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Sample records for quantitative texture analysis

  1. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x...

  2. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x...

  3. Quantitative assessment of hip osteoarthritis based on image texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniatis, I S; Costaridou, L I; Cavouras, D A; Panagiotopoulos, E C; Panayiotakis, G S

    2006-03-01

    A non-invasive method was developed to investigate the potential capacity of digital image texture analysis in evaluating the severity of hip osteoarthritis (OA) and in monitoring its progression. 19 textural features evaluating patterns of pixel intensity fluctuations were extracted from 64 images of radiographic hip joint spaces (HJS), corresponding to 32 patients with verified unilateral or bilateral OA. Images were enhanced employing custom developed software for the delineation of the articular margins on digitized pelvic radiographs. The severity of OA for each patient was assessed by expert orthopaedists employing the Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scale. Additionally, an index expressing HJS-narrowing was computed considering patients from the unilateral OA-group. A textural feature that quantified pixel distribution non-uniformity (grey level non-uniformity, GLNU) demonstrated the strongest correlation with the HJS-narrowing index among all extracted features and utilized in further analysis. Classification rules employing GLNU feature were introduced to characterize a hip as normal or osteoarthritic and to assign it to one of three severity categories, formed in accordance with the KL scale. Application of the proposed rules resulted in relatively high classification accuracies in characterizing a hip as normal or osteoarthritic (90.6%) and in assigning it to the correct KL scale category (88.9%). Furthermore, the strong correlation between the HJS-narrowing index and the pathological GLNU (r = -0.9, p<0.001) was utilized to provide percentages quantifying hip OA-severity. Texture analysis may contribute in the quantitative assessment of OA-severity, in the monitoring of OA-progression and in the evaluation of a chondroprotective therapy.

  4. Quantitative ultrasound texture analysis for clinical decision making support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie Ying; Beland, Michael; Konrad, Joseph; Tuomi, Adam; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2015-03-01

    We propose a general ultrasound (US) texture-analysis and machine-learning framework for detecting the presence of disease that is suitable for clinical application across clinicians, disease types, devices, and operators. Its stages are image selection, image filtering, ROI selection, feature parameterization, and classification. Each stage is modular and can be replaced with alternate methods. Thus, this framework is adaptable to a wide range of tasks. Our two preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis and adenomyosis diagnosis. For steatosis, we collected US images from 288 patients and their pathology-determined values of steatosis (%) from biopsies. Two radiologists independently reviewed all images and identified the region of interest (ROI) most representative of the hepatic echotexture for each patient. To parameterize the images into comparable quantities, we filter the US images at multiple scales for various texture responses. For each response, we collect a histogram of pixel features within the ROI, and parameterize it as a Gaussian function using its mean, standard deviation, kurtosis, and skew to create a 36-feature vector. Our algorithm uses a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Using a threshold of 10%, we achieved 72.81% overall accuracy, 76.18% sensitivity, and 65.96% specificity in identifying steatosis with leave-ten-out cross-validation (p<0.0001). Extending this framework to adenomyosis, we identified 38 patients with MR-confirmed findings of adenomyosis and previous US studies and 50 controls. A single rater picked the best US-image and ROI for each case. Using the same processing pipeline, we obtained 76.14% accuracy, 86.00% sensitivity, and 63.16% specificity with leave-one-out cross-validation (p<0.0001).

  5. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2010-01-01

    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used: u

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTING RECEIVING SLITSAND USING RANDOMLY ORIENTED STANDARD SAMPLESON QUANTITATIVE TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毓舒

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the selection of receiving slits and the use of standard samples with random orientation on the result of quantitative texture analysis was tested and discussed. The result proves that it will improve the precision of the analysis to use proper slits and a randomly oriented standard sample. A simple method was given to interpolate the correction curves of random intensities.

  7. Quantitative representation of fiber-and sheet-texture in metals of cubic system. I. Computer programs for texture analysis. [TXFIB and TXSHT codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.C.; Chun, B.C. (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Lee, C.Y. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1983-05-01

    This is the first article of a series dealing with studies on the quantitative representation of fiber-and sheet-type textures in metals of cubic crystal system. Texture measurements by neutron diffraction method are analyzed using Bunge's series expansion method and the effect of series truncation is studied for samples of various texture sharpness. The present article describes two computer programs, TXFIB and TXSHT, develped for the analysis of the respective fiber-and sheet-type texture. Using these computer programs, the orientation distribution function can be expanded in the series of generalized spherical harmonics up to 58th term from 6 experimental pole figures as input. Estimations of various errors involved in the texture analysis and texture sharpness index are also included in the programs.

  8. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...

  9. Prediction of neonatal respiratory morbidity by quantitative ultrasound lung texture analysis: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Montse; Bonet-Carne, Elisenda; Cobo, Teresa; Perez-Moreno, Alvaro; Sabrià, Joan; Richter, Jute; Kacerovsky, Marian; Jacobsson, Bo; García-Posada, Raúl A; Bugatto, Fernando; Santisteve, Ramon; Vives, Àngels; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Bartha, José Luis; Carretero-Lucena, Pilar; Tan, Kai Lit; Cruz-Martínez, Rogelio; Burke, Minke; Vavilala, Suseela; Iruretagoyena, Igor; Delgado, Juan Luis; Schenone, Mauro; Vilanova, Josep; Botet, Francesc; Yeo, George S H; Hyett, Jon; Deprest, Jan; Romero, Roberto; Gratacos, Eduard

    2017-08-01

    Prediction of neonatal respiratory morbidity may be useful to plan delivery in complicated pregnancies. The limited predictive performance of the current diagnostic tests together with the risks of an invasive procedure restricts the use of fetal lung maturity assessment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of quantitative ultrasound texture analysis of the fetal lung (quantusFLM) to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity in preterm and early-term (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine format, and analyzed with quantusFLM. Physicians were blinded to the analysis. At delivery, perinatal outcomes and the occurrence of neonatal respiratory morbidity, defined as either respiratory distress syndrome or transient tachypnea of the newborn, were registered. The performance of the ultrasound texture analysis test to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity was evaluated. A total of 883 images were collected, but 17.3% were discarded because of poor image quality or exclusion criteria, leaving 730 observations for the final analysis. The prevalence of neonatal respiratory morbidity was 13.8% (101 of 730). The quantusFLM predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 74.3% (75 of 101), 88.6% (557 of 629), 51.0% (75 of 147), and 95.5% (557 of 583), respectively. Accuracy was 86.5% (632 of 730) and positive and negative likelihood ratios were 6.5 and 0.3, respectively. The quantusFLM predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with an accuracy similar to that previously reported for other tests with the advantage of being a noninvasive technique. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.;

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...... characterisation methods, such as fractals, wavelets, change trees and others, including for each method a short review, the parameters that the new methods calculate, and applications of the methods to solve surface problems. The paper contains a discussion on the relevance of the different parameters...... and quantification methods in terms of functional correlations, and it addresses the need for reducing the large number of existing parameters. The review considers the present situation and gives suggestions for future activities....

  11. Quantitative analysis of textures produced in a hot-extruded zirconium plate; Analyse quantitative des textures developpees dans une plaque de zirconium filee a chaud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couterne, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Institut national des sciences et techniques nucleaires, laboratoire de metallurgie

    1967-01-01

    The textures produced in zirconium by the extrusion at 730 deg C of a cylindrical billet in the form of a plate having a rectangular cross-section, have been studied by the Schulz method using an isotropic standard. These textures have been determined both parallel to the plane of the plate and parallel to the plane of the sides, All the results are analyzed in a final discussion which makes it possible to show, in particular near the edges of the plate, that certain components of the textures observed in the two series of recordings are in fact aspects of the same texture seen from two different angles, It is shown furthermore that the zirconium thus shaped has cold-work textures and als recrystallisation textures formed after the preceding cold-working, If the observed textures are considered schematically, it can be see that two of these have already been described in the literature and are similar to those found in rolled products: these textures are such that the (0001) planes are inclined at 36 deg C and 60 deg C respectively with respect to a plan tangential to the curve (envelope of transverse flow rates) resulting from the extrusion geometry under consideration; the third texture is defined. by the fact that the (0001) plane is orthogonal to the exterior surfaces of the plate. The direction of extrusion associated with these planes and common to the three textures is of the type <1010>, Dilatometric tests have been carried out on samples taken both parallel and perpendicular to the extrusion direction, These tests show that the zirconium is dilatometrically anisotropic and that a plot of ({alpha}{sub v})-a against temperature shows a change of gradient at 400 deg C, this latter effect may be due to the change in the electronic configuration of the metal occurring at this temperature. (author) [French] Les textures conferees au zirconium par filage a chaud a 730 deg C d'une billette cylindrique sous forme d'une plaque de section rectangulaire, ont

  12. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-11-07

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material.

  13. Textural analysis of optical coherence tomography skin images: quantitative differentiation between healthy and cancerous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Conforto, Silvia; Hosseinzadeh, Matin; Noe, Shahryar; Daveluy, Steven; Mehregan, Darius; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) offers real-time high-resolution three-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. In this study, we used OCT skin images acquired from ten volunteers, neither of whom had any skin conditions addressing the features of their anatomic location. OCT segmented images are analyzed based on their optical properties (attenuation coefficient) and textural image features e.g., contrast, correlation, homogeneity, energy, entropy, etc. Utilizing the information and referring to their clinical insight, we aim to make a comprehensive computational model for the healthy skin. The derived parameters represent the OCT microstructural morphology and might provide biological information for generating an atlas of normal skin from different anatomic sites of human skin and may allow for identification of cell microstructural changes in cancer patients. We then compared the parameters of healthy samples with those of abnormal skin and classified them using a linear Support Vector Machines (SVM) with 82% accuracy.

  14. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Rikxoort, E.M. van

    2005-01-01

    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  15. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  16. An image processing analysis of skin textures

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, A

    2008-01-01

    Colour and coarseness of skin are visually different. When image processing is involved in the skin analysis, it is important to quantitatively evaluate such differences using texture features. In this paper, we discuss a texture analysis and measurements based on a statistical approach to the pattern recognition. Grain size and anisotropy are evaluated with proper diagrams. The possibility to determine the presence of pattern defects is also discussed.

  17. Gabor transform in texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Chin

    1994-10-01

    Gabor transform has recently been exploited to do texture analysis, including texture edge detection, texture segmentation/discrimination, and texture synthesis. For most of the applications using Gabor transform, people convolve the given texture image with a set of Gabor filters with some user specified parameters. Although the mathematical formulation of applications involve the Fourier transform, few have investigated mathematical properties of the relationship between Gabor filters and their Fourier transform. This paper mainly studies mathematical properties of real Gabor filters and their corresponding Fourier transform. The goal is to select a set of `interesting' Gabor filters, or say, a set of parameters for Gabor filters to do texture analysis. We demonstrate, by means of 3-D graphical displays, that a Gabor filter or its corresponding Fourier transform may have a single peak or double peaks according to different parameters. Experiments for texture discrimination are given to demonstrate the applications of Gabor transform.

  18. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  19. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  20. Spherical harmonics in texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeben, Helmut; van den Boogaart, K. Gerald

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this contribution is to emphasize the fundamental role of spherical harmonics in constructive approximation on the sphere in general and in texture analysis in particular. The specific purpose is to present some methods of texture analysis and pole-to-orientation probability density inversion in a unifying approach, i.e. to show that the classic harmonic method, the pole density component fit method initially introduced as a distinct alternative, and the spherical wavelet method for high-resolution texture analysis share a common mathematical basis provided by spherical harmonics. Since pole probability density functions and orientation probability density functions are probability density functions defined on the sphere Ω3⊂ R3 or hypersphere Ω4⊂ R4, respectively, they belong at least to the space of measurable and integrable functions L1( Ωd), d=3, 4, respectively. Therefore, first a basic and simplified method to derive real symmetrized spherical harmonics with the mathematical property of providing a representation of rotations or orientations, respectively, is presented. Then, standard orientation or pole probability density functions, respectively, are introduced by summation processes of harmonic series expansions of L1( Ωd) functions, thus avoiding resorting to intuition and heuristics. Eventually, it is shown how a rearrangement of the harmonics leads quite canonically to spherical wavelets, which provide a method for high-resolution texture analysis. This unified point of view clarifies how these methods, e.g. standard functions, apply to texture analysis of EBSD orientation measurements.

  1. The texture quantitative analysis of the normal mammary parenchyma and in breast lesions: acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Liu, C; Geng, J; Zheng, X; Chen, B; Lu, Z; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology in the normal mammary parenchyma and in breast lesions. The virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) value was measured on a total of 150 cases in the normal mammary parenchyma and a total of 69 cases in breast lesions (19 cases of nodules, 28 cases of fibroadenoma, and 22 cases of cancer). Then the statistic analysis was carried out on the VTQ value combined with mammographic density, ages, menstrual stages, and pathological result. The VTQ value of mammary parenchyma rose with the increase of the mammographic density, and the value of VTQ had statistical differences in the comparison of group C with group B and in the comparison of group D with group C. The comparison of the VTQ value of the mammary parenchyma in patients with breast cancer and the nodule had statistical difference. The comparison of the VTQ value of the mammary parenchyma in patients with breast cancer, and the fibroadenoma had statistical difference. The value ofVTQ in masses gradually increased in the groups of nodule, fibroadenoma, and breast cancer. There was significant difference in the comparison of VTQ value of the nodule group and the fibroadenoma group with breast cancer group respectively. ARFI-VTQ technology has some reference value in assessing mammographic density. ARFI-VTQ can be used as the quantitative indicater for differentially diagnosing the breast lesions.

  2. Texture-based analysis of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Nielsen, Mads; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a fully automatic, data-driven approach for texture-based quantitative analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in pulmonary computed tomography (CT) images. The approach uses supervised learning where the class labels are, in contrast to previous work, based...... on measured lung function instead of on manually annotated regions of interest (ROIs). A quantitative measure of COPD is obtained by fusing COPD probabilities computed in ROIs within the lung fields where the individual ROI probabilities are computed using a k nearest neighbor (kNN ) classifier. The distance...

  3. GLCM Based Quantitative Analysis of Terrain Texture from DEMs%基于灰度共生矩阵的DEM地形纹理特征量化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 汤国安; 陶旸; 蒋圣

    2012-01-01

    DEM的地形纹理以其表达地形表面的纯粹性与分析数据的可派生性受到越来越多关注.本文选取陕西省10个不同地貌类型区的25m分辨率DEM数据,引入空间灰度共生矩阵(GLCM)对地形表面纹理特征进行定量分析.研究表明,25m分辨率DEM数据的GLCM模型适宜分析间距是大于等于3个栅格大小.各纹理参数中,相关度可用于地形纹理的方向性量化;方差、差的方差、对比度可用于对地形纹理的周期性分析;熵、二阶角矩、逆差矩可用于对地形纹理的复杂性分析.在DEM及其派生数据中,光照模拟数据计算的各纹理参数的平均变异系数最高,表明光照模拟数据最适合于地形纹理特征的量化研究.同时本文提出了一种多参数综合的地形纹理量化方法,通过运用综合周期性和综合复杂性两个指标对不同地形区量化分析,结果表明,这两个指标对不同地形形态响应显著,可用于地形形态分类与识别研究.%Terrain texture is an important natural texture. DEM based terrain texture attracts more attention in the research area for its purity in representing surface topography and its derivability in terrain a-nalysis. In this paper, 10 sample areas from different landform types of Shaanxi Province were selected to make a quantitative analysis on the terrain texture by Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) model. Experiments show that, when using the DEM data with 25m resolution, the suitable analytic distance of GLCM model is not less than 3 pixels. Among all the parameters in the model, correlation could be used for texture direction detection. Contrast, variance, and different variance could be applied for texture periodicity analysis. Entropy, angular second moment and inverse different moment are suitable for texture complexity investigation. In this research, quantitative analysis is conducted to terrain texture by using DEM data, hillshade data, slope data and curvature

  4. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Rikxoort, E.M. van

    2005-01-01

    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 diferent con- figurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  5. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; van den Broek, Egon; van Rikxoort, E.M.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 different configurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  6. Quantitative texture analysis of brain white matter lesions derived from T2-weighted MR images in MS patients with clinically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, C P; Petroudi, S; Seimenis, I; Pantziaris, M; Pattichis, C S

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the application of texture analysis methods on brain T2-white matter lesions detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the prognosis of future disability in subjects diagnosed with clinical isolated syndrome (CIS) of multiple sclerosis (MS). Brain lesions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) from 38 symptomatic untreated subjects diagnosed with CIS as well as normal white matter (NWM) from 20 healthy volunteers, were manually segmented, by an experienced MS neurologist, on transverse T2-weighted images obtained from serial brain MR imaging scans (0 and 6-12 months). Additional clinical information in the form of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), a scale from 0 to 10, which provides a way of quantifying disability in MS and monitoring the changes over time in the level of disability, were also provided. Shape and most importantly different texture features including GLCM and laws were then extracted for all above regions, after image intensity normalization. The findings showed that: (i) there were significant differences for the texture futures extracted between the NAWM and lesions at 0 month and between NAWM and lesions at 6-12 months. However, no significant differences were found for all texture features extracted when comparing lesions temporally at 0 and 6-12 months with the exception of contrast (gray level difference statistics-GLDS) and difference entropy (spatial gray level dependence matrix-SGLDM); (ii) significant differences were found between NWM and NAWM for most of the texture features investigated in this study; (iii) there were significant differences found for the lesion texture features at 0 month for those with EDSS≤2 versus those with EDSS>2 (mean, median, inverse difference moment and sum average) and for the lesion texture features at 6-12 months with EDSS>2 and EDSS≤2 for the texture features (mean, median, entropy and sum average). It should be noted that whilst there were no differences

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a fully automated quantitative framework for characterizing general breast tissue histology via color histogram and color texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Batiste, Rebecca C.; Kontos, Despina; Feldman, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Visual characterization of histologic specimens is known to suffer from intra- and inter-observer variability. To help address this, we developed an automated framework for characterizing digitized histology specimens based on a novel application of color histogram and color texture analysis. We perform a preliminary evaluation of this framework using a set of 73 trichrome-stained, digitized slides of normal breast tissue which were visually assessed by an expert pathologist in terms of the percentage of collagenous stroma, stromal collagen density, duct-lobular unit density and the presence of elastosis. For each slide, our algorithm automatically segments the tissue region based on the lightness channel in CIELAB colorspace. Within each tissue region, a color histogram feature vector is extracted using a common color palette for trichrome images generated with a previously described method. Then, using a whole-slide, lattice-based methodology, color texture maps are generated using a set of color co-occurrence matrix statistics: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. The extracted features sets are compared to the visually assessed tissue characteristics. Overall, the extracted texture features have high correlations to both the percentage of collagenous stroma (r=0.95, phistological processes in digitized histology specimens.

  8. Multi Texture Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Continuum Using Multispectral Imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Chaddad

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to characterize the continuum of colorectal cancer (CRC using multiple texture features extracted from multispectral optical microscopy images. Three types of pathological tissues (PT are considered: benign hyperplasia, intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma.In the proposed approach, the region of interest containing PT is first extracted from multispectral images using active contour segmentation. This region is then encoded using texture features based on the Laplacian-of-Gaussian (LoG filter, discrete wavelets (DW and gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM. To assess the significance of textural differences between PT types, a statistical analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test is performed. The usefulness of texture features is then evaluated quantitatively in terms of their ability to predict PT types using various classifier models.Preliminary results show significant texture differences between PT types, for all texture features (p-value < 0.01. Individually, GLCM texture features outperform LoG and DW features in terms of PT type prediction. However, a higher performance can be achieved by combining all texture features, resulting in a mean classification accuracy of 98.92%, sensitivity of 98.12%, and specificity of 99.67%.These results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of combining multiple texture features for characterizing the continuum of CRC and discriminating between pathological tissues in multispectral images.

  9. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  10. Analyzing the texture changes in the quantitative phase maps of adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitshtain, Darina; Sharabani-Yosef, Orna; Gefen, Amit; Shaked, Natan T.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new analysis tool for studying texture changes in the quantitative phase maps of live cells acquired by wide-field interferometry. The sensitivity of wide-field interferometry systems to small changes in refractive index enables visualizing cells and inner cell organelles without the using fluorescent dyes or other cell-invasive approaches, which may affect the measurement and require external labeling. Our label-free texture-analysis tool is based directly on the optical path delay profile of the sample and does not necessitate decoupling refractive index and thickness in the cell quantitative phase profile; thus, relevant parameters can be calculated using a single-frame acquisition. Our experimental system includes low-coherence wide-field interferometer, combined with simultaneous florescence microscopy system for validation. We used this system and analysis tool for studying lipid droplets formation in adipocytes. The latter demonstration is relevant for various cellular functions such as lipid metabolism, protein storage and degradation to viral replication. These processes are functionally linked to several physiological and pathological conditions, including obesity and metabolic diseases. Quantification of these biological phenomena based on the texture changes in the cell phase map has a potential as a new cellular diagnosis tool.

  11. Quantitative comparison between simulated and experimental FCC rolling textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Leffers, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The degree of similarity between simulated and experimental fcc rolling textures is characterized by a single scalar parameter. The textures are simulated with a relatively simple and efficient 1-point model which allows us to vary the strength of the interaction between the grains and the surrou......The degree of similarity between simulated and experimental fcc rolling textures is characterized by a single scalar parameter. The textures are simulated with a relatively simple and efficient 1-point model which allows us to vary the strength of the interaction between the grains...

  12. SAR Image Texture Analysis of Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Liu, Yu

    Oil spills are seriously affecting the marine ecosystem and cause political and scientific concern since they have serious affect on fragile marine and coastal ecosystem. In order to implement an emergency in case of oil spills, it is necessary to monitor oil spill using remote sensing. Spaceborne SAR is considered a promising method to monitor oil spill, which causes attention from many researchers. However, research in SAR image texture analysis of oil spill is rarely reported. On 7 December 2007, a crane-carrying barge hit the Hong Kong-registered tanker "Hebei Spirit", which released an estimated 10,500 metric tons of crude oil into the sea. The texture features on this oil spill were acquired based on extracted GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) by using SAR as data source. The affected area was extracted successfully after evaluating capabilities of different texture features to monitor the oil spill. The results revealed that the texture is an important feature for oil spill monitoring. Key words: oil spill, texture analysis, SAR

  13. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben

    2014-01-01

    of the copper-type texture is best simulated with {111} slip combined with type CL/PR lattice rotation and relatively strong interaction between the grains-but not with the full-constraint Taylor model and neither with the classical relaxed-constraint models. The development of the brass-type texture is best...... investigations. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  14. Voxel-based texture analysis of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Yang, Yee Hong; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel voxel-based method for texture analysis of brain images. Texture analysis is a powerful quantitative approach for analyzing voxel intensities and their interrelationships, but has been thus far limited to analyzing regions of interest. The proposed method provides a 3D statistical map comparing texture features on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The validity of the method was examined on artificially generated effects as well as on real MRI data in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The artificially generated effects included hyperintense and hypointense signals added to T1-weighted brain MRIs from 30 healthy subjects. The AD dataset included 30 patients with AD and 30 age/sex matched healthy control subjects. The proposed method detected artificial effects with high accuracy and revealed statistically significant differences between the AD and control groups. This paper extends the usage of texture analysis beyond the current region of interest analysis to voxel-by-voxel 3D statistical mapping and provides a hypothesis-free analysis tool to study cerebral pathology in neurological diseases.

  15. OPTIMIZED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERNS: A NEW TEXTURE MODEL WITH SET OF OPTIMAL PATTERNS FOR TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Madasamy Raja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is one of the important as well as useful tasks in image processing applications. Many texture models have been developed over the past few years and Local Binary Patterns (LBP is one of the simple and efficient approach among them. A number of extensions to the LBP method have been also presented but the problem remains challenging in feature vector generation and comparison. As textures are oriented and scaled differently, a texture model should effectively handle grey-scale variation, rotation variation, illumination variation and noise. The length of the feature vector in a texture model also plays an important role in deciding the time complexity of the texture analysis. This study proposes a new texture model, called Optimized Local Ternary Patterns (OLTP in the spatial methods of texture analysis. The proposed texture model is based on Local Ternary Patterns (LTP, which in turn is based on LBP. A new concept called “Level of Optimality” to select the optimal set of patterns is discussed in this study. This proposed texture model uses only optimal patterns to extract the textural information from the digital images and thereby reducing the length of the feature vector. This proposed model is robust to image rotation, grey-scale transformation, histogram equalization and noise. The results are compared with other widely used texture models by applying classification tests to variety of texture images from the standard Brodatz texture database. Experimental results prove that the proposed texture model is robust to grey-scale variation, image rotation, histogram equalization and noise. Experimental results also show that the proposed texture model improves the classification accuracy and the speed of the classification process. In all tested tasks, the proposed method outperforms the earlier methods.

  16. Anorexia Nervosa: Analysis of Trabecular Texture with CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Azadeh; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Bredella, Miriam A

    2016-10-31

    Purpose To determine indexes of skeletal integrity by using computed tomographic (CT) trabecular texture analysis of the lumbar spine in patients with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight control subjects and to determine body composition predictors of trabecular texture. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. Written informed consent was obtained. The study included 30 women with anorexia nervosa (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 6) and 30 normal-weight age-matched women (control group). All participants underwent low-dose single-section quantitative CT of the L4 vertebral body with use of a calibration phantom. Trabecular texture analysis was performed by using software. Skewness (asymmetry of gray-level pixel distribution), kurtosis (pointiness of pixel distribution), entropy (inhomogeneity of pixel distribution), and mean value of positive pixels (MPP) were assessed. Bone mineral density and abdominal fat and paraspinal muscle areas were quantified with quantitative CT. Women with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight control subjects were compared by using the Student t test. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between trabecular texture and body composition. Results Women with anorexia nervosa had higher skewness and kurtosis, lower MPP (P anorexia nervosa. Conclusion Patients with anorexia nervosa had increased skewness and kurtosis and decreased entropy and MPP compared with normal-weight control subjects. These parameters were associated with lowest lifetime weight and duration of amenorrhea, but there were no such associations with bone mineral density. These findings suggest that trabecular texture analysis might contribute information about bone health in anorexia nervosa that is independent of that provided with bone mineral density. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  17. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This docume...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...

  18. Quantitative T2 combined with texture analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images identify different degrees of muscle involvement in three mouse models of muscle dystrophy: mdx, Largemyd and mdx/Largemyd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea B Martins-Bach

    Full Text Available Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been considered a promising non-invasive tool for monitoring therapeutic essays in small size mouse models of muscular dystrophies. Here, we combined MRI (anatomical images and transverse relaxation time constant-T2-measurements to texture analyses in the study of four mouse strains covering a wide range of dystrophic phenotypes. Two still unexplored mouse models of muscular dystrophies were analyzed: The severely affected Largemyd mouse and the recently generated and worst double mutant mdx/Largemyd mouse, as compared to the mildly affected mdx and normal mice. The results were compared to histopathological findings. MRI showed increased intermuscular fat and higher muscle T2 in the three dystrophic mouse models when compared to the wild-type mice (T2: mdx/Largemyd: 37.6±2.8 ms; mdx: 35.2±4.5 ms; Largemyd: 36.6±4.0 ms; wild-type: 29.1±1.8 ms, p<0.05, in addition to higher muscle T2 in the mdx/Largemyd mice when compared to mdx (p<0.05. The areas with increased muscle T2 in the MRI correlated spatially with the identified histopathological alterations such as necrosis, inflammation, degeneration and regeneration foci. Nevertheless, muscle T2 values were not correlated with the severity of the phenotype in the 3 dystrophic mouse strains, since the severely affected Largemyd showed similar values than both the mild mdx and worst mdx/Largemyd lineages. On the other hand, all studied mouse strains could be unambiguously identified with texture analysis, which reflected the observed differences in the distribution of signals in muscle MRI. Thus, combined T2 intensity maps and texture analysis is a powerful approach for the characterization and differentiation of dystrophic muscles with diverse genotypes and phenotypes. These new findings provide important noninvasive tools in the evaluation of the efficacy of new therapies, and most importantly, can be directly applied in human

  19. Quantitative T2 Combined with Texture Analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Images Identify Different Degrees of Muscle Involvement in Three Mouse Models of Muscle Dystrophy: mdx, Largemyd and mdx/Largemyd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Bach, Aurea B.; Malheiros, Jackeline; Matot, Béatrice; Martins, Poliana C. M.; Almeida, Camila F.; Caldeira, Waldir; Ribeiro, Alberto F.; Loureiro de Sousa, Paulo; Azzabou, Noura; Tannús, Alberto; Carlier, Pierre G.; Vainzof, Mariz

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been considered a promising non-invasive tool for monitoring therapeutic essays in small size mouse models of muscular dystrophies. Here, we combined MRI (anatomical images and transverse relaxation time constant—T2—measurements) to texture analyses in the study of four mouse strains covering a wide range of dystrophic phenotypes. Two still unexplored mouse models of muscular dystrophies were analyzed: The severely affected Largemyd mouse and the recently generated and worst double mutant mdx/Largemyd mouse, as compared to the mildly affected mdx and normal mice. The results were compared to histopathological findings. MRI showed increased intermuscular fat and higher muscle T2 in the three dystrophic mouse models when compared to the wild-type mice (T2: mdx/Largemyd: 37.6±2.8 ms; mdx: 35.2±4.5 ms; Largemyd: 36.6±4.0 ms; wild-type: 29.1±1.8 ms, p<0.05), in addition to higher muscle T2 in the mdx/Largemyd mice when compared to mdx (p<0.05). The areas with increased muscle T2 in the MRI correlated spatially with the identified histopathological alterations such as necrosis, inflammation, degeneration and regeneration foci. Nevertheless, muscle T2 values were not correlated with the severity of the phenotype in the 3 dystrophic mouse strains, since the severely affected Largemyd showed similar values than both the mild mdx and worst mdx/Largemyd lineages. On the other hand, all studied mouse strains could be unambiguously identified with texture analysis, which reflected the observed differences in the distribution of signals in muscle MRI. Thus, combined T2 intensity maps and texture analysis is a powerful approach for the characterization and differentiation of dystrophic muscles with diverse genotypes and phenotypes. These new findings provide important noninvasive tools in the evaluation of the efficacy of new therapies, and most importantly, can be directly applied in human translational research

  20. X-ray texture analysis of paper coating pigments and the correlation with chemical composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roine, J.; Tenho, M.; Murtomaa, M.; Lehto, V.-P.; Kansanaho, R.

    2007-10-01

    The present research experiments the applicability of x-ray texture analysis in investigating the properties of paper coatings. The preferred orientations of kaolin, talc, ground calcium carbonate, and precipitated calcium carbonate particles used in four different paper coatings were determined qualitatively based on the measured crystal orientation data. The extent of the orientation, namely, the degree of the texture of each pigment, was characterized quantitatively using a single parameter. As a result, the effect of paper calendering is clearly seen as an increase on the degree of texture of the coating pigments. The effect of calendering on the preferred orientation of kaolin was also evident in an independent energy dispersive spectrometer analysis on micrometer scale and an electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis on nanometer scale. Thus, the present work proves x-ray texture analysis to be a potential research tool for characterizing the properties of paper coating layers.

  1. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G.

    2013-07-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage.

  2. Assessing Texture of Slub-Yarn Fabric Using Image Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The application of digital image processing to the classification of the slub-yarn texture is discussed. Texture of the slub-yam fabric is analyzed by using the texture analysis techniques. The influence of the slub-yarn parameters on the fabric texture is discussed. Results indicate that texture of the slub-yarn fabric can be reliably measured using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)analysis. The four indices of GLCM, the angular second moment, the contrast, the inverse difference moment and the correlation, are sensitive to the change of the slub-yarn parameters, and can be regarded as the major indices for the texture.

  3. Microstructure and texture analysis of YBCO thick film with peritectic growth on unoriented silver substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jue; MALOUFI Nabila; FAN Zhanguo; XUE Xiangxin; ESLING Claude

    2009-01-01

    YBCO textured thick film was prepared by direct periteetic growth method. Microstructure of the film was characterized. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique was applied to the film for quantitative texture analysis. The main difficulty in resolving the ori-entation of YBCO pseudo-cubic structure was investigated. Automated orientation mapping was performed on YBCO thick film. Local tex-ture was presented in the form of orientation maps. Misorientation distribution and crystal growth characterization in the YBCO thick film were revealed. Large domains with well-aligned YBCO grains were formed. Each domain presented clear in-plane and out-plane textures.

  4. NDVI and Panchromatic Image Correlation Using Texture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    18 Equation 4. Equations of the eight GLCM texture features (After Shi, 2003)....................21 Equation 5...analysis and image classification like the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix ( GLCM ) by Haralick, 1973. First-order and second-order texture measures on... GLCM consist of Standard Deviation, Range, Minimum, Maximum and Mean. The second order of texture measures includes Angular Second Moment, Contrast

  5. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  6. Objective and quantitative definitions of modified food textures based on sensory and rheological methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Wendin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients who suffer from chewing and swallowing disorders, i.e. dysphagia, may have difficulties ingesting normal food and liquids. In these patients a texture modified diet may enable that the patient maintain adequate nutrition. However, there is no generally accepted definition of ‘texture’ that includes measurements describing different food textures. Objective: Objectively define and quantify categories of texture-modified food by conducting rheological measurements and sensory analyses. A further objective was to facilitate the communication and recommendations of appropriate food textures for patients with dysphagia. Design: About 15 food samples varying in texture qualities were characterized by descriptive sensory and rheological measurements. Results: Soups were perceived as homogenous; thickened soups were perceived as being easier to swallow, more melting and creamy compared with soups without thickener. Viscosity differed between the two types of soups. Texture descriptors for pâtés were characterized by high chewing resistance, firmness, and having larger particles compared with timbales and jellied products. Jellied products were perceived as wobbly, creamy, and easier to swallow. Concerning the rheological measurements, all solid products were more elastic than viscous (G′>G″, belonging to different G′ intervals: jellied products (low G′ and timbales together with pâtés (higher G′. Conclusion: By combining sensory and rheological measurements, a system of objective, quantitative, and well-defined food textures was developed that characterizes the different texture categories.

  7. How do granites solidify? Information from quantitative textural studies using cathodoluminescence and other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The qualitative and quantitative study of granitic textures (microstructures) has been somewhat neglected, as compared to mafic rocks. Certainly some granite samples are not readily susceptible to textural analysis, particularly if they are altered, but many acidic rocks can be examined in the same way as mafic rocks, using the same techniques. The earliest studies were of K-feldspar megacrysts in granitoids, a component that can be easily quantified by direct measurement in the field and image analysis of stained slabs. However, analysis of thin sections requires other techniques. Although the main components of granites, plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz, can be readily distinguished in thin section by experienced petrographers, they cannot be quantified readily from optical images using automatic or semi-automatic image analysis methods. An alternative approach is to use cold-cathode cathodoluminescence (CL). This microscope-based method easily distinguishes these three phases and can also identify alteration. Minor colour differences and zonation in CL can sometimes reveal the presence of different crystal populations. Apatite, zircon and other minor phases are also imaged, but all silicate minerals that contain iron do not luminesce. A combination of CL and unpolarised light can be used to classify a thin section into almost all significant phases. In these phase maps adjoining crystals of the same phase are amalgamated. Segmenting the phase maps into crystal maps requires the addition of a cross-polarised image and manual crystal tracing, but provides much richer data. CL images of unaltered granites can reveal a wealth of different textures which will be illustrated with granitoid samples from the Illapel Plutonic suite, Chile and elsewhere. The overall goal is to understand the solidification process. CL was used to select the least altered samples and a mosaic of about half a thin section was produced for each sample. Plagioclase is always the earliest

  8. Assessment of bone microarchitecture in chronic kidney disease: a comparison of 2D bone texture analysis and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the radius and tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Boutroy, Stéphanie; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Fouque-Aubert, Anne; Delmas, Pierre D; Lespessailles, Eric; Fouque, Denis; Chapurlat, Roland

    2010-11-01

    Bone microarchitecture can be studied noninvasively using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). However, this technique is not widely available, so more simple techniques may be useful. BMA is a new 2D high-resolution digital X-ray device, allowing for bone texture analysis with a fractal parameter (H(mean)). The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reproducibility of BMA at two novel sites (radius and tibia) in addition to the conventional site (calcaneus), (2) to compare the results obtained with BMA at all of those sites, and (3) to study the relationship between H(mean) and trabecular microarchitecture measured with an in vivo 3D device (HR-pQCT) at the distal tibia and radius. BMA measurements were performed at three sites (calcaneus, distal tibia, and radius) in 14 healthy volunteers to measure the short-term reproducibility and in a group of 77 patients with chronic kidney disease to compare BMA results to HR-pQCT results. The coefficient of variation of H(mean) was 1.2, 2.1, and 4.7% at the calcaneus, radius, and tibia, respectively. We found significant associations between trabecular volumetric bone mineral density and microarchitectural variables measured by HR-pQCT and H(mean) at the three sites (e.g., Pearson correlation between radial trabecular number and radial H(mean) r = 0.472, P technique with few technical constraints. Thus, it may represent an interesting tool for evaluating bone structure, in association with biological parameters and DXA.

  9. On Texture and Geometry in Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John

    2009-01-01

    fields and Maximum Entropy (FRAME) model [213, 214] is used for inpaining texture. We argue that many ’textures’ contain details that must be inpainted exactly. Simultaneous reconstruction of geometric structure and texture is a difficult problem, therefore, a two-phase reconstruction procedure...

  10. Texture analysis of carotid artery atherosclerosis from three-dimensional ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Joseph; Krasinski, Adam; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    To quantitatively evaluate local carotid arterial statin effects in 3D US images using multiclassifier image texture analysis tools. Texture analysis tools were used to evaluate the effect of 80 mg atorvastatin administered daily to patients with carotid stenosis compared to those treated with placebo. Using three-dimensional carotid ultrasound images, 270 texture features from seven texture techniques were extracted from manually segmented carotid arteries based on the intima-media boundary [vessel wall (VW)]. Individual texture features were compared to the previously determined changes in VW volume (VWV) using the distance between classes, the Wilcoxon rank sum test, and accuracy of the classifiers. Texture features that resulted in maximal classification accuracy from each texture technique were selected using Pudil's sequential floating forward selection (SFFS) as a method of ranking each technique. Finally, SFFS-selected texture features from all texture techniques were used in combination with 24 classifier fusion techniques to improve classification accuracy. Using the measurement of change in VWV, the distance between classes (DBC), Wilcoxon rank sum (WRS) p-value, and median accuracy measures (ACC) were 0.3798, 0.076, and 54.50%, respectively. Texture features improved the detection of statin-related changes using DBC to 0.5199, using WRS to 0.002, and ACC to 63.87%, respectively. The texture techniques that most differentiated between atorvastatin and placebo classes were Fourier power spectrum and Laws texture energy measures. The average classification accuracy between atorvastatin and placebo classes was improved from 57.22 +/- 12.11% using VWV to 97.87 +/- 3.93% using specific texture features. Furthermore, the use of specific texture features resulted in the average area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) a value of 0.9988 +/- 0.0069 compared to 0.617 +/- 0.15 using carotid VWV. Based on DBC, WRS, ACC, and AUC texture features

  11. Texture Profile Analysis of Sliced Cheese in relation to Chemical Composition and Storage Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanrong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative relationships among chemical composition, storage temperature, and texture of cheese were not fully understood. In this study, the effects of composition and temperature on textural properties of eight common varieties of sliced cheese were examined. The textural properties of sliced cheeses, including firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness, and resilience, were measured by texture profile analysis after storage at 4 and 25°C for 4 h. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to describe the quantitative relationships of textural properties (dependent variables to chemical composition and storage temperature (independent variables of sliced cheeses. Results showed that protein, fat, moisture, and sodium chloride contents as well as storage temperature significantly affected the texture of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. In particular, fat in the dry matter and moisture in the nonfat substances were negatively correlated with firmness of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. As storage temperature rose from 4 to 25°C, the average values of firmness, chewiness, and resilience substantially declined by 42%, 45%, and 17%, respectively (P<0.05. This study provided reference data for adjusting chemical composition and storage temperature of common cheese products to obtain favorable texture for Chinese consumers, which thereby facilitated the localization of cheese industry in Chinese market.

  12. Lacunarity analysis of spaceborne radar image texture for rock unit discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Pinliang

    Fractal geometry has led to new understanding of many natural objects and phenomena. As a scale-dependent measure, lacunarity can be used to discriminate different textures that may not be differentiated by fractal dimension. Based on a differential box counting method and a gliding-box algorithm, a new lacunarity estimation method is developed for texture analysis of digital images, and a "Lacunarity Analysis" extension built for ArcView (ESRI) geographical information system software. To reveal the directional properties of textures, the directionality of lacunarity is also defined. The new lacunarity measure is evaluated through quantitative comparison with the Voss lacunarity, the binary lacunarity, the grey level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) based texture measures (homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy), the fractal dimension, and the min-max operator using Brodatz textures. The results from Brodatz textures suggest that the new lacunarity estimation method for grey-scale images provides more accurate texture measurements than the above-mentioned fractal-based and statistical texture measures. In comparison with the Voss lacunarity, the fractal dimension, and the GLCM-based texture measures, the new lacunarity measure is then applied to dual-band (L and C) and dual-polarization (HH and HV) Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C), and C-band HH polarization Radarsat images of two imaging modes for rock unit discrimination in a study area between California and Arizona, USA. Using textural analysis of 36 SIR-C and Radarsat sub-images and classification accuracy assessment of the combined Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images and spaceborne radar textural feature images, it has been demonstrated that the new lacunarity measure outperformed other texture measures in comparison, and the L-band HH polarization SIR-C image provides more textural information of the rock units compared with the Radarsat and other SIR-C radar images used in this study. The study shows that

  13. Research of second harmonic generation images based on texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Gong, Haiming; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan

    2014-09-01

    Texture analysis plays a crucial role in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. It has been applied to a variety of medical image processing, ranging from the detection of disease and the segmentation of specific anatomical structures, to differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy as a potential noninvasive tool for imaging biological tissues has been widely used in medicine, with reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. In this paper, we clarified the principles of texture analysis including statistical, transform, structural and model-based methods and gave examples of its applications, reviewing studies of the technique. Moreover, we tried to apply texture analysis to the SHG images for the differentiation of human skin scar tissues. Texture analysis method based on local binary pattern (LBP) and wavelet transform was used to extract texture features of SHG images from collagen in normal and abnormal scars, and then the scar SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal ones. Compared with other texture analysis methods with respect to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, LBP combined with wavelet transform was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy. It can provide a new way for clinical diagnosis of scar types. At last, future development of texture analysis in SHG images were discussed.

  14. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  15. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  16. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  17. Texture perception through direct and indirect touch: An analysis of perceptual space for tactile textures in two modes of exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T.; Bensamaïa, S. J.; Craig, J. C.; Hsiao, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable information about the texture of objects can be perceived remotely through a probe. It is not clear, however, how texture perception with a probe compares with texture perception with the bare finger. Here we investigate the perception of a variety of textured surfaces encountered daily (e.g., corduroy, paper, and rubber) using the two scanning modes—direct touch through the finger and indirect touch through a probe held in the hand—in two tasks. In the first task, subjects rated the overall pair-wise dissimilarity of the textures. In the second task, subjects rated each texture along three continua, namely, perceived roughness, hardness, and stickiness of the surfaces, shown previously as the primary dimensions of texture perception in direct touch. From the dissimilarity judgment experiment, we found that the texture percept is similar though not identical in the two scanning modes. From the adjective rating experiments, we found that while roughness ratings are similar, hardness and stickiness ratings tend to differ between scanning conditions. These differences between the two modes of scanning are apparent in perceptual space for tactile textures based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Finally, we demonstrate that three physical quantities, vibratory power, compliance, and friction carry roughness, hardness, and stickiness information, predicting perceived dissimilarity of texture pairs with indirect touch. Given that different types of texture information are processed by separate groups of neurons across direct and indirect touch, we propose that the neural mechanisms underlying texture perception differ between scanning modes. PMID:17558923

  18. Skin texture aging trend analysis using dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y-H; Kim, D; Hwang, E; Kim, B J

    2014-11-01

    To date, the degree of skin damage caused by diverse factors, such as aging and persistent sunlight exposure, has been evaluated based on the personal experience and knowledge of dermatologists because there is no standard method for objective evaluation. If a standard method were available, patients could obtain more consistent information about their skin condition, and hence perform more effective treatment of the skin damage. In this paper, we demonstrate how to establish a standard method using dermoscopy images of subjects of various ages. We focus on three body parts, specifically the face, neck, and hands, and extract various skin texture features to quantitatively and objectively represent the skin condition. We construct a model for skin damage evaluation based on various skin texture features. To accomplish this objective, we consider various features from face, neck, and hand dermoscopy images, including texture length, width and depth, cell area, the number of cells in a fixed region, radius ratio of inscribed and circumscribed circles of a wrinkle cell, and average perimeter of a wrinkle cell. In this study, a wrinkle cell represents the smallest skin region enclosed by textures. We then perform a linear regression for texture features based on subject age. A dermoscopy image can be automatically analyzed by extracting skin texture features. We demonstrate aging trends by performing linear regression on these features. Based on this result, a quantitative and objective evaluation of the skin condition can be provided. We proposed several new skin texture features and developed algorithms to accurately extract them. We analyzed these features and demonstrated their age-related change trends by using graphs and charts. We believe that our result can be used as a standard method for evaluating degrees of skin damage. Moreover, we believe that our proposed method can be applied in various areas, such as performance evaluation of certain skin products.

  19. Development of 3D Chromatin Texture Analysis Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Huisman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Analysis of nuclear texture features as a measure of nuclear chromatin changes has been proven to be useful when measured on thin (5–6 μm tissue sections using conventional 2D bright field microscopy. The drawback of this approach is that most nuclei are not intact because of those thin sections. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM allows measurements of texture in 3D reconstructed nuclei. The aim of this study was to develop 3D texture features that quantitatively describe changes in chromatin architecture associated with malignancy using CLSM images. Methods: Thirty-five features thoughtfully chosen from 4 categories of 3D texture features (discrete texture features, Markovian features, fractal features, grey value distribution features were selected and tested for invariance properties (rotation and scaling using artificial images with a known grey value distribution. The discriminative power of the 3D texture features was tested on artificially constructed benign and malignant 3D nuclei with increasing nucleolar size and advancing chromatin margination towards the periphery of the nucleus. As a clinical proof of principle, the discriminative power of the texture features was assessed on 10 benign and 10 malignant human prostate nuclei, evaluating also whether there was more texture information in 3D whole nuclei compared to a single 2D plane from the middle of the nucleus. Results: All texture features showed the expected invariance properties. Almost all features were sensitive to variations in the nucleolar size and to the degree of margination of chromatin. Fourteen texture features from different categories had high discriminative power for separating the benign and malignant nuclei. The discrete texture features performed less than expected. There was more information on nuclear texture in 3D than in 2D. Conclusion: A set of 35 3D nuclear texture features was used successfully to assess nuclear chromatin patterns

  20. Crop identification of SAR data using digital textural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuesch, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    After preprocessing SEASAT SAR data which included slant to ground range transformation, registration to LANDSAT MSS data and appropriate filtering of the raw SAR data to minimize coherent speckle, textural features were developed based upon the spatial gray level dependence method (SGLDM) to compute entropy and inertia as textural measures. It is indicated that the consideration of texture features are very important in SAR data analysis. The SEASAT SAR data are useful for the improvement of field boundary definitions and for an earlier season estimate of corn and soybean area location than is supported by LANDSAT alone.

  1. Quantitative investigation of felsic rock textures using cathodoluminescence images and other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michael Denis

    2017-04-01

    The qualitative and quantitative study of the textures (microstructures) of felsic rocks has been somewhat neglected, as compared to mafic rocks. This is partly because the major phases are all colourless with similar birefringence. This problem has been addressed using cold-cathode cathodoluminescence (CL). This microscope-based method easily distinguishes quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase, and can also identify zoning and other structures. A combination of CL and cross-polarised light images can be used to trace the outlines of most crystals in a thin section. These techniques have been applied to a dacite and three granitoids in order to understand the process of solidification. In three of the rocks, macrocrysts or oikocrysts have sealed-in textures whilst the rock was partially solid. These data are used to construct diagrams illustrating possible paths of phase abundance, crystal sizes and temperature during solidification. In all four rocks, the saturation order appears to be amphibole ± biotite + apatite:plagioclase:K-feldspar:quartz. Plagioclase initially crystallises in a regime of increasing undercooling to give a kinetic texture. It is generally coarsened after K-feldspar has saturated. K-feldspar saturated and then immediately started to coarsen in three of the rocks. Competition between the growth of orthoclase and plagioclase may determine if macrocrysts or oikocrysts are formed. Quartz is the last phase to saturate and was coarsened in some rocks. The overall rock texture is therefore controlled by a combination of compositional effects on saturation temperatures, such as volatile content and cooling path. The solidification paths determined here are not unique, but do show what can be achieved from a textural study, with no knowledge of the volatile content of the magma.

  2. Tribological performance analysis of textured steel surfaces under lubricating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. C.; Pandey, R. K.; Rooplal; Ranganath, M. S.; Maji, S.

    2016-09-01

    The tribological analysis of the lubricated conformal contacts formed between the smooth/textured surfaces of steel discs and smooth surface of steel pins under sliding conditions have been considered. Roles of dimples’ pitch of textured surfaces have been investigated experimentally to understand the variations of coefficient of friction and wear at the tribo-contacts under fully flooded lubricated conditions. Substantial reductions in coefficient of friction and wear at the tribo-interfaces have been observed in presence of textures on the rotating discs for both fully flooded and starved conditions in comparison to the corresponding lubricating conditions of the interfaces formed between the smooth surfaces of disc and pin. In presence of surface texture, the coefficient of friction reduces considerable at elevated sliding speeds (>2 m/s) and unit loads (>0.5 MPa) for the set of operating parameters considered in the analysis.

  3. Texture analysis of Napoleonic War Era copper bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Florencia; Northover, Shirley; James, Jon; Northover, Peter; Kelleher, Joe

    2016-04-01

    Neutron diffraction techniques are suitable for volume texture analyses due to high penetration of thermal neutrons in most materials. We have implemented a new data analysis methodology that employed the spatial resolution achievable by a time-of-flight neutron strain scanner to non-destructively determine the crystallographic texture at selected locations within a macroscopic sample. The method is based on defining the orientation distribution function of the crystallites from several incomplete pole figures, and it has been implemented on ENGIN-X, a neutron strain scanner at the Isis Facility in the UK. Here, we demonstrate the application of this new texture analysis methodology in determining the crystallographic texture at selected locations within museum quality archaeological objects up to 1 m in length. The results were verified using samples of similar, but less valuable, objects by comparing the results of applying this method with those obtained using both electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction on their cross sections.

  4. Rotation-invariant texture analysis using Radon and Fourier transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songshan Xiao; Yongxing Wu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Texture analysis is a basic issue in image processing and computer vision, and how to attain the rotationinvariant texture characterization is a key problem. This paper proposes a rotation-invariant texture analysis technique using Radon and Fourier transforms. This method uses Radon transform to convert rotation to translation, then utilizes Fourier transform and takes the moduli of the Fourier transform of these functions to make the translation invariant. A k-nearest-neighbor rule is employed to classify texture images. The proposed method is robust to additive white noise as a result of summing pixel values to generate projections in the Radon transform step. Experiment results show the feasibility of the proposed method and its robustness to additive white noise.

  5. Gabor Filter Optimization Design for Iris Texture Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Xu; Xing Ming; Xiaoguang Yang

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with an optimization design method for the Gabor filters based on the analysis of an iris texture model. By means of analyzing the properties of an iris texture image, the energy distribution regularity of the iris texture image measured by the average power spectrum density is exploited, and the theoretical ranges of the efficient valued frequency and orientation parameters can also be deduced. The analysis shows that the energy distribution of the iris texture is generally centralized around lower frequencies in the spatial frequency domain. Accordingly, an iterative algorithm is designed to optimize the Gabor parameter field. The experimental results indicate the validity of the theory and efficiency of the algorithm.

  6. Assessment Of Mold-Design Dependent Textures In CIM-Components By Polarized Light Optical Texture Analysis (PLOTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Frank; Rauch, Johannes; Gadow, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    By thermoplastic ceramic injection moulding (CIM) ceramic components of high complexity can be produced in a large number of items at low dimensional tolerances. The cost advantage by the high degree of automation leads to an economical mass-production. The structure of injection-moulded components is determined by the form filling behaviour and viscosity of the feedstock, the machine parameters, the design of the mold and the gate design. With an adapted mold- and gate-design CIM-components without textures are possible. The "Polarized Light Optical Texture analysis" (PLOTA) makes it possible to inspect the components and detect and quantify the textures produced by a new mold. Based on the work of R. Fischer (2004) the PLOTA procedure was improved by including the possibility to measure the inclination angle and thus describe the orientation of the grains in three dimensions. Sampled thin sections of ceramic components are analysed under the polarization microscope and are brought in diagonal position. Pictures are taken with a digital camera. The pictures are converted in the L*a*b*- colour space and the crystals color values a* and b* in the picture are measured. The color values are compared with the values of a quartz wedge, which serves as universal standard. From the received values the inclination angle can be calculated relative to the microscope axis. It is possible to use the received data quantitatively e.g. for the FEM supported simulation of texture-conditioned divergences of mechanical values. Thus the injection molding parameters can be optimized to obtain improved mechanical properties.

  7. Parenchymal texture analysis in digital mammography: robust texture feature identification and equivalence across devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M; Oustimov, Andrew; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jinbo; Acciavatti, Raymond J; Zheng, Yuanjie; Ray, Shonket; Gee, James C; Maidment, Andrew D A; Kontos, Despina

    2015-04-01

    An analytical framework is presented for evaluating the equivalence of parenchymal texture features across different full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems using a physical breast phantom. Phantom images (FOR PROCESSING) are acquired from three FFDM systems using their automated exposure control setting. A panel of texture features, including gray-level histogram, co-occurrence, run length, and structural descriptors, are extracted. To identify features that are robust across imaging systems, a series of equivalence tests are performed on the feature distributions, in which the extent of their intersystem variation is compared to their intrasystem variation via the Hodges-Lehmann test statistic. Overall, histogram and structural features tend to be most robust across all systems, and certain features, such as edge enhancement, tend to be more robust to intergenerational differences between detectors of a single vendor than to intervendor differences. Texture features extracted from larger regions of interest (i.e., [Formula: see text]) and with a larger offset length (i.e., [Formula: see text]), when applicable, also appear to be more robust across imaging systems. This framework and observations from our experiments may benefit applications utilizing mammographic texture analysis on images acquired in multivendor settings, such as in multicenter studies of computer-aided detection and breast cancer risk assessment.

  8. Theoretical Analysis of Orientation Distribution Function Reconstruction of Textured Polycrystal by Parametric X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, I.; Benediktovitch, A.

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of quantitative texture analysis by means of parametric x-ray radiation (PXR) from relativistic electrons with Lorentz factor γ > 50MeV in a polycrystal is considered theoretically. In the case of rather smooth orientation distribution function (ODF) and large detector (θD >> 1/γ) the universal relation between ODF and intensity distribution is presented. It is shown that if ODF is independent on one from Euler angles, then the texture is fully determined by angular intensity distribution. Application of the method to the simulated data shows the stability of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Quantitative local topological texture properties obtained from radiographs of the proximal femur in patients with pertrochanteric and transcervical hip fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, H. F.; Lutz, J.; Koerner, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M.; Reiser, M.

    2009-02-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis and associated fractures becomes an increasingly relevant issue for the public health institutions of industrialized nations. Fractures of the hip represent the worst complication of osteoporosis with a significantly elevated rate of mortality. Prediction of fracture risk is a major focus of osteoporosis research and, over the years, has been approched from different angles. There exist two distinct subtypes of transcervical and pertrochanteric hip fracture that can be distinguished on the basis of the anatomical location of the injury. While the epidemiology of hip fractures has been well described, typically, little or no distinction is made between the subtypes. The object of this study was to determine whether local topological texture properties based on the Minkowski Functionals (MF) obtained from standard radiographs of the proximal femur in patients with hip fracture can be used to differentiate between the two types of fracture pattern. The texture features were extracted from standardized regions of interest (femoral head, neck, and pertrochanteric region) in clinical radiographs of the hip obtained from 90 post-menopausal women (69.8 +/- 7.9 yrs). 30 of the women had sustained pertrochanteric fractures, 30 had transcervical hip fractures and 30 were age-matched controls. We determined an optimized topological parameter MF2Dloc using an integrative filtering procedure based on a sliding-windows algorithm. Statistical relationship between the fracture type (pertrochanteric/transcervical) and the value of MF2Dloc was assessed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Depending on the anatomical location of the region of interest for texture analysis correct classification of tanscervial and pertrochanteric fractures ranged from AUC = 0.79 to 0.98. In conclusion, quantitative texture properties of trabecular bone extracted from radiographs of the hip can be used to identify patients with hip fracture and to distinguish

  10. Texture analysis of multiple sclerosis: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tong, Longzheng; Wang, Lei; Li, Ning

    2008-10-01

    The difficulty of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to support early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) stems from the subtle pathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, texture analysis was performed on MR images of MS patients and normal controls and a combined set of texture features were explored in order to better discriminate tissues between MS lesions, normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and normal white matter (NWM). Features were extracted from gradient matrix, run-length (RL) matrix, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), autoregressive (AR) model and wavelet analysis, and were selected based on greatest difference between different tissue types. The results of the combined set of texture features were compared with our previous results of GLCM-based features alone. The results of this study demonstrated that (1) with the combined set of texture features, classification was perfect (100%) between MS lesions and NAWM (or NWM), less successful (88.89%) among the three tissue types and worst (58.33%) between NAWM and NWM; (2) compared with GLCM-based features, the combined set of texture features were better at discriminating MS lesions and NWM, equally good at discriminating MS lesions and NAWM and at all three tissue types, but less effective in classification between NAWM and NWM. This study suggested that texture analysis with the combined set of texture features may be equally good or more advantageous than the commonly used GLCM-based features alone in discriminating MS lesions and NWM/NAWM and in supporting early diagnosis of MS.

  11. Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhoubing [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Allen, Wade M. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K. [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture

  12. Texture Attribute Analysis of GPR Data for Archaeological Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of texture attribute analysis of 2-D and 3-D GPR datasets obtained in different archaeological environments. Textural attributes are successfully used in seismic stratigraphic studies for hydrocarbon exploration to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface structures. We use a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to compute second-order statistical measures of textural characteristics, such as contrast, energy, entropy, and homogeneity. Textural attributes provide specific information about the data, and can highlight characteristics as uniformity or complexity, which complement the interpretation of amplitude data and integrate the features extracted from conventional attributes. The results from three archaeological case studies demonstrate that the proposed texture analysis can enhance understanding of GPR data by providing clearer images of distribution, volume, and shape of potential archaeological targets and related stratigraphic units, particularly in combination with the conventional GPR attributes. Such strategy improves the interpretability of GPR data, and can be very helpful for archaeological excavation planning and, more generally, for buried cultural heritage assessment.

  13. Analysis of Texture Using the Fractal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, William; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez

    1997-01-01

    Properties such as the fractal dimension (FD) can be used for feature extraction and classification of regions within an image. The FD measures the degree of roughness of a surface, so this number is used to characterize a particular region, in order to differentiate it from another. There are two basic approaches discussed in the literature to measure FD: the blanket method, and the box counting method. Both attempt to measure FD by estimating the change in surface area with respect to the change in resolution. We tested both methods but box counting resulted computationally faster and gave better results. Differential Box Counting (DBC) was used to segment a collage containing three textures. The FD is independent of directionality and brightness so five features were used derived from the original image to account for directionality and gray level biases. FD can not be measured on a point, so we use a window that slides across the image giving values of FD to the pixel on the center of the window. Windowing blurs the boundaries of adjacent classes, so an edge-preserving, feature-smoothing algorithm is used to improve classification within segments and to make the boundaries sharper. Segmentation using DBC was 90.8910 accurate.

  14. Cloud type discrimination via multispectral textural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, Niloufar; Crawford, Melba M.; Hutchison, Keith D.; Khazenie, Nahid

    1993-09-01

    One of the primary interests in digital image processing is the development of robust methods to perform feature detection, extraction, and classification. Until recently, classification methods for cloud discrimination were mainly based on the spectral information of the imagery. However, because of the spectral similarities of certain features (such as ice clouds and snow) and the effects of atmospheric attenuation, multi-spectral rule based classifications do not necessarily produce accurate feature discrimination. Spectral homogeneity of two different features within a scene can lead to misclassification. Furthermore, the opposite problem can occur when one feature exhibits different spectral signatures locally but is homogeneous in its cyclic spatial variation. The exploration of spatial information is often advantageous in these discrimination problems. A texture-based method for feature identification has been investigated. This method uses a set of localized spatial filters known as two dimensional Gabor functions. Gabor filters can be described as a sinusoidal plane wave within a two-dimensional Gaussian envelope. The frequency and orientation of the sine plane and the width of the Gaussian envelope are determined by the Gabor parameters. These tunable channels yield joint optimal information both in the spatial and the frequency domains. The new method has been applied to the thermal channels of the NOAA-advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for cloud type discrimination.

  15. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  16. Higher order SVD analysis for dynamic texture synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Roberto; Sbaiz, Luciano; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Videos representing flames, water, smoke, etc., are often defined as dynamic textures: "textures" because they are characterized by the redundant repetition of a pattern and "dynamic" because this repetition is also in time and not only in space. Dynamic textures have been modeled as linear dynamic systems by unfolding the video frames into column vectors and describing their trajectory as time evolves. After the projection of the vectors onto a lower dimensional space by a singular value decomposition (SVD), the trajectory is modeled using system identification techniques. Synthesis is obtained by driving the system with random noise. In this paper, we show that the standard SVD can be replaced by a higher order SVD (HOSVD), originally known as Tucker decomposition. HOSVD decomposes the dynamic texture as a multidimensional signal (tensor) without unfolding the video frames on column vectors. This is a more natural and flexible decomposition, since it permits us to perform dimension reduction in the spatial, temporal, and chromatic domain, while standard SVD allows for temporal reduction only. We show that for a comparable synthesis quality, the HOSVD approach requires, on average, five times less parameters than the standard SVD approach. The analysis part is more expensive, but the synthesis has the same cost as existing algorithms. Our technique is, thus, well suited to dynamic texture synthesis on devices limited by memory and computational power, such as PDAs or mobile phones.

  17. Fractal-based image texture analysis of trabecular bone architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C; Pitt, R E; Bertram, J E; Aneshansley, D J

    1999-07-01

    Fractal-based image analysis methods are investigated to extract textural features related to the anisotropic structure of trabecular bone from the X-ray images of cubic bone specimens. Three methods are used to quantify image textural features: power spectrum, Minkowski dimension and mean intercept length. The global fractal dimension is used to describe the overall roughness of the image texture. The anisotropic features formed by the trabeculae are characterised by a fabric ellipse, whose orientation and eccentricity reflect the textural anisotropy of the image. Tests of these methods with synthetic images of known fractal dimension show that the Minkowski dimension provides a more accurate and consistent estimation of global fractal dimension. Tests on bone x-ray (eccentricity range 0.25-0.80) images indicate that the Minkowski dimension is more sensitive to the changes in textural orientation. The results suggest that the Minkowski dimension is a better measure for characterising trabecular bone anisotropy in the x-ray images of thick specimens.

  18. Soil texture analysis by laser diffraction - standardization and awareness needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Palviainen, M.; Kjønaas, O. Janne

    Soil texture is a central soil quality property. Laser diffraction (LD) for determination of particle size distribution (PSD) is now widespread due to easy analysis and low cost. However, pretreatment methods and interpretation of the resulting soil PSD’s are not standardized. Comparison of LD data...

  19. Linear feature selection in texture analysis - A PLS based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Joselene; Igel, Christian; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We present a texture analysis methodology that combined uncommitted machine-learning techniques and partial least square (PLS) in a fully automatic framework. Our approach introduces a robust PLS-based dimensionality reduction (DR) step to specifically address outliers and high-dimensional featur...

  20. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  1. Quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueding; Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhuo-Xian; Lin, Jiandie; Carson, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging technology that could map the functional contrasts in deep biological tissues in high resolution by "listening" to the laser induced thermoelastic waves. Almost all of the current studies in PA imaging are focused on the intensity of the PA signals as an indication of the optical absorbance of the biological tissues. Our group has for the first time demonstrated that the frequency domain power distribution of the broadband PA signals encode the texture information within the regions-of-interest (ROI). Following the similar method of ultrasound spectral analysis (USSA), photoacoustic spectrum analysis (PASA) could evaluate the relative concentrations and, more importantly, the dimensions of microstructures of the optically absorbing materials in biological tissues, including lipid, collagen, water and hemoglobin. By providing valuable insights into tissue pathology, PASA should benefit basic research and clinical management of many diseases, and may help achieve eventual "noninvasive biopsy". In this work, taking advantage of the optical absorption contrasts contributed by lipid and hemoglobin at 1200-nm and 532-nm wavelengths respectively, we investigated the capability of PASA in identifying histological changes corresponding to fat accumulation livers through the study on ex vivo and in situ mouse models. The PA signals from the mouse livers were acquired using our PA and US dual-modality imaging system, and analyzed in the frequency domain. After quantifying the power spectrum by fitting it to a first order model, three spectral parameters, including the intercept, the midband fit and the slope, were extracted and used to differentiate fatty livers from normal livers. The comparison between the PASA parameters from the normal and the fatty livers supports our hypotheses that PASA can quantitatively identify the microstructure changes in liver tissues for differentiating normal and fatty livers.

  2. SU-E-E-16: The Application of Texture Analysis for Differentiation of Central Cancer From Atelectasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, M; Fan, T; Duan, J [Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan, Shandong province (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prospectively assess the potential utility of texture analysis for differentiation of central cancer from atelectasis. Methods: 0 consecutive central lung cancer patients who were referred for CT imaging and PET-CT were enrolled. Radiotherapy doctor delineate the tumor and atelectasis according to the fusion imaging based on CT image and PET-CT image. The texture parameters (such as energy, correlation, sum average, difference average, difference entropy), were obtained respectively to quantitatively discriminate tumor and atelectasis based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) Results: The texture analysis results showed that the parameters of correlation and sum average had an obviously statistical significance(P<0.05). Conclusion: the results of this study indicate that texture analysis may be useful for the differentiation of central lung cancer and atelectasis.

  3. Automated pollen identification using microscopic imaging and texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, J Víctor; Nava, Rodrigo; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Redondo, Rafael; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Óscar; González-Porto, Amelia; Pardo, Cristina; Chung, François; Rodríguez, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Pollen identification is required in different scenarios such as prevention of allergic reactions, climate analysis or apiculture. However, it is a time-consuming task since experts are required to recognize each pollen grain through the microscope. In this study, we performed an exhaustive assessment on the utility of texture analysis for automated characterisation of pollen samples. A database composed of 1800 brightfield microscopy images of pollen grains from 15 different taxa was used for this purpose. A pattern recognition-based methodology was adopted to perform pollen classification. Four different methods were evaluated for texture feature extraction from the pollen image: Haralick's gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), log-Gabor filters (LGF), local binary patterns (LBP) and discrete Tchebichef moments (DTM). Fisher's discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbour were subsequently applied to perform dimensionality reduction and multivariate classification, respectively. Our results reveal that LGF and DTM, which are based on the spectral properties of the image, outperformed GLCM and LBP in the proposed classification problem. Furthermore, we found that the combination of all the texture features resulted in the highest performance, yielding an accuracy of 95%. Therefore, thorough texture characterisation could be considered in further implementations of automatic pollen recognition systems based on image processing techniques.

  4. Estimates of Aboveground Biomass from Texture Analysis of Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Kelsey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maps of forest biomass are important tools for managing natural resources and reporting terrestrial carbon stocks. Using the San Juan National Forest in Southwest Colorado as a case study, we evaluate regional biomass maps created using physical variables, spectral vegetation indices, and image textural analysis on Landsat TM imagery. We investigate eight gray level co-occurrence matrix based texture measures (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation on four window sizes (3 × 3, 5 × 5, 7 × 7, 9 × 9 at four offsets ([1,0], [1,1], [0,1], [1,−1] on four Landsat TM bands (2, 3, 4, and 5. The map with the highest prediction quality was created using three texture metrics calculated from Landsat Band 2 on a 3 × 3 window and an offset of [0,1]: entropy, mean and correlation; and one physical variable: slope. The correlation of predicted versus observed biomass values for our texture-based biomass map is r = 0.86, the Root Mean Square Error is 45.6 Mg∙ha−1, and the Coefficient of Variation of the Root Mean Square Error is 0.31. We find that models including image texture variables are more strongly correlated with biomass than models using only physical and spectral variables. Additionally, we suggest that the use of texture appears to better capture the magnitude and direction of biomass change following disturbance compared to spectral approaches. The biomass mapping methods we present here are widely applicable throughout the US, as they are based on publically available datasets and utilize relatively simple analytical routines.

  5. Texture analysis of cosmetic/pharmaceutical raw materials and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A; Bianchini, R; Jachowicz, J

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify textural properties of cosmetic and pharmaceutical raw materials. Textural parameters such as hardness, consistency, cohesiveness, index of viscosity, stickiness and resilience were evaluated. The measurements were performed using texture analyser - a tensile metre equipped with special probes (in the form of acrylic cylinder and stainless steel sphere), which can penetrate the measured sample of a product recording the force, distance and time. The instrument simulates the action of a human finger touching the surface and probing the properties of an object. The set-up has been previously shown to quantify the rheological/textural properties of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products such as creams, lotion and gels as well as rheological behaviour of human skin. The results include the analysis of water, glycerine and mineral oil as well as aqueous solutions of thickeners such as Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer (Ultrez-20 obtained from Noveon) and carbomer. Solutions of common surfactants and complex surfactant formulations such as shampoos have also been investigated. The results, in the form plots of force as a function of time or distance, resulting from slow bidirectional probe movement (submergence and desubmergence) in the analysed fluid, were interpreted by considering buoyancy, drag and viscous drag force given by Stokes equation. The data can be used to correlate with tactile evaluations of products by trained panel evaluations. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  7. An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies.

  8. An Improved Quantitative Analysis Method for Plant Cortical Microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1 image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies.

  9. Texture analysis and classification of ultrasound liver images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Peng, Yuhua; Guo, Huizhi; Liu, Weifeng; Gao, Tianxin; Xu, Yuanqing; Tang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound as a noninvasive imaging technique is widely used to diagnose liver diseases. Texture analysis and classification of ultrasound liver images have become an important research topic across the world. In this study, GLGCM (Gray Level Gradient Co-Occurrence Matrix) was implemented for texture analysis of ultrasound liver images first, followed by the use of GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix) at the second stage. Twenty two features were obtained using the two methods, and seven most powerful features were selected for classification using BP (Back Propagation) neural network. Fibrosis was divided into five stages (S0-S4) in this study. The classification accuracies of S0-S4 were 100%, 90%, 70%, 90% and 100%, respectively.

  10. A quantitative evaluation of the deformation texture predictions for aluminium alloys from crystal plasticity finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Saiyi; Van Houtte, Paul; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2004-09-01

    Crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) models are useful tools in modelling the anisotropic stress-strain responses in large deformation of polycrystalline metals. In this study, a CPFE model is applied to simulate the evolution of crystallographic textures during cold rolling of hot-rolled aluminium plates and during uniaxial tensile, uniaxial compression and simple shear tests of annealed aluminium sheets. The performance of the model is critically evaluated through quantitative comparisons of the simulated textures with those predicted by the full constraints (FC) Taylor model and the experimentally measured textures. It is shown that the CPFE model performs better than the FC Taylor model in all the cases. However, the quality of the texture predictions deteriorates with increasing strain values. The CPFE model gives better texture predictions in the moderately deformed tensile and compression samples (~20% strain), compared to the more heavily deformed simple shear (0.85-0.95 shear strain) and cold-rolled (40-98% thickness reduction) samples. It is also shown that the CPFE predictions for cold rolling can be improved with finer discretization, i.e. by assigning multiple elements per grain instead of one element per grain in the finite element model. The improvement is mainly reflected in an improved prediction of the copper component and, in some cases, an improved prediction of the brass component. Inspection of the local deformation gradients reveals that these texture changes can be attributed to the increase of shear relaxations in the RD-ND and RD-TD planes.

  11. A Framework for Establishing Standard Reference Scale of Texture by Multivariate Statistical Analysis Based on Instrumental Measurement and Sensory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Xie, Nan; Wang, Houyin; Shi, Bolin; Shi, Jingye

    2016-01-13

    A framework of establishing standard reference scale (texture) is proposed by multivariate statistical analysis according to instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis is conducted to rapidly select typical reference samples with characteristics of universality, representativeness, stability, substitutability, and traceability. The reasonableness of the framework method is verified by establishing standard reference scale of texture attribute (hardness) with Chinese well-known food. More than 100 food products in 16 categories were tested using instrumental measurement (TPA test), and the result was analyzed with clustering analysis, principal component analysis, relative standard deviation, and analysis of variance. As a result, nine kinds of foods were determined to construct the hardness standard reference scale. The results indicate that the regression coefficient between the estimated sensory value and the instrumentally measured value is significant (R(2) = 0.9765), which fits well with Stevens's theory. The research provides reliable a theoretical basis and practical guide for quantitative standard reference scale establishment on food texture characteristics.

  12. Discriminating dysplasia: Optical tomographic texture analysis of colorectal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqi; Coats, Maria; Zhang, Jianguo; McKenna, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    Optical projection tomography enables 3-D imaging of colorectal polyps at resolutions of 5-10 µm. This paper investigates the ability of image analysis based on 3-D texture features to discriminate diagnostic levels of dysplastic change from such images, specifically, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer. We build a patch-based recognition system and evaluate both multi-class classification and ordinal regression formulations on a 90 polyp dataset. 3-D texture representations computed with a hand-crafted feature extractor, random projection, and unsupervised image filter learning are compared using a bag-of-words framework. We measure performance in terms of error rates, F-measures, and ROC surfaces. Results demonstrate that randomly projected features are effective. Discrimination was improved by carefully manipulating various important aspects of the system, including class balancing, output calibration and approximation of non-linear kernels.

  13. Application of texture analysis to DAT SPECT imaging: Relationship to clinical assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Rahmim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine transporter (DAT SPECT imaging is increasingly utilized for diagnostic purposes in suspected Parkinsonian syndromes. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate whether assessment of texture in DAT SPECT radiotracer uptake enables enhanced correlations with severity of motor and cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD, with the long-term goal of enabling clinical utility of DAT SPECT imaging, beyond standard diagnostic tasks, to tracking of progression in PD. Quantitative analysis in routine DAT SPECT imaging, if performed at all, has been restricted to assessment of mean regional uptake. We applied a framework wherein textural features were extracted from the images. Notably, the framework did not require registration to a common template, and worked in the subject-native space. Image analysis included registration of SPECT images onto corresponding MRI images, automatic region-of-interest (ROI extraction on the MRI images, followed by computation of Haralick texture features. We analyzed 141 subjects from the Parkinson's Progressive Marker Initiative (PPMI database, including 85 PD and 56 healthy controls (HC (baseline scans with accompanying 3 T MRI images. We performed univariate and multivariate regression analyses between the quantitative metrics and different clinical measures, namely (i the UPDRS (part III - motor score, disease duration as measured from (ii time of diagnosis (DD-diag. and (iii time of appearance of symptoms (DD-sympt., as well as (iv the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score. For conventional mean uptake analysis in the putamen, we showed significant correlations with clinical measures only when both HC and PD were included (Pearson correlation r = −0.74, p-value < 0.001. However, this was not significant when applied to PD subjects only (r = −0.19, p-value = 0.084, and no such correlations were observed in the caudate. By contrast, for the PD subjects, significant correlations

  14. Numerical analysis of monocrystalline silicon solar cells with fine nanoimprinted textured surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Seiya; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Araki, Shinji; Honda, Tatsuki; Jiang, Yunjiang; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the surface reflectance of nanoimprinted textures on silicon. Zirconium oxide, which is a wide-bandgap inorganic dielectric material, was used as the texturing material. We performed several calculations to optimize the textures for the production of high-efficiency bulk-type monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Our analysis revealed that nanoimprinted textured solar cells exhibit a lower reverse saturation current density than a solar cell with a conventional etched texture. It was also confirmed that the photocarrier generation rate for a solar cell with a submicron-scale nanoimprinted texture has little dependence on the texture shape. Furthermore, the weighted average reflectance of an optimized nanoimprinted textured solar cell was substantially reduced to 3.72%, suggesting that texture formation by nanoimprint lithography is an extremely effective technology for producing high-efficiency solar cells at a low cost.

  15. Analysis of GLCM Parameters for Textures Classification on UMD Database Images

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Alsadegh Saleh Saied; Lu, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Texture analysis is one of the most important techniques that have been used in image processing for many purposes, including image classification. The texture determines the region of a given gray level image, and reflects its relevant information. Several methods of analysis have been invented and developed to deal with texture in recent years, and each one has its own method of extracting features from the texture. These methods can be divided into two main approaches: statistical methods ...

  16. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-06-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies.

  17. 3D texture analysis in renal cell carcinoma tissue image grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yun; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Bengtsson, Ewert; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  18. 3D Texture Analysis in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Image Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  19. Quantitative Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-10

    The US energy sector is vulnerable to multiple hazards including both natural disasters and malicious attacks from an intelligent adversary. The question that utility owners, operators and regulators face is how to prioritize their investments to mitigate the risks from a hazard that can have the most impact on the asset of interest. In order to be able to understand their risk landscape and develop a prioritized mitigation strategy, they must quantify risk in a consistent way across all hazards their asset is facing. Without being able to quantitatively measure risk, it is not possible to defensibly prioritize security investments or evaluate trade-offs between security and functionality. Development of a methodology that will consistently measure and quantify risk across different hazards is needed.

  20. Texture analysis of cervical cell nuclei by segmentation of chromatin patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulders, A.W.M.; Leyte-Veldstra, L.; Ploem, J.S.; Cornelisse, C.JJ.

    1979-01-01

    Texture parameters of the nuclear chromatin pattern can contribute to the automated classification of specimens on the basis of single cell analysis in cervical cytology. Current texture parameters are abstract and therefore hamper understanding. In this paper texture parameters are described that c

  1. Application of texture analysis method for mammogram density classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, R.; Santhi, B.

    2017-07-01

    Mammographic density is considered a major risk factor for developing breast cancer. This paper proposes an automated approach to classify breast tissue types in digital mammogram. The main objective of the proposed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system is to investigate various feature extraction methods and classifiers to improve the diagnostic accuracy in mammogram density classification. Texture analysis methods are used to extract the features from the mammogram. Texture features are extracted by using histogram, Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM), Gray Level Difference Matrix (GLDM), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Entropy, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT), Gabor transform and trace transform. These extracted features are selected using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The features selected by ANOVA are fed into the classifiers to characterize the mammogram into two-class (fatty/dense) and three-class (fatty/glandular/dense) breast density classification. This work has been carried out by using the mini-Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database. Five classifiers are employed namely, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Naive Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Experimental results show that ANN provides better performance than LDA, NB, KNN and SVM classifiers. The proposed methodology has achieved 97.5% accuracy for three-class and 99.37% for two-class density classification.

  2. Generating an Arabic Calligraphy Text Blocks for Global Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bataineh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to improve the current method for generating an Arabic Calligraphy text blocks. We test on seven types of Arabic Calligraphy text. We apply  projection profiles and a proposed filter to discriminate each line of the Arabic Calligraphy scripts. After performing text detection, skew correction, text and line normalization subsequently, we generate Arabic Calligraphy text blocks for global texture analysis purposes. We compare our proposed filter with current method and median filter. The results show that the proposed filter  is outperformed. The proposed method can be further  improved to boost the overall performance.

  3. 2D magnetic texture analysis of Co-Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Alper, Mursel [Uludag Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2017-08-01

    The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, M{sub p}(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A{sub 0} and A{sub 2n}) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A{sub 0} and an obvious decrease in A{sub 2n} (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.

  4. Monotowns: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shastitko Andrei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an empirical analysis of the current situation in monotowns. The study questions the perceived seriousness of the ‘monotown problem’ as well as the actual challenges it presents. The authors use a cluster analysis to divide monotowns into groups for further structural comparison. The structural differences in the available databases limit the possibilities of empirical analysis. Hence, alternative approaches are required. The authors consider possible reasons for the limitations identified. Special attention is paid to the monotowns that were granted the status of advanced development territories. A comparative analysis makes it possible to study their general characteristics and socioeconomic indicators. The authors apply the theory of opportunistic behaviour to describe potential problems caused by the lack of unified criteria for granting monotowns the status of advanced development territories. The article identifies the main stakeholders and the character of their interaction; it desc ribes a conceptual model built on the principal/agent interactions, and identifies the parametric space of mutually beneficial cooperation. The solution to the principal/agent problem suggested in the article contributes to the development of an alternative approach to the current situation and a rational approach to overcoming the ‘monotown problem’.

  5. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  6. Reliable Classification of Geologic Surfaces Using Texture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foil, G.; Howarth, D.; Abbey, W. J.; Bekker, D. L.; Castano, R.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2012-12-01

    Communication delays and bandwidth constraints are major obstacles for remote exploration spacecraft. Due to such restrictions, spacecraft could make use of onboard science data analysis to maximize scientific gain, through capabilities such as the generation of bandwidth-efficient representative maps of scenes, autonomous instrument targeting to exploit targets of opportunity between communications, and downlink prioritization to ensure fast delivery of tactically-important data. Of particular importance to remote exploration is the precision of such methods and their ability to reliably reproduce consistent results in novel environments. Spacecraft resources are highly oversubscribed, so any onboard data analysis must provide a high degree of confidence in its assessment. The TextureCam project is constructing a "smart camera" that can analyze surface images to autonomously identify scientifically interesting targets and direct narrow field-of-view instruments. The TextureCam instrument incorporates onboard scene interpretation and mapping to assist these autonomous science activities. Computer vision algorithms map scenes such as those encountered during rover traverses. The approach, based on a machine learning strategy, trains a statistical model to recognize different geologic surface types and then classifies every pixel in a new scene according to these categories. We describe three methods for increasing the precision of the TextureCam instrument. The first uses ancillary data to segment challenging scenes into smaller regions having homogeneous properties. These subproblems are individually easier to solve, preventing uncertainty in one region from contaminating those that can be confidently classified. The second involves a Bayesian approach that maximizes the likelihood of correct classifications by abstaining from ambiguous ones. We evaluate these two techniques on a set of images acquired during field expeditions in the Mojave Desert. Finally, the

  7. Efficient rotation- and scale-invariant texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kam-Keung; Lam, Kin-Man

    2010-10-01

    Texture analysis plays an important role in content-based image retrieval and other areas of image processing. It is often desirable for the texture classifier to be rotation and scale invariant. Furthermore, to enable real-time usage, it is desirable to perform the classification efficiently. Toward these goals, we propose several enhancements to the multiresolution Gabor analysis. The first is a new set of kernels called Slit, which can replace Gabor wavelets in applications where high computational speed is desired. Compared to Gabor, feature extraction using Slit requires only 11 to 17% of the numeric operations. The second is to make the features more rotation invariant. We propose a circular sum of the feature elements from the same scale of the feature vector. This has the effect of averaging the feature vector from all orientations. The third is a slide-matching scheme for the final stage of the classifier, which can be applied to different types of distance measures. Distances are calculated at slightly different scales, and the smallest value is used as the actual distance measures. Experimental results using different image databases and distance measures show distinct improvements over existing schemes.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S. [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Martin, P. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  9. Automated migration analysis based on cell texture: method & reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittenden Thomas W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we present and validate a way to measure automatically the extent of cell migration based on automated examination of a series of digital photographs. It was designed specifically to identify the impact of Second Hand Smoke (SHS on endothelial cell migration but has broader applications. The analysis has two stages: (1 preprocessing of image texture, and (2 migration analysis. Results The output is a graphic overlay that indicates the front lines of cell migration superimposed on each original image, with automated reporting of the distance traversed vs. time. Expert preference compares to manual placement of leading edge shows complete equivalence of automated vs. manual leading edge definition for cell migration measurement. Conclusion Our method is indistinguishable from careful manual determinations of cell front lines, with the advantages of full automation, objectivity, and speed.

  10. Walnut shell and meat classification using texture analysis and SVMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fenghua; Qin, Lei; Rao, Xiuqin; Tao, Yang

    2007-09-01

    The classification of walnuts shell and meat has a potential application in industry walnuts processing. A dark-field illumination method is proposed for the inspection of walnuts. Experiments show that the dark-field illuminated images of walnut shell and meat have distinct text patterns due to the differences in the light transmittance property of each. A number of rotation invariant feature analysis methods are used to characterize and discriminate the unique texture patterns. These methods include local binary pattern operator, wavelet analysis, circular Gabor filters, circularly symmetric gray level co-occurrence matrix and the histogram-related features. A recursive feature elimination method (SVM-RFE), is used to remove uncorrelated and redundant features and to train the SVM classifier at the same time. Experiments show that, by using only the top six ranked features, an average classification accuracy of 99.2% can be achieved.

  11. Evaluation of impaired fingertip texture discrimination and wrist position sense in patients affected by stroke: comparison of clinical and new quantitative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Leeanne M; Matyas, Thomas A; Oke, Linda E

    2002-01-01

    Discriminative sensory loss is common following stroke but may not be adequately detected by routine clinical measures. Quantitative tests of texture discrimination and limb position sense have been recently developed. These tests provide reliable estimates of discrimination, differentiate impaired performance following stroke, and have standardized criteria of abnormality. The purpose of this study was to compare predictions of impairment based on current clinical measures with predictions based on these quantitative, standardized measures. Thirty-five patients who had strokes were tested on the new quantitative measures and clinical measures of texture discrimination and limb position sense. The findings indicated poor agreement between impairment defined using current clinical measures and statistically abnormal performance on the new quantitative, norm-referenced measures. The findings suggest that the quantitative tests may provide additional assessment information to supplement that of the existing clinical measures of texture discrimination and limb position sense. Further development of these new quantitative measures is indicated.

  12. Latest development in seismic texture analysis for subsurface structure, facies, and reservoir characterization: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dengliang

    2011-03-01

    In exploration geology and geophysics, seismic texture is still a developing concept that has not been sufficiently known, although quite a number of different algorithms have been published in the literature. This paper provides a review of the seismic texture concepts and methodologies, focusing on latest developments in seismic amplitude texture analysis, with particular reference to the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and the texture model regression (TMR) methods. The GLCM method evaluates spatial arrangements of amplitude samples within an analysis window using a matrix (a two-dimensional histogram) of amplitude co-occurrence. The matrix is then transformed into a suite of texture attributes, such as homogeneity, contrast, and randomness, which provide the basis for seismic facies classification. The TMR method uses a texture model as reference to discriminate among seismic features based on a linear, least-squares regression analysis between the model and the data within an analysis window. By implementing customized texture model schemes, the TMR algorithm has the flexibility to characterize subsurface geology for different purposes. A texture model with a constant phase is effective at enhancing the visibility of seismic structural fabrics, a texture model with a variable phase is helpful for visualizing seismic facies, and a texture model with variable amplitude, frequency, and size is instrumental in calibrating seismic to reservoir properties. Preliminary test case studies in the very recent past have indicated that the latest developments in seismic texture analysis have added to the existing amplitude interpretation theories and methodologies. These and future developments in seismic texture theory and methodologies will hopefully lead to a better understanding of the geologic implications of the seismic texture concept and to an improved geologic interpretation of reflection seismic amplitude

  13. Inferring Species Richness and Turnover by Statistical Multiresolution Texture Analysis of Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Matteo; Mangoubi, Rami S.; Linkov, Igor; Lowry, Nathan C.; Desai, Mukund

    2012-01-01

    Background The quantification of species-richness and species-turnover is essential to effective monitoring of ecosystems. Wetland ecosystems are particularly in need of such monitoring due to their sensitivity to rainfall, water management and other external factors that affect hydrology, soil, and species patterns. A key challenge for environmental scientists is determining the linkage between natural and human stressors, and the effect of that linkage at the species level in space and time. We propose pixel intensity based Shannon entropy for estimating species-richness, and introduce a method based on statistical wavelet multiresolution texture analysis to quantitatively assess interseasonal and interannual species turnover. Methodology/Principal Findings We model satellite images of regions of interest as textures. We define a texture in an image as a spatial domain where the variations in pixel intensity across the image are both stochastic and multiscale. To compare two textures quantitatively, we first obtain a multiresolution wavelet decomposition of each. Either an appropriate probability density function (pdf) model for the coefficients at each subband is selected, and its parameters estimated, or, a non-parametric approach using histograms is adopted. We choose the former, where the wavelet coefficients of the multiresolution decomposition at each subband are modeled as samples from the generalized Gaussian pdf. We then obtain the joint pdf for the coefficients for all subbands, assuming independence across subbands; an approximation that simplifies the computational burden significantly without sacrificing the ability to statistically distinguish textures. We measure the difference between two textures' representative pdf's via the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL). Species turnover, or diversity, is estimated using both this KL divergence and the difference in Shannon entropy. Additionally, we predict species richness, or diversity, based on the

  14. Inferring species richness and turnover by statistical multiresolution texture analysis of satellite imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Convertino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The quantification of species-richness and species-turnover is essential to effective monitoring of ecosystems. Wetland ecosystems are particularly in need of such monitoring due to their sensitivity to rainfall, water management and other external factors that affect hydrology, soil, and species patterns. A key challenge for environmental scientists is determining the linkage between natural and human stressors, and the effect of that linkage at the species level in space and time. We propose pixel intensity based Shannon entropy for estimating species-richness, and introduce a method based on statistical wavelet multiresolution texture analysis to quantitatively assess interseasonal and interannual species turnover. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We model satellite images of regions of interest as textures. We define a texture in an image as a spatial domain where the variations in pixel intensity across the image are both stochastic and multiscale. To compare two textures quantitatively, we first obtain a multiresolution wavelet decomposition of each. Either an appropriate probability density function (pdf model for the coefficients at each subband is selected, and its parameters estimated, or, a non-parametric approach using histograms is adopted. We choose the former, where the wavelet coefficients of the multiresolution decomposition at each subband are modeled as samples from the generalized Gaussian pdf. We then obtain the joint pdf for the coefficients for all subbands, assuming independence across subbands; an approximation that simplifies the computational burden significantly without sacrificing the ability to statistically distinguish textures. We measure the difference between two textures' representative pdf's via the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL. Species turnover, or [Formula: see text] diversity, is estimated using both this KL divergence and the difference in Shannon entropy. Additionally, we predict species

  15. Potential Performance Criteria for Combat Ration Packs - Texture Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    at which sensory texture is no longer acceptable. A study designed to elicit this information would be required before performance criteria based on...TPA are discussed. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 3. Significant changes in texture were observed for golden and chocolate self-saucing puddings and...establish texture-based performance criteria should focus initially on golden and chocolate self-saucing puddings and biscuits. 2. Investigate the

  16. Soil texture analysis by laser diffraction - standardization needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Palviainen, M.; Kjønaas, O. Janne

    2017-01-01

    Soil texture is a central soil quality property. Laser diffraction (LD) for determination of particle size distribution (PSD) is now widespread due to easy analysis and low cost. However, pretreatment methods and interpretation of the resulting soil PSD’s are not standardized. Comparison of LD data...... with sedimentation and sieving data may cause misinterpretation and confusion. In literature that reports PSD’s based on LD, pretreatment methods, operating procedures and data methods are often underreported or not reported, although literature stressing the importance exists (e.g. Konert and Vandenberghe, 1997...... and many newer; ISO 13320:2009). PSD uncertainty caused by pretreatments and PSD bias caused by plate-shaped clay particles still calls for more method standardization work. If LD is used more generally, new pedotransfer functions for other soil properties (e.g water retention) based on sieving...

  17. Interpretation of quantitative crystallographic texture in copper electrodeposits on amorphous substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Jensen, Jens Arne Dahl; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Crystallographic texture and morphology in Cu electrodeposits was studied in relation to the current density and the content of the organic levelling additive 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate. The substrate onto which Cu was electrodeposited consisted of amorphous Ni-P in order to allow substrate...

  18. Texture of Frozen Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  19. Texture analysis and classification of SAR images of urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    In SAR image classification texture holds useful information. In a study after the ability of texture to discriminate urban land-cover, a set of measures was investigated. Among them were histogram measures, wavelet energy, fractal dimension, lacunarity and semivariograms. The latter were chosen as

  20. A Texture Analysis of 3D Radar Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deiana, D.; Yarovoy, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a texture feature coding method to be applied to high-resolution 3D radar images in order to improve target detection is developed. An automatic method for image segmentation based on texture features is proposed. The method has been able to automatically detect weak targets which fail

  1. Image decomposition with anisotropic diffusion applied to leaf-texture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Bruno Brandoli; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Texture analysis is an important field of investigation that has received a great deal of interest from computer vision community. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for texture modeling based on partial differential equation (PDE). Each image $f$ is decomposed into a family of derived sub-images. $f$ is split into the $u$ component, obtained with anisotropic diffusion, and the $v$ component which is calculated by the difference between the original image and the $u$ component. After enhancing the texture attribute $v$ of the image, Gabor features are computed as descriptors. We validate the proposed approach on two texture datasets with high variability. We also evaluate our approach on an important real-world application: leaf-texture analysis. Experimental results indicate that our approach can be used to produce higher classification rates and can be successfully employed for different texture applications.

  2. Image segmentation and particles classification using texture analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayar Aly Atteya

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ingredients of oily fish include a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important elements in various metabolic processes of humans, and have also been used to prevent diseases. However, in an attempt to reduce cost, recent developments are starting a replace the ingredients of fish oil with products of microalgae, that also produce polyunsaturated fatty acids. To do so, it is important to closely monitor morphological changes in algae cells and monitor their age in order to achieve the best results. This paper aims to describe an advanced vision-based system to automatically detect, classify, and track the organic cells using a recently developed SOPAT-System (Smart On-line Particle Analysis Technology, a photo-optical image acquisition device combined with innovative image analysis software. Methods The proposed method includes image de-noising, binarization and Enhancement, as well as object recognition, localization and classification based on the analysis of particles’ size and texture. Results The methods allowed for correctly computing cell’s size for each particle separately. By computing an area histogram for the input images (1h, 18h, and 42h, the variation could be observed showing a clear increase in cell. Conclusion The proposed method allows for algae particles to be correctly identified with accuracies up to 99% and classified correctly with accuracies up to 100%.

  3. Textures in Strip-Cast Aluminum Alloys: Their On-Line Monitoring and Quantitative Effects on Formability. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Chi-Sing

    2003-07-27

    Aluminum sheets produced by continuous casting (CC) provide energy and economic savings of at least 25 and 14 percent, respectively, over sheets made from conventional direct chill (DC) ingot casting and rolling. As a result of the much simpler production route in continuous casting, however, the formability of CC aluminum alloys is often somewhat inferior to that of their DC counterparts. The mechanical properties of CC alloys can be improved by controlling their microstructure through optimal thermomechanical processing. Suitable annealing is an important means to improve the formability of CC aluminum alloy sheets. Recrystallization of deformed grains occurs during annealing, and it changes the crystallographic texture of the aluminum sheet. Laboratory tests in this project showed that this texture change can be detected by either laser-ultrasound resonance spectroscopy or resonance EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) spectroscopy, and that monitoring this change allows the degree of recrystallization or the ''recrystallized fraction'' in an annealed sheet to be ascertained. Through a plant trial conducted in May 2002, this project further demonstrated that it is feasible to monitor the recrystallized state of a continuous-cast aluminum sheet in-situ on the production line by using a laser-ultrasound sensor. When used in conjunction with inline annealing, inline monitoring of the recrystallized fraction by laser-ultrasound resonance spectroscopy offers the possibility of feed-back control that helps optimize processing parameters (e.g., annealing temperature), detect production anomalies, ensure product quality, and further reduce production costs of continuous-cast aluminum alloys. Crystallographic texture strongly affects the mechanical anisotropy/formability of metallic sheets. Clarification of the quantitative relationship between texture and anisotropy/formability of an aluminum alloy will render monitoring and control of its

  4. 3D tooth microwear texture analysis in fishes as a test of dietary hypotheses of durophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Mark A.; Darras, Laurent P. G.

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of how extinct animals functioned underpins our understanding of past evolutionary events, including adaptive radiations, and the role of functional innovation and adaptation as drivers of both micro- and macroevolution. Yet analysis of function in extinct animals is fraught with difficulty. Hypotheses that interpret molariform teeth in fishes as evidence of durophagous (shell-crushing) diets provide a good example of the particular problems inherent in the methods of functional morphology. This is because the assumed close coupling of form and function upon which the approach is based is weakened by, among other things, behavioural flexibility and the absence of a clear one to one relationship between structures and functions. Here we show that ISO 25178-2 standard parameters for surface texture, derived from analysis of worn surfaces of molariform teeth of fishes, vary significantly between species that differ in the amount of hard-shelled prey they consume. Two populations of the Sheepshead Seabream (Archosargus probatocephalus) were studied. This fish is not a dietary specialist, and one of the populations is known to consume more vegetation and less hard-shelled prey than the other; this is reflected in significant differences in their microwear textures. The Archosargus populations differ significantly in their microwear from the specialist shell-crusher Anarhichas lupus (the Atlantic Wolffish). Multivariate analysis of these three groups of fishes lends further support to the relationship between diet and tooth microwear, and provides robust validation of the approach. Application of the multivariate models derived from microwear texture in Archosargus and Anarhichas to a third fish species—the cichlid Astatoreochromis alluaudi—successfully separates wild caught fish that ate hard-shelled prey from lab-raised fish that did not. This cross-taxon validation demonstrates that quantitative analysis of tooth microwear texture can

  5. Fractal texture analysis of the healing process after bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Marta; Szarmach, Janusz; Oczeretko, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Radiological assessment of treatment effectiveness of guided bone regeneration (GBR) method in postresectal and postcystal bone loss cases, observed for one year. Group of 25 patients (17 females and 8 males) who underwent root resection with cystectomy were evaluated. The following combination therapy of intraosseous deficits was used, consisting of bone augmentation with xenogenic material together with covering regenerative membranes and tight wound closure. The bone regeneration process was estimated, comparing the images taken on the day of the surgery and 12 months later, by means of Kodak RVG 6100 digital radiography set. The interpretation of the radiovisiographic image depends on the evaluation ability of the eye looking at it, which leaves a large margin of uncertainty. So, several texture analysis techniques were developed and used sequentially on the radiographic image. For each method, the results were the mean from the 25 images. These methods compute the fractal dimension (D), each one having its own theoretic basis. We used five techniques for calculating fractal dimension: power spectral density method, triangular prism surface area method, blanket method, intensity difference scaling method and variogram analysis. Our study showed a decrease of fractal dimension during the healing process after bone loss. We also found evidence that various methods of calculating fractal dimension give different results. During the healing process after bone loss, the surfaces of radiographic images became smooth. The result obtained show that our findings may be of great importance for diagnostic purpose.

  6. Minimizing inter-microscope variability in dental microwear texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Ungar, Peter S.; Brown, Christopher A.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schmidt, Christopher; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-06-01

    A common approach to dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) uses confocal profilometry in concert with scale-sensitive fractal analysis to help understand the diets of extinct mammals. One of the main benefits of DMTA over other methods is the repeatable, objective manner of data collection. This repeatability, however, is threatened by variation in results of DMTA of the same dental surfaces yielded by different microscopes. Here we compare DMTA data of five species of kangaroos measured on seven profilers of varying specifications. Comparison between microscopes confirms that inter-microscope differences are present, but we show that deployment of a number of automated treatments to remove measurement noise can help minimize inter-microscope differences. Applying these same treatments to a published hominin DMTA dataset shows that they alter some significant differences between dietary groups. Minimising microscope variability while maintaining interspecific dietary differences requires then that these factors are balanced in determining appropriate treatments. The process outlined here offers a solution for allowing comparison of data between microscopes, which is essential for ongoing DMTA research. In addition, the process undertaken, including considerations of other elements of DMTA protocols also promises to streamline methodology, remove measurement noise and in doing so, optimize recovery of a reliable dietary signature.

  7. Quantitative analysis of glycated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Ramírez-Boo, María; Finamore, Francesco; Gluck, Florent; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2014-02-07

    The proposed protocol presents a comprehensive approach for large-scale qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycated proteins (GP) in complex biological samples including biological fluids and cell lysates such as plasma and red blood cells. The method, named glycation isotopic labeling (GIL), is based on the differential labeling of proteins with isotopic [(13)C6]-glucose, which supports quantitation of the resulting glycated peptides after enzymatic digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C. The key principle of the GIL approach is the detection of doublet signals for each glycated peptide in MS precursor scanning (glycated peptide with in vivo [(12)C6]- and in vitro [(13)C6]-glucose). The mass shift of the doublet signals is +6, +3 or +2 Da depending on the peptide charge state and the number of glycation sites. The intensity ratio between doublet signals generates quantitative information of glycated proteins that can be related to the glycemic state of the studied samples. Tandem mass spectrometry with high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD-MS2) and data-dependent methods with collision-induced dissociation (CID-MS3 neutral loss scan) are used for qualitative analysis.

  8. Performance evaluation of GLCM and pixel intensity matrix for skin texture analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punal M. Arabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Texture refers to visual patterns or spatial arrangement of pixels. Texture analysis is one of the features in image processing that is used to analyze the images captured by the imaging devices on human skin. Skin texture analysis plays a vital role in assessing the skin health and in the diagnosis of skin disorders such as allergic skin disorders, viral skin disease, bacterial skin diseases and fungal skin diseases. Texture analysis is carried out by one of the methods namely, structural, statistical, model based, transform based techniques. Statistical texture analysis depends mainly on feature extraction which may be done using GLCM (grey level co-occurrence matrix and WDM (wavelength division multiplexing techniques. The extracted features are used to classify texture. In this paper a study of skin texture analysis is carried out by comparing GLCM features and pixel intensity matrix parameters by experimenting with cheek and dorsal skin samples. The results obtained show that pixel intensity matrix parameters are more helpful than GLCM for analyzing the texture of skin.

  9. Quantitative analysis of the recrystallized textures of cold-rolled 430 stainless steel during high-temperature annealing%430不锈钢冷轧板高温退火过程中再结晶织构的定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乃帅; 张雄; 温治; 豆瑞锋; 李志强

    2014-01-01

    在750、800、825和850℃温度下,利用Gleeble1500热模拟试验机对430不锈钢冷轧薄板的等温退火过程进行了详细的实验研究,分析了退火过程中再结晶织构和组织的变化规律,并对关键织构体积分数的演变进行了定量分析。结果发现:随着退火过程的进行,α取向线上的织构强度逐渐减弱,而酌取向线上的织构强度则略有加强,并保持在较高的值;再结晶过程中,{111}和{112}织构的体积分数逐渐降低,而{100}和随机取向晶粒的体积分数逐渐增加。定量分析表明,退火温度越低,完全再结晶后材料内部关键织构的体积分数越偏离冷轧态。最后,针对{111}、{112}、{100}和随机取向织构的体积分数在再结晶过程中的演变规律,建立了JMAK型再结晶织构演变动力学模型。%ABSTRACT Variations in the recrystallized texture and microstructure of cold-rolled 430 stainless steel during isothermal annealing were investigated on a Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanic simulator at 750, 800, 825 and 850℃, and the evolution of main textures was analyzed quantitatively. As annealing proceeds, the intensity of α-fiber orientation components decreases, but the intensity of γ-fiber components increases slightly and maintains at a higher value. The volume fraction of{111} and{112} decreases as recrystal-lization proceeds, while the volume fraction of{100} and random orientation textures increases. Compared with the cold-rolled state, it is observed that the volume fraction of main textures has greater changes in annealing at low temperature than at high temperature. Finally, variations in the volume fraction of{111},{112} ,{100} and random orientation textures during recrystallization were described by a JMAK kinetics model.

  10. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  11. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  12. Texture recognition by the methods of topological data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Kalimoldayev, Maksat; Pak, Ivan; Yessenaliyeva, Ainur

    2016-11-01

    High spatial resolution satellite images are different from Gaussian statistics of counts. Therefore, texture recognition methods based on variances become ineffective. The aim of this paper is to study possibilities of completely different, topological approach to problems of structures classification. Persistent Betti numbers are signs of texture recognition. They are not associated with metrics and received directly fromdata in form of so-called persistence diagram (PD). The different structures built on PD are used to get convenient numerical statistics. At the present time, three of such objects are known: topological landscapes, persistent images and rank functions. They have been introduced recently and appeared as an attempt to vectorize PD. Typically, each of the proposed structures was illustrated by the authors with simple examples.However, the practical application of these approaches to large data sets requires to evaluate their efficiency within the frame of the selected task at the same standard database. In our case, such a task is to recognize different textures of the Remote Sensing Data (RSD). We check efficiency of structure, called persistent images in this work. We calculate PD for base containing 800 images of high resolution representing 20 texture classes. We have found out that average efficiency of separate image recognition in the classes is 84%, and in 11 classes, it is not less than 90%. By comparison topological landscapes provide 68% for average efficiency, and only 3 classes of not less than 90%. Reached conclusions are of interest for new methods of texture recognition in RSD.

  13. Comparative analysis of the speed performance of texture analysis algorithms on a graphic processing unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Martinez, J.; Orjuela-Vargas, S. A.; Philips, W.

    2013-03-01

    This paper compares the speed performance of a set of classic image algorithms for evaluating texture in images by using CUDA programming. We include a summary of the general program mode of CUDA. We select a set of texture algorithms, based on statistical analysis, that allow the use of repetitive functions, such as the Coocurrence Matrix, Haralick features and local binary patterns techniques. The memory allocation time between the host and device memory is not taken into account. The results of this approach show a comparison of the texture algorithms in terms of speed when executed on CPU and GPU processors. The comparison shows that the algorithms can be accelerated more than 40 times when implemented using CUDA environment.

  14. Fourier optics for polymeric substrates and coating textures analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    Several devices for substrate texture detection based on diffractive optics, for paper, textiles and non-wovens have been proposed in the past for direct inspection during the production processes. In spite of the presence of devices totally based on image processing, the use of diffractive optics cannot be considered surpassed for many reasons. Compared with image processing procedures, it is less sensitive to vibrations and does not suffer from the presence of ambient light. Based on transmitted light, it can give information on changes in refractive indexes, thickness variation and surface conditions. We study the use of optical Fourier spectrum to identify textures of polymer films. As the power spectrum reveals, the texture is seldom homogeneous. Here we report investigation on several substrates and on thin ink coatings on substrate. Role of bulk and surface conditions is analysed.

  15. Quantitative Effect of Soil Texture Composition on Retardation Factor of K+ Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With six packed columns composed of <1μm and 5μm~0.25 mm fractions from an Eum-Orthic Anthrosol (Columns 1~6) and one column of the Eum-Orthic Anthrosol (Column 7), K+ transport experiments under the condition of saturated steady water flow were conducted to qualify the effects of soil texture composition on the retardation factor (R) of K+ transport. The results showed that the retardation factor of K+ transport in the tested soil columns greatly increased with increasing clay contents. In an attempt to use pedo-transfer function (PTF) approach in the solute transport study, a preliminary PTF was established through the six packed columns (Columns 1~6) with soil basic data including soil bulk density, volumetric water content and clay content to predict the retardation factor, and proved valid by the satisfactory prediction of R in Column 7.

  16. TEXTURAL FRACTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstitution of the history of a fatigue process is based on the knowledge of any correspondences between the morphology of the crack surface and the velocity of the crack growth (crack growth rate - CGR. The textural fractography is oriented to mezoscopic SEM magnifications (30 to 500x. Images contain complicated textures without distinct borders. The aim is to find any characteristics of this texture, which correlate with CGR. Pre-processing of images is necessary to obtain a homogeneous texture. Three methods of textural analysis have been developed and realized as computational programs: the method based on the spectral structure of the image, the method based on a Gibbs random field (GRF model, and the method based on the idealization of light objects into a fibre process. In order to extract and analyze the fibre process, special methods - tracing fibres and a database-oriented analysis of a fibre process - have been developed.

  17. Performance Analysis of Texture Image Classification Using Wavelet Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the performance of various classifiers for multi class image classification. Where the features are extracted by the proposed algorithm in using Haar wavelet coefficient. The wavelet features are extracted from original texture images and corresponding complementary images. As it is really very difficult to decide which classifier would show better performance for multi class image classification. Hence, this work is an analytical study of performance of various classifiers for the single multiclass classification problem. In this work fifteen textures are taken for classification using Feed Forward Neural Network, Naïve Bays Classifier, K-nearest neighbor Classifier and Cascaded Neural Network.

  18. The effect of crystallographic texture on stress-induced martensitic transformation in NiTi: A computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, F M; Guo, Y; Bruzzi, M S

    2016-01-01

    NiTi׳s superelasticity is exploited in a number of biomedical devices, in particular self-expanding endovascular stents. These stents are often laser-cut from textured micro-tubing; texture is the distribution of crystallographic grain orientations in a polycrystalline material which has been experimentally shown to have a marked influence on mechanical properties. This study offers a computational examination into the effect of texture on the stress-induced martensite transformation (SIMT) in a micro-dogbone NiTi specimen subject to tensile loading. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is employed to simulate the transformational behaviour of the specimen on a micro-scale level. To represent a realistic grain structure in the FEA model, grains present in a 200µm×290µm test site located at the centre edge of the specimen were identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Grains are assumed to have homogenous behaviour with properties varying according to their crystallographic orientation to the loading direction. Required material properties were extracted from uniaxial stress-strain curves of single crystals for each crystallographic orientation for input into the in-built UMAT/Nitinol. The orientation of each grain in the test site was identified using Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) techniques. In this way, a quantitative explanation is offered to the effect of crystallographic texture on SIMT. Finally, the evolution of grains in the specimen, during the transformation process, was experimentally investigated by means of an in-situ SEM tensile test.

  19. Assessing breast cancer masking risk with automated texture analysis in full field digital mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenberg, Michiel Gijsbertus J; Lillholm, Martin; Diao, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    status in a five-fold cross validation. To assess the interaction of the texture scores with breast density, Volpara Density Grade (VDG) was determined for each image using Volpara, Matakina Technology, New Zealand. RESULTS We grouped women into low (VDG 1/2) versus high (VDG 3/4) dense, and low...... for the high texture score group (as compared to the low texture score group) this OR was 2.19 (1.37-3.49). Women who were classified as low dense but had a high texture score had a higher masking risk (OR 1.66 (0.53-5.20)) than women with dense breasts but a low texture score. CONCLUSION Mammographic texture...... is associated with breast cancer masking risk. We were able to identify a subgroup of women who are at an increased risk of having a cancer that is not detected due to textural masking, even though their breasts are non-dense. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION Automatic texture analysis enables assessing the risk...

  20. An Interactive Tool for Analysis and Optimization of Texture Parameters in Photorealistic Virtual 3d Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, A. A.; Buckley, S. J.; Viola, I.

    2012-07-01

    Texture mapping is a common method for combining surface geometry with image data, with the resulting photorealistic 3D models being suitable not only for visualization purposes but also for interpretation and spatiameasurement, in many application fields, such as cultural heritage and the earth sciences. When acquiring images for creation of photorealistic models, it is usual to collect more data than is finally necessary for the texturing process. Images may be collected from multiple locations, sometimes with different cameras or lens configurations and large amounts of overlap may exist. Consequently, much redundancy may be present, requiring sorting to choose the most suitable images to texture the model triangles. This paper presents a framework for visualization and analysis of the geometric relations between triangles of the terrain model and covering image sets. The application provides decision support for selection of an image subset optimized for 3D model texturing purposes, for non-specialists. It aims to improve the communication of geometrical dependencies between model triangles and the available digital images, through the use of static and interactive information visualization methods. The tool was used for computer-aided selection of image subsets optimized for texturing of 3D geological outcrop models. The resulting textured models were of high quality and with a minimum of missing texture, and the time spent in time-consuming reprocessing was reduced. Anecdotal evidence indicated that an increased user confidence in the final textured model quality and completeness makes the framework highly beneficial.

  1. A grayscale image color transfer method based on region texture analysis using GLCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanmeng; Wang, Lingxue; Jin, Weiqi; Luo, Yuan; Li, Jiakun

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve the performance of grayscale image colorization based on color transfer, this paper proposes a novel method by which pixels are matched accurately between images through region texture analysis using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). This method consists of six steps: reference image selection, color space transformation, grayscale linear transformation and compression, texture analysis using GLCM, pixel matching through texture value comparison, and color value transfer between pixels. We applied this method to kinds of grayscale images, and they gained natural color appearance like the reference images. Experimental results proved that this method is more effective than conventional method in accurately transferring color to grayscale images.

  2. Texture analysis methods for the characterisation of biological and medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Ţălu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptations can be extreme in many cases and they help organisms survive in their habitat or ecological niche. These adaptations can affect their anatomy, ethology or physiology. Anatomical adaptations are physical features such as animal's shape, particularities at the skeleton level, texture of exoskeleton, surface of the skin in animals or cuticula in plants etc. The purpose of this paper is to present a synthesis concerning the texture analysis methods used for the characterisation of biological and medical images. Texture analysis methods of biological and medical images provide noninvasive tools that allow biologists, physicians and researchers the early detection and diagnosis of diseases.

  3. Texture Analysis of Hydrophobic Polycarbonate and Polydimethylsiloxane Surfaces via Persistent Homology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nabi Duman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent climate change-triggered, regular dust storms in the Middle East, dust mitigation has become the critical issue for solar energy harvesting devices. One of the methods to minimize and prevent dust adhesion and create self-cleaning abilities is to generate hydrophobic characteristics on surfaces. The purpose of this study is to explore the topological features of hydrophobic surfaces. We use non-standard techniques from topological data analysis to extract morphological features from the AFM images. Our method recovers most of the previous qualitative observations in a robust and quantitative way. Persistence diagrams, which is a summary of topological structures, witness quantitatively that the crystallized polycarbonate (PC surface possesses spherulites, voids, and fibrils, and the texture height and spherulite concentration increases with the increased immersion period. The approach also shows that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS exactly copied the structures at the PC surface but 80 to 90 percent of the nanofibrils were not copied at PDMS surface. We next extract a feature vector from each persistence diagram to show which experiments hold features with similar variance using principal component analysis (PCA. The K-means clustering algorithm is applied to the matrix of feature vectors to support the PCA result, grouping experiments with similar features.

  4. Investigation and development of computer programs for the analysis of texture and anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Che; Lee, Chang Hee; Seong, Baek Seok

    1998-12-01

    In anticipation of texture measurements using the four circle diffractometer at HANARO reactor we assessed the standard texture analysis packages, popLA (Preferred orientation package - Los Alamos) and BEARTEX (Berkeley Texture Package). Both are PC-oriented packages of utility programs that perform comprehensive task incorporating data acquisition, corrections and presentation of results in graphics display as well as orientation distribution (OD) analysis. In the main OD analysis the former follows both the conventional harmonic method as well as the more accurate WIMV method, while the latter solely rely on WIMV algorithm. In spite of involved calculations both packages are so fast that most OD analysis can be done in less than a few minutes. We think all the effective features of the packages qualify them to be used as backbone of a software system for texture experiments at the HANARO reactor.

  5. Texture analysis of computed tomography images of acute ischemic stroke patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.S.; Castellano, G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Neurofisica], e-mail: marciaso@ifi.unicamp.br; Fernandes, P.T.; Avelar, W.M.; Santos, S.L.M.; Li, L.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Lab. de Neuroimagem

    2009-11-15

    Computed tomography (CT) images are routinely used to assess ischemic brain stroke in the acute phase. They can provide important clues about whether to treat the patient by thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator. However, in the acute phase, the lesions may be difficult to detect in the images using standard visual analysis. The objective of the present study was to determine if texture analysis techniques applied to CT images of stroke patients could differentiate between normal tissue and affected areas that usually go unperceived under visual analysis. We performed a pilot study in which texture analysis, based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix, was applied to the CT brain images of 5 patients and of 5 control subjects and the results were compared by discriminant analysis. Thirteen regions of interest, regarding areas that may be potentially affected by ischemic stroke, were selected for calculation of texture parameters. All regions of interest for all subjects were classified as lesional or non-lesional tissue by an expert neuroradiologist. Visual assessment of the discriminant analysis graphs showed differences in the values of texture parameters between patients and controls, and also between texture parameters for lesional and non-lesional tissue of the patients. This suggests that texture analysis can indeed be a useful tool to help neurologists in the early assessment of ischemic stroke and quantification of the extent of the affected areas. (author)

  6. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture Classifications for Simulating Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-X-3 July 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture...Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), need the soil texture classification that corresponds to particular cells or areas that the model...WebSoilSurvey.aspx). The data package should contain the spatial data as shapefiles, tabular data as text files, and the soils template database (be

  7. Texture coefficient analysis of ion beam irradiated copper nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Pallavi, E-mail: prana.phy@gmail.com; Chaudhary, Ritika, E-mail: chauhanrpc@gmail.com; Chauhan, R. P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra-136119 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Radiation may deteriorate physical properties of the materials and leave negative as well as positive impacts especially on crystalline materials. The energy deposited by ions to the grains and grain boundaries could also influence other properties of grains like: strain, reflection of charge carriers from grain boundaries, in addition to their grain size and orientation. The intensity of a peak in the XRD spectra is the direct reflection of orientation of a miller plane in the crystal. The increased intensity symbolizes the crystalline behavior due to defects annealing, while decreased intensity portray the defects formation and slender amorphisation. Orientation distribution function is a probability distribution function that quantified the texture of a polycrystalline material. The coefficients of harmonic expansion of orientation distribution function is the measurement of the texture coefficient ‘TC’. This study focused on the investigation of effect of ion beam irradiation on the preffered orientation of the planes of copper nanowires.

  8. AUTO-SHAPE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE TEXTURES IN FRACTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the velocity of fatigue crack growth (crack growth rate - CGR from the texture in SEM images of crack surfaces. A simple and quick method is based on fitting training images as a linear combination of several small subimages selected from the images themselves. The size of basic subimages is derived from autocorrelation functions of the image in row and column direction. The selection of basic subimages is based on two indicators: "appeal" evaluating their shape content, and mutual coefficient of correlation. The method is easy to implement and quick in computations, while results of testing application are fully comparable with best ones obtained within textural fractography of fatigue failures.

  9. Fourier optics for polymeric substrates and coating textures analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia; Wolf, Rory A.

    2008-01-01

    Several devices for substrate texture detection based on diffractive optics, for paper, textiles and non-wovens have been proposed in the past for direct inspection during the production processes. In spite of the presence of devices totally based on image processing, the use of diffractive optics cannot be considered surpassed for many reasons. Compared with image processing procedures, it is less sensitive to vibrations and does not suffer from the presence of ambient light. Based on transm...

  10. Submarine Pipeline Routing Risk Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 于莉; 胡云昌; 王金英

    2004-01-01

    A new method for submarine pipeline routing risk quantitative analysis was provided, and the study was developed from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis.The characteristics of the potential risk of the submarine pipeline system were considered, and grey-mode identification theory was used. The study process was composed of three parts: establishing the indexes system of routing risk quantitative analysis, establishing the model of grey-mode identification for routing risk quantitative analysis, and establishing the standard of mode identification result. It is shown that this model can directly and concisely reflect the hazard degree of the routing through computing example, and prepares the routing selection for the future.

  11. Multi-spectral texture analysis for IED detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Henrik; Gustafsson, David

    2016-10-01

    The use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has increased significantly over the world and is a globally widespread phenomenon. Although measures can be taken to anticipate and prevent the opponent's ability to deploy IEDs, detection of IEDs will always be a central activity. There is a wide range of different sensors that are useful but also simple means, such as a pair of binoculars, can be crucial to detect IEDs in time. Disturbed earth (disturbed soil), such as freshly dug areas, dumps of clay on top of smooth sand or depressions in the ground, could be an indication of a buried IED. This paper brie y describes how a field trial was set-up to provide a realistic data set on a road section containing areas with disturbed soil due to buried IEDs. The road section was imaged using a forward looking land-based sensor platform consisting of visual imaging sensors together with long-, mid-, and shortwave infrared imaging sensors. The paper investigates the presence of discriminatory information in surface texture comparing areas with disturbed against undisturbed soil. The investigation is conducted for the different wavelength bands available. To extract features that describe texture, image processing tools such as 'Histogram of Oriented Gradients', 'Local Binary Patterns', 'Lacunarity', 'Gabor Filtering' and 'Co-Occurence' is used. It is found that texture as characterized here may provide discriminatory information to detect disturbed soil, but the signatures we found are weak and can not be used alone in e.g. a detector system.

  12. Classification of esophagitis grade by neural network and texture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kwang Wook; Min, Byeong Ro; Kim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Dae Weon [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So Yeon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Esophagitis is divided into four grades according to the progress degree of disease by the LA classification method. This research was carried out on image processing with endoscope images for quantifying the four grades under the LA Classification. In a previous paper, which presented our work, the algorithm for detecting abnormal parts from one image was developed. This paper was conducted to classify esophagitis grade of one image itself. Whole 30 images were used in an experiment and included normal images and abnormal images with four grades. GLCM (gray level cooccurrence matrices) factors were extracted. The distributions of the texture image histogram were analyzed from each image for texture images. The algorithm to determine esophagitis grade used BPN (Back propagation network) that was composed of the texture histogram distribution for input data. It learned 20 images and verified with 10 images to diagnose under the LA classification system. Recognition ratio of learning result was 93.0% and verification result 77.0%. With features of the neural network, the success rate could be improved with this result by learning the data which were errors. Consequently, the recognition success rate appeared at 96% by total re-learned 30 images in addition to 10 images

  13. Analysis of mammogram images based on texture features of curvelet sub-bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Syed Jamal Safdar; Faye, Ibrahima; Eltoukhy, Mohamed Meselhy

    2014-01-01

    Image texture analysis plays an important role in object detection and recognition in image processing. The texture analysis can be used for early detection of breast cancer by classifying the mammogram images into normal and abnormal classes. This study investigates breast cancer detection using texture features obtained from the grey level cooccurrence matrices (GLCM) of curvelet sub-band levels combined with texture feature obtained from the image itself. The GLCM were constructed for each sub-band of three curvelet decomposition levels. The obtained feature vector presented to the classifier to differentiate between normal and abnormal tissues. The proposed method is applied over 305 region of interest (ROI) cropped from MIAS dataset. The simple logistic classifier achieved 86.66% classification accuracy rate with sensitivity 76.53% and specificity 91.3%.

  14. Measurement of Vibrated Bulk Density of Coke Particle Blends Using Image Texture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Kamran; Bogoya-Forero, Wilinthon; Duchesne, Carl; Tessier, Jayson

    2017-09-01

    A rapid and nondestructive machine vision sensor was developed for predicting the vibrated bulk density (VBD) of petroleum coke particles based on image texture analysis. It could be used for making corrective adjustments to a paste plant operation to reduce green anode variability (e.g., changes in binder demand). Wavelet texture analysis (WTA) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithms were used jointly for extracting the surface textural features of coke aggregates from images. These were correlated with the VBD using partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Coke samples of several sizes and from different sources were used to test the sensor. Variations in the coke surface texture introduced by coke size and source allowed for making good predictions of the VBD of individual coke samples and mixtures of them (blends involving two sources and different sizes). Promising results were also obtained for coke blends collected from an industrial-baked carbon anode manufacturer.

  15. Estimation of sufficient signal to noise ratio for texture analysis of magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Sami; Harrison, Lara; Ryymin, Pertti; Dastidar, Prasun; Soimakallio, Seppo; Eskola, Hannu

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we have studied the effect of background noise on the texture analysis of muscle, bone marrow and fat tissues in 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) images using different statistical methods. Variable levels of noise were first added on 3-mm thick T2 weighted image slices of voluntary subjects to simulate several signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. For each original and simulated image, the values for 264 texture parameters were calculated using MaZda, a texture analysis toolkit. We also determined Fisher coefficients based on the texture parameter values in order to enable high discrimination between different tissues. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and two different nearest neighbour (NN) methods were then applied for the texture parameters with the highest Fisher coefficient values. Several training and test sets were used to approximate the variation in the classification results. All the above-mentioned methods had the same classification accuracy, which in turn depended on the image SNR. We conclude that these tissues can be detected by texture analysis methods with a sufficient accuracy (90%) especially if SNR is at least 30-40 dB, even though the separation of different muscles remains a very challenging task.

  16. Comparison of various texture classification methods using multiresolution analysis and linear regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, S; Kumari Roshni, V S

    2016-01-01

    Textures play an important role in image classification. This paper proposes a high performance texture classification method using a combination of multiresolution analysis tool and linear regression modelling by channel elimination. The correlation between different frequency regions has been validated as a sort of effective texture characteristic. This method is motivated by the observation that there exists a distinctive correlation between the image samples belonging to the same kind of texture, at different frequency regions obtained by a wavelet transform. Experimentally, it is observed that this correlation differs across textures. The linear regression modelling is employed to analyze this correlation and extract texture features that characterize the samples. Our method considers not only the frequency regions but also the correlation between these regions. This paper primarily focuses on applying the Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Packet Transform and the Linear Regression model for classification of the obtained texture features. Additionally the paper also presents a comparative assessment of the classification results obtained from the above method with two more types of wavelet transform methods namely the Discrete Wavelet Transform and the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform.

  17. Textural and Mineralogical Analysis of Volcanic Rocks by µ-XRF Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Luigi; Cossio, Roberto; Maritan, Lara; Borghi, Alessandro; Mazzoli, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    In this study, µ-XRF was applied as a novel surface technique for quick acquisition of elemental X-ray maps of rocks, image analysis of which provides quantitative information on texture and rock-forming minerals. Bench-top µ-XRF is cost-effective, fast, and non-destructive, can be applied to both large (up to a few tens of cm) and fragile samples, and yields major and trace element analysis with good sensitivity. Here, X-ray mapping was performed with a resolution of 103.5 µm and spot size of 30 µm over sample areas of about 5×4 cm of Euganean trachyte, a volcanic porphyritic rock from the Euganean Hills (NE Italy) traditionally used in cultural heritage. The relative abundance of phenocrysts and groundmass, as well as the size and shape of the various mineral phases, were obtained from image analysis of the elemental maps. The quantified petrographic features allowed identification of various extraction sites, revealing an objective method for archaeometric provenance studies exploiting µ-XRF imaging.

  18. Texture analysis for survival prediction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayasree; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Escalon, Joanna G.; Allen, Peter J.; Lowery, Maeve A.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. The five-year survival rate for all stages is approximately 6%, and approximately 2% when presenting with distant disease.1 Only 10-20% of all patients present with resectable disease, but recurrence rates are high with only 5 to 15% remaining free of disease at 5 years. At this time, we are unable to distinguish between resectable PDAC patients with occult metastatic disease from those with potentially curable disease. Early classification of these tumor types may eventually lead to changes in initial management including the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation, or in the choice of postoperative adjuvant treatments. Texture analysis is an emerging methodology in oncologic imaging for quantitatively assessing tumor heterogeneity that could potentially aid in the stratification of these patients. The present study derives several texture-based features from CT images of PDAC patients, acquired prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and analyzes their performance, individually as well as in combination, as prognostic markers. A fuzzy minimum redundancy maximum relevance method with leave-one-image-out technique is included to select discriminating features from the set of extracted features. With a naive Bayes classifier, the proposed method predicts the 5-year overall survival of PDAC patients prior to neoadjuvant therapy and achieves the best results in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0:858 and accuracy of 83:0% with four-fold cross-validation techniques.

  19. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall (Austria); AO Development Institute, 7270 Davos Platz (Switzerland); Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R{sup 2

  20. UAV Remote Sensing for Urban Vegetation Mapping Using Random Forest and Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV remote sensing has great potential for vegetation mapping in complex urban landscapes due to the ultra-high resolution imagery acquired at low altitudes. Because of payload capacity restrictions, off-the-shelf digital cameras are widely used on medium and small sized UAVs. The limitation of low spectral resolution in digital cameras for vegetation mapping can be reduced by incorporating texture features and robust classifiers. Random Forest has been widely used in satellite remote sensing applications, but its usage in UAV image classification has not been well documented. The objectives of this paper were to propose a hybrid method using Random Forest and texture analysis to accurately differentiate land covers of urban vegetated areas, and analyze how classification accuracy changes with texture window size. Six least correlated second-order texture measures were calculated at nine different window sizes and added to original Red-Green-Blue (RGB images as ancillary data. A Random Forest classifier consisting of 200 decision trees was used for classification in the spectral-textural feature space. Results indicated the following: (1 Random Forest outperformed traditional Maximum Likelihood classifier and showed similar performance to object-based image analysis in urban vegetation classification; (2 the inclusion of texture features improved classification accuracy significantly; (3 classification accuracy followed an inverted U relationship with texture window size. The results demonstrate that UAV provides an efficient and ideal platform for urban vegetation mapping. The hybrid method proposed in this paper shows good performance in differentiating urban vegetation mapping. The drawbacks of off-the-shelf digital cameras can be reduced by adopting Random Forest and texture analysis at the same time.

  1. A textural approach based on Gabor functions for texture edge detection in ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C M; Lu, H H; Han, K C

    2001-04-01

    Edge detection is an important, but difficult, step in quantitative ultrasound (US) image analysis. In this paper, we present a new textural approach for detecting a class of edges in US images; namely, the texture edges with a weak regional mean gray-level difference (RMGD) between adjacent regions. The proposed approach comprises a vision model-based texture edge detector using Gabor functions and a new texture-enhancement scheme. The experimental results on the synthetic edge images have shown that the performances of the four tested textural and nontextural edge detectors are about 20%-95% worse than that of the proposed approach. Moreover, the texture enhancement may improve the performance of the proposed texture edge detector by as much as 40%. The experiments on 20 clinical US images have shown that the proposed approach can find reasonable edges for real objects of interest with the performance of 0.4 +/- 0.08 in terms of the Pratt's figure.

  2. Texture and microstructure evolution in nickel electrodeposited from an additive-free Watts electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Kasama, Takeshi;

    2016-01-01

    Nickel layers with 〈100〉, 〈210〉, 〈110〉 and 〈211〉 fiber textures were electrodeposited from additive-free Watts type electrolytes by adjusting both the pH and the applied current density. Quantitative crystallographic texture analysis by XRD was supplemented by micro-texture analysis applying EBSD...

  3. Analysis of Optical and Morphological Properties of Aluminium Induced Texture Glass Superstrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Venkataraj, Selvaraj; Battaglia, Corsin; Vayalakkara, Premachandran; Aberle, Armin G.

    2012-10-01

    Texturing the glass surface is a promising method for improving the light trapping properties of superstrate thin-film silicon solar cells, as it enables thinner absorber layers and, possibly, higher cell efficiencies. In this paper we present the optical and morphological properties of borosilicate glass superstrates textured with the aluminium induced texture (AIT) method. High haze values are achieved without any reduction in the total optical transmission of the glass sheets after the AIT process. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements reveal a laterally uniform surface morphology of the AIT texture. We demonstrate that the surface roughness and thus the transmission haze can be controlled by adjusting the AIT process parameters. From the AFM images, we extract histograms of the local height and angle distributions of the texture. Samples with a wide angle distribution are shown to produce the highest optical haze. The results of this analysis provide a better understanding of the correlation between the AIT process parameters and the resulting surface morphology. This analysis is further extended to an amorphous silicon pin solar cell deposited onto the textured glass substrate.

  4. Gastric cancer: texture analysis from multidetector computed tomography as a potential preoperative prognostic biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giganti, Francesco; Salerno, Annalaura; Marra, Paolo; Esposito, Antonio; Del Maschio, Alessandro; De Cobelli, Francesco [Department of Radiology and Centre for Experimental Imaging San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Vita-Salute University, Milan (Italy); Antunes, Sofia [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Centre for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy); Ambrosi, Alessandro [San Raffaele Vita-Salute University, Milan (Italy); Nicoletti, Roberto [Department of Radiology and Centre for Experimental Imaging San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Orsenigo, Elena [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Surgery, Milan (Italy); Chiari, Damiano; Staudacher, Carlo [San Raffaele Vita-Salute University, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Surgery, Milan (Italy); Albarello, Luca [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Pathology Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate the association between preoperative texture analysis from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Fifty-six patients with biopsy-proved gastric cancer were examined by MDCT and treated with surgery. Image features from texture analysis were quantified, with and without filters for fine to coarse textures. The association with survival time was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox analysis. The following parameters were significantly associated with a negative prognosis, according to different thresholds: energy [no filter] - Logarithm of relative risk (Log RR): 3.25; p = 0.046; entropy [no filter] (Log RR: 5.96; p = 0.002); entropy [filter 1.5] (Log RR: 3.54; p = 0.027); maximum Hounsfield unit value [filter 1.5] (Log RR: 3.44; p = 0.027); skewness [filter 2] (Log RR: 5.83; p = 0.004); root mean square [filter 1] (Log RR: - 2.66; p = 0.024) and mean absolute deviation [filter 2] (Log RR: - 4.22; p = 0.007). Texture analysis could increase the performance of a multivariate prognostic model for risk stratification in gastric cancer. Further evaluations are warranted to clarify the clinical role of texture analysis from MDCT. (orig.)

  5. Three-dimensional textural analysis of brain images reveals distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshan, Balaji [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Miles, Kenneth A.; Critchley, Hugo D. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Young, Rupert C.D.; Chatwin, Christopher R. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gurling, Hugh M.D. [University College London, Department of Mental Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Three-dimensional (3-D) selective- and relative-scale texture analysis (TA) was applied to structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images to quantify the presence of grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) textural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Brain TA comprised volume filtration using the Laplacian of Gaussian filter to highlight fine, medium and coarse textures within GM and WM, followed by texture quantification. Relative TA (e.g. ratio of fine to medium) was also computed. T1-weighted MR whole-brain images from 32 participants with diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 22) were examined. Five patients possessed marker alleles (SZ8) associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 8 in the pericentriolar material 1 gene while the remaining five had not inherited any of the alleles (SZ0). Filtered fine GM texture (mean grey-level intensity; MGI) most significantly differentiated schizophrenic patients from controls (P = 0.0058; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.809, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 70%). WM measurements did not distinguish the two groups. Filtered GM and WM textures (MGI) correlated with total GM and WM volume respectively. Medium-to-coarse GM entropy distinguished SZ0 from controls (P = 0.0069) while measures from SZ8 were intermediate between the two. 3-D TA of brain MR enables detection of subtle distributed morphological features associated with schizophrenia, determined partly by susceptibility genes. (orig.)

  6. Rheological behaviour of commercial cooked meat products evaluated by tensile test and texture profile analysis (TPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero de Ávila, M Dolores; Isabel Cambero, M; Ordóñez, Juan A; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Herrero, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    The breaking strength (BS) and energy to fracture (EF) of commercial cooked meat products (CMP) manufactured from different entire pieces were determined by tensile test. BS and EF were related to texture profile analysis (TPA) and physico-chemical data. Two textural profiles were characterized mainly by BS, springiness adhesiveness and fat content. Multivariate regression analysis confirms that TPA parameters could be used to construct models to predict BS and EF. Therefore, just one TPA analysis will allow to obtain both TPA and tensile parameters, providing valuable information about mechanical behaviour to improve product handling at industrial level especially in sliced CMP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cloud-type discrimination via multispectral textural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, Niloufar; Hutchison, Keith D.; Crawford, Melba M.; Khazenie, Nahid

    1994-04-01

    In recent years, with the development of satellite and computer technology, Earth observation and atmospheric research have become highly dependent on digital imagery. One of the primary interests in digital image processing is the development of robust methods to perform feature detection, extraction, and classification. Until recently, classification methods for cloud discrimination were mainly based on the spectral information of the imagery. However, because of the spectral similarities of certain features (such as ice clouds and snow) and the effects of atmospheric attenuation, multispectral rule-based classifications do not necessarily produce accurate feature discrimination. Spectral homogeneity of two different features within a scene can lead to misclassification. Furthermore, the opposite problem can occur when one feature exhibits different spectral signatures locally but is homogeneous in its cyclic spatial variation. The exploration of spatial information is often advantageous in these discrimination problems. A texture- based method for feature identification has been investigated. This method uses a set of localized spatial filters known as 2-D Gabor functions. Gabor filters can be described as a sinusoidal plane wave within a 2-D Gaussian envelope. The frequency and orientation of the sine plane and the width of the Gaussian envelope are determine by the Gabor parameters. These tunable channels yield joint optimal information both in the spatial and the frequency domains. The new method has been applied to the thermal channels of the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data for cloud-type discrimination. Results show that additional texture information improves discrimination between cloud types (especially thin cirrus).

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the abdomen: Impact of b-values on texture analysis features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anton S; Wagner, Matthias W; Wurnig, Moritz C; Boss, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to systematically assess the impact of the b-value on texture analysis in MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the abdomen. In eight healthy male volunteers, echo-planar DWI sequences at 16 b-values ranging between 0 and 1000 s/mm(2) were acquired at 3 T. Three different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were computed (0, 750/100, 390, 750 s/mm(2) /all b-values). Texture analysis of rectangular regions of interest in the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, paraspinal muscle and subcutaneous fat was performed on DW images and the ADC maps, applying 19 features computed from the histogram, grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and grey-level run-length matrix (GLRLM). Correlations between b-values and texture features were tested with a linear and an exponential model; the best fit was determined by the smallest sum of squared residuals. Differences between the ADC maps were assessed with an analysis of variance. A Bonferroni-corrected p-value less than 0.008 (=0.05/6) was considered statistically significant. Most GLCM and GLRLM-derived texture features (12-18 per organ) showed significant correlations with the b-value. Four texture features correlated significantly with changing b-values in all organs (p GLCM features showed significant variability in the different ADC maps. Several texture features vary systematically in healthy tissues at different b-values, which needs to be taken into account if DWI data with different b-values are analyzed. Histogram and GLRLM-derived texture features are stable on ADC maps computed from different b-values.

  9. Spherulites growth in trachytic melts: a textural quantitative study from synchrotron X-ray microtomography and SEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzilli, Fabio; Mancini, Lucia; Giuli, Gabriele; Cicconi, Maria Rita; Voltolini, Marco; Carroll, Michael R.

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the first textural data on synthetic alkali-feldspar spherulites grown in trachytic melts during cooling and decompression experiments with water-saturated conditions. Previous textural studies have shown the shape evolution and the growth process of spherulites as a function of undercooling (T) and water content, although just in basaltic and rhyolitic melts [1-3]. Spherulites are spherical clusters of polycrystalline aggregates that occur commonly in rhyolitic melts under highly non-equilibrium conditions [3-4]. Cooling and decompression experiments have been carried out on trachytic melts in order to investigate crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspars and the implications for magma dynamics during the ascent towards the surface. Experiments have been conducted using cold seal pressure vessel apparatus at pressure range of 30 - 200 MPa, temperature of 750 - 850 °C and time of 2 - 16 hours, thereby reproducing pre- and syn-eruptive conditions of the Campi Flegrei volcanoes. This study presents quantitative data on spherulite morphologies obtained both by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Size, aspect ratio, number and crystallographic misorientation of alkali feldspar crystals will be measured. Furthermore, experiments performed at different durations could allow us to follow the growth and the evolution of spherulites. The shape of spherulites changes as a function of ΔT and experimental durations. Two kind of spherulites occured during experiments: open spherulites and close spherulites. The open spherulites are characterized by an structure with large (generally rectangular prismatic), widely spaced fibers with main axis converging towards a central nucleus, in agreement with previous observations [5-6]. Instead, the close spherulites consist of acicular and tiny fibers radially aggregated around a nucleus and single crystals are hardly distinguishable. First preliminary results show: a

  10. Image Segmentation By Cluster Analysis Of High Resolution Textured SPOT Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, M.; Roux, C.; Hillion, A.

    1986-04-01

    Textural analysis is now a commonly used technique in digital image processing. In this paper, we present an application of textural analysis to high resolution SPOT satellite images. The purpose of the methodology is to improve classification results, i.e. image segmentation in remote sensing. Remote sensing techniques, based on high resolution satellite data offer good perspectives for the cartography of littoral environment. Textural information contained in the pan-chromatic channel of ten meters resolution is introduced in order to separate different types of structures. The technique we used is based on statistical pattern recognition models and operates in two steps. A first step, features extraction, is derived by using a stepwise algorithm. Segmentation is then performed by cluster analysis using these extracted. features. The texture features are computed over the immediate neighborhood of the pixel using two methods : the cooccurence matrices method and the grey level difference statistics method. Image segmentation based only on texture features is then performed by pixel classification and finally discussed. In a future paper, we intend to compare the results with aerial data in view of the management of the littoral resources.

  11. Texture and phase analysis of deformed SUS304 by using HIPPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takajo, Shigehiro [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-15

    These slides represent the author's research activity at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is about texture and phase analysis of deformed SUS304 by using HIPPO. The following topics are covered: diffraction histogram at each sample position, diffraction histogram (all bank data averaged), possiblity of ε-phase, MAUD analysis with including ε-phase.

  12. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma response evaluation with MRI texture classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinonen Tomi T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To show magnetic resonance imaging (MRI texture appearance change in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL during treatment with response controlled by quantitative volume analysis. Methods A total of 19 patients having NHL with an evaluable lymphoma lesion were scanned at three imaging timepoints with 1.5T device during clinical treatment evaluation. Texture characteristics of images were analyzed and classified with MaZda application and statistical tests. Results NHL tissue MRI texture imaged before treatment and under chemotherapy was classified within several subgroups, showing best discrimination with 96% correct classification in non-linear discriminant analysis of T2-weighted images. Texture parameters of MRI data were successfully tested with statistical tests to assess the impact of the separability of the parameters in evaluating chemotherapy response in lymphoma tissue. Conclusion Texture characteristics of MRI data were classified successfully; this proved texture analysis to be potential quantitative means of representing lymphoma tissue changes during chemotherapy response monitoring.

  13. Wavelet-based texture analysis of EEG signal for prediction of epileptic seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosian, Arthur A.; Homan, Richard; Pemmaraju, Suryalakshmi; Mitra, Sunanda

    1995-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal texture content analysis has been proposed for early warning of an epileptic seizure. This approach was evaluated by investigating the interrelationship between texture features and basic signal informational characteristics, such as Kolmogorov complexity and fractal dimension. The comparison of several traditional techniques, including higher-order FIR digital filtering, chaos, autoregressive and FFT time- frequency analysis was also carried out on the same epileptic EEG recording. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether wavelet transform can be used to further enhance the developed methods for prediction of epileptic seizures. The combined consideration of texture and entropy characteristics extracted from subsignals decomposed by wavelet transform are explored for that purpose. Yet, the novel neuro-fuzzy clustering algorithm is performed on wavelet coefficients to segment given EEG recording into different stages prior to an actual seizure onset.

  14. Pre-stack-texture-based reservoir characteristics and seismic facies analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Cheng-Yun; Liu Zhi-Ning; Cai Han-Peng; Qian Feng; Hu Guang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Seismic texture attributes are closely related to seismic facies and reservoir characteristics and are thus widely used in seismic data interpretation. However, information is mislaid in the stacking process when traditional texture attributes are extracted from post-stack data, which is detrimental to complex reservoir description. In this study, pre-stack texture attributes are introduced, these attributes can not only capable of precisely depicting the lateral continuity of waveforms between different reflection points but also reflect amplitude versus offset, anisotropy, and heterogeneity in the medium. Due to its strong ability to represent stratigraphics, a pre-stack-data-based seismic facies analysis method is proposed using the self-organizing map algorithm. This method is tested on wide azimuth seismic data from China, and the advantages of pre-stack texture attributes in the description of stratum lateral changes are verifi ed, in addition to the method’s ability to reveal anisotropy and heterogeneity characteristics. The pre-stack texture classification results effectively distinguish different seismic reflection patterns, thereby providing reliable evidence for use in seismic facies analysis.

  15. Quantitative analysis of saccadic search strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Over, E.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the quantitative analysis of saccadic search strategy. The goal of the research presented was twofold: 1) to quantify overall characteristics of fixation location and saccade direction, and 2) to identify search strategies, with the use of a quantitative description of eye mov

  16. Quantitative analysis of saccadic search strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Over, E.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the quantitative analysis of saccadic search strategy. The goal of the research presented was twofold: 1) to quantify overall characteristics of fixation location and saccade direction, and 2) to identify search strategies, with the use of a quantitative description of eye

  17. Texture features analysis for coastline extraction in remotely sensed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laurentiis, Raimondo; Dellepiane, Silvana G.; Bo, Giancarlo

    2002-01-01

    The accurate knowledge of the shoreline position is of fundamental importance in several applications such as cartography and ships positioning1. Moreover, the coastline could be seen as a relevant parameter for the monitoring of the coastal zone morphology, as it allows the retrieval of a much more precise digital elevation model of the entire coastal area. The study that has been carried out focuses on the development of a reliable technique for the detection of coastlines in remotely sensed images. An innovative approach which is based on the concepts of fuzzy connectivity and texture features extraction has been developed for the location of the shoreline. The system has been tested on several kind of images as SPOT, LANDSAT and the results obtained are good. Moreover, the algorithm has been tested on a sample of a SAR interferogram. The breakthrough consists in the fact that the coastline detection is seen as an important features in the framework of digital elevation model (DEM) retrieval. In particular, the coast could be seen as a boundary line all data beyond which (the ones representing the sea) are not significant. The processing for the digital elevation model could be refined, just considering the in-land data.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of shark skin texture surfaces for microchannel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hao-Chun; Guo, Yang-Yu; Tan, He-Ping; Li, Yao; Xie, Gong-Nan

    2016-09-01

    The studies of shark skin textured surfaces in flow drag reduction provide inspiration to researchers overcoming technical challenges from actual production application. In this paper, three kinds of infinite parallel plate flow models with microstructure inspired by shark skin were established, namely blade model, wedge model and the smooth model, according to cross-sectional shape of microstructure. Simulation was carried out by using FLUENT, which simplified the computation process associated with direct numeric simulations. To get the best performance from simulation results, shear-stress transport k-omega turbulence model was chosen during the simulation. Since drag reduction mechanism is generally discussed from kinetics point of view, which cannot interpret the cause of these losses directly, a drag reduction rate was established based on the second law of thermodynamics. Considering abrasion and fabrication precision in practical applications, three kinds of abraded geometry models were constructed and tested, and the ideal microstructure was found to achieve best performance suited to manufacturing production on the basis of drag reduction rate. It was also believed that bionic shark skin surfaces with mechanical abrasion may draw more attention from industrial designers and gain wide applications with drag-reducing characteristics.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Face Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Abraham

    2015-06-01

    The major objective of this article was to report quantitatively the degree of human face symmetry for reported images taken from the Internet. From the original image of a certain person that appears in the center of each triplet, 2 symmetric combinations were constructed that are based on the left part of the image and its mirror image (left-left) and on the right part of the image and its mirror image (right-right). By applying a computer software that enables to determine length, surface area, and perimeter of any geometric shape, the following measurements were obtained for each triplet: face perimeter and area; distance between the pupils; mouth length; its perimeter and area; nose length and face length, usually below the ears; as well as the area and perimeter of the pupils. Then, for each of the above measurements, the value C, which characterizes the degree of symmetry of the real image with respect to the combinations right-right and left-left, was calculated. C appears on the right-hand side below each image. A high value of C indicates a low symmetry, and as the value is decreasing, the symmetry is increasing. The magnitude on the left relates to the pupils and compares the difference between the area and perimeter of the 2 pupils. The major conclusion arrived at here is that the human face is asymmetric to some degree; the degree of asymmetry is reported quantitatively under each portrait.

  20. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation Using Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Kontos, Despina; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-10-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture has been shown to correlate with genetic markers of developing breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique in which tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple source projections acquired at different angles of the x-ray tube. Compared to digital mammography (DM), DBT eliminates breast tissue overlap, offering superior parenchymal tissue visualization. We hypothesize that texture analysis in DBT could potentially provide a better assessment of parenchymal texture and ultimately result in more accurate assessment of breast cancer risk. As a first step towards validating this hypothesis, we investigated the association between DBT parenchymal texture and breast percent density (PD), a known breast cancer risk factor, and compared it to DM. Bilateral DBT and DM images from 71 women participating in a breast cancer screening trial were analyzed. Filtered-backprojection was used to reconstruct DBT tomographic planes in 1 mm increments with 0.22 mm in-plane resolution. Corresponding DM images were acquired at 0.1 mm pixel resolution. Retroareolar regions of interest (ROIs) equivalent to 2.5 cm3 were segmented from the DBT images and corresponding 2.5 cm2 ROIs were segmented from the DM images. Breast PD was mammographically estimated using the Cumulus scale. Overall, DBT texture features demonstrated a stronger correlation than DM to PD. The Pearson correlation coefficients for DBT were r = 0.40 (pbreast cancer risk assessment in the future.

  1. Quantitative analysis of Boehm's GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xue-tao; ZHANG Yuan-rui; GOU Xiao-gang; CHENG Xu

    2003-01-01

    The term garbage collection describes the automated process of finding previously allocated memorythatis no longer in use in order to make the memory available to satisfy subsequent allocation requests. Wehave reviewed existing papers and implementations of GC, and especially analyzed Boehm' s C codes, which isa real-time mark-sweep GC running under Linux and ANSI C standard. In this paper, we will quantitatively an-alyze the performance of different configurations of Boehm' s collector subjected to different workloads. Reportedmeasurements demonstrate that a refined garbage collector is a viable alternative to traditional explicit memorymanagement techniques, even for low-level languages. It is more a trade-off for certain system than an all-or-nothing proposition.

  2. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-03-01

    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  3. An analysis of type F2 software measurement standards for profile surface texture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, L. D.; Leach, R. K.; Lawes, S. D. A.; Blateyron, F.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of ISO 5436 part 2 type F2 reference software for the calculation of profile surface texture parameters that has been performed on the input, implementation and output results of the reference software developed by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Surface texture parameters have been calculated for a selection of 17 test data files obtained from the type F1 reference data sets on offer from NPL and NIST. The surface texture parameter calculation results show some disagreements between the software methods of the National Metrology Institutes. These disagreements have been investigated further, and some potential explanations are given.

  4. Computerized texture analysis of atypical immature myeloid precursors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: an entity between blasts and promyelocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand-Metze Irene GH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow (BM blast count is an essential parameter for classification and prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. However, a high degree of cell atypias in bone marrow hemopoietic cells may be found in this group of clonal disorders, making it difficult to quantify precisely myeloblasts, and to distinguish them from promyelocytes and atypical immature myeloid precursors. Our aim was to investigate whether computerized image analysis of routine cytology would help to characterize these cells. Methods In May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained BM smears of 30 newly diagnosed MDS patients and 19 cases of normal BM, nuclei of blasts and promyelocytes were digitalized and interactively segmented. The morphological classification of the cells was done by consensus of two observers. Immature granulocytic precursors, which could not be clearly classified either as blasts or promyelocytes, were called "atypic myeloid precursors". Nuclear morphometry and texture features derived from the co-occurrence matrix and fractal dimension (FD were calculated. Results In normal BM, when compared to myeloblasts, nuclei of promyelocytes showed significant increase in perimeter and local texture homogeneity and a decrease in form factor, chromatin gray levels, Haralick's entropy, inertia, energy, contrast, diagonal moment, cluster prominence, the fractal dimension according to Minkowski and its goodness-of-fit. Compared to normal myeloblast nuclei, the chromatin texture of MDS myeloblasts revealed higher local homogeneity and goodness-of-fit of the FD, but lower values of entropy, contrast, diagonal moment, and fractal dimension. The same differences were found between nuclei of normal promyelocytes and those of MDS. Nuclei of atypical myeloid precursors showed intermediate characteristics between those of blasts and promyelocytes according to the quantitative features (perimeter, form factor, gray level and its standard deviation, but were similar to

  5. 3D texture analysis reveals imperceptible MRI textural alterations in the thalamus and putamen in progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1, EPM1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Suoranta

    Full Text Available Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1 (EPM1 is an autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young onset age, myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. At the time of diagnosis, the visual assessment of the brain MRI is usually normal, with no major changes found later. Therefore, we utilized texture analysis (TA to characterize and classify the underlying properties of the affected brain tissue by means of 3D texture features. Sixteen genetically verified patients with EPM1 and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. TA was performed upon 3D volumes of interest that were placed bilaterally in the thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Compared to the healthy controls, EPM1 patients had significant textural differences especially in the thalamus and right putamen. The most significantly differing texture features included parameters that measure the complexity and heterogeneity of the tissue, such as the co-occurrence matrix-based entropy and angular second moment, and also the run-length matrix-based parameters of gray-level non-uniformity, short run emphasis and long run emphasis. This study demonstrates the usability of 3D TA for extracting additional information from MR images. Textural alterations which suggest complex, coarse and heterogeneous appearance were found bilaterally in the thalamus, supporting the previous literature on thalamic pathology in EPM1. The observed putamenal involvement is a novel finding. Our results encourage further studies on the clinical applications, feasibility, reproducibility and reliability of 3D TA.

  6. Digitisation of films and texture analysis for digital classification of pulmonary opacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaga, J.F.; Dengler, J.; Wolf, T.; Engelmann, U.; Scheppelmann, D.; Meinzer, H.P.

    1988-04-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the effect of different methods of digitisation of radiographic films on the digital classification of pulmonary opacities. Test sets from the standard of the International Labour Office (ILO) Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis were prepared by film digitsation using a scanning microdensitometer or a video digitiser based on a personal computer equipped with a real time digitiser board and a vidicon or a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. Seven different algorithms were used for texture analysis resulting in 16 texture parameters for each region. All methods used for texture analysis were independent of the mean grey value level and the size of the image analysed. Classification was performed by discriminant analysis using the classes from the ILO classification. A hit ratio of at least 85% was achieved for a digitisation by scanner digitisation or the vidicon, while the corresponding results of the CCD camera were significantly less good. Classification by texture analysis of opacities of chest X-rays of pneumoconiosis digitised by a personal computer based video digitiser and a vidicon are of equal quality compared to digitisation by a scanning microdensitometer. Correct classification of 90% was achieved via the described statistical approach.

  7. Volumetric texture analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Giger, Maryellen L; Li, Hui; Bick, Ulrich; Newstead, Gillian M

    2007-09-01

    Automated image analysis aims to extract relevant information from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (CE-MRI) of the breast and improve the accuracy and consistency of image interpretation. In this work, we extend the traditional 2D gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method to investigate a volumetric texture analysis approach and apply it for the characterization of breast MR lesions. Our database of breast MR images was obtained using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence and consists of 121 biopsy-proven lesions (77 malignant and 44 benign). A fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) based method is employed to automatically segment 3D breast lesions on CE-MR images. For each 3D lesion, a nondirectional GLCM is then computed on the first postcontrast frame by summing 13 directional GLCMs. Texture features are extracted from the nondirectional GLCMs and the performance of each texture feature in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign breast lesions is assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Our results show that the classification performance of volumetric texture features is significantly better than that based on 2D analysis. Our investigations of the effects of various of parameters on the diagnostic accuracy provided means for the optimal use of the approach.

  8. Characterization of PET/CT images using texture analysis: the past, the present... any future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris [University of Brest IBSAM, INSERM, UMR 1101, LaTIM, Brest (France); Tixier, Florent; Le Rest, Catherine Cheze [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Poitiers (France); University of Poitiers, Medical school, EE DACTIM, Poitiers (France); Pierce, Larry; Kinahan, Paul E. [University of Washington, Imaging Research Laboratory, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    After seminal papers over the period 2009 - 2011, the use of texture analysis of PET/CT images for quantification of intratumour uptake heterogeneity has received increasing attention in the last 4 years. Results are difficult to compare due to the heterogeneity of studies and lack of standardization. There are also numerous challenges to address. In this review we provide critical insights into the recent development of texture analysis for quantifying the heterogeneity in PET/CT images, identify issues and challenges, and offer recommendations for the use of texture analysis in clinical research. Numerous potentially confounding issues have been identified, related to the complex workflow for the calculation of textural features, and the dependency of features on various factors such as acquisition, image reconstruction, preprocessing, functional volume segmentation, and methods of establishing and quantifying correspondences with genomic and clinical metrics of interest. A lack of understanding of what the features may represent in terms of the underlying pathophysiological processes and the variability of technical implementation practices makes comparing results in the literature challenging, if not impossible. Since progress as a field requires pooling results, there is an urgent need for standardization and recommendations/guidelines to enable the field to move forward. We provide a list of correct formulae for usual features and recommendations regarding implementation. Studies on larger cohorts with robust statistical analysis and machine learning approaches are promising directions to evaluate the potential of this approach. (orig.)

  9. Diagnosis and prognosis of Ostheoarthritis by texture analysis using sparse linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Joselene; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dam, Erik

    We present a texture analysis methodology that combines uncommitted machine-learning techniques and sparse feature transformation methods in a fully automatic framework. We compare the performances of a partial least squares (PLS) forward feature selection strategy to a hard threshold sparse PLS ...

  10. Cancer detection by quantitative fluorescence image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, W L; Hemstreet, G P

    1988-02-01

    Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a rapidly evolving biophysical cytochemical technology with the potential for multiple clinical and basic research applications. We report the application of this technique for bladder cancer detection and discuss its potential usefulness as an adjunct to methods used currently by urologists for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a cytological method that incorporates 2 diagnostic techniques, quantitation of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid and morphometric analysis, in a single semiautomated system to facilitate the identification of rare events, that is individual cancer cells. When compared to routine cytopathology for detection of bladder cancer in symptomatic patients, quantitative fluorescence image analysis demonstrated greater sensitivity (76 versus 33 per cent) for the detection of low grade transitional cell carcinoma. The specificity of quantitative fluorescence image analysis in a small control group was 94 per cent and with the manual method for quantitation of absolute nuclear fluorescence intensity in the screening of high risk asymptomatic subjects the specificity was 96.7 per cent. The more familiar flow cytometry is another fluorescence technique for measurement of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid. However, rather than identifying individual cancer cells, flow cytometry identifies cellular pattern distributions, that is the ratio of normal to abnormal cells. Numerous studies by others have shown that flow cytometry is a sensitive method to monitor patients with diagnosed urological disease. Based upon results in separate quantitative fluorescence image analysis and flow cytometry studies, it appears that these 2 fluorescence techniques may be complementary tools for urological screening, diagnosis and management, and that they also may be useful separately or in combination to elucidate the oncogenic process, determine the biological potential of tumors

  11. Texture- and deformability-based surface recognition by tactile image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnobish, Anwesha; Pal, Monalisa; Tibarewala, D N; Konar, Amit; Pal, Kunal

    2016-08-01

    Deformability and texture are two unique object characteristics which are essential for appropriate surface recognition by tactile exploration. Tactile sensation is required to be incorporated in artificial arms for rehabilitative and other human-computer interface applications to achieve efficient and human-like manoeuvring. To accomplish the same, surface recognition by tactile data analysis is one of the prerequisites. The aim of this work is to develop effective technique for identification of various surfaces based on deformability and texture by analysing tactile images which are obtained during dynamic exploration of the item by artificial arms whose gripper is fitted with tactile sensors. Tactile data have been acquired, while human beings as well as a robot hand fitted with tactile sensors explored the objects. The tactile images are pre-processed, and relevant features are extracted from the tactile images. These features are provided as input to the variants of support vector machine (SVM), linear discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbour (kNN) for classification. Based on deformability, six household surfaces are recognized from their corresponding tactile images. Moreover, based on texture five surfaces of daily use are classified. The method adopted in the former two cases has also been applied for deformability- and texture-based recognition of four biomembranes, i.e. membranes prepared from biomaterials which can be used for various applications such as drug delivery and implants. Linear SVM performed best for recognizing surface deformability with an accuracy of 83 % in 82.60 ms, whereas kNN classifier recognizes surfaces of daily use having different textures with an accuracy of 89 % in 54.25 ms and SVM with radial basis function kernel recognizes biomembranes with an accuracy of 78 % in 53.35 ms. The classifiers are observed to generalize well on the unseen test datasets with very high performance to achieve efficient material

  12. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Valdés Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood–brain barrier (BBB in small vessel disease (SVD.MethodsWe used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal–Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with Fazekas scores.ResultsTextural “homogeneity” increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural “homogeneity” increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores (p < 0.01 and SVD scores (p < 0.05 and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (p < 0.002 and lacunar stroke (p = 0.04. Hypertension (74% patients, WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume, and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3 predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast.ConclusionA consistent general pattern of increasing textural “homogeneity” with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  13. Enhanced crystal fabric analysis of a lava flow sample by neutron texture diffraction: A case study from the Castello d'Ischia dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jens M.; Iezzi, Gianluca; Albertini, Gianni; Gunter, Mickey E.; Piochi, Monica; Ventura, Guido; Jansen, Ekkehard; Fiori, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The crystal fabric of a lava has been analyzed for the first time by neutron texture diffraction. In this study we quantitatively investigate the crystallographic preferred orientation of feldspars in the Castello d'Ischia (Ischia Island, Italy) trachytic exogenous dome. The crystallographic preferred orientation was measured with the monochromatic neutron texture diffractometer SV7 at the Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany and a Rietveld refinement was applied to the sum diffraction pattern. The complementary thin section analysis showed that the three-dimensional crystal shape and the corresponding shape preferred orientation are in agreement with the quantitative orientation distributions of the neutron texture data. The (0k0) crystallographic planes of the feldspars are roughly parallel to the local flow bands, whereas the other corresponding pole figures show that a pivotal rotation of the anorthoclase and sanidine crystals was active during the emplacement of this lava dome. In combination with scanning electron microscopy investigations, electron probe microanalysis, XRF, and X-ray diffraction, the Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction data indicates a slow cooling dynamic on the order of several months during their crystallization under subaerial conditions. Results attained here demonstrate that neutron texture diffraction is a powerful tool that can be applied to lava flows.

  14. Quantitative analysis of pulmonary emphysema using local binary patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Shaker, S.B.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    We aim at improving quantitative measures of emphysema in computed tomography (CT) images of the lungs. Current standard measures, such as the relative area of emphysema (RA), rely on a single intensity threshold on individual pixels, thus ignoring any interrelations between pixels. Texture...... analysis allows for a much richer representation that also takes the local structure around pixels into account. This paper presents a texture classification-based system for emphysema quantification in CT images. Measures of emphysema severity are obtained by fusing pixel posterior probabilities output...... by a classifier. Local binary patterns (LBP) are used as texture features, and joint LBP and intensity histograms are used for characterizing regions of interest (ROIs). Classification is then performed using a k nearest neighbor classifier with a histogram dissimilarity measure as distance. A 95...

  15. Web Based Image Retrieval System Using Color, Texture and Shape Analysis: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Bhagat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The internet is one of the best media to disseminate scientific and technological research results [1, 2, 6]. It deals with the implementation of a web-based extensible architecture that is easily integral with applications written in different languages and linkable with different data sources. This paper work deals with developing architecture which is expandable and modular; its client–server functionalities permit easily building web applications that can be run using any Internet browser without compatibility problems regarding platform, program and operating system installed. This paper presents the implementation of Content Based Image Retrieval using different methods of color, texture and shape analysis. The primary objective is to compare the different methods of image analysis.

  16. Computed tomography texture analysis to facilitate therapeutic decision making in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanjie; Liu, Zaiyi; Chen, Shuting; Lu, Ligong; Liang, Changhong

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the potential of computed tomography (CT) textural feature analysis for the stratification of single large hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) > 5 cm, and the subsequent determination of patient suitability for liver resection (LR) or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Wavelet decomposition was performed on portal-phase CT images with three bandwidth responses (filter 0, 1.0, and 1.5). Nine textural features of each filter were extracted from regions of interest. Wavelet-2-H (filter 1.0) in LR and wavelet-2-V (filter 0 and 1.0) in TACE were related to survival. Subsequently, LR and TACE patients were divided based on the wavelet-2-H and wavelet-2-V median at filter 1.0 into two subgroups (+ or −). LR+ patients showed the best survival, followed by LR-, TACE+, and TACE-. We estimated that LR+ patients treated using TACE would exhibit a survival similar to TACE- patients and worse than TACE+ patients, with a severe compromise in overall survival. LR was recommended for TACE- patients, whereas TACE was preferred for LR- and TACE+ patients. Independent of tumor size, CT textural features showed positive and negative correlations with survival after LR and TACE, respectively. Although further validation is needed, texture analysis demonstrated the feasibility of using HCC patient stratification for determining the suitability of LR vs. TACE. PMID:26910890

  17. Quantitative histogram analysis of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Oliver; Ferreira, Sérgio T.

    2006-11-01

    A routine for histogram analysis of images has been written in the object-oriented, graphical development environment LabVIEW. The program converts an RGB bitmap image into an intensity-linear greyscale image according to selectable conversion coefficients. This greyscale image is subsequently analysed by plots of the intensity histogram and probability distribution of brightness, and by calculation of various parameters, including average brightness, standard deviation, variance, minimal and maximal brightness, mode, skewness and kurtosis of the histogram and the median of the probability distribution. The program allows interactive selection of specific regions of interest (ROI) in the image and definition of lower and upper threshold levels (e.g., to permit the removal of a constant background signal). The results of the analysis of multiple images can be conveniently saved and exported for plotting in other programs, which allows fast analysis of relatively large sets of image data. The program file accompanies this manuscript together with a detailed description of two application examples: The analysis of fluorescence microscopy images, specifically of tau-immunofluorescence in primary cultures of rat cortical and hippocampal neurons, and the quantification of protein bands by Western-blot. The possibilities and limitations of this kind of analysis are discussed. Program summaryTitle of program: HAWGC Catalogue identifier: ADXG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXG_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Mobile Intel Pentium III, AMD Duron Installations: No installation necessary—Executable file together with necessary files for LabVIEW Run-time engine Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: WindowsME/2000/XP Programming language used: LabVIEW 7.0 Memory required to execute with typical data:˜16MB for starting and ˜160MB used for

  18. New method for predicting estrogen receptor status utilizing breast MRI texture kinetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Baishali; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of breast cancer typically shows that tumors are heterogeneous with spatial variations in blood flow and cell density. Here, we examine the potential link between clinical tumor imaging and the underlying evolutionary dynamics behind heterogeneity in the cellular expression of estrogen receptors (ER) in breast cancer. We assume, in an evolutionary environment, that ER expression will only occur in the presence of significant concentrations of estrogen, which is delivered via the blood stream. Thus, we hypothesize, the expression of ER in breast cancer cells will correlate with blood flow on gadolinium enhanced breast MRI. To test this hypothesis, we performed quantitative analysis of blood flow on dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and correlated it with the ER status of the tumor. Here we present our analytic methods, which utilize a novel algorithm to analyze 20 volumetric DCE-MRI breast cancer tumors. The algorithm generates post initial enhancement (PIE) maps from DCE-MRI and then performs texture features extraction from the PIE map, feature selection, and finally classification of tumors into ER positive and ER negative status. The combined gray level co-occurrence matrices, gray level run length matrices and local binary pattern histogram features allow quantification of breast tumor heterogeneity. The algorithm predicted ER expression with an accuracy of 85% using a Naive Bayes classifier in leave-one-out cross-validation. Hence, we conclude that our data supports the hypothesis that imaging characteristics can, through application of evolutionary principles, provide insights into the cellular and molecular properties of cancer cells.

  19. The neutron texture diffractometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Yun-Tao; Tian, Geng-Fang; Gao, Jian-Bo; Yu, Zhou-Xiang; Li, Yu-Qing; Wu, Li-Qi; Yang, Lin-Feng; Sun, Kai; Wang, Hong-Li; Santisteban, J. r.; Chen, Dong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The first neutron texture diffractometer in China has been built at the China Advanced Research Reactor, due to strong demand for texture measurement with neutrons from the domestic user community. This neutron texture diffractometer has high neutron intensity, moderate resolution and is mainly applied to study texture in commonly used industrial materials and engineering components. In this paper, the design and characteristics of this instrument are described. The results for calibration with neutrons and quantitative texture analysis of zirconium alloy plate are presented. The comparison of texture measurements with the results obtained in HIPPO at LANSCE and Kowari at ANSTO illustrates the reliability of the texture diffractometer. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11105231, 11205248, 51327902) and International Atomic Energy Agency-TC program (CPR0012)

  20. Automated Texture Analysis and Determination of Fibre Orientation of Heart Tissue: A Morphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Ernst; Asslaber, Martin; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The human heart has a heterogeneous structure, which is characterized by different cell types and their spatial configurations. The physical structure, especially the fibre orientation and the interstitial fibrosis, determines the electrical excitation and in further consequence the contractility in macroscopic as well as in microscopic areas. Modern image processing methods and parameters could be used to describe the image content and image texture. In most cases the description of the texture is not satisfying because the fibre orientation, detected with common algorithms, is biased by elements such as fibrocytes or endothelial nuclei. The goal of this work is to figure out if cardiac tissue can be analysed and classified on a microscopic level by automated image processing methods with a focus on an accurate detection of the fibre orientation. Quantitative parameters for identification of textures of different complexity or pathological attributes inside the heart were determined. The focus was set on the detection of the fibre orientation, which was calculated on the basis of the cardiomyocytes’ nuclei. It turned out that the orientation of these nuclei corresponded with a high precision to the fibre orientation in the image plane. Additionally, these nuclei also indicated very well the inclination of the fibre. PMID:27505420

  1. Analysis of the suitability of the German soil texture classification for the regional scale application of physical based hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bormann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional scale hydrological simulations are mostly based on the use of standard data sets such as soil maps which are based on soil texture classification schemes. This paper analyses the suitability of the German soil texture classification for the application of a physically based soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer scheme. Theoretical soil columns are defined to be able to represent the entire soil texture triangle by a 1% grid of the three particle size classes: sand, clay and silt. These theoretical soil columns are characterized by a homogenous soil texture and consist of two layers of increasing bulk density and decreasing content of organic matter with depth. Soil hydraulic parameterisation is derived by applying a pedotransfer function. Continuous water balance calculations are carried out for a ten year period for all grid cells of the 1% grid. The results of the water balance calculations are compared to the simulation results of the centre of gravity of the respective soil texture class. Texture class specific mean deviations and root mean squared deviations are calculated from the differences between the 1% pixels and texture class representatives. The results reveal that the loam and silt texture classes show only small deviations from the centres of gravity. For a few sand texture classes and most of the clay texture classes deviations are considerably large. Assuming an equal distributed probability of occurrence of all realisations within a soil texture class, an uncertainty of more than 100 mm/a with respect to runoff and actual evapotranspiration is detected for four clay texture classes, two sand texture classes and one silt texture class. These results are confirmed by a sensitivity analysis investigating the model response for a grid cell compared to the neighboured grid cells. High sensitivities mainly appear for sandy and clayey soils while the sensitivity of the model for loam and silt soils is smaller. Resuming it can

  2. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and auto

  3. Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is first adopted to quantitatively describe texture semantics. Then texture features of textile images are extracted using Gabor decomposition. Finally, the mapping model between texture features and texture semantics in the semantic space is built using three different methods: linear regression, k-nearest neighbor (KNN and multi-layered perceptron (MLP. The performance of the proposed mapping model is evaluated with a dataset of 1352 textile images. The results confirm that the mapping model is effective and especially KNN and MLP reach the good performance. We further apply the mapping model to two applications: automatic textile image annotation with texture semantics and textile image search based on texture semantics. The subjective experimental results are consistent with human perception, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed mapping model. The proposed model and its applications can be applied to various automation systems in commercial textile industry.

  4. Benefits of texture analysis of dual energy CT for Computer-Aided pulmonary embolism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foncubierta-Rodríguez, Antonio; Jiménez del Toro, Óscar Alfonso; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning; Depeursinge, Adrien

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is an avoidable cause of death if treated immediately but delays in diagnosis and treatment lead to an increased risk. Computer-assisted image analysis of both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) have proven useful for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Dual energy CT provides additional information over the standard single energy scan by generating four-dimensional (4D) data, in our case with 11 energy levels in 3D. In this paper a 4D texture analysis method capable of detecting pulmonary embolism in dual energy CT is presented. The method uses wavelet-based visual words together with an automatic geodesic-based region of interest detection algorithm to characterize the texture properties of each lung lobe. Results show an increase in performance with respect to the single energy CT analysis, as well as an accuracy gain compared to preliminary work on a small dataset.

  5. Dental microwear texture analysis of late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) of the Upper Siwaliks, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank; Holmes, Noelle

    2012-09-01

    Late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus from the Upper Siwaliks, India is known from only three specimens. The dietary proclivities of this taxon have implications for reconstructing the paleoecology of the Upper Siwaliks. The dental microwear texture properties of Procynocephalus are compared to those from extant tropical forest primates including Alouatta palliata (n = 11), Cebus apella (n = 13), Gorilla gorilla (n = 9), Lophocebus albigena (n = 15) and Trachypithecus cristatus (n = 12). Dental microwear textures are generated by scanning the surface enamel of Facet 9 using white-light confocal microscopy at 100x. Four variables were extracted from scale-sensitive fractal analysis, and the data were ranked before ANOVA with post-hoc tests of significance and multivariate analyses were performed. Procynocephalus clusters closest to Lophocebus, Cebus and some Gorilla specimens suggesting hard-object feeding characterized a portion of its diet. The dental microwear texture of Procynocephalus supports interpretations of widespread grasslands of the Late Pliocene Kansal Formation (Pinjor zone). The extreme enamel complexity characterizing Procynocephalus may derive from consumption of underground storage organs, or other foods with high grit loads. Foods consumed near ground level carry a heavy load of abrasive minerals possibly contributing to greater enamel surface complexity and textural fill volume.

  6. Classification of mangroves vegetation species using texture analysis on Rapideye satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslani, M. A.; Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Juliana, W. A. Wan

    2013-11-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystem structures that are typically made up of salt tolerant species of vegetation that can be found in tropical and subtropical climate country. Mangrove ecosystem plays important role and also is known as highly productive ecosystem with high diversity of flora and fauna. However, these ecosystems have been declining over time due to the various kinds of direct and indirect pressures. Thus, there is an increasing need to monitor and assess this ecosystem for better conservation and management efforts. The multispectral RapidEye satellite image was used to identify the mangrove vegetation species within the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve in Perak, Malaysia using texture analysis. Classification was implemented using the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) method. Total of eleven main mangrove species were found in the satellite image of the study site which includes Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera parviflora, Bruguiera cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Avicennia alba, Avicennia officinalis, Sonneratia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonneratia ovata and Xylocarpus granatum. The classification results showed that the textured image produced high overall classification assessment recorded at 84% and kappa statistic of 0.8016. Meanwhile, the non-textured image produces 80% of overall accuracy and kappa statistic of 0.7061. The classification result indicated the capability of high resolution satellite image to classify the mangrove species and inclusion of texture information in the classification increased the classification accuracy.

  7. Soil texture and climatc conditions for biocrust growth limitation: a meta analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas; Subbotina, Mariia

    2015-04-01

    Along with afforestation, attempts have been made to combat desertification by managing soil crusts, and is has been reported that recovery rates of biocrusts are dependent on many factors, including the type, severity, and extent of disturbance; structure of the vascular plant community; conditions of adjoining substrates; availability of inoculation material; and climate during and after disturbance (Belnap & Eldridge 2001). Because biological soil crusts are known to be more stable on and to prefer fine substrates (Belnap 2001), the question arises as to how successful crust management practices can be applied to coarser soil. In previous studies we observed similar crust biomasses on finer soils under arid and on coarser soils under temperate conditions. We hypothesized that the higher water holding capacity of finer substrates would favor crust development, and that the amount of silt and clay in the substrate that is required for enhanced crust development would vary with changes in climatic conditions. In a global meta study, climatic and soil texture threshold values promoting BSC growth were derived. While examining literature sources, it became evident that the amount of studies to be incorporated into this meta analysis was reversely related to the amount of common environmental parameters they share. We selected annual mean precipitaion, mean temperature and the amount of silt and clay as driving variables for crust growth. Response variable was the "relative crust biomass", which was computed per literature source as the ratio between each individual crust biomass value of the given study to the study maximum value reported. We distinguished lichen, green algal, cyanobacterial and moss crusts. To quantify threshold conditions at which crust biomass responded to differences in texture and climate, we (I) determined correlations between bioclimatic variables, (II) calculated linear models to determine the effect of typical climatic variables with soil

  8. Statistical evaluation of texture analysis from the biocrystallization method

    OpenAIRE

    Meelursarn, Aumaporn

    2007-01-01

    The consumers are becoming more concerned about food quality, especially regarding how, when and where the foods are produced (Haglund et al., 1999; Kahl et al., 2004; Alföldi, et al., 2006). Therefore, during recent years there has been a growing interest in the methods for food quality assessment, especially in the picture-development methods as a complement to traditional chemical analysis of single compounds (Kahl et al., 2006). The biocrystallization as one of the picture-developin...

  9. Roughness analysis for textured surfaces over several orders of magnitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsäläinen, Laura, E-mail: laura.vepsalainen@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Stenberg, Petri, E-mail: petri.stenberg@uef.fi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pääkkönen, Pertti, E-mail: pertti.paakkonen@uef.fi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kuittinen, Markku, E-mail: markku.kuittinen@uef.fi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Suvanto, Mika, E-mail: mika.suvanto@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pakkanen, Tapani A., E-mail: tapani.pakkanen@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2013-11-01

    Multiscale structured surfaces have roughness distributions at various spatial frequencies that affect surface properties of materials. A recently developed filtered power spectral density (FPSD) method for surface roughness characterization was generalized to comprise structures from micro- to nanoscale. Furthermore, a uniform analysis method for micro- and nanoscale characterization over five orders of magnitudes was found by combining optical profilometry data, at the microscale level and atomic force microscopy data, at the nanoscale level. The FPSD method was also combined with structure simulation for multiscales, thus the roughness distributions can be designed and studied without the fabrication of structures. Furthermore, the FPSD simulation offers a design tool for structure–property correlations.

  10. SU-F-R-36: Validating Quantitative Radiomic Texture Features for Oncologic PET: A Digital Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F; Yang, Y [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Young, L [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radiomic texture features derived from the oncologic PET have recently been brought under intense investigation within the context of patient stratification and treatment outcome prediction in a variety of cancer types; however, their validity has not yet been examined. This work is aimed to validate radiomic PET texture metrics through the use of realistic simulations in the ground truth setting. Methods: Simulation of FDG-PET was conducted by applying the Zubal phantom as an attenuation map to the SimSET software package that employs Monte Carlo techniques to model the physical process of emission imaging. A total of 15 irregularly-shaped lesions featuring heterogeneous activity distribution were simulated. For each simulated lesion, 28 texture features in relation to the intensity histograms (GLIH), grey-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCOM), neighborhood difference matrices (GLNDM), and zone size matrices (GLZSM) were evaluated and compared with their respective values extracted from the ground truth activity map. Results: In reference to the values from the ground truth images, texture parameters appearing on the simulated data varied with a range of 0.73–3026.2% for GLIH-based, 0.02–100.1% for GLCOM-based, 1.11–173.8% for GLNDM-based, and 0.35–66.3% for GLZSM-based. For majority of the examined texture metrics (16/28), their values on the simulated data differed significantly from those from the ground truth images (P-value ranges from <0.0001 to 0.04). Features not exhibiting significant difference comprised of GLIH-based standard deviation, GLCO-based energy and entropy, GLND-based coarseness and contrast, and GLZS-based low gray-level zone emphasis, high gray-level zone emphasis, short zone low gray-level emphasis, long zone low gray-level emphasis, long zone high gray-level emphasis, and zone size nonuniformity. Conclusion: The extent to which PET imaging disturbs texture appearance is feature-dependent and could be substantial. It is thus

  11. Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, JV; Khan, M; Ramachandra, VK; Al-Kadi, O

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Methods Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. Results The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p 0.05). Conclusion Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression. PMID:22241875

  12. Analysis of the variability of food texture properties: Application to the fracturability of dry pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouriou, Benjamin; Bressolette, Philippe; Vial, Christophe

    2017-04-17

    An original stochastic finite element method (SFEM) is proposed for the texture analysis of food products for which samples cannot be standardized. SFEM is able to distinguish shape and texture variability. As an illustration, the methodology is applied to dry cat food using compression testing. First, a deterministic damage elastic model depending on six mechanical and three size parameters is shown to fit adequately experimental data. Then, Morris screening method is applied to FEM data: this highlights that the variability of compression tests is significantly affected by two mechanical and two size parameters. Finally, the nonlinear variability of each control variable is estimated from Sobol indices derived from a time-efficient stochastic collocation method. These highlight that the contribution of size parameters to test variability is about 20%. Therefore, a robust estimation of the probability density function of texture properties can be obtained for improved quality control, which outperforms current methods. Food texture is affected by their material property and geometrical structure. Material properties are difficult to estimate when the size and shape of the samples cannot be standardized, for example, for snack or pet food. In addition, the intrinsic variability of material properties due to the recipe and the process cannot be neglected. But this cannot be easily distinguished from the variability of geometrical parameters using conventional methods. An innovative approach using stochastic finite element method is developed and is able to exhibit the major parameters influencing the variability of the response to mechanical testing. This methodology may be helpful to improve acceptance sampling control procedures, for example, by combining texture and size measurements when necessary, or by better determining the most robust response variables for decision-making. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Three-dimensional analysis of vesicle and crystal fragment textures in pumice using high-resolution X-ray CT: Textural evidence of eruptive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, R. A.; Gardner, J. E.; Abbott, S.

    2011-12-01

    Three-dimensional analysis of high-resolution X-ray computed tomographic (CT) imagery of pumice from Popocatépetl Volcano in central Mexico yields fresh insights into processes of vesicle formation and coalescence and crystal fragmentation that occur during explosive volcanism. Six ~2 cm pumice fragments of varying bulk vesicularity were imaged at ~20 μm resolution. Three-dimensional blob and fabric analysis quantitatively document textural features, and visualization facilitated contextualization of measurements and overall interpretation. Vesicles range in size from mm-scale to below the resolution of the scan data. By comparing the whole-sample 3D vesicle size distributions derived from CT with more detailed distributions from sub-volumes obtained by standard petrographic analysis, we can discern two distinct, roughly log-normal populations in each sample. Vesicles in all samples have preferred orientations, and fabric analysis based on the star volume distribution and displayed as 3D rose diagrams documents a range of preferred shapes from elongate to flattened. Aspect ratios range from 1 to 6, and converge to values of ~2-3 with increasing size. Surface to volume ratios show increasing departure from sphericity with increasing size, which is probably attributable in large part to irregular shapes caused by coalescence. The vesicle fabric was strongest in the highest-vesicularity sample. Some pumices showed evidence of welding or poor mixing between two or more differently devolatilized portions of melt. Interfaces are in some cases apparently welded, with low-vesicularity glass contact zones, and in others are simply sub-planar intersections between distinct glasses. In one instance of the latter, correlated vesicle and phenocryst orientations across both melt portions and not parallel to their interface suggests that their juxtaposition took place before final eruption, while there was still time for fabric development. The pumices show abundant evidence of

  14. The Prognostic Value of Adaptive Nuclear Texture Features from Patient Gray Level Entropy Matrices in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nuclear texture analysis gives information about the spatial arrangement of the pixel gray levels in a digitized microscopic nuclear image, providing texture features that may be used as quantitative tools for prognosis of human cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of adaptive nuclear texture features in early stage ovarian cancer.

  15. Christhin: Quantitative Analysis of Thin Layer Chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Barchiesi, Maximiliano; Renaudo, Carlos; Rossi, Pablo; Pramparo, María de Carmen; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson Ruben; Gayol, María Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Manual for Christhin 0.1.36 Christhin (Chromatography Riser Thin) is software developed for the quantitative analysis of data obtained from thin-layer chromatographic techniques (TLC). Once installed on your computer, the program is very easy to use, and provides data quickly and accurately. This manual describes the program, and reading should be enough to use it properly.

  16. Quantitative analysis of arm movement smoothness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesna, Agnieszka; Błaszczyszyn, Monika

    2017-07-01

    The paper deals with the problem of motion data quantitative smoothness analysis. We investigated values of movement unit, fluidity and jerk for healthy and paralyzed arm of patients with hemiparesis after stroke. Patients were performing drinking task. To validate the approach, movement of 24 patients were captured using optical motion capture system.

  17. Seniors' Online Communities: A Quantitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the contents and characteristics of seniors' online communities and to explore their potential benefits to older adults. Design and Methods: Quantitative content analysis of a full year's data from 14 leading online communities using a novel computerized system. The overall database included 686,283 messages. Results: There was…

  18. A quantitative approach to scar analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Hooman; Zheng, Zhong; Nguyen, Calvin; Zara, Janette; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Joyce; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-02-01

    Analysis of collagen architecture is essential to wound healing research. However, to date no consistent methodologies exist for quantitatively assessing dermal collagen architecture in scars. In this study, we developed a standardized approach for quantitative analysis of scar collagen morphology by confocal microscopy using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. Full-thickness wounds were created on adult mice, closed by primary intention, and harvested at 14 days after wounding for morphometrics and standard Fourier transform-based scar analysis as well as fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate collagen ultrastructure. We demonstrated that fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis were superior to Fourier transform analysis in discriminating scar versus unwounded tissue in a wild-type mouse model. To fully test the robustness of this scar analysis approach, a fibromodulin-null mouse model that heals with increased scar was also used. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis effectively discriminated unwounded fibromodulin-null versus wild-type skin as well as healing fibromodulin-null versus wild-type wounds, whereas Fourier transform analysis failed to do so. Furthermore, fractal dimension and lacunarity data also correlated well with transmission electron microscopy collagen ultrastructure analysis, adding to their validity. These results demonstrate that fractal dimension and lacunarity are more sensitive than Fourier transform analysis for quantification of scar morphology. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diet of upper paleolithic modern humans: evidence from microwear texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zaatari, Sireen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the results of the occlusal molar microwear texture analysis of 32 adult Upper Paleolithic modern humans from a total of 21 European sites dating to marine isotope stages 3 and 2. The occlusal molar microwear textures of these specimens were analyzed with the aim of examining the effects of the climatic, as well as the cultural, changes on the diets of the Upper Paleolithic modern humans. The results of this analysis do not reveal any environmentally driven dietary shifts for the Upper Paleolithic hominins indicating that the climatic and their associated paleoecological changes did not force these humans to significantly alter their diets in order to survive. However, the microwear texture analysis does detect culturally related changes in the Upper Paleolithic humans' diets. Specifically, significant differences in diet were found between the earlier Upper Paleolithic individuals, i.e., those belonging to the Aurignacian and Gravettian contexts, and the later Magdalenian ones, such that the diet of the latter group was more varied and included more abrasive foods compared with those of the former. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prediction of water quality parameters from SAR images by using multivariate and texture analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Muntadher A.; Toumi, Abdelmalek; Khenchaf, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing is one of the most important tools for monitoring and assisting to estimate and predict Water Quality parameters (WQPs). The traditional methods used for monitoring pollutants are generally relied on optical images. In this paper, we present a new approach based on the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images which we used to map the region of interest and to estimate the WQPs. To achieve this estimation quality, the texture analysis is exploited to improve the regression models. These models are established and developed to estimate six common concerned water quality parameters from texture parameters extracted from Terra SAR-X data. In this purpose, the Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) is used to estimate several regression models using six texture parameters such as contrast, correlation, energy, homogeneity, entropy and variance. For each predicted model, an accuracy value is computed from the probability value given by the regression analysis model of each parameter. In order to validate our approach, we have used tow dataset of water region for training and test process. To evaluate and validate the proposed model, we applied it on the training set. In the last stage, we used the fuzzy K-means clustering to generalize the water quality estimation on the whole of water region extracted from segmented Terra SAR-X image. Also, the obtained results showed that there are a good statistical correlation between the in situ water quality and Terra SAR-X data, and also demonstrated that the characteristics obtained by texture analysis are able to monitor and predicate the distribution of WQPs in large rivers with high accuracy.

  1. SU-D-9A-03: STAMP: Simulator for Texture Analysis in MRI/PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, S; Vallieres, M; Levesque, I R.; El Naqa, I [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a convenient simulation platform to facilitate PET/MR image analysis with the prospect of gaining a better understanding of the influence of acquisition parameters on PET/MRI textural features. The simulation platform is demonstrated by showing textural variations of a representative case study using different image acquisition parameters. Methods: The simulation platform is composed of MRI simulators JEMRIS and SIMRI to achieve simulations of customized MRI sequences on sample tumor models. The PET simulator GATE is used to get 2D and 3D Monte Carlo acquisitions of voxelized PET sources using a phantom geometry and a customized scanner architecture. The platform incorporates a series of graphical user interfaces written in Matlab. Two GUIs are used to facilitate communication with the simulation executables installed on a computer cluster. A third GUI is used to collect and display the clinical and simulated images, as well as fused PET/MRI images, and perform computation of textural features.To illustrate the capabilities of this platform, one FDG-PET and T1-weighted (T1w) digitized tumor models were generated from clinical images of a soft-tissue sarcoma patient. Numerically simulated MR images were produced using 3 different echo times (TE) and 5 different repetition times (TR). PET 2D images were simulated using an OSEM algorithm with 1 to 32 iterations and a post-reconstruction Gaussian filter of 0, 2, 4 or 6 mm width. Results: STAMP was successfully used to produce numerically simulated FDG-PET and MRI images, and to calculate their corresponding textures. Three typical textures (GLCM-Contrast, GLSZM-ZSV and NGTDM-Coarseness) were found to vary by a range of 45% on average compared to reference scanning conditions in the case of FDG-PET, and by a range of 40% in the case of T1w MRI. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a Matlab-based simulation platform to facilitate PET/MRI texture image analysis for outcome prediction.

  2. Use of MRI in Differentiation of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Ankur M; Ream, Justin M; Kierans, Andrea S; Bilbily, Matthew; Rusinek, Henry; Huang, William C; Chandarana, Hersh

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitative and quantitative MRI feature analysis is useful for differentiating type 1 from type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). This retrospective study included 21 type 1 and 17 type 2 PRCCs evaluated with preoperative MRI. Two radiologists independently evaluated various qualitative features, including signal intensity, heterogeneity, and margin. For the quantitative analysis, a radiology fellow and a medical student independently drew 3D volumes of interest over the entire tumor on T2-weighted HASTE images, apparent diffusion coefficient parametric maps, and nephrographic phase contrast-enhanced MR images to derive first-order texture metrics. Qualitative and quantitative features were compared between the groups. For both readers, qualitative features with greater frequency in type 2 PRCC included heterogeneous enhancement, indistinct margin, and T2 heterogeneity (all, p Quantitative analysis revealed that apparent diffusion coefficient, HASTE, and contrast-enhanced entropy were greater in type 2 PRCC (p quantitative and qualitative model had an AUC of 0.859. Qualitative features within the model had interreader concordance of 84-95%, and the quantitative data had intraclass coefficients of 0.873-0.961. Qualitative and quantitative features can help discriminate between type 1 and type 2 PRCC. Quantitative analysis may capture useful information that complements the qualitative appearance while benefiting from high interobserver agreement.

  3. In situ x-ray diffraction of solution-derived ferroelectric thin films for quantitative phase and texture evolution measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittala, Krishna; Mhin, Sungwook; Jones, Jacob L.; Robinson, Douglas S.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brennecka, Geoff L.

    2012-11-01

    An in situ measurement technique is developed and presented, which utilizes x-rays from a synchrotron source with a two-dimensional detector to measure thin film microstructural and crystallographic evolution during heating. A demonstration experiment is also shown wherein the measured diffraction patterns are used to describe phase and texture evolution during heating and crystallization of solution-derived thin films. The diffraction images are measured sequentially while heating the thin film with an infrared lamp. Data reduction methodologies and representations are also outlined to extract phase and texture information from the diffraction images as a function of time and temperature. These techniques and data reduction methods are demonstrated during crystallization of solution-derived lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric thin films heated at a rate of 30 °C/min and using an acquisition time of 8 s. During heating and crystallization, a PtxPb type phase was not observed. A pyrochlore phase was observed prior to the formation and growth of the perovskite phase. The final crystallized films are observed to have both 111 and 100 texture components. The in situ measurement methodology developed in this work allows for acquiring diffraction images in times as low as 0.25 s and can be used to investigate changes during crystallization at faster heating rates. Moreover, the experiments are shown to provide unique information during materials processing.

  4. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3–10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception. PMID:28052103

  5. 3D texture analysis for classification of second harmonic generation images of human ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bruce; Campbell, Kirby R.; Tilbury, Karissa; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Brewer, Molly A.; Patankar, Manish; Singh, Vikas; Eliceiri, Kevin. W.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2016-10-01

    Remodeling of the collagen architecture in the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantify these alterations we implemented a form of 3D texture analysis to delineate the fibrillar morphology observed in 3D Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy image data of normal (1) and high risk (2) ovarian stroma, benign ovarian tumors (3), low grade (4) and high grade (5) serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors (6). We developed a tailored set of 3D filters which extract textural features in the 3D image sets to build (or learn) statistical models of each tissue class. By applying k-nearest neighbor classification using these learned models, we achieved 83-91% accuracies for the six classes. The 3D method outperformed the analogous 2D classification on the same tissues, where we suggest this is due the increased information content. This classification based on ECM structural changes will complement conventional classification based on genetic profiles and can serve as an additional biomarker. Moreover, the texture analysis algorithm is quite general, as it does not rely on single morphological metrics such as fiber alignment, length, and width but their combined convolution with a customizable basis set.

  6. Dental microwear texture analysis shows within-species diet variability in fossil hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert S; Ungar, Peter S; Bergstrom, Torbjorn S; Brown, Christopher A; Grine, Frederick E; Teaford, Mark F; Walker, Alan

    2005-08-04

    Reconstructing the diets of extinct hominins is essential to understanding the paleobiology and evolutionary history of our lineage. Dental microwear, the study of microscopic tooth-wear resulting from use, provides direct evidence of what an individual ate in the past. Unfortunately, established methods of studying microwear are plagued with low repeatability and high observer error. Here we apply an objective, repeatable approach for studying three-dimensional microwear surface texture to extinct South African hominins. Scanning confocal microscopy together with scale-sensitive fractal analysis are used to characterize the complexity and anisotropy of microwear. Results for living primates show that this approach can distinguish among diets characterized by different fracture properties. When applied to hominins, microwear texture analysis indicates that Australopithecus africanus microwear is more anisotropic, but also more variable in anisotropy than Paranthropus robustus. This latter species has more complex microwear textures, but is also more variable in complexity than A. africanus. This suggests that A. africanus ate more tough foods and P. robustus consumed more hard and brittle items, but that both had variable and overlapping diets.

  7. R(2OBBIE-3D, a Fast Robotic High-Resolution System for Quantitative Phenotyping of Surface Geometry and Colour-Texture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António F Martins

    Full Text Available While recent imaging techniques provide insights into biological processes from the molecular to the cellular scale, phenotypes at larger scales remain poorly amenable to quantitative analyses. For example, investigations of the biophysical mechanisms generating skin morphological complexity and diversity would greatly benefit from 3D geometry and colour-texture reconstructions. Here, we report on R(2OBBIE-3D, an integrated system that combines a robotic arm, a high-resolution digital colour camera, an illumination basket of high-intensity light-emitting diodes and state-of-the-art 3D-reconstruction approaches. We demonstrate that R(2OBBIE generates accurate 3D models of biological objects between 1 and 100 cm, makes multiview photometric stereo scanning possible in practical processing times, and enables the capture of colour-texture and geometric resolutions better than 15 μm without the use of magnifying lenses. R(2OBBIE has the potential to greatly improve quantitative analyses of phenotypes in addition to providing multiple new applications in, e.g., biomedical science.

  8. Local multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis for non-stationary image's texture segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Zong-shou; Li, Jin-wei

    2014-12-01

    Feature extraction plays a great important role in image processing and pattern recognition. As a power tool, multifractal theory is recently employed for this job. However, traditional multifractal methods are proposed to analyze the objects with stationary measure and cannot for non-stationary measure. The works of this paper is twofold. First, the definition of stationary image and 2D image feature detection methods are proposed. Second, a novel feature extraction scheme for non-stationary image is proposed by local multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (Local MF-DFA), which is based on 2D MF-DFA. A set of new multifractal descriptors, called local generalized Hurst exponent (Lhq) is defined to characterize the local scaling properties of textures. To test the proposed method, both the novel texture descriptor and other two multifractal indicators, namely, local Hölder coefficients based on capacity measure and multifractal dimension Dq based on multifractal differential box-counting (MDBC) method, are compared in segmentation experiments. The first experiment indicates that the segmentation results obtained by the proposed Lhq are better than the MDBC-based Dq slightly and superior to the local Hölder coefficients significantly. The results in the second experiment demonstrate that the Lhq can distinguish the texture images more effectively and provide more robust segmentations than the MDBC-based Dq significantly.

  9. Real-time color-based texture analysis for sophisticated defect detection on wooden surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzleitner, Wolfgang; Schwingshakl, Gert

    2004-10-01

    We describe a scanning system developed for the classification and grading of surfaces of wooden tiles. The system uses color imaging sensors to analyse the surfaces of either hard- or softwood material in terms of the texture formed by grain lines (orientation, spatial frequency, and color), various types of colorization, and other defects like knots, heart wood, cracks, holes, etc. The analysis requires two major tracks: the assignment of a tile to its texture class (like A, B, C, 1, 2, 3, Waste), and the detection of defects that decrease the commercial value of the tile (heart wood, knots, etc.). The system was initially developed under the international IMS program (Intelligent Manufacturing Systems) by an industry consortium. During the last two years it has been further developed, and several industrial systems have been installed, and are presently used in production of hardwood flooring. The methods implemented reflect some of the latest developments in the field of pattern recognition: genetic feature selection, two-dimensional second order statistics, special color space transforms, and classification by neural networks. In the industrial scenario we describe, many of the features defining a class cannot be described mathematically. Consequently a focus was the design of a learning architecture, where prototype texture samples are presented to the system, which then automatically finds the internal representation necessary for classification. The methods used in this approach have a wide applicability to problems of inspection, sorting, and optimization of high-value material typically used in the furniture, flooring, and related wood manufacturing industries.

  10. A study on using texture analysis methods for identifying lobar fissure regions in isotropic CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q; Hu, Y

    2009-01-01

    The major hurdle for segmenting lung lobes in computed tomographic (CT) images is to identify fissure regions, which encase lobar fissures. Accurate identification of these regions is difficult due to the variable shape and appearance of the fissures, along with the low contrast and high noise associated with CT images. This paper studies the effectiveness of two texture analysis methods - the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and the gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) - in identifying fissure regions from isotropic CT image stacks. To classify GLCM and GLRLM texture features, we applied a feed-forward back-propagation neural network and achieved the best classification accuracy utilizing 16 quantized levels for computing the GLCM and GLRLM texture features and 64 neurons in the input/hidden layers of the neural network. Tested on isotropic CT image stacks of 24 patients with the pathologic lungs, we obtained accuracies of 86% and 87% for identifying fissure regions using the GLCM and GLRLM methods, respectively. These accuracies compare favorably with surgeons/radiologists' accuracy of 80% for identifying fissure regions in clinical settings. This shows promising potential for segmenting lung lobes using the GLCM and GLRLM methods.

  11. Task-based optimization of flip angle for texture analysis in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jonathan F.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Altbach, Maria I.; Galons, Jean-Phillippe; Bhattacharyya, Achyut; Sharma, Puneet; Bhattacharyya, Tulshi; Bilgin, Ali; Martin, Diego R.

    2016-03-01

    Chronic liver disease is a worldwide health problem, and hepatic fibrosis (HF) is one of the hallmarks of the disease. The current reference standard for diagnosing HF is biopsy followed by pathologist examination, however this is limited by sampling error and carries risk of complications. Pathology diagnosis of HF is based on textural change in the liver as a lobular collagen network that develops within portal triads. The scale of collagen lobules is characteristically on order of 1-5 mm, which approximates the resolution limit of in vivo gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the delayed phase. We have shown that MRI of formalin fixed human ex vivo liver samples mimic the textural contrast of in vivo Gd-MRI and can be used as MRI phantoms. We have developed local texture analysis that is applied to phantom images, and the results are used to train model observers. The performance of the observer is assessed with the area-under-the-receiveroperator- characteristic curve (AUROC) as the figure of merit. To optimize the MRI pulse sequence, phantoms are scanned with multiple times at a range of flip angles. The flip angle that associated with the highest AUROC is chosen as optimal based on the task of detecting HF.

  12. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessment through texture based analysis of corneal nerve images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana F.; Gouveia, Sofia; Gomes, Leonor; Negrão, Luís; João Quadrado, Maria; Domingues, José Paulo; Morgado, António Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one common complication of diabetes. Early diagnosis of DPN often fails due to the non-availability of a simple, reliable, non-invasive method. Several published studies show that corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) can identify small nerve fibre damage and quantify the severity of DPN, using nerve morphometric parameters. Here, we used image texture features, extracted from corneal sub-basal nerve plexus images, obtained in vivo by CCM, to identify DPN patients, using classification techniques. A SVM classifier using image texture features was used to identify (DPN vs. No DPN) DPN patients. The accuracies were 80.6%, when excluding diabetic patients without neuropathy, and 73.5%, when including diabetic patients without diabetic neuropathy jointly with healthy controls. The results suggest that texture analysis might be used as a complementing technique for DPN diagnosis, without requiring nerve segmentation in CCM images. The results also suggest that this technique has enough sensitivity to detect early disorders in the corneal nerves of diabetic patients.

  13. Early prognosis of metastasis risk in inflammatory breast cancer by texture analysis of tumour microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarevic, Daniela; Tomasevic, Zorica; Dzodic, Radan; Kanjer, Ksenija; Vukosavljevic, Dragica Nikolic; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of microscopic tumour histomorphology texture for prognosis of local and systemic recurrence at the time of initial IBC diagnosis. This retrospective study included a group of 52 patients selected on the basis of non-metastatic IBC diagnosis, stage IIIB. Gray-Level-Co-Occurrence-Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis was performed on digital images of primary tumour tissue sections stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Obtained values were categorized by use of both data- and outcome-based methods. All five acquired GLCM texture features significantly associated with metastasis outcome. By accuracies of 69-81% and AUCs of 0.71-0.81, prognostic performance of GLCM parameters exceeded that of standard major IBC clinical prognosticators such as tumour grade and response to induction chemotherapy. Furthermore, a composite score consisting of tumour grade, contrast and correlation as independent features resulted in further enhancement of prognostic performance by accuracy of 89%, discrimination efficiency by AUC of 0.93 and an outstanding hazard ratio of 71.6 (95%CI, 41.7-148.4). Internal validation was successfully performed by bootstrap and split-sample cross-validation, suggesting that the model is generalizable. This study indicates for the first time the potential use of primary breast tumour histology texture as a highly accurate, simple and cost-effective prognostic indicator of metastasis risk in IBC. Clinical relevance of the obtained results rests on the role of prognosis in decisions on induction chemotherapy and the resulting impact on quality of life and survival.

  14. Parameter optimization of parenchymal texture analysis for prediction of false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology to obtain optimal parameter values for a locally-adaptive texture analysis algorithm that extracts mammographic texture features representative of breast parenchymal complexity for predicting falsepositive (FP) recalls from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. The algorithm has two components: (1) adaptive selection of localized regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) Haralick texture feature extraction via Gray- Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The following parameters were systematically varied: mammographic views used, upper limit of the ROI window size used for adaptive ROI selection, GLCM distance offsets, and gray levels (binning) used for feature extraction. Each iteration per parameter set had logistic regression with stepwise feature selection performed on a clinical screening cohort of 474 non-recalled women and 68 FP recalled women; FP recall prediction was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and associations between the extracted features and FP recall were assessed via odds ratios (OR). A default instance of mediolateral (MLO) view, upper ROI size limit of 143.36 mm (2048 pixels2), GLCM distance offset combination range of 0.07 to 0.84 mm (1 to 12 pixels) and 16 GLCM gray levels was set. The highest ROC performance value of AUC=0.77 [95% confidence intervals: 0.71-0.83] was obtained at three specific instances: the default instance, upper ROI window equal to 17.92 mm (256 pixels2), and gray levels set to 128. The texture feature of sum average was chosen as a statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor and associated with higher odds of FP recall for 12 out of 14 total instances.

  15. Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

    2015-03-07

    We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients.

  16. Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients. PMID:25759524

  17. Classification of Convective and Stratiform Cells in Meteorological Radar Images Using SVM Based on a Textural Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdenasser Djafri; Boualem Haddad

    2014-01-01

    This contribution deals with the discrimination between stratiform and convective cells in meteorological radar images. This study is based on a textural analysis of the latter and their classification using a support vector machine (SVM). First, we apply different textural parameters such as energy, entropy, inertia, and local homogeneity. Through this experience, we identify the different textural features of both the stratiform and convective cells. Then, we use an SVM to find the best discriminating parameter between the two types of clouds. The main goal of this work is to better apply the Palmer and Marshall Z-R relations specific to each type of precipitation.

  18. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  19. Inlining 3d Reconstruction, Multi-Source Texture Mapping and Semantic Analysis Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommholz, D.; Linkiewicz, M.; Poznanska, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. Further, the resulting unrectified texture atlases are analyzed for façade elements like windows to be reintegrated into the original 3D models. Tests on real-world data of Heligoland/ Germany comprising more than 800 buildings exposed a median positional deviation of 0.31 m at the façades compared to the cadastral map, a correctness of 67% for the detected windows and good visual quality when being rendered with GPU-based perspective correction. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching (SGM). The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution. Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model (DSM) of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. The atlas bitmap is passed to a commercial object-based image analysis (OBIA) tool running a custom rule set to identify windows on the contained façade patches. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric constraints and

  20. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  1. Linear classifier and textural analysis of optical scattering images for tumor classification during breast cancer extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; Garcia Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-02-01

    Texture analysis of light scattering in tissue is proposed to obtain diagnostic information from breast cancer specimens. Light scattering measurements are minimally invasive, and allow the estimation of tissue morphology to guide the surgeon in resection surgeries. The usability of scatter signatures acquired with a micro-sampling reflectance spectral imaging system was improved utilizing an empirical approximation to the Mie theory to estimate the scattering power on a per-pixel basis. Co-occurrence analysis is then applied to the scattering power images to extract the textural features. A statistical analysis of the features demonstrated the suitability of the autocorrelation for the classification of notmalignant (normal epithelia and stroma, benign epithelia and stroma, inflammation), malignant (DCIS, IDC, ILC) and adipose tissue, since it reveals morphological information of tissue. Non-malignant tissue shows higher autocorrelation values while adipose tissue presents a very low autocorrelation on its scatter texture, being malignant the middle ground. Consequently, a fast linear classifier based on the consideration of just one straightforward feature is enough for providing relevant diagnostic information. A leave-one-out validation of the linear classifier on 29 samples with 48 regions of interest showed classification accuracies of 98.74% on adipose tissue, 82.67% on non-malignant tissue and 72.37% on malignant tissue, in comparison with the biopsy H and E gold standard. This demonstrates that autocorrelation analysis of scatter signatures is a very computationally efficient and automated approach to provide pathological information in real-time to guide surgeon during tissue resection.

  2. Influence analysis in quantitative trait loci detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaoling; Kuriki, Satoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Takada, Toyoyuki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents systematic methods for the detection of influential individuals that affect the log odds (LOD) score curve. We derive general formulas of influence functions for profile likelihoods and introduce them into two standard quantitative trait locus detection methods-the interval mapping method and single marker analysis. Besides influence analysis on specific LOD scores, we also develop influence analysis methods on the shape of the LOD score curves. A simulation-based method is proposed to assess the significance of the influence of the individuals. These methods are shown useful in the influence analysis of a real dataset of an experimental population from an F2 mouse cross. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, we confirm that the proposed methods show better performance than existing diagnostics.

  3. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

    2009-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  4. ''Textural analysis of multiparametric MRI detects transition zone prostate cancer''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, Harbir S.; Johnston, Edward W.; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve [Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Benigno, Salvatore; Dikaios, Nikos [Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Ganeshan, Balaji [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Allen, Clare; Kirkham, Alex [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Groves, Ashley M. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Hashim U.; Emberton, Mark [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Research Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom); Punwani, Shonit [Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London and University College London Hospitals NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate multiparametric-MRI (mpMRI) derived histogram textural-analysis parameters for detection of transition zone (TZ) prostatic tumour. Sixty-seven consecutive men with suspected prostate cancer underwent 1.5T mpMRI prior to template-mapping-biopsy (TPM). Twenty-six men had 'significant' TZ tumour. Two radiologists in consensus matched TPM to the single axial slice best depicting tumour, or largest TZ diameter for those with benign histology, to define single-slice whole TZ-regions-of-interest (ROIs). Textural-parameter differences between single-slice whole TZ-ROI containing significant tumour versus benign/insignificant tumour were analysed using Mann Whitney U test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by receiver operating characteristic area under curve (ROC-AUC) analysis cross-validated with leave-one-out (LOO) analysis. ADC kurtosis was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in TZ containing significant tumour with ROC-AUC 0.80 (LOO-AUC 0.78); the difference became non-significant following exclusion of significant tumour from single-slice whole TZ-ROI (p = 0.23). T1-entropy was significantly lower (p = 0.004) in TZ containing significant tumour with ROC-AUC 0.70 (LOO-AUC 0.66) and was unaffected by excluding significant tumour from TZ-ROI (p = 0.004). Combining these parameters yielded ROC-AUC 0.86 (LOO-AUC 0.83). Textural features of the whole prostate TZ can discriminate significant prostatic cancer through reduced kurtosis of the ADC-histogram where significant tumour is included in TZ-ROI and reduced T1 entropy independent of tumour inclusion. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of Fetal Lung Ultrasound Images by Digital Texture Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmu Yildiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of fetal lung maturity in preterm pregnancies without requirement for an invasive procedure such as amniocentesis is of importance. The aim of the present study was to extract numerical features from fetal pulmonary ultrasound images, using computerized texture analysis methods. Material and Method: Twenty fetal ultrasound images from 18 pregnancies that were followed up in our department for threatened preterm delivery between 24-37 weeks of gestational age were included before corticosteroid administration. Transverse sections including well-defined visualization of bilateral fetal lungs without artifacts were evaluated. Regions of interests (ROIs with a 64x64 pixel area and homogenous pulmonary tissue were selected. Images were analyzed with invariant moments (IM, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, and wavelet analysis (WA using MATLAB R2014a computer software. Results: The mean gestational age was 30.9 ± 3.2 weeks. A total of 159 features were extracted from the ROIs of each image. Therefore, fetal ultrasound images were coded into numerical values, using advanced texture analysis techniques. Discussion: Assessment of ultrasound images from fetal lungs at different gestational ages was feasible with the introduced digital tissue analysis algorithm. Non-invasive evaluation of fetal lung maturity will subsequently be investigated in line with the defined procedure.

  6. Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis for multilayered chiral spin textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Juriaan; Kloodt-Twesten, Fabian; Frömter, Robert; Oepen, Hans Peter; Duine, Rembert A.; Swagten, Henk J. M.; Koopmans, Bert; Lavrijsen, Reinoud

    2017-09-01

    We show that scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) that is sensitive to both in-plane magnetization components can be used to image the out-of-plane magnetized multi-domain state in multilayered chiral spin textures. By depositing a thin layer of Fe on top of the multilayer, we image the underlying out-of-plane domain state through the mapping of its stray fields in the Fe. We also demonstrate that SEMPA can be used to image the domain wall chirality in these systems after milling away the capping layer and imaging the topmost magnetic layer directly.

  7. Analysis of passive millimeter-wave imagery texture for enhanced aircraft obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, David A.

    2004-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that passive MMW imagers can be used to detect obstacles through the fog, such as treelines and hillsides, which might be encountered in the path of a low-flying aircraft. However, the brightness temperature contrast between the horizon sky and the obstacle can often be quite small in foggy conditions, on the order of 5 K or less. Reliable detection of this contrast without image processing requires a passive MMW imager with a Δ-Tmin of about 0.2 K, which is quite challenging for existing 30-Hz imagers. While improvements in passive MMW imagers continue, it is useful to look at image analysis techniques that have the potential to improve obstacle detection by increasing the amount of information extracted from each image frame. In this paper we look at the ways that texture can be used to extract more information from the imagery. By merging textural information with the brightness temperature contrast information, there is the potential to enhance the detection of objects within the scene. The data used for the analysis presented here is 93-GHz, passive imagery of a deciduous treeline scene and a concrete building scene. The data were taken from the roof of a 4-story building to simulate the view of a low-flying aircraft. The data were collected over many months with an ARL-built Stokes-vector radiometer. This radiometer is a single-beam system that raster scans over a scene to collect a calibrated 93-GHz image. Texture measurement results for image segment samples, including autocorrelation and spatial edgeness, are presented in this work. Also presented are the effects of applying a modified Sobel edge detection technique to imagery with the least detectable obstacles.

  8. Differentiation of digital tb images using texture analysis and rbf classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, E; Srinivasan, S; Ramakrishnan, S

    2012-01-01

    In this work, differentiation of positive and negative images of Tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear has been attempted using statistical method based on Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The sputum smear images (N=100) recorded under standard image acquisition protocol are considered for this work. Second order statistical texture analysis is performed on the acquired images using GLCM method and a set of nineteen features are derived. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is then employed to reduce feature sets, to enhance the efficiency of differentiation and to reduce the redundancy. These feature sets are further classified using Radial Basis Function (RBF) classifier. Results show that GLCM is able to differentiate positive and negative TB images. Correlation is found to be high for many of the parameters. Application of PCA reduced the number of features to four which had maximum magnitude in the first principal component. Higher classification accuracy is achieved using RBF classifier. It appears that this method of texture analysis could be useful to develop automated system for characterization and classification of digital TB sputum smear images.

  9. A comparison between Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement and texture profile analysis of meat and meat products: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, S.; Tomašević, I.

    2017-09-01

    Texture is one of the most important characteristics of meat and we can explain it as the human physiological–psychological awareness of a number of rheological and other properties of foods and their relations. In this paper, we discuss instrumental measurement of texture by Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and texture profile analysis (TPA). The conditions for using the device are detailed in WBSF measurements, and the influence of different parameters on the execution of the method and final results are shown. After that, the main disadvantages are reflected in the non-standardized method. Also, we introduce basic texture parameters which connect and separate TPA and WBSF methods and mention contemporary methods with their main advantage.

  10. Inspection, visualisation and analysis of quantitative proteomics data

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Material Quantitative Proteomics and Data Analysis Course. 4 - 5 April 2016, Queen Hotel, Chester, UK Table D - Inspection, visualisation and analysis of quantitative proteomics data, Laurent Gatto (University of Cambridge)

  11. Complementary tumor vascularity imaging in a single PET-CT routine using FDG early dynamic blood flow and contrast-enhanced CT texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Raz; Yefremov, Nikolay; Bernstine, Hanna; Groshar, David

    2014-03-01

    A feasibility study of improved PET-CT tumor imaging approach is presented. A single PET-CT routine includes three different techniques: 18F-FDG early dynamic blood flow intended for perfusion assessment; standard late 18F-FDG uptake; and high-resolution contrast-enhanced CT enabling tissue texture analysis. Both PET protocols utilize the same single standard radiotracer dose administration. Quantitative volumetric arterial perfusion maps are derived from the reconstructed dynamic PET images corresponding to successive acquisition time intervals of 3 seconds only. For achieving high accuracy, the analysis algorithm differentiates the first-pass arterial flow from other interfering dynamic effects, and a noise reduction scheme based on adaptive total-variation minimization aims to provide appreciable quantitative map in physical conditions of high noise and low spatial resolution. The CT texture analysis comprises a practical and robust method for generating volumetric tissue irregularity maps. A local map value is represented by the entropy function which is derived from a weighted co-occurrence matrix histogram of the corresponding image voxel three-dimensional vicinity. Unique entropy scaling scheme and parameter optimization process, as well as appropriate scaling for varying image noise levels and contrast agent concentrations, improve the results toward quantitative absolute measure with respect to diverse scanning conditions and key analysis parameters. Representative imaging results are demonstrated on several clinical cases involving different organs and cancer types. In these cases, significant tumor characterization relative to the normal surrounding tissues is seen on the quantitative maps of all three imaging techniques. This proof of concept can lead the way to a new practical diagnostic imaging application.

  12. Automated detection of regions of interest for tissue microarray experiments: an image texture analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tözeren Aydin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research with tissue microarrays led to a rapid progress toward quantifying the expressions of large sets of biomarkers in normal and diseased tissue. However, standard procedures for sampling tissue for molecular profiling have not yet been established. Methods This study presents a high throughput analysis of texture heterogeneity on breast tissue images for the purpose of identifying regions of interest in the tissue for molecular profiling via tissue microarray technology. Image texture of breast histology slides was described in terms of three parameters: the percentage of area occupied in an image block by chromatin (B, percentage occupied by stroma-like regions (P, and a statistical heterogeneity index H commonly used in image analysis. Texture parameters were defined and computed for each of the thousands of image blocks in our dataset using both the gray scale and color segmentation. The image blocks were then classified into three categories using the texture feature parameters in a novel statistical learning algorithm. These categories are as follows: image blocks specific to normal breast tissue, blocks specific to cancerous tissue, and those image blocks that are non-specific to normal and disease states. Results Gray scale and color segmentation techniques led to identification of same regions in histology slides as cancer-specific. Moreover the image blocks identified as cancer-specific belonged to those cell crowded regions in whole section image slides that were marked by two pathologists as regions of interest for further histological studies. Conclusion These results indicate the high efficiency of our automated method for identifying pathologic regions of interest on histology slides. Automation of critical region identification will help minimize the inter-rater variability among different raters (pathologists as hundreds of tumors that are used to develop an array have typically been evaluated

  13. Subacute and Chronic Left Ventricular Myocardial Scar: Accuracy of Texture Analysis on Nonenhanced Cine MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baessler, Bettina; Mannil, Manoj; Oebel, Sabrina; Maintz, David; Alkadhi, Hatem; Manka, Robert

    2017-08-23

    Purpose To test whether texture analysis (TA) allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic myocardial infarction (MI) on noncontrast material-enhanced cine cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 120 patients who underwent cardiac MR imaging and showed large transmural (volume of enhancement on late gadolinium enhancement [LGE] images >20%, n = 72) or small (enhanced volume ≤20%, n = 48) subacute or chronic ischemic scars were included. Sixty patients with normal cardiac MR imaging findings served as control subjects. Regions of interest for TA encompassing the left ventricle were drawn by two blinded, independent readers on cine images in end systole by using a freely available software package. Stepwise dimension reduction and texture feature selection based on reproducibility, machine learning, and correlation analyses were performed for selecting features, enabling the diagnosis of MI on nonenhanced cine MR images by using LGE imaging as the standard of reference. Results Five independent texture features allowed for differentiation between ischemic scar and normal myocardium on cine MR images in both subgroups: Teta1, Perc.01, Variance, WavEnHH.s-3, and S(5,5)SumEntrp (in patients with large MI: all P values cine MR images, with an area under the curve of 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion This proof-of-concept study indicates that TA of nonenhanced cine MR images allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic MI with high accuracy. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  14. Analysis of Surface Texturization of Solar Cells by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yen Chung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple new model, based on the classic molecular dynamics simulation (MD, alternative to complex electron-photon interactions to analyze the surface texturization of solar cells. This methodology can easily propose the absorptance differences between texturing and nontexturing solar cells. To verify model feasibility, this study simulates square, pyramidal, and semicircular texturization surfaces. Simulations show that surface texturization effectively increases the absorptance of incident light for solar cells, and this paper presents optimal texturization shapes. The MD model can also be potentially used to predict the efficiency promotion in any optical reflection-absorption cases.

  15. Quantitative analysis of spirality in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dojcsak, Levente

    2013-01-01

    We use an automated galaxy morphology analysis method to quantitatively measure the spirality of galaxies classified manually as elliptical. The data set used for the analysis consists of 60,518 galaxy images with redshift obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and classified manually by Galaxy Zoo, as well as the RC3 and NA10 catalogues. We measure the spirality of the galaxies by using the Ganalyzer method, which transforms the galaxy image to its radial intensity plot to detect galaxy spirality that is in many cases difficult to notice by manual observation of the raw galaxy image. Experimental results using manually classified elliptical and S0 galaxies with redshift <0.3 suggest that galaxies classified manually as elliptical and S0 exhibit a nonzero signal for the spirality. These results suggest that the human eye observing the raw galaxy image might not always be the most effective way of detecting spirality and curves in the arms of galaxies.

  16. Accelerated Parallel Texture Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Da Huang; Xin Tong; Wen-Cheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Texture optimization is a texture synthesis method that can efficiently reproduce various features of exemplar textures. However, its slow synthesis speed limits its usage in many interactive or real time applications. In this paper, we propose a parallel texture optimization algorithm to run on GPUs. In our algorithm, k-coherence search and principle component analysis (PCA) are used for hardware acceleration, and two acceleration techniques are further developed to speed up our GPU-based texture optimization. With a reasonable precomputation cost, the online synthesis speed of our algorithm is 4000+ times faster than that of the original texture optimization algorithm and thus our algorithm is capable of interactive applications. The advantages of the new scheme are demonstrated by applying it to interactive editing of flow-guided synthesis.

  17. Quantitative laryngeal electromyography: turns and amplitude analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, Melissa McCarty; Rosen, Clark A; Nandedkar, Sanjeev D; Munin, Michael C

    2010-10-01

    Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is primarily a qualitative examination, with no standardized approach to interpretation. The objectives of our study were to establish quantitative norms for motor unit recruitment in controls and to compare with interference pattern analysis in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (VFP). Retrospective case-control study We performed LEMG of the thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex (TA-LCA) in 21 controls and 16 patients with unilateral VFP. Our standardized protocol used a concentric needle electrode with subjects performing variable force TA-LCA contraction. To quantify the interference pattern density, we measured turns and mean amplitude per turn for ≥10 epochs (each 500 milliseconds). Logarithmic regression analysis between amplitude and turns was used to calculate slope and intercept. Standard deviation was calculated to further define the confidence interval, enabling generation of a linear-scale graphical "cloud" of activity containing ≥90% of data points for controls and patients. Median age of controls and patients was similar (50.7 vs. 48.5 years). In controls, TA-LCA amplitude with variable contraction ranged from 145-1112 μV, and regression analysis comparing mean amplitude per turn to root-mean-square amplitude demonstrated high correlation (R = 0.82). In controls performing variable contraction, median turns per second was significantly higher compared to patients (450 vs. 290, P = .002). We first present interference pattern analysis in the TA-LCA in healthy adults and patients with unilateral VFP. Our findings indicate that motor unit recruitment can be quantitatively measured within the TA-LCA. Additionally, patients with unilateral VFP had significantly reduced turns when compared with controls.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy combined with image processing technique: Microstructure and texture analysis of legumes and vegetables for instant meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniazek, Facundo; Messina, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    Development and innovation of new technologies are necessary especially in food quality; due that most instrumental technique for measuring quality properties involves a considerable amount of manual work. Image analysis is a technique that allows to provide objective evaluations from digitalized images that can estimate quality parameters for consumer's acceptance. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of freeze drying on the microstructure and texture of legume and vegetables using scanning electron microscopy at different magnifications' combined with image analysis. Cooked and cooked freeze dried rehydrated legumes and vegetables were analyzed individually by scanning electron microscopy at different magnifications' (250, 500, and 1000×).Texture properties were analyzed by texture analyzer and image analysis. Significant differences (P image and instrumental texture parameters. A linear trend with a linear correlation was applied for instrumental and image features. Results showed that image features calculated from Grey level co-occurrence matrix at 1,000× had high correlations with instrumental features. In rice, homogeneity and contrast can be applied to evaluate texture parameters gumminess and adhesiviness; Lentils: contrast, correlation, energy, homogeneity, and entropy for hardness, adhesiviness, gumminess, and chewiness; Potato and carrots: contrast, energy, homogeneity and entropy for adhesiviness, chewiness, hardness, cohesiviness, and resilence. Results revealed that combing scanning electron microscopy with image analysis can be a useful tool to analyze quality parameters in legumes and vegetables.

  19. Computerized analysis of interstitial lung diseases on chest radiographs based on lung texture, geometric-pattern features, and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayuki; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Katsumi; Ashizawa, Kazuto; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio

    2002-05-01

    For computerized detection of interstitial lung disease on chest radiographs, we developed three different methods: texture analysis based on the Fourier transform, geometric- pattern feature analysis, and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of image data. With these computer-aided diagnostic methods, quantitative measures can be obtained. To improve the diagnostic accuracy, we investigated combined classification schemes by using the results obtained with the three methods for distinction between normal and abnormal chest radiographs with interstitial opacities. The sensitivities of texture analysis, geometric analysis, and ANN analysis were 88.0+/- 1.6%, 91.0+/- 2.6%, and 87.5+/- 1.9%, respectively, at a specificity of 90.0%, whereas the sensitivity of a combined classification scheme with the logical OR operation was improved to 97.1%+/- 1.5% at the same specificity of 90.0%. The combined scheme can achieve higher accuracy than the individual methods for distinction between normal and abnormal cases with interstitial opacities.

  20. A perturbation analysis of depth perception from combinations of texture and motion cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M J; Landy, M S; Maloney, L T

    1993-12-01

    We examined how depth information from two different cue types (object motion and texture gradient) is integrated into a single estimate in human vision. Two critical assumptions of a recent model of depth cue combination (termed modified weak fusion) were tested. The first assumption is that the overall depth estimate is a weighted linear combination of the estimates derived from the individual cues, after initial processing needed to bring them to a common format. The second assumption is that the weight assigned to a cue reflects the apparent reliability of that cue in a particular scene. By this account, the depth combination rule is linear and dynamic, changing in a predictable fashion in response to the particular scene and viewing conditions. A novel procedure was used to measure the weights assigned to the texture and motion cues across experimental conditions. This procedure uses a type of perturbation analysis. The results are consistent with the weighted linear combination rule. In addition, when either cue is corrupted by added noise, the weighted linear combination rule shifts in favor of the uncontaminated cue.

  1. Micromechanical Characterization and Texture Analysis of Direct Cast Titanium Alloys Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine a post-processing technique to optimize mechanical and material properties of a number of Titanium based alloys and aluminides processed via Melt Overflow Solidification Technique (MORST). This technique was developed by NASA for the development of thin sheet titanium and titanium aluminides used in high temperature applications. The materials investigated in this study included conventional titanium alloy strips and foils, Ti-1100, Ti-24Al-11Nb (Alpha-2), and Ti-48Al-2Ta (Gamma). The methodology used included micro-characterization, heat-treatment, mechanical processing and mechanical testing. Characterization techniques included optical, electron microscopy, and x-ray texture analysis. The processing included heat-treatment and mechanical deformation through cold rolling. The initial as-cast materials were evaluated for their microstructure and mechanical properties. Different heat-treatment and rolling steps were chosen to process these materials. The properties were evaluated further and a processing relationship was established in order to obtain an optimum processing condition. The results showed that the as-cast material exhibited a Widmanstatten (fine grain) microstructure that developed into a microstructure with larger grains through processing steps. The texture intensity showed little change for all processing performed in this investigation.

  2. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX TEXTURE FEATURES FOR GLAUCOMA DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Karthikeyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy disease characterized by elevated Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP. As the visual loss caused by the disease is irreversible, early detection is essential. Fundus images are used as input and it is preprocessed using histogram equalization. First order features from histogram and second order features from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM are extracted from the preprocessed image as textural features reflects physiological changes in the fundus images. Second order textural features are extracted for different quantization levels namely 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 in four orientations viz 0, 45, 90 and 135° for various distances. Extracted features are selected using Sequential Forward Floating Selection (SFFS technique.The selected features are fed to Back Propagation Network (BPN for classification as normal and abnormal images. The proposed computer aided diagnostic system achieved 96% sensitivity, 94% specificity, 95% accuracy and can be used for screening purposes. In this study, the analysis of gray levels have shown their significance in the classification of glaucoma.

  3. Automated kidney morphology measurements from ultrasound images using texture and edge analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Hariharan; Annangi, Pavan; Washburn, Michael; Lanning, Justin

    2016-04-01

    In a typical ultrasound scan, a sonographer measures Kidney morphology to assess renal abnormalities. Kidney morphology can also help to discriminate between chronic and acute kidney failure. The caliper placements and volume measurements are often time consuming and an automated solution will help to improve accuracy, repeatability and throughput. In this work, we developed an automated Kidney morphology measurement solution from long axis Ultrasound scans. Automated kidney segmentation is challenging due to wide variability in kidney shape, size, weak contrast of the kidney boundaries and presence of strong edges like diaphragm, fat layers. To address the challenges and be able to accurately localize and detect kidney regions, we present a two-step algorithm that makes use of edge and texture information in combination with anatomical cues. First, we use an edge analysis technique to localize kidney region by matching the edge map with predefined templates. To accurately estimate the kidney morphology, we use textural information in a machine learning algorithm framework using Haar features and Gradient boosting classifier. We have tested the algorithm on 45 unseen cases and the performance against ground truth is measured by computing Dice overlap, % error in major and minor axis of kidney. The algorithm shows successful performance on 80% cases.

  4. Extinction Phenomenon in X-Ray Diffraction Technique for Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadena-Arenas Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A method to correct pole densities (PD for primary and secondary extinction applied for maxima of pole figures (PF measured by X-ray diffraction, was extended to correct the whole 111 and 200 PFs for nickel samples after 75% cold rolling and subsequent annealing at 600°C during 30 minutes. The PDs were corrected, and parameters of primary and secondary extinction were calculated using the PDs obtained in PFs measured for the first order reflections with two wavelengths (Cu Kα and Co Kα - radiations and for the second order reflections with Cu Kα – radiation. Three orientation distribution functions (ODF were calculated, namely: the first one from 111, 200 and 220 PFs; the second one from 222 and 400 PFs (the second order reflections and 220 PF (440 reflection is absent for the radiations used; the third one from corrected 111 and 200 PFs and not corrected 220 PF (for lack of the second order reflection. Essential differences between the obtained ODFs indicate the necessity to take into account the extinction phenomenon in analysis of textured materials. The obtained parameters of extinction were used for the evaluation of microstructure details of textured nickel depending on grains orientation that is not easily obtained by conventional metallographic methods.

  5. Usefulness of texture analysis in differentiating transient from persistent part-solid nodules(PSNs: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early discrimination between transient and persistent par-solid ground-glass nodules (PSNs at CT is essential for patient management. The objective of our study was to retrospectively investigate the value of texture analysis in differentiating pulmonary transient and persistent PSNs in addition to clinical and CT features. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed with IRB approval and a waiver of the requirement for patients' informed consent. From January 2007 to October 2009, we identified 77 individuals (39 men and 38 women; mean age, 55 years with 86 PSNs on thin-section chest CT. Thirty-nine PSNs in 31 individuals were transient and 47 PSNs in 46 patients were persistent. The clinical, CT, and texture features of PSNs were evaluated. To investigate the additional value of texture analysis in differentiating transient from persistent PSNs, logistic regression analysis and C-statistics were performed. RESULTS: Between transient and persistent PSNs, there were significant differences in age, gender, smoking history, and eosinophil count among the clinical features. As for thin-section CT features, there were significant differences in lesion size, solid portion size, and lesion multiplicity. In terms of texture features, there were significant differences in mean attenuation, skewness of whole PSN, attenuation ratio of whole PSN to inner solid portion, and 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-percentile CT numbers of whole PSN. Multivariate analysis revealed eosinophilia, lesion size, lesion multiplicity, mean attenuation of whole PSN, skewness of whole PSN, and 5-percentile CT number were significant independent predictors of transient PSNs. (P<0.05 C-statistics revealed that texture analysis incorporating clinical and CT features (AUC, 92.9% showed significantly higher differentiating performance of transient from persistent PSNs compared with the clinical and CT features alone (AUC, 79.0%. (P =  0.004. CONCLUSION: Texture analysis of

  6. Quantitative texture-based assessment of one-year changes in fibrotic reticular patterns on HRCT in scleroderma lung disease treated with oral cyclophosphamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun J.; Brown, Matthew S. [David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarker, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Elashoff, Robert [David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Department of Biostatistics and Biomathematics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Li, Gang [School of Public Health, UCLA, Department of Biostatistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gjertson, David W. [School of Public Health and David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Department of Biostatistics and Pathology, Los Angeles (United States); Lynch, David A. [National Jewish Health, Radiology Department, Denver, CO (United States); Strollo, Diane C. [UPMC Presbyterian, Radiology Department, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kleerup, Eric; Tashkin, Donald P. [David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Department of Med-Pul and Critical Care, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chong, Daniel; Shah, Sumit K.; Ahmad, Shama; Abtin, Fereidoun; Goldin, Jonathan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The Scleroderma Lung Study showed the efficacy of cyclophosphamide in modestly improving the forced vital capacity (FVC) compared with placebo over 1 year. Using changes in texture-based scores that quantify lung fibrosis as the percentage involvement of reticulation patterns, the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide was re-assessed by examining its impact on quantitative lung fibrosis (QLF). Axial HRCT images were acquired (1-mm slice thickness, 10-mm increments) in the prone position at inspiration. A validated model for quantifying interstitial disease patterns was applied to images from 83 subjects at baseline and 12 months. Scores were calculated for six zones (upper, mid, lower of the right/left lung) and the whole lung. Average changes were compared. Correlations were performed between QLF and physiological and clinical scores. From the most severe zones identified at baseline, QLF scores decreased by 2.6% in the cyclophosphamide group, whereas they increased by 9.1% in the placebo group, leading to {proportional_to}12% difference (p = 0.0027). Between-treatment difference in whole lung QLF was {proportional_to}5% (p = 0.0190). Significant associations were observed between changes in QLF and FVC (r = -0.33), dyspnea score (r = -0.29), and consensus visual score (p = 0.0001). QLF scores provide an objective quantitative tool for assessing treatment efficacy in scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases. As effort has, therefore, been made to place the reviews provided in this book in a broader context. The effort to do this is reflected by the inclusion of introductory chapters that address basic principles of nuclear medicine imaging, followed by overview of issues that are closely related to quantitative nuclear imaging and its potential role in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. ...

  8. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

    2013-01-01

    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

  9. Common reduced spaces of representation applied to multispectral texture analysis in cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvo, Joris; Angulo, Jesus; Breugnot, Josselin; Borbes, Sylvie; Closs, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a technique of multivariate data analysis widely used in various fields like biology, ecology or economy to reduce data dimensionality while retaining most important information. It is becoming a standard practice in multispectral/hyperspectral imaging since those multivariate data generally suffer from a high redundancy level. Nevertheless, by definition, PCA is meant to be applied to a single multispectral/hyperspectral image at a time. When several images have to be treated, running a PCA on each image would generate specific reduced spaces, which is not suitable for comparison between results. Thus, we focus on two PCA based algorithms that could define common reduced spaces of representation. The first method arises from literature and is computed with the barycenter covariance matrix. On the contrary, we designed the second algorithm with the idea of correcting standard PCA using permutations and inversions of eigenvectors. These dimensionality reduction methods are used within the context of a cosmetological study of a foundation make-up. Available data are in-vivo multispectral images of skin acquired on different volunteers in time series. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the make-up degradation especially in terms of texture analysis. Results have to be validate by statistical prediction of time since applying the product. PCA algorithms produce eigenimages that separately enhance skin components (pores, radiance, vessels...). From these eigenimages, we extract morphological texture descriptors and intent a time prediction. Accuracy of common reduced spaces outperform classical PCA one. In this paper, we detail how PCA is extended to the multiple groups case and explain what are the advantages of common reduced spaces when it comes to study several multispectral images.

  10. Relationship between texture and residual macro-strain in CVD diamond films based on phenomenological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Mao; Hongxi Zhu; Leng Chen; Huiping Feng

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between texture and elastic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films was analyzed based on the phenomenological theory, which reveals the influence of crystalline orientation and texture on the residual macro-strain and macro-stress. The phenomenological calculations indicated that the difference in Young's modulus could be 15% in single dia- mond crystals and 5% in diamond films with homogeneously distributed strong fiber texture. The experimentally measured residual strains of free-standing CVD diamond films were in good agreement with the correspondingly calculated Young's modulus in con- nection with the multi-fiber textures in the fills, though the difference in Young's modulus induced by texture was only around 1%. It is believed that texture should be one of the important factors influencing the residual stress and strain of CVD diamond films.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics and quantitative EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, B H

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative, computerized electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis appears to be based on a phenomenological approach to EEG interpretation, and is primarily rooted in linear systems theory. A fundamentally different approach to computerized EEG analysis, however, is making its way into the laboratories. The basic idea, inspired by recent advances in the area of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory, is to view an EEG as the output of a deterministic system of relatively simple complexity, but containing nonlinearities. This suggests that studying the geometrical dynamics of EEGs, and the development of neurophysiologically realistic models of EEG generation may produce more successful automated EEG analysis techniques than the classical, stochastic methods. A review of the fundamentals of chaos theory is provided. Evidence supporting the nonlinear dynamics paradigm to EEG interpretation is presented, and the kind of new information that can be extracted from the EEG is discussed. A case is made that a nonlinear dynamic systems viewpoint to EEG generation will profoundly affect the way EEG interpretation is currently done.

  12. Segmentation of scarred and non-scarred myocardium in LG enhanced CMR images using intensity-based textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotu, Lasya Priya; Engan, Kjersti; Eftestøl, Trygve; Ørn, Stein; Woie, Leik

    2011-01-01

    The Late Gadolinium (LG) enhancement in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging is used to increase the intensity of scarred area in myocardium for thorough examination. Automatic segmentation of scar is important because scar size is largely responsible in changing the size, shape and functioning of left ventricle and it is a preliminary step required in exploring the information present in scar. We have proposed a new technique to segment scar (infarct region) from non-scarred myocardium using intensity-based texture analysis. Our new technique uses dictionary-based texture features and dc-values to segment scarred and non-scarred myocardium using Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) based Bayes classification. Texture analysis aided with intensity values gives better segmentation of scar from myocardium with high sensitivity and specificity values in comparison to manual segmentation by expert cardiologists.

  13. A fully-automated software pipeline for integrating breast density and parenchymal texture analysis for digital mammograms: parameter optimization in a case-control breast cancer risk assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yan; Keller, Brad M.; Conant, Emily; Gee, James C.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-02-01

    Estimating a woman's risk of breast cancer is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Mammographic density, estimated as the percent of dense (PD) tissue area within the breast, has been shown to be a strong risk factor. Studies also support a relationship between mammographic texture and breast cancer risk. We have developed a fullyautomated software pipeline for computerized analysis of digital mammography parenchymal patterns by quantitatively measuring both breast density and texture properties. Our pipeline combines advanced computer algorithms of pattern recognition, computer vision, and machine learning and offers a standardized tool for breast cancer risk assessment studies. Different from many existing methods performing parenchymal texture analysis within specific breast subregions, our pipeline extracts texture descriptors for points on a spatial regular lattice and from a surrounding window of each lattice point, to characterize the local mammographic appearance throughout the whole breast. To demonstrate the utility of our pipeline, and optimize its parameters, we perform a case-control study by retrospectively analyzing a total of 472 digital mammography studies. Specifically, we investigate the window size, which is a lattice related parameter, and compare the performance of texture features to that of breast PD in classifying case-control status. Our results suggest that different window sizes may be optimal for raw (12.7mm2) versus vendor post-processed images (6.3mm2). We also show that the combination of PD and texture features outperforms PD alone. The improvement is significant (p=0.03) when raw images and window size of 12.7mm2 are used, having an ROC AUC of 0.66. The combination of PD and our texture features computed from post-processed images with a window size of 6.3 mm2 achieves an ROC AUC of 0.75.

  14. Image-Based Three-Dimensional Analysis to Characterize the Texture of Porous Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Massai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to characterize the microstructure of composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration containing different ratios of chitosan/gelatin blend and bioactive glasses. Starting from realistic 3D models of the scaffolds reconstructed from micro-CT images, the level of heterogeneity of scaffold architecture is evaluated performing a lacunarity analysis. The results demonstrate that the presence of the bioactive glass component affects not only macroscopic features such as porosity, but mainly scaffold microarchitecture giving rise to structural heterogeneity, which could have an impact on the local cell-scaffold interaction and scaffold performances. The adopted approach allows to investigate the scale-dependent pore distribution within the scaffold and the related structural heterogeneity features, providing a comprehensive characterization of the scaffold texture.

  15. Image-Based Three-Dimensional Analysis to Characterize the Texture of Porous Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennella, Francesco; Gallo, Diego; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Bignardi, Cristina; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize the microstructure of composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration containing different ratios of chitosan/gelatin blend and bioactive glasses. Starting from realistic 3D models of the scaffolds reconstructed from micro-CT images, the level of heterogeneity of scaffold architecture is evaluated performing a lacunarity analysis. The results demonstrate that the presence of the bioactive glass component affects not only macroscopic features such as porosity, but mainly scaffold microarchitecture giving rise to structural heterogeneity, which could have an impact on the local cell-scaffold interaction and scaffold performances. The adopted approach allows to investigate the scale-dependent pore distribution within the scaffold and the related structural heterogeneity features, providing a comprehensive characterization of the scaffold texture. PMID:24995272

  16. Optical texture analysis for automatic cytology and histology: a Markovian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressman, N.J.

    1976-10-12

    Markovian analysis is a method to measure optical texture based on gray-level transition probabilities in digitized images. The experiments described in this dissertation investigate the classification performance of parameters generated by this method. Three types of data sets are used: images of (1) human blood leukocytes (nuclei of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes; Wright stain; (0.125 ..mu..m)/sup 2//picture point), (2) cervical exfoliative cells (nuclei of normal intermediate squamous cells and dysplastic and carcinoma in situ cells; azure-A/Feulgen stain; (0.125 ..mu..m)/sup 2//picture point), and (3) lymph-node tissue sections (6-..mu..m thick sections from normal, acute lymphadenitis, and Hodgkin lymph nodes; hematoxylin and eosin stain; (0.625 ..mu..m)/sup 2/ picture point). Each image consists of 128 x 128 picture points originally scanned with a 256 gray-level resolution. Each image class is defined by 75 images.

  17. Utilization of Advanced Diagnostic Methods for Texture and Rut Depth Analysis on a Testing Pavement Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabej, Martin; Grinč, Michal; Kotek, Peter; Kováč, Matúš; Decký, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Qualitative characteristics of pavement in wide range reflects the pavement serviceability, which is a summary of the characteristics of the pavement, providing a fast, smooth, economical and especially safe driving of motor-vehicles. The target factor of pavement serviceability and safety of roads represents the quality of their surface properties. In the framework of research activities performed in the Research Centre founded under the auspices of University of Žilina, individual parameters of pavement serviceability were monitored by pavement surface scanning. This paper describes the creation of a 3D - road surface model and its analysis and evaluation from the viewpoint of two pavement serviceability parameters - the rut depth and texture. Measurements were performed on an experimental pavement section used contemporary in an Accelerated Pavement Testing experiment. The long-term goal is to ascertain functions predicting degradation of these two pavement serviceability parameters.

  18. An Effective Occipitomental View Enhancement Based on Adaptive Morphological Texture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondro, Peter; Hu, Hao-Chun; Hung, Hsuan-Yen; Chang, Shin-Yuan; Li, Lieber Po-Hung; Ruan, Shanq-Jang

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to present an algorithm that specifically enhances maxillary sinuses using a novel contrast enhancement technique based on the adaptive morphological texture analysis for occipitomental view radiographs. First, the skull X-ray (SXR) is decomposed into rotational blocks (RBs). Second, each RB is rotated into various directions and processed using morphological kernels to obtain the dark and bright features. Third, a gradient-based block segmentation decomposes the interpolated feature maps into feature blocks (FBs). Finally, the histograms of FBs are equalized and overlaid locally to the input SXR. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on an independent dataset, which comprises of 145 occipitomental view-based human SXR images. According to the experimental results, the proposed method is able to increase the diagnosis accuracy by 83.45% compared with the computed tomography modality as the gold standard.

  19. Utilization of Advanced Diagnostic Methods for Texture and Rut Depth Analysis on a Testing Pavement Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slabej Martin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative characteristics of pavement in wide range reflects the pavement serviceability, which is a summary of the characteristics of the pavement, providing a fast, smooth, economical and especially safe driving of motor-vehicles. The target factor of pavement serviceability and safety of roads represents the quality of their surface properties. In the framework of research activities performed in the Research Centre founded under the auspices of University of Žilina, individual parameters of pavement serviceability were monitored by pavement surface scanning. This paper describes the creation of a 3D - road surface model and its analysis and evaluation from the viewpoint of two pavement serviceability parameters - the rut depth and texture. Measurements were performed on an experimental pavement section used contemporary in an Accelerated Pavement Testing experiment. The long-term goal is to ascertain functions predicting degradation of these two pavement serviceability parameters.

  20. Automated identification of mitochondrial regions in complex intracellular space by texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D.

    2014-01-01

    Automated processing and quantification of biological images have been rapidly increasing the attention of researchers in image processing and pattern recognition because the roles of computerized image and pattern analyses are critical for new biological findings and drug discovery based on modern high-throughput and highcontent image screening. This paper presents a study of the automated detection of regions of mitochondria, which are a subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells, in microscopy images. The automated identification of mitochondria in intracellular space that is captured by the state-of-the-art combination of focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope imaging reported here is the first of its type. Existing methods and a proposed algorithm for texture analysis were tested with the real intracellular images. The high correction rate of detecting the locations of the mitochondria in a complex environment suggests the effectiveness of the proposed study.

  1. Analysis of machinable structures and their wettability of rotary ultrasonic texturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaolin; Shimada, Keita; Mizutani, Masayoshi; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

    2016-10-01

    Tailored surface textures at the micro- or nanoscale dimensions are widely used to get required functional performances. Rotary ultrasonic texturing (RUT) technique has been proved to be capable of fabricating periodic micro- and nanostructures. In the present study, diamond tools with geometrically defined cutting edges were designed for fabricating different types of tailored surface textures using the RUT method. Surface generation mechanisms and machinable structures of the RUT process are analyzed and simulated with a 3D-CAD program. Textured surfaces generated by using a triangular pyramid cutting tip are constructed. Different textural patterns from several micrometers to several tens of micrometers with few burrs were successfully fabricated, which proved that tools with a proper two-rake-face design are capable of removing cutting chips efficiently along a sinusoidal cutting locus in the RUT process. Technical applications of the textured surfaces are also discussed. Wetting properties of textured aluminum surfaces were evaluated by combining the test of surface roughness features. The results show that the real surface area of the textured aluminum surfaces almost doubled by comparing with that of a flat surface, and anisotropic wetting properties were obtained due to the obvious directional textural features.

  2. Analysis of through-thickness heterogeneities of microstructure and texture in nickel after accumulative roll bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Mishin, Oleg; Godfrey, A.

    2014-01-01

    The through-thickness heterogeneities of the microstructure and texture have been investigated in pure nickel processed by six cycles of accumulative roll bonding (ARB) with lubrication applied during each rolling pass. Strong rolling textures are found in the intermediate and center layers...... with the summed fraction of the rolling texture components. The observed microstructural and textural variations are discussed and compared with literature data, taking into account the influence of large-draught rolling and lubrication on the distribution of strain imposed during the ARB process....

  3. Ellipsometry analysis of a-Si:H solar cell structures with submicron-size textures using glass-side illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji, E-mail: s.yamaguchi@prp.screen.co.jp [Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); FPD Equipment Company, DAINIPPON SCREEN MFG. CO., LTD., 480-1 Takamiya-cho, Hikone, Shiga 522-0292 (Japan); Sugimoto, Yoshio [FPD Equipment Company, DAINIPPON SCREEN MFG. CO., LTD., 480-1 Takamiya-cho, Hikone, Shiga 522-0292 (Japan); Fujiwara, Hiroyuki [Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)

    2014-08-28

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell structures with submicron-size textures have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements, in which the probe light illuminates the glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/a-Si:H/ZnO:Al/Ag structure from the glass-substrate side. To analyze the inhomogeneous solar cell structures due to random textures, we applied an optical model having two regions with different layer thicknesses. The optical response of the rough interface regions in the textured structures is expressed using the multilayer optical structure, in which the variation of the multiphase compositions toward the depth direction is modeled by a power function. Although only the specular reflection has been considered in the SE analysis, the ellipsometry spectra calculated from our optical model show excellent agreement with the measured spectra, as the diffused light induced by the rough textures has not been detected in our measurement configuration. Furthermore, the layer thicknesses deduced from the SE analysis agree quite well with those evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Using the SE analysis method developed in this study, the non-destructive structural characterization of large-area a-Si:H solar cell modules can be made by illuminating with the SE probe light from the glass-substrate side. - Highlights: • Textured a-Si:H solar cell structures have been characterized by ellipsometry. • In the measurement, the probe light is illuminated from the glass substrate side. • The inhomogeneous and textured structures are expressed by a new optical model. • The film structures deduced from the analysis agree well with those evaluated by TEM.

  4. Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vassili A; Kruggel, Frithjof; von Cramon, D Yves

    2003-07-01

    Effects of gender and age on structural brain asymmetry were studied by 3D texture analysis in 380 adults. Asymmetry is detected by comparing the complex 3D gray-scale image patterns in the left and right cerebral hemispheres as revealed by anatomical T1-weighted MRI datasets. The Talairach and Tournoux parcellation system was applied to study the asymmetry on five levels: the whole cerebrum, nine coronal sections, 12 axial sections, boxes resulting from both coronal and axial subdivisions, and by a sliding spherical window of 9 mm diameter. The analysis revealed that the brain asymmetry increases in the anterior-posterior direction starting from the central region onward. Male brains were found to be more asymmetric than female. This gender-related effect is noticeable in all brain areas but is most significant in the superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, the adjacent white matter regions in the temporal stem and the knee of the optic radiation, the thalamus, and the posterior cingulate. The brain asymmetry increases significantly with age in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, coronal radiata, and knee region of the internal capsule. Asymmetry decreases with age in the optic radiation, precentral gyrus, and angular gyrus. The texture-based method reported here is based on extended multisort cooccurrence matrices that employ intensity, gradient, and anisotropy features in a uniform way. It is sensitive, simple to reproduce, robust, and unbiased in the sense that segmentation of brain compartments and spatial transformations are not necessary. Thus, it should be considered as another tool for digital morphometry in neuroscience.

  5. Characterization of color texture: color texture based sorting of tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourada, Y.; Lafon, Dominique; Eterradossi, O.

    1998-09-01

    Many materials used by the building industry show a color texture which affects the product commercial value. This texture can be seen as the spatial arrangement of regions of acceptable color differences. This work describes an appearance based automated sorting via color texture analysis, using ceramic tiles as example. Textural analysis of the tiles digital images expressed in CIEL*a*b* color system is performed through the analysis of intrinsic features of each region and relationships between regions. Results obtained through the automated process are compared to a visual sorting which leads to calculation of application dependant color and texture tolerances.

  6. Quantitative risk analysis preoperational of gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, Carlos; Bispo, Gustavo G.; Esteves, Alvaro [Gie S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to predict how it can be affected the individual risk and the public's general security due to the operation of a gas pipeline. In case that the single or social risks are considered intolerable, compared with the international standards, to be recommended measures of mitigation of the risk associated to the operation until levels that can be considered compatible with the best practices in the industry. The quantitative risk analysis calculates the probability of occurrence of an event based on the frequency of occurrence of the same one and it requires a complex mathematical treatment. The present work has as objective to develop a calculation methodology based on the previously mentioned publication. This calculation methodology is centered in defining the frequencies of occurrence of events, according to representative database of each case in study. Besides, it settles down the consequences particularly according to the considerations of each area and the different possibilities of interferences with the gas pipeline in study. For each one of the interferences a typical curve of ignition probabilities is developed in function from the distance to the pipe. (author)

  7. Quantitative analysis of protein turnover in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Clark J; Li, Lei; Millar, A Harvey

    2014-03-01

    Proteins are constantly being synthesised and degraded as plant cells age and as plants grow, develop and adapt the proteome. Given that plants develop through a series of events from germination to fruiting and even undertake whole organ senescence, an understanding of protein turnover as a fundamental part of this process in plants is essential. Both synthesis and degradation processes are spatially separated in a cell across its compartmented structure. The majority of protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, while synthesis of specific components occurs inside plastids and mitochondria. Degradation of proteins occurs in both the cytosol, through the action of the plant proteasome, and in organelles and lytic structures through different protease classes. Tracking the specific synthesis and degradation rate of individual proteins can be undertaken using stable isotope feeding and the ability of peptide MS to track labelled peptide fractions over time. Mathematical modelling can be used to follow the isotope signature of newly synthesised protein as it accumulates and natural abundance proteins as they are lost through degradation. Different technical and biological constraints govern the potential for the use of (13)C, (15)N, (2)H and (18)O for these experiments in complete labelling and partial labelling strategies. Future development of quantitative protein turnover analysis will involve analysis of protein populations in complexes and subcellular compartments, assessing the effect of PTMs and integrating turnover studies into wider system biology study of plants.

  8. Microstructure and texture of electrodeposited Ni–ZrC composite coatings investigated by Rietveld XRD line profile analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhongquan; Jiang, Chuanhai, E-mail: jiangchuanhai211@163.com; Fu, Peng; Cai, Fei; Ma, Naiheng

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Microstructure of Ni–ZrC electrodeposits is studied by Rietveld refinement. • Rietveld refinement software is used to simulate the pole figures of Ni–ZrC. • The RTC, simulated and measured pole figures are coincident with each other. • Influence of current density on the texture of Ni–ZrC is studied. - Abstract: Rietveld X-ray diffraction (XRD) line profile analysis method was used to investigate the influence of applied current density on the microstructure and texture of the electrodeposited Ni–ZrC composite coatings. Crystallite size, microstrain, distribution of crystallite size, dislocation density, crystalline preferred orientation (texture), and ZrC particles content of the Ni–ZrC coatings were obtained from the Rietveld XRD line profile analysis. The results show that the crystallite size of Ni–ZrC coating increases, the microstrain and dislocation density decrease with the increasing of the current density. And the distribution of crystallite size is less uniform at higher current density. The pole figures simulated by Rietveld analysis software are coincident with the measured pole figures of Ni–ZrC coatings. The calculated relative texture coefficient (RTC) values, the simulated and measured pole figures of the coatings all illustrate that the texture of Ni–ZrC coating is modified from weak (2 2 0) to strong (2 0 0) texture with the increasing of applied current density. The microstructure evolution of Ni–ZrC composites is ascribed to the change of applied current density and ZrC content in the coatings.

  9. Joint Multifractal Analysis of Scaling Relationships Between Soil Water-Retention Parameters and Soil Texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-Ying; SHU Qiao-Sheng; XIE Li-Ya; LIU Zuo-Xin; B.C.SI

    2011-01-01

    Soil water-retention characteristics at measurement scales are generally different from those at application scales, and there is scale disparity between them and soil physical properties. The relationships between two water-retention parameters,the scaling parameter related to the inverse of the air-entry pressure (αvG, cm-1) and the curve shape factor related to soil pore-size distribution (n) of the van Genuchten water-retention equation, and soil texture (sand, silt, and clay contents)were examined at multiple scales. One hundred twenty-eight undisturbed soil samples were collected from a 640-m transect located in Fuxin, China. Soil water-retention curves were measured and the van Genuchten parameters were obtained by curve fitting. The relationships between the two parameters and soil texture at the observed scale and at multiple scales were evaluated using Pearson correlation and joint multifractal analyses, respectively. The results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that the parameter αvG was significantly correlated with sand, silt, and clay contents at the observed scale. Joint multifractal analyses, however, indicated that the parameter αvG was not correlated with silt and sand contents at multiple scales. The parameter n was positively correlated with clay content at multiple scales. Sand content was significantly correlated with the parameter n at the observed scale but not at multiple scales. Clay contents were strongly correlated to both water-retention parameters because clay content was relatively low in the soil studied, indicating that water retention was dominated by clay content in the field of this study at all scales. These suggested that multiple-scale analyses were necessary to fully grasp the spatial variability of soil water-retention characteristics.

  10. Eruptive Dynamics Inferred from Textural Analysis of Ash Time Series: The 2015 Reawakening of Cotopaxi Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, H. E.; Bernard, B.; Hidalgo, S.; Proaño, A.; Wright, H. M. N.; Mothes, P. A.; Criollo, E.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of the composition and texture of ash ejected during eruptive episodes can provide valuable information about magma storage and ascent conditions. After 73 years of repose, Cotopaxi volcano erupted after approximately four months of precursory activity that included an increase in seismicity, gas emissions, and minor ground deformation. High frequency ash sampling was realized throughout the new eruptive period and near real-time petrological monitoring of ash samples was used to infer eruption dynamics at Cotopaxi volcano. We collected twenty ash samples between August 14 and November 23, 2015 from a seismic monitoring site on the west flank of the volcano. We classified the different components of the ash into four groups: hydrothermal/altered grains, lithic fragments, potentially juvenile material, and free crystals. The relative proportions of theses grains evolved as the eruption progressed, with increasing amounts of potentially juvenile material and a decrease in hydrothermally altered material through time. Potentially juvenile grains from the initial explosion are microlite-poor and contain hydrothermal minerals (opal and alunite) in contact with fresh glass. The interaction of juvenile magma with the hydrothermal system may have provided the energy to trigger phreatomagmatic explosions at Cotopaxi. However, only the initial explosions preserve textural evidence for this process. Completely aphyric, glassy fragments are absent; likewise, the absence of highly vesiculated pumice or scoria indicates that fragmentation was not the result of bubble wall breakage due to rapid exsolution and expansion of gas in the melt. Furthermore, the crystallinity of juvenile particles increased through time, indicating slowing integrated ascent rates. Nevertheless, continued high SO2 emission rates indicate that the system was open to gas loss, which inhibited the pressurization of the conduit through gas accumulation, reducing the short term possibility of a large

  11. Analysis of Crystallographic Textures in Aluminum Plates Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Saiyi; Mishin, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    A modeling and experimental investigation has been conducted to explore the effect of processing route on texture evolution during equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) of aluminum plate samples. It is found that although the textures in the plates develop along orientation fibers previously...

  12. An extensive analysis of various texture feature extractors to detect Diabetes Mellitus using facial specific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Ting; Zhang, Bob; Yan Tang, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have recently discovered that Diabetes Mellitus can be detected through non-invasive computerized method. However, the focus has been on facial block color features. In this paper, we extensively study the effects of texture features extracted from facial specific regions at detecting Diabetes Mellitus using eight texture extractors. The eight methods are from four texture feature families: (1) statistical texture feature family: Image Gray-scale Histogram, Gray-level Co-occurance Matrix, and Local Binary Pattern, (2) structural texture feature family: Voronoi Tessellation, (3) signal processing based texture feature family: Gaussian, Steerable, and Gabor filters, and (4) model based texture feature family: Markov Random Field. In order to determine the most appropriate extractor with optimal parameter(s), various parameter(s) of each extractor are experimented. For each extractor, the same dataset (284 Diabetes Mellitus and 231 Healthy samples), classifiers (k-Nearest Neighbors and Support Vector Machines), and validation method (10-fold cross validation) are used. According to the experiments, the first and third families achieved a better outcome at detecting Diabetes Mellitus than the other two. The best texture feature extractor for Diabetes Mellitus detection is the Image Gray-scale Histogram with bin number=256, obtaining an accuracy of 99.02%, a sensitivity of 99.64%, and a specificity of 98.26% by using SVM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Textural Differentiations in Forest Resources in Romania Using Fractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Andronache

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and forest degradation have several negative effects on the environment including a loss of species habitats, disturbance of the water cycle and reduced ability to retain CO2, with consequences for global warming. We investigated the evolution of forest resources from development regions in Romania affected by both deforestation and reforestation using a non-Euclidean method based on fractal analysis. We calculated four fractal dimensions of forest areas: the fractal box-counting dimension of the forest areas, the fractal box-counting dimension of the dilated forest areas, the fractal dilation dimension and the box-counting dimension of the border of the dilated forest areas. Fractal analysis revealed morpho-structural and textural differentiations of forested, deforested and reforested areas in development regions with dominant mountain relief and high hills (more forested and compact organization in comparison to the development regions dominated by plains or low hills (less forested, more fragmented with small and isolated clusters. Our analysis used the fractal analysis that has the advantage of analyzing the entire image, rather than studying local information, thereby enabling quantification of the uniformity, fragmentation, heterogeneity and homogeneity of forests.

  14. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asnera; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweeded

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  15. Texture analysis in ultrafine grained coppers processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fabián Higuera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrolytic tough pitch (ETP and fire refined high conductivity (FRHC copper samples were severely deformed at room temperature by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP up to 16 passes (ε ~ 1 per pass, following route Bc. The effect of the initial texture on the evolution of texture after the ECAP process for both materials was analyzed. The annealed materials present a marked anisotropy, with a texture controlled by the fiber. According to the orientation distribution function (ODF, this initial behavior allows the presence of a strong C ({001} component after the first two ECAP passes in both coppers. However in the second pass the C component significantly increases in the FRHC copper, whereas the ETP copper presents a much more balanced behavior of the A1* (111[ 2]and A2* (111[11 ]components. The textures obtained for both coppers after each ECAP pass exhibit predominant orientations with continuous distributions along the orientation fiber with simple shear texture.

  16. Applying Knowledge of Quantitative Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared and contrasted two quantitative scholarly articles in relation to their research designs. Their designs were analyzed by the comparison of research references and research specific vocabulary to describe how various research methods were used. When researching and analyzing quantitative scholarly articles, it is imperative to…

  17. Quantitative color analysis for capillaroscopy image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Michela; Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia; Amorosi, Beatrice; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Palma, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    This communication introduces a novel approach for quantitatively evaluating the role of color space decomposition in digital nailfold capillaroscopy analysis. It is clinically recognized that any alterations of the capillary pattern, at the periungual skin region, are directly related to dermatologic and rheumatic diseases. The proposed algorithm for the segmentation of digital capillaroscopy images is optimized with respect to the choice of the color space and the contrast variation. Since the color space is a critical factor for segmenting low-contrast images, an exhaustive comparison between different color channels is conducted and a novel color channel combination is presented. Results from images of 15 healthy subjects are compared with annotated data, i.e. selected images approved by clinicians. By comparison, a set of figures of merit, which highlights the algorithm capability to correctly segment capillaries, their shape and their number, is extracted. Experimental tests depict that the optimized procedure for capillaries segmentation, based on a novel color channel combination, presents values of average accuracy higher than 0.8, and extracts capillaries whose shape and granularity are acceptable. The obtained results are particularly encouraging for future developments on the classification of capillary patterns with respect to dermatologic and rheumatic diseases.

  18. Quantitative gold nanoparticle analysis methods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Andriola, Angelo

    2010-08-15

    Research and development in the area of gold nanoparticles' (AuNPs) preparation, characterization, and applications are burgeoning in recent years. Many of the techniques and protocols are very mature, but two major concerns are with the mass domestic production and the consumption of AuNP based products. First, how many AuNPs exist in a dispersion? Second, where are the AuNPs after digestion by the environment and how many are there? To answer these two questions, reliable and reproducible methods are needed to analyze the existence and the population of AuNP in samples. This review summarized the most recent chemical and particle quantitative analysis methods that have been used to characterize the concentration (in number of moles of gold per liter) or population (in number of particles per mL) of AuNPs. The methods summarized in this review include, mass spectroscopy, electroanalytical methods, spectroscopic methods, and particle counting methods. These methods may count the number of AuNP directly or analyze the total concentration of element gold in an AuNP dispersion.

  19. Quantitative Risk Analysis: Method And Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass BAYAGA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent and past studies (King III report, 2009: 73-75; Stoney 2007;Committee of Sponsoring Organisation-COSO, 2004, Bartell, 2003; Liebenberg and Hoyt, 2003; Reason, 2000; Markowitz 1957 lament that although, the introduction of quantifying risk to enhance degree of objectivity in finance for instance was quite parallel to its development in the manufacturing industry, it is not the same in Higher Education Institution (HEI. In this regard, the objective of the paper was to demonstrate the methods and process of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA through likelihood of occurrence of risk (phase I. This paper serves as first of a two-phased study, which sampled hundred (100 risk analysts in a University in the greater Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The analysis of likelihood of occurrence of risk by logistic regression and percentages were conducted to investigate whether there were a significant difference or not between groups (analyst in respect of QRA.The Hosmer and Lemeshow test was non-significant with a chi-square(X2 =8.181; p = 0.300, which indicated that there was a good model fit, since the data did not significantly deviate from the model. The study concluded that to derive an overall likelihood rating that indicated the probability that a potential risk may be exercised within the construct of an associated threat environment, the following governing factors must be considered: (1 threat source motivation and capability (2 nature of the vulnerability (3 existence and effectiveness of current controls (methods and process.

  20. Detection of neovascularization based on fractal and texture analysis with interaction effects in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Lee

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a result of severe vascular complication and is visible as neovascularization of the retina. Automatic detection of such new vessels would be useful for the severity grading of diabetic retinopathy, and it is an important part of screening process to identify those who may require immediate treatment for their diabetic retinopathy. We proposed a novel new vessels detection method including statistical texture analysis (STA, high order spectrum analysis (HOS, fractal analysis (FA, and most importantly we have shown that by incorporating their associated interactions the accuracy of new vessels detection can be greatly improved. To assess its performance, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (AUC are obtained. They are 96.3%, 99.1% and 98.5% (99.3%, respectively. It is found that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of new vessels detection significantly over previous methods. The algorithm can be automated and is valuable to detect relatively severe cases of diabetic retinopathy among diabetes patients.

  1. Towards quantitative analysis of retinal features in optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Maurizio; Fortunato, Pina; La Torre, Agostino

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to propose a new computer method for quantitative evaluation of representative features of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT). A multi-step approach was devised and positively tested for segmentation of the three main retinal layers: the vitreo-retinal interface and the inner and outer retina. Following a preprocessing step, three regions of interest were delimited. Significant peaks corresponding to high and low intensity strips were located along the OCT A-scan lines and accurate boundaries between different layers were obtained by maximizing an edge likelihood function. For a quantitative description, thickness measurement, densitometry, texture and curvature analyses were performed. As a first application, the effect of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) for the treatment of vitreo-retinal interface syndrome was evaluated. Almost all the parameters, measured on a set of 16 pathologic OCT images, were statistically different before and after IVTA injection (pvitreo-retinal interface and in the inner retinal layers. Texture parameters in the inner and outer retinal layers significantly correlated with the visual acuity restoration. According to these findings an IVTA injection might be considered a possible alternative to surgery for selected patients. In conclusion, the proposed approach appeared to be a promising tool for the investigation of tissue changes produced by pathology and/or therapy.

  2. Quantitative risks analysis of maritime terminal petrochemical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Leandro Silveira; Leal, Cesar A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica (PROMEC)]. E-mail: leandro19889900@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This work consists of the application of a computer program (RISKAN) developed for studies of quantification of industrial risks and also a revision of the models used in the program. As part the evaluation made, a test was performed with the application of the computer program to estimate the risks for a marine terminal for storage of petrochemical products, in the city of Rio Grande, Brazil. Thus, as part of the work, it was performed a Quantitative Risk Analysis associated to the terminal, both for the workers and for the population nearby, with a verification of acceptability using the tolerability limits established by the State Licensing Agency (FEPAM-RS). In the risk analysis methodology used internationally, the most used way of presenting results of social risks is in the graphical form with the use of the FN curves and for the individual risk it is common the use of the iso-risk curves traced on the map of the area where is the plant. In the beginning of the study, both a historical analysis of accidents and use of the technique of Preliminary Analysis of Risks were made in order to aid in the process of identification of the possible scenarios of accidents related to the activities in the terminal. After identifying the initiating events, their frequencies or probabilities of occurrence were estimated and followed by the calculations of the physical effects and deaths, with the use, inside the computer program, of published models of Prins Mauritz Laboratory and of American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The average social risk obtained for the external populations was of 8.7x10{sup -7} fatality.year{sup -1} and for the internal population (people working inside the terminal), 3.2x10{sup -4} fatality.year-1. The accident scenario that most contributed to the social risk was death due to exposure to the thermal radiation caused by pool fire, with 84.3% of the total estimated for external populations and 82.9% for the people inside the terminal. The

  3. The use of texture analysis in the vertebral morphometric study of a lordotic chub (Squalius cephalus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Manera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterise vertebral aspects of a lordotic chub (Squalius cephalus L. using texture analysis by radiograph and to verify possible alterations in the vertebral microarchitecture of the lordotic tract. Methods: Four vertebrae belonging to the lordotic tract were analyzed for their texture features by means of a software package (MaZda vers. 4.6 and were compared, for the same features, to other four vertebrae cranial (anterior to the lordotic vertebrae. Results: Two representative features were selected out of 259 extracted texture features by means of the convex hull selection method. In particular, (5, 5 sum of squares (according to cooccurrence matrix method and 45° short run emphasis (according to run-length matrix method were used to classify, without classification errors, two selected spinal tracts (the lordotic one and the immediately cranial one, both corresponding to the anal fin pterigiophores vertebral portion according to the following methods: linear discriminant analysis and hierarchical clustering. Conclusions: This is the first known application of texture analysis in medical imaging applied to fish species and represents a start point for further studies in aquariology and in aquaculture, where spinal deformities occur relative frequently and are cause of economic losses.

  4. Texture analysis on parametric maps derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in head and neck cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacobus FA Jansen; Yonggang Lu; Gaorav Gupta; Nancy Y Lee; Hilda E Stambuk; Yousef Mazaheri; Joseph O Deasy; Amita Shukla-Dave

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the merits of texture analysis on parametric maps derived from pharmacokinetic modeling with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(DCE-MRI) as imaging biomarkers for the prediction of treatment response in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma(HNSCC). METHODS: In this retrospective study,19 HNSCC patients underwent pre- and intra-treatment DCEMRI scans at a 1.5T MRI scanner. All patients had chemo-radiation treatment. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed on the acquired DCE-MRI images,generating maps of volume transfer rate(Ktrans) and volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space(ve). Image texture analysis was then employed on maps of Ktrans and ve,generating two texture measures: Energy(E) and homogeneity.RESULTS: No significant changes were found for the mean and standard deviation for Ktrans and ve between pre- and intra-treatment(P > 0.09). Texture analysis revealed that the imaging biomarker E of ve was significantly higher in intra-treatment scans,relative to pretreatment scans(P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Chemo-radiation treatment in HNSCC significantly reduces the heterogeneity of tumors.

  5. A procedure for the evaluation of 2D radiographic texture analysis to assess 3D bone micro-architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Lian; Peyrin, Francoise; Yot, Sophie; Basset, Olivier; Odet, Christophe; Tabary, Joachim; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Boller, Elodie; Boudousq, Vincent; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier

    2004-05-01

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regards of fracture risk, which can be efficiently assessed in vitro using three-dimensional x-ray microtomography (μCT). In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution s-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for evaluating the relationships betweeen 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters, and optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Bone sample images taken from cortical to cortical were acquired using 3D-synchrotron x-ray μCT at the ESRF. The 3D digital imagees were further used for two purposes: 1) quantification of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture, 2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. Texture analysis was then applied to these 2D radiographs using a large variety of methods (co-occurence, spectrum, fractal...). First results of the statistical analysis between 2D and 3D parameters allowed identfying the most relevant 2D texture parameters.

  6. Textured Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    security applications of scene analysis are reconnaissance, night vision, mapping and terrain classification, target detection and tracking, traffic ... stereopsis and relative motion. 5 *’"." * * m - _- , . _ . . . b -.- -, . ..,. .. . .. . ... . ..... . .... .. . Texture perception is itself a

  7. An enhanced real-time forest fire assessment algorithm based on video by using texture analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudikandhula Narasimha Rao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the human technology moved further, the risk of natural and man induced sudden damage increase exponentially. One of the most dangerous disasters is fire. In addition to its direct danger on human's lives, fire consumes forests where trees that provide humans with oxygen are destroyed. Every year, the large number of wildfires happening all over the world they burn forested lands, causing adverse ecological and social impacts. Early warning and immediate responses are the only ways to avoid such type of disasters. This work describes a naïve method is used to detect flames in forest by using a Spatio Wildfire Prediction and Monitoring System (SWPMS. Basically, the fired information retrieving from regions by using background subtraction and colour analysis. The fire behaviour is modelled by texture analysis using computer vision systems. The Central Server should receives fired regions from the volunteer's smart phone and use fired location coordinates, different angles of smart phone receives fired locations based on Google Earth API. Finally, Kalman filter estimator computes the position vector of a moving object. Antennas or Satellite systems are grasping information from fire regions then GIS will be analyzed those regions and send alert to local peoples of forest regions and NDRF team.

  8. Texture Analysis and Modified Level Set Method for Automatic Detection of Bone Boundaries in Hand Radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Anam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory joint disease characterized by a distinctive pattern of bone and joint destruction. To give an RA diagnosis, hand bone radiographs are taken and analyzed. A hand bone radiograph analysis starts with the bone boundary detection. It is however an extremely exhausting and time consuming task for radiologists. An automatic bone boundary detection in hand radiographs is thus strongly required. Garcia et al. have proposed a method for automatic bone boundary detection in hand radiographs by using an adaptive snake method, but it doesn’t work for those affected by RA. The level set method has advantages over the snake method. It however often leads to either a complete breakdown or a premature termination of the curve evolution process, resulting in unsatisfactory results. For those reasons, we propose a modified level set method for detecting bone boundaries in hand radiographs affected by RA. Texture analysis is also applied for distinguishing the hand bones and other areas. Evaluating the experiments using a particular set of hand bone radiographs, the effectiveness of the proposed method has been proved.

  9. Multi-Parametric MRI and Texture Analysis to Visualize Spatial Histologic Heterogeneity and Tumor Extent in Glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland S Hu

    Full Text Available Genetic profiling represents the future of neuro-oncology but suffers from inadequate biopsies in heterogeneous tumors like Glioblastoma (GBM. Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI targets enhancing core (ENH but yields adequate tumor in only ~60% of cases. Further, CE-MRI poorly localizes infiltrative tumor within surrounding non-enhancing parenchyma, or brain-around-tumor (BAT, despite the importance of characterizing this tumor segment, which universally recurs. In this study, we use multiple texture analysis and machine learning (ML algorithms to analyze multi-parametric MRI, and produce new images indicating tumor-rich targets in GBM.We recruited primary GBM patients undergoing image-guided biopsies and acquired pre-operative MRI: CE-MRI, Dynamic-Susceptibility-weighted-Contrast-enhanced-MRI, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Following image coregistration and region of interest placement at biopsy locations, we compared MRI metrics and regional texture with histologic diagnoses of high- vs low-tumor content (≥80% vs <80% tumor nuclei for corresponding samples. In a training set, we used three texture analysis algorithms and three ML methods to identify MRI-texture features that optimized model accuracy to distinguish tumor content. We confirmed model accuracy in a separate validation set.We collected 82 biopsies from 18 GBMs throughout ENH and BAT. The MRI-based model achieved 85% cross-validated accuracy to diagnose high- vs low-tumor in the training set (60 biopsies, 11 patients. The model achieved 81.8% accuracy in the validation set (22 biopsies, 7 patients.Multi-parametric MRI and texture analysis can help characterize and visualize GBM's spatial histologic heterogeneity to identify regional tumor-rich biopsy targets.

  10. Tribological Analysis of Ventral Scale Structure in a Python Regius in Relation to Laser Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aal, Hisham A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a Laser Textured Surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to...

  11. Statistical analysis on static recrystallization texture evolution in cold-rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Ho; Ahn, Tae-Hong; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Chung, Jung-Man; Kim, Dong-Ik; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Han, Heung Nam

    2013-08-01

    Cast AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy, comprising Mg with 3.27 wt% Al and 0.96 wt% Zn, was cold rolled and subsequently annealed. Global texture evolutions in the specimens were observed by X-ray diffractometry after the thermomechanical processing. Image-based microstructure and texture for the deformed, recrystallized, and grown grains were observed by electron backscattered diffractometry. Recrystallized grains could be distinguished from deformed ones by analyzing grain orientation spread. Split basal texture of ca. ±10-15° in the rolling direction was observed in the cold-rolled sample. Recrystallized grains had widely spread basal poles at nucleation stage; strong {0001} basal texture developed with grain growth during annealing.

  12. Estimation of Tree Size Diversity Using Object Oriented Texture Analysis and Aster Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ibrahim; Norton, David A; Ozkan, Ulas Yunus; Mert, Ahmet; Senturk, Ozdemir

    2008-08-11

    This study investigates the potential of object-based texture parameters extracted from 15m spatial resolution ASTER imagery for estimating tree size diversity in a Mediterranean forested landscape in Turkey. Tree size diversity based on tree basal area was determined using the Shannon index and Gini Coefficient at the sampling plot level. Image texture parameters were calculated based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for various image segmentation levels. Analyses of relationships between tree size diversity and texture parameters found that relationships between the Gini Coefficient and the GLCM values were the most statistically significant, with the highest correlation (r=0.69) being with GLCM Homogeneity values. In contrast, Shannon Index values were weakly correlated with image derived texture parameters. The results suggest that 15m resolution Aster imagery has considerable potential in estimating tree size diversity based on the Gini Coefficient for heterogeneous Mediterranean forests.

  13. Cell type classifiers for breast cancer microscopic images based on fractal dimension texture analysis of image color layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitaree, Sirinapa; Phinyomark, Angkoon; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Phukpattaranont, Pornchai

    2015-01-01

    Having a classifier of cell types in a breast cancer microscopic image (BCMI), obtained with immunohistochemical staining, is required as part of a computer-aided system that counts the cancer cells in such BCMI. Such quantitation by cell counting is very useful in supporting decisions and planning of the medical treatment of breast cancer. This study proposes and evaluates features based on texture analysis by fractal dimension (FD), for the classification of histological structures in a BCMI into either cancer cells or non-cancer cells. The cancer cells include positive cells (PC) and negative cells (NC), while the normal cells comprise stromal cells (SC) and lymphocyte cells (LC). The FD feature values were calculated with the box-counting method from binarized images, obtained by automatic thresholding with Otsu's method of the grayscale images for various color channels. A total of 12 color channels from four color spaces (RGB, CIE-L*a*b*, HSV, and YCbCr) were investigated, and the FD feature values from them were used with decision tree classifiers. The BCMI data consisted of 1,400, 1,200, and 800 images with pixel resolutions 128 × 128, 192 × 192, and 256 × 256, respectively. The best cross-validated classification accuracy was 93.87%, for distinguishing between cancer and non-cancer cells, obtained using the Cr color channel with window size 256. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm, based on fractal dimension features extracted from a color channel, performs well in the automatic classification of the histology in a BCMI. This might support accurate automatic cell counting in a computer-assisted system for breast cancer diagnosis.

  14. X-ray diffraction from thin films : Residual stress and texture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leoni, M.; Scardi [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    1996-09-01

    In this short contribution the attention will be drawn to the use of XRD-based non-destructive techniques for the study of the stress state and the orientation (texture) of various technologically valuable films. The cases in which the texture is important will be presented and they are: applicative examples, spacing in a wide variety of application areas and regarding growth-induced and machining-induced orientation.

  15. Improving Identification of Area Targets by Integrated Analysis of Hyperspectral Data and Extracted Texture Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Imaging Spectrometer B Blue CA California FWHM Full Width Half Max G Green GIS Geographic Information System GLCM Gray Level Co-occurrence... GLCM ). From this GLCM the quantities known as texture features are extracted. The textures studied in his landmark paper were: angular second...defines the number of surrounding pixels that are used to create the GLCM . A 3x3 window would only include the 8 pixels immediately adjacent to the

  16. Quantitative Data Analysis--In the Graduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative research study collects numerical data that must be analyzed to help draw the study's conclusions. Teaching quantitative data analysis is not teaching number crunching, but teaching a way of critical thinking for how to analyze the data. The goal of data analysis is to reveal the underlying patterns, trends, and relationships of a…

  17. The Curriculum in Quantitative Analysis: Results of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, David C.; Grossman, William E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey of college level instructors of quantitative analysis courses. Discusses what topics are taught in such courses, how much weight is given to these topics, and which experiments are used in the laboratory. Poses some basic questions about the curriculum in quantitative analysis. (TW)

  18. Analysis of Micro-texture during Secondary Recrystallization in a Hi-B Electrical Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengqi Yan; Hao Qian; Ping Yang; Weimin Mao; Qiwu Jian; Wenxu Jin

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of Goss texture in Hi-B electrical steels possesses significant industrial and academic value, thus attracts worldwide attention. The prevailing models for sharp Goss texture formation during secondary recrystallization are CSL (coincident site lattice) boundary theory and HE (high energy) boundary theory. These theories stress the key factor of preferred growth and the difference between them only lies in the specific selection manner. This work examined the texture gradient in primarily recrystallized sheet and demonstrated its possible influence on the formation of secondary grains, and then determined the micro- texture during different stages of secondary recrystallization using EI3SD (electron back-scattered diffraction) technique, finally analyzed a special type of secondary grains with near Brass orientation, which were detected in the later stage of secondary recrystallization, and discussed its origin and effect in terms of surface energy effect. The results indicate that texture gradient in primarily recrystallized sheet will lead to a multi-stage formation of Goss texture, namely, early stage of secondary grains with various orientations in subsurface region, intermediate stage of preferred growth of Goss grains into center layer and re-grow back to the surface and the final stage of Goss grain growth by swallowing slowly the island grains with the help of H2 atmosphere.

  19. Effect of View, Scan Orientation and Analysis Volume on Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS) Based Textural Analysis of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong; Oravec, Daniel; Divine, George W; Flynn, Michael J; Yeni, Yener N

    2017-05-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) derived textural parameters of human vertebral cancellous bone have been previously correlated to the finite element (FE) stiffness and 3D microstructure. The objective of this study was to optimize scanning configuration and use of multiple image slices in the analysis, so that FE stiffness prediction using DTS could be maximized. Forty vertebrae (T6, T8, T11, and L3) from ten cadavers (63-90 years) were scanned using microCT to obtain trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and FE stiffness. The vertebrae were then scanned using DTS anteroposteriorly (AP) and laterally (LM) while aligned axially (0°), transversely (90°) or obliquely (23°) to the superior-inferior axis of the vertebrae. From the serial DTS images, fractal dimension (FD), mean intercept length (MIL) and line fraction deviation (LFD) parameters were obtained from a 2D-single mid-stack location and 3D-multi-image stack. The DTS derived textural parameters were then correlated with FE stiffness using linear regression models within each scanning orientation. 3D-multi-image stack models obtained from Transverse-LM scanning orientation (90°) were most explanatory regardless of accounting for the effects of BV/TV. Therefore, DTS scanning perpendicular to the axis of the spine in an LM view is the preferred configuration for prediction of vertebral cancellous bone stiffness.

  20. Combination and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I am going to outline ways of combining qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis on five levels. On the technical level, programs for the computer-aided analysis of qualitative data offer various combinations. Where the data are concerned, the employment of categories (for instance by using qualitative content analysis allows for combining qualitative and quantitative forms of data analysis. On the individual level, the creation of types and the inductive generalisation of cases allow for proceeding from individual case material to quantitative generalisations. As for research design, different models can be distinguished (preliminary study, generalisation, elaboration, triangulation which combine qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis. Where the logic of research is concerned, it can be shown that an extended process model which combined qualitative and quantitative research can be appropriate and thus lead to an integration of the two approaches. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs010162

  1. Granularity and textural analysis as a proxy for extreme wave events in southeast coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Vijaya Lakshmi; P Srinivasan; S G N Murthy; Deshraj Trivedi; Rajesh R Nair

    2010-06-01

    Extreme wave events of 1000 and 1500 years (radiocarbon ages) have been recently reported in Mahabalipuram region, southeast coast of India. Subsequently, we carried out extensive sedimentological analysis in regions covering a total lateral coverage of 12 km with a new archeological site as the central portion of the study area. Twelve trenches in shore normal profiles exhibit landward thinning sequences as well as upward fining sequences confirming with the global signatures of extreme wave events. The sediment size ranges from fine-to-medium and moderately well sorted-to-well sorted, and exhibit positive skewness with platykurtic-to-leptokurtic nature. We now propose the abrupt winnowing or back and forth motion including unidirectional transport of these deposited sediments, which results in positive skewness. Textural analyses derived from scanning electron microscope studies (SEM) demonstrate the alteration produced, in the ilmenite mineral with vivid presence of pits and crescents with deformation observed on the surface due to extreme wave activities. This is further confirmed with the predominance of high-density mineral such as magnetite (5.2) and other heavy minerals in these deposits inferred the high-intensity of the reworking process of the beach shelf sediments.

  2. Some Epistemological Considerations Concerning Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrescu, Emilian

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's address at the 2007 "Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods" ("JAQM") prize awarding festivity. The festivity was included in the opening of the 4th International Conference on Applied Statistics, November 22, 2008, Bucharest, Romania. In the address, the author reflects on three theses that…

  3. Analysis of co-occurrence texture statistics as a function of gray-level quantization for classifying breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, W; Pereira, W C A; Infantosi, A F C

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated the behavior of 22 co-occurrence statistics combined to six gray-scale quantization levels to classify breast lesions on ultrasound (BUS) images. The database of 436 BUS images used in this investigation was formed by 217 carcinoma and 219 benign lesions images. The region delimited by a minimum bounding rectangle around the lesion was employed to calculate the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Next, 22 co-occurrence statistics were computed regarding six quantization levels (8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256), four orientations (0° , 45° , 90° , and 135°), and ten distances (1, 2,...,10 pixels). Also, to reduce feature space dimensionality, texture descriptors of the same distance were averaged over all orientations, which is a common practice in the literature. Thereafter, the feature space was ranked using mutual information technique with minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance (mRMR) criterion. Fisher linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) was applied to assess the discrimination power of texture features, by adding the first m-ranked features to the classification procedure iteratively until all of them were considered. The area under ROC curve (AUC) was used as figure of merit to measure the performance of the classifier. It was observed that averaging texture descriptors of a same distance impacts negatively the classification performance, since the best AUC of 0.81 was achieved with 32 gray levels and 109 features. On the other hand, regarding the single texture features (i.e., without averaging procedure), the quantization level does not impact the discrimination power, since AUC = 0.87 was obtained for the six quantization levels. Moreover, the number of features was reduced (between 17 and 24 features). The texture descriptors that contributed notably to distinguish breast lesions were contrast and correlation computed from GLCMs with orientation of 90° and distance more than five pixels.

  4. Texture analysis of liver fibrosis microscopic images: a study on the effect of biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr Amin; Doaa Mahmoud-Ghoneim

    2011-01-01

    Chronic hepatic injury results in liver fibrosis with eventual progression to irreversible cirrhosis. Liver fibrogenesis involves the activation of the quiescent hepatic stellate cell into an activated myofibroblast that is characterized by α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and the production of collagens (types Ⅰ and Ⅲ). In the present study,rats were randomly divided into three groups: (i) control group, where rats were only treated with a vehicle; (ii) fibrosis group, where rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis; and (iii) silymarin group,where rats were protected with silymarin during CCl4 treatment. Rats were sacrificed and sections of liver tissue were counterstained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Other sections were immunostained using collagens and α-SMA primary antibodies. Fibrosis was confirmed using serum marker measurements. Microscopic images of the stained sections were acquired and digitized.The Biomarker Index of Fibrosis (BIF) was calculated from the images by quantifying the percentage of stained fibers.Statistical methods of texture analysis (TA), namely cooccurrence and run-length matrices, were applied on the digital images followed by classification using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and linear discriminant analysis with cross validation. TA applied on different biomarkers was successful in discriminating between the groups,showing 100% sensitivity and specificity for classification between the control and fibrosis groups using any biomarker. Some classification attempts showed dependence on the biomarker used, especially for classification between the silymarin and fibrosis groups, which showed optimal results using Masson's trichrome. TA results were consistent with both BIF and serum marker measurements.

  5. The precision of textural analysis in {sup 18}F-FDG-PET scans of oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumou, Georgia; Siddique, Musib [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Tsoumpas, Charalampos [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); University of Leeds, The Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Goh, Vicky [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, The PET Centre, London (United Kingdom); University of Leeds, The Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Clinical PET Centre, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Kings College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Measuring tumour heterogeneity by textural analysis in {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) provides predictive and prognostic information but technical aspects of image processing can influence parameter measurements. We therefore tested effects of image smoothing, segmentation and quantisation on the precision of heterogeneity measurements. Sixty-four {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images of oesophageal cancer were processed using different Gaussian smoothing levels (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 mm), maximum standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}) segmentation thresholds (45 %, 50 %, 55 %, 60 %) and quantisation (8, 16, 32, 64, 128 bin widths). Heterogeneity parameters included grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), grey-level run length matrix (GLRL), neighbourhood grey-tone difference matrix (NGTDM), grey-level size zone matrix (GLSZM) and fractal analysis methods. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for the three processing variables was calculated for each heterogeneity parameter. Most parameters showed poor agreement between different bin widths (CCC median 0.08, range 0.004-0.99). Segmentation and smoothing showed smaller effects on precision (segmentation: CCC median 0.82, range 0.33-0.97; smoothing: CCC median 0.99, range 0.58-0.99). Smoothing and segmentation have only a small effect on the precision of heterogeneity measurements in {sup 18}F-FDG PET data. However, quantisation often has larger effects, highlighting a need for further evaluation and standardisation of parameters for multicentre studies. (orig.)

  6. An explorative childhood pneumonia analysis based on ultrasonic imaging texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, Omar; Diaz, Kristians; Lavarello, Roberto; Zimic, Mirko; Correa, Malena; Mayta, Holger; Anticona, Cynthia; Pajuelo, Monica; Oberhelman, Richard; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Figueroa, Dante; Castañeda, Benjamín.

    2015-12-01

    According to World Health Organization, pneumonia is the respiratory disease with the highest pediatric mortality rate accounting for 15% of all deaths of children under 5 years old worldwide. The diagnosis of pneumonia is commonly made by clinical criteria with support from ancillary studies and also laboratory findings. Chest imaging is commonly done with chest X-rays and occasionally with a chest CT scan. Lung ultrasound is a promising alternative for chest imaging; however, interpretation is subjective and requires adequate training. In the present work, a two-class classification algorithm based on four Gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture features (i.e., Contrast, Correlation, Energy and Homogeneity) extracted from lung ultrasound images from children aged between six months and five years is presented. Ultrasound data was collected using a L14-5/38 linear transducer. The data consisted of 22 positive- and 68 negative-diagnosed B-mode cine-loops selected by a medical expert and captured in the facilities of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño (Lima, Peru), for a total number of 90 videos obtained from twelve children diagnosed with pneumonia. The classification capacity of each feature was explored independently and the optimal threshold was selected by a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. In addition, a principal component analysis was performed to evaluate the combined performance of all the features. Contrast and correlation resulted the two more significant features. The classification performance of these two features by principal components was evaluated. The results revealed 82% sensitivity, 76% specificity, 78% accuracy and 0.85 area under the ROC.

  7. Automatic detection of cortical and PSC cataracts using texture and intensity analysis on retro-illumination lens images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yew Chung; Gao, Xinting; Li, Huiqi; Lim, Joo Hwee; Sun, Ying; Wong, Tien Yin

    2011-01-01

    Cataract remains a leading cause for blindness worldwide. Cataract diagnosis via human grading is subjective and time-consuming. Several methods of automatic grading are currently available, but each of them suffers from some drawbacks. In this paper, a new approach for automatic detection based on texture and intensity analysis is proposed to address the problems of existing methods and improve the performance from three aspects, namely ROI detection, lens mask generation and opacity detection. In the detection method, image clipping and texture analysis are applied to overcome the over-detection problem for clear lens images and global thresholding is exploited to solve the under-detection problem for severe cataract images. The proposed method is tested on 725 retro-illumination lens images randomly selected from a database of a community study. Experiments show improved performance compared with the state-of-the-art method.

  8. Simple technique for texture function analysis in granular thin film media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hilo, M., E-mail: mhilo@rocketmail.co [Physics Department, University of Bahrain, P.O. 32038, Sakhir (Bahrain); Al Saie, J. [Physics Department, University of Bahrain, P.O. 32038, Sakhir (Bahrain); Morales, M.P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC. Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Pita, M. [Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences Department, Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Box 5810, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In this work a simple technique to extract the texture function in granular thin film media is implemented. The technique is based on previous work in which the distribution function of particles easy axes f(alpha) is calculated from the measured parallel remanence curve (M{sub rp}(beta)). In this simple technique we consider that the measured M{sub rp}(beta) curve can be fitted to a series of cos(2beta), i.e. M{sub rp}(beta)=B{sub 0}+B{sub 2} cos(2beta)+B{sub 4} cos(4beta) where the angle beta is the angle by which the film is rotated. This approximation is found to be valid when the texture function has a standard deviation >20 deg. On this basis, the constants B{sub 0}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 4} can be determined by using only three data points for the parallel remanence, M{sub rp}(0), M{sub rp}(45 deg.) and M{sub rp}(90 deg.). The new technique is applied to a textured thin film consisting of cobalt ferrite particles 17 nm in diameter and to a commercial Sony video tape. Using this simple technique, the obtained texture functions are found to be similar to those obtained from the full M{sub rp}(beta) curves. This new technique will furnish a simple method with which the texture function in 2D systems can be obtained.

  9. Application of image texture analysis for online determination of curd moisture and whey solids in a laboratory-scale stirred cheese vat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, C C; Du, C J; O'Donnell, C P; Castillo, M; Everard, C D; O'Callaghan, D J; Payne, F A

    2008-08-01

    A noninvasive technology, which could be employed online to monitor syneresis, would facilitate the production of higher quality and more consistent cheese products. Computer vision techniques such as image texture analysis have been successfully established as rapid, consistent, and nondestructive tools for determining the quality of food products. In this study, the potential of image texture analysis to monitor syneresis of cheese curd in a stirred vat was studied. A fully randomized 2-factor (milk pH and stirring speed), 2-level factorial design was carried out in triplicate. During syneresis, images of the surface of the stirred curd-whey mixture were captured using a computer vision system. The images were subjected to 5 image texture analysis methods by which 109 image texture features were extracted. Significant correlations were observed between a number of image texture features and curd moisture and whey solids. Multiscale analysis techniques of fractal dimension and wavelet transform were demonstrated to be the most useful for predicting syneresis indices. Fractal dimension features predicted curd moisture and whey solids during syneresis with standard errors of prediction of 1.03% (w/w) and 0.58 g/kg, respectively. It was concluded that syneresis indices were most closely related to the image texture features of multiscale representation. The results of this study indicate that image texture analysis has potential for monitoring syneresis.

  10. An easy to use ArcMap based texture analysis program for extraction of flooded areas from TerraSAR-X satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Hagemann, Ulrike; Shafapour Tehrany, Mahyat; Prechtel, Nikolas

    2014-02-01

    Extraction of the flooded areas from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and especially TerraSAR-X data is one of the most challenging tasks in the flood management and planning. SAR data due to its high spatial resolution and its capability of all weather conditions makes a proper choice for tropical countries. Texture is considered as an effective factor in distinguishing the classes especially in SAR imagery which records the backscatters that carry information of kind, direction, heterogeneity and relationship of the features. This paper put forward a computer program for texture analysis for high resolution radar data. Texture analysis program is introduced and discussed using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). To demonstrate the ability and correctness of this program, a test subset of TerraSAR-X imagery from Terengganu area, Malaysia was analyzed and pixel-based and object-based classification were attempted. The thematic maps derived by pixel-based method could not achieve acceptable visual interpretation and for that reason no accuracy assessment was performed on them. The overall accuracy achieved by object-based method was 83.63% with kappa coefficient of 0.8. Results on image texture classification showed that the proposed program is capable for texture analysis in TerraSAR-X image and the obtained textural analysis resulted in high classification accuracy. The proposed texture analysis program can be used in many applications such as land use/cover (LULC) mapping, hazard studies and many other applications.

  11. Texture analysis of cold rolled and annealed aluminum alloy produced by twin-roll casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Paula Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A 7.4 mm thick strip of 3003 aluminum alloy produced by the industrial twin-roll casting (TRC process was homogenized at 500 °C for 12 hours, after which it was cold rolled in two conditions: 1 to reduce the strip's thickness by 67%, and 2 to reduce it by 91%. The alloy was annealed at 400 °C for 1 hour in both conditions. The results revealed that a rotated cube texture, the {001} component, predominated in the as-cast condition and was transformed into brass, copper and S type textures during the cold rolling process. There was practically no difference between the deformation textures at the two thickness reductions.

  12. An automated classification system for the differentiation of obstructive lung diseases based on the textural analysis of HRCT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Nam Kug; Lee, Young Kyung; Kim, Song Soo; Chae, Eun Jin [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June Goo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    To develop an automated classification system for the differentiation of obstructive lung diseases based on the textural analysis of HRCT images, and to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of the system. For textural analysis, histogram features, gradient features, run length encoding, and a co-occurrence matrix were employed. A Bayesian classifier was used for automated classification. The images (image number n = 256) were selected from the HRCT images obtained from 17 healthy subjects (n = 67), 26 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans (n = 70), 28 patients with mild centrilobular emphysema (n = 65), and 21 patients with panlobular emphysema or severe centrilobular emphysema (n = 63). An five-fold cross-validation method was used to assess the performance of the system. Class-specific sensitivities were analyzed and the overall accuracy of the system was assessed with kappa statistics. The sensitivity of the system for each class was as follows: normal lung 84.9%, bronchiolitis obliterans 83.8%, mild centrilobular emphysema 77.0%, and panlobular emphysema or severe centrilobular emphysema 95.8%. The overall performance for differentiating each disease and the normal lung was satisfactory with a kappa value of 0.779. An automated classification system for the differentiation between obstructive lung diseases based on the textural analysis of HRCT images was developed. The proposed system discriminates well between the various obstructive lung diseases and the normal lung.

  13. Near-affine-invariant texture learning for lung tissue analysis using isotropic wavelet frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Platon, Alexandra; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning

    2012-07-01

    We propose near-affine-invariant texture descriptors derived from isotropic wavelet frames for the characterization of lung tissue patterns in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging. Affine invariance is desirable to enable learning of nondeterministic textures without a priori localizations, orientations, or sizes. When combined with complementary gray-level histograms, the proposed method allows a global classification accuracy of 76.9% with balanced precision among five classes of lung tissue using a leave-one-patient-out cross validation, in accordance with clinical practice.

  14. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjanomennahary, P; Ghalila, S Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A; Rachidi, M; Benhamou, Cl; Chappard, C

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (Dapp) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV(Arch)) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 microm of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV(Arch). Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  15. GGO nodule volume-preserving nonrigid lung registration using GLCM texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjin; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Jeongjin; Goo, Jin Mo; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2011-10-01

    In lung cancer screening, benign and malignant nodules can be classified through nodule growth assessment by the registration and, then, subtraction between follow-up computed tomography scans. During the registration, the volume of nodule regions in the floating image should be preserved, whereas the volume of other regions in the floating image should be aligned to that in the reference image. However, ground glass opacity (GGO) nodules are very elusive to automatically segment due to their inhomogeneous interior. In other words, it is difficult to automatically define the volume-preserving regions of GGO nodules. In this paper, we propose an accurate and fast nonrigid registration method. It applies the volume-preserving constraint to candidate regions of GGO nodules, which are automatically detected by gray-level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) texture analysis. Considering that GGO nodules can be characterized by their inner inhomogeneity and high intensity, we identify the candidate regions of GGO nodules based on the homogeneity values calculated by the GLCM and the intensity values. Furthermore, we accelerate our nonrigid registration by using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). In the nonrigid registration process, the computationally expensive procedures of the floating-image transformation and the cost-function calculation are accelerated by using CUDA. The experimental results demonstrated that our method almost perfectly preserves the volume of GGO nodules in the floating image as well as effectively aligns the lung between the reference and floating images. Regarding the computational performance, our CUDA-based method delivers about 20× faster registration than the conventional method. Our method can be successfully applied to a GGO nodule follow-up study and can be extended to the volume-preserving registration and subtraction of specific diseases in other organs (e.g., liver cancer).

  16. Structural and quantitative analysis of Equisetum alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Luise; Ernst, Ludger; Lubienski, Marcus; Papke, Uli; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Jerz, Gerold; Beuerle, Till

    2015-08-01

    Equisetum palustre L. is known for its toxicity for livestock. Several studies in the past addressed the isolation and identification of the responsible alkaloids. So far, palustrine (1) and N(5)-formylpalustrine (2) are known alkaloids of E. palustre. A HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method in combination with simple sample work-up was developed to identify and quantitate Equisetum alkaloids. Besides the two known alkaloids six related alkaloids were detected in different Equisetum samples. The structure of the alkaloid palustridiene (3) was derived by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. N(5)-Acetylpalustrine (4) was also thoroughly characterized by NMR for the first time. The structure of N(5)-formylpalustridiene (5) is proposed based on mass spectrometry results. Twenty-two E. palustre samples were screened by a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method after development of a simple sample work-up and in most cases the set of all eight alkaloids were detected in all parts of the plant. A high variability of the alkaloid content and distribution was found depending on plant organ, plant origin and season ranging from 88 to 597mg/kg dried weight. However, palustrine (1) and the alkaloid palustridiene (3) always represented the main alkaloids. For the first time, a comprehensive identification, quantitation and distribution of Equisetum alkaloids was achieved.

  17. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis Short Course. Introduction to X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Paul; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This course will cover practical applications of the energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to x-ray microanalysis. Topics covered will include detector technology, advances in pulse processing, resolution and performance monitoring, detector modeling, peak deconvolution and fitting, qualitative and quantitative analysis, compositional mapping, and standards. An emphasis will be placed on use of the EDS for quantitative analysis, with discussion of typical problems encountered in the analysis of a wide range of materials and sample geometries.

  18. A novel method of estimating dose responses for polymer gels using texture analysis of scanning electron microscopy images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ting Shih

    Full Text Available Polymer gels are regarded as a potential dosimeter for independent validation of absorbed doses in clinical radiotherapy. Several imaging modalities have been used to convert radiation-induced polymerization to absorbed doses from a macro-scale viewpoint. This study developed a novel dose conversion mechanism by texture analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. The modified N-isopropyl-acrylamide (NIPAM gels were prepared under normoxic conditions, and were administered radiation doses from 5 to 20 Gy. After freeze drying, the gel samples were sliced for SEM scanning with 50×, 500×, and 3500× magnifications. Four texture indices were calculated based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM. The results showed that entropy and homogeneity were more suitable than contrast and energy as dose indices for higher linearity and sensitivity of the dose response curves. After parameter optimization, an R (2 value of 0.993 can be achieved for homogeneity using 500× magnified SEM images with 27 pixel offsets and no outlier exclusion. For dose verification, the percentage errors between the prescribed dose and the measured dose for 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy were -7.60%, 5.80%, 2.53%, and -0.95%, respectively. We conclude that texture analysis can be applied to the SEM images of gel dosimeters to accurately convert micro-scale structural features to absorbed doses. The proposed method may extend the feasibility of applying gel dosimeters in the fields of diagnostic radiology and radiation protection.

  19. A novel method of estimating dose responses for polymer gels using texture analysis of scanning electron microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheng-Ting; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Han, Rou-Ping; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung; Chang, Shu-Jun; Wu, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Polymer gels are regarded as a potential dosimeter for independent validation of absorbed doses in clinical radiotherapy. Several imaging modalities have been used to convert radiation-induced polymerization to absorbed doses from a macro-scale viewpoint. This study developed a novel dose conversion mechanism by texture analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The modified N-isopropyl-acrylamide (NIPAM) gels were prepared under normoxic conditions, and were administered radiation doses from 5 to 20 Gy. After freeze drying, the gel samples were sliced for SEM scanning with 50×, 500×, and 3500× magnifications. Four texture indices were calculated based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The results showed that entropy and homogeneity were more suitable than contrast and energy as dose indices for higher linearity and sensitivity of the dose response curves. After parameter optimization, an R (2) value of 0.993 can be achieved for homogeneity using 500× magnified SEM images with 27 pixel offsets and no outlier exclusion. For dose verification, the percentage errors between the prescribed dose and the measured dose for 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy were -7.60%, 5.80%, 2.53%, and -0.95%, respectively. We conclude that texture analysis can be applied to the SEM images of gel dosimeters to accurately convert micro-scale structural features to absorbed doses. The proposed method may extend the feasibility of applying gel dosimeters in the fields of diagnostic radiology and radiation protection.

  20. Decision Tree and Texture Analysis for Mapping Debris-Covered Glaciers in the Kangchenjunga Area, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Racoviteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use visible, short-wave infrared and thermal Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data validated with high-resolution Quickbird (QB and Worldview2 (WV2 for mapping debris cover in the eastern Himalaya using two independent approaches: (a a decision tree algorithm, and (b texture analysis. The decision tree algorithm was based on multi-spectral and topographic variables, such as band ratios, surface reflectance, kinetic temperature from ASTER bands 10 and 12, slope angle, and elevation. The decision tree algorithm resulted in 64 km2 classified as debris-covered ice, which represents 11% of the glacierized area. Overall, for ten glacier tongues in the Kangchenjunga area, there was an area difference of 16.2 km2 (25% between the ASTER and the QB areas, with mapping errors mainly due to clouds and shadows. Texture analysis techniques included co-occurrence measures, geostatistics and filtering in spatial/frequency domain. Debris cover had the highest variance of all terrain classes, highest entropy and lowest homogeneity compared to the other classes, for example a mean variance of 15.27 compared to 0 for clouds and 0.06 for clean ice. Results of the texture image for debris-covered areas were comparable with those from the decision tree algorithm, with 8% area difference between the two techniques.

  1. Reliability of texture analysis using co-occurrence matrices (glcm) on photographic image in the assessment of cellulite in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Casa Almeida, M; Suárez Serrano, C; Jiménez Rejano, J J; Ríos Díaz, J; Benitez Lugo, M L; Rebollo Roldán, J R

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of diverse instruments to assess cellulite, its high prevalence and the continuous advances in its treatment makes the development of new, more objective methods for evaluation necessary. To study intraobserver validity and reliability (test-retest) of textural analysis using co-occurrence matrices on photographic images in the evaluation of cellulite in a Spanish population and its possible relationship to the degree of cellulite. Twenty-seven women were selected for this reliability study (mean age 26.41 SD = 6.16). Digital photographs were taken under standardized conditions in contraction and relaxation of the femoral gluteus region. The areas of interest of the photographs were selected at two different times a month apart. Textural parameters studied were energy (ASM), entropy, contrast, Homogeneity (IDM) and textural correlation. Reliability was analysed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Differences between laterality and between contraction and relaxation were performed by analysis of variance for repeated measurements. Correlation between Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS) and the textural parameters by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient was studied. CSS was re-coded to a binary variable, performing a differentiate analysis for each laterality with this variable and the textural parameters. In the intraobserver reliability analysis ICC was high (≥0.80) in seven parameters and excellent (≥0.90) in 35 parameters. In general, CSS and textural parameters showed more cellulite severity in right areas than in left ones. Correlation coefficients showed a moderate correlation between textural parameters and CSS score. The multivariate discriminant model obtained with textural parameters classified a high percentage of images (96% right side and 82% left side). Textural analysis used to assess cellulite on the backs of thighs and buttocks proved to be an instrument that has excellent reliability, moderate correlation

  2. Measurement and analysis of field-induced crystallographic texture using curved position-sensitive diffraction detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Hugh; Daniels, John E.; Studer, Andrew J.;

    2014-01-01

    employing a curved positive sensitive detector. Methodologies are proposed to account for the geometrical effects when vector fields are applied to textured materials with angularly dispersive detector geometries. Representative results are presented for the ferroelectric (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (BNT-6BT...

  3. Target Region Location Based on Texture Analysis and Active Contour Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoxuan; BAI Zhuofu; WU Jiapeng; CHEN Yang

    2009-01-01

    Traditional texture region location methods with Gabor features are often limited in the selection of Gabor filters and fail to deal with the target which contains both texture and non-texture parts.Thus,to solve this problem,a two-step new model was proposed.In the first step,the original features extracted by Gabor filters are applied to training a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and a novel merging scheme is presented to achieve the clustering.A back propagation (BP) network is used as a classifier to locate the target region approximately.In the second step,Chan-Vese active contour model is applied to detecting the boundary of the target region accurately and morphological processing is used to create a connected domain whose convex hull can cover the target region.In the experiments,the proposed method is demonstrated accurate and robust in localizing target on texture database and practical barcode location system as well.

  4. China ASON Network Migration Scenarios and Their Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soichiro; Araki; Itaru; Nishioka; Yoshihiko; Suemura

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes two migration scenarios from China ring networks to ASON mesh networks. In our quantitative analysis with ASON/GMPLS simulator, a subnetwork protection scheme achieved best balanced performance in resource utilization and restoration time.

  5. China ASON Network Migration Scenarios and Their Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoying Zhang; Soichiro Araki; Itaru Nishioka; Yoshihiko Suemura

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes two migration scenarios from China rin g networks to ASON mesh networks . In our quantitative analysis with ASON/GMPLS simulator, a subnetwork protection scheme achieved best balanced performance in resource utilization and restoration time.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of sterols/sterolins and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Quantitative and qualitative analysis of sterols/sterolins ... method was developed to identify and quantify sterols (especially β-sitosterol) in chloroform extracts of ... Studies with phytosterols, especially β-sitosterol, have.

  7. Automated retrieval of forest structure variables based on multi-scale texture analysis of VHR satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguet, Benoit; Guyon, Dominique; Boukir, Samia; Chehata, Nesrine

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study is to design a method to describe the structure of forest stands from Very High Resolution satellite imagery, relying on some typical variables such as crown diameter, tree height, trunk diameter, tree density and tree spacing. The emphasis is placed on the automatization of the process of identification of the most relevant image features for the forest structure retrieval task, exploiting both spectral and spatial information. Our approach is based on linear regressions between the forest structure variables to be estimated and various spectral and Haralick's texture features. The main drawback of this well-known texture representation is the underlying parameters which are extremely difficult to set due to the spatial complexity of the forest structure. To tackle this major issue, an automated feature selection process is proposed which is based on statistical modeling, exploring a wide range of parameter values. It provides texture measures of diverse spatial parameters hence implicitly inducing a multi-scale texture analysis. A new feature selection technique, we called Random PRiF, is proposed. It relies on random sampling in feature space, carefully addresses the multicollinearity issue in multiple-linear regression while ensuring accurate prediction of forest variables. Our automated forest variable estimation scheme was tested on Quickbird and Pléiades panchromatic and multispectral images, acquired at different periods on the maritime pine stands of two sites in South-Western France. It outperforms two well-established variable subset selection techniques. It has been successfully applied to identify the best texture features in modeling the five considered forest structure variables. The RMSE of all predicted forest variables is improved by combining multispectral and panchromatic texture features, with various parameterizations, highlighting the potential of a multi-resolution approach for retrieving forest structure

  8. Quantitative Models and Analysis for Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus

    phones and websites. Acknowledging that now more than ever, systems come in contact with the physical world, we need to revise the way we construct models and verification algorithms, to take into account the behavior of systems in the presence of approximate, or quantitative information, provided...... by the environment in which they are embedded. This thesis studies the semantics and properties of a model-based framework for re- active systems, in which models and specifications are assumed to contain quantifiable information, such as references to time or energy. Our goal is to develop a theory of approximation......, by studying how small changes to our models affect the verification results. A key source of motivation for this work can be found in The Embedded Systems Design Challenge [HS06] posed by Thomas A. Henzinger and Joseph Sifakis. It contains a call for advances in the state-of-the-art of systems verification...

  9. Quantitative Models and Analysis for Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus

    phones and websites. Acknowledging that now more than ever, systems come in contact with the physical world, we need to revise the way we construct models and verification algorithms, to take into account the behavior of systems in the presence of approximate, or quantitative information, provided......, allowing verification procedures to quantify judgements, on how suitable a model is for a given specification — hence mitigating the usual harsh distinction between satisfactory and non-satisfactory system designs. This information, among other things, allows us to evaluate the robustness of our framework......, by studying how small changes to our models affect the verification results. A key source of motivation for this work can be found in The Embedded Systems Design Challenge [HS06] posed by Thomas A. Henzinger and Joseph Sifakis. It contains a call for advances in the state-of-the-art of systems verification...

  10. Towards a quantitative OCT image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Garcia Garrido

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection and follow-up of retinal pathology in patients and experimental disease models. However, as morphological structures and layering in health as well as their alterations in disease are complex, segmentation procedures have not yet reached a satisfactory level of performance. Therefore, raw images and qualitative data are commonly used in clinical and scientific reports. Here, we assess the value of OCT reflectivity profiles as a basis for a quantitative characterization of the retinal status in a cross-species comparative study.Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT, confocal Scanning-Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO, and Fluorescein Angiography (FA were performed in mice (Mus musculus, gerbils (Gerbillus perpadillus, and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis using the Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system, and additional SLOs and FAs were obtained with the HRA I (same manufacturer. Reflectivity profiles were extracted from 8-bit greyscale OCT images using the ImageJ software package (http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/.Reflectivity profiles obtained from OCT scans of all three animal species correlated well with ex vivo histomorphometric data. Each of the retinal layers showed a typical pattern that varied in relative size and degree of reflectivity across species. In general, plexiform layers showed a higher level of reflectivity than nuclear layers. A comparison of reflectivity profiles from specialized retinal regions (e.g. visual streak in gerbils, fovea in non-human primates with respective regions of human retina revealed multiple similarities. In a model of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, the value of reflectivity profiles for the follow-up of therapeutic interventions was demonstrated.OCT reflectivity profiles provide a detailed, quantitative description of retinal layers and structures including specialized retinal regions. Our results highlight the

  11. Quantitative data analysis in education a critical introduction using SPSS

    CERN Document Server

    Connolly, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a refreshing and user-friendly guide to quantitative data analysis in education for students and researchers. It assumes absolutely no prior knowledge of quantitative methods or statistics. Beginning with the very basics, it provides the reader with the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to undertake routine quantitative data analysis to a level expected of published research. Rather than focusing on teaching statistics through mathematical formulae, the book places an emphasis on using SPSS to gain a real feel for the data and an intuitive grasp of t

  12. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-11-29

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF.

  13. Arrested development - a comparative analysis of multilayer corona textures in high-grade metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Paula; Gibson, Roger L.

    2017-02-01

    -limiting reaction mechanisms and their petrogenetic signatures in increasingly complex, higher-variance systems has facilitated the refinement of chemical fractionation and partial equilibration diffusion models necessary to more fully understand corona development. Through the application of quantitative physical diffusion models of coronas coupled with phase equilibria modelling utilizing calculated chemical potential gradients, it is possible to model the evolution of a corona through P-T-X-t space by continuous, steady-state and/or sequential, episodic reaction mechanisms. Most coronas in granulites form through a combination of these endmember reaction mechanisms, each characterized by distinct textural and chemical potential signatures with very different petrogenetic implications. An understanding of the inherent petrogenetic limitations of a reaction mechanism model is critical if an appropriate interpretation of P-T evolution is to be inferred from a corona. Since corona modelling employing calculated chemical potential gradients assumes nothing about the sequence in which the layers form and is directly constrained by phase compositional variation within a layer, it allows far more nuanced and robust understanding of corona evolution and its implications for the path of a rock in P-T-X space.

  14. Texture-based analysis of 100 MR examinations of head and neck tumors. Is it possible to discriminate between benign and malignant masses in a multicenter trial?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruehwald-Pallamar, J.; Czerny, C. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Subdiv. of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology; Hesselink, J.R.; Mafee, M.F. [UCSD Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Holzer-Fruehwald, L.; Mayerhoefer, M.E. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate whether texture-based analysis of standard MRI sequences can help in the discrimination between benign and malignant head and neck tumors. The MR images of 100 patients with a histologically clarified head or neck mass, from two different institutions, were analyzed. Texture-based analysis was performed using texture analysis software, with region of interest measurements for 2D and 3D evaluation independently for all axial sequences. COC, RUN, GRA, ARM, and WAV features were calculated for all ROIs. 10 texture feature subsets were used for a linear discriminant analysis, in combination with k-nearest-neighbor classification. Benign and malignant tumors were compared with regard to texture-based values. There were differences in the images from different field-strength scanners, as well as from different vendors. For the differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, we found differences on STIR and T2-weighted images for 2D, and on contrast-enhanced T1-TSE with fat saturation for 3D evaluation. In a separate analysis of the subgroups 1.5 and 3 Tesla, more discriminating features were found. Texture-based analysis is a useful tool in the discrimination of benign and malignant tumors when performed on one scanner with the same protocol. We cannot recommend this technique for the use of multicenter studies with clinical data.

  15. Effects of Flavor and Texture on the Sensory Perception of Gouda-Type Cheese Varieties during Ripening Using Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Makoto; Iwasawa, Ai; Suzuki-Iwashima, Ai; Iida, Fumiko

    2015-12-01

    The impact of flavor composition, texture, and other factors on desirability of different commercial sources of Gouda-type cheese using multivariate analyses on the basis of sensory and instrumental analyses were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were measured using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and steam distillation extraction (SDE)-GC/MS, and fatty acid composition, low-molecular-weight compounds, including amino acids, and organic acids, as well pH, texture, and color were measured to determine their relationship with sensory perception. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed to discriminate between 2 different ripening periods in 7 sample sets, revealing that ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid increased with increasing sensory attribute scores for sweetness, fruity, and sulfurous. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was constructed to predict the desirability of cheese using these parameters. We showed that texture and buttery flavors are important factors affecting the desirability of Gouda-type cheeses for Japanese consumers using these multivariate analyses.

  16. Skin cancer texture analysis of OCT images based on Haralick, fractal dimension and the complex directional field features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupov, Dmitry S.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Khramov, Alexander G.

    2016-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is usually employed for the measurement of tumor topology, which reflects structural changes of a tissue. We investigated the possibility of OCT in detecting changes using a computer texture analysis method based on Haralick texture features, fractal dimension and the complex directional field method from different tissues. These features were used to identify special spatial characteristics, which differ healthy tissue from various skin cancers in cross-section OCT images (B-scans). Speckle reduction is an important pre-processing stage for OCT image processing. In this paper, an interval type-II fuzzy anisotropic diffusion algorithm for speckle noise reduction in OCT images was used. The Haralick texture feature set includes contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity evaluated in different directions. A box-counting method is applied to compute fractal dimension of investigated tissues. Additionally, we used the complex directional field calculated by the local gradient methodology to increase of the assessment quality of the diagnosis method. The complex directional field (as well as the "classical" directional field) can help describe an image as set of directions. Considering to a fact that malignant tissue grows anisotropically, some principal grooves may be observed on dermoscopic images, which mean possible existence of principal directions on OCT images. Our results suggest that described texture features may provide useful information to differentiate pathological from healthy patients. The problem of recognition melanoma from nevi is decided in this work due to the big quantity of experimental data (143 OCT-images include tumors as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Malignant Melanoma (MM) and Nevi). We have sensitivity about 90% and specificity about 85%. Further research is warranted to determine how this approach may be used to select the regions of interest automatically.

  17. Multiple quantitative trait analysis using bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutari, Marco; Howell, Phil; Balding, David J; Mackay, Ian

    2014-09-01

    Models for genome-wide prediction and association studies usually target a single phenotypic trait. However, in animal and plant genetics it is common to record information on multiple phenotypes for each individual that will be genotyped. Modeling traits individually disregards the fact that they are most likely associated due to pleiotropy and shared biological basis, thus providing only a partial, confounded view of genetic effects and phenotypic interactions. In this article we use data from a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) winter wheat population to explore Bayesian networks as a convenient and interpretable framework for the simultaneous modeling of multiple quantitative traits. We show that they are equivalent to multivariate genetic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and that they are competitive with single-trait elastic net and single-trait GBLUP in predictive performance. Finally, we discuss their relationship with other additive-effects models and their advantages in inference and interpretation. MAGIC populations provide an ideal setting for this kind of investigation because the very low population structure and large sample size result in predictive models with good power and limited confounding due to relatedness.

  18. Surface characteristics of debris-covered glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya derived from remote sensing texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, Adina; Arnaud, Yves; Nicholson, Lindsay

    2013-04-01

    The delineation of debris-covered glaciers remains a challenge in optical remote sensing, due to the similarity of the spectral signature of debris-covered ice to surrounding lateral moraines, making it difficult to apply standard semi-automated algorithms commonly used for clean ice delineation. Furthermore, supraglacial debris exhibits considerable spatial variability in its characteristics such as debris cover thickness, particle size, thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. These properties are needed in order to map the extent of debris cover and to estimate ice melt under the debris cover or at the surface. In this study we evaluate the potential of texture analysis for detecting surface characteristics of debris-cover glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and high-resolution Ikonos data. We focus on mapping supra-glacier lakes and exposed ice walls using texture analysis algorithms such as grey-level co-occurrence measures (GLCM), filtering, image segmentation, and particle boundaries. We compare the performance of various existing commercial software suitable for texture analysis such as ERDAS Objective, Aphelion, as well as public domain image display and analysis software used originally for medical analysis, notably Image SXM and ImageJ. Preliminary results based on geostatistics and GLCM measures show differences in surface roughness of debris cover when compared to surrounding ice-free moraines. We expand on these results and aim at developing a quasi-automated algorithm for extracting surface features, which will be used as input in an energy balance model for estimating melting under debris cover as well as surface ice melt.

  19. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  20. Texture analysis of clinical radiographs using radon transform on a local scale for differentiation between post-menopausal women with and without hip fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Körner, Markus; Baumert, Bernhard; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Reiser, Maximilian

    2011-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic condition characterized by demineralization and destruction of bone tissue. Fractures associated with the disease are becoming an increasingly relevant issue for public health institutions. Prediction of fracture risk is a major focus research and, over the years, has been approched by various methods. Still, bone mineral density (BMD) obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) remains the clinical gold-standard for diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis. However, DXA is restricted to specialized diagnostic centers and there exists considerable overlap in BMD results between populations of individuals with and without fractures. Clinically far more available than DXA is conventional x-ray imaging depicting trabecular bone structure in great detail. In this paper, we demonstrate that bone structure depicted by clinical radiographs can be analysed quantitatively by parameters obtained from the Radon Transform (RT). RT is a global analysis-tool for detection of predefined, parameterized patterns, e.g. straight lines or struts, representing suitable approximations of trabecular bone texture. The proposed algorithm differentiates between patients with and without fractures of the hip by application of various texture-metrics based on the Radon-Transform to standard x-ray images of the proximal femur. We consider three different regions-of-interest in the proximal femur (femoral head, neck, and inter-trochanteric area), and conduct an analysis with respect to correct classification of the fracture status. Performance of the novel approach is compared to DXA. We draw the conclusion that performance of RT is comparable to DXA and may become a useful supplement to densitometry for the prediction of fracture risk.

  1. Principal Component Analysis of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in Iranian Spinach Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebodini Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.

  2. Three-dimensional textural and compositional analysis of particle tracks and fragmentation history in aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, D. S.; Greenberg, M.; Rivers, M. L.; Newville, M.

    2009-11-01

    We report analyses of aerogel tracks using (1 synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (XRCMT), (2) laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), and (3) synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) of particles and their paths resulting from simulated hypervelocity impacts (1-2), and a single ~1 mm aerogel track from the Stardust cometary sample collector (1-3). Large aerogel pieces can be imaged sequentially, resulting in high spatial resolution images spanning many tomographic fields of view (‘lambda-tomography’). We report calculations of energy deposited, and tests on aromatic hydrocarbons showing no alteration in tomography experiments. Imaging at resolutions from ~17 to ~1 micron/pixel edge (XRCMT) and to nondestructive, quantitative 3-D analysis of captured materials at high spatial resolution. This data is fundamental to understanding the hypervelocity particle-aerogel interaction histories of Stardust grains.

  3. Assessing breast cancer masking risk in full field digital mammography with automated texture analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenberg, Michiel Gijsbertus J; Lillholm, Martin; Diao, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this work is to develop a method to assess the risk of breast cancer masking, based on image characteristics beyond breast density. Method: From the Dutch breast cancer screening program we collected 285 screen detected cancers, and 109 cancers that were screen negative...... and subsequently appeared as interval cancers. To obtain mammograms without cancerous tissue, we took the contralateral mammograms. We developed a novel machine learning based method called convolutional sparse autoencoder to characterize mammographic texture. The method was trained and tested on raw mammograms...... to determine cancer detection status in a five-fold cross validation. To assess the interaction of the texture scores with breast density, Volpara Density Grade was determined for each image. Results: We grouped women into low (VDG 1/2) versus high (VDG 3/4) dense, and low (Quartile 1/2) versus high (Q 3...

  4. Analysis of Pyramidal Surface Texturization of Silicon Solar Cells by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yen Chung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relations between surface texturization and absorptance of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a simple new model, based on the classic molecular (MD dynamics simulation, alternative to complex electron-photon interactions to analyze the surface texturization of solar cells. In this study, the large tilted angle leads to the lower efficiency of solar cell. To consider the effect of incident angle, a range of high efficiency exists due to the increasing probability of second reflection. Furthermore, the azimuth angle of incident light also affects the efficiency of solar cells. Our results agree well with previous studies. This MD model can potentially be used to predict the efficiency promotion in any optical reflection-absorption cases.

  5. Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Li, Hui; Wang, Chunyou; Gou, Shanmiao; Fu, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Collagen is the most prominent protein in the human body, making up 30% of the total protein content. Quantitative studies have shown structural differences between collagen fibers of the normal and diseased tissues, due to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix during the pathological process. The dominant orientation, which is an important characteristic of collagen fibers, has not been taken into consideration for quantitative collagen analysis. Based on the conventional gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method, the authors proposed the orientation-dependent GLCM (OD-GLCM) method by estimating the dominant orientation of collagen fibers. The authors validated the utility of the OD-GLCM method on second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopic images of tendons from rats with different ages. Compared with conventional GLCM method, the authors' method has not only improved the discrimination between different tissues but also provided additional texture information of the orderliness of collagen fibers and the fiber size. The OD-GLCM method was further applied to the differentiation of the preliminary SHG images of normal and cancerous human pancreatic tissues. The combination of SHG microscopy and the OD-GLCM method might be helpful for the evaluation of diseases marked with abnormal collagen morphology.

  6. Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Li, Hui; Wang, Chunyou; Gou, Shanmiao; Fu, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Collagen is the most prominent protein in the human body, making up 30% of the total protein content. Quantitative studies have shown structural differences between collagen fibers of the normal and diseased tissues, due to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix during the pathological process. The dominant orientation, which is an important characteristic of collagen fibers, has not been taken into consideration for quantitative collagen analysis. Based on the conventional gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method, the authors proposed the orientation-dependent GLCM (OD-GLCM) method by estimating the dominant orientation of collagen fibers. The authors validated the utility of the OD-GLCM method on second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopic images of tendons from rats with different ages. Compared with conventional GLCM method, the authors' method has not only improved the discrimination between different tissues but also provided additional texture information of the orderliness of collagen fibers and the fiber size. The OD-GLCM method was further applied to the differentiation of the preliminary SHG images of normal and cancerous human pancreatic tissues. The combination of SHG microscopy and the OD-GLCM method might be helpful for the evaluation of diseases marked with abnormal collagen morphology.

  7. Finite-element analysis of the optical-texture-mediated photoresponse in a nematic strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hayoung; Yun, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Joonmyung; Cho, Maenghyo

    2016-10-01

    In a nematic solid, wherein liquid crystal molecules are incorporated into polymeric chains, the chromophore phase is projected onto the polymer conformation, changing the stress-free configuration metric. Stimulated actuation cannot be separated from the structure itself, since the mesoscopic polymer properties dictate the degree and type of shape change. In this research, we focused on self-deforming device programming, inspired by recent optical techniques, to pattern nontrivial alignment textures and induce exotic strain fields on specimens. A finite-element framework incorporating a light-thermo-order coupled constitutive relation and geometric nonlinearities was utilized to compute mechanical deformations for given external stimuli. The distortion of planar strips into various exotic 3D shapes was simulated, and disclination-defect-like liquid crystal texture topographies with different defect strengths produced various many-poled shapes upon irradiation, as observed experimentally. The effects of the boundary conditions and geometric nonlinearities were also examined, exemplifying the need for a comprehensive finite-element-based framework. The same method was applied to textures naturally emerging due to static distortion, and the effects of the prescribed inhomogeneities on the overall deformations, which is the basis of inverse design, were observed. Furthermore, we analyzed the local Poisson-effect-induced instability resulting from inscribing a hedgehog disclination texture onto a solid; the onset of buckling-like deformations was observed energetically, and the relations between this onset and other physical properties were elucidated to enable microstate design while maintaining structural stability. These results will facilitate the development and comprehension of the mechanisms of remotely light-controlled self-assembly and propulsion systems that may soon be realized.

  8. Texture analysis of cold rolled and annealed aluminum alloy produced by twin-roll casting

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana de Paula Martins; André Luis Moreira de Carvalho; Angelo Fernando Padilha

    2012-01-01

    A 7.4 mm thick strip of 3003 aluminum alloy produced by the industrial twin-roll casting (TRC) process was homogenized at 500 °C for 12 hours, after which it was cold rolled in two conditions: 1) to reduce the strip's thickness by 67%, and 2) to reduce it by 91%. The alloy was annealed at 400 °C for 1 hour in both conditions. The results revealed that a rotated cube texture, the {001}

  9. Finite-element analysis of the optical-texture-mediated photoresponse in a nematic strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hayoung; Yun, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Joonmyung; Cho, Maenghyo

    2017-01-01

    In a nematic solid, wherein liquid crystal molecules are incorporated into polymeric chains, the chromophore phase is projected onto the polymer conformation, changing the stress-free configuration metric. Stimulated actuation cannot be separated from the structure itself, since the mesoscopic polymer properties dictate the degree and type of shape change. In this research, we focused on self-deforming device programming, inspired by recent optical techniques, to pattern nontrivial alignment textures and induce exotic strain fields on specimens. A finite-element framework incorporating a light-thermo-order coupled constitutive relation and geometric nonlinearities was utilized to compute mechanical deformations for given external stimuli. The distortion of planar strips into various exotic 3D shapes was simulated, and disclination-defect-like liquid crystal texture topographies with different defect strengths produced various many-poled shapes upon irradiation, as observed experimentally. The effects of the boundary conditions and geometric nonlinearities were also examined, exemplifying the need for a comprehensive finite-element-based framework. The same method was applied to textures naturally emerging due to static distortion, and the effects of the prescribed inhomogeneities on the overall deformations, which is the basis of inverse design, were observed. Furthermore, we analyzed the local Poisson-effect-induced instability resulting from inscribing a hedgehog disclination texture onto a solid; the onset of buckling-like deformations was observed energetically, and the relations between this onset and other physical properties were elucidated to enable microstate design while maintaining structural stability. These results will facilitate the development and comprehension of the mechanisms of remotely light-controlled self-assembly and propulsion systems that may soon be realized.

  10. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  11. Quantitative analysis of probabilistic BPMN workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We present a framework for modelling and analysis of realworld business workflows. We present a formalised core subset of the Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN) and then proceed to extend this language with probabilistic nondeterministic branching and general-purpose reward annotations...... of events, reward-based properties and best- and worst- case scenarios. We develop a simple example of medical workflow and demonstrate the utility of this analysis in accurate provisioning of drug stocks. Finally, we suggest a path to building upon these techniques to cover the entire BPMN language, allow...

  12. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-07-01

    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  13. The deformation texture of rolled ribbons of copper-based alloys as a condition of producing a sharp cubic texture upon recrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervas'eva, I. V.; Rodionov, D. P.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that a specific quantitative relationship of main textural components after cold deformation (by rolling to 98.6-99%) of copper alloys determines the possibility of producing a sharp cubic texture in the ribbons after subsequent recrystallization annealing. The binary alloys of copper with nickel (up to 40 at %) and of copper with additions of iron and chromium correspond to this criterion. It has been found that the optimum deformation texture can be created in some ternary copper-nickel alloys with addition of Cr, Fe or Mn. It has been shown that the analysis of the component composition of deformation textures using the orientation distribution function can yield more precise predictions than the stacking fault energy values, as well as make it possible to obtain a cubic texture upon subsequent recrystallization.

  14. SU-E-J-249: Characterization of Gynecological Tumor Heterogeneity Using Texture Analysis in the Context of An 18F-FDG PET Adaptive Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrocki, J [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, J; Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center Department of Radiation Oncology, Durham, NC (United States); Das, S [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We propose a method to examine gynecological tumor heterogeneity using texture analysis in the context of an adaptive PET protocol in order to establish if texture metrics from baseline PET-CT predict tumor response better than SUV metrics alone as well as determine texture features correlating with tumor response during radiation therapy. Methods: This IRB approved protocol included 29 women with node positive gynecological cancers visible on FDG-PET treated with EBRT to the PET positive nodes. A baseline and intra-treatment PET-CT was obtained. Tumor outcome was determined based on RECIST on posttreatment PET-CT. Primary GTVs were segmented using 40% threshold and a semi-automatic gradient-based contouring tool, PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH). SUV histogram features, Metabolic Volume (MV), and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG) were calculated. Four 3D texture matrices describing local and regional relationships between voxel intensities in the GTV were generated: co-occurrence, run length, size zone, and neighborhood difference. From these, 39 texture features were calculated. Prognostic power of baseline features derived from gradientbased and threshold GTVs were determined using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Receiver Operating Characteristics and logistic regression was performed using JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to find probabilities of predicting response. Changes in features during treatment were determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Of the 29 patients, there were 16 complete responders, 7 partial responders, and 6 non-responders. Comparing CR/PR vs. NR for gradient-based GTVs, 7 texture values, TLG, and SUV kurtosis had a p < 0.05. Threshold GTVs yielded 4 texture features and TLG with p < 0.05. From baseline to intra-treatment, 14 texture features, SUVmean, SUVmax, MV, and TLG changed with p < 0.05. Conclusion: Texture analysis of PET imaged gynecological tumors is an effective method for early prognosis and should

  15. Textural analysis of magmatic enclaves from the Kameni Islands, Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Victoria M.; Holness, Marian B.; Pyle, David M.

    2006-06-01

    The Kameni Islands have been the focus of historic volcanic activity on Santorini, Greece. The islands comprise a series of dacite lavas, the erupted compositions of which have remained approximately constant for the last ˜2200 years. The dacite lava flows of Nea Kameni contain a variety of mafic enclaves, distinguished by differences in texture, composition and mechanical behaviour. The mafic enclaves represent chilled fragments of mafic magma that crystallised rapidly on contact with the cooler, more silicic host magma. The absence of chilled margins on the enclaves suggests that the replenishing magma initially formed a dense layer at the base of the chamber. Groundmass textures are interpreted as an indication of the degree of undercooling between the enclaves and the host. Groundmass textural information obtained from the enclaves has been used to determine the relative volumes of replenishing magmas injected into the host magma before eruption, which indicates that the volume of erupted magma is directly proportional to the volume of replenishing magma emplaced in the chamber prior to eruption, which thus may act as a potential eruption trigger. The variety of replenishing magmas implies the existence of a complex conduit and chamber system beneath Santorini volcano. Andesitic enclaves with linear crystal size distributions are thought to have originated as an aphyric andesitic melt expelled from a crystal mush by filter-pressing. Disequilibrium phenocryst assemblages in the lavas and phenocryst-bearing enclaves provide evidence for the entrainment and recycling of older phenocryst populations.

  16. Spectrum and Image Texture Features Analysis for Early Blight Disease Detection on Eggplant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated both spectrum and texture features for detecting early blight disease on eggplant leaves. Hyperspectral images for healthy and diseased samples were acquired covering the wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. Four gray images were identified according to the effective wavelengths (408, 535, 624 and 703 nm. Hyperspectral images were then converted into RGB, HSV and HLS images. Finally, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM were extracted from gray images, RGB, HSV and HLS images, respectively. The dependent variables for healthy and diseased samples were set as 0 and 1. K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN and AdaBoost classification models were established for detecting healthy and infected samples. All models obtained good results with the classification rates (CRs over 88.46% in the testing sets. The results demonstrated that spectrum and texture features were effective for early blight disease detection on eggplant leaves.

  17. Lunar textural analysis based on WAC-derived kilometer-scale roughness and entropy maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, XueQiang; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Ling, Zongcheng

    2016-06-01

    In general, textures are thought to be some complicated repeated patterns formed by elements, or primitives which are sorted in certain rules. Lunar surfaces record the interactions between its outside environment and itself, thus, based on high-resolution DEM model or image data, there are some topographic features which have different roughness and entropy values or signatures on lunar surfaces. Textures of lunar surfaces can help us to concentrate on typical topographic and photometric variations and reveal the relationships between obvious features (craters, impact basins, sinuous rilles (SRs) and ridges) with resurfacing processes on the Moon. In this paper, the term surface roughness is an expression of the variability of a topographic or photometric surface at kilometer scale, and the term entropy can characterize the variability inherent in a geological and topographic unit and evaluate the uncertainty of predictions made by a given geological process. We use the statistical moments of gray-level histograms in different-sized neighborhoods (e.g., 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 pixels) to compute the kilometer-scale roughness and entropy values, using the mosaic image from 70°N to 70°S obtained by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC). Large roughness and entropy signatures were only found in the larger scale maps, while the smallest 3-pixel scale map had more disorderly and unsystematic textures. According to the entropy values in 10-pixel scale entropy map, we made a frequency curve and categorized lunar surfaces into three types, shadow effects, maria and highlands. A 2D scatter plot of entropy versus roughness values was produced and we found that there were two point clusters corresponding to the highlands and maria, respectively. In the last, we compared the topographic and photometric signatures derived from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data and WAC mosaic image. On the lunar surfaces, the ridges have obvious multilevel

  18. Texture analysis applied to second harmonic generation image data for disease classification and development of a multi-view second harmonic generation imaging platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lianggong

    Many diseases, e.g. ovarian cancer, breast cancer and pulmonary fibrosis, are commonly associated with drastic alterations in surrounding connective tissue, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) are associated with the vast majority of cellular processes in disease progression and carcinogenesis: cell differentiation, proliferation, biosynthetic ability, polarity, and motility. We use second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for imaging the ECM because it is a non-invasive, non-linear laser scanning technique with high sensitivity and specificity for visualizing fibrillar collagen. In this thesis, we are interested in developing imaging techniques to understand how the ECM, especially the collagen architecture, is remodeled in diseases. To quantitate remodeling, we implement a 3D texture analysis to delineate the collagen fibrillar morphology observed in SHG microscopy images of human normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues. In the learning stage, a dictionary of "textons"---frequently occurring texture features that are identified by measuring the image response to a filter bank of various shapes, sizes, and orientations---is created. By calculating a representative model based on the texton distribution for each tissue type using a training set of respective mages, we then perform classification between normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues classification based on the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (true positives versus false positives). The local analysis algorithm is a more general method to probe rapidly changing fibrillar morphologies than global analyses such as FFT. It is also more versatile than other texture approaches as the filter bank can be highly tailored to specific applications (e.g., different disease states) by creating customized libraries based on common image features. Further, we describe the development of a multi-view 3D SHG imaging platform. Unlike fluorescence microscopy, SHG excites

  19. Glioma: application of whole-tumor texture analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging for the evaluation of tumor heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jin Ryu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To apply a texture analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC maps to evaluate glioma heterogeneity, which was correlated with tumor grade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with glioma (WHO grade II (n = 8, grade III (n = 10 and grade IV (n = 22 underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, and the corresponding ADC maps were obtained. Regions of interest containing the lesions were drawn on every section of the ADC map containing the tumor, and volume-based data of the entire tumor were constructed. Texture and first order features including entropy, skewness and kurtosis were derived from the ADC map using in-house software. A histogram analysis of the ADC map was also performed. The texture and histogram parameters were compared between low-grade and high-grade gliomas using an unpaired student's t-test. Additionally, a one-way analysis of variance analysis with a post-hoc test was performed to compare the parameters of each grade. RESULTS: Entropy was observed to be significantly higher in high-grade gliomas than low-grade tumors (6.861±0.539 vs. 6.261±0.412, P  = 0.006. The fifth percentiles of the ADC cumulative histogram also showed a significant difference between high and low grade gliomas (836±235 vs. 1030±185, P = 0.037. Only entropy proved to be significantly different between grades III and IV (6.295±0.4963 vs. 7.119±0.3165, P<0.001. The diagnostic accuracy of ADC entropy was significantly higher than that of the fifth percentile of the ADC histogram (P = 0.0034 in distinguishing high- from low-grade glioma. CONCLUSION: A texture analysis of the ADC map based on the entire tumor volume can be useful for evaluating glioma grade, which provides tumor heterogeneity.

  20. Quantitative analysis of cascade impactor samples - revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlić , I.; Chiam, S. Y.; Sanchez, J. L.; Tang, S. M.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of aerosols collected in Singapore during the three months long haze period that affected the whole South-East Asian region in 1997 are reported. Aerosol samples were continuously collected by using a fine aerosol sampler (PM2.5) and occasionally with a single orifice cascade impactor (CI) sampler. Our results show that in the fine fraction (<2.5 μm) the concentrations of two well-known biomass burning products, i.e. K and S were generally increased by a factor 2-3 compared to the non-hazy periods. However, a discrepancy was noticed, at least for elements with lower atomic number (Ti and below) between the results obtained by the fine aerosol sampler and the cascade impactor. Careful analysis by means of Nuclear Microscopy, in particular by the Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) technique, revealed that thicknesses of the lower CI stages exceeded thick target limits for 2 MeV protons. Detailed depth profiles of all CI stages were therefore measured using the STIM technique and concentrations corrected for absorption and proton energy loss. After correcting results for the actual sample thickness, concentrations of all major elements (S, Cl, K, Ca) agreed much better with the PM2.5 results. The importance of implementing thick target corrections in analysis of CI samples, especially those collected in the urban environments, is emphasized. Broad beam PIXE analysis approach is certainly not adequate in these cases.

  1. Quantitative analysis of Li by PIGE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M.; Mateus, R.; Santos, C.; Cruz, J.; Silva, H.; Luis, H.; Martins, L.; Jesus, A. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the cross section of the reactions 7Li(p,pγ)7Li (γ - 478 keV) at the proton energy range 2.0-4.2 MeV was measured. The measurements were carried out at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator at the CTN/IST Laboratory in Lisbon. To validate the obtained results, calculated gamma-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds containing lithium. In order to quantify the light elements present in the samples, we used a standard free method for PIGE in thick samples, based on a code - Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis (ERYA), which integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. We also demonstrated the capacity of the technique for analysis of Li ores, as Spodumene, Lithium Muscovite and Holmquistite, and Li-alloys for plasma facing materials showing that this is a reliable and accurate method for PIGE analysis of Li in thick samples.

  2. Quantitative MRI analysis of dynamic enhancement of focal liver lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Bagnenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study 45 patients with different focal liver lesions (110 nodules were examined using high field MR-system (1,5 T. During this investigation quantitative MRI analysis of dynamic enhancement of various hepatic lesions and parenchymatous organs of abdomen were performed. It was shown that quantitative evaluation of enhanced MRI improves understanding of vascular transformation processes in pathologic hepatic focuses and in liver itself that is important for differential diagnoses of these diseases.

  3. SU-D-BRA-06: Dual-Energy Chest CT: The Effects of Virtual Monochromatic Reconstructions On Texture Analysis Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J; Duran, C; Stingo, F; Wei, W; Rao, A; Zhang, L; Court, L; Erasmus, J; Godoy, M [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the effect of virtual monochromatic reconstructions on several commonly used texture analysis features in DECT of the chest. Further, to assess the effect of monochromatic energy levels on the ability of these textural features to identify tissue types. Methods: 20 consecutive patients underwent chest CTs for evaluation of lung nodules using Siemens Somatom Definition Flash DECT. Virtual monochromatic images were constructed at 10keV intervals from 40–190keV. For each patient, an ROI delineated the lesion under investigation, and cylindrical ROI’s were placed within 5 different healthy tissues (blood, fat, muscle, lung, and liver). Several histogram- and Grey Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM)-based texture features were then evaluated in each ROI at each energy level. As a means of validation, these feature values were then used in a random forest classifier to attempt to identify the tissue types present within each ROI. Their predictive accuracy at each energy level was recorded. Results: All textural features changed considerably with virtual monochromatic energy, particularly below 70keV. Most features exhibited a global minimum or maximum around 80keV, and while feature values changed with energy above this, patient ranking was generally unaffected. As expected, blood demonstrated the lowest inter-patient variability, for all features, while lung lesions (encompassing many different pathologies) exhibited the highest. The accuracy of these features in identifying tissues (76% accuracy) was highest at 80keV, but no clear relationship between energy and classification accuracy was found. Two common misclassifications (blood vs liver and muscle vs fat) accounted for the majority (24 of the 28) errors observed. Conclusion: All textural features were highly dependent on virtual monochromatic energy level, especially below 80keV, and were more stable above this energy. However, in a random forest model, these commonly used features were

  4. Automated condition-invariable neurite segmentation and synapse classification using textural analysis-based machine-learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Umasankar; Rotman, Ziv; Watt, Dana; Schillebeeckx, Ian; Cavalli, Valeria; Klyachko, Vitaly A

    2013-02-15

    High-resolution live-cell imaging studies of neuronal structure and function are characterized by large variability in image acquisition conditions due to background and sample variations as well as low signal-to-noise ratio. The lack of automated image analysis tools that can be generalized for varying image acquisition conditions represents one of the main challenges in the field of biomedical image analysis. Specifically, segmentation of the axonal/dendritic arborizations in brightfield or fluorescence imaging studies is extremely labor-intensive and still performed mostly manually. Here we describe a fully automated machine-learning approach based on textural analysis algorithms for segmenting neuronal arborizations in high-resolution brightfield images of live cultured neurons. We compare performance of our algorithm to manual segmentation and show that it combines 90% accuracy, with similarly high levels of specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, the algorithm maintains high performance levels under a wide range of image acquisition conditions indicating that it is largely condition-invariable. We further describe an application of this algorithm to fully automated synapse localization and classification in fluorescence imaging studies based on synaptic activity. Textural analysis-based machine-learning approach thus offers a high performance condition-invariable tool for automated neurite segmentation.

  5. Financial indicators for municipalities: a quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreĉko Devjak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From the characterization of Local Authority financing models and structures in Portugal and Slovenia, a set of financial and generic budget indicators has been established. These indicators may be used in a comparative analysis considering the Bragança District in Portugal, and municipalities of similar population size in Slovenia. The research identified significant differences, in terms of financing sources due to some discrepancies on financial models and competences of municipalities on each country. The results show that Portuguese and Slovenian municipalities, in 2003, for the economy indicator, had similar ranking behaviour, but in 2004, they changed this behaviour.

  6. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DRAWING TUBES MICROSTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Martinkovič

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Final properties of forming pieces are affected by production, at first conditions of mechanical working. Application of stereology methods to statistic reconstruction of three-dimensional plastic deformed material structure by bulk forming led to detail analysis of material structure changes. The microstructure of cold drawing tubes from STN 411353 steel was analyzed. Grain boundaries orientation was measured on perpendicular and parallel section of tubes with different degree of deformation. Macroscopic deformation leads to grain boundaries deformation and these ones were compared.

  7. Event History Analysis in Quantitative Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Rafael Pimentel

    Event history analysis is a clas of statistical methods specially designed to analyze time-to-event characteristics, e.g. the time until death. The aim of the thesis was to present adequate multivariate versions of mixed survival models that properly represent the genetic aspects related to a given...... time-to-event characteristic of interest. Real genetic longevity studies based on female animals of different species (sows, dairy cows, and sheep) exemplifies the use of the methods. Moreover these studies allow to understand som genetic mechanisms related to the lenght of the productive life...

  8. Chromatic Image Analysis For Quantitative Thermal Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromatic image analysis system (CIAS) developed for use in noncontact measurements of temperatures on aerothermodynamic models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Based on concept of temperature coupled to shift in color spectrum for optical measurement. Video camera images fluorescence emitted by phosphor-coated model at two wavelengths. Temperature map of model then computed from relative brightnesses in video images of model at those wavelengths. Eliminates need for intrusive, time-consuming, contact temperature measurements by gauges, making it possible to map temperatures on complex surfaces in timely manner and at reduced cost.

  9. Segmentation and Quantitative Analysis of Epithelial Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Umetsu, Daiki; Eaton, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics.

  10. A Comparative Assessment of Greek Universities' Efficiency Using Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

    2010-01-01

    In part due to the increased demand for higher education, typical evaluation frameworks for universities often address the key issue of available resource utilisation. This study seeks to estimate the efficiency of 20 public universities in Greece through quantitative analysis (including performance indicators, data envelopment analysis (DEA) and…

  11. A Comparative Assessment of Greek Universities' Efficiency Using Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

    2010-01-01

    In part due to the increased demand for higher education, typical evaluation frameworks for universities often address the key issue of available resource utilisation. This study seeks to estimate the efficiency of 20 public universities in Greece through quantitative analysis (including performance indicators, data envelopment analysis (DEA) and…

  12. Characterization and classification of tumor lesions using computerized fractal-based texture analysis and support vector machines in digital mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Shao, Jiaqing; Ruiz, Virginie F

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of fractal-based methods for texture characterization of mammographic mass lesions and architectural distortion. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of fractal and lacunarity analysis for the characterization and classification of both tumor lesions and normal breast parenchyma in mammography. We conducted comparative evaluations of five popular fractal dimension estimation methods for the characterization of the texture of mass lesions and architectural distortion. We applied the concept of lacunarity to the description of the spatial distribution of the pixel intensities in mammographic images. These methods were tested with a set of 57 breast masses and 60 normal breast parenchyma (dataset1), and with another set of 19 architectural distortions and 41 normal breast parenchyma (dataset2). Support vector machines (SVM) were used as a pattern classification method for tumor classification. Experimental results showed that the fractal dimension of region of interest (ROIs) depicting mass lesions and architectural distortion was statistically significantly lower than that of normal breast parenchyma for all five methods. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that fractional Brownian motion (FBM) method generated the highest area under ROC curve (A ( z ) = 0.839 for dataset1, 0.828 for dataset2, respectively) among five methods for both datasets. Lacunarity analysis showed that the ROIs depicting mass lesions and architectural distortion had higher lacunarities than those of ROIs depicting normal breast parenchyma. The combination of FBM fractal dimension and lacunarity yielded the highest A ( z ) value (0.903 and 0.875, respectively) than those based on single feature alone for both given datasets. The application of the SVM improved the performance of the fractal-based features in differentiating tumor lesions from normal breast parenchyma by generating higher A ( z ) value. FBM texture model is the

  13. Dynamics of metamorphism processes by the fractal textures analysis of garnets, amphiboles and pyroxenes of Lapland Granulite Belt, Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz A. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available About thousand analyzes of garnet, amphibole and pyroxene crystals from selected samples of amphibolite and granulite rocks from Lapland Granulite Belt in Kandalaksha region (Kola Peninsula has been made. Indicated fractal-box dimension of studied minerals has a good correlation with tectonic zones, lead to a new insight in the dynamics of processes, which has modified the examined region. Fractal-box dimension makes the textural analysis more precise, because it consents for the mathematic and repeated review of crystals topology depending directly on processes which had created them.

  14. Three-dimensional textural and compositional analysis of particle tracks and fragmentation history in aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebel, Denton S.; Greenberg, Michael; Rivers, Mark L.; Newville, Matthew; (AMNH)

    2010-05-04

    We report analyses of aerogel tracks using (1) synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (XRCMT), (2) laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), and (3) synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) of particles and their paths resulting from simulated hypervelocity impacts (1-2), and a single {approx}1 mm aerogel track from the Stardust cometary sample collector (1-3). Large aerogel pieces can be imaged sequentially, resulting in high spatial resolution images spanning many tomographic fields of view ('lambda-tomography'). We report calculations of energy deposited, and tests on aromatic hydrocarbons showing no alteration in tomography experiments. Imaging at resolutions from -17 to -1 micron/pixel edge (XRCMT) and to <100 nm/pixel edge (LCSM) illustrates track geometry and interaction of particles with aerogel, including rifling, particle fragmentation, and final particle location. We present a 3-D deconvolution method using an estimated point-spread function for aerogel, allowing basic corrections of LCSM data for axial distortion. LCSM allows rapid, comprehensive, non-destructive, high information return analysis of tracks in aerogel keystones, prior to destructive grain extraction. SRXRF with LCSM allows spatial correlation of grain size, chemical, and mineralogical data. If optical methods are precluded in future aerogel capture missions, XRCMT is a viable 3D imaging technique. Combinations of these methods allow for complete, nondestructive, quantitative 3-D analysis of captured materials at high spatial resolution. This data is fundamental to understanding the hypervelocity particle-aerogel interaction histories of Stardust grains.

  15. Structural model analysis of multiple quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhua Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a method for the analysis of multilocus, multitrait genetic data that provides an intuitive and precise characterization of genetic architecture. We show that it is possible to infer the magnitude and direction of causal relationships among multiple correlated phenotypes and illustrate the technique using body composition and bone density data from mouse intercross populations. Using these techniques we are able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect overall body size and thus reveal a shortcoming of standardized measures such as body mass index that are widely used in obesity research. The identification of causal networks sheds light on the nature of genetic heterogeneity and pleiotropy in complex genetic systems.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2016-12-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  18. Quantitative analysis of pulmonary emphysema using local binary patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Shaker, S.B.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    We aim at improving quantitative measures of emphysema in computed tomography (CT) images of the lungs. Current standard measures, such as the relative area of emphysema (RA), rely on a single intensity threshold on individual pixels, thus ignoring any interrelations between pixels. Texture analy...

  19. Quantitative analysis of forest fire extinction efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Castillo-Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Evaluate the economic extinction efficiency of forest fires, based on the study of fire combat undertaken by aerial and terrestrial means. Area of study, materials and methods: Approximately 112,000 hectares in Chile. Records of 5,876 forest fires that occurred between 1998 and 2009 were analyzed. The area further provides a validation sector for results, by incorporating databases for the years 2010 and 2012. The criteria used for measuring extinction efficiency were economic value of forestry resources, Contraction Factor analysis and definition of the extinction costs function. Main results: It is possible to establish a relationship between burnt area, extinction costs and economic losses. The method proposed may be used and adapted to other fire situations, requiring unit costs for aerial and terrestrial operations, economic value of the property to be protected and speed attributes of fire spread in free advance. Research highlights: The determination of extinction efficiency in containment works of forest fires and potential projection of losses, different types of plant fuel and local conditions favoring the spread of fire broaden the admissible ranges of a, φ and Ce considerably.

  20. Seismic Responses of Texture-sequence Models and Their Applications in Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuChuanhu

    2005-01-01

    The texture-sequence analysis was established on the basis of texture-sequence models and time-frequency analysis as well as the quantitative analysis of seismic sections to determine the correspondence between sequence bodies and time-frequency features and that between reservoir properties and time-frequency energy. The targets would be studied in terms of sequence analysis,cycling analysis, reservoir prediction and quantitative description of targets by integrating geological,logging and drilling data. The fundamentals for texture-sequence analysis were to construct effectivetex ture-sequence models and obtain the corresponding seismic responses. The texturesequence analy-sis was applied to sandstones/conglomerates on steep slopes, to deltas on gentle slopes, to fans at low ends as well as to other subtle reservoirs in the continental rift-subsidence basins, which had brought out good results.

  1. Uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods of pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunar, O V; Sakhno, N G

    2015-12-30

    The total uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods, used in pharmaceutical analysis, consists of several components. The analysis of the most important sources of the quantitative microbiological methods variability demonstrated no effect of culture media and plate-count techniques in the estimation of microbial count while the highly significant effect of other factors (type of microorganism, pharmaceutical product and individual reading and interpreting errors) was established. The most appropriate method of statistical analysis of such data was ANOVA which enabled not only the effect of individual factors to be estimated but also their interactions. Considering all the elements of uncertainty and combining them mathematically the combined relative uncertainty of the test results was estimated both for method of quantitative examination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals and microbial count technique without any product. These data did not exceed 35%, appropriated for a traditional plate count methods.

  2. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø

    1996-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is an general introduction to quantitative methods for the analysis of digital microscope images. The images presented are primarily been acquired from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and interfermeter microscopes (IFM). The topic is approached though several examples...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  3. Texture Feature Analysis for Different Resolution Level of Kidney Ultrasound Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairuddin, Wan Nur Hafsha Wan; Mahmud, Wan Mahani Hafizah Wan

    2017-08-01

    Image feature extraction is a technique to identify the characteristic of the image. The objective of this work is to discover the texture features that best describe a tissue characteristic of a healthy kidney from ultrasound (US) image. Three ultrasound machines that have different specifications are used in order to get a different quality (different resolution) of the image. Initially, the acquired images are pre-processed to de-noise the speckle to ensure the image preserve the pixels in a region of interest (ROI) for further extraction. Gaussian Low- pass Filter is chosen as the filtering method in this work. 150 of enhanced images then are segmented by creating a foreground and background of image where the mask is created to eliminate some unwanted intensity values. Statistical based texture features method is used namely Intensity Histogram (IH), Gray-Level Co-Occurance Matrix (GLCM) and Gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM).This method is depends on the spatial distribution of intensity values or gray levels in the kidney region. By using One-Way ANOVA in SPSS, the result indicated that three features (Contrast, Difference Variance and Inverse Difference Moment Normalized) from GLCM are not statistically significant; this concludes that these three features describe a healthy kidney characteristics regardless of the ultrasound image quality.

  4. Melting temperatures of MgO under high pressure by micro-texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Ohfuji, H.; Nishi, M.; Irifune, T.

    2017-06-01

    Periclase (MgO) is the second most abundant mineral after bridgmanite in the Earth's lower mantle, and its melting behaviour under pressure is important to constrain rheological properties and melting behaviours of the lower mantle materials. Significant discrepancies exist between the melting temperatures of MgO determined by laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) and those based on dynamic compressions and theoretical predictions. Here we show the melting temperatures in earlier LHDAC experiments are underestimated due to misjudgment of melting, based on micro-texture observations of the quenched samples. The high melting temperatures of MgO suggest that the subducted cold slabs should have higher viscosities than previously thought, suggesting that the inter-connecting textural feature of MgO would not play important roles for the slab stagnation in the lower mantle. The present results also predict that the ultra-deep magmas produced in the lower mantle are peridotitic, which are stabilized near the core-mantle boundary.

  5. Statistical analysis of textural features for improved classification of oral histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu Rama Krishnan, M; Shah, Pratik; Chakraborty, Chandan; Ray, Ajoy K

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an improved technique, which can assist oncopathologists in correct screening of oral precancerous conditions specially oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) with significant accuracy on the basis of collagen fibres in the sub-epithelial connective tissue. The proposed scheme is composed of collagen fibres segmentation, its textural feature extraction and selection, screening perfomance enhancement under Gaussian transformation and finally classification. In this study, collagen fibres are segmented on R,G,B color channels using back-probagation neural network from 60 normal and 59 OSF histological images followed by histogram specification for reducing the stain intensity variation. Henceforth, textural features of collgen area are extracted using fractal approaches viz., differential box counting and brownian motion curve . Feature selection is done using Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence criterion and the screening performance is evaluated based on various statistical tests to conform Gaussian nature. Here, the screening performance is enhanced under Gaussian transformation of the non-Gaussian features using hybrid distribution. Moreover, the routine screening is designed based on two statistical classifiers viz., Bayesian classification and support vector machines (SVM) to classify normal and OSF. It is observed that SVM with linear kernel function provides better classification accuracy (91.64%) as compared to Bayesian classifier. The addition of fractal features of collagen under Gaussian transformation improves Bayesian classifier's performance from 80.69% to 90.75%. Results are here studied and discussed.

  6. Texture Analysis and Synthesis of Malignant and Benign Mediastinal Lymph Nodes in Patients with Lung Cancer on Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D.; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Higuchi, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Texture analysis of computed tomography (CT) imaging has been found useful to distinguish subtle differences, which are in- visible to human eyes, between malignant and benign tissues in cancer patients. This study implemented two complementary methods of texture analysis, known as the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and the experimental semivariogram (SV) with an aim to improve the predictive value of evaluating mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer. The GLCM was explored with the use of a rich set of its derived features, whereas the SV feature was extracted on real and synthesized CT samples of benign and malignant lymph nodes. A distinct advantage of the computer methodology presented herein is the alleviation of the need for an automated precise segmentation of the lymph nodes. Using the logistic regression model, a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 90%, and area under curve of 0.89 were obtained in the test population. A tenfold cross-validation of 70% accuracy of classifying between benign and malignant lymph nodes was obtained using the support vector machines as a pattern classifier. These results are higher than those recently reported in literature with similar studies.

  7. Texture Analysis and Synthesis of Malignant and Benign Mediastinal Lymph Nodes in Patients with Lung Cancer on Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Higuchi, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-24

    Texture analysis of computed tomography (CT) imaging has been found useful to distinguish subtle differences, which are in- visible to human eyes, between malignant and benign tissues in cancer patients. This study implemented two complementary methods of texture analysis, known as the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and the experimental semivariogram (SV) with an aim to improve the predictive value of evaluating mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer. The GLCM was explored with the use of a rich set of its derived features, whereas the SV feature was extracted on real and synthesized CT samples of benign and malignant lymph nodes. A distinct advantage of the computer methodology presented herein is the alleviation of the need for an automated precise segmentation of the lymph nodes. Using the logistic regression model, a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 90%, and area under curve of 0.89 were obtained in the test population. A tenfold cross-validation of 70% accuracy of classifying between benign and malignant lymph nodes was obtained using the support vector machines as a pattern classifier. These results are higher than those recently reported in literature with similar studies.

  8. Detection of architectural distortion in mammograms acquired prior to the detection of breast cancer using texture and fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajna, Shormistha; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Ayres, Fábio J.; Desautels, J. E. Leo

    2008-03-01

    Mammography is a widely used screening tool for the early detection of breast cancer. One of the commonly missed signs of breast cancer is architectural distortion. The purpose of this study is to explore the application of fractal analysis and texture measures for the detection of architectural distortion in screening mammograms taken prior to the detection of breast cancer. A method based on Gabor filters and phase portrait analysis was used to detect initial candidates of sites of architectural distortion. A total of 386 regions of interest (ROIs) were automatically obtained from 14 "prior mammograms", including 21 ROIs related to architectural distortion. The fractal dimension of the ROIs was calculated using the circular average power spectrum technique. The average fractal dimension of the normal (false-positive) ROIs was higher than that of the ROIs with architectural distortion. For the "prior mammograms", the best receiver operating characteristics (ROC) performance achieved was 0.74 with the fractal dimension and 0.70 with fourteen texture features, in terms of the area under the ROC curve.

  9. Drug release-modulating mechanism of hydrophilic hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix tablets: distribution of atoms and carrier and texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Bom; Lim, Jisung; Kang, Chin-Yang; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-12-01

    Although release profiles of drug from hydrophilic matrices have been well recognized, the visual distribution of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and atoms inside of internal structures of hydrophilic HPMC matrices has not been characterized. In this paper, drug release mechanism from HPMC matrix tablet was investigated based on the release behaviors of HPMC, physical properties of gelled HPMC tablet and atomic distributions of formulation components using diverse instruments. A matrix tablet consisting of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 6, 4,000 and 100,000 mPa·s), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model and fumed silicon dioxide (Aerosil(®) 200) was prepared via direct compression. The distribution of atoms and HPMC imaging were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM)/ energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and near-infrared (NIR) analysis, respectively as a function of time. A texture analyzer was also used to characterize the thickness and maintenance of gel layer of HPMC matrix tablet. The HPMC matrix tablets showed Higuchi release kinetics with no lag time against the square root of time. High viscosity grades of HPMC gave retarded release rate because of the greater swelling and gel thickness as characterized by texture analyzer. According to the NIR imaging, low-viscosity-grade HPMC (6 mPa·s) quickly leached out onto the surface of the tablet, while the high-viscosity-grade HPMC (4000 mPa·s) formed much thicker gel layer around the tablet and maintained longer via slow erosion, resulting in retarded drug release. The atomic distribution of the drug (chlorine, carbon, oxygen), HPMC (carbon, oxygen) and silicon dioxide (silica, oxygen) and NIR imaging of HPMC corresponded with the dissolution behaviors of drug as a function of time. The use of imaging and texture analyses could be applicable to explain the release- modulating mechanism of hydrophilic HPMC matrix tablets.

  10. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  11. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  12. Accuracy of Image Analysis in Quantitative Study of Cement Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative study on cement paste especially blended cement paste has been a hot and difficult issue over the years, and the technique of backscattered electron image analysis showed unique advantages in this field. This paper compared the test results of cement hydration degree, Ca(OH2 content and pore size distribution in pure pastes by image analysis and other methods. Then the accuracy of qualitative study by image analysis was analyzed. The results showed that image analysis technique had displayed higher accuracy in quantifying cement hydration degree and Ca(OH2 content than non-evaporable water test and thermal analysis respectively.

  13. Texture analysis on the fluence map to evaluate the degree of modulation for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So-Yeon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744, (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of); Carlson, Joel [Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Texture analysis on fluence maps was performed to evaluate the degree of modulation for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Methods: A total of six textural features including angular second moment, inverse difference moment, contrast, variance, correlation, and entropy were calculated for fluence maps generated from 20 prostate and 20 head and neck VMAT plans. For each of the textural features, particular displacement distances (d) of 1, 5, and 10 were adopted. To investigate the deliverability of each VMAT plan, gamma passing rates of pretreatment quality assurance, and differences in modulating parameters such as multileaf collimator (MLC) positions, gantry angles, and monitor units at each control point between VMAT plans and dynamic log files registered by the Linac control system during delivery were acquired. Furthermore, differences between the original VMAT plan and the plan reconstructed from the dynamic log files were also investigated. To test the performance of the textural features as indicators for the modulation degree of VMAT plans, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (r{sub s}) with the plan deliverability were calculated. For comparison purposes, conventional modulation indices for VMAT including the modulation complexity score for VMAT, leaf travel modulation complexity score, and modulation index supporting station parameter optimized radiation therapy (MI{sub SPORT}) were calculated, and their correlations were analyzed in the same way. Results: There was no particular textural feature which always showed superior correlations with every type of plan deliverability. Considering the results comprehensively, contrast (d = 1) and variance (d = 1) generally showed considerable correlations with every type of plan deliverability. These textural features always showed higher correlations to the plan deliverability than did the conventional modulation indices, except in the case of modulating parameter differences. The r

  14. Despeckle Filtering for Multiscale Amplitude-Modulation Frequency-Modulation (AM-FM Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images of the Intima-Media Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Loizou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intima-media thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA is widely used as an early indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Typically, the IMT grows with age and this is used as a sign of increased risk of CVD. Beyond thickness, there is also clinical interest in identifying how the composition and texture of the intima-media complex (IMC changed and how these textural changes grow into atherosclerotic plaques that can cause stroke. Clearly though texture analysis of ultrasound images can be greatly affected by speckle noise, our goal here is to develop effective despeckle noise methods that can recover image texture associated with increased rates of atherosclerosis disease. In this study, we perform a comparative evaluation of several despeckle filtering methods, on 100 ultrasound images of the CCA, based on the extracted multiscale Amplitude-Modulation Frequency-Modulation (AM-FM texture features and visual image quality assessment by two clinical experts. Texture features were extracted from the automatically segmented IMC for three different age groups. The despeckle filters hybrid median and the homogeneous mask area filter showed the best performance by improving the class separation between the three age groups and also yielded significantly improved image quality.

  15. Low-order non-spatial effects dominate second-order spatial effects in the texture quantifier analysis of 18F-FDG-PET images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J Brooks

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in applying image texture quantifiers to assess the intra-tumor heterogeneity observed in FDG-PET images of various cancers. Use of these quantifiers as prognostic indicators of disease outcome and/or treatment response has yielded inconsistent results. We study the general applicability of some well-established texture quantifiers to the image data unique to FDG-PET.We first created computer-simulated test images with statistical properties consistent with clinical image data for cancers of the uterine cervix. We specifically isolated second-order statistical effects from low-order effects and analyzed the resulting variation in common texture quantifiers in response to contrived image variations. We then analyzed the quantifiers computed for FIGOIIb cervical cancers via receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and via contingency table analysis of detrended quantifier values.We found that image texture quantifiers depend strongly on low-effects such as tumor volume and SUV distribution. When low-order effects are controlled, the image texture quantifiers tested were not able to discern only the second-order effects. Furthermore, the results of clinical tumor heterogeneity studies might be tunable via choice of patient population analyzed.Some image texture quantifiers are strongly affected by factors distinct from the second-order effects researchers ostensibly seek to assess via those quantifiers.

  16. Quantitative analysis of microtubule transport in growing nerve processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma*, Ytao; Shakiryanova*, Dinara; Vardya, Irina;

    2004-01-01

    the translocation of MT plus ends in the axonal shaft by expressing GFP-EB1 in Xenopus embryo neurons in culture. Formal quantitative analysis of MT assembly/disassembly indicated that none of the MTs in the axonal shaft were rapidly transported. Our results suggest that transport of axonal MTs is not required...

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest Stands: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    The importance of data analysis in quantitative assessment of natural resources ... 350 km long extends from the eastern border of Sierra Leone all the way to. Ghana. .... consider whether data will likely fit the assumptions of a selected model. ... These tests are not alternatives to parametric tests, but rather are a means of.

  18. Analysis of Forecasting Sales By Using Quantitative And Qualitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rama Sanjeeva Sresta,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on analysis of forecasting sales using quantitative and qualitative methods. This forecast should be able to help create a model for measuring a successes and setting goals from financial and operational view points. The resulting model should tell if we have met our goals with respect to measures, targets, initiatives.

  19. Insights Into Quantitative Biology: analysis of cellular adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Agoni, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    In the last years many powerful techniques have emerged to measure protein interactions as well as gene expression. Many progresses have been done since the introduction of these techniques but not toward quantitative analysis of data. In this paper we show how to study cellular adaptation and how to detect cellular subpopulations. Moreover we go deeper in analyzing signal transduction pathways dynamics.

  20. Quantitating the subtleties of microglial morphology with fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between "ramified resting" and "activated amoeboid" has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells). Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology.

  1. Quantitating the Subtleties of Microglial Morphology with Fractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eKarperien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between "ramified resting" and "activated amoeboid" has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells. Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology.

  2. SU-E-J-262: Variability in Texture Analysis of Gynecological Tumors in the Context of An 18F-FDG PET Adaptive Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrocki, J [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, J; Das, S; Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study examines the effect on texture analysis due to variable reconstruction of PET images in the context of an adaptive FDG PET protocol for node positive gynecologic cancer patients. By measuring variability in texture features from baseline and intra-treatment PET-CT, we can isolate unreliable texture features due to large variation. Methods: A subset of seven patients with node positive gynecological cancers visible on PET was selected for this study. Prescribed dose varied between 45–50.4Gy, with a 55–70Gy boost to the PET positive nodes. A baseline and intratreatment (between 30–36Gy) PET-CT were obtained on a Siemens Biograph mCT. Each clinical PET image set was reconstructed 6 times using a TrueX+TOF algorithm with varying iterations and Gaussian filter. Baseline and intra-treatment primary GTVs were segmented using PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH), a semi-automatic gradient-based algorithm, on the clinical PET and transferred to the other reconstructed sets. Using an in-house MATLAB program, four 3D texture matrices describing relationships between voxel intensities in the GTV were generated: co-occurrence, run length, size zone, and neighborhood difference. From these, 39 textural features characterizing texture were calculated in addition to SUV histogram features. The percent variability among parameters was first calculated. Each reconstructed texture feature from baseline and intra-treatment per patient was normalized to the clinical baseline scan and compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in order to isolate variations due to reconstruction parameters. Results: For the baseline scans, 13 texture features showed a mean range greater than 10%. For the intra scans, 28 texture features showed a mean range greater than 10%. Comparing baseline to intra scans, 25 texture features showed p <0.05. Conclusion: Variability due to different reconstruction parameters increased with treatment, however, the majority of texture

  3. Semantic segmentation of 3D textured meshes for urban scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Classifying 3D measurement data has become a core problem in photogrammetry and 3D computer vision, since the rise of modern multiview geometry techniques, combined with affordable range sensors. We introduce a Markov Random Field-based approach for segmenting textured meshes generated via multi-view stereo into urban classes of interest. The input mesh is first partitioned into small clusters, referred to as superfacets, from which geometric and photometric features are computed. A random forest is then trained to predict the class of each superfacet as well as its similarity with the neighboring superfacets. Similarity is used to assign the weights of the Markov Random Field pairwise-potential and to account for contextual information between the classes. The experimental results illustrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed framework.

  4. Numerical analysis of the texture effect on the hydrodynamic performance of a mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjemout, M.; Brunetiere, N.; Bouyer, J.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the main geometrical characteristics of texture on the hydrodynamic lubrication of a mechanical seal. A parametric study was carried out in order to improve the performance of a mechanical seal. The numerical model used in this study solves the Reynolds equation coupled with a mass conservative model which takes into account the cavitation phenomenon. It is shown that among the six dimple shapes tested herein, namely cylinder, square, triangle, truncated cone, truncated pyramid, and spherical cap, the triangular dimples placed symmetrically with respect to their bases are more effective for enhancing the hydrodynamic performance of the mechanical seal. The effect of the area and depth ratios is studied and optimized as well. The optimized solution is able to minimize friction and leakage under a range of operating conditions.

  5. Analysis of texture in baby carrot (Daucus carota) subjected to the process of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: ssabato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The carrot is a vegetable of great economic value due to its versatility in the food industry and can be used as raw or minimally processed vegetable or aggregating value to the product, transforming the fresh carrots in baby carrots. It is well known that the application of gamma radiation in food may help in maintaining the quality of food. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation on texture of minimally processed baby carrot after the processing in a Multipurpose {sup 60}Co irradiator. It can be concluded that the treatment with low doses of gamma radiation keep the quality of fresh-cut baby carrot. (author)

  6. Bas-relief map using texture analysis with application to live enhancement of ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarui; Ma, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    For ultrasound imaging, speckle is one of the most important factors in the degradation of contrast resolution because it masks meaningful texture and has the potential to interfere with diagnosis. It is expected that researchers would explore appropriate ways to reduce the speckle noise, to find the edges of structures and enhance weak borders between different organs in ultrasound imaging. Inspired by the principle of differential interference contrast microscopy, a "bas-relief map" is proposed that depicts the texture structure of ultrasound images. Based on a bas-relief map, an adaptive bas-relief filter was developed for ultrafast despeckling. Subsequently, an edge map was introduced to enhance the edges of images in real time. The holistic bas-relief map approach has been used experimentally with synthetic phantoms and digital ultrasound B-scan images of liver, kidney and gallbladder. Based on the visual inspection and the performance metrics of the despeckled images, it was found that the bas-relief map approach is capable of effectively reducing the speckle while significantly enhancing contrast and tissue boundaries for ultrasonic images, and its speckle reduction ability is comparable to that of Kuan, Lee and Frost filters. Meanwhile, the proposed technique could preserve more intra-region details compared with the popular speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion technique and more effectively enhance edges. In addition, the adaptive bas-relief filter was much less time consuming than the Kuan, Lee and Frost filter and speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion techniques. The bas-relief map strategy is effective for speckle reduction and live enhancement of ultrasound images, and can provide a valuable tool for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Geomorphological diversity of Dong-Sha Atoll based on spectrum and texture analysis in high resolution remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianyu; Mao, Zhihua; He, Xianqiang

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs are complex marine ecosystems that are constructed and maintained by biological communities that thrive in tropical oceans. The Dong-Sha Atoll is located at the northern continental margin of the South China Sea. It has being abused by destructive activity of human being and natural event during recent decades. Remote sensing offers a powerful tool for studying coral reef geomorphology and is the most cost-effective approach for large-scale reef survey. In this paper, the high-resolution Quickbird2 imageries which covered the full atoll are used to categorize the current distribution of coral reefs geomorphological structure therein with the auxiliary SPOT5 and ASTER imageries. Spectral and texture analysis are used to distinguish the geomorphological diversity during data processing. The Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices is adopted for texture feature extraction and atoll geomorphology mapping in the high-resolution pan-color image of Quickbird2. Quickbird2 is considered as the most appropriate image source for coral reefs studies. In the Dong-Sha Atoll, various dynamical geomorphologic units are developed according to wave energy zones. There the reef frame types are classified to 3 different types according as its diversity at the image. The radial structure system is the most characteristic and from high resolution imagery we can distinguish the discrepancy between them.

  8. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices with integrated wrinkled gold micro-/nano textured electrodes for electrochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, C M; Adams-McGavin, R C; Vanderfleet, O M; Soleymani, L

    2015-08-21

    Fully-integrated electro-fluidic systems with micro-/nano-scale features have a wide range of applications in lab-on-a-chip systems used for biosensing, biological sample processing, and environmental monitoring. Rapid prototyping of application-specific electro-fluidic systems is envisioned to facilitate the testing, validation, and market translation of several lab-on-a-chip systems. Towards this goal, we developed a rapid prototyping process for creating wrinkled micro-/nano-textured electrodes on shrink memory polymers, fabricating microfluidics using molds patterned by a craft-cutter, and bonding electrical and fluidic circuitries using a PDMS partial curing method optimized for creating void-free bonds at the side walls and surfaces of tall (>5 μm) micro-/nano-textured wrinkled electrodes. The resulting electro-fluidic devices, featuring closely spaced high topography electrodes for electrochemical analysis, can withstand flow-rates and burst pressures larger than 25 mL min(-1) and 125 kPa, respectively. In addition, the fully-integrated electrochemical flow-cell developed here demonstrates excellent electrochemical behaviour, with negligible scan to scan variation for over 100 cyclic voltammetry scans, and expected redox signatures measured under various voltage scan rates and fluidic flow rates.

  9. Classification of dynamic contrast enhanced MR images of cervical cancers using texture analysis and support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torheim, Turid; Malinen, Eirik; Kvaal, Knut; Lyng, Heidi; Indahl, Ulf G; Andersen, Erlend K F; Futsaether, Cecilia M

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) provides insight into the vascular properties of tissue. Pharmacokinetic models may be fitted to DCE-MRI uptake patterns, enabling biologically relevant interpretations. The aim of our study was to determine whether treatment outcome for 81 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer could be predicted from parameters of the Brix pharmacokinetic model derived from pre-chemoradiotherapy DCE-MRI. First-order statistical features of the Brix parameters were used. In addition, texture analysis of Brix parameter maps was done by constructing gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) from the maps. Clinical factors and first- and second-order features were used as explanatory variables for support vector machine (SVM) classification, with treatment outcome as response. Classification models were validated using leave-one-out cross-model validation. A random value permutation test was used to evaluate model significance. Features derived from first-order statistics could not discriminate between cured and relapsed patients (specificity 0%-20%, p-values close to unity). However, second-order GLCM features could significantly predict treatment outcome with accuracies (~70%) similar to the clinical factors tumor volume and stage (69%). The results indicate that the spatial relations within the tumor, quantified by texture features, were more suitable for outcome prediction than first-order features.

  10. Texture-Analysis-Incorporated Wind Parameters Extraction from Rain-Contaminated X-Band Nautical Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for extracting wind parameters from rain-contaminated X-band nautical radar images is presented. The texture of the radar image is first generated based on spatial variability analysis. Through this process, the rain clutter in an image can be removed while the wave echoes are retained. The number of rain-contaminated pixels in each azimuthal direction of the texture is estimated, and this is used to determine the azimuthal directions in which the rain-contamination is negligible. Then, the original image data in these directions are selected for wind direction and speed retrieval using the modified intensity-level-selection-based wind algorithm. The proposed method is applied to shipborne radar data collected from the east Coast of Canada. The comparison of the radar results with anemometer data shows that the standard deviations of wind direction and speed using the rain mitigation technique can be reduced by about 14.5° and 1.3 m/s, respectively.

  11. Quantitative transverse flow assessment using OCT speckle decorrelation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the use of inter-Ascan speckle decorrelation analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess fluid flow. This method allows quantitative measurement of fluid flow in a plane normal to the scanning beam. To validate this method, OCT images were obtained from a micro fluid channel with bovine milk flowing at different speeds. We also imaged a blood vessel from in vivo animal models and performed speckle analysis to asses blood flow.

  12. Quantitative numerical analysis of transient IR-experiments on buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierhofer, Ch.; Wiggenhauser, H.; Brink, A.; Röllig, M.

    2004-12-01

    Impulse-thermography has been established as a fast and reliable tool in many areas of non-destructive testing. In recent years several investigations have been done to apply active thermography to civil engineering. For quantitative investigations in this area of application, finite difference calculations have been performed for systematic studies on the influence of environmental conditions, heating power and time, defect depth and size and thermal properties of the bulk material (concrete). The comparison of simulated and experimental data enables the quantitative analysis of defects.

  13. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva Presser; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K; Pickett, Joseph P; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2011-01-14

    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of 'culturomics,' focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. Culturomics extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities.

  14. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva P.; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K.; Pickett, Joseph P.; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2011-01-01

    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of ‘culturomics’, focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. ‘Culturomics’ extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities. PMID:21163965

  15. Scanning electron microscopy combined with image processing technique: Analysis of microstructure, texture and tenderness in Semitendinous and Gluteus Medius bovine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniazek, Facundo; Messina, Valeria

    2016-11-01

    In this study the effect of freeze drying on the microstructure, texture, and tenderness of Semitendinous and Gluteus Medius bovine muscles were analyzed applying Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with image analysis. Samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy at different magnifications (250, 500, and 1,000×). Texture parameters were analyzed by Texture analyzer and by image analysis. Tenderness by Warner-Bratzler shear force. Significant differences (p image and instrumental texture features. A linear trend with a linear correlation was applied for instrumental and image features. Image texture features calculated from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (homogeneity, contrast, entropy, correlation and energy) at 1,000× in both muscles had high correlations with instrumental features (chewiness, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness). Tenderness showed a positive correlation in both muscles with image features (energy and homogeneity). Combing Scanning Electron Microscopy with image analysis can be a useful tool to analyze quality parameters in meat.Summary SCANNING 38:727-734, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spotsizer: High-throughput quantitative analysis of microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffares, Daniel C.; Arzhaeva, Yulia; Bähler, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Microbial colony growth can serve as a useful readout in assays for studying complex genetic interactions or the effects of chemical compounds. Although computational tools for acquiring quantitative measurements of microbial colonies have been developed, their utility can be compromised by inflexible input image requirements, non-trivial installation procedures, or complicated operation. Here, we present the Spotsizer software tool for automated colony size measurements in images of robotically arrayed microbial colonies. Spotsizer features a convenient graphical user interface (GUI), has both single-image and batch-processing capabilities, and works with multiple input image formats and different colony grid types. We demonstrate how Spotsizer can be used for high-throughput quantitative analysis of fission yeast growth. The user-friendly Spotsizer tool provides rapid, accurate, and robust quantitative analyses of microbial growth in a high-throughput format. Spotsizer is freely available at https://data.csiro.au/dap/landingpage?pid=csiro:15330 under a proprietary CSIRO license. PMID:27712582

  17. A strategy to apply quantitative epistasis analysis on developmental traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labocha, Marta K; Yuan, Wang; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-05-15

    Genetic interactions are keys to understand complex traits and evolution. Epistasis analysis is an effective method to map genetic interactions. Large-scale quantitative epistasis analysis has been well established for single cells. However, there is a substantial lack of such studies in multicellular organisms and their complex phenotypes such as development. Here we present a method to extend quantitative epistasis analysis to developmental traits. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we applied RNA interference on mutants to inactivate two genes, used an imaging system to quantitatively measure phenotypes, and developed a set of statistical methods to extract genetic interactions from phenotypic measurement. Using two different C. elegans developmental phenotypes, body length and sex ratio, as examples, we showed that this method could accommodate various metazoan phenotypes with performances comparable to those methods in single cell growth studies. Comparing with qualitative observations, this method of quantitative epistasis enabled detection of new interactions involving subtle phenotypes. For example, several sex-ratio genes were found to interact with brc-1 and brd-1, the orthologs of the human breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BARD1, respectively. We confirmed the brc-1 interactions with the following genes in DNA damage response: C34F6.1, him-3 (ortholog of HORMAD1, HORMAD2), sdc-1, and set-2 (ortholog of SETD1A, SETD1B, KMT2C, KMT2D), validating the effectiveness of our method in detecting genetic interactions. We developed a reliable, high-throughput method for quantitative epistasis analysis of developmental phenotypes.

  18. Quantitative proteomics and bioinformatic analysis provide new insight into protein function during avian eggshell biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-01-15

    Gallus gallus eggshell is a bioceramic composed of 95% calcium carbonate in calcitic form and 3.5% extracellular organic matrix. The calcification process occurs in the uterine fluid where biomineralization follows a temporal sequence corresponding to the initiation, growth and termination stages of crystal growth. Eggshell texture and its ultrastructure are regulated by organic matrix proteins, which control mineralization process and influence the eggshell biomechanical properties. We performed proteomic qualitative analyses and identified 308 uterine fluid proteins. Quantitative analysis showed differential abundances at the three stages of shell biomineralization for 64 of them. Cluster analysis revealed a first group of proteins related to mineralization and mainly present at the onset of calcification including OVOT, OVAL, OC-17, and two novel calcium binding proteins (EDIL3, MFGE8). A second group of proteins mainly present at the initiation and termination of shell formation was potentially involved in the regulation of the activity of the uterine fluid proteins (e.g. molecular chaperones, folding proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors). OCX21, a protein highly concentrated in the fluid and the shell, belongs to this group. A third group equally represented at all stages of shell mineralization corresponded to antibacterial proteins that could protect the forming egg against microbial invasion. The calcitic avian eggshell protects the developing embryo and, moreover, ensures that the nutritious table egg remains free of pathogens. The eggshell is formed by nucleation upon a fibrous scaffold (the eggshell membranes) followed by an interaction between the growing mineral crystals and the shell organic matrix. This interaction leads to a highly ordered shell microstructure and texture which contribute to its exceptional mechanical properties. Shell mineralization occurs in three distinct phases of calcification (initiation, growth and termination), which

  19. Colour and texture associations in voice-induced synaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eMoos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voice-induced synaesthesia, a form of synaesthesia in which synaesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people’s voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synaesthetic colour and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of voice quality (e.g. nasal, whisper, falsetto. Experiences of three different groups – self-reported voice synaesthetes, phoneticians and controls – were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synaesthetes used more colour and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colours, the matching of whispery voices with smoke-like textures and the matching of harsh and creaky voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synaesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synaesthetic inducers.

  20. Color and texture associations in voice-induced synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Anja; Simmons, David; Simner, Julia; Smith, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Voice-induced synesthesia, a form of synesthesia in which synesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people's voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synesthetic color and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of "voice quality" (e.g., nasal, whisper, falsetto). Experiences of three different groups-self-reported voice synesthetes, phoneticians, and controls-were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synesthetes used more color and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colors, the matching of "whispery" voices with smoke-like textures, and the matching of "harsh" and "creaky" voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synesthetic inducers.

  1. Using quantitative image analysis to classify axillary lymph nodes on breast MRI: A new application for the Z 0011 Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, David V., E-mail: dschacht@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Pak, Iris, E-mail: irisgpak@gmail.com; Abe, Hiroyuki, E-mail: habe@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L., E-mail: m-giger@uchicago.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis showed promise in evaluating axillary lymph nodes. •13 of 28 features performed better than guessing at metastatic status. •When all features were used in together, a considerably higher AUC was obtained. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the performance of computer extracted feature analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance images (MRI) of axillary lymph nodes. To determine which quantitative features best predict nodal metastasis. Methods: This institutional board-approved HIPAA compliant study, in which informed patient consent was waived, collected enhanced T1 images of the axilla from patients with breast cancer. Lesion segmentation and feature analysis were performed on 192 nodes using a laboratory-developed quantitative image analysis (QIA) workstation. The importance of 28 features were assessed. Classification used the features as input to a neural net classifier in a leave-one-case-out cross-validation and evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) values for features in the task of distinguishing between positive and negative nodes ranged from just over 0.50 to 0.70. Five features yielded AUCs greater than 0.65: two morphological and three textural features. In cross-validation, the neural net classifier obtained an AUC of 0.88 (SE 0.03) for the task of distinguishing between positive and negative nodes. Conclusion: QIA of DCE MRI demonstrated promising performance in discriminating between positive and negative axillary nodes.

  2. Template characterization and correlation algorithm created from segmentation for the iris biometric authentication based on analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: franciscogiacometto@unicesar.edu.co [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Among the most used biometric signals to set personal security permissions, taker increasingly importance biometric iris recognition based on their textures and images of blood vessels due to the rich in these two unique characteristics that are unique to each individual. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm characterization and correlation of templates created for biometric authentication based on iris texture analysis programmed on a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), authentication is based on processes like characterization methods based on frequency analysis of the sample, and frequency correlation to obtain the expected results of authentication.

  3. Adhesion of rice flour-based batter to chicken drumsticks evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy and texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukprasirt, A; Herald, T J; Boyle, D L; Rausch, K D

    2000-09-01

    The convenience and appeal of battered or breaded products have resulted in a sales increase of 100% since 1980. Because of the rapid growth of the Asian-American population and increasing consumption of rice and rice products, rice flour is a logical alternative for wheat flour in traditional batter formulation. The effects of ingredients used in rice flour-based batters on adhesion characteristic for deep-fat fried chicken drumsticks were studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and texture analysis. Raw chicken drumsticks were predusted with egg albumin powder before dipping into batters prepared from combinations of rice flour, yellow corn flour, oxidized cornstarch, methylcellulose, or xanthan gum. The drumsticks were fried at 175+/-5 C until the internal temperature reached at least 71 C. For LSCM, samples were fixed overnight and were sectioned by vibratome (200 microm) before viewing. Batter adhesion was determined using an attachment specifically designed for chicken drumsticks. Microstructural analysis showed that batter formulated with a 50:50 mixture of rice and corn flours adhered better to drumsticks than batter with other rice flour ratios. Xanthan gum (0.2%) or methylcellulose (0.3%) alone had poor adhesion to chicken skin. However, when combined with other ingredients, xanthan gum increased the amount of batter pick-up before frying by increasing viscosity. Egg albumin significantly facilitated batter adhesion. The results from texture analysis supported the microstructural studies. As rice flour ratio increased from 50 to 70%, the binding force decreased. Rice flour showed potential as an alternative to wheat flour for batter formulas when the appropriate levels of oxidized starch, xanthan gum, and methylcellulose were included in the formulation.

  4. Quantitative nanoscale analysis in 3D using electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, INT, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    State-of-the-art electron tomography has been established as a powerful tool to image complex structures with nanometer resolution in 3D. Especially STEM tomography is used extensively in materials science in such diverse areas as catalysis, semiconductor materials, and polymer composites mainly providing qualitative information on morphology, shape and distribution of materials. However, for an increasing number of studies quantitative information, e.g. surface area, fractal dimensions, particle distribution or porosity are needed. A quantitative analysis is typically performed after segmenting the tomographic data, which is one of the main sources of error for the quantification. In addition to noise, systematic errors due to the missing wedge and due to artifacts from the reconstruction algorithm itself are responsible for these segmentation errors and improved algorithms are needed. This presentation will provide an overview of the possibilities and limitations of quantitative nanoscale analysis by electron tomography. Using catalysts and nano composites as applications examples, intensities and intensity variations observed for the 3D volume reconstructed by WBP and SIRT will be quantitatively compared to alternative reconstruction algorithms; implications for quantification of electron (or X-ray) tomographic data will be discussed and illustrated for quantification of particle size distributions, particle correlations, surface area, and fractal dimensions in 3D.

  5. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image.

  6. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadar Dudekula

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides. A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  7. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudekula, Khadar; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides). A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  8. Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrocino, Giovanni; Iervolino, Iunio; Orlando, Francesca; Salzano, Ernesto

    2005-08-31

    Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) of industrial facilities has to take into account multiple hazards threatening critical equipment. Nevertheless, engineering procedures able to evaluate quantitatively the effect of seismic action are not well established. Indeed, relevant industrial accidents may be triggered by loss of containment following ground shaking or other relevant natural hazards, either directly or through cascade effects ('domino effects'). The issue of integrating structural seismic risk into quantitative probabilistic seismic risk analysis (QpsRA) is addressed in this paper by a representative study case regarding an oil storage plant with a number of atmospheric steel tanks containing flammable substances. Empirical seismic fragility curves and probit functions, properly defined both for building-like and non building-like industrial components, have been crossed with outcomes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for a test site located in south Italy. Once the seismic failure probabilities have been quantified, consequence analysis has been performed for those events which may be triggered by the loss of containment following seismic action. Results are combined by means of a specific developed code in terms of local risk contour plots, i.e. the contour line for the probability of fatal injures at any point (x, y) in the analysed area. Finally, a comparison with QRA obtained by considering only process-related top events is reported for reference.

  9. Confocal microscopy for automatic texture analysis of elastic fibers in histologic preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, R. L.; Vieira, G.; Ferro, D. P.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Cesar, C., L.; Metze, K.

    2009-07-01

    Elastic fibers are an important component of many organs and tissues, such as skin, lungs, arteries, ligaments, intervertebral discs and cartilage Their function is to endow tissues with elastic recoil and resilience, to act as an important adhesion template for cells, and to regulate growth factor availability (1,2). Loss or remodeling of the elastic fiber texture occurs in many diseases. Degeneration and fragmentation of elastic fibers and aging are intimately related (3). Recently, the importance of elastin for the study of malignant tumor progression has been emphasized (4,5). Elastic tissue may be a significant reservoir of angiostatic molecules and soluble elastin as well as elastin peptides, that are inhibitors of the metastatic process in experimental tumor models (4). Elastic fibers are involved in the anatomic remodeling of chronic pulmonary diseases (6) and, especially, of diseases of the arterial wall (7, 8). The study of these phenomena is important for the understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of the diseases. Recently the role of elastic fibers in small diameter vascular graft design has been emphasized (2). The possibility to regenerate or engineer elastic fibres and tissues creates an important challenge, not only to understand the molecular basis of elastic-fibre biology (1,2), but also of its spatial arrangement and remodeling in the diseased tissues. Subtle changes of the complex elastic fiber network may be involved in the pathogenesis of diseases. Therefore a precise and objective histopathologic description is necessary.

  10. Computerized lung cancer malignancy level analysis using 3D texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Huang, Xia; Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Based on the likelihood of malignancy, the nodules are classified into five different levels in Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. In this study, we tested the possibility of using threedimensional (3D) texture features to identify the malignancy level of each nodule. Five groups of features were implemented and tested on 172 nodules with confident malignancy levels from four radiologists. These five feature groups are: grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features, local binary pattern (LBP) features, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features, steerable features, and wavelet features. Because of the high dimensionality of our proposed features, multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used for dimension reduction. RUSBoost was applied for our extracted features for classification, due to its advantages in handling imbalanced dataset. Each group of features and the final combined features were used to classify nodules highly suspicious for cancer (level 5) and moderately suspicious (level 4). The results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy are 0.7659 and 0.8365 when using the finalized features. These features were also tested on differentiating benign and malignant cases, and the reported AUC and accuracy were 0.8901 and 0.9353.

  11. Automatic Characterization of the Visual Appearance of Industrial Materials through Colour and Texture Analysis: An Overview of Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of methods and applications of automatic characterization of the appearance of materials through colour and texture analysis. We propose a taxonomy based on three classes of methods (spectral, spatial, and hybrid and discuss their general advantages and disadvantages. For each class we present a set of methods that are computationally cheap and easy to implement and that was proved to be reliable in many applications. We put these methods in the context of typical industrial environments and provide examples of their application in the following tasks: surface grading, surface inspection, and content-based image retrieval. We emphasize the potential benefits that would come from a wide implementation of these methods, such as better product quality, new services, and higher customer satisfaction.

  12. Sensory properties and instrumental texture analysis of chevon patties from intact male Boer and Kiko goats harvested at four endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leick, C M; Behrends, J M; Solaiman, S G; Broadway, P R; Min, B R; Mikel, W B; Williams, J B; Schilling, M W

    2012-07-01

    Intact male Boer and Kiko goats (n=48) were harvested after 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks on a 16% crude protein concentrate diet. Boneless goat carcass left sides were ground and formed into patties to evaluate cook loss, texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory characteristics. Increasing feeding duration increased percent fat and decreased moisture in raw ground meat (PKiko meat (P0.05). Increased feeding duration increased aroma intensity and goaty, bloody, musty, and liver/organy aromas; salty, bitter, umami, grassy, goaty, fat, liver/organy, metallic, earthy, and chemical flavors; and juiciness and oiliness, while decreasing chewiness and crumbliness (PKiko patties had similar sensory properties after 0 and 4weeks on feed, but breeds were more distinguishable after 8 or 12 weeks on feed.

  13. A microcomputer-based system for quantitative petrographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, John; Samantaray, Abani Kanta

    1994-11-01

    An imaging system based on a videocamera and frame grabber is described which is capable of capturing and analyzing composite images. Individual images are captured interactively, this permits manipulation of the illumination to emphasize selected features of interest in sequentially captured images. Data from the sequential images are accumulated to form a synoptic image, which allows analysis to proceed in a manner which emulates the techniques of manual, polarized light microscopy. The effects of rotating a thin section in plane and crossed polarized light can be simulated so that mineral boundaries can be detected across which there is a lack of contrast at some orientations. The imaging system implements algorithms for digital filtering and boundary identification and incorporates facilities for image editing. Mathematical functions are provided for the interpolation of boundaries which are not detected in their entirety, in a way analogous to visual interpretation. The image data are written to 256-color PCX image files which can be manipulated by other software or transmitted electronically. The locations of the boundaries of the features of interest are available as lists of ( x, y) coordinates and as chain codes. From these the size, shape, and spatial parameters are computed. In addition, the gray-level and segmented images are used to obtain texture information. The imaging system is illustrated by application to the analysis of grain boundaries, modal composition, and grain shapes in petrographic thin sections. The analytical results are compared with results obtained by traditional petrographic analyses.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative stability analysis of penta-rhythmic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, Justus T. C.; Knapper, Drake E.; Shilnikov, Andrey L.

    2016-12-01

    Inhibitory circuits of relaxation oscillators are often-used models for dynamics of biological networks. We present a qualitative and quantitative stability analysis of such a circuit constituted by three generic oscillators (of a Fitzhugh-Nagumo type) as its nodes coupled reciprocally. Depending on inhibitory strengths, and parameters of individual oscillators, the circuit exhibits polyrhythmicity of up to five simultaneously stable rhythms. With methods of bifurcation analysis and phase reduction, we investigate qualitative changes in stability of these circuit rhythms for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we quantify robustness of the rhythms maintained under random perturbations by monitoring phase diffusion in the circuit. Our findings allow us to describe how circuit dynamics relate to dynamics of individual nodes. We also find that quantitative and qualitative stability properties of polyrhythmicity do not always align.

  15. Quantitative analysis of myocardial tissue with digital autofluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Holten-Rossing, Henrik; Svendsen, Ida M H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The opportunity offered by whole slide scanners of automated histological analysis implies an ever increasing importance of digital pathology. To go beyond the importance of conventional pathology, however, digital pathology may need a basic histological starting point similar...... to that of hematoxylin and eosin staining in conventional pathology. This study presents an automated fluorescence-based microscopy approach providing highly detailed morphological data from unstained microsections. This data may provide a basic histological starting point from which further digital analysis including...... staining may benefit. METHODS: This study explores the inherent tissue fluorescence, also known as autofluorescence, as a mean to quantitate cardiac tissue components in histological microsections. Data acquisition using a commercially available whole slide scanner and an image-based quantitation algorithm...

  16. Quantitative and qualitative analysis and interpretation of CT perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo, Carolina; Ambrose, Marietta; Mehra, Vishal; Lardo, Albert C; Lima, Joao A C; George, Richard T

    2010-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging has an important role in the non-invasive risk stratification of patients with CAD. However, diagnostic accuracies have been limited, which has led to the development of several myocardial perfusion imaging techniques. Among them, myocardial computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) is especially interesting as it has the unique capability of providing anatomic- as well as coronary stenosis-related functional data when combined with computed tomography angiography (CTA). The primary aim of this article is to review the qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative analysis approaches to CTP imaging. In doing so, we will describe the image data required for each analysis and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

  17. QuantUM: Quantitative Safety Analysis of UML Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leitner-Fischer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available When developing a safety-critical system it is essential to obtain an assessment of different design alternatives. In particular, an early safety assessment of the architectural design of a system is desirable. In spite of the plethora of available formal quantitative analysis methods it is still difficult for software and system architects to integrate these techniques into their every day work. This is mainly due to the lack of methods that can be directly applied to architecture level models, for instance given as UML diagrams. Also, it is necessary that the description methods used do not require a profound knowledge of formal methods. Our approach bridges this gap and improves the integration of quantitative safety analysis methods into the development process. All inputs of the analysis are specified at the level of a UML model. This model is then automatically translated into the analysis model, and the results of the analysis are consequently represented on the level of the UML model. Thus the analysis model and the formal methods used during the analysis are hidden from the user. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach using an industrial strength case study.

  18. Country Risk Analysis: A Survey of the Quantitative Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hiranya K Nath

    2008-01-01

    With globalization and financial integration, there has been rapid growth of international lending and foreign direct investment (FDI). In view of this emerging trend, country risk analysis has become extremely important for the international creditors and investors. This paper briefly discusses the concepts and definitions, and presents a survey of the quantitative methods that are used to address various issues related to country risk. It also gives a summary review of selected empirical st...

  19. Automated characterization of normal and pathologic lung tissue by topological texture analysis of multidetector CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, H. F.; Fink, C.; Becker, C.; Reiser, M.

    2007-03-01

    Reliable and accurate methods for objective quantitative assessment of parenchymal alterations in the lung are necessary for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of pulmonary diseases. Two major types of alterations are pulmonary emphysema and fibrosis, emphysema being characterized by abnormal enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal, nonrespiratory bronchiole, accompanied by destructive changes of the alveolar walls. The main characteristic of fibrosis is coursening of the interstitial fibers and compaction of the pulmonary tissue. With the ability to display anatomy free from superimposing structures and greater visual clarity, Multi-Detector-CT has shown to be more sensitive than the chest radiograph in identifying alterations of lung parenchyma. In automated evaluation of pulmonary CT-scans, quantitative image processing techniques are applied for objective evaluation of the data. A number of methods have been proposed in the past, most of which utilize simple densitometric tissue features based on the mean X-ray attenuation coefficients expressed in terms of Hounsfield Units [HU]. Due to partial volume effects, most of the density-based methodologies tend to fail, namely in cases, where emphysema and fibrosis occur within narrow spatial limits. In this study, we propose a methodology based upon the topological assessment of graylevel distribution in the 3D image data of lung tissue which provides a way of improving quantitative CT evaluation. Results are compared to the more established density-based methods.

  20. SU-E-T-30: Absorbed Doses Determined by Texture Analysis of Gafchromic EBT3 Films Using Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ye, S [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The texture analysis method is useful to estimate structural features of images as color, size, and shape. The study aims to determine a dose-response curve by texture analysis of Gafchromic EBT3 film images using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: The uncoated Gafchromic EBT3 films were prepared to directly scan over the active surface layer of EBT3 film using SEM. The EBT3 films were exposed at a dose range of 0 to 10 Gy using a 6 MV photon beam. The exposed film samples were SEM-scanned at 100X, 1000X, and 3000X magnifications. The four texture features (Homogeneity, Correlation, Contrast, and Energy) were calculated based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) derived from the SEM images at each dose. To validate a correlation between delivered doses and texture features, an R-squared value in linear regression was tested. Results: The results showed that the Correlation index was more suitable as dose indices than the other three texture features due to higher linearity and sensitivity of the dose response curves. Further the Correlation index of 3000X magnified SEM images with 9 pixel offsets had an R-squared value of 0.964. The differences between the delivered doses and the doses measured by this method were 0.9, 1.2, 0.2, and 0.2 Gy at 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: It seems to be feasible to convert micro-scale structural features of {sub χ}t{sub χχχ}he EBT3 films to absorbed doses using the texture analysis method.

  1. Texture analysis of automatic graph cuts segmentations for detection of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2015-03-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a treatment for early-stage lung cancer with local control rates comparable to surgery. After SABR, benign radiation induced lung injury (RILI) results in tumour-mimicking changes on computed tomography (CT) imaging. Distinguishing recurrence from RILI is a critical clinical decision determining the need for potentially life-saving salvage therapies whose high risks in this population dictate their use only for true recurrences. Current approaches do not reliably detect recurrence within a year post-SABR. We measured the detection accuracy of texture features within automatically determined regions of interest, with the only operator input being the single line segment measuring tumour diameter, normally taken during the clinical workflow. Our leave-one-out cross validation on images taken 2-5 months post-SABR showed robustness of the entropy measure, with classification error of 26% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.77 using automatic segmentation; the results using manual segmentation were 24% and 0.75, respectively. AUCs for this feature increased to 0.82 and 0.93 at 8-14 months and 14-20 months post SABR, respectively, suggesting even better performance nearer to the date of clinical diagnosis of recurrence; thus this system could also be used to support and reinforce the physician's decision at that time. Based on our ongoing validation of this automatic approach on a larger sample, we aim to develop a computer-aided diagnosis system which will support the physician's decision to apply timely salvage therapies and prevent patients with RILI from undergoing invasive and risky procedures.

  2. Monitoring soil aggregates dynamics at a plot scale using multitemporal image texture and colour analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ymeti, Irena; van der Werff, Harald; van der Meer, Freek; Jetten, Victor

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring of soil aggregate breakdown remains, even at the micro-plot scale, a challenge. Remote sensing has shown its potential to assess many different soil properties and is a fast and non-destructive method to investigate soil susceptibility to water erosion. We designed an outdoor experiment to monitor soil aggregates breakdown under natural rainfall at a micro-plot scale using a regular camera. Five soils susceptible to detachment (silty loam with various organic matter content, loam and sandy loam) were photographed once per day. We collected images and rainfall data from November 2014 until February 2015. Considering that the soil surface roughness causes shadow cast, the blue/red band ratio is used to observe the soil aggregates changes. In addition, a Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is used to extract the image texture entropy which reflects the process of soil aggregates breakdown. In our research the entropy calculated at 135 degrees along the direction of shadows gives best results. Our results show that both entropy and shadow index follow the wetting and drying cycles with a decrease due to a rain event. This decrease is small due to low rainfall intensity (< 2.5 mmh-1) for the entire period that the experiment ran. However, the biggest rain event of 20 mmday-1 resulted in a decrease in entropy, meaning that sufficient rainfall energy was present to trigger the soil aggregates break down. This research concludes that both entropy and shadow index obtained with a regular camera enable the monitoring of soil aggregate breakdown at a high spatial resolution.

  3. Quantitative Proteomic Approaches for Analysis of Protein S-Nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhe; Greenlief, C Michael; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based post-translational modification of a protein in response to nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and it participates in a variety of processes in diverse biological systems. The significance of this type of protein modification in health and diseases is increasingly recognized. In the central nervous system, aberrant S-nitrosylation, due to excessive NO production, is known to cause protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional dysregulation, and neuronal death. This leads to an altered physiological state and consequently contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, much effort has been made to understand the mechanisms underlying protein S-nitrosylation, and several approaches have been developed to unveil S-nitrosylated proteins from different organisms. Interest in determining the dynamic changes of protein S-nitrosylation under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions has underscored the need for the development of quantitative proteomic approaches. Currently, both gel-based and gel-free mass spectrometry-based quantitative methods are widely used, and they each have advantages and disadvantages but may also be used together to produce complementary data. This review evaluates current available quantitative proteomic techniques for the analysis of protein S-nitrosylation and highlights recent advances, with emphasis on applications in neurodegenerative diseases. An important goal is to provide a comprehensive guide of feasible quantitative proteomic methodologies for examining protein S-nitrosylation in research to yield insights into disease mechanisms, diagnostic biomarkers, and drug discovery.

  4. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Huang, Zhi-Bing; Song, Yan-Gang; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ho, Alan; Lin, Chao-Zhan; Huang, Wen-Hua; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-08-19

    Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) injection (SQI), via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS); saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w) of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%-0.21%, and 53.49%-58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections.

  5. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Leung Chau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ injection (SQI, via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS; saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%–0.21%, and 53.49%–58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections.

  6. The texture-structure relationship in Ti-Al-Nb multilayered composites processed by accumulative roll bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    Multilayered Ti/Al/Nb composites were processed by the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process using elemental foils of titanium, aluminum, and niobium. The rolled multilayered composites (MLCs) were prepared by ARB process up to two ARB cycles. The microstructure and texture evolution of the Ti, Al, and Nb in the MLCs were studied utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The characterizations of crystallographic texture and microstructure were conducted using a creative approach; a layer by layer method on the rolling plane. Texture evolution in the MLCs produced by symmetric rolling and asymmetric rolling was also studied in a layer by layer manner. In addition to studying the texture evolution of the Nb in the MLCs produced by the ARB process, the Bingham distribution was used to model the orientation distribution function (ODF) by employing MTEX, a quantitative texture analysis toolbox for Matlab RTM. This provided a bridge for the gap between experiments and Bingham modeling in terms of the crystallographic texture. As the numbers of ARB cycles increased, the microstructures tended to be heterogeneous through the thickness. Also, the texture development of the mating layers in the MLCs exhibited multiple texture domination rather than random. Furthermore, the developed textures of the layers in the MLCs during the ARB process were significantly different from that produced by conventional rolling. The characteristic textures formed in the MLCs subjected to the ARB process implied that the partial recrystallization and recovery occurred as a result of the adiabatic heat. The shear and compressive strain distributions were inhomogeneous through the thickness. Thus, the texture developments of the layers in the MLCs suggested a strong locational dependence. Where, the surface and the middle layers tended to form textures attributed to the shear, while, the transitory layers

  7. Quantitative analysis for nonlinear fluorescent spectra based on edges matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel spectra-edge-matching approach is proposed for the quantitative analysis of the nonlinear fluorescence spectra of the air impurities excited by a femtosecond laser.The fluorescence spectra are first denoised and compressed,both by wavelet transform,and several peak groups are then picked from each spectrum according to a threshold of intensity and are used to extract the spectral features through principal component analysis.It is indicated that the first two principle components actually cover up to 98% of the total information and are sufficient for the final concentration analysis.The analysis reveals a monotone relationship between the spectra intensity and the concentration of the air impurities,suggesting that the femtosecond laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy along with the proposed spectra analysis method can become a powerful tool for monitoring environmental pollutants.

  8. Texture analysis of torn rotator cuff on preoperative magnetic resonance arthrography as a predictor of postoperative tendon status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeon Ah; Lee, Guen Young; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Eugene; Kim, Boh Young; Kim, Su Jin; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate texture data of the torn supraspinatus tendon (SST) on preoperative T2-weighted magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for prediction of post-operative tendon state. Fifty patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears of the SST were included in this retrospective study. Based on 1-year follow-up, magnetic resonance imaging showed that 30 patients had intact SSTs, and 20 had rotator cuff retears. Using GLCM, two radiologists measured independently the highest signal intensity area of the distal end of the torn SST on preoperative T2-weighted MRA, which were compared between two groups.The relationships with other well-known prognostic factors, including age, tear size (anteroposterior dimension), retraction size (mediolateral tear length), grade of fatty degeneration of the SST and infraspinatus tendon, and arthroscopic fixation technique (single or double row), also were evaluated. Of all the GLCM features, the retear group showed significantly higher entropy (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001), variance (p = 0.030 and 0.011), and contrast (p = 0.033 and 0.012), but lower angular second moment (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002) and inverse difference moment (p = 0.027 and 0.027), as well as larger tear size (p = 0.001) and retraction size (p = 0.002) than the intact group. Retraction size (odds ratio [OR] = 3.053) and entropy (OR = 17.095) were significant predictors. Texture analysis of torn SSTs on preoperative T2-weighted MRA using the GLCM may be helpful to predict postoperative tendon state after rotator cuff repair.

  9. Texture analysis and classification of ERS SAR images for map updating of urban areas in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    In single-band and single-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image classification, texture holds useful information. In a study to assess the map-updating capabilities of such sensors in urban areas, some modern texture measures were investigated. Among them were histogram measures, wavelet

  10. Quantitative gait analysis following hemispherotomy for Rasmussen′s encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh George Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-insular hemispherotomy is a form of disconnective hemispherectomy involving complete disconnection of all ascending / descending and commisural connections of one hemisphere. We report a case of a seven and a half year old child with intractable epilepsy due to Rasmussen′s encephalitis who underwent peri-insular hemispherotomy and achieved complete freedom from seizures. Quantitative gait analysis was used to describe the changes in the kinematic and kinetic parameters of gait with surface electromyographs 18 months after surgery. The focus of this paper is to highlight the utility of gait analysis following hemispherotomy with a view to directing postsurgical motor training and rehabilitation.

  11. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

  12. Application of the angle measure technique as image texture analysis method for the identification of uranium ore concentrate samples: New perspective in nuclear forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Lorenzo; Ho, Doris Mer Lin; Kvaal, Knut; Mayer, Klaus; Rondinella, Vincenzo V

    2016-05-15

    The identification of interdicted nuclear or radioactive materials requires the application of dedicated techniques. In this work, a new approach for characterizing powder of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) is presented. It is based on image texture analysis and multivariate data modelling. 26 different UOCs samples were evaluated applying the Angle Measure Technique (AMT) algorithm to extract textural features on samples images acquired at 250× and 1000× magnification by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). At both magnifications, this method proved effective to classify the different types of UOC powder based on the surface characteristics that depend on particle size, homogeneity, and graininess and are related to the composition and processes used in the production facilities. Using the outcome data from the application of the AMT algorithm, the total explained variance was higher than 90% with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), while partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) applied only on the 14 black colour UOCs powder samples, allowed their classification only on the basis of their surface texture features (sensitivity>0.6; specificity>0.6). This preliminary study shows that this method was able to distinguish samples with similar composition, but obtained from different facilities. The mean angle spectral data obtained by the image texture analysis using the AMT algorithm can be considered as a specific fingerprint or signature of UOCs and could be used for nuclear forensic investigation.

  13. Laws' masks descriptors applied to bone texture analysis: an innovative and discriminant tool in osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachidi, M. [Orleans Hospital, INSERM Unit U658, Orleans (France); INSERM-U658. IPROS Hopital Porte Madeleine, Orleans (France); Marchadier, A. [Orleans Hospital, IPROS, Orleans (France); Gadois, C. [D3A Medical Systems, Orleans (France); Lespessailles, E. [Ipros-service de Rhumatologie CHR d' Orleans, Orleans (France); Chappard, C.; Benhamou, C.L. [Orleans Hospital, INSERM Unit U658, Orleans (France)

    2008-06-15

    The objective of this study was to explore Laws' masks analysis to describe structural variations of trabecular bone due to osteoporosis on high-resolution digital radiographs and to check its dependence on the spatial resolution. Laws' masks are well established as one of the best methods for texture analysis in image processing and are used in various applications, but not in bone tissue characterisation. This method is based on masks that aim to filter the images. From each mask, five classical statistical parameters can be calculated. The study was performed on 182 healthy postmenopausal women with no fractures and 114 age-matched women with fractures [26 hip fractures (HFs), 29 vertebrae fractures (VFs), 29 wrist fractures (WFs) and 30 other fractures (OFs)]. For all subjects radiographs were obtained of the calcaneus with a new high-resolution X-ray device with direct digitisation (BMA, D3A, France). The lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In terms of reproducibility, the best results were obtained with the TR{sub E5E5} mask, especially for three parameters: 'mean', 'standard deviation' and 'entropy' with, respectively, in vivo mid-term root mean square average coefficient of variation (RMSCV)%=1.79, 4.24 and 2.05. The 'mean' and 'entropy' parameters had a better reproducibility but 'standard deviation' showed a better discriminant power. Thus, for univariate analysis, the difference between subjects with fractures and controls was significant (P<10{sup -3}) and significant for each fracture group independently (P<10{sup -4} for HF, P=0.025 for VF and P < 10{sup -3} for OF). After multivariate analysis with adjustment for age and total hip BMD, the difference concerning the 'standard deviation' parameter remained statistically significant between the control group and the HF and VF groups (P<5 x 10

  14. Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landahl, Sandra; Meyer, Marjolaine Dorothée; Terry, Leon Alexander

    2009-08-12

    The ripeness degree of climacteric fruits, such as avocado ( Persea americana Mill.), can be correlated with rheological properties. However, there remains little information on not only the postharvest changes in texture of avocado fruit from different origins but also the spatial variation within fruit. In addition, the relationship between changes in texture and composition of fatty acids and major nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of fruit tissue during ripening is unknown. The texture of different horizontally cut slices from individual fruits within a consignment was measured during ripening using a previously unreported technique. The composition of fatty acids and NSCs in fruit mesocarp tissue was determined. The composition of fatty acids and oil and dry matter contents varied significantly according to origin. Significant changes in texture, mannoheptulose and perseitol contents, and linoleic acid percentage were found in avocado fruit flesh during ripening. Spatial variation within fruit was detected in both textural and biochemical characteristics.

  15. Light extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED with pyramid texture by using ray path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jui-Wen; Wang, Chia-Shen

    2012-09-10

    We study three different gallium-nitride (GaN) based light emitting diode (LED) cases based on the different locations of the pyramid textures. In case 1, the pyramid texture is located on the sapphire top surface, in case 2, the pyramid texture is locate on the P-GaN top surface, while in case 3, the pyramid texture is located on both the sapphire and P-GaN top surfaces. We study the relationship between the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and angle of slant of the pyramid texture. The optimization of total LEE was highest for case 3 among the three cases. Moreover, the seven escape paths along which most of the escaped photon flux propagated were selected in a simulation of the LEDs. The seven escape paths were used to estimate the slant angle for the optimization of LEE and to precisely analyze the photon escape path.

  16. Tiling soil textures for terrestrial ecosystem modelling via clustering analysis: a case study with CLASS-CTEM (version 2.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Joe R.; Sospedra-Alfonso, Reinel; McCusker, Kelly E.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the application of clustering algorithms to represent sub-grid scale variability in soil texture for use in a global-scale terrestrial ecosystem model. Our model, the coupled Canadian Land Surface Scheme - Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CLASS-CTEM), is typically implemented at a coarse spatial resolution (approximately 2. 8° × 2. 8°) due to its use as the land surface component of the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM). CLASS-CTEM can, however, be run with tiling of the land surface as a means to represent sub-grid heterogeneity. We first determined that the model was sensitive to tiling of the soil textures via an idealized test case before attempting to cluster soil textures globally. To cluster a high-resolution soil texture dataset onto our coarse model grid, we use two linked algorithms - the Ordering Points to Identify the Clustering Structure (OPTICS) algorithm (Ankerst et al., 1999; Daszykowski et al., 2002) and the algorithm of Sander et al. (2003) - to provide tiles of representative soil textures for use as CLASS-CTEM inputs. The clustering process results in, on average, about three tiles per CLASS-CTEM grid cell with most cells having four or less tiles. Results from CLASS-CTEM simulations conducted with the tiled inputs (Cluster) versus those using a simple grid-mean soil texture (Gridmean) show CLASS-CTEM, at least on a global scale, is relatively insensitive to the tiled soil textures; however, differences can be large in arid or peatland regions. The Cluster simulation has generally lower soil moisture and lower overall vegetation productivity than the Gridmean simulation except in arid regions where plant productivity increases. In these dry regions, the influence of the tiling is stronger due to the general state of vegetation moisture stress which allows a single tile, whose soil texture retains more plant-available water, to yield much higher productivity. Although the use of clustering analysis appears promising as a

  17. A Quantitative Method for Microtubule Analysis in Fluorescence Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiaodong; Li, Lingfei; Hu, Jiongyu; Zhang, Qiong; Dang, Yongming; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-12-01

    Microtubule analysis is of significant value for a better understanding of normal and pathological cellular processes. Although immunofluorescence microscopic techniques have proven useful in the study of microtubules, comparative results commonly rely on a descriptive and subjective visual analysis. We developed an objective and quantitative method based on image processing and analysis of fluorescently labeled microtubular patterns in cultured cells. We used a multi-parameter approach by analyzing four quantifiable characteristics to compose our quantitative feature set. Then we interpreted specific changes in the parameters and revealed the contribution of each feature set using principal component analysis. In addition, we verified that different treatment groups could be clearly discriminated using principal components of the multi-parameter model. High predictive accuracy of four commonly used multi-classification methods confirmed our method. These results demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in the analysis of microtubules in fluorescence images. Application of the analytical methods presented here provides information concerning the organization and modification of microtubules, and could aid in the further understanding of structural and functional aspects of microtubules under normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of T-Cell Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Nagib; Salomon, Arthur R

    2017-01-01

    TCR signaling critically depends on protein phosphorylation across many proteins. Localization of each phosphorylation event relative to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and canonical T-cell signaling proteins will provide clues about the structure of TCR signaling networks. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis by mass spectrometry provides a wide-scale view of cellular phosphorylation networks. However, analysis of phosphorylation by mass spectrometry is still challenging due to the relative low abundance of phosphorylated proteins relative to all proteins and the extraordinary diversity of phosphorylation sites across the proteome. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides is essential to provide the most comprehensive view of the phosphoproteome. Optimization of phosphopeptide enrichment methods coupled with highly sensitive mass spectrometry workflows significantly improves the sequencing depth of the phosphoproteome to over 10,000 unique phosphorylation sites from complex cell lysates. Here we describe a step-by-step method for phosphoproteomic analysis that has achieved widespread success for identification of serine, threonine, and tyrosine phosphorylation. Reproducible quantification of relative phosphopeptide abundance is provided by intensity-based label-free quantitation. An ideal set of mass spectrometry analysis parameters is also provided that optimize the yield of identified sites. We also provide guidelines for the bioinformatic analysis of this type of data to assess the quality of the data and to comply with proteomic data reporting requirements.

  19. What Really Happens in Quantitative Group Research? Results of a Content Analysis of Recent Quantitative Research in "JSGW"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Lauren H.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Eyal, Maytal; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis on quantitative studies published in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") between 2012 and 2015. This brief report provides a general overview of the current practices of quantitative group research in counseling. The following study characteristics are reported and…

  20. Texture induced magnetic anisotropy in Fe3O4 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Er; Huang, Zhaocong; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Yue, Jinjin; Chen, Leyi; Wu, Xiumei; Sui, Yunxia; Zhai, Ya; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Jun; Zhai, Hongru

    2015-10-01

    This letter reports a free energy density model for textured films in which the related physical concept and expression of magneto-texture anisotropy energy are presented. The structural characterization and out-of-plane angular dependence ferromagnetic resonance of strongly textured Fe3O4 films were systematically investigated. We found that the typical free energy density model for polycrystalline film cannot be applied to the textured films. With the introduction of magneto-texture anisotropy energy in the free energy density model for thin films, we simulated and quantitatively determined the competing anisotropies in (111)-textured Fe3O4 films.

  1. Towards an Improved Algorithm for Estimating Freeze-Thaw Dates of a High Latitude Lake Using Texture Analysis of SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppuluri, A. V.; Jost, R. J.; Luecke, C.; White, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Analyzing the freeze-thaw dates of high latitude lakes is an important part of climate change studies. Due to the various advantages provided by the use of SAR images, with respect to remote monitoring of small lakes, SAR image analysis is an obvious choice to estimate lake freeze-thaw dates. An important property of SAR images is its texture. The problem of estimating freeze-thaw dates can be restated as a problem of classifying an annual time series of SAR images based on the presence or absence of ice. We analyzed a few algorithms based on texture to improve the estimation of freeze-thaw dates for small lakes using SAR images. We computed the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) for each image and extracted ten different texture features from the GLCM. We used these texture features (namely, Energy, Contrast, Correlation, Homogeneity, Entropy, Autocorrelation, Dissimilarity, Cluster Shade, Cluster Prominence and Maximum Probability as previously used in studies related to the texture analysis of SAR sea ice imagery) as input to a group of classification algorithms to find the most accurate classifier and set of texture features that can help to decide the presence or absence of ice on the lake. The accuracy of the estimated freeze-thaw dates is dependent on the accuracy of the classifier. It is considered highly difficult to differentiate between open water (without wind) and the first day of ice formed on the lake (due to the similar mean backscatter values) causing inaccuracy in calculating the freeze date. Similar inaccuracy in calculating the thaw date arise due to the close backscatter values of water (with wind) and later stages of ice on the lake. Our method is promising but requires further research in improving the accuracy of the classifiers and selecting the input features.

  2. Quantitative multivariate analysis of dynamic multicellular morphogenic trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas E; Sylvester, Jonathan B; Levario, Thomas J; Lu, Hang; Streelman, J Todd; McDevitt, Todd C; Kemp, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Interrogating fundamental cell biology principles that govern tissue morphogenesis is critical to better understanding of developmental biology and engineering novel multicellular systems. Recently, functional micro-tissues derived from pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates have provided novel platforms for experimental investigation; however elucidating the factors directing emergent spatial phenotypic patterns remains a significant challenge. Computational modelling techniques offer a unique complementary approach to probe mechanisms regulating morphogenic processes and provide a wealth of spatio-temporal data, but quantitative analysis of simulations and comparison to experimental data is extremely difficult. Quantitative descriptions of spatial phenomena across multiple systems and scales would enable unprecedented comparisons of computational simulations with experimental systems, thereby leveraging the inherent power of computational methods to interrogate the mechanisms governing emergent properties of multicellular biology. To address these challenges, we developed a portable pattern recognition pipeline consisting of: the conversion of cellular images into networks, extraction of novel features via network analysis, and generation of morphogenic trajectories. This novel methodology enabled the quantitative description of morphogenic pattern trajectories that could be compared across diverse systems: computational modelling of multicellular structures, differentiation of stem cell aggregates, and gastrulation of cichlid fish. Moreover, this method identified novel spatio-temporal features associated with different stages of embryo gastrulation, and elucidated a complex paracrine mechanism capable of explaining spatiotemporal pattern kinetic differences in ESC aggregates of different sizes.

  3. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  4. Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

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