumi; Ashizawa, Kazuto

    2018-02-01

    Pneumoconiosis is an occupational respiratory illness that occur by inhaling dust to the lungs. 240,000 participants are screened for diagnosis of pneumoconiosis every year in Japan. Radiograph is used for staging of severity rate in pneumoconiosis worldwide. CT imaging is useful for the differentiation of requirements for industrial accident approval because it can detect small lesions in comparison with radiograph. In this paper, we extracted lung nodules from 3D pneumoconiosis CT images by two manual processes and automatic process, and created a database of pneumoconiosis CT images. We used the database to analyze, compare, and evaluate visual diagnostic results of radiographs and quantitative assessment (number, size and volume) of lung nodules. This method was applied to twenty pneumoconiosis patients. Initial results showed that the proposed method can assess severity rate in pneumoconiosis quantitatively. This study demonstrates effectiveness on diagnosis and prognosis of pneumoconiosis in CT screening.

  11. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic wall thickening using multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas S; Kofoed, Klaus F; Møller, Daniel V

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic echocard......BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic...... echocardiography (TTE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT and TTE. Regional left ventricular contractile function was measured by percent systolic wall thickening (SWT) in 16 myocardial segments using MDCT, and compared...

  12. Assessment of Autophagy in Neurons and Brain Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Cuesta, Irene; Diez, Héctor; Ordoñez, Lara; Wandosell, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a complex process that controls the transport of cytoplasmic components into lysosomes for degradation. This highly conserved proteolytic system involves dynamic and complex processes, using similar molecular elements and machinery from yeast to humans. Moreover, autophagic dysfunction may contribute to a broad spectrum of mammalian diseases. Indeed, in adult tissues, where the capacity for regeneration or cell division is low or absent (e.g., in the mammalian brain), the accumulation of proteins/peptides that would otherwise be recycled or destroyed may have pathological implications. Indeed, such changes are hallmarks of pathologies, like Alzheimer’s, Prion or Parkinson’s disease, known as proteinopathies. However, it is still unclear whether such dysfunction is a cause or an effect in these conditions. One advantage when analysing autophagy in the mammalian brain is that almost all the markers described in different cell lineages and systems appear to be present in the brain, and even in neurons. By contrast, the mixture of cell types present in the brain and the differentiation stage of such neurons, when compared with neurons in culture, make translating basic research to the clinic less straightforward. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe and discuss the methods available to monitor autophagy in neurons and in the mammalian brain, a process that is not yet fully understood, focusing primarily on mammalian macroautophagy. We will describe some general features of neuronal autophagy that point to our focus on neuropathologies in which macroautophagy may be altered. Indeed, we centre this review around the hypothesis that enhanced autophagy may be able to provide therapeutic benefits in some brain pathologies, like Alzheimer’s disease, considering this pathology as one of the most prevalent proteinopathies. PMID:28832529

  13. A Quantitative Trait Locus (LSq-1) on Mouse Chromosome 7 Is Linked to the Absence of Tissue Loss After Surgical Hindlimb Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokun, Ayotunde O.; Keum, Sehoon; Hazarika, Surovi; Li, Yongjun; Lamonte, Gregory M.; Wheeler, Ferrin; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Annex, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) caused by occlusive atherosclerosis of the lower extremity has 2 major clinical manifestations. Critical limb ischemia is characterized by rest pain and/or tissue loss and has a ≥40% risk of death and major amputation. Intermittent claudication causes pain on walking, has no tissue loss, and has amputation plus mortality rates of 2% to 4% per year. Progression from claudication to limb ischemia is infrequent. Risk factors in most PAD patients overlap. Thus, we hypothesized that genetic variations may be linked to presence or absence of tissue loss in PAD. Methods and Results Hindlimb ischemia (murine model of PAD) was induced in C57BL/6, BALB/c, C57BL/6×BALB/c (F1), F1×BALB/c (N2), A/J, and C57BL/6J-Chr7A/J/NaJ chromosome substitution strains. Mice were monitored for perfusion recovery and tissue necrosis. Genome-wide scanning with polymorphic markers across the 19 murine autosomes was performed on the N2 mice. Greater tissue loss and poorer perfusion recovery occurred in BALB/c than in the C57BL/6 strain. Analysis of 105 N2 progeny identified a single quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 that exhibited significant linkage to both tissue necrosis and extent of perfusion recovery. Using the appropriate chromosome substitution strain, we demonstrate that C57BL/6-derived chromosome 7 is required for tissue preservation. Conclusions We have identified a quantitative trait locus on murine chromosome 7 (LSq-1) that is associated with the absence of tissue loss in a preclinical model of PAD and may be useful in identifying gene(s) that influence PAD in humans. PMID:18285563

  14. Fixing the cracks in the crystal ball: A maturity model for quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, Andrew; Alexander, Rob; McDermid, John

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is widely practiced in system safety, but there is insufficient evidence that QRA in general is fit for purpose. Defenders of QRA draw a distinction between poor or misused QRA and correct, appropriately used QRA, but this distinction is only useful if we have robust ways to identify the flaws in an individual QRA. In this paper we present a comprehensive maturity model for QRA which covers all the potential flaws discussed in the risk assessment literature and in a collection of risk assessment peer reviews. We provide initial validation of the completeness and realism of the model. Our risk assessment maturity model provides a way to prioritise both process development within an organisation and empirical research within the QRA community. - Highlights: • Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is widely practiced, but there is insufficient evidence that it is fit for purpose. • A given QRA may be good, or it may not – we need systematic ways to distinguish this. • We have created a maturity model for QRA which covers all the potential flaws discussed in the risk assessment literature. • We have provided initial validation of the completeness and realism of the model. • The maturity model can also be used to prioritise QRA research discipline-wide

  15. The Use of Quantitative SPECT/CT Imaging to Assess Residual Limb Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    of secondary health ef- fects following traumatic extremity injuries places a significant physical and psychosocial burden on SMs with LL and LS...been reported as the most important health -related physical condition con- tributing to a reduced QoL among veterans who had sustained a traumatic...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0669 TITLE: The Use of Quantitative SPECT/CT Imaging to Assess Residual Limb Health PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  16. Current Understanding of the Pathophysiology of Myocardial Fibrosis and Its Quantitative Assessment in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial fibrosis is an important part of cardiac remodeling that leads to heart failure and death. Myocardial fibrosis results from increased myofibroblast activity and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Various cells and molecules are involved in this process, providing targets for potential drug therapies. Currently, the main detection methods of myocardial fibrosis rely on serum markers, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and endomyocardial biopsy. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, quantitative assessment, and novel therapeutic strategies of myocardial fibrosis.

  17. Study on quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for natural gas pipelines based on fuzzy comprehensive assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zeyang; Liang, Wei; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of national energy supply system, transmission pipelines for natural gas are possible to cause serious environmental pollution, life and property loss in case of accident. The third party damage is one of the most significant causes for natural gas pipeline system accidents, and it is very important to establish an effective quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for reducing the number of gas pipelines operation accidents. Against the third party damage accident has the characteristics such as diversity, complexity and uncertainty, this paper establishes a quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). Firstly, risk sources of third party damage should be identified exactly, and the weight of factors could be determined via improved AHP, finally the importance of each factor is calculated by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model. The results show that the quantitative risk assessment model is suitable for the third party damage of natural gas pipelines and improvement measures could be put forward to avoid accidents based on the importance of each factor. (paper)

  18. Preventing pressure ulcers by assessment of the microcirculation in tissue exposed to pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrand, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to combine optical methods into a system with the ability to simultaneously measure blood flow changes at different tissue depths. The goal of such a system was to reveal vascular mechanisms relevant to pressure ulcer etiology under clinically relevant conditions and in relation to the evaluation of pressure-redistribution support surfaces. This thesis consists of four quantitative, cross-sectional studies measuring blood flow responses before, during, and a...

  19. Differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours: use of additive qualitative and quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging to standard MR imaging at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Park, Michael Y; Kim, Sun-Ki; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Chung, Yang-Guk

    2016-03-01

    To determine the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. 3.0 T MR images including DWI in 63 patients who underwent surgery for soft tissue tumours were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently interpreted MRI for the presence of malignancy in two steps: standard MRI alone, standard MRI and DWI with qualitative and quantitative analysis combined. There were 34 malignant and 29 non-malignant soft tissue tumours. In qualitative analysis, hyperintensity relative to skeletal muscle was more frequent in malignant than benign tumours on DWI (P=0.003). In quantitative analysis, ADCs of malignant tumours were significantly lower than those of non-malignant tumours (P≤0.002): 759±385 vs. 1188±423 μm(2)/sec minimum ADC value, 941±440 vs. 1310±440 μm(2)/sec average ADC value. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both readers were 96%, 72%, and 85% on standard MRI alone and 97%, 90%, and 94% on standard MRI with DWI. The addition of DWI to standard MRI improves the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. DWI has added value for differentiating malignant from benign soft tissue tumours. Addition of DWI to standard MRI at 3.0 T improves the diagnostic accuracy. Measurements of both ADC min within solid portion and ADC av are helpful.

  20. A method of quantitative risk assessment for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Young-Do; Ahn, Bum Jong

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory authorities in many countries are moving away from prescriptive approaches for keeping natural gas pipelines safe. As an alternative, risk management based on a quantitative assessment is being considered to improve the level of safety. This paper focuses on the development of a simplified method for the quantitative risk assessment for natural gas pipelines and introduces parameters of fatal length and cumulative fatal length. The fatal length is defined as the integrated fatality along the pipeline associated with hypothetical accidents. The cumulative fatal length is defined as the section of pipeline in which an accident leads to N or more fatalities. These parameters can be estimated easily by using the information of pipeline geometry and population density of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS). To demonstrate the proposed method, individual and societal risks for a sample pipeline have been estimated from the historical data of European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group and BG Transco. With currently acceptable criteria taken into account for individual risk, the minimum proximity of the pipeline to occupied buildings is approximately proportional to the square root of the operating pressure of the pipeline. The proposed method of quantitative risk assessment may be useful for risk management during the planning and building stages of a new pipeline, and modification of a buried pipeline

  1. Development and Assessment of Modules to Integrate Quantitative Skills in Introductory Biology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kathleen; Leupen, Sarah; Dowell, Kathy; Kephart, Kerrie; Leips, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Redesigning undergraduate biology courses to integrate quantitative reasoning and skill development is critical to prepare students for careers in modern medicine and scientific research. In this paper, we report on the development, implementation, and assessment of stand-alone modules that integrate quantitative reasoning into introductory biology courses. Modules are designed to improve skills in quantitative numeracy, interpreting data sets using visual tools, and making inferences about biological phenomena using mathematical/statistical models. We also examine demographic/background data that predict student improvement in these skills through exposure to these modules. We carried out pre/postassessment tests across four semesters and used student interviews in one semester to examine how students at different levels approached quantitative problems. We found that students improved in all skills in most semesters, although there was variation in the degree of improvement among skills from semester to semester. One demographic variable, transfer status, stood out as a major predictor of the degree to which students improved (transfer students achieved much lower gains every semester, despite the fact that pretest scores in each focus area were similar between transfer and nontransfer students). We propose that increased exposure to quantitative skill development in biology courses is effective at building competency in quantitative reasoning. © 2016 K. Hoffman, S. Leupen, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Conductive carbon tape used for support and mounting of both whole animal and fragile heat-treated tissue sections for MALDI MS imaging and quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Richard J A; Nilsson, Anna; Borg, Daniel; Langridge-Smith, Pat R R; Harrison, David J; Mackay, C Logan; Iverson, Suzanne L; Andrén, Per E

    2012-08-30

    Analysis of whole animal tissue sections by MALDI MS imaging (MSI) requires effective sample collection and transfer methods to allow the highest quality of in situ analysis of small or hard to dissect tissues. We report on the use of double-sided adhesive conductive carbon tape during whole adult rat tissue sectioning of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) embedded animals, with samples mounted onto large format conductive glass and conductive plastic MALDI targets, enabling MSI analysis to be performed on both TOF and FT-ICR MALDI mass spectrometers. We show that mounting does not unduly affect small molecule MSI detection by analyzing tiotropium abundance and distribution in rat lung tissues, with direct on-tissue quantitation achieved. Significantly, we use the adhesive tape to provide support to embedded delicate heat-stabilized tissues, enabling sectioning and mounting to be performed that maintained tissue integrity on samples that had previously been impossible to adequately prepare section for MSI analysis. The mapping of larger peptidomic molecules was not hindered by tape mounting samples and we demonstrate this by mapping the distribution of PEP-19 in both native and heat-stabilized rat brains. Furthermore, we show that without heat stabilization PEP-19 degradation fragments can detected and identified directly by MALDI MSI analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative assessment of morphology, T_1_ρ, and T_2 of shoulder cartilage using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Tang, Solomon; Lai, Andrew; Krug, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of quantifying shoulder cartilage morphology and relaxometry in a clinically feasible scan time comparing different pulse sequences and assessing their reproducibility at 3 Tesla. Three pulse sequences were compared for morphological assessments of shoulder cartilage thickness and volume (SPGR, MERGE, FIESTA), while a combined T1ρ-T2 sequence was optimized for relaxometry measurements. The shoulders of six healthy subjects were scanned twice with repositioning, and the cartilage was segmented and quantified. The degree of agreement between the three morphological sequences was assessed using Bland-Altman plots, while the morphological and relaxometry reproducibility were assessed with root-mean-square coefficients of variation (RMS-CVs) Bland-Altman plots indicated good levels of agreement between the morphological assessments of the three sequences. The reproducibility of morphological assessments yielded RMS-CVs between 4.0 and 17.7 %. All sequences correlated highly (R > 0.9) for morphologic assessments with no statistically significant differences. For relaxometry assessments of humeral cartilage, RMS-CVs of 6.4 and 10.6 % were found for T1ρ and T2, respectively. The assessment of both cartilage morphology and relaxometry is feasible in the shoulder with SPGR, humeral head, and T1ρ being the more reproducible morphological sequence, anatomic region, and quantitative sequence, respectively. (orig.)

  4. A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment for Salmonella in Pigs for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snary, Emma L.; Swart, Arno N.; Simons, Robin R. L.

    2016-01-01

    ,000 and 1 in 10 million servings given consumption of one of the three product types considered (pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready‐to‐eat sausages). Further analyses of the farm‐to‐consumption QMRA suggest that the vast majority of human risk derives from infected pigs with a high concentration......A farm‐to‐consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter‐pig prevalence...

  5. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  6. A methodology for the quantitative risk assessment of major accidents triggered by seismic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioni, Giacomo; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative risk assessment of accidents triggered by seismic events in industrial facilities was developed. The starting point of the procedure was the use of available historical data to assess the expected frequencies and the severity of seismic events. Available equipment-dependant failure probability models (vulnerability or fragility curves) were used to assess the damage probability of equipment items due to a seismic event. An analytic procedure was subsequently developed to identify, evaluate the credibility and finally assess the expected consequences of all the possible scenarios that may follow the seismic events. The procedure was implemented in a GIS-based software tool in order to manage the high number of event sequences that are likely to be generated in large industrial facilities. The developed methodology requires a limited amount of additional data with respect to those used in a conventional QRA, and yields with a limited effort a preliminary quantitative assessment of the contribution of the scenarios triggered by earthquakes to the individual and societal risk indexes. The application of the methodology to several case-studies evidenced that the scenarios initiated by seismic events may have a relevant influence on industrial risk, both raising the overall expected frequency of single scenarios and causing specific severe scenarios simultaneously involving several plant units

  7. Affordable, automatic quantitative fall risk assessment based on clinical balance scales and Kinect data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiorgio, P; Romano, F; Sardi, F; Moraschini, M; Sozzi, A; Bejor, M; Ricevuti, G; Buizza, A; Ramat, S

    2014-01-01

    The problem of a correct fall risk assessment is becoming more and more critical with the ageing of the population. In spite of the available approaches allowing a quantitative analysis of the human movement control system's performance, the clinical assessment and diagnostic approach to fall risk assessment still relies mostly on non-quantitative exams, such as clinical scales. This work documents our current effort to develop a novel method to assess balance control abilities through a system implementing an automatic evaluation of exercises drawn from balance assessment scales. Our aim is to overcome the classical limits characterizing these scales i.e. limited granularity and inter-/intra-examiner reliability, to obtain objective scores and more detailed information allowing to predict fall risk. We used Microsoft Kinect to record subjects' movements while performing challenging exercises drawn from clinical balance scales. We then computed a set of parameters quantifying the execution of the exercises and fed them to a supervised classifier to perform a classification based on the clinical score. We obtained a good accuracy (~82%) and especially a high sensitivity (~83%).

  8. Supplementing quantitative risk assessments with a stage addressing the risk understanding of the decision maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative probabilistic risk assessment produces a conditional risk description given the knowledge of the analysts (formulated to a large extent through assumptions). However, important aspects of the risk may be concealed in the background knowledge of the analyst and the assumptions. This paper discusses this issue, the main purpose being to present a two-stage risk assessment approach where the second stage addresses the risk understanding of the decision maker. This second-stage is to a large extent qualitative. The approach is novel with its separation between the analysts' conditional risk descriptions using probability judgments, and the decision maker's risk understanding. The approach aims at improving the use of risk assessment in practical decision making by ensuring that the results of the risk assessments are properly interpreted and the key aspects of risk, uncertainty and knowledge are brought to attention for the decision makers. Examples are used to illustrate the approach. - Highlights: • A quantitative risk assessment produces a conditional risk description. • The decision maker (DM) needs to address risk beyond this description. • The paper presents a related two-stage process, covering analyst and DM judgments. • The second stage relates to the DM's risk understanding. • Strength of knowledge judgments are included in both stages.

  9. Sugar concentration in nectar: a quantitative metric of crop attractiveness for refined pollinator risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Dan, Tereza; Reisig, Dominic D; Johnson, Josephine D; Bowers, Lisa M

    2016-10-01

    Those involved with pollinator risk assessment know that agricultural crops vary in attractiveness to bees. Intuitively, this means that exposure to agricultural pesticides is likely greatest for attractive plants and lowest for unattractive plants. While crop attractiveness in the risk assessment process has been qualitatively remarked on by some authorities, absent is direction on how to refine the process with quantitative metrics of attractiveness. At a high level, attractiveness of crops to bees appears to depend on several key variables, including but not limited to: floral, olfactory, visual and tactile cues; seasonal availability; physical and behavioral characteristics of the bee; plant and nectar rewards. Notwithstanding the complexities and interactions among these variables, sugar content in nectar stands out as a suitable quantitative metric by which to refine pollinator risk assessments for attractiveness. Provided herein is a proposed way to use sugar nectar concentration to adjust the exposure parameter (with what is called a crop attractiveness factor) in the calculation of risk quotients in order to derive crop-specific tier I assessments. This Perspective is meant to invite discussion on incorporating such changes in the risk assessment process. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  11. Integration of quantitative risk assessment in the health impact assessment of the recently amended Hungarian anti-smoking policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Gulis, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIA) dominantly apply only qualitative evaluation, although a comprehensive HIA ideally integrates both qualitative and quantitative evidence and methods, since quantification has several advantages when using assessment results in the decision making process......-smokers to introduce smoking ban in closed public places, workplaces and public transport vehicles. Full chain approach was used to identify basic rules for prioritizing the major impact pathways with special attention to the feasibility of quantifying exposure and outcome. Exposure assessment relied on international...... experiences, while outcome assessment calculated measures of disease burden, like attributable death and disability adjusted life years, for a baseline and a predicted situation after the proposed changes take place. The major impact of the proposal was identified to decreases prevalence of active and passive...

  12. Nonlinear viscoelastic properties of tissue assessed by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkus, Ralph; Bercoff, Jeremy; Tanter, Mickaël; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; El-Khoury, Carl; Servois, Vincent; Tardivon, Anne; Fink, Mathias

    2006-11-01

    A technique to assess qualitatively the presence of higher-order viscoelastic parameters is presented. Low-frequency, monochromatic elastic waves are emitted into the material via an external vibrator. The resulting steady-state motion is detected in real time via an ultra fast ultrasound system using classical, one-dimensional (1-D) ultrasound speckle correlation for motion estimation. Total data acquisition lasts only for about 250 ms. The spectrum of the temporal displacement data at each image point is used for analysis. The presence of nonlinear effects is detected by inspection of the ratio of the second harmonics amplitude with respect to the total amplitude summed up to the second harmonic. Results from a polyacrylamide-based phantom indicate a linear response (i.e., the absence of higher harmonics) for this type of material at 65 Hz mechanical vibration frequency and about 100 microm amplitude. A lesion, artificially created by injection of glutaraldehyde into a beef specimen, shows the development of higher harmonics at the location of injection as a function of time. The presence of upper harmonics is clearly evident at the location of a malignant lesion within a mastectomy.

  13. Boron concentration measurements by alpha spectrometry and quantitative neutron autoradiography in cells and tissues treated with different boronated formulations and administration protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolussi, Silva; Ciani, Laura; Postuma, Ian; Protti, Nicoletta; Luca Reversi,; Bruschi, Piero; Ferrari, Cinzia; Cansolino, Laura; Panza, Luigi; Ristori, Sandra; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to measure boron concentration with high precision in tissues that will be irradiated represents a fundamental step for a safe and effective BNCT treatment. In Pavia, two techniques have been used for this purpose, a quantitative method based on charged particles spectrometry and a boron biodistribution imaging based on neutron autoradiography. A quantitative method to determine boron concentration by neutron autoradiography has been recently set-up and calibrated for the measurement of biological samples, both solid and liquid, in the frame of the feasibility study of BNCT. This technique was calibrated and the obtained results were cross checked with those of α spectrometry, in order to validate them. The comparisons were performed using tissues taken form animals treated with different boron administration protocols. Subsequently the quantitative neutron autoradiography was employed to measure osteosarcoma cell samples treated with BPA and with new boronated formulations. - Highlights: • A method for 10B measurements in samples based on neutron autoradiography was developed. • The results were compared with those of alpha spectrometry applied on tissue and cell samples. • Boronated liposomes were developed and administered to osteosarcoma cell cultures. • Neutron autoradiography was employed to measure boron concentration due to liposomes. • Liposomes were proved to be more effective in concentrating boron in cells than BPA

  14. Quantitative assessment of paretic limb dexterity and interlimb coordination during bilateral arm rehabilitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Li, Siyi; Wang, Kui; Hou, Zengguang; Yu, Ningbo

    2017-07-01

    In neuro-rehabilitation after stroke, the conventional constrained induced movement therapy (CIMT) has been well-accepted. Existing bilateral trainings are mostly on mirrored symmetrical motion. However, complementary bilateral movements are dominantly involved in activities of daily living (ADLs), and functional bilateral therapies may bring better skill transfer from trainings to daily life. Neurophysiological evidence is also growing. In this work, we firstly introduce our bilateral arm training system realized with a haptic interface and a motion sensor, as well as the tasks that have been designed to train both the manipulation function of the paretic arm and coordination of bilateral upper limbs. Then, we propose quantitative measures for functional assessment of complementary bilateral training performance, including kinematic behavior indices, smoothness, submovement and bimanual coordination. After that, we describe the experiments with healthy subjects and the results with respect to these quantitative measures. Feasibility and sensitivity of the proposed indices were evaluated through comparison of unilateral and bilateral training outcomes. The proposed bilateral training system and tasks, as well as the quantitative measures, have been demonstrated effective for training and assessment of unilateral and bilateral arm functions.

  15. Quantitative MRI assessments of white matter in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Li, Chin-Shang; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use objective quantitative MR imaging methods to prospectively assess changes in the physiological structure of white matter during the temporal evolution of leukoencephalopathy (LE) in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The longitudinal incidence, extent (proportion of white matter affect), and intensity (elevation of T1 and T2 relaxation rates) of LE was evaluated for 44 children. A combined imaging set consisting of T1, T2, PD, and FLAIR MR images and white matter, gray matter and CSF a priori maps from a spatially normalized atlas were analyzed with a neural network segmentation based on a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM). Quantitative T1 and T2 relaxation maps were generated using a nonlinear parametric optimization procedure to fit the corresponding multi-exponential models. A Cox proportional regression was performed to estimate the effect of intravenous methotrexate (IV-MTX) exposure on the development of LE followed by a generalized linear model to predict the probability of LE in new patients. Additional T-tests of independent samples were performed to assess differences in quantitative measures of extent and intensity at four different points in therapy. Higher doses and more courses of IV-MTX placed patients at a higher risk of developing LE and were associated with more intense changes affecting more of the white matter volume; many of the changes resolved after completion of therapy. The impact of these changes on neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in survivors remains to be determined.

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Arrhythmia Using Non-linear Approach: A Non-invasive Prognostic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monisha; Ghosh, Dipak

    2018-04-01

    Accurate prognostic tool to identify severity of Arrhythmia is yet to be investigated, owing to the complexity of the ECG signal. In this paper, we have shown that quantitative assessment of Arrhythmia is possible using non-linear technique based on "Hurst Rescaled Range Analysis". Although the concept of applying "non-linearity" for studying various cardiac dysfunctions is not entirely new, the novel objective of this paper is to identify the severity of the disease, monitoring of different medicine and their dose, and also to assess the efficiency of different medicine. The approach presented in this work is simple which in turn will help doctors in efficient disease management. In this work, Arrhythmia ECG time series are collected from MIT-BIH database. Normal ECG time series are acquired using POLYPARA system. Both time series are analyzed in thelight of non-linear approach following the method "Rescaled Range Analysis". The quantitative parameter, "Fractal Dimension" (D) is obtained from both types of time series. The major finding is that Arrhythmia ECG poses lower values of D as compared to normal. Further, this information can be used to access the severity of Arrhythmia quantitatively, which is a new direction of prognosis as well as adequate software may be developed for the use of medical practice.

  17. Quantitative PET Imaging of Tissue Factor Expression Using 18F-Labeled Active Site-Inhibited Factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Carsten H; Erlandsson, Maria; Jeppesen, Troels E; Jensen, Mette M; Kristensen, Lotte K; Madsen, Jacob; Petersen, Lars C; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is upregulated in many solid tumors, and its expression is linked to tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis. A noninvasive assessment of tumor TF expression status is therefore of obvious clinical relevance. Factor VII is the natural ligand to TF. Here we report the development of a new PET tracer for specific imaging of TF using an (18)F-labeled derivative of factor VII. Active site-inhibited factor VIIa (FVIIai) was obtained by inactivation with phenylalanine-phenylalanine-arginine-chloromethyl ketone. FVIIai was radiolabeled with N-succinimidyl 4-(18)F-fluorobenzoate and purified. The corresponding product, (18)F-FVIIai, was injected into nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic xenograft tumors (BxPC-3) and investigated using small-animal PET/CT imaging 1, 2, and 4 h after injection. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed after the last imaging session, and tumor tissue was preserved for molecular analysis. A blocking experiment was performed in a second set of mice. The expression pattern of TF in the tumors was visualized by immunohistochemistry and the amount of TF in tumor homogenates was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and correlated with the uptake of (18)F-FVIIai in the tumors measured in vivo by PET imaging. The PET images showed high uptake of (18)F-FVIIai in the tumor regions, with a mean uptake of 2.5 ± 0.3 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) (mean ± SEM) 4 h after injection of 7.3-9.3 MBq of (18)F-FVIIai and with an average maximum uptake in the tumors of 7.1 ± 0.7 %ID/g at 4 h. In comparison, the muscle uptake was 0.2 ± 0.01 %ID/g at 4 h. At 4 h, the tumors had the highest uptake of any organ. Blocking with FVIIai significantly reduced the uptake of (18)F-FVIIai from 2.9 ± 0.1 to 1.4 ± 0.1 %ID/g (P < 0.001). The uptake of (18)F-FVIIai measured in vivo by PET imaging correlated (r = 0.72, P < 0.02) with TF protein level measured ex vivo. (18)F-FVIIai is a promising PET tracer for

  18. Two-photon Microscopy and Polarimetry for Assessment of Myocardial Tissue Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault-Wallenburg, Marika

    Optical methods can provide useful tissue characterization tools. For this project, two-photon microscopy and polarized light examinations (polarimetry) were used to assess the organizational state of myocardium in healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell regenerated states. Two-photon microscopy visualizes collagen through second-harmonic generation and myocytes through two-photon excitation autofluorescence, providing information on the composition and structure/organization of the tissue. Polarimetry measurements yield a value of linear retardance that can serve as an indicator of tissue anisotropy, and with a dual-projection method, information about the anisotropy axis orientation can also be extracted. Two-photon microscopy results reveal that stem-cell treated tissue retains more myocytes and structure than infarcted myocardium, while polarimetry findings suggest that the injury caused by temporary ligation of a coronary artery is less severe and more diffuse that than caused by a permanent ligation. Both these methods show potential for tissue characterization.

  19. Assessing the robustness of quantitative fatty acid signature analysis to assumption violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Rode, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

      Knowledge of animal diets can provide important insights into life history and ecology, relationships among species in a community and potential response to ecosystem change or perturbation. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a method of estimating diets from data on the composition, or signature, of fatty acids stored in adipose tissue. Given data on signatures of potential prey, a predator diet is estimated by minimizing the distance between its signature and a mixture of prey signatures. Calibration coefficients, constants derived from feeding trials, are used to account for differential metabolism of individual fatty acids. QFASA has been widely applied since its introduction and several variants of the original estimator have appeared in the literature. However, work to compare the statistical properties of QFASA estimators has been limited.

  20. A Compressed Sensing-Based Wearable Sensor Network for Quantitative Assessment of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical rehabilitation assessment is an important part of the therapy process because it is the premise for prescribing suitable rehabilitation interventions. However, the commonly used assessment scales have the following two drawbacks: (1 they are susceptible to subjective factors; (2 they only have several rating levels and are influenced by a ceiling effect, making it impossible to exactly detect any further improvement in the movement. Meanwhile, energy constraints are a primary design consideration in wearable sensor network systems since they are often battery-operated. Traditionally, for wearable sensor network systems that follow the Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem, there are many data that need to be sampled and transmitted. This paper proposes a novel wearable sensor network system to monitor and quantitatively assess the upper limb motion function, based on compressed sensing technology. With the sparse representation model, less data is transmitted to the computer than with traditional systems. The experimental results show that the accelerometer signals of Bobath handshake and shoulder touch exercises can be compressed, and the length of the compressed signal is less than 1/3 of the raw signal length. More importantly, the reconstruction errors have no influence on the predictive accuracy of the Brunnstrom stage classification model. It also indicated that the proposed system can not only reduce the amount of data during the sampling and transmission processes, but also, the reconstructed accelerometer signals can be used for quantitative assessment without any loss of useful information.

  1. A Compressed Sensing-Based Wearable Sensor Network for Quantitative Assessment of Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Xiong, Daxi; Guo, Liquan; Wang, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical rehabilitation assessment is an important part of the therapy process because it is the premise for prescribing suitable rehabilitation interventions. However, the commonly used assessment scales have the following two drawbacks: (1) they are susceptible to subjective factors; (2) they only have several rating levels and are influenced by a ceiling effect, making it impossible to exactly detect any further improvement in the movement. Meanwhile, energy constraints are a primary design consideration in wearable sensor network systems since they are often battery-operated. Traditionally, for wearable sensor network systems that follow the Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem, there are many data that need to be sampled and transmitted. This paper proposes a novel wearable sensor network system to monitor and quantitatively assess the upper limb motion function, based on compressed sensing technology. With the sparse representation model, less data is transmitted to the computer than with traditional systems. The experimental results show that the accelerometer signals of Bobath handshake and shoulder touch exercises can be compressed, and the length of the compressed signal is less than 1/3 of the raw signal length. More importantly, the reconstruction errors have no influence on the predictive accuracy of the Brunnstrom stage classification model. It also indicated that the proposed system can not only reduce the amount of data during the sampling and transmission processes, but also, the reconstructed accelerometer signals can be used for quantitative assessment without any loss of useful information. PMID:26861337

  2. A quantitative assessment of alkaptonuria: testing the reliability of two disease severity scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor F; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan

    2011-12-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is due to excessive homogentisic acid accumulation in body fluids due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to varied clinical manifestations mainly by a process of conversion of HGA to a polymeric melanin-like pigment known as ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, successful demonstration of its efficacy in modifying the natural history of AKU requires an effective quantitative assessment tool. We have described two potential tools that could be used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires used in 44 people with AKU. Statistical analyses were carried out on the two patient datasets to assess the AKU tools; these included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, multidimensional scaling and simple linear regression analysis. The conclusion was that there was good evidence that the tools could be adopted as AKU assessment tools, but perhaps with further refinement before being used in the practical setting of a clinical trial.

  3. Multiple-Strain Approach and Probabilistic Modeling of Consumer Habits in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment: A Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A in Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotta, Matteo; Rizzi, Rita; Varisco, Giorgio; Daminelli, Paolo; Cunico, Elena Cosciani; Luini, Mario; Graber, Hans Ulrich; Paterlini, Franco; Guitian, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models are extensively applied to inform management of a broad range of food safety risks. Inevitably, QMRA modeling involves an element of simplification of the biological process of interest. Two features that are frequently simplified or disregarded are the pathogenicity of multiple strains of a single pathogen and consumer behavior at the household level. In this study, we developed a QMRA model with a multiple-strain approach and a consumer phase module (CPM) based on uncertainty distributions fitted from field data. We modeled exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin A in raw milk in Lombardy; a specific enterotoxin production module was thus included. The model is adaptable and could be used to assess the risk related to other pathogens in raw milk as well as other staphylococcal enterotoxins. The multiplestrain approach, implemented as a multinomial process, allowed the inclusion of variability and uncertainty with regard to pathogenicity at the bacterial level. Data from 301 questionnaires submitted to raw milk consumers were used to obtain uncertainty distributions for the CPM. The distributions were modeled to be easily updatable with further data or evidence. The sources of uncertainty due to the multiple-strain approach and the CPM were identified, and their impact on the output was assessed by comparing specific scenarios to the baseline. When the distributions reflecting the uncertainty in consumer behavior were fixed to the 95th percentile, the risk of exposure increased up to 160 times. This reflects the importance of taking into consideration the diversity of consumers' habits at the household level and the impact that the lack of knowledge about variables in the CPM can have on the final QMRA estimates. The multiple-strain approach lends itself to use in other food matrices besides raw milk and allows the model to better capture the complexity of the real world and to be capable of geographical

  4. Differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours: use of additive qualitative and quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging to standard MR imaging at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Park, Michael Y.; Kim, Sun-Ki; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Chung, Yang-Guk

    2016-01-01

    To determine the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. 3.0 T MR images including DWI in 63 patients who underwent surgery for soft tissue tumours were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently interpreted MRI for the presence of malignancy in two steps: standard MRI alone, standard MRI and DWI with qualitative and quantitative analysis combined. There were 34 malignant and 29 non-malignant soft tissue tumours. In qualitative analysis, hyperintensity relative to skeletal muscle was more frequent in malignant than benign tumours on DWI (P=0.003). In quantitative analysis, ADCs of malignant tumours were significantly lower than those of non-malignant tumours (P≤0.002): 759±385 vs. 1188±423 μm 2 /sec minimum ADC value, 941±440 vs. 1310±440 μm 2 /sec average ADC value. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both readers were 96 %, 72 %, and 85 % on standard MRI alone and 97 %, 90 %, and 94 % on standard MRI with DWI. The addition of DWI to standard MRI improves the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis of paired colorectal cancer and non-tumorigenic tissues reveals signature proteins and perturbed pathways involved in CRC progression and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Manveen K; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Kim, Hoguen; Park, Cheol Keun; Baker, Mark S; Packer, Nicolle H; Paik, Young-Ki; Hancock, William S; Fanayan, Susan

    2015-08-03

    Modern proteomics has proven instrumental in our understanding of the molecular deregulations associated with the development and progression of cancer. Herein, we profile membrane-enriched proteome of tumor and adjacent normal tissues from eight CRC patients using label-free nanoLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomics and advanced pathway analysis. Of the 948 identified proteins, 184 proteins were differentially expressed (P1.5) between the tumor and non-tumor tissue (69 up-regulated and 115 down-regulated in tumor tissues). The CRC tumor and non-tumor tissues clustered tightly in separate groups using hierarchical cluster analysis of the differentially expressed proteins, indicating a strong CRC-association of this proteome subset. Specifically, cancer associated proteins such as FN1, TNC, DEFA1, ITGB2, MLEC, CDH17, EZR and pathways including actin cytoskeleton and RhoGDI signaling were deregulated. Stage-specific proteome signatures were identified including up-regulated ribosomal proteins and down-regulated annexin proteins in early stage CRC. Finally, EGFR(+) CRC tissues showed an EGFR-dependent down-regulation of cell adhesion molecules, relative to EGFR(-) tissues. Taken together, this study provides a detailed map of the altered proteome and associated protein pathways in CRC, which enhances our mechanistic understanding of CRC biology and opens avenues for a knowledge-driven search for candidate CRC protein markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitatively assessed CT imaging measures of pulmonary interstitial pneumonia: Effects of reconstruction algorithms on histogram parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yamazaki, Youichi; Nogami, Munenobu; Kusaka, Akiko; Murase, Kenya; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed the influences of reconstruction algorithm for quantitative assessments in interstitial pneumonia patients. A total of 25 collagen vascular disease patients (nine male patients and 16 female patients; mean age, 57.2 years; age range 32-77 years) underwent thin-section MDCT examinations, and MDCT data were reconstructed with three kinds of reconstruction algorithm (two high-frequencies [A and B] and one standard [C]). In reconstruction algorithm B, the effect of low- and middle-frequency space was suppressed compared with reconstruction algorithm A. As quantitative CT parameters, kurtosis, skewness, and mean lung density (MLD) were acquired from a frequency histogram of the whole lung parenchyma in each reconstruction algorithm. To determine the difference of quantitative CT parameters affected by reconstruction algorithms, these parameters were compared statistically. To determine the relationships with the disease severity, these parameters were correlated with PFTs. In the results, all the histogram parameters values had significant differences each other (p < 0.0001) and those of reconstruction algorithm C were the highest. All MLDs had fair or moderate correlation with all parameters of PFT (-0.64 < r < -0.45, p < 0.05). Though kurtosis and skewness in high-frequency reconstruction algorithm A had significant correlations with all parameters of PFT (-0.61 < r < -0.45, p < 0.05), there were significant correlations only with diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLco) and total lung capacity (TLC) in reconstruction algorithm C and with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), DLco and TLC in reconstruction algorithm B. In conclusion, reconstruction algorithm has influence to quantitative assessments on chest thin-section MDCT examination in interstitial pneumonia patients.

  7. Quantitatively assessed CT imaging measures of pulmonary interstitial pneumonia: Effects of reconstruction algorithms on histogram parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Hisanobu [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Kaibara Hospital, 5208-1 Kaibara, Kaibara-cho, Tanba 669-3395 (Japan)], E-mail: hisanobu19760104@yahoo.co.jp; Ohno, Yoshiharu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)], E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Youichi [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: y.yamazk@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nogami, Munenobu [Division of PET, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 MInamimachi, Minatojima, Chu0-ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: aznogami@fbri.org; Kusaka, Akiko [Division of Radiology, Kobe University Hospital, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)], E-mail: a.kusaka@hosp.kobe-u.ac.jp; Murase, Kenya [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: murase@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)], E-mail: sugimura@med.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2010-04-15

    This study aimed the influences of reconstruction algorithm for quantitative assessments in interstitial pneumonia patients. A total of 25 collagen vascular disease patients (nine male patients and 16 female patients; mean age, 57.2 years; age range 32-77 years) underwent thin-section MDCT examinations, and MDCT data were reconstructed with three kinds of reconstruction algorithm (two high-frequencies [A and B] and one standard [C]). In reconstruction algorithm B, the effect of low- and middle-frequency space was suppressed compared with reconstruction algorithm A. As quantitative CT parameters, kurtosis, skewness, and mean lung density (MLD) were acquired from a frequency histogram of the whole lung parenchyma in each reconstruction algorithm. To determine the difference of quantitative CT parameters affected by reconstruction algorithms, these parameters were compared statistically. To determine the relationships with the disease severity, these parameters were correlated with PFTs. In the results, all the histogram parameters values had significant differences each other (p < 0.0001) and those of reconstruction algorithm C were the highest. All MLDs had fair or moderate correlation with all parameters of PFT (-0.64 < r < -0.45, p < 0.05). Though kurtosis and skewness in high-frequency reconstruction algorithm A had significant correlations with all parameters of PFT (-0.61 < r < -0.45, p < 0.05), there were significant correlations only with diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLco) and total lung capacity (TLC) in reconstruction algorithm C and with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), DLco and TLC in reconstruction algorithm B. In conclusion, reconstruction algorithm has influence to quantitative assessments on chest thin-section MDCT examination in interstitial pneumonia patients.

  8. Quantitative assessment of cancer cell morphology and motility using telecentric digital holographic microscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Van K; Nguyen, Thanh C; Chung, Byung M; Nehmetallah, George; Raub, Christopher B

    2018-03-01

    The noninvasive, fast acquisition of quantitative phase maps using digital holographic microscopy (DHM) allows tracking of rapid cellular motility on transparent substrates. On two-dimensional surfaces in vitro, MDA-MB-231 cancer cells assume several morphologies related to the mode of migration and substrate stiffness, relevant to mechanisms of cancer invasiveness in vivo. The quantitative phase information from DHM may accurately classify adhesive cancer cell subpopulations with clinical relevance. To test this, cells from the invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line were cultured on glass, tissue-culture treated polystyrene, and collagen hydrogels, and imaged with DHM followed by epifluorescence microscopy after staining F-actin and nuclei. Trends in cell phase parameters were tracked on the different substrates, during cell division, and during matrix adhesion, relating them to F-actin features. Support vector machine learning algorithms were trained and tested using parameters from holographic phase reconstructions and cell geometric features from conventional phase images, and used to distinguish between elongated and rounded cell morphologies. DHM was able to distinguish between elongated and rounded morphologies of MDA-MB-231 cells with 94% accuracy, compared to 83% accuracy using cell geometric features from conventional brightfield microscopy. This finding indicates the potential of DHM to detect and monitor cancer cell morphologies relevant to cell cycle phase status, substrate adhesion, and motility. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. Assessing Anticalcification Treatments in Bioprosthetic Tissue by Using the New Zealand Rabbit Intramuscular Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gregory A; Faught, Joelle M; Olin, Jane M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit intramuscular model can be used for detecting calcification in bioprosthetic tissue and to compare the calcification in the rabbit to that of native human valves. The rabbit model was compared with the commonly used Sprague–Dawley rat subcutaneous model. Eighteen rabbits and 18 rats were used to assess calcification in bioprosthetic tissue over time (7, 14, 30, and 90 d). The explanted rabbit and rat tissue discs were measured for calcium by using atomic absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Calcium deposits on the human valve explants were assessed by using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the NZW rabbit model is robust for detecting calcification in a shorter duration (14 d), with less infection complications, more space to implant tissue groups (thereby reducing animal use numbers), and a more metabolically and mechanically dynamic environment than the rat subcutaneous model . The human explanted valves and rabbit explanted tissue both showed Raman peaks at 960 cm−1 which is representative of hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is the final calcium and phosphate species in the calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves and rabbit intramuscular implants. The NZW rabbit intramuscular model is an effective model for assessing calcification in bioprosthetic tissue. PMID:19619417

  10. Indicators validation for the improvement of environmental and social impact quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Monterde-Diaz, Rafael; Santamarina-Siurana, Maria-Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and social impact quantitative assessment is an essential tool for the correct location of economic activities within the territory. The main problem of impact quantification lies in establishing the appropriateness of the instruments (indicators) utilised, such that their level of objectivity is the highest possible. To improve the quality of this kind of studies, the present contribution discusses this problematic question and its consequences and proposes a methodology for the validation of indicators. Finally, the methodology proposed is subjected to an observational and experimental test to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal. The test is performed on four indicators, which are designed ad hoc to assess alternatives in industrial facility location problems where the decision-making process has to be supported by an environmental and social impact assessment

  11. Engineering approach to relative quantitative assessment of safety culture and related social issues in NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon, V.; Gladyshev, M.; Malkin, S.

    2005-01-01

    The report is devoted to presentation of engineering approach and software tool developed for Safety Culture (SC) assessment as well as to the results of their implementation at Smolensk NPP. The engineering approach is logic evolution of the IAEA ASSET method broadly used at European NPPs in 90-s. It was implemented at Russian and other plants including Olkiluoto NPP in Finland. The approach allows relative quantitative assessing and trending the aspects of SC by the analysis of evens features and causes, calculation and trending corresponding indicators. At the same time plant's operational performances and related social issues, including efficiency of plant operation and personnel reliability, can be monitored. With the help of developed tool the joint team combined from personnel of Smolensk NPP and RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' ('KI') issued the SC self-assessment report, which identifies: families of recurrent events, main safety and operational problems ; their trends and importance to SC and plant efficiency; recommendations to enhance SC and operational performance

  12. Checklist and scoring system for the assessment of soft tissue preservation in CT examinations of human mummies. Application to the Tyrolean Iceman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, Stephanie [Trauma Center Murnau (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Trauma Center Murnau and Paracelsus Medical Univ. Salzburg, Murnau (Germany). Inst. of Biomechanics; Pernter, Patrizia [Central Hospital, Bozen (Italy). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Anatomy, Histology and Anthropology; Zesch, Stephanie; Rosendahl, Wilfried [Reiss-Engelhorn Museen, Mannheim (Germany). German Mummy Project; Hotz, Gerhard [Natural History Museum of Basel (Switzerland). Anthropology; Zink, Albert R. [EURAC-Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, Bolzano (Italy)

    2017-12-15

    Soft tissues make a skeleton into a mummy and they allow for a diagnosis beyond osteology. Following the approach of structured reporting in clinical radiology, a recently developed checklist was used to evaluate the soft tissue preservation status of the Tyrolean Iceman using computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to apply the ''Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies'' to the Tyrolean Iceman, and to compare the Iceman's soft tissue preservation score to the scores calculated for other mummies. A whole-body (CT) (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) consisting of five scans, performed in January 2013 in the Department of Radiodiagnostics, Central Hospital, Bolzano, was used (slice thickness 0.6mm; kilovolt ranging from80 to 140). For standardized evaluation the ''CT Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in Human Mummies'' was used. All checkpoints under category ''A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System'' and more than half in category ''B. Organs and Organ Systems'' were observed. The scoring system accounted for a total score of 153 (out of 200). The comparison of the scores between the Iceman and three mummy collections from Vilnius, Lithuania, and Palermo, Sicily, as well as one Egyptian mummy resulted in overall higher soft tissue preservation scores for the Iceman. Application of the checklist allowed for standardized assessment and documentation of the Iceman's soft tissue preservation status. The scoring system allowed for a quantitative comparison between the Iceman and other mummies. The Iceman showed remarkable soft tissue preservation.

  13. Checklist and scoring system for the assessment of soft tissue preservation in CT examinations of human mummies. Application to the Tyrolean Iceman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissues make a skeleton into a mummy and they allow for a diagnosis beyond osteology. Following the approach of structured reporting in clinical radiology, a recently developed checklist was used to evaluate the soft tissue preservation status of the Tyrolean Iceman using computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to apply the ''Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies'' to the Tyrolean Iceman, and to compare the Iceman's soft tissue preservation score to the scores calculated for other mummies. A whole-body (CT) (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) consisting of five scans, performed in January 2013 in the Department of Radiodiagnostics, Central Hospital, Bolzano, was used (slice thickness 0.6mm; kilovolt ranging from80 to 140). For standardized evaluation the ''CT Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in Human Mummies'' was used. All checkpoints under category ''A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System'' and more than half in category ''B. Organs and Organ Systems'' were observed. The scoring system accounted for a total score of 153 (out of 200). The comparison of the scores between the Iceman and three mummy collections from Vilnius, Lithuania, and Palermo, Sicily, as well as one Egyptian mummy resulted in overall higher soft tissue preservation scores for the Iceman. Application of the checklist allowed for standardized assessment and documentation of the Iceman's soft tissue preservation status. The scoring system allowed for a quantitative comparison between the Iceman and other mummies. The Iceman showed remarkable soft tissue preservation.

  14. Quantitative MRI assessment of VX2 tumour oxygenation changes in response to hyperoxia and hypercapnia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jeff D; Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret [Research Institute and Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto M5G 1X8 (Canada); Akens, Margarete K, E-mail: Hai-Ling.Cheng@sickkids.ca [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Health Science, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2011-03-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation times provide indirect estimates of tissue O{sub 2} for monitoring tumour oxygenation. This study provides insight into mechanisms underlying longitudinal (R{sub 1} = 1/T{sub 1}) and transverse effective (R{sub 2}* = 1/T{sub 2}*) relaxation rate changes during inhalation of 100% O{sub 2} and 3%, 6% and 9% CO{sub 2} (balanced O{sub 2}) in a rabbit tumour model. Quantitative R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}*, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging was performed in six rabbits 12-23 days following implantation of VX2 carcinoma cells in the quadricep muscle. Invasive measurements of tissue partial pressure of O{sub 2} (pO{sub 2}) and perfusion were also performed, which revealed elevated pO{sub 2} levels in all tumour regions for all hyperoxic gases compared to baseline (air) and reduced perfusion for carbogen. During 100% O{sub 2} breathing, an R{sub 1} increase and R{sub 2}* decrease consistent with elevated pO{sub 2} were observed within tumours. DCE-derived blood flow was weakly correlated with R{sub 1} changes from air to 100% O{sub 2}. Further addition of CO{sub 2} (carbogen) did not introduce considerable changes in MR relaxation rates, but a trend towards higher R{sub 1} relative to breathing 100% O{sub 2} was observed, while R{sub 2}* changes were inconsistent. This observation supports the predominance of dissolved O{sub 2} on R{sub 1} sensitivity and demonstrates the value of R{sub 1} over R{sub 2}* for tissue oxygenation measures.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of Free Flap Viability with CEUS Using an Integrated Perfusion Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, S; Klein, S; Prantl, L; Dolderer, J; Lamby, P; Jung, E-M

    2015-12-01

    New treatment strategies in oncology and trauma surgery lead to an increasing demand for soft tissue reconstruction with free tissue transfer. In previous studies, CEUS was proven to detect early flap failure. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify vascular disturbances after free flap transplantation using a fast integrated perfusion software tool. From 2011 to 2013, 33 patients were examined by one experienced radiologist using CEUS after a bolus injection of 1-2.4 ml of SonoVue(®). Flap perfusion was analysed qualitatively regarding contrast defects or delayed wash-in. Additionally, an integrated semi-quantitative analysis using time-intensity curve analysis (TIC) was performed. TIC analysis of the transplant was conducted on a centimetre-by-centimetre basis up to a penetration depth of 4 cm. The 2 perfusion parameters "Time to PEAK" and "Area under the Curve" were compared in patients without complications vs. patients with minor complications or complete flap loss to figure out significant differences. TtoPk is given in seconds (s) and Area is given in relative units (rU) Results: A regular postoperative process was observed in 26 (79%) patients. In contrast, 5 (15%) patients with partial superficial flap necrosis, 1 patient (3%) with complete flap loss and 1 patient (3%) with haematoma were observed. TtoPk revealed no significant differences, whereas Area revealed significantly lower perfusion values in the corresponding areas in patients with complications. The critical threshold for sufficient flap perfusion was set below 150 rU. In conclusion, CEUS is a mobile and cost-effective opportunity to quantify tissue perfusion and can even be used almost without any restrictions in multi-morbid patients with renal and hepatic failure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  17. Classification System for Desertification and Its Quantitative Assessment Methodology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junhou; Zhang Zhiqiang; Jia Baoquan; Meng Fanrong

    2003-01-01

    Based on the desertification definition of United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and features of desertification in China, three-level hierarchical classification system for desertification and quantitative assessment methodology of desertification degree were developed and used to evaluate desertification danger degree across the country. The system is composed of three components: type of desertification, type of land utilization and degree of desertification. The type of desertification monitored in China was divided into 4 major categories, 15 sub-categories and 52 types. Vegetation coverage, soil characteristics, and topography are considered as three major indicators for quantitative assessment of desertified land. A simple, yet practically sound mathematical assessment model was built using these indicators. Furthurmore, a regional land desertification warning model was also constructed on the basis of the ratios of non-desertified land area to desertified land area in different degrees. The warning result of wind-erosion desertification at county scale for 12 provinces in northern China was also calculated by this model.

  18. A relative quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique: animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Xuefang; Zhou, Kenneth J.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique in swine model. Numerous techniques based on the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) Hounsfield Unit (HU) density have emerged. Although these methods proposed to be able to assess haemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis, their limitations are noticed. There are still needs to develop some new techniques. Experiments were performed upon five (5) closed-chest swine. Balloon catheters were placed into the coronary artery to simulate different degrees of luminal stenosis. Myocardial Blood Flow (MBF) was measured using color microsphere technique. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) was measured using pressure wire. CT examinations were performed twice during First-pass phase under adenosine-stress condition. CT HU Density (HUDCT) and CT HU Density Ratio (HUDRCT) were calculated using the acquired CT images. Our study presents that HUDRCT shows a good (y=0.07245+0.09963x, r2=0.898) correlation with MBF and FFR. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, HUDRCT provides excellent diagnostic performance for the detection of significant ischemia during adenosine-stress as defined by FFR indicated by the value of Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.927. HUDRCT has the potential to be developed as a useful indicator of quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion.

  19. Quantitative assessment of emphysema from whole lung CT scans: comparison with visual grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Apanosovich, Tatiyana V.; Wang, Jianwei; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2009-02-01

    Emphysema is a disease of the lungs that destroys the alveolar air sacs and induces long-term respiratory dysfunction. CT scans allow for imaging of the anatomical basis of emphysema and for visual assessment by radiologists of the extent present in the lungs. Several measures have been introduced for the quantification of the extent of disease directly from CT data in order to add to the qualitative assessments made by radiologists. In this paper we compare emphysema index, mean lung density, histogram percentiles, and the fractal dimension to visual grade in order to evaluate the predictability of radiologist visual scoring of emphysema from low-dose CT scans through quantitative scores, in order to determine which measures can be useful as surrogates for visual assessment. All measures were computed over nine divisions of the lung field (whole lung, individual lungs, and upper/middle/lower thirds of each lung) for each of 148 low-dose, whole lung scans. In addition, a visual grade of each section was also given by an expert radiologist. One-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine the ability of the measures to predict visual grade from quantitative score. We found that all measures were able to distinguish between normal and severe grades (p<0.01), and between mild/moderate and all other grades (p<0.05). However, no measure was able to distinguish between mild and moderate cases. Approximately 65% prediction accuracy was achieved from using quantitative score to predict visual grade, with 73% if mild and moderate cases are considered as a single class.

  20. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  1. Cartilage T2 assessment: differentiation of normal hyaline cartilage and reparative tissue after arthroscopic cartilage repair in equine subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lawrence M; Sussman, Marshall S; Hurtig, Mark; Probyn, Linda; Tomlinson, George; Kandel, Rita

    2006-11-01

    To prospectively assess T2 mapping characteristics of normal articular cartilage and of cartilage at sites of arthroscopic repair, including comparison with histologic results and collagen organization assessed at polarized light microscopy (PLM). Study protocol was compliant with the Canadian Council on Animal Care Guidelines and approved by the institutional animal care committee. Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) and microfracture arthroplasty (MFx) were performed in knees of 10 equine subjects (seven female, three male; age range, 3-5 years). A site of arthroscopically normal cartilage was documented in each joint as a control site. Joints were harvested at 12 (n = 5) and 24 (n = 5) weeks postoperatively and were imaged at 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) with a 10-echo sagittal fast spin-echo acquisition. T2 maps of each site (21 OAT harvest, 10 MFx, 12 OAT plug, and 10 control sites) were calculated with linear least-squares curve fitting. Cartilage T2 maps were qualitatively graded as "organized" (normal transition of low-to-high T2 signal from deep to superficial cartilage zones) or "disorganized." Quantitative mean T2 values were calculated for deep, middle, and superficial cartilage at each location. Results were compared with histologic and PLM assessments by using kappa analysis. T2 maps were qualitatively graded as organized at 20 of 53 sites and as disorganized at 33 sites. Perfect agreement was seen between organized T2 and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage and between disorganized T2 and histologic findings of fibrous reparative tissue (kappa = 1.0). Strong agreement was seen between organized T2 and normal PLM findings and between disorganized T2 and abnormal PLM findings (kappa = .92). Quantitative assessment of the deep, middle, and superficial cartilage, respectively, showed mean T2 values of 53.3, 58.6, and 54.9 msec at reparative fibrous tissue sites and 40.7, 53.6, and 61.6 msec at hyaline cartilage sites. A

  2. Cobalt deposition in mineralized bone tissue after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing: Quantitative μ-X-ray-fluorescence analysis of implant material incorporation in periprosthetic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; Busse, Björn; Procop, Mathias; Zustin, Jozef; Amling, Michael; Katzer, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Most resurfacing systems are manufactured from cobalt-chromium alloys with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing couples. Because the quantity of particulate metal and corrosion products which can be released into the periprosthetic milieu is greater in MoM bearings than in metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) bearings, it is hypothesized that the quantity and distribution of debris released by the MoM components induce a compositional change in the periprosthetic bone. To determine the validity of this claim, nondestructive µ-X-ray fluorescence analysis was carried out on undecalcified histological samples from 13 femoral heads which had undergone surface replacement. These samples were extracted from the patients after gradient time points due to required revision surgery. Samples from nonintervened femoral heads as well as from a MoP resurfaced implant served as controls. Light microscopy and µ-X-ray fluorescence analyses revealed that cobalt debris was found not only in the soft tissue around the prosthesis and the bone marrow, but also in the mineralized bone tissue. Mineralized bone exposed to surface replacements showed significant increases in cobalt concentrations in comparison with control specimens without an implant. A maximum cobalt concentration in mineralized hard tissue of up to 380 ppm was detected as early as 2 years after implantation. Values of this magnitude are not found in implants with a MoP surface bearing until a lifetime of more than 20 years. This study demonstrates that hip resurfacing implants with MoM bearings present a potential long-term health risk due to rapid cobalt ion accumulation in periprosthetic hard tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1855-1862, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Occupational hand eczema caused by nickel and evaluated by quantitative exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. EU legislation has reduced the epidemic of nickel contact allergy affecting the consumer, and shifted the focus towards occupational exposure. The acid wipe sampling technique was developed to quantitatively determine skin exposure to metals. Objectives. To assess the clinical...... dilution series were performed. Results. Nickel was detected in all samples from the hands. In all patients, the nickel content on the hands was higher than on the non-exposed control area. Conclusions. Occupational exposure to nickel-releasing items raised the nickel content on exposed skin as compared...

  4. An approach to quantitative assessment of relative proliferation risks from nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.; Vira, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feasibility of quantitative assessments of the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation is discussed in this paper. The proliferation risk is defined as a combined utility of the different fuel cycle processes or materials for the proscribed acquisition of a nuclear weapon. Based on a set of selected weighted criteria, the process utilities are calculated employing utility functions or fuzzy expectation values. The methods are compared to each other. The scheme appears feasible in relative comparisons while certain leeway must still be retained for political judgement. (author)

  5. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen......Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...

  6. Monitoring and quantitative assessment of tumor burden using in vivo bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-C. [Cancer Research Division, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Jeng-Jong [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jjhwang@ym.edu.tw; Ting, G. [Cancer Research Division, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Y.-L. [Taiwan Liposome Company, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.-J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Whang-Peng, J. [Cancer Research Division, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China)

    2007-02-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating tumor growth. In this study, the kinetic of tumor growth has been assessed in C26 colon carcinoma bearing BALB/c mouse model. The ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth of subcutaneous tumors transplanted with C26 cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (C26/tk-luc). A good correlation (R {sup 2}=0.998) of photon emission to the cell number was found in vitro. Tumor burden and tumor volume were monitored in vivo over time by quantitation of photon emission using Xenogen IVIS 50 and standard external caliper measurement, respectively. At various time intervals, tumor-bearing mice were imaged to determine the correlation of in vivo BLI to tumor volume. However, a correlation of BLI to tumor volume was observed when tumor volume was smaller than 1000 mm{sup 3} (R {sup 2}=0.907). {gamma} Scintigraphy combined with [{sup 131}I]FIAU was another imaging modality used for verifying the previous results. In conclusion, this study showed that bioluminescence imaging is a powerful and quantitative tool for the direct assay to monitor tumor growth in vivo. The dual reporter genes transfected tumor-bearing animal model can be applied in the evaluation of the efficacy of new developed anti-cancer drugs.

  7. Simplified quantitative treatment of uncertainty and interindividual variability in health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1993-01-01

    A distinction between uncertainty (or the extent of lack of knowledge) and interindividual variability (or the extent of person-to-person heterogeneity) regarding the values of input variates must be maintained if a quantitative characterization of uncertainty in population risk or in individual risk is sought. Here, some practical methods are presented that should facilitate implementation of the analytic framework for uncertainty and variability proposed by Bogen and Spear. (1,2) Two types of methodology are discussed: one that facilitates the distinction between uncertainty and variability per se, and another that may be used to simplify quantitative analysis of distributed inputs representing either uncertainty or variability. A simple and a complex form for modeled increased risk are presented and then used to illustrate methods facilitating the distinction between uncertainty and variability in reference to characterization of both population and individual risk. Finally, a simple form of discrete probability calculus is proposed as an easily implemented, practical altemative to Monte-Carlo based procedures to quantitative integration of uncertainty and variability in risk assessment

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Ductile Iron Microstructure – A Comparison of Selected Methods for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrzygłód B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stereological description of dispersed microstructure is not an easy task and remains the subject of continuous research. In its practical aspect, a correct stereological description of this type of structure is essential for the analysis of processes of coagulation and spheroidisation, or for studies of relationships between structure and properties. One of the most frequently used methods for an estimation of the density Nv and size distribution of particles is the Scheil - Schwartz - Saltykov method. In this article, the authors present selected methods for quantitative assessment of ductile iron microstructure, i.e. the Scheil - Schwartz - Saltykov method, which allows a quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids using measurements and counts performed on two-dimensional cross-sections of these sets (microsections and quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids by X-ray computed microtomography, which is an interesting alternative for structural studies compared to traditional methods of microstructure imaging since, as a result, the analysis provides a three-dimensional imaging of microstructures examined.

  9. Quantitative cervical vertebral maturation assessment in adolescents with normal occlusion: a mixed longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Li; Xu, Tian-Min; Jiang, Jiu-Hui; Zhang, Xing-Zhong; Lin, Jiu-Xiang

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a quantitative cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) system for adolescents with normal occlusion. Mixed longitudinal data were used. The subjects included 87 children and adolescents from 8 to 18 years old with normal occlusion (32 boys, 55 girls) selected from 901 candidates. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films were taken once a year for 6 years. The lateral cephalograms of all subjects were divided into 11 maturation groups according to the Fishman skeletal maturity indicators. The morphologic characteristics of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae at 11 developmental stages were measured and analyzed. Three characteristic parameters (H4/W4, AH3/PH3, @2) were selected to determine the classification of CVM. With 3 morphologic variables, the quantitative CVM system including 4 maturational stages was established. An equation that can accurately estimate the maturation of the cervical vertebrae was established: CVM stage=-4.13+3.57xH4/W4+4.07xAH3/PH3+0.03x@2. The quantitative CVM method is an efficient, objective, and relatively simple approach to assess the level of skeletal maturation during adolescence.

  10. Monitoring and quantitative assessment of tumor burden using in vivo bioluminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Ting, G.; Tseng, Y.-L.; Wang, S.-J.; Whang-Peng, J.

    2007-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating tumor growth. In this study, the kinetic of tumor growth has been assessed in C26 colon carcinoma bearing BALB/c mouse model. The ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth of subcutaneous tumors transplanted with C26 cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (C26/tk-luc). A good correlation (R 2 =0.998) of photon emission to the cell number was found in vitro. Tumor burden and tumor volume were monitored in vivo over time by quantitation of photon emission using Xenogen IVIS 50 and standard external caliper measurement, respectively. At various time intervals, tumor-bearing mice were imaged to determine the correlation of in vivo BLI to tumor volume. However, a correlation of BLI to tumor volume was observed when tumor volume was smaller than 1000 mm 3 (R 2 =0.907). γ Scintigraphy combined with [ 131 I]FIAU was another imaging modality used for verifying the previous results. In conclusion, this study showed that bioluminescence imaging is a powerful and quantitative tool for the direct assay to monitor tumor growth in vivo. The dual reporter genes transfected tumor-bearing animal model can be applied in the evaluation of the efficacy of new developed anti-cancer drugs

  11. Three-dimensional lithographically-defined organotypic tissue arrays for quantitative analysis of morphogenesis and neoplastic progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Inman, Jamie L.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-02-13

    Here we describe a simple micromolding method to construct three-dimensional arrays of organotypic epithelial tissue structures that approximate in vivo histology. An elastomeric stamp containing an array of posts of defined geometry and spacing is used to mold microscale cavities into the surface of type I collagen gels. Epithelial cells are seeded into the cavities and covered with a second layer of collagen. The cells reorganize into hollow tissues corresponding to the geometry of the cavities. Patterned tissue arrays can be produced in 3-4 h and will undergo morphogenesis over the following one to three days. The protocol can easily be adapted to study a variety of tissues and aspects of normal and neoplastic development.

  12. Adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to plastic tissue culture plates: a quantitative model for the adherence of staphylococci to medical devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, G D; Simpson, W A; Younger, J J; Baddour, L M; Barrett, F F; Melton, D M; Beachey, E H

    1985-01-01

    The adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to smooth surfaces was assayed by measuring the optical densities of stained bacterial films adherent to the floors of plastic tissue culture plates. The optical densities correlated with the weight of the adherent bacterial film (r = 0.906; P less than 0.01). The measurements also agreed with visual assessments of bacterial adherence to culture tubes, microtiter plates, and tissue culture plates. Selected clinical strains were passed through ...

  13. The role of quantitative optimization techniques in assessment of best practicable environmental options for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The interpretation of the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) and ALARA concepts in radioactive waste management is given. The quantitative analysis of the financial and radiological impacts of different options for waste management is discussed. Finally, the role of quantitative multi-attribute analysis in the DOE's assessment of BPEOs for radioactive waste is described. (UK)

  14. Quantitative assessment of the environmental footprint of the French nuclear fuel cycle by life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Christophe; Bourg, Stephane; Ouvrier, Noel; Serp, Jerome

    2015-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy contributes to most than 75% of the French electricity thanks to the operation of 58 generation 2 reactors located on 19 sites built from the 70's to the end of the 90's. France also developed for a long time a fully integrated nuclear industry covering the whole nuclear fuel cycle, from the ore mining to the fabrication of the fuel for the front-end, from the reprocessing up to the MOX fuel fabrication and storage facility and in the near-future geological repository for the back-end. This investment allows France to produce a low-carbon electricity with the second lowest GHG emissions intensity, in the range of 90 g CO 2 /KWh. Such a very beneficial figure is directly related to the high contribution of nuclear in the electricity mix combined with renewables energies, in particular hydro. Greenhouse gases emissions are very relevant to assess the respective influence on the global climate change, but they do not address the whole potential environmental impact of any activity. However, such a question is crucial for assessing the respective sustainability of such an activity, in particular nuclear energy which is thought to be very detrimental by a large part of the public opinion. In order to address this question, we developed a dedicated life cycle assessment (LCA) tools referred to as NELCAS, the specificity of which is to focus on the first order parameters and avoiding any 'black-box' effect which can exist in commercial LCA tool. Thanks to the recent transparency and nuclear safety law (2006), in- and out- fluxes of matter and energy for any of the fuel cycle facilities are now publicly available. We hence used this significant set of measured data to feed our model and assess the most usual environmental indicators such as land use, different types of atmospheric emissions (GHG, SOx, NOx, particles...) and aqueous release (chemical effluents, eutrophication potential,...)... We also

  15. Validity of soft-tissue thickness of calf measured using MRI for assessing unilateral lower extremity lymphoedema secondary to cervical and endometrial cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qing; Li, Yulai; Chen, Tian-Wu; Yao, Yuan; Zhao, Zizhou; Li, Yang; Xu, Jianrong; Jiang, Zhaohua; Hu, Jiani

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether soft-tissue thickness of the calf measured using MRI could be valid for assessing unilateral lower extremity lymphoedema (LEL) secondary to cervical and endometrial cancer treatments. Materials and methods: Seventy women with unilateral LEL and 25 without LEL after cervical or endometrial cancer treatments underwent MRI examinations of their calves. Total thickness of soft-tissue (TT), muscle thickness (MT), and subcutaneous tissue thickness (STT) of the calf, and the difference between the affected and contralateral unaffected calf regarding TT (DTT), MT (DMT), and STT (DSTT) were obtained using fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging in the middle of the calves. The volume of the calf and difference in volume (DV) between calves were obtained by the method of water displacement. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the validity of MRI measurements by volume measurements in staging LEL. Results: There was a close correlation between volume and TT for the affected (r = 0.927) or unaffected calves (r = 0.896). STT of the affected calf, and DTT or DSTT of the calves were closely correlated with volume of the affected calf or DV of the calves (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed significant differences in TT, STT, volume of the affected calf, DTT, DSTT, and DV between stages except in volume of the affected calf or in DV between stage 0 and 1. For staging LEL, DSTT showed the best discrimination ability among all the parameters. Conclusions: Soft-tissue thickness of the calf measured at MRI could be valid for quantitatively staging unilateral LEL, and DSTT of the calves could be the best classifying factor. - Highlights: • The soft tissue thickness of calves on MRI could quantitatively assess secondary LEL. • Calf soft tissue thickness indicated concurrent or construct validity of calf volume. • The difference of subcutaneous tissue thickness of calves could be used to stage LEL

  16. A quantitative method for risk assessment of agriculture due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiqiang; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Zhang, Jingting; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Yuying; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Han, Guolin; Wu, Dong; Wang, Jialin; Fan, Dongliang; Gao, Lin; Pan, Xuebiao

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has greatly affected agriculture. Agriculture is facing increasing risks as its sensitivity and vulnerability to climate change. Scientific assessment of climate change-induced agricultural risks could help to actively deal with climate change and ensure food security. However, quantitative assessment of risk is a difficult issue. Here, based on the IPCC assessment reports, a quantitative method for risk assessment of agriculture due to climate change is proposed. Risk is described as the product of the degree of loss and its probability of occurrence. The degree of loss can be expressed by the yield change amplitude. The probability of occurrence can be calculated by the new concept of climate change effect-accumulated frequency (CCEAF). Specific steps of this assessment method are suggested. This method is determined feasible and practical by using the spring wheat in Wuchuan County of Inner Mongolia as a test example. The results show that the fluctuation of spring wheat yield increased with the warming and drying climatic trend in Wuchuan County. The maximum yield decrease and its probability were 3.5 and 64.6%, respectively, for the temperature maximum increase 88.3%, and its risk was 2.2%. The maximum yield decrease and its probability were 14.1 and 56.1%, respectively, for the precipitation maximum decrease 35.2%, and its risk was 7.9%. For the comprehensive impacts of temperature and precipitation, the maximum yield decrease and its probability were 17.6 and 53.4%, respectively, and its risk increased to 9.4%. If we do not adopt appropriate adaptation strategies, the degree of loss from the negative impacts of multiclimatic factors and its probability of occurrence will both increase accordingly, and the risk will also grow obviously.

  17. A systematic framework for effective uncertainty assessment of severe accident calculations; Hybrid qualitative and quantitative methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen; Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad; Tehranifard, Ali Abbaspour; Yousefpour, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic framework for characterizing important phenomena and quantifying the degree of contribution of each parameter to the output in severe accident uncertainty assessment. The proposed methodology comprises qualitative as well as quantitative phases. The qualitative part so called Modified PIRT, being a robust process of PIRT for more precise quantification of uncertainties, is a two step process for identifying and ranking based on uncertainty importance in severe accident phenomena. In this process identified severe accident phenomena are ranked according to their effect on the figure of merit and their level of knowledge. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) serves here as a systematic approach for severe accident phenomena ranking. Formal uncertainty importance technique is used to estimate the degree of credibility of the severe accident model(s) used to represent the important phenomena. The methodology uses subjective justification by evaluating available information and data from experiments, and code predictions for this step. The quantitative part utilizes uncertainty importance measures for the quantification of the effect of each input parameter to the output uncertainty. A response surface fitting approach is proposed for estimating associated uncertainties with less calculation cost. The quantitative results are used to plan in reducing epistemic uncertainty in the output variable(s). The application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated for the ACRR MP-2 severe accident test facility. - Highlights: • A two stage framework for severe accident uncertainty analysis is proposed. • Modified PIRT qualitatively identifies and ranks uncertainty sources more precisely. • Uncertainty importance measure quantitatively calculates effect of each uncertainty source. • Methodology is applied successfully on ACRR MP-2 severe accident test facility

  18. Quantitative assessment of the brain perfusion using the short-lived isotope 195m-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities of quantitatively assessing the brain perfusion on the basis of a modified transit time theory, using the favourable properties of the ultrashort-lived isotope 195m-Au, are shown. The intravascular deposition of the isotope 195m-Au enables quantitative brain perfusion studies based on both the dorsal and lateral projection. The 195m-Au isotope has a half-life of 30 sec and is able to be eluated from the 195m-Hg 195m-Au generator (Byk-Mallinckrodt). The quantification of brain perfusion (in terms of ml/min/100 g) is based on a recently published theory for non-diffusing radio-indicators, using a first-pass technique. This method of quantification corresponds to a modification of the transit time theory from Maier and Zierler (1) and accounts for the influences of dispersion and recirculation of an intravenously injected non-diffused tracer bolus (2, 3). The energy spectrum of the eluate from the generator shows two lines of high intensity at 262 keV and 68 keV. The low-energy peak is suited for the lateral view, i.e. brain perfusion studies of one hemisphere, without a significant 'look-through-effect'. The high-energy peak is successfully used for dorsal projections of brain perfusion studies. An examination takes less time than one minute and can be repeated after three minutes. Dynamic brain perfusion studies enable parametric images of the quantitative regional brain perfusion distribution, or the reciprocal mean transit times, to be obtained by calculation. Infarcted areas are able to be visualized with high sensitivity. Quantitative perfusion patterns during activation of the visual centre are detectable. The advantages of this method are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Groping for Quantitative Digital 3-D Image Analysis: An Approach to Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in Thick Tissue Sections of Prostate Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Rodenacker

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In molecular pathology numerical chromosome aberrations have been found to be decisive for the prognosis of malignancy in tumours. The existence of such aberrations can be detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The gain or loss of certain base sequences in the desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA can be estimated by counting the number of FISH signals per cell nucleus. The quantitative evaluation of such events is a necessary condition for a prospective use in diagnostic pathology. To avoid occlusions of signals, the cell nucleus has to be analyzed in three dimensions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is the means to obtain series of optical thin sections from fluorescence stained or marked material to fulfill the conditions mentioned above. A graphical user interface (GUI to a software package for display, inspection, count and (semi‐automatic analysis of 3‐D images for pathologists is outlined including the underlying methods of 3‐D image interaction and segmentation developed. The preparative methods are briefly described. Main emphasis is given to the methodical questions of computer‐aided analysis of large 3‐D image data sets for pathologists. Several automated analysis steps can be performed for segmentation and succeeding quantification. However tumour material is in contrast to isolated or cultured cells even for visual inspection, a difficult material. For the present a fully automated digital image analysis of 3‐D data is not in sight. A semi‐automatic segmentation method is thus presented here.

  20. Non-invasive assessment of distribution volume ratios and binding potential: tissue heterogeneity and interindividually averaged time-activity curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimold, M.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.; Dohmen, B.M.; Bares, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Otfried-Mueller-Strasse 14, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Becker, G.A. [Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Reischl, G. [Radiopharmacy, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    ; = distribution volume of the reference tissue). This can be explained by the fact that the distribution volume ratio (DVR=DV/DV ') obtained from averaged TAC is an approximation for {sigma}DV/ {sigma}DV ' rather than for {sigma}DVR/n. We conclude that Logan's non-invasive method and SRTM are suitable for heterogeneous tissues and that discussion of group differences in PET studies generally should include qualitative and quantitative assessment of interindividually averaged TAC. (orig.)

  1. Coexistence of Epstein-Barr virus and Parvovirus B19 in tonsillar tissue samples: quantitative measurement by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Fatih; Gümral, Ramazan; Yildizoğlu, Üzeyir; Babayiğit, Mustafa Alparslan; Durmaz, Abdullah; Yiğit, Nuri; Saraçli, Mehmet Ali; Kubar, Ayhan

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence and copy number of six different viruses in tonsillar tissue samples removed surgically because of chronic recurrent tonsillitis or chronic obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy. In total, 56 tissue samples (tonsillar core) collected from 44 children and 12 adults were included in this study. The presence of viruses was investigated using a new TaqMan-based quantitative real-time PCR assay. Of the 56 tissue samples, 67.9% (38/56) were positive for at least one of the six viruses. Epstein-Barr virus was the most frequently detected virus, being found in 53.6% (30/56), followed by human Parvovirus B19 21.4% (12/56), human adenovirus 12.5% (7/56), human Cytomegalovirus 5.4% (3/56), BK polyomavirus 1.8% (1/56), and Herpes simplex virus 1.8% (1/56). Precancerous or cancerous changes were not detected in the tonsillar tissue samples by pathologic examination, whereas lymphoid hyperplasia was observed in 24 patients. In contrast to other viruses, B19 virus was present in high copy number in tonsillar tissues. The rates of EBV and B19 virus with high copy number (>500.000 copies/ml) were higher in children than in adults, and a positive relationship was also found between the presence of EBV and the presence of B19 virus with high copy number (P=0.037). It is previously reported that some viral agents are associated with different chronic tonsillar pathologies. In the present study, the presence of B19 virus in tonsillar core samples was investigated quantitatively for the first time, and our data suggests that EBV infections could be associated with B19 virus infections or could facilitate B19 virus replication. However, further detailed studies are needed to clarify this observation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    ). In such abnormal NAWM regions, biexponential diffusio