WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantitative systems view

  1. Quantitative size measurement of features viewed through a video endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Vipul; Poret, Jay C.; Suter, Joseph J.; Ravich, William J.; Giannini, Judith A.

    1994-07-01

    Quantitative size measurements of gastrointestinal tract lesions (i.e., ulcers and polyps) viewed during endoscopy are helpful in assessing the rate of healing or growth. We report a novel technique for quantitatively measuring the two-dimensional size of a feature viewed remotely via a video imager. Our instrument's small size makes it a suitable candidate for use in endoscopes. Computing the size of a feature displayed on a two-dimensional video monitor necessitates measuring the distance between the imager and the surface under observation because an undistorted video image preserves the angular content of a scene. We have developed a prototype ranging system that exploits the tendency of light emerging from the tip of an optical fiber to diverge. Our device uses two fibers with different divergence characteristics. The separation between the imaging sensor and the viewed surface is determined by inspecting the relative sizes of the spots cast by each of the fibers. Our device, which measures distances between 2 and 8 cm, is sufficiently small to be accommodated in an endoscope's accessory channel.

  2. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Clifford S.

    1987-01-01

    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  3. Competition between small RNAs: a quantitative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loinger, Adiel; Shemla, Yael; Simon, Itamar; Margalit, Hanah; Biham, Ofer

    2012-04-18

    Two major classes of small regulatory RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNA (miRNAs)--are involved in a common RNA interference processing pathway. Small RNAs within each of these families were found to compete for limiting amounts of shared components, required for their biogenesis and processing. Association with Argonaute (Ago), the catalytic component of the RNA silencing complex, was suggested as the central mechanistic point in RNA interference machinery competition. Aiming to better understand the competition between small RNAs in the cell, we present a mathematical model and characterize a range of specific cell and experimental parameters affecting the competition. We apply the model to competition between miRNAs and study the change in the expression level of their target genes under a variety of conditions. We show quantitatively that the amount of Ago and miRNAs in the cell are dominant factors contributing greatly to the competition. Interestingly, we observe what to our knowledge is a novel type of competition that takes place when Ago is abundant, by which miRNAs with shared targets compete over them. Furthermore, we use the model to examine different interaction mechanisms that might operate in establishing the miRNA-Ago complexes, mainly those related to their stability and recycling. Our model provides a mathematical framework for future studies of competition effects in regulation mechanisms involving small RNAs.

  4. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batishko, C. R.; Stahl, K. A.; Fecht, B. A.

    The goal of the Measurement of Chemiluminescence project is to develop and deliver a suite of imaging radiometric instruments for measuring spatial distributions of chemiluminescence. Envisioned deliverables include instruments working at the microscopic, macroscopic, and life-sized scales. Both laboratory and field portable instruments are envisioned. The project also includes development of phantoms as enclosures for the diazoluminomelanin (DALM) chemiluminescent chemistry. A suite of either phantoms in a variety of typical poses, or phantoms that could be adjusted to a variety of poses, is envisioned. These are to include small mammals (rats), mid-sized mammals (monkeys), and human body parts. A complete human phantom that can be posed is a long-term goal of the development. Taken together, the chemistry and instrumentation provide a means for imaging rf dosimetry based on chemiluminescence induced by the heat resulting from rf energy absorption. The first delivered instrument, the Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (QLIS), resulted in a patent, and an R&D Magazine 1991 R&D 100 award, recognizing it as one of the 100 most significant technological developments of 1991. The current status of the project is that three systems have been delivered, several related studies have been conducted, two preliminary human hand phantoms have been delivered, system upgrades have been implemented, and calibrations have been maintained. Current development includes sensitivity improvements to the microscope-based system; extension of the large-scale (potentially life-sized targets) system to field portable applications; extension of the 2-D large-scale system to 3-D measurement; imminent delivery of a more refined human hand phantom and a rat phantom; rf, thermal and imaging subsystem integration; and continued calibration and upgrade support.

  5. STATUS AND DYNAMIC CHANGE OF REGIONAL MAN LAND SYSTEM IN VIEW OF MICRO-LEVEL QUANTITATIVE ASPECT--Case Study of Gongyi City of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A micro-level analysis on man-land system is important in understanding the content of human geography in rural areas, particularly in the different regions. This paper is based on a survey undertaken in the three villages of Wugou Village, Hutuo Village, and Xiaonan Village of Gongyi City, Henan Province in April 2003. The survey covers three types of economic and social activities from 214 households. Data collected include 120 attributes for each household. By using theories from the relevant disciplines such as geography, mathematics, physics, ecology, and system sciences, this paper develops a framework employing the concept of system entropy in the status function of the man-land system. In this framework, the entropy change is used to show the evolution of the system, and the entropy flow to express the flow among the spatial parts of the system. Following the framework, and using a large set of household data from surveys, the paper makes a quantitative analysis of the village-level man-land system from a micro-perspective. After a theoretical investigation, the corresponding strategies in the paper are then put forward in order to adjust the unbalanced trend of the village man-land system from both perspectives of small-area and individual actors.

  6. A Temporal View of Soft Tissue Quantitative Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, William D.

    The objective of soft tissue quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is to improve diagnostic ultrasound imaging capabilities via quantitative outcomes. Over the past three or so decades, there have been an increasing number of QUS successes. A temporal view moves us back in history almost six decades when techniques and theoretical developments were in their earliest stages that impacted modern QUS successes. The earliest theoretical developments and techniques some six decades ago can be attributed to Lev Chernov, Philip Morse, Herman Feshbach, Uno Ingard, John Wild and Jack Reid. Later, Floyd Dunn developed important views as to how connective tissue affected the interaction between ultrasound and soft tissue. Then, as the theory of wave propagation in soft tissues with random inhomogeneities was extended and applied by Fred Lizzi, Jim Zagzebski and Mike Insana (and their colleagues), contemporary QUS successes started to emerge.

  7. Evolutionary quantitative genetics of nonlinear developmental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael B

    2015-08-01

    In quantitative genetics, the effects of developmental relationships among traits on microevolution are generally represented by the contribution of pleiotropy to additive genetic covariances. Pleiotropic additive genetic covariances arise only from the average effects of alleles on multiple traits, and therefore the evolutionary importance of nonlinearities in development is generally neglected in quantitative genetic views on evolution. However, nonlinearities in relationships among traits at the level of whole organisms are undeniably important to biology in general, and therefore critical to understanding evolution. I outline a system for characterizing key quantitative parameters in nonlinear developmental systems, which yields expressions for quantities such as trait means and phenotypic and genetic covariance matrices. I then develop a system for quantitative prediction of evolution in nonlinear developmental systems. I apply the system to generating a new hypothesis for why direct stabilizing selection is rarely observed. Other uses will include separation of purely correlative from direct and indirect causal effects in studying mechanisms of selection, generation of predictions of medium-term evolutionary trajectories rather than immediate predictions of evolutionary change over single generation time-steps, and the development of efficient and biologically motivated models for separating additive from epistatic genetic variances and covariances.

  8. Views of wireless network systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William Frederick; Duggan, David Patrick

    2003-10-01

    Wireless networking is becoming a common element of industrial, corporate, and home networks. Commercial wireless network systems have become reliable, while the cost of these solutions has become more affordable than equivalent wired network solutions. The security risks of wireless systems are higher than wired and have not been studied in depth. This report starts to bring together information on wireless architectures and their connection to wired networks. We detail information contained on the many different views of a wireless network system. The method of using multiple views of a system to assist in the determination of vulnerabilities comes from the Information Design Assurance Red Team (IDART{trademark}) Methodology of system analysis developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  9. Views of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  10. The nature and identification of quantitative trait loci : a community's view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abiola, O; Angel, JM; Avner, P; Bachmanov, AA; Belknap, JK; Bennett, B; Blankenhorn, EP; Blizard, DA; Bolivar, [No Value; Brockmann, GA; Buck, KJ; Bureau, JF; Casley, WL; Chesler, EJ; Cheverud, JM; Churchill, GA; Cook, M; Crabbe, JC; Crusio, WE; Darvasi, A; de Haan, G; Demant, P; Doerge, RW; Elliott, RW; Farber, CR; Flaherty, L; Flint, J; Gershenfeld, H; Gu, JPGJ; Gu, WK; Himmelbauer, H; Hitzemann, R; Hsu, HC; Hunter, K; Iraqi, FA; Jansen, RC; Johnson, TE; Jones, BC; Kempermann, G; Lammert, F; Lu, L; Manly, KF; Matthews, DB; Medrano, JF; Mehrabian, M; Mittleman, G; Mock, BA; Mogil, JS; Montagutelli, [No Value; Morahan, G; Mountz, JD; Nagase, H; Nowakowski, RS; O'Hara, BR; Osadchuk, AV; Paigen, B; Palmer, Abraham A.; Peirce, JL; Pomp, D; Rosemann, M; Rosen, GD; Schalkwyk, LC; Seltzer, Z; Settle, S; Shimomura, K; Shou, SM; Sikela, JM; Siracusa, LD; Spearow, JL; Teuscher, C; Threadgill, DW; Toth, LA; Toye, AA; Vadasz, C; Van Zant, G; Wakeland, E; Zhang, HG; Zou, F; Angel, Joe M.; Belknap, John K.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.; Bolivar, Valerie; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Buck, Kari J.; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Casley, William L.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Cheverud, James M.; Crabbe, John C.; Crusio, Wim E.; Elliott, Rosemary W.; Farber, Charles R.; Gibson, John P.; Gu, Jing; Gu, Weikuan; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Iraqi, Fuad A.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jones, Byron C.; Manly, Kenneth F.; Matthews, Douglas B.; Medrano, Juan F.; Mock, Beverly A.; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Montagutelli, Xavier; Mountz, John D.; Nowakowski, Richard S.; O’Hara, Bruce F.; Osadchuk, Alexander V.; Peirce, Jeremy L.; Rosen, Glenn D.; Shou, Siming; Siracusa, Linda D.; Spearow, Jimmy L.; Threadgill, David W.; Toth, Linda A.; Williams, Robert W.; Zhang, Huang-Ge; Williams, O.

    2003-01-01

    This white paper by eighty members of the Complex Trait Consortium presents a community’s view on the approaches and statistical analyses that are needed for the identification of genetic loci that determine quantitative traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can be identified in several ways, but i

  11. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgement of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  12. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  13. Stereoscopic wide field of view imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechtl, Eric F. (Inventor); Sedwick, Raymond J. (Inventor); Jonas, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A stereoscopic imaging system incorporates a plurality of imaging devices or cameras to generate a high resolution, wide field of view image database from which images can be combined in real time to provide wide field of view or panoramic or omni-directional still or video images.

  14. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  15. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Is your library up to date on the Solar System? When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term "planet," Pluto was stripped of its designation as the solar system''s ninth planet. New Views of the Solar System looks at scientists'' changing perspectives on the solar system, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid and detailed images of the solar system.

  16. Quantitative investigations of aggregate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D K; Beaucage, G; Jonah, E O; Britton, D T; Sukumaran, S; Chopra, S; Gonfa, G Goro; Härting, M

    2012-07-28

    Nanomaterials with disordered, ramified structure are increasingly being used for applications where low cost and enhanced performance are desired. A particular example is the use in printed electronics of inorganic conducting and semiconducting nanoparticles. The electrical, as well as other physical properties depend on the arrangement and connectivity of the particles in such aggregate systems. Quantification of aggregate structure and development of structure/property relationships is difficult and progress in the application of these materials in electronics has mainly been empirical. In this paper, a scaling model is used to parameterize the structure of printed electronic layers. This model has chiefly been applied to polymers but surprisingly it shows applicability to these nanolayers. Disordered structures of silicon nanoparticles forming aggregates are investigated using small angle x-ray scattering coupled with the scaling model. It is expected that predictions using these structural parameters can be made for electrical properties. The approach may have wide use in understanding and designing nano-aggregates for electronic devices.

  17. Variable acuity remote viewing system flight demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS), originally developed under contract to the Navy (ONR) as a laboratory brassboard, was modified for flight demonstration. The VARVS system was originally conceived as a technique which could circumvent the acuity/field of view/bandwidth tradeoffs that exists in remote viewing to provide a nearly eye limited display in both field of view (160 deg) and resolution (2 min arc) while utilizing conventional TV sensing, transmission, and display equipment. The modifications for flight demonstration consisted of modifying the sensor so it could be installed and flow in a Piper PA20 aircraft, equipped for remote control and modifying the display equipment so it could be integrated with the NASA Research RPB (RPRV) remote control cockpit.

  18. Recent trends in social systems quantitative theories and quantitative models

    CERN Document Server

    Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Soitu, Daniela-Tatiana; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical to...

  19. Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) System, which was adopted by the Astrophysics Division for their Astrophysics Data System, is a solution to the system heterogeneity problem. The heterogeneous components of the Astrophysics problem is outlined. The Library and Library Consortium levels of the DAVID approach are described. The 'books' and 'kits' level is discussed. The Universal Object Typer Management System level is described. The relation of the DAVID project with the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program is explained.

  20. Quantitative system validation in model driven design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Hilger; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Raskin, Jean-Francois;

    2010-01-01

    The European STREP project Quasimodo1 develops theory, techniques and tool components for handling quantitative constraints in model-driven development of real-time embedded systems, covering in particular real-time, hybrid and stochastic aspects. This tutorial highlights the advances made, focus...

  1. New Quantitative Study for Dissertations Repository System

    CERN Document Server

    Alshammari, Fahad H; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A

    2010-01-01

    In the age of technology, the information communication technology becomes very important especially in education field. Students must be allowed to learn anytime, anywhere and at their own place. The facility of library in the university should be developed. In this paper we are going to present new Quantitative Study for Dissertations Repository System and also recommend future application of the approach.

  2. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  3. SU-D-210-03: Limited-View Multi-Source Quantitative Photoacoustic Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J; Gao, H [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This work is to investigate a novel limited-view multi-source acquisition scheme for the direct and simultaneous reconstruction of optical coefficients in quantitative photoacoustic tomography (QPAT), which has potentially improved signal-to-noise ratio and reduced data acquisition time. Methods: Conventional QPAT is often considered in two steps: first to reconstruct the initial acoustic pressure from the full-view ultrasonic data after each optical illumination, and then to quantitatively reconstruct optical coefficients (e.g., absorption and scattering coefficients) from the initial acoustic pressure, using multi-source or multi-wavelength scheme.Based on a novel limited-view multi-source scheme here, We have to consider the direct reconstruction of optical coefficients from the ultrasonic data, since the initial acoustic pressure can no longer be reconstructed as an intermediate variable due to the incomplete acoustic data in the proposed limited-view scheme. In this work, based on a coupled photo-acoustic forward model combining diffusion approximation and wave equation, we develop a limited-memory Quasi-Newton method (LBFGS) for image reconstruction that utilizes the adjoint forward problem for fast computation of gradients. Furthermore, the tensor framelet sparsity is utilized to improve the image reconstruction which is solved by Alternative Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Results: The simulation was performed on a modified Shepp-Logan phantom to validate the feasibility of the proposed limited-view scheme and its corresponding image reconstruction algorithms. Conclusion: A limited-view multi-source QPAT scheme is proposed, i.e., the partial-view acoustic data acquisition accompanying each optical illumination, and then the simultaneous rotations of both optical sources and ultrasonic detectors for next optical illumination. Moreover, LBFGS and ADMM algorithms are developed for the direct reconstruction of optical coefficients from the

  4. Depth Perception In Remote Stereoscopic Viewing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika

    1989-01-01

    Report describes theoretical and experimental studies of perception of depth by human operators through stereoscopic video systems. Purpose of such studies to optimize dual-camera configurations used to view workspaces of remote manipulators at distances of 1 to 3 m from cameras. According to analysis, static stereoscopic depth distortion decreased, without decreasing stereoscopitc depth resolution, by increasing camera-to-object and intercamera distances and camera focal length. Further predicts dynamic stereoscopic depth distortion reduced by rotating cameras around center of circle passing through point of convergence of viewing axes and first nodal points of two camera lenses.

  5. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Are you up to date on the solar system? When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term ""planet,"" Pluto was downgraded to a lower status. New Views of the Solar System looks at scientists' changing perspectives, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid images.

  6. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Are you up to date on the solar system?  When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term ""planet,"" Pluto was downgraded to a lower status. New Views of the Solar System 2013 looks at scientists' changing perspectives, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets, new missions, updates for ongoing missions, newly-discovered moons, and updated tables. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid images.

  7. Quantitative Study on Exact Reconstruction Sampling Condition in Limited-view CT

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bin; Li, Lei; Zhang, Hanming; Wang, Linyuan

    2016-01-01

    In limited-view computed tomography reconstruction, iterative image reconstruction with sparsity-exploiting methods, such as total variation (TV) minimization, inspired by compressive sensing, potentially claims large reductions in sampling requirements. However, a quantitative notion of this claim is non-trivial because of the ill-defined reduction in sampling achieved by the sparsity-exploiting method. In this paper, exact reconstruction sampling condition for limited-view problem is studied by verifying the uniqueness of solution in TV minimization model. Uniqueness is tested by solving a convex optimization problem derived from the sufficient and necessary condition of solution uniqueness. Through this method, the sufficient sampling number of exact reconstruction is quantified for any fixed phantom and settled geometrical parameter in the limited-view problem. This paper provides a reference to quantify the sampling condition. Using Shepp-Logan phantom as an example, the experiment results show the quant...

  8. An operator's views on Fermilab's control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddorf, Debra S.

    1986-06-01

    A Fermilab accelerator operator presents views and personal opinions on the control system there. The paper covers features contributing to ease of use and comprehension, as well as a few things that could be improved. Included are such hardware as the trackball and interrupt button, the touch sensitive TV screen, the color Lexidata display, and black and white and color hardcopy capabilities. It also covers the software such as the generic parameter page, the generic plot package, and prepared displays. The alarm system is discussed from an operations standpoint, and also the datalogging system.

  9. Quantitative Models and Analysis for Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus

    phones and websites. Acknowledging that now more than ever, systems come in contact with the physical world, we need to revise the way we construct models and verification algorithms, to take into account the behavior of systems in the presence of approximate, or quantitative information, provided...... by the environment in which they are embedded. This thesis studies the semantics and properties of a model-based framework for re- active systems, in which models and specifications are assumed to contain quantifiable information, such as references to time or energy. Our goal is to develop a theory of approximation......, by studying how small changes to our models affect the verification results. A key source of motivation for this work can be found in The Embedded Systems Design Challenge [HS06] posed by Thomas A. Henzinger and Joseph Sifakis. It contains a call for advances in the state-of-the-art of systems verification...

  10. Quantitative Models and Analysis for Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus

    phones and websites. Acknowledging that now more than ever, systems come in contact with the physical world, we need to revise the way we construct models and verification algorithms, to take into account the behavior of systems in the presence of approximate, or quantitative information, provided......, allowing verification procedures to quantify judgements, on how suitable a model is for a given specification — hence mitigating the usual harsh distinction between satisfactory and non-satisfactory system designs. This information, among other things, allows us to evaluate the robustness of our framework......, by studying how small changes to our models affect the verification results. A key source of motivation for this work can be found in The Embedded Systems Design Challenge [HS06] posed by Thomas A. Henzinger and Joseph Sifakis. It contains a call for advances in the state-of-the-art of systems verification...

  11. Instructional Systems Design: Five Views of the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Shirl S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses difficulties in defining instructional systems design (ISD) and presents five ways the field is viewed, ranging from a narrow view emphasizing media selection to a complete ISD view. The ISD view emphasizes five main components: educational theory and research, system analysis, diffusion, consulting/interpersonal relations, and project…

  12. Quantitative study on exact reconstruction sampling condition by verifying solution uniqueness in limited-view CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bin; Zhang, Wenkun; Li, Lei; Zhang, Hanming; Wang, Linyuan

    2016-10-01

    In limited-view computed tomography reconstruction, iterative image reconstruction with sparsity-exploiting methods, such as total variation (TV) minimization, inspired by compressive sensing, potentially claims large reductions in sampling requirements. However, a quantitative notion of this claim is non-trivial because of the ill-defined reduction in sampling achieved by the sparsity-exploiting method. In this paper, exact reconstruction sampling condition for limited-view problem is studied by verifying the uniqueness of solution in TV minimization model. Uniqueness is tested by solving a convex optimization problem derived from the sufficient and necessary condition of solution uniqueness. Through this method, the sufficient sampling number of exact reconstruction is quantified for any fixed phantom and settled geometrical parameter in the limited-view problem. This paper provides a reference to quantify the sampling condition. Three phantoms are tested to study the sampling condition of limited view exact reconstruction in this paper. The experiment results show the quantified sampling number and indicate that an object would be accurately reconstructed as the scanning range becomes narrower by increasing sampling number. The increased samplings compensate for the deficiency of the projection angle. However, the lower bound of the scanning range corresponding to three different phantoms are presented, in which an exact reconstruction cannot be obtained once the projection angular is narrowed to this extent no matter how to increase sampling.

  13. A Multi—View Face Recognition System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永越; 彭振云; 等

    1997-01-01

    In many automatic face recognition systems,posture constraining is a key factor preventing them from application.In this paper a series of strategies will be described to achieve a system which enables face recognition under varying pose.These approaches include the multi-view face modeling,the threschold image based face feature detection,the affine transformation based face posture normalization and the template matching based face identification.Combining all of these strategies,a face recognition system with the pose invariance is designed successfully,Using a 75MHZ Pentium PC and with a database of 75 individuals,15 images for each person,and 225 test images with various postures,a very good recognition rate of 96.89% is obtained.

  14. Jelly Views : Extending Relational Database Systems Toward Deductive Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the Jelly View technology, which provides a new, practical methodology for knowledge decomposition, storage, and retrieval within Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS. Intensional Knowledge clauses (rules are decomposed and stored in the RDBMS founding reusable components. The results of the rule-based processing are visible as regular views, accessible through SQL. From the end-user point of view the processing capability becomes unlimited (arbitrarily complex queries can be constructed using Intensional Knowledge, while the most external queries are expressed with standard SQL. The RDBMS functionality becomes extended toward that of the Deductive Databases

  15. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellott, J.A.; Wagner, J.F. [Mechanical Technology Incorporated, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Remediation activities such as decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) typically involve materials and activities hazardous to humans. Robots are an attractive way to conduct such remediation, but for efficiency they need a good three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the task space where they are to function. This model can be created from engineering plans and architectural drawings and from empirical data gathered by various sensors at the site. The model is used to plan robotic tasks and verify that selected paths are clear of obstacles. This report describes the development of an Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS), a software system to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space, and enable robotic remediation to be conducted more effectively and more economically.

  16. Viewing hybrid systems as products of control systems and automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, R. L.; Larson, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how hybrid systems may be modeled as products of nonlinear control systems and finite state automata. By a hybrid system, we mean a network of consisting of continuous, nonlinear control system connected to discrete, finite state automata. Our point of view is that the automata switches between the control systems, and that this switching is a function of the discrete input symbols or letters that it receives. We show how a nonlinear control system may be viewed as a pair consisting of a bialgebra of operators coding the dynamics, and an algebra of observations coding the state space. We also show that a finite automata has a similar representation. A hybrid system is then modeled by taking suitable products of the bialgebras coding the dynamics and the observation algebras coding the state spaces.

  17. The Mirror Neuron System: A Fresh View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casile, Antonino; Caggiano, Vittorio; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons in the monkey premotor and parietal cortices that discharge during the execution and observation of goal-directed motor acts. They are deemed to be at the basis of primates’ social abilities. In this review, the authors provide a fresh view about two still open questions about mirror neurons. The first question is their possible functional role. By reviewing recent neurophysiological data, the authors suggest that mirror neurons might represent a flexible system that encodes observed actions in terms of several behaviorally relevant features. The second question concerns the possible developmental mechanisms responsible for their initial emergence. To provide a possible answer to question, the authors review two different aspects of sensorimotor development: facial and hand movements, respectively. The authors suggest that possibly two different “mirror” systems might underlie the development of action understanding and imitative abilities in the two cases. More specifically, a possibly prewired system already present at birth but shaped by the social environment might underlie the early development of facial imitative abilities. On the contrary, an experience-dependent system might subserve perception-action couplings in the case of hand movements. The development of this latter system might be critically dependent on the observation of own movements. PMID:21467305

  18. Quantitative evaluation of esophageal scintigraphy in systemic sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Masaya; Nakajima, Kenichi; Konishi, Shouta; Sato, Shinichi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Tonami, Norihisa [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-11-01

    Esophageal involvement by systemic sclerosis (SSc) is frequent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate esophageal motility disorders quantitatively. We investigate esophageal scintigraphy in 22 patients with SSc. Esophageal scintigraphy was obtained with swallowing physiological saline in supine position, and swallowing soup in supine and sitting positions. Data was acquired with 0.5 sec per frame for 192 frames in the anterior view. We employed a condensed image as a visual evaluation, half-life and retention rate as a quantitative evaluation, which were obtained from time-activity curves generated from regions of interest on the whole esophagus. The half-life and retention rate were compared with classification of Barnett, stages of SSc, and modified Rodnan total skin score (TSS). No significant differences were seen in classification of Barnett and the stages of SSc. No significant difference was seen between swallowing water and soup in the supine position. The retention rate was significantly prolonged in the supine position than in the sitting position. The retention rate of soup study in the sitting position correlated with TSS (r=0.61). Esophageal scintigraphy in the sitting position is useful in evaluation of esophageal motility in SSc. (author)

  19. Qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative simulation of the osmoregulation system in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how Morven, a computational framework which can perform qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative simulation of dynamical systems using the same model formalism, is applied to study the osmotic stress response pathway in yeast. First the Morven framework itself is briefly introduced in terms of the model formalism employed and output format. We then built a qualitative model for the biophysical process of the osmoregulation in yeast, and a global qualitative-level picture was obtained through qualitative simulation of this model. Furthermore, we constructed a Morven model based on existing quantitative model of the osmoregulation system. This model was then simulated qualitatively, semi-quantitatively, and quantitatively. The obtained simulation results are presented with an analysis. Finally the future development of the Morven framework for modelling the dynamic biological systems is discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of ITER in-vessel viewing and metrology systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The ITER in-vessel viewing system is vital for detecting and locating damage to in-vessel components such as the blankets and divertors and in monitoring and assisting in-vessel maintenance. This system must be able to operate at high temperature (200degC) under intense gamma radiation ({approx}30 kGy/h) in a high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope viewing system was chosen as a reference due to its clear, wide view and a fiberscope viewing system chosen as a backup for viewing in narrow confines. According to the ITER R and D program, both systems and a metrology system are being developed through the joint efforts of Japan, the U.S., and RF Home Teams. This paper outlines design and technology development mainly on periscope in-vessel viewing and laser metrology contributed by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  1. Modular System Modeling for Quantitative Reliability Evaluation of Technical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Neumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, it is necessary to offer reliable products to match the statutory directives concerning product liability and the high expectations of customers for durable devices. Furthermore, to maintain a high competitiveness, engineers need to know as accurately as possible how long their product will last and how to influence the life expectancy without expensive and time-consuming testing. As the components of a system are responsible for the system reliability, this paper introduces and evaluates calculation methods for life expectancy of common machine elements in technical systems. Subsequently, a method for the quantitative evaluation of the reliability of technical systems is proposed and applied to a heavy-duty power shift transmission.

  2. Head-to-head comparison of quantitative and semi-quantitative ultrasound scoring systems for rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Ellegaard, Karen; Christensen, Robin;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability and agreement of semi-quantitative scoring (SQS) and quantitative scoring (QS) systems. To compare the two types of scoring system and investigate the construct validity for both scoring systems.......To evaluate the reliability and agreement of semi-quantitative scoring (SQS) and quantitative scoring (QS) systems. To compare the two types of scoring system and investigate the construct validity for both scoring systems....

  3. LC-MS systems for quantitative bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, William D; Niessen, Wilfried M A

    2012-10-01

    LC-MS has become the method-of-choice in small-molecule drug bioanalysis (molecular mass Triple quadrupole MS is the established bioanalytical technique due to its unpreceded selectivity and sensitivity, but high-resolution accurate-mass MS is recently gaining ground due to its ability to provide simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of drugs and their metabolites. This article discusses current trends in the field of bioanalytical LC-MS (until September 2012), and provides an overview of currently available commercial triple quadrupole MS and high-resolution LC-MS instruments as applied for the bioanalysis of small-molecule and biopharmaceutical drugs.

  4. The TissueNet v.2 database: A quantitative view of protein-protein interactions across human tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Omer; Barshir, Ruth; Sharon, Moran; Lerman, Eugene; Kirson, Binyamin F.; Hekselman, Idan; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular interactions of human proteins within tissues is important for identifying their tissue-specific roles and for shedding light on tissue phenotypes. However, many protein–protein interactions (PPIs) have no tissue-contexts. The TissueNet database bridges this gap by associating experimentally-identified PPIs with human tissues that were shown to express both pair-mates. Users can select a protein and a tissue, and obtain a network view of the query protein and its tissue-associated PPIs. TissueNet v.2 is an updated version of the TissueNet database previously featured in NAR. It includes over 40 human tissues profiled via RNA-sequencing or protein-based assays. Users can select their preferred expression data source and interactively set the expression threshold for determining tissue-association. The output of TissueNet v.2 emphasizes qualitative and quantitative features of query proteins and their PPIs. The tissue-specificity view highlights tissue-specific and globally-expressed proteins, and the quantitative view highlights proteins that were differentially expressed in the selected tissue relative to all other tissues. Together, these views allow users to quickly assess the unique versus global functionality of query proteins. Thus, TissueNet v.2 offers an extensive, quantitative and user-friendly interface to study the roles of human proteins across tissues. TissueNet v.2 is available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/tissuenet. PMID:27899616

  5. An Engineering View on Megatrends in Radiology: Digitization to Quantitative Tools of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Namkug [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jaesoon [Medical Engineering R& D Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jaeyoun [R& D Department, Coreline Soft, Co. Ltd., Seoul 137-897 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seungwook [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyoun; Chang, Yongjun; Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Within six months of the discovery of X-ray in 1895, the technology was used to scan the interior of the human body, paving the way for many innovations in the field of medicine, including an ultrasound device in 1950, a CT scanner in 1972, and MRI in 1980. More recent decades have witnessed developments such as digital imaging using a picture archiving and communication system, computer-aided detection/diagnosis, organ-specific workstations, and molecular, functional, and quantitative imaging. One of the latest technical breakthrough in the field of radiology has been imaging genomics and robotic interventions for biopsy and theragnosis. This review provides an engineering perspective on these developments and several other megatrends in radiology.

  6. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems.

  7. Elk viewing in Pennsylvania: an evolving eco-tourism system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss; Michael J. Powell

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Pennsylvania Game Commission established an Elk Viewing Area within Pennsylvania's elk range. The viewing area has become the focus for a developing eco-tourism system. During the four years of operation, a research team from Penn State has measured the number of visitors, their expenditure patterns, and other parameters of their visit. The trends...

  8. A Walkthrough Remote View System with an Omnidirectional Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiro Yonekura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A remote view system is a system for the delivery and presentation of information such as video and audioto users in remote locations. Methods for the construction of virtual environments based on videoinformation have been applied to remote view technology. When a system that supports remote viewing isapplied to situations such as viewing scenery or engaging in collaborative work, it is useful to provideusers with a function that enables them to walkthrough a sense of immersion in a remote locationenvironment. Although walkthroughs are possible in remote view systems that use pre-prepared images toconstruct virtual environments, these systems are lacking in terms of real-time performance. In this study,we built a virtual walkthrough environment and created a system that allows multiple users view imagessent in real time from an omnidirectional camera installed in a remote location. In this system, whenpresenting an object in the environment on a real world image, the information of the object can beshown in a separate window to the walkthrough environment if necessary. By using an improved mapprojection method, the system produces less image distortion than the conventional projection method.We have confirmed the walkthrough capabilities of this system, evaluated the performance of theimproved map projection method, and subjected it to user trials.

  9. A View of Earth System Model Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tianjun; YU Yongqiang; WANG Bin

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a definition of earth system model and shows three development phases of it, including physical climate system model, earth climate system model, and earth system model, based on an inves-tigation of climate system models in the world. It provides an expatiation on the strategic significance of future development of earth system model, an introduction of some representative scientific research plans on development of earth system model home and abroad, and a review of its status and trends based on the models of the fourth assessment report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).Some suggestions on future development of earth system model in China are given, which are expected to be helpful to advance the development.

  10. System View of Business Continuity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Svata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We are living in time where the impact on continuity still grows both on the side our personal lives and business activities. In the same time different international, regional, national, state and private organizations initiated to provide different actions and regulations in order to find the best solutions of this situation. The result is that there exist the whole set of different views over this problem. The main aim of this article is to map this situation, to provide the general framework of business continuity management (BCM and to discuss its main parts and their mutual relationships. Special impact is given to the integration of the business and IT oriented solutions and ways of assurance initiatives helping managers to assess the implemented solutions and their compliance to the business strategy and other existing regulations.

  11. An Inside View: The Utility of Quantitative Observation in Understanding College Educational Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Corbin M.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes quantitative observation as a method for understanding college educational experiences. Quantitative observation has been used widely in several fields and in K-12 education, but has had limited application to research in higher education and student affairs to date. The article describes the central tenets of quantitative…

  12. Global Systems Science: A New World View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneider, Cary; Golden, Richard; Barrett, Katharine

    1999-01-01

    Global systems science is a new field of study about the interactions between Earth's natural systems and human activities. The people who study global systems science draw on methods and theories of many different fields from chemistry and biology to economics and politics-in order to predict how today's actions are likely to affect the world of tomorrow - our world and our children's world.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative research on service quality evaluation system in NGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lu; ZHOU Wen-an; SONG Jun-de

    2009-01-01

    With the development of next generation network (NGN), reasonable service quality evaluation is essential in network management. Based on NGN service characteristics, this article presents a comprehensive service quality evaluation system from two perspectives: quantitative and qualitative. From the quantitative point of view, this article brings forward the normalized service level achievement function (NSLA function) at technical layer. Also, with mean opinion score (MOS) mode, it proposes customer satisfaction assessment methods at customer perception layer. From the qualitative perspective, a hierarchical model is established, which forms mapping relations from the upper customer perception to the lower service quality parameters, and then the influence of different service parameters on customer satisfaction degree can be denoted by the fuzzy analysis hierarchy process (FAHP) algorithm. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations together form a comprehensive solution which is universal, customer-oriented and flexible. Demonstrated by the representative voice service, the proposed system is proved reliable and applicable to service evaluation in NGN.

  14. Views on Evolvability of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Punter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Evolvability, the ability to respond effectively to change, represents a major challenge to today's high-end embedded systems, such as those developed in the medical domain by Philips Healthcare. These systems are typically developed by multi-disciplinary teams, located around the world, and are in

  15. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for ages 10-17, this work takes a look at the developments in research about the solar system, including articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. It includes photos and drawings that showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and also a collection of images of the solar system.

  16. Writing to Persuade: A Systemic Functional View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how a genre-based approach to writing instruction influenced by both genre theory and systemic functional linguistics supported the academic writing development of English language learners (ELLs) transitioning to middle school. Drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) as a tool for pedagogy and linguistic analysis, the…

  17. Glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Serra, Rolando L.; Vannucci, André L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Li, Li M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we show two different glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging: a stereoscopic system that employs a vertically dispersive holographic screen (VDHS) and a multi-autostereoscopic system, both used to produce 3D MRI/CT images. We describe how to obtain a VDHS in holographic plates optimized for this application, with field of view of 7 cm to each eye and focal length of 25 cm, showing images done with the system. We also describe a multi-autostereoscopic system, presenting how it can generate 3D medical imaging from viewpoints of a MRI or CT image, showing results of a 3D angioresonance image.

  18. The TissueNet v.2 database: A quantitative view of protein-protein interactions across human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Omer; Barshir, Ruth; Sharon, Moran; Lerman, Eugene; Kirson, Binyamin F; Hekselman, Idan; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2017-01-04

    Knowledge of the molecular interactions of human proteins within tissues is important for identifying their tissue-specific roles and for shedding light on tissue phenotypes. However, many protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have no tissue-contexts. The TissueNet database bridges this gap by associating experimentally-identified PPIs with human tissues that were shown to express both pair-mates. Users can select a protein and a tissue, and obtain a network view of the query protein and its tissue-associated PPIs. TissueNet v.2 is an updated version of the TissueNet database previously featured in NAR. It includes over 40 human tissues profiled via RNA-sequencing or protein-based assays. Users can select their preferred expression data source and interactively set the expression threshold for determining tissue-association. The output of TissueNet v.2 emphasizes qualitative and quantitative features of query proteins and their PPIs. The tissue-specificity view highlights tissue-specific and globally-expressed proteins, and the quantitative view highlights proteins that were differentially expressed in the selected tissue relative to all other tissues. Together, these views allow users to quickly assess the unique versus global functionality of query proteins. Thus, TissueNet v.2 offers an extensive, quantitative and user-friendly interface to study the roles of human proteins across tissues. TissueNet v.2 is available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/tissuenet. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Quantum integrable systems. Quantitative methods in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Feverati, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Quantum integrable systems have very strong mathematical properties that allow an exact description of their energetic spectrum. From the Bethe equations, I formulate the Baxter "T-Q" relation, that is the starting point of two complementary approaches based on nonlinear integral equations. The first one is known as thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the second one as Kl\\"umper-Batchelor-Pearce-Destri- de Vega. I show the steps toward the derivation of the equations for some of the models concerned. I study the infrared and ultraviolet limits and discuss the numerical approach. Higher rank integrals of motion can be obtained, so gaining some control on the eigenvectors. After, I discuss the Hubbard model in relation to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. The Hubbard model describes hopping electrons on a lattice. In the second part, I present an evolutionary model based on Turing machines. The goal is to describe aspects of the real biological evolution, or Darwinism, by letting evolve populations of algorithms. ...

  20. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India.

  1. A psychologist's view of validating aviation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Earl S.; Wagner, Dan

    1994-01-01

    All systems, no matter what they are designed to do, have shortcomings that may make them less productive than was hoped during the initial development. Such shortcomings can arise at any stage of development: from conception to the end of the implementation life cycle. While systems failure and errors of a lesser magnitude can occur as a function of mechanical or software breakdown, the majority of such problems, in aviation are usually laid on the shoulders of the human operator and, to a lesser extent, on human factors. The operator bears the responsibility and blame even though, from a human factors perspective, error may have been designed into the system. Human factors is not a new concept in aviation. The name may be new, but the issues related to operators in the loop date back to the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century and certainly to the aviation build-up for World War I. During this first global confrontation, military services from all sides discovered rather quickly that poor selection and training led to drastically increased personnel losses. While hardware design became an issue later, the early efforts were primarily focused on increased care in pilot selection and on their training. This actually involved early labor-intensive simulation, using such devices as sticks and chairs mounted on rope networks which could be manually moved in response to control input. The use of selection criteria and improved training led to more viable person-machine systems. More pilots survived training and their first ten missions in the air, a rule of thumb arrived at by experience which predicted ultimate survival better than any other. This rule was to hold through World War II. At that time, personnel selection and training became very sophisticated based on previous standards. Also, many psychologists were drafted into Army Air Corps programs which were geared towards refining the human factor. However, despite the talent involved in these programs

  2. CURRENT VIEWS OF THE GLEASON GRADING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide the proceedings of the 2005 First International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference and the basic provisions that differ the modified Gleason grading system from its original interpretation. In particular, we should do away with Gleason grade 1 (or 1 + 1 = 2 while assessing the needle biopsy specimens. Contrary to the recommendations by Gleason himself, the conference decided to apply stringent criteria for using Gleason grades 3 and 4. This is due to the fact that these grades are of special prognostic value so it is important to have clear criteria in defining each Gleason grade. Notions, such as secondary and tertiary Gleason patterns, are considered; detailed recommendations are given on the lesion extent sufficient to diagnose these components.

  3. Fundamentals of process intensification: A process systems engineering view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Sales Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the fundamentals of process intensification from a process systems engineering point of view. The concept of process intensification, including process integration, is explained together with the drivers for applying process intensification, which can be achieved...... intensification using a systems approach....

  4. View-Based Searching Systems--Progress Towards Effective Disintermediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, A. Steven; Smith, Martin P.; Treglown, Mark; Braekevelt, Patrick

    This paper presents the background and then reports progress made in the development of two view-based searching systems--HIBROWSE for EMBASE, searching Europe's most important biomedical bibliographic database, and HIBROWSE for EPOQUE, improving access to the European Parliament's Online Query System. The HIBROWSE approach to searching promises…

  5. Quantitative Visualization of ChIP-chip Data by Using Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Yu; Weber, Gunther; Li, Xiao-Yong; Biggin, Mark; Hamann, Bernd

    2010-11-05

    Most analyses of ChIP-chip in vivo DNA binding have focused on qualitative descriptions of whether genomic regions are bound or not. There is increasing evidence, however, that factors bind in a highly overlapping manner to the same genomic regions and that it is quantitative differences in occupancy on these commonly bound regions that are the critical determinants of the different biological specificity of factors. As a result, it is critical to have a tool to facilitate the quantitative visualization of differences between transcription factors and the genomic regions they bind to understand each factor's unique roles in the network. We have developed a framework which combines several visualizations via brushing-and-linking to allow the user to interactively analyze and explore in vivo DNA binding data of multiple transcription factors. We describe these visualization types and also provide a discussion of biological examples in this paper.

  6. Quantitative modelling in design and operation of food supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van P.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades food supply systems not only got interest of food technologists but also from the field of Operations Research and Management Science. Operations Research (OR) is concerned with quantitative modelling and can be used to get insight into the optimal configuration and opera

  7. View Synthesis for Advanced 3D Video Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Interest in 3D video applications and systems is growing rapidly and technology is maturating. It is expected that multiview autostereoscopic displays will play an important role in home user environments, since they support multiuser 3D sensation and motion parallax impression. The tremendous data rate cannot be handled efficiently by representation and coding formats such as MVC or MPEG-C Part 3. Multiview video plus depth (MVD is a new format that efficiently supports such advanced 3DV systems, but this requires high-quality intermediate view synthesis. For this, a new approach is presented that separates unreliable image regions along depth discontinuities from reliable image regions, which are treated separately and fused to the final interpolated view. In contrast to previous layered approaches, our algorithm uses two boundary layers and one reliable layer, performs image-based 3D warping only, and was generically implemented, that is, does not necessarily rely on 3D graphics support. Furthermore, different hole-filling and filtering methods are added to provide high-quality intermediate views. As a result, high-quality intermediate views for an existing 9-view auto-stereoscopic display as well as other stereo- and multiscopic displays are presented, which prove the suitability of our approach for advanced 3DV systems.

  8. View Synthesis for Advanced 3D Video Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interest in 3D video applications and systems is growing rapidly and technology is maturating. It is expected that multiview autostereoscopic displays will play an important role in home user environments, since they support multiuser 3D sensation and motion parallax impression. The tremendous data rate cannot be handled efficiently by representation and coding formats such as MVC or MPEG-C Part 3. Multiview video plus depth (MVD is a new format that efficiently supports such advanced 3DV systems, but this requires high-quality intermediate view synthesis. For this, a new approach is presented that separates unreliable image regions along depth discontinuities from reliable image regions, which are treated separately and fused to the final interpolated view. In contrast to previous layered approaches, our algorithm uses two boundary layers and one reliable layer, performs image-based 3D warping only, and was generically implemented, that is, does not necessarily rely on 3D graphics support. Furthermore, different hole-filling and filtering methods are added to provide high-quality intermediate views. As a result, high-quality intermediate views for an existing 9-view auto-stereoscopic display as well as other stereo- and multiscopic displays are presented, which prove the suitability of our approach for advanced 3DV systems.

  9. A Novel Quantitative Analysis Model for Information System Survivability Based on Conflict Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Huiqiang; ZHAO Guosheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a novel quantitative analysis model for system survivability based on conflict analysis, which provides a direct-viewing survivable situation. Based on the three-dimensional state space of conflict, each player's efficiency matrix on its credible motion set can be obtained. The player whose desire is the strongest in all initiates the moving and the overall state transition matrix of information system may be achieved. In addition, the process of modeling and stability analysis of conflict can be converted into a Markov analysis process, thus the obtained results with occurring probability of each feasible situation will help the players to quantitatively judge the probability of their pursuing situations in conflict. Compared with the existing methods which are limited to post-explanation of system's survivable situation, the proposed model is relatively suitable for quantitatively analyzing and forecasting the future development situation of system survivability. The experimental results show that the model may be effectively applied to quantitative analysis for survivability. Moreover, there will be a good application prospect in practice.

  10. Challenges in Quantitative Abstractions for Collective Adaptive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Tribastone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Like with most large-scale systems, the evaluation of quantitative properties of collective adaptive systems is an important issue that crosscuts all its development stages, from design (in the case of engineered systems to runtime monitoring and control. Unfortunately it is a difficult problem to tackle in general, due to the typically high computational cost involved in the analysis. This calls for the development of appropriate quantitative abstraction techniques that preserve most of the system's dynamical behaviour using a more compact representation. This paper focuses on models based on ordinary differential equations and reviews recent results where abstraction is achieved by aggregation of variables, reflecting on the shortcomings in the state of the art and setting out challenges for future research.

  11. Foundational and Systems Support for Quantitative Trust Management (QTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    assignment Ppat sayspat Ohosp sayshosp Ppat access (pat, record(pat)) Patients are allowed to ask a hospital for their medical records. In response, the...compositions in GIG – Reusing components/subsystem in complex DoD systems – Social Networks – Medical systems – Cloud computing 11/4/09 ONR MURI Review...QUANTITATIVE TRUST MANAGEMENT (QTM) • Effective for delegated credentials and access enforcement • Can‟t handle uncertainty and partial information

  12. Quantitative assessments of distributed systems methodologies and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bruneo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Distributed systems employed in critical infrastructures must fulfill dependability, timeliness, and performance specifications. Since these systems most often operate in an unpredictable environment, their design and maintenance require quantitative evaluation of deterministic and probabilistic timed models. This need gave birth to an abundant literature devoted to formal modeling languages combined with analytical and simulative solution techniques The aim of the book is to provide an overview of techniques and methodologies dealing with such specific issues in the context of distributed

  13. A GPGPU accelerated modeling environment for quantitatively characterizing karst systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, J. M.; Covington, M. D.; Luhmann, A. J.; Saar, M. O.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to derive quantitative information on the geometry of karst aquifer systems is highly desirable. Knowing the geometric makeup of a karst aquifer system enables quantitative characterization of the systems response to hydraulic events. However, the relationship between flow path geometry and karst aquifer response is not well understood. One method to improve this understanding is the use of high speed modeling environments. High speed modeling environments offer great potential in this regard as they allow researchers to improve their understanding of the modeled karst aquifer through fast quantitative characterization. To that end, we have implemented a finite difference model using General Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPUs). GPGPUs are special purpose accelerators which are capable of high speed and highly parallel computation. The GPGPU architecture is a grid like structure, making it is a natural fit for structured systems like finite difference models. To characterize the highly complex nature of karst aquifer systems our modeling environment is designed to use an inverse method to conduct the parameter tuning. Using an inverse method reduces the total amount of parameter space needed to produce a set of parameters describing a system of good fit. Systems of good fit are determined with a comparison to reference storm responses. To obtain reference storm responses we have collected data from a series of data-loggers measuring water depth, temperature, and conductivity at locations along a cave stream with a known geometry in southeastern Minnesota. By comparing the modeled response to those of the reference responses the model parameters can be tuned to quantitatively characterize geometry, and thus, the response of the karst system.

  14. The importance of quantitative systemic thinking in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Geoffrey B

    2012-04-21

    The study and practice of medicine could benefit from an enhanced engagement with the new perspectives provided by the emerging areas of complexity science and systems biology. A more integrated, systemic approach is needed to fully understand the processes of health, disease, and dysfunction, and the many challenges in medical research and education. Integral to this approach is the search for a quantitative, predictive, multilevel, theoretical conceptual framework that both complements the present approaches and stimulates a more integrated research agenda that will lead to novel questions and experimental programmes. As examples, the importance of network structures and scaling laws are discussed for the development of a broad, quantitative, mathematical understanding of issues that are important in health, including ageing and mortality, sleep, growth, circulatory systems, and drug doses. A common theme is the importance of understanding the quantifiable determinants of the baseline scale of life, and developing corresponding parameters that define the average, idealised, healthy individual.

  15. Prediction of quantitative intrathoracic fluid volume to diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urooj, Shabana; Khan, M; Ansari, A Q; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Salhan, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a life-threatening disease that requires special attention in the area of research and clinical diagnosis. Computer-based techniques are rarely used to quantify the intrathoracic fluid volume (IFV) for diagnostic purposes. This paper discusses a software program developed to detect and diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW. The software runs on anthropometric dimensions and physiological parameters, mainly transthoracic electrical impedance (TEI). This technique is accurate and faster than existing manual techniques. The LabVIEW software was used to compute the parameters required to quantify IFV. An equation relating per cent control and IFV was obtained. The results of predicted TEI and measured TEI were compared with previously reported data to validate the developed program. It was found that the predicted values of TEI obtained from the computer-based technique were much closer to the measured values of TEI. Six new subjects were enrolled to measure and predict transthoracic impedance and hence to quantify IFV. A similar difference was also observed in the measured and predicted values of TEI for the new subjects.

  16. Optimization Research of Mine Skip Quantitative Loading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Hu, Kun; Cheng, Gang; Li, De-yong

    2016-06-01

    The size and change of the impact load of coal material applied to the skip are studied aiming at the quantitative loading system of the skip. Based on the impulse theorem and with reasonable assumption, the calculation formula for impact force of the coal material is deducted and the impact characteristic of the impact force to the quantitative loading system of the skip is analyzed. The process of the coal material falling from quantitative conveyor to skip is analyzed with the discrete element simulation so that the distributed load of the impact force of the coal material at the skip bottom is obtained. The results show that the coal material produces large impact force (687 N) to the skip bottom the moment the coal material falls into the skip, and then the force decreases rapidly to about 245 N and increases gradually during the fluctuation; the impact force applied to the skip bottom increases with the increase of the coal transportation speed and the size of discharging port of the chute, but it is not in direct proportional relationship. The simulation results are basically the same as the experimental results. Finally the optimization parameters of the speed of quantitative conveyor and the size of the discharging port of the chute are searched for so as to improve the capacity of the conveyor and impact load assumed by the skip bottom.

  17. Dynamics systems vs. optimal control--a unifying view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Stefan; Mohajerian, Peyman; Ijspeert, Auke

    2007-01-01

    In the past, computational motor control has been approached from at least two major frameworks: the dynamic systems approach and the viewpoint of optimal control. The dynamic system approach emphasizes motor control as a process of self-organization between an animal and its environment. Nonlinear differential equations that can model entrainment and synchronization behavior are among the most favorable tools of dynamic systems modelers. In contrast, optimal control approaches view motor control as the evolutionary or development result of a nervous system that tries to optimize rather general organizational principles, e.g., energy consumption or accurate task achievement. Optimal control theory is usually employed to develop appropriate theories. Interestingly, there is rather little interaction between dynamic systems and optimal control modelers as the two approaches follow rather different philosophies and are often viewed as diametrically opposing. In this paper, we develop a computational approach to motor control that offers a unifying modeling framework for both dynamic systems and optimal control approaches. In discussions of several behavioral experiments and some theoretical and robotics studies, we demonstrate how our computational ideas allow both the representation of self-organizing processes and the optimization of movement based on reward criteria. Our modeling framework is rather simple and general, and opens opportunities to revisit many previous modeling results from this novel unifying view.

  18. Potential of phytase-mediated iron release from cereal-based foods: a quantitative view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism...... to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via...... enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase...

  19. Novel method for ANA quantitation using IIF imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaodong; Tang, Jiangtao; Wu, Yongkang; Yang, Bin; Hu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    A variety of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in the serum of patients with autoimmune diseases. The detection of abnormal ANA titers is a critical criterion for diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other connective tissue diseases. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the gold standard method to determine the presence of ANA and therefore provides information about the localization of autoantigens that are useful for diagnosis. However, its utility was limited in prognosing and monitoring of disease activity due to the lack of standardization in performing the technique, subjectivity in interpreting the results and the fact that it is only semi-quantitative. On the other hand, ELISA for the detection of ANA can quantitate ANA but could not provide further information about the localization of the autoantigens. It would be ideal to integrate both of the quantitative and qualitative methods. To address this issue, this study was conducted to quantitatively detect ANAs by using IIF imaging analysis system. Serum samples from patients with ANA positive (including speckled, homogeneous, nuclear mixture and cytoplasmic mixture patterns) and negative were detected for ANA titers by the classical IIF and analyzed by an image system, the image of each sample was acquired by the digital imaging system and the green fluorescence intensity was quantified by the Image-Pro plus software. A good correlation was found in between two methods and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) of various ANA patterns were 0.942 (speckled), 0.942 (homogeneous), 0.923 (nuclear mixture) and 0.760 (cytoplasmic mixture), respectively. The fluorescence density was linearly correlated with the log of ANA titers in various ANA patterns (R(2)>0.95). Moreover, the novel ANA quantitation method showed good reproducibility (F=0.091, p>0.05) with mean±SD and CV% of positive, and negative quality controls were equal to 126.4±9.6 and 7.6%, 10.4±1.25 and 12

  20. A quantitative assessment of LCOs for operations using system dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyung, Min Kang [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, Sungdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moosung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, Sungdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jae@hanyang.ac.kr

    2005-02-01

    Limiting conditions for operations (LCOs) define the allowed outage times (AOTs) and the actions to be taken if the repair cannot be completed within the AOT. Typically plant shutdown is required. In situations where the risk associated with the action, i.e. the risk of plant shutdown given a failure of the safety system, may be substantial, a strategy is needed to control the plant risk. In this study the changing operation modes are evaluated quantitatively and dynamically using the tool of system dynamics. System dynamics has been developed to analyze the dynamic reliability of a complicated system. System dynamics using the Vensim software have been applied to LCOs assessment for an example system, the auxiliary feed water system of a reference nuclear power plant. Analysis results of both full power operation and shutdown operation have been compared for a measure of core damage frequency. The increase in core damage frequency is used as a measure in this study. A time dependent framework developed in this study has been shown to be very flexible in that it can be applied to assess LCOs quantitatively under any operational context of the Technical Specifications in Final Safety Analysis Report of the reference plant.

  1. Potential of Phytase-Mediated Iron Release from Cereal-Based Foods: A Quantitative View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S. Meyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate. Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase-mediated improvements in iron absorption and ultimately in iron status in particularly vulnerable groups is still low. A more detailed understanding of (1 the uptake mechanism for iron released from partially dephosphorylated phytate chelates, (2 the affinity of microbially derived phytases towards insoluble iron phytate complexes, and (3 the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects.

  2. Blood-brain barrier permeability mechanisms in view of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Kaliszan, Michał; Kaliszan, Roman; Markuszewski, Michał J

    2015-04-10

    The goal of the present paper was to develop a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method using a simple statistical approach, such as multiple linear regression (MLR) for predicting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of chemical compounds. The "best" MLR models, comprised logP and either molecular mass (M) or isolated atomic energy (E(isol)), tested on a structurally diverse set of 66 compounds, is characterized the by correlation coefficients (R) around 0.8. The obtained models were validated using leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation technique and the correlation coefficient of leave-one-out- R(LOO)(2) (Q(2)) was at least 0.6. Analysis of a case from legal medicine demonstrated informative value of our QSAR model. To best authors' knowledge the present study is a first application of the developed QSAR models of BBB permeability to case from the legal medicine. Our data indicate that molecular energy-related descriptors, in combination with the well-known descriptors of lipophilicity may have a supportive value in predicting blood-brain distribution, which is of utmost importance in drug development and toxicological studies.

  3. User-oriented views in health care information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoni, Luisa; Combi, Carlo; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, we present the methodology we adopted in designing and developing an object-oriented database system for the management of medical records. The designed system provides technical solutions to important requirements of most clinical information systems, such as 1) the support of tools to create and manage views on data and view schemas, offering to different users specific perspectives on data tailored to their needs; 2) the capability to handle in a suitable way the temporal aspects related to clinical information; and 3) the effective integration of multimedia data. Remote data access for authorized users is also considered. As clinical application, we describe here the prototype of a user-oriented clinical information system for the archiving and the management of multimedia and temporally oriented clinical data related to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) patients. Suitable view schemas for various user roles (cath-lab physician, ward nurse, general practitioner) have been modeled and implemented on the basis of a detailed analysis of the considered clinical environment, carried out by an object-oriented approach.

  4. The Lake Victoria Intense Storm Early Warning System (VIEWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on NWP, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that also false alarms contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.

  5. Reproducible quantitative proteotype data matrices for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röst, Hannes L; Malmström, Lars; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-11-05

    Historically, many mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies have aimed at compiling an inventory of protein compounds present in a biological sample, with the long-term objective of creating a proteome map of a species. However, to answer fundamental questions about the behavior of biological systems at the protein level, accurate and unbiased quantitative data are required in addition to a list of all protein components. Fueled by advances in mass spectrometry, the proteomics field has thus recently shifted focus toward the reproducible quantification of proteins across a large number of biological samples. This provides the foundation to move away from pure enumeration of identified proteins toward quantitative matrices of many proteins measured across multiple samples. It is argued here that data matrices consisting of highly reproducible, quantitative, and unbiased proteomic measurements across a high number of conditions, referred to here as quantitative proteotype maps, will become the fundamental currency in the field and provide the starting point for downstream biological analysis. Such proteotype data matrices, for example, are generated by the measurement of large patient cohorts, time series, or multiple experimental perturbations. They are expected to have a large effect on systems biology and personalized medicine approaches that investigate the dynamic behavior of biological systems across multiple perturbations, time points, and individuals. © 2015 Röst et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Quantitative microleakage of some dentinal bonding restorative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, T; Retief, D H

    1993-03-01

    The quantitative microleakage of class V cementum (dentin) cavities restored with six dentinal bonding restorative systems was determined in vitro. Ninety extracted human permanent first and second mandibular and maxillary premolars were used in this study. Class V preparations were made in cementum (dentin) at the root facial surfaces. The preparations were restored with 1) a dentin bonding system containing 2% HEMA and BisGMA and a light-cured microfilled composite; 2) the same materials only substituting META/MMA base and TBB catalyst monomers for the BisGMA sealer; 3) a dentin bonding system containing 35% HEMA with META/MMA base and TBB catalyst, and a light-cured hybrid composite; 5) the same dentin bonding system only substituting the 35% glycerylmethacrylate for the 35% HEMA and using the microfilled composite; and 6) the previously described system with a substitution of 0.5 mol EDTA for the 10% citric acid -3% FeCl3. Fifteen teeth were restored with each procedure. The restorations were finished with 12-bladed carbide burs 15 min after placement, the teeth were stored in saline at 37 degrees C for 24 h, finished with Sof-Lex discs and then thermocycled in 2% methylene blue solution 500 times between 50 degrees C and 8 degrees C with a dwell time of 15 s. Quantitative microleakage was determined by a spectrophotometric dye-recovery method and expressed in microgram/dye/restoration. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The quantitative microleakage of the teeth restored with the adhesive systems containing 35% glyceryl methacrylate was significantly reduced. The bonding mechanism of glyceryl methacrylate is not known.

  7. Quantitative Adaptation Analytics for Assessing Dynamic Systems of Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl [Sandia National Laboratories, Unknown, Unknown; Vander Meer, Robert Charles,

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  8. A Tool for Brain-Wide Quantitative Analysis of Molecular Data upon Projection into a Planar View of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreysen, Samme; Scheyltjens, Isabelle; Laramée, Marie-Eve; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques, allowing the reconstruction and visualization of functional, anatomical or molecular information from tissue and organ slices, have been developed over the years. Yet none allow direct comparison without reprocessing the same slices. Alternative methods using publicly available reference maps like the Allen Brain Atlas lack flexibility with respect to age and species. We propose a new approach to reconstruct a segmented region of interest from serial slices by projecting the optical density values representing a given molecular signal to a plane of view of choice, and to generalize the results into a reference map, which is built from the individual maps of all animals under study. Furthermore, to allow quantitative comparison between experimental conditions, a non-parametric pseudo t-test has been implemented. This new mapping tool was applied, optimized and validated making use of an in situ hybridization dataset that represents the spatiotemporal expression changes for the neuronal activity reporter gene zif268, in relation to cortical plasticity induced by monocular enucleation, covering the entire mouse visual cortex. The created top view maps of the mouse brain allow precisely delineating and interpreting 11 extrastriate areas surrounding mouse V1. As such, and because of the opportunity to create a planar projection of choice, these molecular maps can in the future easily be compared with functional or physiological imaging maps created with other techniques such as Ca2+, flavoprotein and optical imaging. PMID:28144216

  9. Segregation Analysis on Genetic System of Quantitative Traits in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gai Junyi

    2006-01-01

    Based on the traditional polygene inheritance model of quantitative traits,the author suggests the major gene and polygene mixed inheritance model.The model was considered as a general one,while the pure major gene and pure polygene inheritance model was a specific case of the general model.Based on the proposed theory,the author established the segregation analysis procedure to study the genetic system of quantitative traits of plants.At present,this procedure can be used to evaluate the genetic effect of individual major genes (up to two to three major genes),the collective genetic effect of polygene,and their heritability value.This paper introduces how to establish the procedure,its main achievements,and its applications.An example is given to illustrate the steps,methods,and effectiveness of the procedure.

  10. QUANTITATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR STABILITY ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR ROTOR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hui-ping; XUE Yu-sheng; CHEN Yu-shu

    2005-01-01

    Rotor-bearings systems applied widely in industry are nonlinear dynamic systems of multi-degree-of-freedom. Modem concepts on design and maintenance call for quantitative stability analysis. Using trajectory based stability-preserving and dimensional-reduction, a quanttative stability analysis method for rotor systems is presented. At first, an n-dimensional nonlinear non-autonomous rotor system is decoupled into n subsystems after numerical integration. Each of them has only onedegree-of-freedom and contains time-varying parameters to represent all other state variables. In this way, n-dimensional trajectory is mapped into a set of one-dimensional trajectories. Dynamic central point (DCP) of a subsystem is then defined on the extended phase plane, namely, force-position plane. Characteristics of curves on the extended phase plane and the DCP's kinetic energy difference sequence for general motion in rotor systems are studied. The corresponding stability margins of trajectory are evaluated quantitatively. By means of the margin and its sensitivity analysis, the critical parameters of the period doubling bifurcation and the Hopf bifurcation in a flexible rotor supported by two short journal beatings with nonlinear suspensionare are determined.

  11. System-level view of geospace dynamics: Challenges for high-latitude ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, research programs including GEM, CEDAR, GEMSIS, GO Canada, and others are focusing on how geospace works as a system. Coupling sits at the heart of system level dynamics. In all cases, coupling is accomplished via fundamental processes such as reconnection and plasma waves, and can be between regions, energy ranges, species, scales, and energy reservoirs. Three views of geospace are required to attack system level questions. First, we must observe the fundamental processes that accomplish the coupling. This "observatory view" requires in situ measurements by satellite-borne instruments or remote sensing from powerful well-instrumented ground-based observatories organized around, for example, Incoherent Scatter Radars. Second, we need to see how this coupling is controlled and what it accomplishes. This demands quantitative observations of the system elements that are being coupled. This "multi-scale view" is accomplished by networks of ground-based instruments, and by global imaging from space. Third, if we take geospace as a whole, the system is too complicated, so at the top level we need time series of simple quantities such as indices that capture important aspects of the system level dynamics. This requires a "key parameter view" that is typically provided through indices such as AE and DsT. With the launch of MMS, and ongoing missions such as THEMIS, Cluster, Swarm, RBSP, and ePOP, we are entering a-once-in-a-lifetime epoch with a remarkable fleet of satellites probing processes at key regions throughout geospace, so the observatory view is secure. With a few exceptions, our key parameter view provides what we need. The multi-scale view, however, is compromised by space/time scales that are important but under-sampled, combined extent of coverage and resolution that falls short of what we need, and inadequate conjugate observations. In this talk, I present an overview of what we need for taking system level research to its next level, and how

  12. Neutronics Analysis of the ITER In-Vessel Viewing System

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Andrew; Puiu, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The In-Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) in ITER consists of six identical units which are deployed between pulses or during shutdown, to perform visual examination and metrology of plasma facing components. The system is housed in dedicated ports at B1 level, with deployment at the level between the divertor cassettes and the lowermost outboard blanket modules. Boron carbide shielding blocks are envisaged to protect the sensitive components of the IVVS from damage during operations, and personnel from radiation fields. In order to progress the design of the IVVS beyond the pre-conceptual stage, analyses were conducted using MCNP to determine the acceptability of a series of different shielding configurations.

  13. A user friendly Lidar system based on LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats; Weibring, P.

    1996-09-01

    Mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have been used for the last two decades. The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system which was first described in 1987. This report describes how that system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW in order to get a user friendly system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measurement data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. New electronics to support the new lidar program have also been installed. The report describes how all supporting electronics and the program work. A user manual for the new program is also given. 19 refs, 79 figs, 23 charts

  14. Image-based fingerprint verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Singla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric-based identification/verification systems provide a solution to the security concerns in the modern world where machine is replacing human in every aspect of life. Fingerprints, because of their uniqueness, are the most widely used and highly accepted biometrics. Fingerprint biometric systems are either minutiae-based or pattern learning (image based. The minutiae-based algorithm depends upon the local discontinuities in the ridge flow pattern and are used when template size is important while image-based matching algorithm uses both the micro and macro feature of a fingerprint and is used if fast response is required. In the present paper an image-based fingerprint verification system is discussed. The proposed method uses a learning phase, which is not present in conventional image-based systems. The learning phase uses pseudo random sub-sampling, which reduces the number of comparisons needed in the matching stage. This system has been developed using LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench toolbox version 6i. The availability of datalog files in LabVIEW makes it one of the most promising candidates for its usage as a database. Datalog files can access and manipulate data and complex data structures quickly and easily. It makes writing and reading much faster. After extensive experimentation involving a large number of samples and different learning sizes, high accuracy with learning image size of 100 100 and a threshold value of 700 (1000 being the perfect match has been achieved.

  15. Lessons Learned from Quantitative Dynamical Modeling in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Julie; Matteson, Andrew; Schelke, Max; Kaschek, Daniel; Hug, Sabine; Kreutz, Clemens; Harms, Brian D.; Theis, Fabian J.; Klingmüller, Ursula; Timmer, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high complexity of biological data it is difficult to disentangle cellular processes relying only on intuitive interpretation of measurements. A Systems Biology approach that combines quantitative experimental data with dynamic mathematical modeling promises to yield deeper insights into these processes. Nevertheless, with growing complexity and increasing amount of quantitative experimental data, building realistic and reliable mathematical models can become a challenging task: the quality of experimental data has to be assessed objectively, unknown model parameters need to be estimated from the experimental data, and numerical calculations need to be precise and efficient. Here, we discuss, compare and characterize the performance of computational methods throughout the process of quantitative dynamic modeling using two previously established examples, for which quantitative, dose- and time-resolved experimental data are available. In particular, we present an approach that allows to determine the quality of experimental data in an efficient, objective and automated manner. Using this approach data generated by different measurement techniques and even in single replicates can be reliably used for mathematical modeling. For the estimation of unknown model parameters, the performance of different optimization algorithms was compared systematically. Our results show that deterministic derivative-based optimization employing the sensitivity equations in combination with a multi-start strategy based on latin hypercube sampling outperforms the other methods by orders of magnitude in accuracy and speed. Finally, we investigated transformations that yield a more efficient parameterization of the model and therefore lead to a further enhancement in optimization performance. We provide a freely available open source software package that implements the algorithms and examples compared here. PMID:24098642

  16. Lessons learned from quantitative dynamical modeling in systems biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Raue

    Full Text Available Due to the high complexity of biological data it is difficult to disentangle cellular processes relying only on intuitive interpretation of measurements. A Systems Biology approach that combines quantitative experimental data with dynamic mathematical modeling promises to yield deeper insights into these processes. Nevertheless, with growing complexity and increasing amount of quantitative experimental data, building realistic and reliable mathematical models can become a challenging task: the quality of experimental data has to be assessed objectively, unknown model parameters need to be estimated from the experimental data, and numerical calculations need to be precise and efficient. Here, we discuss, compare and characterize the performance of computational methods throughout the process of quantitative dynamic modeling using two previously established examples, for which quantitative, dose- and time-resolved experimental data are available. In particular, we present an approach that allows to determine the quality of experimental data in an efficient, objective and automated manner. Using this approach data generated by different measurement techniques and even in single replicates can be reliably used for mathematical modeling. For the estimation of unknown model parameters, the performance of different optimization algorithms was compared systematically. Our results show that deterministic derivative-based optimization employing the sensitivity equations in combination with a multi-start strategy based on latin hypercube sampling outperforms the other methods by orders of magnitude in accuracy and speed. Finally, we investigated transformations that yield a more efficient parameterization of the model and therefore lead to a further enhancement in optimization performance. We provide a freely available open source software package that implements the algorithms and examples compared here.

  17. Quantitative approach to small-scale nonequilibrium systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob K; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene B

    2006-01-01

    fluctuations are ignored, misinterpretation of measured quantities such as interaction forces, potentials, and constants may result. Here, we consider a particle moving in a time-dependent landscape, as, e.g., in an optical tweezers or atomic force nanoscopic measurement. Based on the Kramers equations, we...... propose an approximate but quantitative way of dealing with such an out-of-equilibrium system. The limits of this approximate description of the escape process are determined through optical tweezers experiments and comparison to simulations. Also, this serves as a recipe for how to use the proposed...

  18. VIEWS REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW SYSTEM OF BUDGETING ELABORATION OF ADMINISTRATIV-TERRITORIAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana MANOLE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article there are presented the views of the author, who has studied the implementation of the new system of budgeting administrative-territorial units in Riscani and Ocnita districts which have undergone piloting for 2014 year. In the result of the analysis performed by a set of quantitative and qualitative indicators, using the process of comparison of the new and the old system, the author summarizes some opinions, which list the advantages and disadvantages of the new one. Overall, the author concludes that the new local budgeting system leads to strengthening of financial autonomy and raises the responsibility of local authorities for capitalization of the new sources of incomes to the local budget.

  19. Quantitative analysis with the optoacoustic/ultrasound system OPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Christoph; Zell, Karin; Sperl, Jonathan; Vogel, Mika W.; Niessner, Reinhard

    2009-02-01

    The OPUS (Optoacoustic plus Ultrasound) system is a combination of a medical ultrasound scanner with a highrepetition rate, wavelength-tunable laser system and a suitable triggering interface to synchronize the laser and the ultrasound system. The pulsed laser generates an optoacoustic (OA), or photoacoustic (PA), signal which is detected by the ultrasound system. Alternatively, imaging in conventional ultrasound mode can be performed. Both imaging modes can be superimposed. The laser light is coupled into the tissue laterally, parallel to the ultrasound transducer, which does not require for any major modification to the transducer or the ultrasound beam forming. This was a basic requirement on the instrument, as the intention of the project was to establish the optoacoustic imaging modality as add-on to a conventional standard ultrasound instrument. We believe that this approach may foster the introduction of OA imaging as routine tool in medical diagnosis. Another key aspect of the project was to exploit the capabilities of OA imaging for quantitative analysis. The intention of the presented work is to summarize all steps necessary to extract the significant information from the PA raw data, which are required for the quantification of local absorber distributions. We show results of spatially resolved absorption measurements in scattering samples and a comparison of four different image reconstruction algorithms, regarding their influence on lateral resolution as well as on the signal to noise ratio for different sample depths and absorption values. The reconstruction algorithms are based on Fourier transformation, on a generalized 2D Hough transformation, on circular back-projection and the classical delay-and-sum approach which is implemented in most ultrasound scanners. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of a newly developed laser source, combining diode and flash lamp pumping. Compared to all-flash-lamp pumped systems it features a significantly higher

  20. A Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Perspective on Cancer Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Byrne-Hoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The return on investment within the pharmaceutical industry has exhibited an exponential decline over the last several decades. Contemporary analysis suggests that the rate-limiting step associated with the drug discovery and development process is our limited understanding of the disease pathophysiology in humans that is targeted by a drug. Similar to other industries, mechanistic modeling and simulation has been proposed as an enabling quantitative tool to help address this problem. Moreover, immunotherapies are transforming the clinical treatment of cure cancer and are becoming a major segment of the pharmaceutical research and development pipeline. As the clinical benefit of these immunotherapies seems to be limited to subset of the patient population, identifying the specific defect in the complex network of interactions associated with host immunity to a malignancy is a major challenge for expanding the clinical benefit. Understanding the interaction between malignant and immune cells is inherently a systems problem, where an engineering perspective may be helpful. The objective of this manuscript is to summarize this quantitative systems perspective, particularly with respect to developing immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer.

  1. Prospective teachers’ views about the problems of Turkish educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşad Yılmaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to determine prospective teachers’ views about problems in the Turkish educational system. The research is a survey model study. The research group consists of 91 volunteer prospective teachers attending Faculty of Education, Dumlupınar University. The participants are asked to define the most crucial five problems in the Turkish education system in writing and explain those issues in a justifiable way. Descriptive analysis technique is used for data analysis. According to the prospective teachers included in the study, the most crucial problems in the Turkish educational system are as follows respectively: Central examinations, crowded classrooms, rote learning, insufficient equipment and physical structures, quality of the currently employed teachers, unfair access to education, politics (ideological discrimination and favoritism, and appointment of teachers, private teaching institutions, finance and vocational training issues.

  2. Quantitative Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security for Distribution Automation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaming Ye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution automation system (DAS is vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to the widespread use of terminal devices and standard communication protocols. On account of the cost of defense, it is impossible to ensure the security of every device in the DAS. Given this background, a novel quantitative vulnerability assessment model of cyber security for DAS is developed in this paper. In the assessment model, the potential physical consequences of cyber-attacks are analyzed from two levels: terminal device level and control center server level. Then, the attack process is modeled based on game theory and the relationships among different vulnerabilities are analyzed by introducing a vulnerability adjacency matrix. Finally, the application process of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a case study based on bus 2 of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS. The results demonstrate the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  3. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  4. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  5. Dynamic dimension: system for simultaneous 3D and monoscopic viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redert, Andre

    2004-05-01

    We propose the 'Dynamic Dimension' system that enables simultaneous viewing of 3D and monoscopic content on glasses-based stereo displays (e.g. CRT, Plasma, LCD). A viewer can choose to wear glasses and see content in 3D, or he may decide not to wear glasses, and see high-quality monoscopic content. The Dynamic Dimension system is based on simple image processing such as addition and subtraction. The input images can be captured by a triple camera setup or be rendered from so-called RGBD video, an ad-hoc standard for 3D video. From several subjective tests, we conclude that Dynamic Dimension produces a very much present and appealing 3D effect, while the monoscopic image quality remains high and totally unaffected.

  6. [A focused sound field measurement system by LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhan; Bai, Jingfeng; Yu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, according to the requirement of the focused sound field measurement, a focused sound field measurement system was established based on the LabVIEW virtual instrument platform. The system can automatically search the focus position of the sound field, and adjust the scanning path according to the size of the focal region. Three-dimensional sound field scanning time reduced from 888 hours in uniform step to 9.25 hours in variable step. The efficiency of the focused sound field measurement was improved. There is a certain deviation between measurement results and theoretical calculation results. Focal plane--6 dB width difference rate was 3.691%, the beam axis--6 dB length differences rate was 12.937%.

  7. Quantitative systems pharmacology: a promising approach for translational pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, K; Kirouac, D; Parrott, N; Ramanujan, S

    Biopharmaceutical companies have increasingly been exploring Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) as a potential avenue to address current challenges in drug development. In this paper, we discuss the application of QSP modeling approaches to address challenges in the translational of preclinical findings to the clinic, a high risk area of drug development. Three cases have been highlighted with QSP models utilized to inform different questions in translational pharmacology. In the first, a mechanism based asthma model is used to evaluate efficacy and inform biomarker strategy for a novel bispecific antibody. In the second case study, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling model is used to make translational predictions on clinical response and evaluate novel combination therapies. In the third case study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model it used to guide administration of oseltamivir in pediatric patients.

  8. A quantitative assessment of LCOs using system dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, K. M.; Jey, M. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, C. K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The research on the technical specifications improvements for too conservative TS has been conducted recently using PSA techniques. In this study a tool of Vensim, which one of System Dynamics software products, is applied to evaluate the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) quantitatively. A value of core damage frequency in PSA is used as risk measure. The analysis of both full power operation and shutdown operation has been compared for the value of the CDF. The time dependent framework developed in this study has been applied to an example problem accompanied by the operation of Wolsong Nuclear Power plants and it is shown that it is flexible in that it can be applied to any operational context of the technical specification00.

  9. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  10. Quantitative Analysis of AGV System in FMS Cell Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramana

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Material handling is a specialised activity for a modern manufacturing concern. Automated guided vehicles (AGVs are invariably used for material handling in flexible manufacturing Systems (FMSs due to their flexibility. The quantitative analysis of an AGV system is useful for determining the material flow rates, operation times, length of delivery, length of empty move of AGV and the number of AGVs required for a typical FMS cell layout. The efficiency of the material handling system, such as AGV can be improved by reducing the length of empty move. The length of empty move of AGV depends upon despatching and scheduling methods. If these methods of AGVs are not properly planned, the length of empty move of AGV is greater than the length of delivery .This results in increase in material handling time which in turn increases the number of AGVs required in FMS cell. This paper presents a method for optimising the length of empty travel of AGV in a typical FMS cell layout.

  11. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YongDeok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241 was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS. The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with ~2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber, the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  12. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, YongDeok; Jeon, Ju Young; Park, Chang-Je

    2017-09-01

    A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241) was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with 2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber), the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  13. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauerhofer, E. [FZJ, Institute for Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Havenith, A.; Kettler, J. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Elisabethstrasse 16, D-52062 Aachen (Germany); Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-04-19

    The Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  14. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Kettler, J.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B.

    2013-04-01

    The Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) [1]. The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  15. Assessing Asian Scholarly Research in Library and Information Science: A Quantitative View as Reflected in "Web of Knowledge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the quantitative performance of scholarly LIS research in Asian countries based on articles published during 2001-2007 in journals indexed by the Social Science Citation Index of Web of Knowledge. The quantitative performance of Asian countries has been judged and compared on the basis of various quantitative indicators: (a)…

  16. Quantitative transformation for implementation of adder circuits in physical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Whiting, James G H; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Computing devices are composed of spatial arrangements of simple fundamental logic gates. These gates may be combined to form more complex adding circuits and, ultimately, complete computer systems. Implementing classical adding circuits using unconventional, or even living substrates such as slime mould Physarum polycephalum, is made difficult and often impractical by the challenges of branching fan-out of inputs and regions where circuit lines must cross without interference. In this report we explore whether it is possible to avoid spatial propagation, branching and crossing completely in the design of adding circuits. We analyse the input and output patterns of a single-bit full adder circuit. A simple quantitative transformation of the input patterns which considers the total number of bits in the input string allows us to map the respective input combinations to the correct outputs patterns of the full adder circuit, reducing the circuit combinations from a 2:1 mapping to a 1:1 mapping. The mapping of inputs to outputs also shows an incremental linear progression, suggesting its implementation in a range of physical systems. We demonstrate an example implementation, first in simulation, inspired by self-oscillatory dynamics of the acellular slime mould P. polycephalum. We then assess the potential implementation using plasmodium of slime mould itself. This simple transformation may enrich the potential for using unconventional computing substrates to implement digital circuits.

  17. Video System for Viewing From a Remote or Windowless Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amamath

    2009-01-01

    A system of electronic hardware and software synthesizes, in nearly real time, an image of a portion of a scene surveyed by as many as eight video cameras aimed, in different directions, at portions of the scene. This is a prototype of systems that would enable a pilot to view the scene outside a remote or windowless cockpit. The outputs of the cameras are digitized. Direct memory addressing is used to store the data of a few captured images in sequence, and the sequence is repeated in cycles. Cylindrical warping is used in merging adjacent images at their borders to construct a mosaic image of the scene. The mosaic-image data are written to a memory block from which they can be rendered on a head-mounted display (HMD) device. A subsystem in the HMD device tracks the direction of gaze of the wearer, providing data that are used to select, for display, the portion of the mosaic image corresponding to the direction of gaze. The basic functionality of the system has been demonstrated by mounting the cameras on the roof of a van and steering the van by use of the images presented on the HMD device.

  18. Life as physics and chemistry: A system view of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Cellular life can be viewed as one of many physical natural systems that extract free energy from their environments in the most efficient way, according to fundamental physical laws, and grow until limited by inherent physical constraints. Thus, it can be inferred that it is the efficiency of this process that natural selection acts upon. The consequent emphasis on metabolism, rather than replication, points to a metabolism-first origin of life with the adoption of DNA template replication as a second stage development. This order of events implies a cellular regulatory system that pre-dates the involvement of DNA and might, therefore, be based on the information acquired as peptides fold into proteins, rather than on genetic regulatory networks. Such an epigenetic cell regulatory model, the independent attractor model, has already been proposed to explain the phenomenon of radiation induced genomic instability. Here it is extended to provide an epigenetic basis for the morphological and functional diversity that evolution has yielded, based on natural selection of the most efficient free energy transduction. Empirical evidence which challenges the current genetic basis of cell and molecular biology and which supports the above proposal is discussed.

  19. Immunoliposome-PCR: a generic ultrasensitive quantitative antigen detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Junkun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate quantification of antigens at low concentrations over a wide dynamic range is needed for identifying biomarkers associated with disease and detecting protein interactions in high-throughput microarrays used in proteomics. Here we report the development of an ultrasensitive quantitative assay format called immunoliposome polymerase chain reaction (ILPCR that fulfills these requirements. This method uses a liposome, with reporter DNA encapsulated inside and biotin-labeled polyethylene glycol (PEG phospholipid conjugates incorporated into the outer surface of the liposome, as a detection reagent. The antigenic target is immobilized in the well of a microplate by a capture antibody and the liposome detection reagent is then coupled to a biotin-labeled second antibody through a NeutrAvidin bridge. The liposome is ruptured to release the reporter DNA, which serves as a surrogate to quantify the protein target using real-time PCR. Results A liposome detection reagent was prepared, which consisted of a population of liposomes ~120 nm in diameter with each liposome possessing ~800 accessible biotin receptors and ~220 encapsulated reporters. This liposome detection reagent was used in an assay to quantify the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in human serum. This ILPCR assay exhibited a linear dose–response curve from 10-10 M to 10-16 M CEA. Within this range the assay coefficient of variance was Conclusions The ILPCR assay has several advantages over other immuno-PCR methods. The reporter DNA and biotin-labeled PEG phospholipids spontaneously incorporate into the liposomes as they form, simplifying preparation of the detection reagent. Encapsulation of the reporter inside the liposomes allows nonspecific DNA in the assay medium to be degraded with DNase I prior to quantification of the encapsulated reporter by PCR, which reduces false-positive results and improves quantitative accuracy. The ability to

  20. Quantitative Modeling of the Alternative Pathway of the Complement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewde, Nehemiah; Gorham, Ronald D; Dorado, Angel; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an integral part of innate immunity that detects and eliminates invading pathogens through a cascade of reactions. The destructive effects of the complement activation on host cells are inhibited through versatile regulators that are present in plasma and bound to membranes. Impairment in the capacity of these regulators to function in the proper manner results in autoimmune diseases. To better understand the delicate balance between complement activation and regulation, we have developed a comprehensive quantitative model of the alternative pathway. Our model incorporates a system of ordinary differential equations that describes the dynamics of the four steps of the alternative pathway under physiological conditions: (i) initiation (fluid phase), (ii) amplification (surfaces), (iii) termination (pathogen), and (iv) regulation (host cell and fluid phase). We have examined complement activation and regulation on different surfaces, using the cellular dimensions of a characteristic bacterium (E. coli) and host cell (human erythrocyte). In addition, we have incorporated neutrophil-secreted properdin into the model highlighting the cross talk of neutrophils with the alternative pathway in coordinating innate immunity. Our study yields a series of time-dependent response data for all alternative pathway proteins, fragments, and complexes. We demonstrate the robustness of alternative pathway on the surface of pathogens in which complement components were able to saturate the entire region in about 54 minutes, while occupying less than one percent on host cells at the same time period. Our model reveals that tight regulation of complement starts in fluid phase in which propagation of the alternative pathway was inhibited through the dismantlement of fluid phase convertases. Our model also depicts the intricate role that properdin released from neutrophils plays in initiating and propagating the alternative pathway during bacterial infection.

  1. Immunology by numbers: quantitation of antigen presentation completes the quantitative milieu of systems immunology!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Anthony W; Croft, Nathan P; Tscharke, David C

    2016-06-01

    We review approaches to quantitate antigen presentation using a variety of biological and biochemical readouts and highlight the emerging role of mass spectrometry (MS) in defining and quantifying MHC-bound peptides presented at the cell surface. The combination of high mass accuracy in the determination of the molecular weight of the intact peptide of interest and its signature pattern of fragmentation during tandem MS provide an unambiguous and definitive identification. This is in contrast to the potential receptor cross-reactivity towards closely related peptides and variable dose responsiveness seen in biological readouts. In addition, we gaze into the not too distant future where big data approaches in MS can be accommodated to quantify whole immunopeptidomes both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. A Quantitative System for Studying Metastasis Using Transparent Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, Silja; Ratnakumar, Kajan; Langdon, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    of transgenic mitfa-BRAF(V600E);p53(-/-) fish. We then transplanted the melanoma cells into the transparent casper strain to enable highly quantitative measurement of the metastatic process at single-cell resolution. Using computational image analysis of the resulting metastases, we generated a metastasis score...

  3. Quantitative analysis of L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tasneem; Tahtali, Murat; Pickering, Mark R.

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of a newly proposed L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging. The L-SPECT system consists of an array of 100 × 100 micro range diameter pinholes. The proposed detector module has a 48 mm by 48 mm active area and the system is based on a pixelated array of NaI crystals (10×10×10 mm elements) coupled with an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). The performance of this system was evaluated with pinhole radii of 50 μm, 60 μm and 100 μm. Monte Carlo simulation studies using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) software package validate the performance of this novel dual head L-SPECT system where a geometric mouse phantom is used to investigate its performance. All SPECT data were obtained using 120 projection views from 0° to 360° with a 3° step. Slices were reconstructed using conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. We have evaluated the quality of the images in terms of spatial resolution (FWHM) based on line spread function, the system sensitivity, the point source response function and the image quality. The sensitivity of our newly proposed L- SPECT system was about 4500 cps/μCi at 6 cm along with excellent full width at half-maximum (FWHM) using 50 μm pinhole aperture at several radii of rotation. The analysis results show the combination of excellent spatial resolution and high detection efficiency over an energy range between 20-160 keV. The results demonstrate that SPECT imaging using a pixelated L-SPECT detector module is applicable in a quantitative study of mouse brain imaging.

  4. Concept development for the ITER equatorial port visible∕infrared wide angle viewing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, R; Beaumont, B; Boilson, D; Bouhamou, R; Direz, M-F; Encheva, A; Henderson, M; Huxford, R; Kazarian, F; Lamalle, Ph; Lisgo, S; Mitteau, R; Patel, K M; Pitcher, C S; Pitts, R A; Prakash, A; Raffray, R; Schunke, B; Snipes, J; Diaz, A Suarez; Udintsev, V S; Walker, C; Walsh, M

    2012-10-01

    The ITER equatorial port visible∕infrared wide angle viewing system concept is developed from the measurement requirements. The proposed solution situates 4 viewing systems in the equatorial ports 3, 9, 12, and 17 with 4 views each (looking at the upper target, the inner divertor, and tangentially left and right). This gives sufficient coverage. The spatial resolution of the divertor system is 2 times higher than the other views. For compensation of vacuum-vessel movements, an optical hinge concept is proposed. Compactness and low neutron streaming is achieved by orienting port plug doglegs horizontally. Calibration methods, risks, and R&D topics are outlined.

  5. Concept development for the ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, R.; Beaumont, B.; Boilson, D.; Bouhamou, R.; Direz, M.-F.; Encheva, A.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, Ph.; Lisgo, S.; Mitteau, R.; Patel, K. M.; Pitcher, C. S.; Pitts, R. A.; Prakash, A.; Raffray, R.; Schunke, B.; Snipes, J.; Diaz, A. Suarez; Udintsev, V. S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2012-10-15

    The ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system concept is developed from the measurement requirements. The proposed solution situates 4 viewing systems in the equatorial ports 3, 9, 12, and 17 with 4 views each (looking at the upper target, the inner divertor, and tangentially left and right). This gives sufficient coverage. The spatial resolution of the divertor system is 2 times higher than the other views. For compensation of vacuum-vessel movements, an optical hinge concept is proposed. Compactness and low neutron streaming is achieved by orienting port plug doglegs horizontally. Calibration methods, risks, and R and D topics are outlined.

  6. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Approaches Applied to Microphysiological Systems (MPS): Data Interpretation and Multi-MPS Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Cilfone, N A; Large, E M; Sarkar, U; Wishnok, J S; Tannenbaum, S R; Hughes, D J; Lauffenburger, D A; Griffith, L G; Stokes, C L; Cirit, M

    2015-10-01

    Our goal in developing Microphysiological Systems (MPS) technology is to provide an improved approach for more predictive preclinical drug discovery via a highly integrated experimental/computational paradigm. Success will require quantitative characterization of MPSs and mechanistic analysis of experimental findings sufficient to translate resulting insights from in vitro to in vivo. We describe herein a systems pharmacology approach to MPS development and utilization that incorporates more mechanistic detail than traditional pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models. A series of studies illustrates diverse facets of our approach. First, we demonstrate two case studies: a PK data analysis and an inflammation response--focused on a single MPS, the liver/immune MPS. Building on the single MPS modeling, a theoretical investigation of a four-MPS interactome then provides a quantitative way to consider several pharmacological concepts such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the design of multi-MPS interactome operation and experiments.

  7. Public Library System in Ankara: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 42 public libraries in 25 central districts within the boundaries of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality in respect of five factors according to national and international standards quantitatively. The findings show that public libraries in Ankara are insufficient with respect to the number of buildings, users, staff and collection and also in terms of standards. Therefore, it has been suggested that an urgent planning is necessary for public libraries in Ankara.

  8. Carrying the (paper) burden: A portfolio view of systemic risk and optimal bank size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.W.B.; Lamers, M.; Purice, V.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between bank size and financial stability by viewing the supervisor of a banking system as an ‘investor’ holding a portfolio of banks. Based on this view, we investigate the role of large banks in determining the systemic risk in this portfolio. Our results, based on book

  9. Carrying the (paper) burden: A portfolio view of systemic risk and optimal bank size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.W.B.; Lamers, M.; Purice, V.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between bank size and financial stability by viewing the supervisor of a banking system as an ‘investor’ holding a portfolio of banks. Based on this view, we investigate the role of large banks in determining the systemic risk in this portfolio. Our results, based on book

  10. Integrated Strategies to Gain a Systems-Level View of Dynamic Signaling Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Robert H; Zhang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    In order to survive and function properly in the face of an ever changing environment, cells must be able to sense changes in their surroundings and respond accordingly. Cells process information about their environment through complex signaling networks composed of many discrete signaling molecules. Individual pathways within these networks are often tightly integrated and highly dynamic, allowing cells to respond to a given stimulus (or, as is typically the case under physiological conditions, a combination of stimuli) in a specific and appropriate manner. However, due to the size and complexity of many cellular signaling networks, it is often difficult to predict how cellular signaling networks will respond under a particular set of conditions. Indeed, crosstalk between individual signaling pathways may lead to responses that are nonintuitive (or even counterintuitive) based on examination of the individual pathways in isolation. Therefore, to gain a more comprehensive view of cell signaling processes, it is important to understand how signaling networks behave at the systems level. This requires integrated strategies that combine quantitative experimental data with computational models. In this chapter, we first examine some of the progress that has recently been made toward understanding the systems-level regulation of cellular signaling networks, with a particular emphasis on phosphorylation-dependent signaling networks. We then discuss how genetically targetable fluorescent biosensors are being used together with computational models to gain unique insights into the spatiotemporal regulation of signaling networks within single, living cells.

  11. Wide field of view adaptive optical system for lightweight deployable telescope technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Brian K.; Cermak, Michael A.; Friedman, Edward J.

    2003-02-01

    A NASA research contract (NAS1-00116) was awarded to Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. in January 2000 to study wide field-of-view adaptive optical systems. These systems will be required on future high resolution Earth remote sensing systems that employ large, flexible, lightweight, deployed primary mirrors. The deformations from these primary mirrors will introduce aberrations into the optical system, which must be removed by corrective optics. For economic reasons, these remote sensing systems must have a large field-of-view (a few degrees). Unlike ground-based adaptive optical systems, which have a negligible field-of-view, the adaptive optics on these space-based remote sensing systems will be required to correct for the deformations in the primary mirror over the entire field-of-view. A new error function, which is an enhancement to conventional adaptive optics, for wide field-of-view optical systems will be introduced. This paper will present the goals of the NASA research project and its progress. The initial phase of this research project is a demonstration of the wide field-of-view adaptive optics theory. A breadboard has been designed and built for this purpose. The design and assembly of the breadboard will be presented, along with the final results for this phase of the research project. Finally, this paper will show the applicability of wide field-of-view adaptive optics to space-based astronomical systems.

  12. Data Model Transformation in CAD System for Multi-View Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes multi-view modeling and data modeltransformation for the m odeling. We have proposed a reference model of CAD system generation, which can be applied to various domain-specific languages. However, the current CAD system generation cannot integrate data of multiple domains. Generally each domain has its own view of products. For example, in the domain of architectural structure, designers extract the nec essary data from the data in architecture design. Domain experts translate one view into another view beyond domains using their own brains.The multi-view modeling is a way to integrate product data of multiple d omains, and make it possible to translate views among various domains by computers.

  13. Palliative care physicians′ religious / world view and attitude towards euthanasia: A quantitative study among flemish palliative care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Broeckaert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To Study the religious and ideological views and practice of Palliative Care physician towards Euthanasia. Materials and Methods: An anonymous self administered questionnaire approved by Flemish Palliative Care Federation and its ethics steering group was sent to all physicians(n-147 working in Flemish Palliative Care. Questionnaire consisted of three parts. In first part responded were requested to provide demographic information. In second part the respondents were asked to provide information concerning their religion or world view through several questions enquiring after religious or ideological affiliation,religious or ideological self-definition, view on life after death, image of God, spirituality, importance of rituals in their life, religious practice, and importance of religion in life. The third part consisted of a list of attitudinal statements regarding different treatment decisions in advanced disease on which the respondents had to give their opinion using a five-point Likert scale.99 physician responded. Results: We were able to distinguish four clusters: Church-going physicians, infrequently church-going physicians, atheists and doubters. We found that like the Belgian general public, many Flemish palliative care physicians concoct their own religious or ideological identity and feel free to drift away from traditional religious and ideological authorities. Conclusions: In our research we noted that physicians who have a strong belief in God and express their faith through participation in prayer and rituals, tend to be more critical toward euthanasia. Physicians who deny the existence of a transcendent power and hardly attend religious services are more likely to approve of euthanasia even in the case of minors or demented patients. In this way this study confirms the influence of religion and world view on attitudes toward euthanasia.

  14. Palliative care physicians' religious / world view and attitude towards euthanasia: a quantitative study among flemish palliative care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckaert, B; Gielen, J; Van Iersel, T; Van den Branden, S

    2009-01-01

    To Study the religious and ideological views and practice of Palliative Care physician towards Euthanasia. An anonymous self administered questionnaire approved by Flemish Palliative Care Federation and its ethics steering group was sent to all physicians(n-147) working in Flemish Palliative Care. Questionnaire consisted of three parts. In first part responded were requested to provide demographic information. In second part the respondents were asked to provide information concerning their religion or world view through several questions enquiring after religious or ideological affiliation, religious or ideological self-definition, view on life after death, image of God, spirituality, importance of rituals in their life, religious practice, and importance of religion in life. The third part consisted of a list of attitudinal statements regarding different treatment decisions in advanced disease on which the respondents had to give their opinion using a five-point Likert scale.99 physician responded. WE WERE ABLE TO DISTINGUISH FOUR CLUSTERS: Church-going physicians, infrequently church-going physicians, atheists and doubters. We found that like the Belgian general public, many Flemish palliative care physicians concoct their own religious or ideological identity and feel free to drift away from traditional religious and ideological authorities. In our research we noted that physicians who have a strong belief in God and express their faith through participation in prayer and rituals, tend to be more critical toward euthanasia. Physicians who deny the existence of a transcendent power and hardly attend religious services are more likely to approve of euthanasia even in the case of minors or demented patients. In this way this study confirms the influence of religion and world view on attitudes toward euthanasia.

  15. Use of health systems evidence by policymakers in eastern mediterranean countries: views, practices, and contextual influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems evidence can enhance policymaking and strengthen national health systems. In the Middle East, limited research exists on the use of evidence in the policymaking process. This multi-country study explored policymakers’ views and practices regarding the use of health systems evidence in health policymaking in 10 eastern Mediterranean countries, including factors that influence health policymaking and barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence. Methods This study utilized a survey adapted and customized from a similar tool developed in Canada. Health policymakers from 10 countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan, Tunisia, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive and bi-variate analyses were performed for quantitative questions and thematic analysis was done for qualitative questions. Results A total of 237 policymakers completed the survey (56.3% response rate. Governing parties, limited funding for the health sector and donor organizations exerted a strong influence on policymaking processes. Most (88.5% policymakers reported requesting evidence and 43.1% reported collaborating with researchers. Overall, 40.1% reported that research evidence is not delivered at the right time. Lack of an explicit budget for evidence-informed health policymaking (55.3%, lack of an administrative structure for supporting evidence-informed health policymaking processes (52.6%, and limited value given to research (35.9% all limited the use of research evidence. Barriers to the use of evidence included lack of research targeting health policy, lack of funding and investments, and political forces. Facilitators included availability of health research and research institutions, qualified researchers, research funding, and easy access to information. Conclusions Health policymakers in several countries recognize the importance of using health systems evidence. Study findings are important in light

  16. [Software and hardware design for the temperature control system of quantitative polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xian-bo; Yuan, Jing-qi; Li, Qi

    2005-07-01

    A temperature control system for quantitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is presented in the paper with both software and hardware configuration. The performance of the control system has been improved by optimizing the software and hardware design according to the system's properties. The control system has been proven to have a good repeatability and reliability as well as high control precision.

  17. Method and systems for collecting data from multiple fields of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Geary K. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods for processing light from multiple fields (48, 54, 55) of view without excessive machinery for scanning optical elements. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, multiple holographic optical elements (41, 42, 43, 44, 45), integrated on a common film (4), diffract and project light from respective fields of view.

  18. 2DCMA: An Effective Maintenance Algorithm of Materialized Views in Peer Data Management Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao Qin; Shan Wang; Xiao-Yong Du

    2006-01-01

    Update management is very important for data integration systems. So update management in peer data management systems (PDMSs) is a hot research area. This paper researches on view maintenance in PDMSs. First, the definition of view is extended and the peer view, local view and global view are proposed according to the requirements of applications.There are two main factors to influence materialized views in PDMSs. One is that schema mappings between peers are changed, and the other is that peers update their data. Based on the requirements, this paper proposes an algorithm called 2DCMA, which includes two sub-algorithms: data and definition consistency maintenance algorithms, to effectively maintain views. For data consistency maintenance, Mork's rules are extended for governing the use of updategrams and boosters.The new rule system can be used to optimize the execution plan. And are extended for the data consistency maintenance algorithm is based on the new rule system. Furthermore, an ECA rule is adopted for definition consistency maintenance.Finally, extensive simulation experiments are conducted in SPDMS. The simulation results show that the 2DCMA algorithm has better performance than that of Mork's when maintaining data consistency. And the 2DCMA algorithm has better performance than that of centralized view maintenance algorithm when maintaining definition consistency.

  19. Autonomic nervous system responses to viewing green and built settings: differentiating between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Magdalena; Maas, Jolanda; Mulder, Rianne; Braun, Anoek; Kaandorp, Wendy; van Lien, René; van Poppel, Mireille; van Mechelen, Willem; van den Berg, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    his laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram

  20. A top-down approach to construct execution views of a large software-intensive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callo Arias, Trosky B.; America, Pierre; Avgeriou, Paris

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to construct execution views, which are views that describe what the software of a software-intensive system does at runtime and how it does it. The approach represents an architecture reconstruction solution based on a metamodel, a set of viewpoints, and a dynamic an

  1. Constructing a Resource Usage View of a Large and Complex Software-Intensive System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callo Arias, Trosky B.; Avgeriou, Paris; America, Pierre; Zaidman, A; Antoniol, G; Ducasee, S

    2009-01-01

    A resource usage view consists of models that are important assets to analyze and control usage of hardware resources such as processors and memory elements. In this paper, we present the application of a top-down approach to construct a resource usage view using actual system runtime information.

  2. Providing effective trauma care: the potential for service provider views to enhance the quality of care (qualitative study nested within a multicentre longitudinal quantitative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Kate; Earthy, Sarah; Sleney, Jude; Barnes, Jo; Kellezi, Blerina; Barker, Marcus; Clarkson, Julie; Coffey, Frank; Elder, Georgina; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-07-08

    To explore views of service providers caring for injured people on: the extent to which services meet patients' needs and their perspectives on factors contributing to any identified gaps in service provision. Qualitative study nested within a quantitative multicentre longitudinal study assessing longer term impact of unintentional injuries in working age adults. Sampling frame for service providers was based on patient-reported service use in the quantitative study, patient interviews and advice of previously injured lay research advisers. Service providers' views were elicited through semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants were recruited from a range of settings and services in acute hospital trusts in four study centres (Bristol, Leicester, Nottingham and Surrey) and surrounding areas. 40 service providers from a range of disciplines. Service providers described two distinct models of trauma care: an 'ideal' model, informed by professional knowledge of the impact of injury and awareness of best models of care, and a 'real' model based on the realities of National Health Service (NHS) practice. Participants' 'ideal' model was consistent with standards of high-quality effective trauma care and while there were examples of services meeting the ideal model, 'real' care could also be fragmented and inequitable with major gaps in provision. Service provider accounts provide evidence of comprehensive understanding of patients' needs, awareness of best practice, compassion and research but reveal significant organisational and resource barriers limiting implementation of knowledge in practice. Service providers envisage an 'ideal' model of trauma care which is timely, equitable, effective and holistic, but this can differ from the care currently provided. Their experiences provide many suggestions for service improvements to bridge the gap between 'real' and 'ideal' care. Using service provider views to inform service design

  3. Modelling and Research of Chaotic Rossler System with LabView and Multisim Software Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Rusyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper is presented a theoretical basis of chaotic Rossler system. Modelling of Chaotic Rossler System in LabView. Submitted programming interface that has been developed in LabView software environment. It allows generating and researching chaotic Rossler system. Submitted by time distribution of three chaotic coordinates and spectral analysis. Also submitted values of variables in which generated different period (controlled attractors of the chaotic Rossler system. The software interface demonstrates masking and decrypt information carrier of the chaotic Rossler system. Modelling of Chaotic Rossler System in MultiSim. Using MultiSim software environment conducted scheme technical analysis circuit of a generator that implements a chaotic Rossler system. Conclusions. Modelled circuit of generator confirming correspondence scheme-technical solution to mathematical apparatus that describing chaotic Rossler system. Keywords: chaos; control; system; Rossler; LabView; MultiSim

  4. Quantitative proteomic view associated with resistance to clinically important antibiotics in Gram-positive bacteria: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ro eLee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE poses a worldwide and serious health threat. Although new antibiotics, such as daptomycin and linezolid, have been developed for the treatment of infections of Gram-positive pathogens, the emergence of daptomycin-resistant and linezolid-resistant strains during therapy has now increased clinical treatment failures. In the past few years, studies using quantitative proteomic methods have provided a considerable progress in understanding antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In this review, to understand the resistance mechanisms to four clinically important antibiotics (methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin used in the treatment of Gram-positive pathogens, we summarize recent advances in studies on resistance mechanisms using quantitative proteomic methods, and also examine proteins playing an important role in the bacterial mechanisms of resistance to the four antibiotics. Proteomic researches can identify proteins whose expression levels are changed in the resistance mechanism to only one antibiotic, such as LiaH in daptomycin resistance and PrsA in vancomycin resistance, and many proteins simultaneously involved in resistance mechanisms to various antibiotics. Most of resistance-related proteins, which are simultaneously associated with resistance mechanisms to several antibiotics, play important roles in regulating bacterial envelope biogenesis or compensating for the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance. Therefore,

  5. Experimental validation and clinical comparison of quantitative coronary analysis systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Haase (Jürgen)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe kernel topic of this thesis is the validation of QCA systems by a new experimental approach involving the percutaneous insertion of coronary stenosis phantoms in swine coronary arteries. The reliability of digital as well as cinefilm-based QCA systems has been compared on the basis

  6. Quantitative comparison of three electrosurgical smoke evacuation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Been, Stefan; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2010-02-01

    Electrosurgical equipment used during surgery generate smoke consisting of particles, vapor, aerosols and potentially harmful biological agents. Smoke evacuation systems are used more commonly and various types are available. A special image enhancement technique was used to study the behavior of surgical smoke and the effectiveness of smoke evacuation systems. Three different smoke evacuation systems were investigated. Rapid vac (Valleylab Boulder CO) The Buffalo silent whisper turbo (Buffalo, NY) ERBE IES 300 ( Tübingen, Germany) A back scatter illumination technique in combination with a high speed camera was applied to image the dynamics of a smoke plume generated by vaporizing a homogenous meat paste irradiated with the beam of a 10 W cw CO2 laser moving at a constant speed. The three different smoke evacuation systems with their individual nozzles, were held 2 cm above the surface of the meat paste and were switched on and off at fixed intervals to mimic a clinical situation. For images analysis, software was developed to count 'smoke pixels' in the video frames as a quantification tool. For the observer's eye, there were no differences between the systems. However, images quantification showed significantly less 'smoke' for the Buffalo system. It is expected that the performance in a clinical situation is also influenced by additional conditions like nozzle design, airflow and noise level. Noise levels were measured at the tip of the nozzle, 80 cm from the tip, 140 cm from the tip. The Buffalo system is the loudest system at every distance measured.

  7. Biological evolution of replicator systems: towards a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Osmel; Horvath, J E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study the features of a simple replicator chemical model of the relation between kinetic stability and entropy production under the action of external perturbations. We quantitatively explore the different paths leading to evolution in a toy model where two independent replicators compete for the same substrate. To do that, the same scenario described originally by Pross (J Phys Org Chem 17:312-316, 2004) is revised and new criteria to define the kinetic stability are proposed. Our results suggest that fast replicator populations are continually favored by the effects of strong stochastic environmental fluctuations capable to determine the global population, the former assumed to be the only acting evolution force. We demonstrate that the process is continually driven by strong perturbations only, and that population crashes may be useful proxies for these catastrophic environmental fluctuations. As expected, such behavior is particularly enhanced under very large scale perturbations, suggesting a likely dynamical footprint in the recovery patterns of new species after mass extinction events in the Earth's geological past. Furthermore, the hypothesis that natural selection always favors the faster processes may give theoretical support to different studies that claim the applicability of maximum principles like the Maximum Metabolic Flux (MMF) or Maximum Entropy Productions Principle (MEPP), seen as the main goal of biological evolution.

  8. A contemporary view of systems engineering. [definition of system and discussion of systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a 'system' is defined, and the 'systems approach' is discussed. Four contemporary examples of the systems approach are presented: an operations research project, the planning-programming-budgeting system, an information processing system, and aerospace programs.

  9. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  10. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena M H E; Maas, Jolanda; Muller, Rianne; Braun, Anoek; Kaandorp, Wendy; van Lien, René; van Poppel, Mireille N M; van Mechelen, Willem; van den Berg, Agnes E

    2015-12-14

    This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram signal was used to derive respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP), indicators of respectively parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. The findings provide support for greater recovery after viewing green scenes, as marked by a stronger increase in RSA as a marker of parasympathetic activity. There were no indications for greater recovery after viewing green scenes in PEP as a marker of sympathetic activity, and there were also no indications of greater buffering effects of green space in neither RSA nor PEP. Overall, our findings are consistent with a predominant role of the parasympathetic nervous system in restorative effects of viewing green space.

  11. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena M.H.E.; Maas, Jolanda; Muller, Rianne; Braun, Anoek; Kaandorp, Wendy; van Lien, René; van Poppel, Mireille N.M.; van Mechelen, Willem; van den Berg, Agnes E.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram signal was used to derive respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP), indicators of respectively parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. The findings provide support for greater recovery after viewing green scenes, as marked by a stronger increase in RSA as a marker of parasympathetic activity. There were no indications for greater recovery after viewing green scenes in PEP as a marker of sympathetic activity, and there were also no indications of greater buffering effects of green space in neither RSA nor PEP. Overall, our findings are consistent with a predominant role of the parasympathetic nervous system in restorative effects of viewing green space. PMID:26694426

  12. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M.H.E. van den Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram signal was used to derive respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and pre-ejection period (PEP, indicators of respectively parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. The findings provide support for greater recovery after viewing green scenes, as marked by a stronger increase in RSA as a marker of parasympathetic activity. There were no indications for greater recovery after viewing green scenes in PEP as a marker of sympathetic activity, and there were also no indications of greater buffering effects of green space in neither RSA nor PEP. Overall, our findings are consistent with a predominant role of the parasympathetic nervous system in restorative effects of viewing green space.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Molecular Dynamics Sampling for Flexible Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Mike; Hoffmann, Daniel

    2017-02-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a natural method for the study of flexible molecules but at the same time is limited by the large size of the conformational space of these molecules. We ask by how much the MD sampling quality for flexible molecules can be improved by two means: the use of diverse sets of trajectories starting from different initial conformations to detect deviations between samples and sampling with enhanced methods such as accelerated MD (aMD) or scaled MD (sMD) that distort the energy landscape in controlled ways. To this end, we test the effects of these approaches on MD simulations of two flexible biomolecules in aqueous solution, Met-Enkephalin (5 amino acids) and HIV-1 gp120 V3 (a cycle of 35 amino acids). We assess the convergence of the sampling quantitatively with known, extensive measures of cluster number Nc and cluster distribution entropy Sc and with two new quantities, conformational overlap Oconf and density overlap Odens, both conveniently ranging from 0 to 1. These new overlap measures quantify self-consistency of sampling in multitrajectory MD experiments, a necessary condition for converged sampling. A comprehensive assessment of sampling quality of MD experiments identifies the combination of diverse trajectory sets and aMD as the most efficient approach among those tested. However, analysis of Odens between conventional and aMD trajectories also reveals that we have not completely corrected aMD sampling for the distorted energy landscape. Moreover, for V3, the courses of Nc and Odens indicate that much higher resources than those generally invested today will probably be needed to achieve convergence. The comparative analysis also shows that conventional MD simulations with insufficient sampling can be easily misinterpreted as being converged.

  14. Quantitative analysis of a transpressional system, El Biod Arch, Ghadames Basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.R.; Krantz, R.W. (ARCO International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Akkache, K.; Messaoudi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Trap definition within the northern extension of the Hassi Touareg - Rhourde El Baguel fault zone in the western Ghadames Basin of Algeria is difficult due to complex structural geometries. The fault zone consists of a narrow system of discontinuous. locally en echelon faults. Although north-trending to the south, the zone curves to a northeast trend to the north. Reserves associated with the southern portion of the system total 1500 MMBOR and 2 TCFG. Several lines of evidence support a strike-slip component of motion for the northern segment. Horizontal slickensides have been described in cores taken from wells within the fault trend. Fracture patterns measured from logs taken within the NE-SW fault trend show clusters expected for right-lateral Reidel shears. Although complicated by all evaporate sequence at mid-level in the stratigraphic section, we interpret downward converging faults imaged on recent 2D seismic as positive flower profiles. Map patterns are also interpreted as right-lateral, recognizing that the 2D grid cannot resolve all of the structural complexity. To confirm the component of strike-slip fault displacement, we applied a new quantitative method relating map view structural orientations to the shear magnitude, the degree of convergence or divergence, and the magnitudes of horizontal and vertical strains. Strike-slip to convergence ratios ranging from 2:1 to 3:1 were measured in the study area. Higher ratios (10:1) measured above the salt may indicate a detachment. These ratios also fit the regional tectonic pattern: to the south, where the fault zone trends due north, structural geometries support dip-slip inversion indicative of east-west shortening. Applying the same shortening vector to the northeast-trending part of the zone suggests oblique right-lateral motion, with a strike-slip to convergence ratio of 2:1.

  15. Quantitative analysis of a transpressional system, El Biod Arch, Ghadames Basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.R.; Krantz, R.W. [ARCO International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States); Akkache, K.; Messaoudi, M.

    1996-12-31

    Trap definition within the northern extension of the Hassi Touareg - Rhourde El Baguel fault zone in the western Ghadames Basin of Algeria is difficult due to complex structural geometries. The fault zone consists of a narrow system of discontinuous. locally en echelon faults. Although north-trending to the south, the zone curves to a northeast trend to the north. Reserves associated with the southern portion of the system total 1500 MMBOR and 2 TCFG. Several lines of evidence support a strike-slip component of motion for the northern segment. Horizontal slickensides have been described in cores taken from wells within the fault trend. Fracture patterns measured from logs taken within the NE-SW fault trend show clusters expected for right-lateral Reidel shears. Although complicated by all evaporate sequence at mid-level in the stratigraphic section, we interpret downward converging faults imaged on recent 2D seismic as positive flower profiles. Map patterns are also interpreted as right-lateral, recognizing that the 2D grid cannot resolve all of the structural complexity. To confirm the component of strike-slip fault displacement, we applied a new quantitative method relating map view structural orientations to the shear magnitude, the degree of convergence or divergence, and the magnitudes of horizontal and vertical strains. Strike-slip to convergence ratios ranging from 2:1 to 3:1 were measured in the study area. Higher ratios (10:1) measured above the salt may indicate a detachment. These ratios also fit the regional tectonic pattern: to the south, where the fault zone trends due north, structural geometries support dip-slip inversion indicative of east-west shortening. Applying the same shortening vector to the northeast-trending part of the zone suggests oblique right-lateral motion, with a strike-slip to convergence ratio of 2:1.

  16. Evolution of views on the structure of the ambipolar electric field in toroidal magnetic confinement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovrizhnykh, L. M., E-mail: lmkov@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Various methods of determining the ambipolar electric field in toroidal magnetic systems (predominantly, in stellarators) and the evolution of views on this problem are discussed. Paradoxes encountered in solving this problem are analyzed, and ways of resolving them are proposed.

  17. Health systems in an interconnected world: a view from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimbola, Seye

    2011-07-01

    The benefits of an interconnected world for health care remain untapped. As a result of the politics of inequality between rich and poor countries, one or a few health systems are set up as models. Every country, irrespective of political or economic status, should be open to learning from others to build relevant and cost-effective systems. To combat the current global challenge of chronic non-communicable diseases, poor countries have the advantage of flexible health systems that are veritable laboratories of health systems research. Not only can research conducted in these health systems help harness the potential of mobile communication technologies and informal health providers, it can also help rich country health systems adapt to meet the chronic disease challenge.

  18. A Complex Systems View of Sepsis: Implications for Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    discreet compo- nents, such as differentiated cells, organs, organ systems, and, ultimately, a functioning organism. Interactions be- tween a large...because human beings are considered complex adaptive systems.7 Sepsis Sepsis is not a discreet disease state but is rather a continuum of multifactorial...that may elucidate the complex systems response to sepsis. One approach is applying mathematical modeling to the interpretation of biologic process

  19. A systems engineering view of the human in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John L.

    1987-01-01

    A model of the human as an 'engineered' system provides a starting point for determining human requirements and performance on an equivalent basis with technological systems. The human as an engineered system with performance requirements is defined to consist of four subsystems: cognitive, psychological, biomechanical, and biomedical. It is suggested that the treatment of the psychological subsystem as one that modulates the efficiency and quality of human performance offers a particular approach for examining and characterizing psychological effects.

  20. [Development of delusion in view of Luhmann's systems theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, T

    2003-01-01

    The systems theory of Niklas Luhmann declares itself as a universal theory and therefore claims applicability to any social and psychic phenomenon.In spite of its high complexity, to many it seems too vague and nonspecific. The possible usefulness of this theory should be demonstrated on the example of the development of delusion, still a mysterious and unexplained phenomenon. Within the framework of Luhmann's systems theory, delusion can be considered a communication disorder and therefore a phenomenon within the social system. Both the autopoietic systems society and psyche are based on and processed by meaning but cannot communicate directly, and they are mutually nontransparent and unpredictable. Due to this fact, the interface between the two systems is a potential source of disturbances. Luhmann defines the distinction of information, message, and understanding as the crucial element to connect the social system with the psychic one. If the psychic system fails to recognize the message of an information correctly or is unable to negotiate between understanding and misunderstanding messages, it detaches itself from the social system to which it is normally closely connected. This detachment releases the possibility of unhindered autistic fulfillment of desires and uncontrolled fear. Due to the meaning-based autopoiesis of the psychic system,these released thoughts and emotions still appear in meaningfully condensed form as delusions.

  1. A Multi-System View of Wintertime NAO Seasonal Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccimarro, E.; Athanasiadis, P.; Gualdi, S.; Scaife, A. A.; Bellucci, A.; Hermanson, L.; Materia, S.; Sanna, A.; Borrelli, A.; MacLachlan, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the mid-latitudes the seasonal predictability has been known to be low to moderate. However, significant predictive skill for the mean winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) has been recently reported for a number of different seasonal forecasting systems [e.g., Riddle et al. (2013), Scaife et al. (2014), Stockdale et al. (2015)]. Here we present results from a multi-system analysis, including CFSv2 (24 members), UKMO (24 members) and CMCC (9 members) seasonal prediction systems. For their common hindcast period (1997-2011) the skill for the NAO/AO reaches as high as +0.85 for the multi-system ensemble mean. Certainly, part of the skill increase in respect to the individual systems is related to the larger size of the multi-system ensemble, though blending different systems together may bring additional improvements since each system benefits differently from the various sources of natural seasonal predictability. Therefore, initiatives similar to the North American Multi-Model Ensemble can bring added value to seasonal predictions even if individual systems —sooner or later— exploit all their potential skill by increasing their ensemble size. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the NAO skill actually translates to better predictions of near-surface air temperature and precipitation anomalies in the domain influenced by the NAO (lower root-mean square errors and higher spatial correlation in respect to the corresponding observed anomalies).

  2. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Evaluating Discontinuities in Complex Systems: Toward Quantitative Measures of Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stow

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The textural discontinuity hypothesis (TDH is based on the observation that animal body mass distributions exhibit discontinuities that may reflect the texture of the landscape available for exploitation. This idea has been extended to other complex systems, hinting that the identification and quantification of discontinuities in the distributions of appropriate variables may provide clues to emergent system properties such as resilience. We propose a discontinuity index, based on the vector norm of the full assemblage of observed discontinuities, as a means to quantify and compare this characteristic among systems. We also evaluate four methods to identify the number and location of the most prominent discontinuities. Although results of the four methods are similar, they are not identical, and we conclude that this problem is best addressed with a consistent operationally defined approach in an adaptive inference framework.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Strategic Voting in Anonymous Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiance

    2016-01-01

    Democratically choosing a single preference from three or more candidate options is not a straightforward matter. There are many competing ideas on how to aggregate rankings of candidates. However, the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem implies that no fair voting system (equality among voters and equality among candidates) is immune to strategic…

  5. EVALUATING DISCONTINUITIES IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS: TOWARD QUANTITATIVE MEASURE OF RESILIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The textural discontinuity hypothesis (TDH) is based on the observation that animal body mass distributions exhibit discontinuities that may reflect the texture of the landscape available for exploitation. This idea has been extended to other complex systems, hinting that the ide...

  6. Quantitative comparison of adhesion in metal-to-plastic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Ferreira, O.; Stevens, A.; Schrauwen, C.

    2009-01-01

    A peel test device was used to monitor metal-polymer adhesion. This technique showed variations in the resulting force within 1%, and enabled the ranking of many systems. A change in the 50 nm-adhesion layer resulted in a variation of the fracture energy by a factor 2.3. A change of the substrate

  7. Toward a Process View in Adoption of Interorganizational Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Charlotte J.

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of how interorganizational information systems (IOIS) are adopted is important since a successful implementation of information systems (IS) can be expected to raise long-term organizational efficiency. However, organizations often find IOIS adoption to be a bumpy ride...... review found four different streams of research: 1) studies explaining why organizations adopt or reject IOIS by investigating factors determining adoption of or barriers to IOIS adoption; 2) studies explaining how to create the desired organizational effects from IOIS; 3) studies explaining how IOIS...... for research opening the black box of IOIS adoption. Key words: Interorganizational information systems, adoption, literature review....

  8. Data Infrastructures for Asset Management Viewed as Complex Adaptive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brous, P.A.; Overtoom, I.; Herder, P.M.; Versluis, A.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A

    2014-01-01

    Data infrastructures represent information about physical reality. As reality changes, data infrastructures might also be subject to change. Researchers have increasingly approached physical infrastructures as being complex adaptive systems (CAS). Although physical infrastructures are often approach

  9. A quantitative method for photovoltaic encapsulation system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A., III; Minning, C. P.; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the design of encapsulation systems for flat plate photovoltaic modules requires the fulfillment of conflicting design requirements. An investigation was conducted with the objective to find an approach which will make it possible to determine a system with optimum characteristics. The results of the thermal, optical, structural, and electrical isolation analyses performed in the investigation indicate the major factors in the design of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. For defect-free materials, minimum encapsulation thicknesses are determined primarily by structural considerations. Cell temperature is not strongly affected by encapsulant thickness or thermal conductivity. The emissivity of module surfaces exerts a significant influence on cell temperature. Encapsulants should be elastomeric, and ribs are required on substrate modules. Aluminum is unsuitable as a substrate material. Antireflection coating is required on cell surfaces.

  10. A microcomputer-based system for quantitative petrographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, John; Samantaray, Abani Kanta

    1994-11-01

    An imaging system based on a videocamera and frame grabber is described which is capable of capturing and analyzing composite images. Individual images are captured interactively, this permits manipulation of the illumination to emphasize selected features of interest in sequentially captured images. Data from the sequential images are accumulated to form a synoptic image, which allows analysis to proceed in a manner which emulates the techniques of manual, polarized light microscopy. The effects of rotating a thin section in plane and crossed polarized light can be simulated so that mineral boundaries can be detected across which there is a lack of contrast at some orientations. The imaging system implements algorithms for digital filtering and boundary identification and incorporates facilities for image editing. Mathematical functions are provided for the interpolation of boundaries which are not detected in their entirety, in a way analogous to visual interpretation. The image data are written to 256-color PCX image files which can be manipulated by other software or transmitted electronically. The locations of the boundaries of the features of interest are available as lists of ( x, y) coordinates and as chain codes. From these the size, shape, and spatial parameters are computed. In addition, the gray-level and segmented images are used to obtain texture information. The imaging system is illustrated by application to the analysis of grain boundaries, modal composition, and grain shapes in petrographic thin sections. The analytical results are compared with results obtained by traditional petrographic analyses.

  11. The quantitative basis of the Arabidopsis innate immune system to endemic pathogens depends on pathogen genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corwin, Jason A; Copeland, Daniel; Feusier, Julie;

    2016-01-01

    The most established model of the eukaryotic innate immune system is derived from examples of large effect monogenic quantitative resistance to pathogens. However, many host-pathogen interactions involve many genes of small to medium effect and exhibit quantitative resistance. We used...... the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B....... cinerea, we identified a total of 2,982 genes associated with quantitative resistance using lesion area and 3,354 genes associated with camalexin production as measures of the interaction. Most genes were associated with resistance to a specific Botrytis isolate, which demonstrates the influence...

  12. System View of Product Data Management and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng; XU Su

    2006-01-01

    A product data management system for a manufacturing enterprise is to make sure that the proper product data can be communicated to the right people at the right time. This paper describes a system analysis paradigm for data analysis in a product data management (PDM) development. Three aspects of the paradigm, I.e., function, structure and behavior are represented. The use of the paradigm explains why so many kinds of objects are necessary in a commercial database matrix and what models are available for developing a PDM application. As another result, a lot of models are derived from the analysis of product data system paradigm to model product data and PDM database definitions.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of metal artifacts using different CBCT devices, high-density materials and field of views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codari, Marina; de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Ferreira Pinheiro Nicolielo, Laura; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2017-04-22

    To objectively compare the influence of different cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) devices, high-density materials and field of views (FOVs) on metal artifact expression. For this in vitro study, three customized acrylic resin phantoms containing high-density materials cylinders: titanium, copper-aluminum alloy and amalgam were scanned on three CBCT devices using high-resolution protocols, same voxel size (0.2 mm) and different FOVs. After fully automatic segmentation and image registration, the same region of interest was defined for the small and medium FOVs. The difference between the segmented and the real volume of the metal cylinders was assessed. Moreover for each segmented slice, the area difference between the segmented and the real axial section was determined. The artifacts on the background were measured as normalizing standard deviation of voxel values in the vicinity of the cylinder, in three different distances. Considerable differences were observed in volume measurements for all CBCTs devices and materials for both FOV sizes (up to 67%). The slice per slice area analysis indicated higher artifacts at the edges of the metal cylinder. Within the materials, amalgam and titanium had, respectively, the worst and best artifact expression in all the CBCT devices. Standard deviation values varied differently between the three distances in each device. Our in vitro study showed that different CBCT devices, high-density materials and FOV should be considered while evaluating CBCT images. More carefully, diagnosis conclusions should be drawn in images containing amalgam and copper-aluminum alloy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Quantitative Population Epigenetics in Screening and Development of Regulator-Active Factors of the Farming System

    OpenAIRE

    Stauss, R.

    2013-01-01

    Likewise, index selection based on statistical genetic theory in plant and animal breeding the methodology "Quantitative Population Epigenetics" can be appropriated to improve efficiency in screening and development of regulator-active factors of the farming system for potential to enhance quantitative characters such as yield, standability and resistance to unfavorable environmental influences (e.g., water stress, cold temperatures, disease resistance). For example, as was shown for an ef...

  15. Viewing industrial systems and devices at Fuji Electric; Fuji Denki no sangyoyo system kiki. Tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    This paper views the industrial systems and devices at Fuji Electric. The year 1998 had business stagnation still continued, with capital investments for production increase having decreased sharply in the consumer field. On the other hand, investments increased in the areas of renewal, simplification, and man-power saving. Large rectifiers for aluminum refining and soda electrolysis gained a large amount of supply to overseas countries partly because of the effects from the foreign exchange market. In the technical aspect, demands have increased on opening and down-sizing of information and control devices in electrical installations for heavy industry fields, which led to increase in personal computer introduction. The heavy electric machine field has amalgamated more closely with the information and control fields. Fuji Electric has provided systems and devices that contribute to higher information density, reliability and functions of different plants. This paper introduces the record of the company in the fields of power electronics, electric power conversion, information devices and systems, speed variable driving systems, power generating and transforming systems, rotating machines, and electric heating. (NEDO)

  16. Fuzzy Logic as a Computational Tool for Quantitative Modelling of Biological Systems with Uncertain Kinetic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordon, Jure; Moskon, Miha; Zimic, Nikolaj; Mraz, Miha

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative modelling of biological systems has become an indispensable computational approach in the design of novel and analysis of existing biological systems. However, kinetic data that describe the system's dynamics need to be known in order to obtain relevant results with the conventional modelling techniques. These data are often hard or even impossible to obtain. Here, we present a quantitative fuzzy logic modelling approach that is able to cope with unknown kinetic data and thus produce relevant results even though kinetic data are incomplete or only vaguely defined. Moreover, the approach can be used in the combination with the existing state-of-the-art quantitative modelling techniques only in certain parts of the system, i.e., where kinetic data are missing. The case study of the approach proposed here is performed on the model of three-gene repressilator.

  17. A Holistic View of the Coupled Monsoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    The basic dynamical constraint on both the atmospheric and oceanic components of the monsoon is the strong cross-equatorial pressure gradient (CEPG). The CEPG is positive and strongest in the lower troposphere during the boreal summer and weakest and negative in the boreal winter. Counter gradients exist at higher elevations. The CEPG is a slowly varying field set up by land-sea differences, convective heating and the seasonal cycle of sea-surface temperature. The dynamic response to this evolving CEPG creates the seasonal structure of the ocean and the atmosphere and determines how the monsoon system will respond to forcing from outside the system. It determines the mode of interannual variability of the system. The CEPG drives a cross-equatorial flow that gains moisture through evaporation. Strong latent heat release occurs in littoral seas and land areas during the summer and to the south of the equator during winter creating net cross-equatorial heat fluxes from the winter to summer hemispheres. However, the cross- equatorial wind fields, so generated, cause an Ekman heat transport from the winter to the summer hemisphere. The net flux is large with a seasonal amplitude of about 2 PW. This almost matches the net atmospheric heat transport, but with reversed sign. For example, the oceanic heat flux is sufficient to reduce the north Indian Ocean upper temperature by 1-2C during summer and warm it by a comparable amount during winter. The net effect is to reduce the vigor of the atmospheric monsoon. To a large degree, the couple ocean-atmosphere system is self-regulated and closed system. Occasional outside influences (ENSO, anomalous springtime snow cover etc.) influence the monsoon. For example there is evidence that El Nino (La Nina) is associated with a weak (strong) monsoon. But a strong (weak) monsoon creates a stronger (weaker) cross-equatorial flow and an enhanced (reduced) oceanic heat flux to the winter hemisphere. In this manner, the system returns to

  18. An Update on ConSys Including a New LabVIEW FPGA Based LLRF System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Torben; Nielsen, Jørgen S.

    ConSys, the Windows based control system for ASTRID and ASTRID2, is now a mature system, having been in operation for more than 15 years. All the standard programs (Console, plots, data logging, control setting store/restore etc.) are fully general and are configured through a database or file. Con......Sys is a standard publisher/subscriber system, where all nodes can act both as client and server. One very strong feature is the easy ability to make virtual devices (devices which do not depend on hardware directly, but combine hardware parameters.) For ASTRID2 a new LabVIEW based Low-Level RF system has been made...... live plots from the regulation loops are implemented in a host program on Windows. All three levels have been implemented with LabVIEW. The LLRF system is interfaced to ConSys through LabVIEW shared variables....

  19. CURRENT VIEW ON SYSTEMIC GLUCOCORTICOSTEROID THERAPY IN JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Kuzmina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To present modern approaches to the systemic therapy by glucocorticosteroids (GCS basing on own experience and literature data. Methods and material: Long-term observation of 350 patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA taking peroral GCS in different dosage. Results: Good therapeutical efficacy and sufficient tolerability of low starting doses (lower than 0.5 mg/ kg a day of GCS allow to inhibit inflammatory activity in the majority of patients. Alternative method (doses alternation is recommended in the period of long-term supporting GCS-therapv of JR.4. Conclusion: Basic strategy of treatment of systemic and polyarticular JRA j'orms is rational GCS application in combination with basic drugs which ensures control of pathologic process and modifies the disease.

  20. Differential geometry and topology with a view to dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Keith

    2005-01-01

    MANIFOLDSIntroductionReview of topological conceptsSmooth manifoldsSmooth mapsTangent vectors and the tangent bundleTangent vectors as derivationsThe derivative of a smooth mapOrientationImmersions, embeddings and submersionsRegular and critical points and valuesManifolds with boundarySard's theoremTransversalityStabilityExercisesVECTOR FIELDS AND DYNAMICAL SYSTEMSIntroductionVector fieldsSmooth dynamical systemsLie derivative, Lie bracketDiscrete dynamical systemsHyperbolic fixed points and periodic orbitsExercisesRIEMANNIAN METRICSIntroductionRiemannian metricsStandard geometries on surfacesExercisesRIEMANNIAN CONNECTIONS AND GEODESICSIntroductionAffine connectionsRiemannian connectionsGeodesicsThe exponential mapMinimizing properties of geodesicsThe Riemannian distanceExercisesCURVATUREIntroductionThe curvature tensorThe second fundamental formSectional and Ricci curvaturesJacobi fieldsManifolds of constant curvatureConjugate pointsHorizontal and vertical sub-bundlesThe geodesic flowExercisesTENSORS AND DI...

  1. A view on some hydrological triggering systems in landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Asch, Th. W. J.; Buma, J.; Van Beek, L. P. H.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper different types of hydrological triggering systems for debris flows, shallow and deeper landslides are described. The generation of surface run-off and high peak discharges in first order alpine catchments is an important triggering mechanism for debris flows. Failure conditions in shallow landslides can occur when at a critical depth, which is determined by the cohesion of the soil and the slope angle, the moisture content in the soil becomes close to saturation, resulting in a considerable reduction of soil strength. Deeper landslides (5-20 m depth) are in most cases triggered by positive pore pressures on the slip plane induced by a rising ground water level. The assessment of meteorological threshold conditions for shallow landslides (1-2 m) needs more detailed meteorological information than for deeper landslides. In the analyses of the hydrological triggering systems of deeper landslides the presence of a permeable top layer and fissures has to be taken into consideration.

  2. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  3. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdelkareem; Farouk El-Baz

    2014-01-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the anc...

  4. Future reusable space launcher systems - A European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Rudi G.

    Plans for future, reusable space launcher systems in Europe, beyond Ariane V/Hermes, are discussed. A family of launch vehicles, known as the European Advanced Rocket Launchers (EARLs), is presented. Technical and performance data for the EARL concept are given and the cost of development and operating the launchers is estimated. Also, the EARL concept is compared with other planned and existing concepts, including the Saenger launcher.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of the reticuloendothelial system function with dynamic MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the reticuloendothelial system (RES function by real-time imaging blood clearance as well as hepatic uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with two-compartment pharmacokinetic modeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kinetics of blood clearance and hepatic accumulation were recorded in young adult male 01b74 athymic nude mice by dynamic T2* weighted MRI after the injection of different doses of SPIO nanoparticles (0.5, 3 or 10 mg Fe/kg. Association parameter, Kin, dissociation parameter, Kout, and elimination constant, Ke, derived from dynamic data with two-compartment model, were used to describe active binding to Kupffer cells and extrahepatic clearance. The clodrosome and liposome were utilized to deplete macrophages and block the RES function to evaluate the capability of the kinetic parameters for investigation of macrophage function and density. RESULTS: The two-compartment model provided a good description for all data and showed a low sum squared residual for all mice (0.27±0.03. A lower Kin, a lower Kout and a lower Ke were found after clodrosome treatment, whereas a lower Kin, a higher Kout and a lower Ke were observed after liposome treatment in comparison to saline treatment (P<0.005. CONCLUSION: Dynamic SPIO-enhanced MR imaging with two-compartment modeling can provide information on RES function on both a cell number and receptor function level.

  6. Systems and methods for maintaining multiple objects within a camera field-of-view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Nicholas R.; Dixon, Warren

    2016-03-15

    In one embodiment, a system and method for maintaining objects within a camera field of view include identifying constraints to be enforced, each constraint relating to an attribute of the viewed objects, identifying a priority rank for the constraints such that more important constraints have a higher priority that less important constraints, and determining the set of solutions that satisfy the constraints relative to the order of their priority rank such that solutions that satisfy lower ranking constraints are only considered viable if they also satisfy any higher ranking constraints, each solution providing an indication as to how to control the camera to maintain the objects within the camera field of view.

  7. SoundView: an auditory guidance system based on environment understanding for the visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Ren, Jie; Li, Zhengjun; Niu, Jinhai; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2009-01-01

    Without visual information, the blind people live in various hardships with shopping, reading, finding objects and etc. Therefore, we developed a portable auditory guide system, called SoundView, for visually impaired people. This prototype system consists of a mini-CCD camera, a digital signal processing unit and an earphone, working with built-in customizable auditory coding algorithms. Employing environment understanding techniques, SoundView processes the images from a camera and detects objects tagged with barcodes. The recognized objects in the environment are then encoded into stereo speech signals for the blind though an earphone. The user would be able to recognize the type, motion state and location of the interested objects with the help of SoundView. Compared with other visual assistant techniques, SoundView is object-oriented and has the advantages of cheap cost, smaller size, light weight, low power consumption and easy customization.

  8. Quantitative characterization of magnetic separators: Comparison of systems with and without integrated microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    We present two new types of microfluidic passive magnetic bead separator systems as well as methods for performing quantitative characterizations of them. Both systems consist of a microfluidic channel with long rectangular magnetic elements of permalloy that are placed by the sides of the channe...

  9. Digital clocks: simple Boolean models can quantitatively describe circadian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozgur E; Watterson, Steven; Parton, Andrew; Binns, Nigel; Millar, Andrew J; Ghazal, Peter

    2012-09-07

    that the ability of logic models to provide a computationally efficient representation of system behaviour could greatly facilitate the reverse-engineering of large-scale biochemical networks.

  10. Information Systems Management: an Australasian view of key issues - 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a longitudinal study of key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by the IS executives as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The most critical issues were revealed to be a mix of technology management issues (IT infrastructure, communications, disaster recovery, strategic management issues (competitive advantage, IS planning, aligning the IS organisation, people management issues (organisational learning, educating senior management in IT, systems development and data management issues (effective use of the data resource, and end-user computing. This reflects the need for a balance of business, technical, and people skills in an IS executive. Non-critical issues were mostly related to systems development and the individual technologies which must be integrated and managed to ensure a responsive IT infrastructure. The study also reveals that some issues are much more important than problematic (disaster recovery, competitive advantage, information architecture, and IS alignment while others are much more problematic than important (end-user computing, IS role and contribution, and BPR. The former reflects a growing level of knowledge in handling these issues, while the latter reflects a continuing problem with them. The differences between this study and similar studies conducted in 1988 and 1992 show that there is a growing confidence in the IS executive's ability to manage the strategic issues, a continuing concern about providing a responsive IT infrastructure (especially communications, and a continuing concern with educating all 'customers' in the organisation in the effective use of IT, including senior management.

  11. Dual view on sliding phases in U (1 ) symmetric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayl, S.; Kuklov, A. B.; Oganesyan, V.

    2017-03-01

    The proposal of sliding phases (SP) is revisited from the perspective of duality. A generic argument is formulated as essentially a no-go theorem for SP in translationally invariant nonfrustrated systems with short-range interactions—classical or quantum. Its validity is demonstrated on an asymmetric bilayer and its multilayer variation models where the duality allows obtaining asymptotically exact analytical solution. This solution is in drastic contrast with the perturbative renormalization group prediction and is strongly supported by Monte Carlo simulations. An alternative path toward finding SP is suggested. Its key ingredient is a long-range gauge-type interaction suppressing the interlayer Josephson coupling.

  12. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Guangyuan, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@mail.shufe.edu.cn, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@shufe.edu.cn [Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, School of Public Economics and Administration (China); Liu, Weishu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Antai College of Economics and Management (China)

    2015-12-15

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average.

  13. [The research in a foot pressure measuring system based on LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qiu, Hong; Xu, Jiang; He, Jiping

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a system of foot pressure measuring system based on LabVIEW. The designs of hardware and software system are figured out. LabVIEW is used to design the application interface for displaying plantar pressure. The system can realize the plantar pressure data acquisition, data storage, waveform display, and waveform playback. It was also shown that the testing results of the system were in line with the changing trend of normal gait, which conformed to human system engineering theory. It leads to the demonstration of system reliability. The system gives vivid and visual results, and provides a new method of how to measure foot-pressure and some references for the design of Insole System.

  14. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  15. Study on Circular Complex viewed from Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeguchi, Tomoo; Adachi, Katsushige; Yoshikawa, Akira; Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsujino, Ryoji; Iguchi, Manabu

    In machining processes, cutting fluids are generally used for cooling and lubricating workpieces at the point cutting. However, these fluids frequently include chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus, or other additives. The chemicals not only become a mist affecting the health of workers engaged in the processing but also make the workshop environment worse. In particular, the chlorine becomes one of the causes of global warming by treating waste oil under high temperature conditions. It is furthermore said that huge cost beyond the purchase cost of oil occurs and dioxins (carcinogen) usually exist in the waste oil. Therefore, an environmentally-friendly cooling-air cutting system is required from the standpoint of green manufacturing. This system has been noted as a technique to solve the issues against the environment mentioned above. In the cooling-air cutting processing, the amount of CO2 emission shows a low value compared with the dry cutting one which uses oil. It is therefore thought that the cooling-air cutting system is a very important processing technique as an environmental countermeasure. At present, in strictly economic and environmental situations, the compatibility of the betterment of production efficiency with the improvement of environment is a subject in the actual spot of a cut processing. This study deals with the test results of cooling-air drilling performance from the viewpoint of taking green manufacturing into account. The workpiece made of die steel SKDll was manufactured by the cooling-air drilling performance at a revolution of 840 rpm and a temperature of -20°C with a high-speed steel drill (SKH56). The results were compared with those for the dry cutting performance. The main results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) The tool life for cooling-air drilling performance was about 6 times as long as that for the dry cutting performance. 2) The chip temperature for cooling-air drilling was 220°C lower than that for the dry cutting

  16. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  17. Transitioning to Government Shared Services Centres: A Systems View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Bækgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Services are the fundamental to the provisioning of business activities. Enterprise Architecture (EA) is maintaining the relationship between strategy, business and technology. A clear definition and agreed understanding of services is critical to realising information technology artefacts....... Services, however, tend to be more complex than the mere act of interaction or working process, and should be seen out of the cultural, organisational and managerial factors surrounding it. This chapter will use a service model consisting of execution, context and intention with an underlying claim...... that all three elements must be present to make services meaningful. EA must be seen in the light of this. This chapter addresses the issues related to organisational and system transition of services and subsequently EA when being transformed from loose, distributed organisations and into Shared Service...

  18. Phase space view of quantum mechanical systems and Fisher information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Á., E-mail: anagy@madget.atomki.hu

    2016-06-17

    Highlights: • Phase-space Fisher information coming from the canonical distribution is derived for the ground state of quantum mechanical systems. • Quantum mechanical phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. • A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator. - Abstract: Pennini and Plastino showed that the form of the Fisher information generated by the canonical distribution function reflects the intrinsic structure of classical mechanics. Now, a quantum mechanical generalization of the Pennini–Plastino theory is presented based on the thermodynamical transcription of the density functional theory. Comparing to the classical case, the phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. However, for the special case of constant temperature, the expression derived bears resemblance to the classical one. A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator.

  19. Accelerator driven systems from the radiological safety point of view

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Sarkar; Maitreyee Nandy

    2007-02-01

    In the proposed accelerator driven systems (ADS) the possible use of several milliamperes of protons of about 1 GeV incident on high mass targets like the molten lead–bismuth eutectic is anticipated to pose radiological problems that have so far not been encountered by the radiation protection community. Spallation reaction products like high energy gammas, neutrons, muons, pions and several radiotoxic nuclides including Po-210 complicate the situation. In the present paper, we discuss radiation safety measures like bulk shielding, containment of radiation leakage through ducts and penetration and induced activity in the structure to protect radiation workers as well as estimation of sky-shine, soil and ground water activation, release of toxic gases to the environment to protect public as per the stipulations of the regulatory authorities. We recommend the application of the probabilistic safety analysis technique by assessing the probability and criticality of different hazard-initiating events using HAZOP and FMECA.

  20. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  1. Research and implementation of flexible coding system oriented multi-view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuhui; ZHANG Xu; NING Ruxin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the requirements of a product data management system (PDM) for the flexible coding system,the principle of the flexible coding system oriented multiview is analyzed. Generation and utilization of coding should be associated with the context of the object. The architecture of the flexible coding system oriented multi-view is studied and the implementation class diagram of the system is designed. The system can support the establishment of five types of code segments, provide the tools of flexible defining coding rules and drive the automatic generation of object coding in different views (contexts). On the foundation of the characteristics of the system, coding for parts is taken as a sample to validate and elaborate the flexible coding process of the system.

  2. Current views on etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klonowska-Szymczyk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of information concerning etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Due to the risk of serious complications, including death, the clarification of etiology could result in substantial improvement or even complete cure of the disease. Progress in scientific research of observed disorder mechanisms together with implementation of appropriate therapies contributed to a higher detection rate, improved course and decreased mortality in SLE. However, there are still many doubts, which legitimate the need of further research. A significant role in development of the disease and further exacerbations is played by environmental factors. Therefore, decreased exposure to UV light, female sex hormone and microbial antigens is associated with improved course and decreased frequency of exacerbations. Less is known about the genetic basis of SLE, which results from a multigene disease background and complex hereditary mechanisms. It is estimated that the disease may be conditioned by around 100 genes, that only in part are functionally determined. Only part of them is already functionally characterized. The role played by most of them is still unknown. Research currently being conducted is aimed at detecting genetic polymorphism in large and genetically diverse populations. It will allow evaluation of the role of a particular gene in protein biosynthesis, which is responsible for development of regulatory process disturbances, commonly observed in the course of SLE. The article presents current directions of research and the latest advances in epidemiology as well as environmental and genetic risk factors of SLE.

  3. Interdiffusion of the aluminum magnesium system. Quantitative analysis and numerical model; Interdiffusion des Aluminium-Magnesium-Systems. Quantitative Analyse und numerische Modellierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seperant, Florian

    2012-03-21

    Aluminum coatings are a promising approach to protect magnesium alloys against corrosion and thereby making them accessible to a variety of technical applications. Thermal treatment enhances the adhesion of the aluminium coating on magnesium by interdiffusion. For a deeper understanding of the diffusion process at the interface, a quantitative description of the Al-Mg system is necessary. On the basis of diffusion experiments with infinite reservoirs of aluminum and magnesium, the interdiffusion coefficients of the intermetallic phases of the Al-Mg-system are calculated with the Sauer-Freise method for the first time. To solve contradictions in the literature concerning the intrinsic diffusion coefficients, the possibility of a bifurcation of the Kirkendall plane is considered. Furthermore, a physico-chemical description of interdiffusion is provided to interpret the observed phase transitions. The developed numerical model is based on a temporally varied discretization of the space coordinate. It exhibits excellent quantitative agreement with the experimentally measured concentration profile. This confirms the validity of the obtained diffusion coefficients. Moreover, the Kirkendall shift in the Al-Mg system is simulated for the first time. Systems with thin aluminum coatings on magnesium also exhibit a good correlation between simulated and experimental concentration profiles. Thus, the diffusion coefficients are also valid for Al-coated systems. Hence, it is possible to derive parameters for a thermal treatment by simulation, resulting in an optimized modification of the magnesium surface for technical applications.

  4. A system's view of metro and regional optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cedric F.; Way, Winston I.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in fiber optic communications have been rejuvenated after the glut of the overcapacity at the turn of the century. The boom of video-centric network applications finally resulted in another wave of vast build-outs of broadband access networks such as FTTH, DOCSIS 3.0 and WI-FI systems, which in turn also drove up the bandwidth demands in metro and regional WDM networks. These new developments have rekindled research interests on technologies not only to meet the surging demand, but also to upgrade legacy network infrastructures in an evolutionary manner without disrupting existing services and incurring significant capital penalties. Standard bodies such as IEEE, ITU and OIF have formed task forces to ratify 100Gb/s interface standards. Thanks to the seemingly unlimited bandwidth in single-mode fibers, advances in optical networks has traditionally been fueled by more capable physical components such as more powerful laser, cleaner and wider bandwidth optical amplifier, faster modulator and photo-detectors, etc. In the meanwhile, the mainstream modulation technique for fiber optic communication systems has remained the most rudimentary form of on-off keying (OOK) and direct power detection for a very long period of time because spectral efficiency had never been a concern. This scenario, however, is no longer valid as demand for bandwidth is pushing the limit of current of current WDM technologies. In terms of spectral use, all the 100-GHz ITU grids in the C-band have been populated with 10Gb/s wavelengths in most of the WDM transport networks, and we are exhausting the power and bandwidth offered on existing fiber plant EDFAs. Beyond 10Gb/s, increasing the transmission to 40Gb/s by brute force OOK approach incurs significant penalties due to chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. With conventional modulation schemes, transmission impairments at 40Gb/s speed and above already become such difficult challenges that the efforts to manage these

  5. Systems genetics view of endometriosis: a common complex disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Vladislav S; Ivaschenko, Tatyana E; Liehr, Thomas; Yarmolinskaya, Maria I

    2015-02-01

    Endometriosis is a condition in which cells derived from the endometrium grow outside the uterus, e.g. in the peritoneum (external genital endometriosis). As these cells are under the influence of female hormones, major symptoms of endometriosis are pain, especially during the cycle, and infertility. Numerous hypotheses for the formation of endometriosis can be found in the literature, but there is growing evidence of serious genetic contributions to endometriosis susceptibility. The involvement of genes, steroid hormone metabolism, immunological reactions, receptor formation, inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, intercellular adhesion, cell invasion and angiogenesis as well as genes regulating the activity of aforementioned enzymes have been suggested. Some more recently suggested candidate genes picked up in genome-wide association studies are involved in oncogenesis, metaplasia of endometrium cells and pathways of embryonic development of the female reproductive system. However, gene mutations proven to be causative for endometriosis have not been identified so far, even though the abnormal expression of candidate genes for endometriosis could be provoked by different epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation, heterochromatization or introduction of regulatory miRNA. We hypothesize that endometriosis is induced by a combination of abnormal genetic and/or epigenetic mutations: the latter pave the way for pathological changes which become irreversible, and according to the "epigenetic landscape" theory, this proceeds to the typical clinical manifestations. Two stages in the endometriosis pathway are suggested: (1) induction of primary endometrial cells toward endometriosis, and (2) implantation and progression of these cells into endometriosis lesions. The model favors endometriosis as an outgrowth of primary cells different in their origin, canalization of pathological processes, manifestation diversity provoked by unique genetic background and

  6. Influence of hydrodynamic conditions on quantitative cellular assays in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huabing; Zhang, Xunli; Pattrick, Nicola; Klauke, Norbert; Cordingley, Hayley C; Haswell, Stephen J; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2007-09-15

    This study demonstrates the importance of the hydrodynamic environment in microfluidic systems in quantitative cellular assays using live cells. Commonly applied flow conditions used in microfluidics were evaluated using the quantitative intracellular Ca2+ analysis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as a model system. Above certain thresholds of shear stress, hydrodynamically induced intracellular Ca2+ fluxes were observed which mimic the responses induced by chemical stimuli, such as the agonist uridine 5'-triphosphate tris salt (UTP). This effect is of significance given the increasing application of microfluidic devices in high-throughput cellular analysis for biophysical applications and pharmacological screening.

  7. The Quantitative Basis of the Arabidopsis Innate Immune System to Endemic Pathogens Depends on Pathogen Genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Corwin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most established model of the eukaryotic innate immune system is derived from examples of large effect monogenic quantitative resistance to pathogens. However, many host-pathogen interactions involve many genes of small to medium effect and exhibit quantitative resistance. We used the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B. cinerea, we identified a total of 2,982 genes associated with quantitative resistance using lesion area and 3,354 genes associated with camalexin production as measures of the interaction. Most genes were associated with resistance to a specific Botrytis isolate, which demonstrates the influence of pathogen genetic variation in analyzing host quantitative resistance. While known resistance genes, such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs and nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs, were found to be enriched among associated genes, they only account for a small fraction of the total genes associated with quantitative resistance. Using publically available co-expression data, we condensed the quantitative resistance associated genes into co-expressed gene networks. GO analysis of these networks implicated several biological processes commonly connected to disease resistance, including defense hormone signaling and ROS production, as well as novel processes, such as leaf development. Validation of single gene T-DNA knockouts in a Col-0 background demonstrate a high success rate (60% when accounting for differences in environmental and Botrytis genetic variation. This study shows that the genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system is extremely complex and is likely able to sense and respond to differential virulence among pathogen

  8. A continuous-flow ATP amplification system for increasing the sensitivity of quantitative bioluminescence assay

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Tetsuya; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Alexandrov, Maxym; Kuroda, Akio; Murakami, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    We constructed a novel ATP amplification reactor using a continuous-flow system, and this allowed us to increase the sensitivity of quantitative bioluminescence assay by controlling the number of ATP amplification cycles. We previously developed a bioluminescence assay coupled with ATP amplification using a batch system. However, it was difficult to control the number of amplification cycles. In this study, ATP amplification was performed using a continuous-flow system, and significant linear...

  9. Quantitative comparison between PW-PSM and PW-TSM Doppler systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation-based quantitative comparison between pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler systems using the conventional phase-shift measurement (PSM) technique and the newer time-shift measurement (TSM) technique is presented. A PSM system applying an autocorrelator is compared with a TSM system. The performa...... the relative amount of incorrect detections as a function of velocity. Also, the variance (PW-PSM) and the cross-correlation coefficient (PW-TSM) are found...

  10. The emerging dental workforce: why dentistry? A quantitative study of final year dental students' views on their professional career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nairn HF

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental graduates are joining a profession experiencing changes in systems of care, funding and skill mix. Research into the motivation and expectations of the emerging workforce is vital to inform professional and policy decisions. The objective of this research was to investigate final year dental students' perceived motivation for their choice of career in relation to sex, ethnicity and mode of entry. Methods Self-administered questionnaire survey of all final year dental students at King's College London. Data were entered into SPSS; statistical analysis included Chi Squared tests for linear association, multiple regression, factor analysis and logistic regression. Results A response of 90% (n = 126 was achieved. The majority were aged 23 years (59%, female (58% and Asian (70%. One in 10 were mature students. Eighty per cent identified 11 or more 'important' or 'very important' influences, the most common of which were related to features of the job: 'regular working hours' (91%, 'degree leading to recognised job' (90% and 'job security' (90%. There were significant differences in important influences by sex (males > females: 'able to run own business'; females > males: 'a desire to work with people', ethnic group (Asians > white: 'wish to provide public service', 'influence of friends', 'desire to work in healthcare', having 'tried an alternative career/course' and 'work experience' and mode of entry (mature > early entry: 'a desire to work with people'. Multivariate analysis suggested 61% of the variation in influences is explained by five factors: the 'professional job' (31%, 'healthcare-people' (11%, 'academic-scientific' (8%, 'careers-advising' (6%, and 'family/friends' (6%. The single major influence on choice of career was a 'desire to work with people'; Indian students were twice as likely to report this as white or other ethnic groups. Conclusion Final year dental students report a wide range of important

  11. Digital signal processing system design LabVIEW-bases hybrid programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Peng, Qingzhong

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting LabView's new MathScripting feature, the new edition of this book combines textual and graphical programming to form a hybrid programming approach, enabling a more effective means of building and analyzing DSP systems. The hybrid programming approach allows the use of previously developed textual programming solutions to be integrated into LabVIEW's highly interactive and visual environment, providing an easier and quicker method for building DSP systems.Features * The only DSP laboratory book that combines both textual and graphical programming * 12 lab experime

  12. System for electrochemical investigations based on a PC and the Lab VIEW package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an electrochemical research system based on the Lab VIEW computer software package. An overview of well known electrochemical methods, such as potential measurements, chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry and EIS is given. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been adapted for systems containing large capacitances. For signal generation and recording of the response of the investigated electrochemical cell, a measurement and control system was developed, based on a PC P4 computer. The rest of the hardware consists of a commercially available AD-DA converter and an external interface for analog signal processing. The interface is a result of the authors own research. The software platform for the desired measurement methods is Lab VIEW package, which is regarded as a high standard in the area of modern virtual instruments. The developed system was adjusted, tested and compared with other commercially available systems. One such system is in constant use at the Technical Faculty in Bor.

  13. View-dependent geometric calibration for offset flat-panel cone beam computed tomography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Giang

    2016-04-01

    Geometric parameters that define the geometry of imaging systems are crucial for image reconstruction and image quality in x-ray computed tomography (CT). The problem of determining geometric parameters for an offset flat-panel cone beam CT (CBCT) system, a recently introduced modality with a large field of view, with the assumption of an unstable mechanism and geometric parameters that vary in each view, is considered. To accurately and rapidly find the geometric parameters for each projection view, we use the projection matrix method and design a dedicated phantom that is partially visible in all projection views. The phantom consists of balls distributed symmetrically in a cylinder to ensure the inclusion of the phantom in all views, and a large portion of the phantom is covered in the projection image. To efficiently use calibrated geometric information in the reconstruction process and get rid of approximation errors, instead of decomposing the projection matrix into actual geometric parameters that are manually corrected before being used in reconstruction, as in conventional methods, we directly use the projection matrix and its pseudo-inverse in projection and backprojection operations of reconstruction algorithms. The experiments illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method with a real offset flat-panel CBCT system in dental imaging.

  14. Integrated computer-enhanced remote viewing system. Quarterly report No. 2, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-03

    The Interactive, Computer-Enhanced, Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is a system designed to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space in a fashion that enables robotic remediation to be carried out more efficiently and economically than with present systems. The key elements are a faithful way to store empirical data and a friendly user interface that provides an operator with timely access to all that is known about a scene.

  15. Dependence of quantitative accuracy of CT perfusion imaging on system parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Deconvolution is a popular method to calculate parametric perfusion parameters from four dimensional CT perfusion (CTP) source images. During the deconvolution process, the four dimensional space is squeezed into three-dimensional space by removing the temporal dimension, and a prior knowledge is often used to suppress noise associated with the process. These additional complexities confound the understanding about deconvolution-based CTP imaging system and how its quantitative accuracy depends on parameters and sub-operations involved in the image formation process. Meanwhile, there has been a strong clinical need in answering this question, as physicians often rely heavily on the quantitative values of perfusion parameters to make diagnostic decisions, particularly during an emergent clinical situation (e.g. diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke). The purpose of this work was to develop a theoretical framework that quantitatively relates the quantification accuracy of parametric perfusion parameters with CTP acquisition and post-processing parameters. This goal was achieved with the help of a cascaded systems analysis for deconvolution-based CTP imaging systems. Based on the cascaded systems analysis, the quantitative relationship between regularization strength, source image noise, arterial input function, and the quantification accuracy of perfusion parameters was established. The theory could potentially be used to guide developments of CTP imaging technology for better quantification accuracy and lower radiation dose.

  16. Mapping Quantitatively Regional Drug Absorption in Canines with IntelliCap System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, D.; Schütz, H.; Beyerbach, A.; Zou, H.; Shimizu, J.; Iordanov, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative regional absorption of a drug under development was studied by using the novel IntelliCap system. IntelliCap is an orally swallowable programmable drug delivery capsule and capable of real-time monitoring of physiological conditions (pH, temperature), consequently allowing localization

  17. Application of quantitative signal detection in the Dutch spontaneous reporting system for adverse drug reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Diemont, Willem; van Grootheest, Kees

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) is the timely detection of unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs), or signal detection. Generally this is carried out by a systematic manual review of every report sent to an SRS. Statistical analysis of the data sets of an SRS, or quantitative

  18. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of PERCEPT indoor navigation system for visually impaired users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce qualitative and quantitative evaluation of PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multi-story building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows Orientation and Mobility principles. These results encourage us to generalize the solution to large indoor spaces and test it with significantly larger visually impaired population in diverse settings. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces.

  19. A comparison between digital images viewed on a picture archiving and communication system diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based remote viewing system by emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyn, A; Hanson, R M; Peat, J K; De Silva, M

    1998-02-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) make possible the viewing of radiographic images on computer workstations located where clinical care is delivered. By the nature of their work this feature is particularly useful for emergency physicians who view radiographic studies for information and use them to explain results to patients and their families. However, the high cost of PACS diagnostic workstations with fuller functionality places limits on the number of and therefore the accessibility to workstations in the emergency department. This study was undertaken to establish how well less expensive personal computer-based workstations would work to support these needs of emergency physicians. The study compared the outcome of observations by 5 emergency physicians on a series of radiographic studies containing subtle abnormalities displayed on both a PACS diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based workstation. The 73 digitized radiographic studies were randomly arranged on both types of workstation over four separate viewing sessions for each emergency physician. There was no statistical difference between a PACS diagnostic workstation and a PC-based workstation in this trial. The mean correct ratings were 59% on the PACS diagnostic workstations and 61% on the PC-based workstations. These findings also emphasize the need for prompt reporting by a radiologist.

  20. Continuous-flow ATP amplification system for increasing the sensitivity of quantitative bioluminescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tetsuya; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Alexandrov, Maxym; Kuroda, Akio; Murakami, Yuji

    2008-08-01

    We constructed a novel ATP amplification reactor using a continuous-flow system, and this allowed us to increase the sensitivity of a quantitative bioluminescence assay by controlling the number of ATP amplification cycles. We previously developed a bioluminescence assay coupled with ATP amplification using a batch system. However, it was difficult to control the number of amplification cycles. In this study, ATP amplification was performed using a continuous-flow system, and significant linear correlations between amplified luminescence and initial ATP concentration were observed. When performing four cycles of continuous-flow ATP amplification, the gradient of amplification was 1.87(N). Whereas the lower quantifiable level was 500 pM without amplification, values as low as 50 pM ATP could be measured after amplification. The sensitivity thus increased 10-fold, with further improvements expected with additional amplification cycles. The continuous-flow system thus effectively increased the sensitivity of the quantitative bioluminescence assay.

  1. Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

  2. Designer cantilevers for even more accurate quantitative measurements of biological systems with multifrequency AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contera, S.

    2016-04-01

    Multifrequency excitation/monitoring of cantilevers has made it possible both to achieve fast, relatively simple, nanometre-resolution quantitative mapping of mechanical of biological systems in solution using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and single molecule resolution detection by nanomechanical biosensors. A recent paper by Penedo et al [2015 Nanotechnology 26 485706] has made a significant contribution by developing simple methods to improve the signal to noise ratio in liquid environments, by selectively enhancing cantilever modes, which will lead to even more accurate quantitative measurements.

  3. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  4. Absolute quantitation of endogenous proteins with precision and accuracy using a capillary western system

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jin-Qiu; Heldman, Madeleine R.; Herrmann, Michelle A.; Kedei, Noemi; Woo, Wonhee; Blumberg, Peter M.; Goldsmith, Paul K.

    2013-01-01

    Precise and accurate quantification of protein expression levels in a complex biological setting is challenging. Here, we describe a method for absolute quantitation of endogenous proteins in cell lysates using an automated capillary immunoassay system (the size-based Simple Western system, ProteinSimple, CA). The method was able to accurately measure the absolute amounts of target proteins at picogram or sub-picogram levels per nanogram of cell lysates. The measurements were independent of t...

  5. A digital frequency stabilization system of external cavity diode laser based on LabVIEW FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuohuan; Hu, Zhaohui; Qi, Lu; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Frequency stabilization for external cavity diode laser has played an important role in physics research. Many laser frequency locking solutions have been proposed by researchers. Traditionally, the locking process was accomplished by analog system, which has fast feedback control response speed. However, analog system is susceptible to the effects of environment. In order to improve the automation level and reliability of the frequency stabilization system, we take a grating-feedback external cavity diode laser as the laser source and set up a digital frequency stabilization system based on National Instrument's FPGA (NI FPGA). The system consists of a saturated absorption frequency stabilization of beam path, a differential photoelectric detector, a NI FPGA board and a host computer. Many functions, such as piezoelectric transducer (PZT) sweeping, atomic saturation absorption signal acquisition, signal peak identification, error signal obtaining and laser PZT voltage feedback controlling, are totally completed by LabVIEW FPGA program. Compared with the analog system, the system built by the logic gate circuits, performs stable and reliable. User interface programmed by LabVIEW is friendly. Besides, benefited from the characteristics of reconfiguration, the LabVIEW program is good at transplanting in other NI FPGA boards. Most of all, the system periodically checks the error signal. Once the abnormal error signal is detected, FPGA will restart frequency stabilization process without manual control. Through detecting the fluctuation of error signal of the atomic saturation absorption spectrum line in the frequency locking state, we can infer that the laser frequency stability can reach 1MHz.

  6. Placing Gender in the Heart of MFT Masters Programs: Teaching a Gender Sensitive Systemic View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Cheryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes masters level course for marriage and family therapists that teaches systemic underpinnings of field while also addressing feminist critique of ideas. Notes goal of course is for students to understand and adopt gender sensitive view; students then have a yardstick as they study and evaluate marriage and family therapy theories, observe…

  7. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features-semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling-that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems-the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor's (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought.

  8. Structured scene modeling using micro stereo vision system with large field of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a method for structured scene modeling using micro stereo vision system with large field of view. The proposed algorithm includes edge detection with Canny detector, line fitting with princi ple axis-based approach, finding corresponding lines using feature-based matching method, and 3D line depth computation.

  9. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  10. Performance Modelling of Automatic Identification System with Extended Field of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauersen, Troels; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Pedersen, Nikolaj Bisgaard

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with AIS (Automatic Identification System) behavior, to investigate the severity of packet collisions in an extended field of view (FOV). This is an important issue for satellite-based AIS, and the main goal is a feasibility study to find out to what extent an increased FOV...

  11. Student Entitlement Models in Australia's National Training System: Expert Views. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kaye; McKenna, Suzy

    2016-01-01

    This occasional paper provides the views of 17 "thought leaders" in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector. Their insight and opinions were sought to inform a larger research project focused on the student entitlement reforms that were introduced into the national VET system from 2012. These individuals offered a…

  12. Investigating Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Innovation Awareness and Views Regarding Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Mustafa; Ingeç, Sebnem Kandil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify pre-service primary mathematics teachers' views regarding on Web-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems (WBITS) in relation to its usability and influence on teaching. A survey method was used. The study was conducted with 43 students attending the mathematics teaching program under the department of elementary…

  13. A high throughput geocomputing system for remote sensing quantitative retrieval and a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Ziqiang; Xu, Hui; Ai, Jianwen; Jiang, Shuzheng; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Ying; Guang, Jie; Mei, Linlu; Jiao, Xijuan; He, Xingwei; Hou, Tingting

    2011-12-01

    The quality and accuracy of remote sensing instruments have been improved significantly, however, rapid processing of large-scale remote sensing data becomes the bottleneck for remote sensing quantitative retrieval applications. The remote sensing quantitative retrieval is a data-intensive computation application, which is one of the research issues of high throughput computation. The remote sensing quantitative retrieval Grid workflow is a high-level core component of remote sensing Grid, which is used to support the modeling, reconstruction and implementation of large-scale complex applications of remote sensing science. In this paper, we intend to study middleware components of the remote sensing Grid - the dynamic Grid workflow based on the remote sensing quantitative retrieval application on Grid platform. We designed a novel architecture for the remote sensing Grid workflow. According to this architecture, we constructed the Remote Sensing Information Service Grid Node (RSSN) with Condor. We developed a graphic user interface (GUI) tools to compose remote sensing processing Grid workflows, and took the aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval as an example. The case study showed that significant improvement in the system performance could be achieved with this implementation. The results also give a perspective on the potential of applying Grid workflow practices to remote sensing quantitative retrieval problems using commodity class PCs.

  14. Quantitative analysis of transformed ray transferences of optical systems in a space of augmented Hamiltonian matrices*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for methods for quantitative analysis of the first-order optical character of optical systems including the eye and components of the eye.  Because of their symplectic nature ray transferences themselves are not closed under addition and multiplication by ascalar and, hence, are not amenable to conventional quantitative analysis such as the calculation of an arithmetic mean.  However transferences can be transformed into augmented Hamiltonian matrices which are amenable to such analysis.  This paper provides a general methodology and in particular shows how to calculate means and variance-covariances representing the first-order optical character of optical systems.  The systems may be astigmatic and may have decentred elements.  An accompanying paper shows application to the cornea of the human eye with allowance for thickness.

  15. Sender-receiver systems and applying information theory for quantitative synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena Menendez, Diego; Senthivel, Vivek Raj; Isalan, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Sender-receiver (S-R) systems abound in biology, with communication systems sending information in various forms. Information theory provides a quantitative basis for analysing these processes and is being applied to study natural genetic, enzymatic and neural networks. Recent advances in synthetic biology are providing us with a wealth of artificial S-R systems, giving us quantitative control over networks with a finite number of well-characterised components. Combining the two approaches can help to predict how to maximise signalling robustness, and will allow us to make increasingly complex biological computers. Ultimately, pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology will require moving beyond engineering the flow of information and towards building more sophisticated circuits that interpret biological meaning.

  16. Sender–receiver systems and applying information theory for quantitative synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena Menendez, Diego; Senthivel, Vivek Raj; Isalan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sender–receiver (S–R) systems abound in biology, with communication systems sending information in various forms. Information theory provides a quantitative basis for analysing these processes and is being applied to study natural genetic, enzymatic and neural networks. Recent advances in synthetic biology are providing us with a wealth of artificial S–R systems, giving us quantitative control over networks with a finite number of well-characterised components. Combining the two approaches can help to predict how to maximise signalling robustness, and will allow us to make increasingly complex biological computers. Ultimately, pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology will require moving beyond engineering the flow of information and towards building more sophisticated circuits that interpret biological meaning. PMID:25282688

  17. Optical Character Recognition Based Speech Synthesis System Using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Singla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge extraction by just listening to sounds is a distinctive property. Speech signal is more effective means of communication than text because blind and visually impaired persons can also respond to sounds. This paper aims to develop a cost effective, and user friendly optical character recognition (OCR based speech synthesis system. The OCR based speech synthesis system has been developed using Laboratory virtual instruments engineering workbench (LabVIEW 7.1.

  18. Quantitative study of FORC diagrams in thermally corrected Stoner- Wohlfarth nanoparticles systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasi, E.; Curiale, J.; Zysler, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    The use of FORC diagrams is becoming increasingly popular among researchers devoted to magnetism and magnetic materials. However, a thorough interpretation of this kind of diagrams, in order to achieve quantitative information, requires an appropriate model of the studied system. For that reason most of the FORC studies are used for a qualitative analysis. In magnetic systems thermal fluctuations "blur" the signatures of the anisotropy, volume and particle interactions distributions, therefore thermal effects in nanoparticles systems conspire against a proper interpretation and analysis of these diagrams. Motivated by this fact, we have quantitatively studied the degree of accuracy of the information extracted from FORC diagrams for the special case of single-domain thermal corrected Stoner- Wohlfarth (easy axes along the external field orientation) nanoparticles systems. In this work, the starting point is an analytical model that describes the behavior of a magnetic nanoparticles system as a function of field, anisotropy, temperature and measurement time. In order to study the quantitative degree of accuracy of our model, we built FORC diagrams for different archetypical cases of magnetic nanoparticles. Our results show that from the quantitative information obtained from the diagrams, under the hypotheses of the proposed model, is possible to recover the features of the original system with accuracy above 95%. This accuracy is improved at low temperatures and also it is possible to access to the anisotropy distribution directly from the FORC coercive field profile. Indeed, our simulations predict that the volume distribution plays a secondary role being the mean value and its deviation the only important parameters. Therefore it is possible to obtain an accurate result for the inversion and interaction fields despite the features of the volume distribution.

  19. LabVIEW: a software system for data acquisition, data analysis, and instrument control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, C J

    1995-01-01

    Computer-based data acquisition systems play an important role in clinical monitoring and in the development of new monitoring tools. LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) is a data acquisition and programming environment that allows flexible acquisition and processing of analog and digital data. The main feature that distinguishes LabVIEW from other data acquisition programs is its highly modular graphical programming language, "G," and a large library of mathematical and statistical functions. The advantage of graphical programming is that the code is flexible, reusable, and self-documenting. Subroutines can be saved in a library and reused without modification in other programs. This dramatically reduces development time and enables researchers to develop or modify their own programs. LabVIEW uses a large amount of processing power and computer memory, thus requiring a powerful computer. A large-screen monitor is desirable when developing larger applications. LabVIEW is excellently suited for testing new monitoring paradigms, analysis algorithms, or user interfaces. The typical LabVIEW user is the researcher who wants to develop a new monitoring technique, a set of new (derived) variables by integrating signals from several existing patient monitors, closed-loop control of a physiological variable, or a physiological simulator.

  20. Open systems in substation automation systems in the view of net operators; Offene Systeme in der Stationsleittechnik aus Netzbetreibersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutt, U. [Stadtwerke Hannover AG (Germany). Abt. Leittechnische Anlagen; Hoppe-Oehl, H. [RWE Net AG Essen (Germany). Leittechnik Planung; Hylla, H.J. [Meag, Halle (Germany). Abt. Leittechnik

    2000-10-30

    The substation automation systems of electrical transmission and distribution nets create the essential basis for the telemonitoring and remote control of nets. Concerning these long-lived capital goods the economic efficiency over the lifetime of the installed technology at adequate functionality is primary. Economic efficiency also means that the control devices can be expanded and maintained at low cost according to net requirements. Aligned to the mentioned requirements employers and producers strive to develop new potential of savings of costs based on new technologies - particularly concerning the enormous competition in the power economy. In this relation open systems in substation automation systems are discussed seriously as a new chance. This subscription describes the chances and risks of open systems in substation automation systems in the view of net operators and reflects the possibilities of the standard drafts of the series IEC 61850. (orig.) [German] Die stationsbezogene Leittechnik der Stromversorgungsnetze schafft eine wesentliche Basis fuer die Fernueberwachung und Fernsteuerung des Netzes. Bei diesen langlebigen Investitionsguetern steht bei angemessener Funktionalitaet die Wirtschaftlichkeit der eingesetzten Technik ueber die gesamte Lebensdauer im Vordergrund. Als neue Chance werden offene Systeme fuer die Stationsleittechnik diskutiert. Die Verfasser beschreiben aus Anwendersicht die Chancen und Risiken von offenen Systemen in der Stationsleittechnik und spiegeln daran die Normentwuerfe der Reihe IEC 61850. (orig.)

  1. Viewing pictures of a romantic partner reduces experimental pain: involvement of neural reward systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarred Younger

    Full Text Available The early stages of a new romantic relationship are characterized by intense feelings of euphoria, well-being, and preoccupation with the romantic partner. Neuroimaging research has linked those feelings to activation of reward systems in the human brain. The results of those studies may be relevant to pain management in humans, as basic animal research has shown that pharmacologic activation of reward systems can substantially reduce pain. Indeed, viewing pictures of a romantic partner was recently demonstrated to reduce experimental thermal pain. We hypothesized that pain relief evoked by viewing pictures of a romantic partner would be associated with neural activations in reward-processing centers. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we examined fifteen individuals in the first nine months of a new, romantic relationship. Participants completed three tasks under periods of moderate and high thermal pain: 1 viewing pictures of their romantic partner, 2 viewing pictures of an equally attractive and familiar acquaintance, and 3 a word-association distraction task previously demonstrated to reduce pain. The partner and distraction tasks both significantly reduced self-reported pain, although only the partner task was associated with activation of reward systems. Greater analgesia while viewing pictures of a romantic partner was associated with increased activity in several reward-processing regions, including the caudate head, nucleus accumbens, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--regions not associated with distraction-induced analgesia. The results suggest that the activation of neural reward systems via non-pharmacologic means can reduce the experience of pain.

  2. A Simplified Quantitative Approach to the Reliability of a Passive Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok-Jung; Yang, Joon-Eon; Lee, Won-Jea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    A simplified quantitative approach to the Reliability of a Passive safety System (RoPS) has been proposed for a risk estimation of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) for a hydrogen conversion. A passive safety system that has a high reliability has being introduced to next generation reactors for a enhanced safety. The current risk estimation includes small parts of passive components such as pipes and check valves, but it does not consider a large-scale passive system adopted in the next generation reactor. There is no approved method to estimate the RoPS. The RoPS is a technical issue for a future reactor development.

  3. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David B; Boone, John M; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice.

  4. The GuideView System for Interactive, Structured, Multi-modal Delivery of Clinical Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Sriram; Florez-Arango, Jose; Garcia, Carlos Andres

    2009-01-01

    GuideView is a computerized clinical guideline system which delivers clinical guidelines in an easy-to-understand and easy-to-use package. It may potentially enhance the quality of medical care or allow non-medical personnel to provide acceptable levels of care in situations where physicians or nurses may not be available. Such a system can be very valuable during space flight missions when a physician is not readily available, or perhaps the designated medical personnel is unable to provide care. Complex clinical guidelines are broken into simple steps. At each step clinical information is presented in multiple modes, including voice,audio, text, pictures, and video. Users can respond via mouse clicks or via voice navigation. GuideView can also interact with medical sensors using wireless or wired connections. The system's interface is illustrated and the results of a usability study are presented.

  5. Air-condition Control System of Weaving Workshop Based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian

    The project of air-condition measurement and control system based on LabVIEW is put forward for the sake of controlling effectively the environmental targets in the weaving workshop. In this project, which is based on the virtual instrument technology and in which LabVIEW development platform by NI is adopted, the system is constructed on the basis of the virtual instrument technology. It is composed of the upper PC, central control nodes based on CC2530, sensor nodes, sensor modules and executive device. Fuzzy control algorithm is employed to achieve the accuracy control of the temperature and humidity. A user-friendly man-machine interaction interface is designed with virtual instrument technology at the core of the software. It is shown by experiments that the measurement and control system can run stably and reliably and meet the functional requirements for controlling the weaving workshop.

  6. High performance computational integral imaging system using multi-view video plus depth representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shasha; Gioia, Patrick; Madec, Gérard

    2012-12-01

    Integral imaging is an attractive auto-stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) technology for next-generation 3DTV. But its application is obstructed by poor image quality, huge data volume and high processing complexity. In this paper, a new computational integral imaging (CII) system using multi-view video plus depth (MVD) representation is proposed to solve these problems. The originality of this system lies in three aspects. Firstly, a particular depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) technique is used in encoding process to exploit the inter-view correlation between different sub-images (SIs). Thereafter, the same DIBR method is applied in the display side to interpolate virtual SIs and improve the reconstructed 3D image quality. Finally, a novel parallel group projection (PGP) technique is proposed to simplify the reconstruction process. According to experimental results, the proposed CII system improves compression efficiency and displayed image quality, while reducing calculation complexity. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  8. A New PC and LabVIEW Package Based System for Electrochemical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stević, Zoran; Andjelković, Zoran; Antić, Dejan

    2008-03-15

    The paper describes a new PC and LabVIEW software package based system forelectrochemical research. An overview of well known electrochemical methods, such aspotential measurements, galvanostatic and potentiostatic method, cyclic voltammetry andEIS is given. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been adapted for systemscontaining large capacitances. For signal generation and recording of the response ofinvestigated electrochemical cell, a measurement and control system was developed, basedon a PC P4. The rest of the hardware consists of a commercially available AD-DA converterand an external interface for analog signal processing. The interface is a result of authorsown research. The software platform for desired measurement methods is LabVIEW 8.2package, which is regarded as a high standard in the area of modern virtual instruments. Thedeveloped system was adjusted, tested and compared with commercially available systemand ORCAD simulation.

  9. A Simple Quantitative Inversion Approach for Microwave Imaging in Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ambrosanio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications of microwave imaging, there is the need of confining the device in order to shield it from environmental noise as well as to host the targets and the medium used for impedance matching purposes. For instance, in MWI for biomedical diagnostics a coupling medium is typically adopted to improve the penetration of the probing wave into the tissues. From the point of view of quantitative imaging procedures, that is aimed at retrieving the values of the complex permittivity in the domain under test, the presence of a confining structure entails an increase of complexity of the underlying modelling. This entails a further difficulty in achieving real-time imaging results, which are obviously of interest in practice. To address this challenge, we propose the application of a recently proposed inversion method that, making use of a suitable preprocessing of the data and a scenario-oriented field approximation, allows obtaining quantitative imaging results by means of quasi-real-time linear inversion, in a range of cases which is much broader than usual linearized approximations. The assessment of the method is carried out in the scalar 2D configuration and taking into account enclosures of different shapes and, to show the method’s flexibility different shapes, embedding nonweak targets.

  10. A LabVIEW-Based Virtual Instrument System for Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qijun; Wang, Lufei; Zu, Lily

    2011-01-01

    We report the design and operation of a Virtual Instrument (VI) system based on LabVIEW 2009 for laser-induced fluorescence experiments. This system achieves synchronous control of equipment and acquisition of real-time fluorescence data communicating with a single computer via GPIB, USB, RS232, and parallel ports. The reported VI system can also accomplish data display, saving, and analysis, and printing the results. The VI system performs sequences of operations automatically, and this system has been successfully applied to obtain the excitation and dispersion spectra of α-methylnaphthalene. The reported VI system opens up new possibilities for researchers and increases the efficiency and precision of experiments. The design and operation of the VI system are described in detail in this paper, and the advantages that this system can provide are highlighted.

  11. muView: A Visual Analysis System for Exploring Uncertainty in Myocardial Ischemia Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Rosen, Paul

    2016-05-23

    In this paper we describe the Myocardial Uncertainty Viewer (muView or μView) system for exploring data stemming from the simulation of cardiac ischemia. The simulation uses a collection of conductivity values to understand how ischemic regions effect the undamaged anisotropic heart tissue. The data resulting from the simulation is multi-valued and volumetric, and thus, for every data point, we have a collection of samples describing cardiac electrical properties. μView combines a suite of visual analysis methods to explore the area surrounding the ischemic zone and identify how perturbations of variables change the propagation of their effects. In addition to presenting a collection of visualization techniques, which individually highlight different aspects of the data, the coordinated view system forms a cohesive environment for exploring the simulations. We also discuss the findings of our study, which are helping to steer further development of the simulation and strengthening our collaboration with the biomedical engineers attempting to understand the phenomenon.

  12. Application of quantitative signal detection in the Dutch spontaneous reporting system for adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Diemont, Willem; van Grootheest, Kees

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) is the timely detection of unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs), or signal detection. Generally this is carried out by a systematic manual review of every report sent to an SRS. Statistical analysis of the data sets of an SRS, or quantitative signal detection, can provide additional information concerning a possible relationship between a drug and an ADR. We describe the role of quantitative signal detection and the way it is applied at the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. Results of the statistical analysis are implemented in the traditional case-by-case analysis. In addition, for data-mining purposes, a list of associations of ADRs and suspected drugs that are disproportionally present in the database is periodically generated. Finally, quantitative signal generation can be used to study more complex relationships, such as drug-drug interactions and syndromes. The results of quantitative signal detection should be considered as an additional source of information, complementary to the traditional analysis. Techniques for the detection of drug interactions and syndromes offer a new challenge for pharmacovigilance in the near future.

  13. Formal modeling and quantitative evaluation for information system survivability based on PEPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Hui-qiang; ZHAO Guo-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Survivability should be considered beyond security for information system. To assess system survivability accurately, for improvement, a formal modeling and analysis method based on stochastic process algebra is proposed in this article. By abstracting the interactive behaviors between intruders and information system, a transferring graph of system state oriented survivability is constructed. On that basis, parameters are defined and system behaviors are characterized precisely with performance evaluation process algebra (PEPA), simultaneously considering the influence of different attack modes. Ultimately the formal model for survivability is established and quantitative analysis results are obtained by PEPA Workbench tool. Simulation experiments show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed method, and it can help to direct the designation of survivable system.

  14. Outpatients flow management and ophthalmic electronic medical records system in university hospital using Yahgee Document View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Gochi, Akira; Hirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Tadashi; Kohno, Yoshihisa

    2010-10-01

    General electronic medical records systems remain insufficient for ophthalmology outpatient clinics from the viewpoint of dealing with many ophthalmic examinations and images in a large number of patients. Filing systems for documents and images by Yahgee Document View (Yahgee, Inc.) were introduced on the platform of general electronic medical records system (Fujitsu, Inc.). Outpatients flow management system and electronic medical records system for ophthalmology were constructed. All images from ophthalmic appliances were transported to Yahgee Image by the MaxFile gateway system (P4 Medic, Inc.). The flow of outpatients going through examinations such as visual acuity testing were monitored by the list "Ophthalmology Outpatients List" by Yahgee Workflow in addition to the list "Patients Reception List" by Fujitsu. Patients' identification number was scanned with bar code readers attached to ophthalmic appliances. Dual monitors were placed in doctors' rooms to show Fujitsu Medical Records on the left-hand monitor and ophthalmic charts of Yahgee Document on the right-hand monitor. The data of manually-inputted visual acuity, automatically-exported autorefractometry and non-contact tonometry on a new template, MaxFile ED, were again automatically transported to designated boxes on ophthalmic charts of Yahgee Document. Images such as fundus photographs, fluorescein angiograms, optical coherence tomographic and ultrasound scans were viewed by Yahgee Image, and were copy-and-pasted to assigned boxes on the ophthalmic charts. Ordering such as appointments, drug prescription, fees and diagnoses input, central laboratory tests, surgical theater and ward room reservations were placed by functions of the Fujitsu electronic medical records system. The combination of the Fujitsu electronic medical records and Yahgee Document View systems enabled the University Hospital to examine the same number of outpatients as prior to the implementation of the computerized filing system.

  15. Constructivist Multi-Access Lab Approach in Teaching FPGA Systems Design with LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Balid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems play vital role in modern applications [1]. They can be found in autos, washing machines, electrical appliances and even in toys. FPGAs are the most recent computing technology that is used in embedded systems. There is an increasing demand on FPGA based embedded systems, in particular, for applications that require rapid time responses. Engineering education curricula needs to respond to the increasing industrial demand of using FPGAs by introducing new syllabus for teaching and learning this subject. This paper describes the development of new course material for teaching FPGA-based embedded systems design by using ‘G’ Programming Language of LabVIEW. A general overview of FPGA role in engineering education is provided. A survey of available Hardware Programming Languages for FPGAs is presented. A survey about LabVIEW utilization in engineering education is investigated; this is followed by a motivation section of why to use LabVIEW graphical programming in teaching and its capabilities. Then, a section of choosing a suitable kit for the course is laid down. Later, constructivist closed-loop model the FPGA course has been proposed in accordance with [2-4; 80,86,89,92]. The paper is proposing a pedagogical framework for FPGA teaching; pedagogical evaluation will be conducted in future studies. The complete study has been done at the Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Aleppo University.

  16. [A design of simple ventilator control system based on LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Baoqing; Xu, Shengwei; Li, Hui; Li, Deyu; Pei, Yidong; He, Haixing

    2011-01-01

    This paper designed a ventilator control system to control proportional valves and motors. It used LabVIEW to control the object mentioned above and design ,validate, evaluate arithmetic, and establish hardware in loop platform. There are two system' s hierarchies. The high layer was used to run non-real time program and the low layer was used to run real time program. The two layers communicated through TCP/IP net. The program can be divided into several modules, which can be expanded and maintained easily. And the harvest in the prototype designing can be seamlessly used to embedded products. From all above, this system was useful in employing OEM products.

  17. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  18. BLADDER NECK CONTRACTURE -VIEW THROUGH THE DIFFERENT OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    松浦, 一

    1980-01-01

    The vesical orifice of the bladder neck contracture was viewed through the different optical systems. To observe the bladder neck contracture, the urethroscopy by the straight forward optical telescope and the cystoscopy by the retrograde optical telescope are useful. The bladder neck could be more accurately observed through the retrograde optical telescope. The bladder neck contracture was seen as an intravesical rising of the entire circumference of the rim of the bladder neck. Benign pros...

  19. Ontology for Life-Cycle Modeling of Electrical Distribution Systems: Application of Model View Definition Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Building in- formation exchange (COBie), Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...to develop a life-cycle building model have resulted in the definition of a “core” building information model that contains general information de...develop an information -exchange Model View Definition (MVD) for building electrical systems. The objective of the current work was to document the

  20. DRUG ADMINISTRATION: A SYSTEMIC VIEW FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICATION ERROR PREVENTIVE ACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena De Bortoli Cassiani

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The drug administration is a very frequent activity of a hospital routine in general, as well as of itsnursing team. However studies have shown the need to implement strategies to prevent or to mitigate errors foundin this pratice. To look at the medication process thru a systemic view allows to identify its weak points and todevelop procedures to assure the safety of the customers and the professionals.

  1. Legionellae in engineered systems and use of quantitative microbial risk assessment to predict exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Helen Y; Schoen, Mary E; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2012-03-15

    While it is well-established that Legionella are able to colonize engineered water systems, the number of interacting factors contributing to their occurrence, proliferation, and persistence are unclear. This review summarizes current methods used to detect and quantify legionellae as well as the current knowledge of engineered water system characteristics that both favour and promote legionellae growth. Furthermore, the use of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models to predict potentially critical human exposures to legionellae are also discussed. Understanding the conditions favouring Legionella occurrence in engineered systems and their overall ecology (growth in these systems/biofilms, biotic interactions and release) will aid in developing new treatment technologies and/or systems that minimize or eliminate human exposure to potentially pathogenic legionellae.

  2. Confocal reflectance quantitative phase microscopy system for cell biology studies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Raj; So, Peter T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), used to measure the refractive index, provides the optical path delay measurement at each point of the specimen under study and becomes an active field in biological science. In this work we present development of confocal reflection phase microscopy system to provide depth resolved quantitative phase information for investigation of intracellular structures and other biological specimen. The system hardware development is mainly divided into two major parts. First, creates a pinhole array for parallel confocal imaging of specimen at multiple locations simultaneously. Here a digital micro mirror device (DMD) is used to generate pinhole array by turning on a subset micro-mirrors arranged on a grid. Second is the detection of phase information of confocal imaging foci by using a common path interferometer. With this novel approach, it is possible to measure the nuclei membrane fluctuations and distinguish them from the plasma membrane fluctuations. Further, depth resolved quantitative phase can be correlated to the intracellular contents and 3D map of refractive index measurements.

  3. Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS): Final report, November 1994--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is a software tool for complex three-dimensional (3-D) visualization and modeling. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the use of robotic and telerobotic systems in remote and/or hazardous environments, where spatial information is provided by 3-D mapping sensors. ICERVS provides a robust, interactive system for viewing sensor data in 3-D and combines this with interactive geometric modeling capabilities that allow an operator to construct CAD models to match the remote environment. Part I of this report traces the development of ICERVS through three evolutionary phases: (1) development of first-generation software to render orthogonal view displays and wireframe models; (2) expansion of this software to include interactive viewpoint control, surface-shaded graphics, material (scalar and nonscalar) property data, cut/slice planes, color and visibility mapping, and generalized object models; (3) demonstration of ICERVS as a tool for the remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) and the dismantlement of contaminated processing facilities. Part II of this report details the software design of ICERVS, with particular emphasis on its object-oriented architecture and user interface.

  4. Ground and aircraft lidar measurements of sea salt and dust plumes with a small wide-field-of-view system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John N.

    2004-12-01

    A small portable lidar system was recently used to derive aerosol optical concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. The mini lidar uses a telescope setup with a relatively wide field of view allowing for measurements from close in (~60 m range) with no near field correction. In order to account for the large dynamic range, a custom logarithmic amplifier is used. Lidar measurements have been made in Hawaii and examples will be shown. More recently the Lidar was mounted on an aircraft for an experiment in the United Arab Emirates. In this case, the Lidar system was used to looking up, forward and down. The Lidar measurements looking up and down provided vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations. The lidar looking forward were used to derive quantitative aerosol extinction values using an existing and a new approach. Preliminary examples of this UAE data are shown. Being able to model aerosol phase functions is important for both satellite and Lidar aerosol retrievals. Mie theory is adequate for spherical particles but complex aerosols such as dust and organics are more difficult to model. Here we discuss phase function measurements we have made with our ground based polar nephelometer for sea salt and more recently for dust in the United Arab Emirates.

  5. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The solar hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Days Inn Motel (120 rooms), I-35/2276 Valley View Lane, Dallas, Texas is described. The solar system was designed by ILI Incorporated to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. The Solar Energy Products, model CU-30WW liquid (water) flat plate collector (1000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. This system is one of eleven systems planned. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers. The operation of this system was begun March 11, 1980. The solar components were partly funded ($15,000 of 30,000 cost) by a Department of Energy grant.

  6. From classical genetics to quantitative genetics to systems biology: modeling epistasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Aylor

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression data has been used in lieu of phenotype in both classical and quantitative genetic settings. These two disciplines have separate approaches to measuring and interpreting epistasis, which is the interaction between alleles at different loci. We propose a framework for estimating and interpreting epistasis from a classical experiment that combines the strengths of each approach. A regression analysis step accommodates the quantitative nature of expression measurements by estimating the effect of gene deletions plus any interaction. Effects are selected by significance such that a reduced model describes each expression trait. We show how the resulting models correspond to specific hierarchical relationships between two regulator genes and a target gene. These relationships are the basic units of genetic pathways and genomic system diagrams. Our approach can be extended to analyze data from a variety of experiments, multiple loci, and multiple environments.

  7. The quantitative basis of the Arabidopsis innate immune system to endemic pathogens depends on pathogen genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corwin, Jason A; Copeland, Daniel; Feusier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B...... of pathogen genetic variation in analyzing host quantitative resistance. While known resistance genes, such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs), were found to be enriched among associated genes, they only account for a small fraction of the total......, including defense hormone signaling and ROS production, as well as novel processes, such as leaf development. Validation of single gene T-DNA knockouts in a Col-0 background demonstrate a high success rate (60%) when accounting for differences in environmental and Botrytis genetic variation. This study...

  8. Improved Protein Arrays for Quantitative Systems Analysis of the Dynamics of Signaling Pathway Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YANG, CHIN-RANG [NHLBI, NIH

    2013-12-11

    Astronauts and workers in nuclear plants who repeatedly exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR, <10 cGy) are likely to incur specific changes in signal transduction and gene expression in various tissues of their body. Remarkable advances in high throughput genomics and proteomics technologies enable researchers to broaden their focus from examining single gene/protein kinetics to better understanding global gene/protein expression profiling and biological pathway analyses, namely Systems Biology. An ultimate goal of systems biology is to develop dynamic mathematical models of interacting biological systems capable of simulating living systems in a computer. This Glue Grant is to complement Dr. Boothman’s existing DOE grant (No. DE-FG02-06ER64186) entitled “The IGF1/IGF-1R-MAPK-Secretory Clusterin (sCLU) Pathway: Mediator of a Low Dose IR-Inducible Bystander Effect” to develop sensitive and quantitative proteomic technology that suitable for low dose radiobiology researches. An improved version of quantitative protein array platform utilizing linear Quantum dot signaling for systematically measuring protein levels and phosphorylation states for systems biology modeling is presented. The signals are amplified by a confocal laser Quantum dot scanner resulting in ~1000-fold more sensitivity than traditional Western blots and show the good linearity that is impossible for the signals of HRP-amplification. Therefore this improved protein array technology is suitable to detect weak responses of low dose radiation. Software is developed to facilitate the quantitative readout of signaling network activities. Kinetics of EGFRvIII mutant signaling was analyzed to quantify cross-talks between EGFR and other signaling pathways.

  9. A pre-sample charge measurement system for quantitative NMP-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansson, P., E-mail: Per.Kristiansson@nuclear.lu.s [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Borysiuk, M.; Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Elfman, M.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    In many IBA applications the main aim is to obtain quantitative figures characterizing the sample. Normally charge, i.e. number of probe particles, is used for normalization and is measured either by collecting the charge deposited in the sample or by collecting the particle in a post-sample Faraday cup or in combination. Both these techniques have drawbacks and results can be difficult to compare for samples with different matrix composition. In this work, we present an upgraded design and test results from the Lund NMP pre-sample charge measurement system. The system presented is based on a pre-sample beam deflection controlled by the beam scanning system for the nuclear microprobe. It can be operated in different modes, but during normal operation the beam is blanked once per pixel and the corresponding charge is collected during the beam-off period. The system does not only measure an average of the beam current during data collection, but actually a pixel-by-pixel normalization is possible. Data of the system performance are presented and in addition illustrations of how quantitative measurements both for PIXE and elastic scattering can be made more reliable.

  10. Towards quantitative mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in microbial and mammalian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoore, Rahul Vijay; Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman

    2016-10-28

    Metabolome analyses are a suite of analytical approaches that enable us to capture changes in the metabolome (small molecular weight components, typically less than 1500 Da) in biological systems. Mass spectrometry (MS) has been widely used for this purpose. The key challenge here is to be able to capture changes in a reproducible and reliant manner that is representative of the events that take place in vivo Typically, the analysis is carried out in vitro, by isolating the system and extracting the metabolome. MS-based approaches enable us to capture metabolomic changes with high sensitivity and resolution. When developing the technique for different biological systems, there are similarities in challenges and differences that are specific to the system under investigation. Here, we review some of the challenges in capturing quantitative changes in the metabolome with MS based approaches, primarily in microbial and mammalian systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. A New 3-Dimensional Dynamic Quantitative Analysis System of Facial Motion: An Establishment and Reliability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs. PMID:25390881

  12. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  13. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  14. Analysis of multiple recording methods for full resolution multi-view autostereoscopic 3D display system incorporating VHOE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Seok; Cho, Kyu Ha; Kim, Eun Soo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose multiple recording process of photopolymer for a full-color multi-view including multiple-view auto-stereoscopic 3D display system based on VHOE (Volume Holographic Optical Element). To overcome the problems such as low resolution, and limited viewing zone of conventional 3D-display without glasses, we designed multiple recording condition of VHOE for multi-view display. It is verified that VHOE may be optically made by angle-multiplexed recording of pre-designed multiple-viewing zone that uniformly is recorded through optimized exposuretime scheduling scheme. Here, VHOE-based backlight system for 4-view stereoscopic display is implemented, in which the output beams that playing a role reference beam from LGP(Light guide plate)t may be sequentially synchronized with the respective stereo images displayed on the LCD panel.

  15. Inversion-free decentralised quantitative feedback design of large-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labibi, B.; Mahdi Alavi, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new method for robust decentralised control of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems using quantitative feedback theory (QFT) is suggested. The proposed method does not need inversion of the plant transfer function matrix in the design process. For a given system, an equivalent descriptor system representation is defined. By using this representation, sufficient conditions for closed-loop diagonal dominance over the uncertainty space are obtained. These conditions transform the original MIMO system into a set of isolated multi-input single-output (MISO) subsystems. Then, the local controllers are designed by using the typical MISO QFT technique for each isolated subsystem to satisfy the predefined desired specifications and the closed-loop diagonal dominance sufficient conditions. The proposed technique is less conservative in comparison to the approaches using the over-bounding concept in the design procedure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is finally assessed on a MIMO Scara robot.

  16. Quantitative Safety: Linking Proof-Based Verification with Model Checking for Probabilistic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ndukwu, Ukachukwu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for augmenting proof-based verification with performance-style analysis of the kind employed in state-of-the-art model checking tools for probabilistic systems. Quantitative safety properties usually specified as probabilistic system invariants and modeled in proof-based environments are evaluated using bounded model checking techniques. Our specific contributions include the statement of a theorem that is central to model checking safety properties of proof-based systems, the establishment of a procedure; and its full implementation in a prototype system (YAGA) which readily transforms a probabilistic model specified in a proof-based environment to its equivalent verifiable PRISM model equipped with reward structures. The reward structures capture the exact interpretation of the probabilistic invariants and can reveal succinct information about the model during experimental investigations. Finally, we demonstrate the novelty of the technique on a probabilistic library cas...

  17. A New Remote Monitoring System Application in Laser Power Based on LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new remote monitoring system based on LabVIEW was proposed to measure laser power automatically and remotely. This system consists of four basic components: an DH-JG2 optical power meter, a NI-USB 6008 data acquisition card, a personal computer (PC, and HP laserJet 1020 Plus printer. Since power output of laser is generally so unstable that abnormal work situation could not retroaction to inspectors right away, new system was designed to solve this problem. The detection system realized function of remote control by TCP protocol and mobile phone. Laser power curve that is measured by detection system demonstrated that the design has a good performance in real-time detection and operability.

  18. An algorithm to estimate building heights from Google street-view imagery using single view metrology across a representational state transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Elkin; Arguello, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Urban ecosystem studies require monitoring, controlling and planning to analyze building density, urban density, urban planning, atmospheric modeling and land use. In urban planning, there are many methods for building height estimation using optical remote sensing images. These methods however, highly depend on sun illumination and cloud-free weather. In contrast, high resolution synthetic aperture radar provides images independent from daytime and weather conditions, although, these images rely on special hardware and expensive acquisition. Most of the biggest cities around the world have been photographed by Google street view under different conditions. Thus, thousands of images from the principal streets of a city can be accessed online. The availability of this and similar rich city imagery such as StreetSide from Microsoft, represents huge opportunities in computer vision because these images can be used as input in many applications such as 3D modeling, segmentation, recognition and stereo correspondence. This paper proposes a novel algorithm to estimate building heights using public Google Street-View imagery. The objective of this work is to obtain thousands of geo-referenced images from Google Street-View using a representational state transfer system, and estimate their average height using single view metrology. Furthermore, the resulting measurements and image metadata are used to derive a layer of heights in a Google map available online. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can estimate an accurate average building height map of thousands of images using Google Street-View Imagery of any city.

  19. Nondeterministic Probabilistic Petri Net — A New Method to Study Qualitative and Quantitative Behaviors of System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Huai-Kou Miao; Hong-Wei Zeng; Yan Ma; Pan Liu

    2013-01-01

    There are many variants of Petri net at present,and some of them can be used to model system with both function and performance specification,such as stochastic Petri net,generalized stochastic Petri net and probabilistic Petri net.In this paper,we utilize extended Petri net to address the issue of modeling and verifying system with probability and nondeterminism besides function aspects.Using probabilistic Petri net as reference,we propose a new mixed model NPPN (Nondeterministic Probabilistic Petri Net) system,which can model and verify systems with qualitative and quantitative behaviours.Then we develop a kind of process algebra for NPPN system to interpret its algebraic semantics,and an actionbased PCTL (Probabilistic Computation Tree Logic) to interpret its logical semantics.Afterwards we present the rules for compositional operation of NPPN system based on NPPN system process algebra,and the model checking algorithm based on the action-based PCTL.In order to put the NPPN system into practice,we develop a friendly and visual tool for modeling,analyzing,simulating,and verifying NPPN system using action-based PCTL.The usefulness and effectiveness of the NPPN system are illustrated by modeling and model checking an elaborate model of travel arrangements workflow.

  20. Auto-tuning system for NMR probe with LabView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quen, Carmen; Mateo, Olivia; Bernal, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    Typical manual NMR-tuning method is not suitable for broadband spectra spanning several megahertz linewidths. Among the main problems encountered during manual tuning are pulse-power reproducibility, baselines, and transmission line reflections, to name a few. We present a design of an auto-tuning system using graphic programming language, LabVIEW, to minimize these problems. The program is designed to analyze the detected power signal of an antenna near the NMR probe and use this analysis to automatically tune the sample coil to match the impedance of the spectrometer (50 Ω). The tuning capacitors of the probe are controlled by a stepper motor through a LabVIEW/computer interface. Our program calculates the area of the power signal as an indicator to control the motor so disconnecting the coil to tune it through a network analyzer is unnecessary. Work supported by NSF-DMR 1105380

  1. Technological process supervising using vision systems cooperating with the LabVIEW vision builder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banaś, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Sękala, A.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important tasks in the production process is to supervise its proper functioning. Lack of required supervision over the production process can lead to incorrect manufacturing of the final element, through the production line downtime and hence to financial losses. The worst result is the damage of the equipment involved in the manufacturing process. Engineers supervise the production flow correctness use the great range of sensors supporting the supervising of a manufacturing element. Vision systems are one of sensors families. In recent years, thanks to the accelerated development of electronics as well as the easier access to electronic products and attractive prices, they become the cheap and universal type of sensors. These sensors detect practically all objects, regardless of their shape or even the state of matter. The only problem is considered with transparent or mirror objects, detected from the wrong angle. Integrating the vision system with the LabVIEW Vision and the LabVIEW Vision Builder it is possible to determine not only at what position is the given element but also to set its reorientation relative to any point in an analyzed space. The paper presents an example of automated inspection. The paper presents an example of automated inspection of the manufacturing process in a production workcell using the vision supervising system. The aim of the work is to elaborate the vision system that could integrate different applications and devices used in different production systems to control the manufacturing process.

  2. Cone-beam micro-CT system based on LabVIEW software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Hoffmann, Keneth R; Bednarek, Daniel R; Chityala, Ravishankar; Rudin, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Construction of a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system for laboratory research usually requires integration of different software and hardware components. As a result, building and operating such a complex system require the expertise of researchers with significantly different backgrounds. Additionally, writing flexible code to control the hardware components of a CBCT system combined with designing a friendly graphical user interface (GUI) can be cumbersome and time consuming. An intuitive and flexible program structure, as well as the program GUI for CBCT acquisition, is presented in this note. The program was developed in National Instrument's Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) graphical language and is designed to control a custom-built CBCT system but has been also used in a standard angiographic suite. The hardware components are commercially available to researchers and are in general provided with software drivers which are LabVIEW compatible. The program structure was designed as a sequential chain. Each step in the chain takes care of one or two hardware commands at a time; the execution of the sequence can be modified according to the CBCT system design. We have scanned and reconstructed over 200 specimens using this interface and present three examples which cover different areas of interest encountered in laboratory research. The resulting 3D data are rendered using a commercial workstation. The program described in this paper is available for use or improvement by other researchers.

  3. A systemic view of biodiversity and its conservation: processes, interrelationships, and human culture: presentation of a systemic view of biodiversity and its conservation that emphasizes complex interrelationships among subsystems and includes human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Eleanor J; Gómez, Andrés; Porzecanski, Ana L

    2010-12-01

    Historically, views and measurements of biodiversity have had a narrow focus, for instance, characterizing the attributes of observable patterns but affording less attention to processes. Here, we explore the question: how does a systems thinking view - one where the world is seen as elements and processes that connect and interact in dynamic ways to form a whole - affect the way we understand biodiversity and practice conservation? We answer this question by illustrating the systemic properties of biodiversity at multiple levels, and show that biodiversity is a collection of dynamic systems linking seemingly disparate biological and cultural components and requiring an understanding of the system as a whole. We conclude that systems thinking calls traditional views of species, ecosystem function, and human relationships with the rest of biodiversity into question. Finally, we suggest some of the ways in which this view can impact the science and practice of conservation, particularly through affecting our conservation targets and strategies.

  4. Polymorphic ethyl alcohol as a model system for the quantitative study of glassy behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H.E.; Schober, H.; Gonzalez, M.A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Bermejo, F.J.; Fayos, R.; Dawidowski, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, M.A.; Vieira, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The nearly universal transport and dynamical properties of amorphous materials or glasses are investigated. Reasonably successful phenomenological models have been developed to account for these properties as well as the behaviour near the glass-transition, but quantitative microscopic models have had limited success. One hindrance to these investigations has been the lack of a material which exhibits glass-like properties in more than one phase at a given temperature. This report presents results of neutron-scattering experiments for one such material ordinary ethyl alcohol, which promises to be a model system for future investigations of glassy behaviour. (author). 8 refs.

  5. Quantitative measurement and visualization of biofilm O 2 consumption rates in membrane filtration systems

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C

    2012-03-01

    There is a strong need for techniques enabling direct assessment of biological activity of biofouling in membrane filtration systems. Here we present a new quantitative and non-destructive method for mapping O 2 dynamics in biofilms during biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators (MFS). Transparent planar O 2 optodes in combination with a luminescence lifetime imaging system were used to map the two-dimensional distribution of O 2 concentrations and consumption rates inside the MFS. The O 2 distribution was indicative for biofilm development. Biofilm activity was characterized by imaging of O 2 consumption rates, where low and high activity areas could be clearly distinguished. The spatial development of O 2 consumption rates, flow channels and stagnant areas could be determined. This can be used for studies on concentration polarization, i.e. salt accumulation at the membrane surface resulting in increased salt passage and reduced water flux. The new optode-based O 2 imaging technique applied to MFS allows non-destructive and spatially resolved quantitative biological activity measurements (BAM) for on-site biofouling diagnosis and laboratory studies. The following set of complementary tools is now available to study development and control of biofouling in membrane systems: (i) MFS, (ii) sensitive pressure drop measurement, (iii) magnetic resonance imaging, (iv) numerical modelling, and (v) biological activity measurement based on O 2 imaging methodology. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Remote Fault Information Acquisition and Diagnosis System of the Combine Harvester Based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Wu, Pei; Xu, Kai

    Most combine harvesters have not be equipped with online fault diagnosis system. A fault information acquisition and diagnosis system of the Combine Harvester based on LabVIEW is designed, researched and developed. Using ARM development board, by collecting many sensors' signals, this system can achieve real-time measurement, collection, displaying and analysis of different parts of combine harvesters. It can also realize detection online of forward velocity, roller speed, engine temperature, etc. Meanwhile the system can judge the fault location. A new database function is added so that we can search the remedial measures to solve the faults and also we can add new faults to the database. So it is easy to take precautions against before the combine harvester breaking down then take measures to service the harvester.

  7. Efficient Generation and Selection of Virtual Populations in Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, TR; Musante, CJ

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative systems pharmacology models mechanistically describe a biological system and the effect of drug treatment on system behavior. Because these models rarely are identifiable from the available data, the uncertainty in physiological parameters may be sampled to create alternative parameterizations of the model, sometimes termed “virtual patients.” In order to reproduce the statistics of a clinical population, virtual patients are often weighted to form a virtual population that reflects the baseline characteristics of the clinical cohort. Here we introduce a novel technique to efficiently generate virtual patients and, from this ensemble, demonstrate how to select a virtual population that matches the observed data without the need for weighting. This approach improves confidence in model predictions by mitigating the risk that spurious virtual patients become overrepresented in virtual populations. PMID:27069777

  8. System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Johannes, Maike;

    , USA), which can measure flow rates up to 3000 standard liters per minute. After the air has passed the flow meter an air sample is drawn. A manifold, drying system, oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, methane sensor, and data program for management were delivered by Columbus instruments (Ohio, USA...... for quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying...... the chamber air. The system constitutes of four chambers, flow meters and gas sensors for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside measurements of chambers are approximately 1.45 * 3.9 * 2.45 meters. Inside there is a platform to give the cows a comfortable laying area, space for feeding bin...

  9. Quantitative fluorescence and elastic scattering tissue polarimetry using an Eigenvalue calibrated spectroscopic Mueller matrix system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Jalpa; Purwar, Harsh; Lakhotia, Harshit; Chandel, Shubham; Banerjee, Chitram; Kumar, Uday; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2013-07-01

    A novel spectroscopic Mueller matrix system has been developed and explored for both fluorescence and elastic scattering polarimetric measurements from biological tissues. The 4 × 4 Mueller matrix measurement strategy is based on sixteen spectrally resolved (λ = 400 - 800 nm) measurements performed by sequentially generating and analyzing four elliptical polarization states. Eigenvalue calibration of the system ensured high accuracy of Mueller matrix measurement over a broad wavelength range, either for forward or backscattering geometry. The system was explored for quantitative fluorescence and elastic scattering spectroscopic polarimetric studies on normal and precancerous tissue sections from human uterine cervix. The fluorescence spectroscopic Mueller matrices yielded an interesting diattenuation parameter, exhibiting differences between normal and precancerous tissues.

  10. A decision support system for quantitative measurement of operational efficiency in a blood collection facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kros, John F; Yim Pang, Robyn

    2004-04-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is presented that allows users to input, analyze, and output data derived from blood banking operations. The DSS developed is a hybrid system that is both data and model driven. The system provides information, models, and data manipulation tools to assist users in the quantitative measurement of the operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. A relational database was developed to address the four major variables, which impact the cost per unit of blood being collected. Using visual basic, a user interface and mathematical model were developed establishing the relationships to analyze cost per unit of collected blood. Using inputs from users and historical financial data, the DSS calculates the cost per unit as each of the major variables is altered. Real life situations by the mobile operations team at a blood collection facility were used to test the DSS.

  11. A robust GC-MS method for the quantitation of fatty acids in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Nirupama Samanmalie; Dias, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in a wide range of functions in biological systems. It is important to measure the exact amount of fatty acids in biological matrices in order to determine the level of fatty acids and understand the role they play. The ability to quantify fatty acids in various systems, especially plant species and microbes has recently paved the way to the mass production of pharmaceuticals and energy substitutes including biodiesel. This chapter describes an efficient method to quantify the total fatty acids (TFAs) in biological systems using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a commercially available standard mix of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using a step-by-step methodology to setup a quantitation method using the Agilent Chemstation software.

  12. Quantitative Cyber Risk Reduction Estimation Methodology for a Small Scada Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Mark A. Flynn; George A. Beitel

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for obtaining a quick quantitative measurement of the risk reduction achieved when a control system is modified with the intent to improve cyber security defense against external attackers. The proposed methodology employs a directed graph called a compromise graph, where the nodes represent stages of a potential attack and the edges represent the expected time-to-compromise for differing attacker skill levels. Time-to-compromise is modeled as a function of known vulnerabilities and attacker skill level. The methodology was used to calculate risk reduction estimates for a specific SCADA system and for a specific set of control system security remedial actions. Despite an 86% reduction in the total number of vulnerabilities, the estimated time-to-compromise was increased only by about 3 to 30% depending on target and attacker skill level.

  13. Study of physicochemical interaction of aryloxyaminopropanol derivatives with teicoplanin and vancomycin phases in view of quantitative structure-property relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronová, Katarína; Lehotay, Jozef; Hroboňová, Katarína; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2013-08-02

    The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical interactions between chiral stationary phases and chiral molecules and to elucidate which of the specific interactions are more or less important. The HPLC separation of 58 aryloxyaminopropanols was performed on two chiral stationary phases containing the macrocyclic antibiotics teicoplanin or vancomycin and using a methanol/acetonitrile/acetic acid/triethylamine mobile phase (volume ratios 45/55/0.3/0.2). The resolution of enantiomers (Rij) as the target variable was predicted for the mentioned kind of compounds by means of thoroughly selected descriptors provided by the applied Dragon software. The created QSPR models can be considered as a way to explore and discover new relationships or interactions between the quantitative structure and resolution of enantiomers. For calculation and validation of the QSPR models, different modelling methodologies were applied based on MLR (multiple linear regression) and ANN (artificial neural network) techniques. Both methods exhibit an ability for successful prediction of the enantioresolution characteristics of the studied molecules. The results seem to demonstrate that it is possible to predict resolution values of enantiomeric separations of related compounds on given chromatographic systems.

  14. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  15. Enlarging the angle of view in Michelson-interferometer-based shearography by embedding a 4f system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sijin; He, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Lianxiang

    2011-07-20

    Digital shearography based on Michelson interferometers suffers from the disadvantage of a small angle of view due to the structure. We demonstrate a novel digital shearography system with a large angle of view. In the optical arrangement, the imaging lens is in front of the Michelson interferometer rather than behind it as in traditional digital shearography. Thus, the angle of view is no longer limited by the Michelson interferometer. The images transmitting between the separate lens and camera are accomplished by a 4f system in the new style of shearography. The influences of the 4f system on shearography are also discussed.

  16. Optimal usage of cone beam computed tomography system with different field of views in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Venkata Naga Madhusudhana Sresty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To find methods for optimal usage of XVI (X-ray volume imaging system in Elekta synergy linear accelerator with different field of views for same lesion in order to minimize patient dose due to imaging.Methods: 20 scans of 2 individual patients with ca sigmoid colon and ca lung were used in this study. Kilo voltage collimators with medium field of view were used as per the preset information. Images were reconstructed for another collimator with small field of view. The set up errors were evaluated with XVI software. Shift results of both methods were compared. Results: Variation in treatment set up errors with M20 and S20 collimators were ≤ 0.2 mm in translational and 0.30 in rotational shifts. Results showed almost equal translational and rotational shifts in both medium and small field of views with different collimators in all the scans. Visualization of target and surrounding structures were good enough and sufficient for XVI auto matching.Conclusion: Imaging with small field of view results less patient dose compared with medium or large field of views. It is Suggestible to use collimators with small field of view wherever possible. In this study, collimators with small field of view were sufficient for both patients though the preset information indicated medium field of view. But, it always depends on the area required for matching purpose. So, individual selection is important than preset information in the XVI system.

  17. PC-LabView Based Control System in SAGA-LS

    CERN Document Server

    Ohgaki, Hideaki; Koda, Shigeru; Takabayashi, Yuichi; Tomimasu, Takio; Toyokawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Katuhide

    2005-01-01

    A control system for SAGA Synchrotron Light Source (SAGA-LS) has been constructed. SAGA-LS is a small-medium size light source and is run by local government, which means there are a few number of staff in the laboratory. Thus the control system must be simple and robust, while inexpensive, easy to develop and maintain. The basic ideas of the system are 1) using PCs to build a low cost control system, 2) using off-shelf devices, FieldPoint (National Instrument) and PLCs, (FA-M3, Yokogawa), for robust and replaceable system, 3) using LabView for a quick in-house system development, 4) using channel access protocol between server and client to transparent from regular EPICS utilities, 5) using ActiveX CA to emulate the CA protocol. About 1,000 PVs are employed to control the magnet power supplies, the RF control sub-system, vacuum monitors, BPM data and several LCW data. The system has been operated and tuned at the beginning of the commissioning, spring 2004. MySQL database system also archives data to assist ...

  18. DIGIMUSE: an interactive telerobotic system for remote viewing of three-dimensional art objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Steven B.; Bekey, George A.; Akatsuka, Yuichiro; Bressanelli, Mirco

    1998-12-01

    As part of a joint project with the Fisher Art Gallery at USC, we have constructed a teleoperated robotic Web site that allows for remote positioning and binocular viewing of statues and other non-planar art objects. This system has been designed to provide interactive remote access to 3D art objects in real time, so that anyone with a Web connection and a head mounted display can view and study binocular images of art objects anywhere in the world, A pair of video cameras, carried by a robot arm, are aimed at the statue which rests on a rotary table. The combination of table rotation and robotic camera positioning make it possible to observe the work of art from any desired position and orientation. The opening exhibit of the USC Digital Museum features a life size marble statue called the 'Drinking Maiden', by the German sculptor Ernst Gustav Alexander Wenck. We use a 6 degree of freedom robot arm and a linked vergence head to position two CCD cameras. The statue is placed on a rotating platform that can be commanded to one of 12 positions. The robotic is controlled via a graphical, user friendly interface written in Java, which allows the user to position the cameras anywhere in the allowed workspace of the robot. Once the positions of the cameras are established, the system takes two pictures of the statue and returns them to the user, while simultaneously composing a stereo image suitable for viewing with an HMD. The paper describes the hardware and software architecture of the system and its major features.

  19. Quantitative computational models of molecular self-assembly in systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marcus; Schwartz, Russell

    2017-06-01

    Molecular self-assembly is the dominant form of chemical reaction in living systems, yet efforts at systems biology modeling are only beginning to appreciate the need for and challenges to accurate quantitative modeling of self-assembly. Self-assembly reactions are essential to nearly every important process in cell and molecular biology and handling them is thus a necessary step in building comprehensive models of complex cellular systems. They present exceptional challenges, however, to standard methods for simulating complex systems. While the general systems biology world is just beginning to deal with these challenges, there is an extensive literature dealing with them for more specialized self-assembly modeling. This review will examine the challenges of self-assembly modeling, nascent efforts to deal with these challenges in the systems modeling community, and some of the solutions offered in prior work on self-assembly specifically. The review concludes with some consideration of the likely role of self-assembly in the future of complex biological system models more generally.

  20. Formation Dynamics and Quantitative Prediction of Hydrocarbons of the Superpressure System in the Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Fenggui; HAO Xuefeng; LIU Qing; ZHUO Qingong; ZHANG Shouchun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of formation dynamics of oil/gas pools, the Dongying sag can be divided into three dynamic systems regarding the accumulation of oil and gas: the superpressure closed system,the semi-closed system and the normal pressure open system. Based on the analysis of genesis of superpressure in the superpressure closed system and the rule of hydrocarbon expulsion,it is found that hydrocarbon generation is related to superpressure, which is the main driving factor of hydrocarbon migration. Micro fractures formed by superpressure are the main channels for hydrocarbon migration. There are three dynamic patterns for hydrocarbon expulsion: free water drainage, hydrocarbon accumulation and drainage through micro fissures. In the superpressure closed system, the oil-driving-water process and oil/gas accumulation were completed in lithologic traps by way of such two dynamic patterns as episodic evolution of superpressure systems and episodic pressure release of faults. The oil-bearing capacity of lithologic traps is intimately related to reservoir-forming dynamic force. Quantitative evaluation of dynamic conditions for pool formation can effectively predict the oil-bearing capability of traps.

  1. Quantitative Kinetic Analyses of Shutting Off a Two-Component System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells rely on accurate control of signaling systems to adapt to environmental perturbations. System deactivation upon stimulus removal is as important as activation of signaling pathways. The two-component system (TCS is one of the major bacterial signaling schemes. In many TCSs, phosphatase activity of the histidine kinase (HK is believed to play an essential role in shutting off the pathway and resetting the system to the prestimulus state. Two basic challenges are to understand the dynamic behavior of system deactivation and to quantitatively evaluate the role of phosphatase activity under natural cellular conditions. Here we report a kinetic analysis of the response to shutting off the archetype Escherichia coli PhoR-PhoB TCS pathway using both transcription reporter assays and in vivo phosphorylation analyses. Upon removal of the stimulus, the pathway is shut off by rapid dephosphorylation of the PhoB response regulator (RR while PhoB-regulated gene products gradually reset to prestimulus levels through growth dilution. We developed an approach combining experimentation and modeling to assess in vivo kinetic parameters of the phosphatase activity with kinetic data from multiple phosphatase-diminished mutants. This enabled an estimation of the PhoR phosphatase activity in vivo, which is much stronger than the phosphatase activity of PhoR cytoplasmic domains analyzed in vitro. We quantitatively modeled how strong the phosphatase activity needs to be to suppress nonspecific phosphorylation in TCSs and discovered that strong phosphatase activity of PhoR is required for cross-phosphorylation suppression.

  2. A novel benzene quantitative analysis method using miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuxiang; Liu, Fuqi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel benzene quantitative analysis method utilizing miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system was investigated. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was installed for electrical current-voltage data measurement. Measurement data was analyzed by non-linear bistable dynamics system. Results demonstrated that this method realized benzene concentration quantitative determination. This method is promising in laboratory safety management in benzene leak detection.

  3. Quantitative adaptation analytics for assessing dynamic systems of systems: LDRD Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Readiness & Sustainment Technologies (6133, M/S 1188); Miner, Nadine E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Military & Energy Systems Analysis (6114, M/S 1188); Wilson, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Resilience and Regulatory Effects (6921, M/S 1138); Le, Hai D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Readiness & Sustainment Technologies (6133, M/S 1188); Kao, Gio K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Networked System Survivability & Assurance (5629, M/S 0671); Melander, Darryl J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Software Systems R& D (9525, M/S 1188); Longsine, Dennis Earl [Sandia National Laboratories, Unknown, Unknown; Vander Meer, Jr., Robert C. [SAIC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  4. Photometric Calibration and Image Stitching for a Large Field of View Multi-Camera System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new compact large field of view (FOV multi-camera system is introduced. The camera is based on seven tiny complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor modules covering over 160° × 160° FOV. Although image stitching has been studied extensively, sensor and lens differences have not been considered in previous multi-camera devices. In this study, we have calibrated the photometric characteristics of the multi-camera device. Lenses were not mounted on the sensor in the process of radiometric response calibration to eliminate the influence of the focusing effect of uniform light from an integrating sphere. Linearity range of the radiometric response, non-linearity response characteristics, sensitivity, and dark current of the camera response function are presented. The R, G, and B channels have different responses for the same illuminance. Vignetting artifact patterns have been tested. The actual luminance of the object is retrieved by sensor calibration results, and is used to blend images to make panoramas reflect the objective luminance more objectively. This compensates for the limitation of stitching images that are more realistic only through the smoothing method. The dynamic range limitation of can be resolved by using multiple cameras that cover a large field of view instead of a single image sensor with a wide-angle lens. The dynamic range is expanded by 48-fold in this system. We can obtain seven images in one shot with this multi-camera system, at 13 frames per second.

  5. Towards a Requirements Specification Multi-View Framework for Self-Adaptive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Muñoz-Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of self-adaptive systems (SAS requirements involves addressing uncertainty from several sources. Despite advances in requirements for SAS, uncertainty remains an extremely difficult challenge. In this paper, we propose REFAS, a framework to model the requirements of self-adaptive software systems. Our aim with REFAS is to address and reduce uncertainty and to provide a language with sufficient power of expression to specify the different aspects of self-adaptive systems, relative to functional and non-functional requirements. The REFAS modeling language includes concepts closely related to these kind of requirements and their fulfillment, such as context variables, claims, and soft dependencies. Specifically, the paper´s contribution is twofold. First, REFAS supports different viewpoints and concerns related to requirements modeling, with key associations between them. Moreover, the modeler can define additional models and views by exploiting the REFAS meta-modeling capability, in order to capture additional aspects contributing to reduce uncertainty. Second, REFAS promotes in-depth analysis of all of the modeled concerns with aggregation and association capabilities, especially with context variables. Furthermore, we also define a process that enforces modeling requirements, considering different aspects of uncertainty. We demonstrate the applicability of REFAS by using the VariaMos software tool, which implements the REFAS meta-model, views, and process.

  6. Photometric Calibration and Image Stitching for a Large Field of View Multi-Camera System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Wang, Keyi; Fan, Gongshu

    2016-04-11

    A new compact large field of view (FOV) multi-camera system is introduced. The camera is based on seven tiny complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor modules covering over 160° × 160° FOV. Although image stitching has been studied extensively, sensor and lens differences have not been considered in previous multi-camera devices. In this study, we have calibrated the photometric characteristics of the multi-camera device. Lenses were not mounted on the sensor in the process of radiometric response calibration to eliminate the influence of the focusing effect of uniform light from an integrating sphere. Linearity range of the radiometric response, non-linearity response characteristics, sensitivity, and dark current of the camera response function are presented. The R, G, and B channels have different responses for the same illuminance. Vignetting artifact patterns have been tested. The actual luminance of the object is retrieved by sensor calibration results, and is used to blend images to make panoramas reflect the objective luminance more objectively. This compensates for the limitation of stitching images that are more realistic only through the smoothing method. The dynamic range limitation of can be resolved by using multiple cameras that cover a large field of view instead of a single image sensor with a wide-angle lens. The dynamic range is expanded by 48-fold in this system. We can obtain seven images in one shot with this multi-camera system, at 13 frames per second.

  7. Understanding responder neurobiology in schizophrenia using a quantitative systems pharmacology model: application to iloperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Hugo; Roberts, Patrick; Spiros, Athan; Potkin, Steven

    2015-04-01

    The concept of targeted therapies remains a holy grail for the pharmaceutical drug industry for identifying responder populations or new drug targets. Here we provide quantitative systems pharmacology as an alternative to the more traditional approach of retrospective responder pharmacogenomics analysis and applied this to the case of iloperidone in schizophrenia. This approach implements the actual neurophysiological effect of genotypes in a computer-based biophysically realistic model of human neuronal circuits, is parameterized with human imaging and pathology, and is calibrated by clinical data. We keep the drug pharmacology constant, but allowed the biological model coupling values to fluctuate in a restricted range around their calibrated values, thereby simulating random genetic mutations and representing variability in patient response. Using hypothesis-free Design of Experiments methods the dopamine D4 R-AMPA (receptor-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor coupling in cortical neurons was found to drive the beneficial effect of iloperidone, likely corresponding to the rs2513265 upstream of the GRIA4 gene identified in a traditional pharmacogenomics analysis. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-mediated effect on interneuron gamma-aminobutyric acid conductance was identified as the process that moderately drove the differentiation of iloperidone versus ziprasidone. This paper suggests that reverse-engineered quantitative systems pharmacology is a powerful alternative tool to characterize the underlying neurobiology of a responder population and possibly identifying new targets. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Moon, H J; Kim, T I; Kim, H W; Han, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Classification System for Desertification and Its Quantitative Assessment Methodology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junhou; Zhang Zhiqiang; Jia Baoquan; Meng Fanrong

    2003-01-01

    Based on the desertification definition of United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and features of desertification in China, three-level hierarchical classification system for desertification and quantitative assessment methodology of desertification degree were developed and used to evaluate desertification danger degree across the country. The system is composed of three components: type of desertification, type of land utilization and degree of desertification. The type of desertification monitored in China was divided into 4 major categories, 15 sub-categories and 52 types. Vegetation coverage, soil characteristics, and topography are considered as three major indicators for quantitative assessment of desertified land. A simple, yet practically sound mathematical assessment model was built using these indicators. Furthurmore, a regional land desertification warning model was also constructed on the basis of the ratios of non-desertified land area to desertified land area in different degrees. The warning result of wind-erosion desertification at county scale for 12 provinces in northern China was also calculated by this model.

  10. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Approaches Applied to Microphysiological Systems (MPS): Data Interpretation and Multi‐MPS Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, J; Cilfone, NA; Large, EM; Sarkar, U; Wishnok, JS; Tannenbaum, SR; Hughes, DJ; Lauffenburger, DA; Griffith, LG; Stokes, CL; Cirit, M

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in developing Microphysiological Systems (MPS) technology is to provide an improved approach for more predictive preclinical drug discovery via a highly integrated experimental/computational paradigm...

  11. PSF Estimation of Space-Variant Ultra-Wide Field of View Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Janout

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wide-field of view (UWFOV imaging systems are affected by various aberrations, most of which are highly angle-dependent. A description of UWFOV imaging systems, such as microscopy optics, security camera systems and other special space-variant imaging systems, is a difficult task that can be achieved by estimating the Point Spread Function (PSF of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for modeling the space-variant PSF of an imaging system using the Zernike polynomials wavefront description. The PSF estimation algorithm is based on obtaining field-dependent expansion coefficients of the Zernike polynomials by fitting real image data of the analyzed imaging system using an iterative approach in an initial estimate of the fitting parameters to ensure convergence robustness. The method is promising as an alternative to the standard approach based on Shack–Hartmann interferometry, since the estimate of the aberration coefficients is processed directly in the image plane. This approach is tested on simulated and laboratory-acquired image data that generally show good agreement. The resulting data are compared with the results of other modeling methods. The proposed PSF estimation method provides around 5% accuracy of the optical system model.

  12. Rotorcraft control system design for uncertain vehicle dynamics using quantitative feedback theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which must meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. This theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear model of the BO-105C rotorcraft. Uncertainty in the vehicle model is due to the variation in the vehicle dynamics over a range of airspeeds from 0-100 kts. For purposes of exposition, the vehicle description contains no rotor or actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model. The advantage of using a sequential loop closure technique to reduce the cost of feedback is demonstrated by example.

  13. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7–11 years (27 males, six females and twenty five adults participants aged 21–29 years old (19 males, six females participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD.

  14. A Quantitative System-Scale Characterization of the Metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Minyeong; Bestel-Corre, Gwenaelle; Croux, Christian; Riviere, Antoine; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Soucaille, Philippe

    2015-11-24

    Engineering industrial microorganisms for ambitious applications, for example, the production of second-generation biofuels such as butanol, is impeded by a lack of knowledge of primary metabolism and its regulation. A quantitative system-scale analysis was applied to the biofuel-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, a microorganism used for the industrial production of solvent. An improved genome-scale model, iCac967, was first developed based on thorough biochemical characterizations of 15 key metabolic enzymes and on extensive literature analysis to acquire accurate fluxomic data. In parallel, quantitative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to assess the number of mRNA molecules per cell for all genes under acidogenic, solventogenic, and alcohologenic steady-state conditions as well as the number of cytosolic protein molecules per cell for approximately 700 genes under at least one of the three steady-state conditions. A complete fluxomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analysis applied to different metabolic states allowed us to better understand the regulation of primary metabolism. Moreover, this analysis enabled the functional characterization of numerous enzymes involved in primary metabolism, including (i) the enzymes involved in the two different butanol pathways and their cofactor specificities, (ii) the primary hydrogenase and its redox partner, (iii) the major butyryl coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA) dehydrogenase, and (iv) the major glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. This study provides important information for further metabolic engineering of C. acetobutylicum to develop a commercial process for the production of n-butanol. Currently, there is a resurgence of interest in Clostridium acetobutylicum, the biocatalyst of the historical Weizmann process, to produce n-butanol for use both as a bulk chemical and as a renewable alternative transportation fuel. To develop a commercial process for the production of n-butanol via a

  15. A methodology for quantitatively managing the bug fixing process using Mahalanobis Taguchi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The controlling of bug fixing process during the system testing phase of software development life cycle is very important for fixing all the detected bugs within the scheduled time. The presence of open bugs often delays the release of the software or result in releasing the software with compromised functionalities. These can lead to customer dissatisfaction, cost overrun and eventually the loss of market share. In this paper, the authors propose a methodology to quantitatively manage the bug fixing process during system testing. The proposed methodology identifies the critical milestones in the system testing phase which differentiates the successful projects from the unsuccessful ones using Mahalanobis Taguchi system. Then a model is developed to predict whether a project is successful or not with the bug fix progress at critical milestones as control factors. Finally the model is used to control the bug fixing process. It is found that the performance of the proposed methodology using Mahalanobis Taguchi system is superior to the models developed using other multi-dimensional pattern recognition techniques. The proposed methodology also reduces the number of control points providing the managers with more options and flexibility to utilize the bug fixing resources across system testing phase. Moreover the methodology allows the mangers to carry out mid- course corrections to bring the bug fixing process back on track so that all the detected bugs can be fixed on time. The methodology is validated with eight new projects and the results are very encouraging.

  16. A quantitative evaluation of reliability of passive systems within probabilistic safety assessment framework for VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok-Jung, E-mail: hanseok@kaeri.re.k [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Duckjin-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Joon-Eon, E-mail: jeyang@kaeri.re.k [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Duckjin-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This article presents a quantitative evaluation of the reliability of passive systems (RoPS) within the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) framework for very high temperature reactors (VHTR). VHTRs have unfavorable features in regard to defining a robust failure state. From the viewpoint of PSA, the evaluation of the RoPS as a part of VHTR's PSA should carefully consider the correct status of a passive system in order to resolve these unfavorable features. This article focuses on the application of multiple states criteria to determine the status of a passive system. Two approaches, i.e., the exceedance probability (EP) model and the stress-strength interference (SSI) model were proposed for the multiple states of the system. A feasibility study has examined the basic features of the proposed approaches by using the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) for Korean VHTR. The primary condition for the usefulness of the proposed approaches is that sufficient information should be provided in order to determine the system strengths for the multiple states. With regard to the engineering practice, the EP approach for the multiple states can provide a practical solution concerning the evaluation of the RoPS for VHTR's PSA.

  17. Tree Root System Characterization and Volume Estimation by Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Quantitative Structure Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accurate characterization of three-dimensional (3D root architecture, volume, and biomass is important for a wide variety of applications in forest ecology and to better understand tree and soil stability. Technological advancements have led to increasingly more digitized and automated procedures, which have been used to more accurately and quickly describe the 3D structure of root systems. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS have successfully been used to describe aboveground structures of individual trees and stand structure, but have only recently been applied to the 3D characterization of whole root systems. In this study, 13 recently harvested Norway spruce root systems were mechanically pulled from the soil, cleaned, and their volumes were measured by displacement. The root systems were suspended, scanned with TLS from three different angles, and the root surfaces from the co-registered point clouds were modeled with the 3D Quantitative Structure Model to determine root architecture and volume. The modeling procedure facilitated the rapid derivation of root volume, diameters, break point diameters, linear root length, cumulative percentages, and root fraction counts. The modeled root systems underestimated root system volume by 4.4%. The modeling procedure is widely applicable and easily adapted to derive other important topological and volumetric root variables.

  18. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  19. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals system-wide signaling pathways downstream of SDF-1/CXCR4 in breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tingfang; Zhai, Bo; Yu, Yonghao; Kiyotsugu, Yoshikawa; Raschle, Thomas; Etzkorn, Manuel; Seo, Hee-Chan; Nagiec, Michal; Luna, Rafael E; Reinherz, Ellis L; Blenis, John; Gygi, Steven P; Wagner, Gerhard

    2014-05-27

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide, with an estimated 1.7 million new cases and 522,000 deaths around the world in 2012 alone. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are essential for tumor reoccurrence and metastasis which is the major source of cancer lethality. G protein-coupled receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) is critical for tumor metastasis. However, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4-mediated signaling pathways in breast CSCs are largely unknown. Using isotope reductive dimethylation and large-scale MS-based quantitative phosphoproteome analysis, we examined protein phosphorylation induced by SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in breast CSCs. We quantified more than 11,000 phosphorylation sites in 2,500 phosphoproteins. Of these phosphosites, 87% were statistically unchanged in abundance in response to SDF-1/CXCR4 stimulation. In contrast, 545 phosphosites in 266 phosphoproteins were significantly increased, whereas 113 phosphosites in 74 phosphoproteins were significantly decreased. SDF-1/CXCR4 increases phosphorylation in 60 cell migration- and invasion-related proteins, of them 43 (>70%) phosphoproteins are unrecognized. In addition, SDF-1/CXCR4 upregulates the phosphorylation of 44 previously uncharacterized kinases, 8 phosphatases, and 1 endogenous phosphatase inhibitor. Using computational approaches, we performed system-based analyses examining SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated phosphoproteome, including construction of kinase-substrate network and feedback regulation loops downstream of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in breast CSCs. We identified a previously unidentified SDF-1/CXCR4-PKA-MAP2K2-ERK signaling pathway and demonstrated the feedback regulation on MEK, ERK1/2, δ-catenin, and PPP1Cα in SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in breast CSCs. This study gives a system-wide view of phosphorylation events downstream of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in breast CSCs, providing a resource for the study of CSC-targeted cancer therapy.

  20. Domestic Systemically Important Banks: A Quantitative Analysis for the Chinese Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves as a response to the official assessment approach proposed by Basel Committee to identify domestic systemically important banks (D-SIBs in China. Our analysis presents not only current levels of domestic systemic importance of individual banks but also the changes. We also consider the systemic risk of the whole banking system, by investigating how D-SIBs and non-D-SIBs are correlated before and after the recent financial crises using Copula. We find that the systemic importance of major banks is decreasing, while some banks becoming more systemically important should require tight regulations. D-SIBs as a whole subsystem display stronger correlation with non-D-SIBs than the individual D-SIBs, which alerts the regulatory to pay attention to “too-many-to-fail” problems. Contagion effects between D-SIBs and non-D-SIBs exist during the subprime crisis, but did not exist during the European debt crisis. This yields good signal of a more balanced banking system in China.

  1. A 3D Freehand Ultrasound System for Multi-view Reconstructions from Sparse 2D Scanning Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agurto Carla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant limitation of existing 3D ultrasound systems comes from the fact that the majority of them work with fixed acquisition geometries. As a result, the users have very limited control over the geometry of the 2D scanning planes. Methods We present a low-cost and flexible ultrasound imaging system that integrates several image processing components to allow for 3D reconstructions from limited numbers of 2D image planes and multiple acoustic views. Our approach is based on a 3D freehand ultrasound system that allows users to control the 2D acquisition imaging using conventional 2D probes. For reliable performance, we develop new methods for image segmentation and robust multi-view registration. We first present a new hybrid geometric level-set approach that provides reliable segmentation performance with relatively simple initializations and minimum edge leakage. Optimization of the segmentation model parameters and its effect on performance is carefully discussed. Second, using the segmented images, a new coarse to fine automatic multi-view registration method is introduced. The approach uses a 3D Hotelling transform to initialize an optimization search. Then, the fine scale feature-based registration is performed using a robust, non-linear least squares algorithm. The robustness of the multi-view registration system allows for accurate 3D reconstructions from sparse 2D image planes. Results Volume measurements from multi-view 3D reconstructions are found to be consistently and significantly more accurate than measurements from single view reconstructions. The volume error of multi-view reconstruction is measured to be less than 5% of the true volume. We show that volume reconstruction accuracy is a function of the total number of 2D image planes and the number of views for calibrated phantom. In clinical in-vivo cardiac experiments, we show that volume estimates of the left ventricle from multi-view reconstructions

  2. Compound Tension Control of an Optical-Fiber Coil System: A Cyber-Physical System View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment is a complex electromechanical system which contains signal acquisition, data processing, communications, and motor control. In the complex electromechanical system, the subsystems rely on wired or wireless network technology to complete the real-time perception, coordinate, accurate, and dynamitic control, and information exchange services. The paper points to the full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment with the characteristics of cyber-physical system to research its numerical design. We present a novel compound tension control system based on the experimental platform dSPACE to achieve semiphysical simulation of compound tension control system and examine the functions of control system.

  3. Wide-angle ITER-prototype tangential infrared and visible viewing system for DIII-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasnier, C J; Allen, S L; Ellis, R E; Fenstermacher, M E; McLean, A G; Meyer, W H; Morris, K; Seppala, L G; Crabtree, K; Van Zeeland, M A

    2014-11-01

    An imaging system with a wide-angle tangential view of the full poloidal cross-section of the tokamak in simultaneous infrared and visible light has been installed on DIII-D. The optical train includes three polished stainless steel mirrors in vacuum, which view the tokamak through an aperture in the first mirror, similar to the design concept proposed for ITER. A dichroic beam splitter outside the vacuum separates visible and infrared (IR) light. Spatial calibration is accomplished by warping a CAD-rendered image to align with landmarks in a data image. The IR camera provides scrape-off layer heat flux profile deposition features in diverted and inner-wall-limited plasmas, such as heat flux reduction in pumped radiative divertor shots. Demonstration of the system to date includes observation of fast-ion losses to the outer wall during neutral beam injection, and shows reduced peak wall heat loading with disruption mitigation by injection of a massive gas puff.

  4. DataView: a computational visualisation system for multidisciplinary design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengen

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly processing raw data and effectively extracting underlining information from huge volumes of multivariate data become essential to all decision-making processes in sectors like finance, government, medical care, climate analysis, industries, science, etc. Remarkably, visualisation is recognised as a fundamental technology that props up human comprehension, cognition and utilisation of burgeoning amounts of heterogeneous data. This paper presents a computational visualisation system, named DataView, which has been developed for graphically displaying and capturing outcomes of multiphysics problem-solvers widely used in engineering fields. The DataView is functionally composed of techniques for table/diagram representation, and graphical illustration of scalar, vector and tensor fields. The field visualisation techniques are implemented on the basis of a range of linear and non-linear meshes, which flexibly adapts to disparate data representation schemas adopted by a variety of disciplinary problem-solvers. The visualisation system has been successfully applied to a number of engineering problems, of which some illustrations are presented to demonstrate effectiveness of the visualisation techniques.

  5. Quantitative Analysis Method of Output Loss due to Restriction for Grid-connected PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yuzuru; Oozeki, Takashi; Kurokawa, Kosuke; Itou, Takamitsu; Kitamura, Kiyoyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Yokota, Masaharu; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    Voltage of power distribution line will be increased due to reverse power flow from grid-connected PV systems. In the case of high density grid connection, amount of voltage increasing will be higher than the stand-alone grid connection system. To prevent the over voltage of power distribution line, PV system's output will be restricted if the voltage of power distribution line is close to the upper limit of the control range. Because of this interaction, amount of output loss will be larger in high density case. This research developed a quantitative analysis method for PV systems output and losses to clarify the behavior of grid connected PV systems. All the measured data are classified into the loss factors using 1 minute average of 1 second data instead of typical 1 hour average. Operation point on the I-V curve is estimated to quantify the loss due to the output restriction using module temperature, array output voltage, array output current and solar irradiance. As a result, loss due to output restriction is successfully quantified and behavior of output restriction is clarified.

  6. Real-time quantitative fluorescence measurement of microscale cell culture analog systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taek-il; Kim, Donghyun; Tatosian, Daniel; Sung, Jong Hwan; Shuler, Michael

    2007-02-01

    A microscale cell culture analog (μCCA) is a cell-based lab-on-a-chip assay that, as an animal surrogate, is applied to pharmacological studies for toxicology tests. A μCCA typically comprises multiple chambers and microfluidics that connect the chambers, which represent animal organs and blood flow to mimic animal metabolism more realistically. A μCCA is expected to provide a tool for high-throughput drug discovery. Previously, a portable fluorescence detection system was investigated for a single μCCA device in real-time. In this study, we present a fluorescence-based imaging system that provides quantitative real-time data of the metabolic interactions in μCCAs with an emphasis on measuring multiple μCCA samples simultaneously for high-throughput screening. The detection system is based on discrete optics components, with a high-power LED and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as a light source and a detector, for monitoring cellular status on the chambers of each μCCA sample. Multiple samples are characterized mechanically on a motorized linear stage, which is fully-automated. Each μCCA sample has four chambers, where cell lines MES-SA/DX- 5, and MES-SA (tumor cells of human uterus) have been cultured. All cell-lines have been transfected to express the fusion protein H2B-GFP, which is a human histone protein fused at the amino terminus to EGFP. As a model cytotoxic drug, 10 μM doxorubicin (DOX) was used. Real-time quantitative data of the intensity loss of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) during cell death of target cells have been collected over several minutes to 40 hours. Design issues and improvements are also discussed.

  7. Teaching ERP Systems: A Multi-Perspective View on the ERP System Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Leyh, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in university courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward a few large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Therefore, this paper describes a course outline for an additional course…

  8. Teaching ERP Systems: A Multi-Perspective View on the ERP System Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Leyh, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in university courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward a few large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Therefore, this paper describes a course outline for an additional course…

  9. Systems analysis of quantitative shRNA-library screens identifies regulators of cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang XiaoDong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput screens with RNA interference technology enable loss-of-function analyses of gene activities in mammalian cells. While the construction of genome-scale shRNA libraries has been successful, results of large-scale screening of those libraries can be difficult to analyze because of the relatively high noise levels and the fact that not all shRNAs in a library are equally effective in silencing gene expression. Results We have screened a library consisting of 43,828 shRNAs directed against 8,500 human genes for functions that are necessary in cell detachment induced by a constitutively activated c-Abl tyrosine kinase. To deal with the issues of noise and uncertainty of knockdown efficiencies, we employed an analytical strategy that combines quantitative data analysis with biological knowledge, i.e. Gene Ontology and pathway information, to increase the power of the RNAi screening technique. Using this strategy we found 16 candidate genes to be involved in Abl-induced disruption of cell adhesion, and verified that the knockdown of IL6ST is associated with enhanced cell attachment. Conclusion Our results suggest that the power of genome-wide quantitative shRNA screens can be significantly increased when analyzed using a systems biology-based approach to identify functional gene networks.

  10. Nuclear analysis and shielding optimisation in support of the ITER In-Vessel Viewing System design

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, A; Loughlin, M J; Ghani, Z; Hurst, G; Bue, A Lo; Mangham, S; Puiu, A; Zheng, S

    2014-01-01

    The In-Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) units proposed for ITER are deployed to perform in-vessel examination. During plasma operations, the IVVS is located beyond the vacuum vessel, with shielding blocks envisaged to protect components from neutron damage and reduce shutdown dose rate (SDR) levels. Analyses were conducted to determine the effectiveness of several shielding configurations. The neutron response of the system was assessed using global variance reduction techniques and a surface source, and shutdown dose rate calculations were undertaken using MCR2S. Unshielded, the absorbed dose to piezoelectric motors (PZT) was found to be below stable limits, however activation of the primary closure plate (PCP) was prohibitively high. A scenario with shielding blocks at probe level showed significantly reduced PCP contact dose rate, however still marginally exceeded port cell requirements. The addition of shielding blocks at the bioshield plug demonstrated PCP contact dose rates below project requirements. SDR l...

  11. Human REsource Management (HRM Aspects in the Military Medical System. A Critical View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Valentin Pandelache

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to research in the field, the fundamental element of every health system is represented by the institutional framework. The malfunction of the latter may be determined by either the political, or by the social and economic context. The decisions at the political level sometimes harshly affect health policies and their pace of progress. The HR support of the health sector during crisis has been affected as a consequence of arbitrary changes of the rules made by those who provide policies. This fact has determined a sudden and major reduction and a massive flee of personnel from the health sector, with negative effects on the health status of Romanians. With a view to all this, the aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the military health system.

  12. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Snidaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment.

  13. Study on the Engine Electronic Ignition System Based on SCM and LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanzhen Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the operating performance of the electronic control ignition system and meet the requirement of the experiment teaching, an electronic control ignition system based on Lab VIEW and micro-controller was developed in this study. The system was composed of the ignition control circuit, signal processing circuits of various sensors and system software, which combined the functions of data acquisition, analysis and control. According to the working principle of the ignition system and working parameters, the cylinder block temperature signal, throttle position signal and power supply voltage signal were used as the correction references for the ignition advance angle. So the processing circuits of the sensors were designed based on the selection of the sensors and analysis their working principle or characteristic. The software of the host computer was visual and easy to control the slave computer, which realized the control for the ignition timing and dwell time. The experiment results indicated that the system developed in this study was reliable and that the data communication between the host computer and the slave computer reached the expected requirement. The research results provided a foundation for the further study and performance optimization.

  14. Usefulness and perceived usefulness of Decision Support Systems (DSSs in participatory forest planning: the final users’ point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastorella F

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the focus of forestry Decision Support Systems (DSSs has expanded to consider the social dimension of forestry and to support participatory decision-making. A large number of models and tools have become available to solve forest management planning problems. The Usefulness of a DSS depends on the range of tools that it incorporates, and many researches have been developed to evaluate DSSs using Usefulness as parameter. The assessment of Usefulness concerns the effectiveness of a DSS. Furthermore, most assessments take into account the degree of Perceived Usefulness, which is considered an indicator of the impact a system has on job performance. The present study focuses on the analysis of final users’ point of view on the Usefulness and Perceived Usefulness of DSSs in participatory forest planning. The research investigates how forest users’ characteristics and context influence their views on the potentialities of DSSs to enhance both the various phases of the participatory planning process (Usefulness and job performance (Perceived Usefulness. The study is based on quantitative data collected through two questionnaires e-mailed to a sample of 150 DSSs end users. The questionnaires focused on Usefulness and on Perceived Usefulness topics, respectively. Results indicate that special attention must be given to motivating respondents with a clear explanation of the survey objectives when e-mailing questionnaires. Moreover, results show that, in general, respondents consider DSSs useful at each step of the participatory process, despite differences emerge among steps. The research also shows that respondents’ Perceived Usefulness of DSSs was higher before actually engaging with DSSs. Furthermore, the results highlight differences in Perceived Usefulness to improve job performance, suggesting that the use of DSSs may actually improve job performance more than expected. Specifically, results indicate that improving the

  15. A novel strategy for quantitative analysis of the formulated complex system using chromatographic fingerprints combined with some chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xuan; Yan, Jun; Li, Yan-Chun; Kong, Bo; Lu, Hong-Bing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2014-11-28

    In this work, a novel strategy based on chromatographic fingerprints and some chemometric techniques is proposed for quantitative analysis of the formulated complex system. Here, the formulated complex system means a formulated type of complicated analytical system containing more than one kind of raw material under some concentration composition according to a certain formula. The strategy is elaborated by an example of quantitative determination of mixtures consist of three essential oils. Three key steps of the strategy are as follows: (1) remove baselines of the chromatograms; (2) align retention time; (3) conduct quantitative analysis using multivariate regression with entire chromatographic profiles. Through the determination of concentration compositions of nine mixtures arranged by uniform design, the feasibility of the proposed strategy is validated and the factors that influence the quantitative result are also discussed. This strategy is proved to be viable and the validation indicates that quantitative result obtained using this strategy mainly depends on the efficiency of the alignment method as well as chromatographic peak shape of the chromatograms. Previously, chromatographic fingerprints were only used for identification and/or recognition of some products. This work demonstrates that with the assistance of some effective chemometric techniques, chromatographic fingerprints are also potential and promising in solving quantitative problems of complex analytical systems.

  16. 3D multi-view system using electro-wetting liquid lenticular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yong Hyub; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheoljoong; Shin, Dooseub; Lee, Junsik; Koo, Gyohyun

    2016-06-01

    Lenticular multi-view system has great potential of three dimensional image realization. This paper introduces a fabrication of liquid lenticular lens array and an idea of increasing view points with a same resolution. Tunable liquid lens array can produce three dimensional images by using electro-wetting principle that changes surface tensions by applying voltage. The liquid lenticular device consists of a chamber, two different liquids and a sealing plate. To fabricate the chamber, an silicon wafer is wet-etched by KOH solution and a trapezoid shaped chamber can be made after a certain time. The chamber having slanted walls is advantageous for electro-wetting achieving high diopter. Electroplating is done to make a nikel mold and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) chamber is fabricated through an embossing process. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is sputtered and parylene C and Teflon AF1600 is deposited for dielectric and hydrophobic layer respectively. Two immiscible liquids are injected and a glass plate as a sealing plate is covered with polycarbonates (PC) gaskets and sealed by UV adhesive. Two immiscible liquids are D.I water and a mixture of 1-chloronaphthalene and dodecane. The completed lenticular lens shows 2D and 3D images by applying certain voltages. Dioptric power and operation speed of the lenticular lens array are measured. A novel idea that an increment of viewpoints by electrode separation process is also proposed. The left and right electrodes of lenticular lens can be induced by different voltages and resulted in tilted optical axis. By switching the optical axis quickly, two times of view-points can be achieved with a same pixel resolution.

  17. An imaging system for standardized quantitative analysis of C. elegans behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternberg Paul W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used for the genetic analysis of neuronal cell biology, development, and behavior. Because traditional methods for evaluating behavioral phenotypes are qualitative and imprecise, there is a need for tools that allow quantitation and standardization of C. elegans behavioral assays. Results Here we describe a tracking and imaging system for the automated analysis of C. elegans morphology and behavior. Using this system, it is possible to record the behavior of individual nematodes over long time periods and quantify 144 specific phenotypic parameters. Conclusions These tools for phenotypic analysis will provide reliable, comprehensive scoring of a wide range of behavioral abnormalities, and will make it possible to standardize assays such that behavioral data from different labs can readily be compared. In addition, this system will facilitate high-throughput collection of phenotypic data that can ultimately be used to generate a comprehensive database of C. elegans phenotypic information. Availability The hardware configuration and software for the system are available from wschafer@ucsd.edu.

  18. The quantitative precipitation estimation system for Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) urban remote sensing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haonan; Chandrasekar, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) urban radar network consists of a combination of high resolution X band radars and a standard National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system operating at S band frequency. High spatiotemporal-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the important applications of such a network. This paper presents a real-time QPE system developed by the Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Engineering Research Center for the DFW urban region using both the high resolution X band radar network and the NWS S band radar observations. The specific dual-polarization radar rainfall algorithms at different frequencies (i.e., S- and X-band) and the fusion methodology combining observations at different temporal resolution are described. Radar and rain gauge observations from four rainfall events in 2013 that are characterized by different meteorological phenomena are used to compare the rainfall estimation products of the CASA DFW QPE system to conventional radar products from the national radar network provided by NWS. This high-resolution QPE system is used for urban flash flood mitigations when coupled with hydrological models.

  19. A miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid quantitative label-free detection of harmful species in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Ioannis; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Makarona, Eleni; Salapatas, Alexandros; Petrou, Panagiota; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Botsialas, Athanasios; Jobst, Gerhard; Haasnoot, Willem; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo; Lees, Michelle; Valamontes, Evangelos

    2016-03-01

    Optical biosensors have emerged in the past decade as the most promising candidates for portable, highly-sensitive bioanalytical systems that can be employed for in-situ measurements. In this work, a miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid, quantitative, label-free detection of harmful species in food is presented. The proposed system has four distinctive features that can render to a powerful tool for the next generation of Point-of-Need applications, namely it accommodates the light sources and ten interferometric biosensors on a single silicon chip of a less-than-40mm2 footprint, each sensor can be individually functionalized for a specific target analyte, the encapsulation can be performed at the wafer-scale, and finally it exploits a new operation principle, Broad-band Mach-Zehnder Interferometry to ameliorate its analytical capabilities. Multi-analyte evaluation schemes for the simultaneous detection of harmful contaminants, such as mycotoxins, allergens and pesticides, proved that the proposed system is capable of detecting within short time these substances at concentrations below the limits imposed by regulatory authorities, rendering it to a novel tool for the near-future food safety applications.

  20. Optical design study of an infrared visible viewing system for Wendelstein 7-X divertor observation and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantarini, J.; Hildebrandt, D.; König, R.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Moddemeijer, K.; Vliegenthart, W.A.; Wolf, R.

    2008-01-01

    For the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, which will allow quasicontinuous operation (τ30 min) with 10 MW of electron cyclotron radiation heating power, a conceptual design study for an IR/visible viewing system (IVVS) has been elaborated. Ten such systems, as part of the machine protection system, will

  1. A system for quantitative morphological measurement and electronic modelling of neurons: three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, E W; Cole, H M; Brown, A D; Wheal, H V

    1993-04-01

    A system for accurately reconstructing neurones from optical sections taken at high magnification is described. Cells are digitised on a 68000-based microcomputer to form a database consisting of a series of linked nodes each consisting of x, y, z coordinates and an estimate of dendritic diameter. This database is used to generate three-dimensional (3-D) displays of the neurone and allows quantitative analysis of the cell volume, surface area and dendritic length. Images of the cell can be manipulated locally or transferred to an IBM 3090 mainframe where a wireframe model can be displayed on an IBM 5080 graphics terminal and rotated interactively in real time, allowing visualisation of the cell from all angles. Space-filling models can also be produced. Reconstructions can also provide morphological data for passive electrical simulations of hippocampal pyramidal cells.

  2. Prediction of intracellular storage polymers using quantitative image analysis in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Leal, Cristiano; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Amaral, A Luís; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2013-04-03

    The present study focuses on predicting the concentration of intracellular storage polymers in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. For that purpose, quantitative image analysis techniques were developed for determining the intracellular concentrations of PHA (PHB and PHV) with Nile blue and glycogen with aniline blue staining. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to predict the standard analytical values of these polymers by the proposed methodology. Identification of the aerobic and anaerobic stages proved to be crucial for improving the assessment of PHA, PHB and PHV intracellular concentrations. Current Nile blue based methodology can be seen as a feasible starting point for further enhancement. Glycogen detection based on the developed aniline blue staining methodology combined with the image analysis data proved to be a promising technique, toward the elimination of the need for analytical off-line measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System. Quarterly report number 4, July--October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-30

    The Interactive, Computer-Enhanced, Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is a system designed to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space in a fashion that enables robotic remediation to be carried out more efficiently and economically than with present systems. The key elements are a faithful way to store empirical data and a friendly user interface that provides an operator with timely access to all that is known about a scene. The development of ICERVS is to occur in three phases. Phase 1 will focus on the development of the Data Library, which contains the geometric data about the task space and the objects in it, and the Toolkit, which includes the mechanisms for manipulating and displaying both empirical and model data. Phase 2 will concentrate on integrating these subsystems with a sensor subsystem into one working system. Some additional functionality will be incorporated in the Data Library and Toolkit subsystems. Phase 3 will expand the configuration to meet the needs of a full scale demonstration of the interactive mapping of some waste site to be identified. The second Phase of the ICERVS project consists of nine tasks. Significant efforts were devoted to the completion of Task 1: Intermediate System Design, and Task 3: Computer Upgrade. This report describes progress in these two tasks.

  4. A novel complex-system-view-based method for system effectiveness analysis: Monotonic indexes space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the complex system, this paper presents a novel method, the monotonic indexes space method, for the effectiveness analysis of the complex system. First, it presents some basic concepts and assumption such as the monotonic indexes space, monotonic indexes requirement locus, etc. Second, based on the assumption that indexes are monotonic for the requirements, an algorithm is proposed and applied to numerical approximation of monotonic indexes requirement locus with hyperboxes. Third, this paper proposes two algorithms for acquiring intersection of several monotonic indexes requirement locus. Fourth, this paper proposes the monotonic-index- space based system analysis model such as the system evaluation model, the sensitivity analysis model for indexes. Based on the practical requirement, the concept of fuzzy monotonic indexes requirement locus and the corresponding analysis model are introduced. Finally, this paper applies the above-mentioned models to analyze the effectiveness of a notional anti-stealth-air-defense information system. And the outputs show that the method is promising.

  5. BrachyView, a novel in-body imaging system for HDR prostate brachytherapy: Experimental evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safavi-Naeini, M.; Han, Z.; Alnaghy, S.; Cutajar, D.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B., E-mail: anatoly@uow.edu.au [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2522 (Australia); Franklin, D. R. [Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney 2007 (Australia); Bucci, J. [St George Hospital Cancer Care Centre, Kogarah 2217 (Australia); Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan 20133 (Italy); Zaider, M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: This paper presents initial experimental results from a prototype of high dose rate (HDR) BrachyView, a novel in-body source tracking system for HDR brachytherapy based on a multipinhole tungsten collimator and a high resolution pixellated silicon detector array. The probe and its associated position estimation algorithms are validated and a comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy of its position estimation capabilities is presented. Methods: The HDR brachytherapy source is moved through a sequence of positions in a prostate phantom, for various displacements in x, y, and z. For each position, multiple image acquisitions are performed, and source positions are reconstructed. Error estimates in each dimension are calculated at each source position and combined to calculate overall positioning errors. Gafchromic film is used to validate the accuracy of source placement within the phantom. Results: More than 90% of evaluated source positions were estimated with an error of less than one millimeter, with the worst-case error being 1.3 mm. Experimental results were in close agreement with previously published Monte Carlo simulation results. Conclusions: The prototype of HDR BrachyView demonstrates a satisfactory level of accuracy in its source position estimation, and additional improvements are achievable with further refinement of HDR BrachyView’s image processing algorithms.

  6. Having views, abandoning views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned....

  7. Having views, abandoning views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned.......In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned....

  8. Building integrated health systems in central and eastern Europe: an analysis of WHO and World Bank views and their relevance to health systems in transition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.M.J.; Klazinga, N.S.; Velden, K. van der

    2003-01-01

    Background: Two questions are addressed.1): What are the views on health and health systems as expressed in the World Development Report 2000/2001 of the WB and the World Health Report 2000 and Health 21 of the World Health Organization, and how compatible are those views? 2): To what extent will co

  9. The quantitative analysis of instantaneous floating-point amplifier in DFS-V seismic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xianiu, H.; Wenze, Y.; Yanyun, D.; Qi, F.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of analysing the principle and circuit of instantaneous floating-point amplifier (IFP amplifier) in DFS-V seismic system, the authors developed a set of mathematic models for quantitative analysis of IFP amplifier, and designed the program for computing and plotting. The amplitude characteristic curves were computed and plotted on DUAL-6800 microcomputer by making use of the original parameters of DFS-V seismic system. The computation result shows that this system can effectively restrain the overflow distortion caused by zero-passage dipping-top sample to make high fidelity transmission of seismic signals, but its measurement accuracy is on the low side. In order to overcome the demerit, the authors changed the original parameters of IFP amplifier circuit and made a great deal of sweep computation, so that they found these ideal new parameters: prediction time(c) = 3..mu..s, upper reference level(V) = 6.8V and 7.2V, lower reference level(V) = 1.6V and 1.7V. As a result, no overflow distortion occurs, furthermore IFP amplifier shows much higher measurement accuracy than before, these favour the ameliorating of seismic signals.

  10. Low cost data acquisition module for evaluating the quantitative performance of daylight systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampini, F.; Scarazzato, P.S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo, P.O. Box 6021, CEP 13083-852 Campinas (Brazil); Neves, A.A.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Departamento de Eletronica Quantica, P.O. Box 6165, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Pereira, D.C.L.; Yamanaka, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Departamento de Tecnologia da Arquitetura, Rua do Lago, 878 CEP 05508-080, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    The search for efficient, auto-sustainable constructions that allows the user a contact with the outer environment has stimulated the development of advanced strategies, in various devices, for the exploitation of the daylight. A low cost data acquisition system was developed in this study, to observe the distribution of the natural light inside a prototype and to evaluate the quantitative performance for redirecting systems. The luminous sensor is a light dependent resistor, that responds to the illuminance with a reduction in the resistance when illuminated, through a log-log dependence. Calibration curves are set up to relate the change of resistance to absolute illuminance. It therefore provides a continuous investigation of the illuminance for various sampled points in the interior test space with a 0.03% digital error due to the 12-bit resolution. The final measured error of 5% is mainly due to the system calibration and resistance memory history. The circuit connects to a standard parallel port of any Personal Computer and supplies 64 analog inputs, one for each luminous sensor. The circuit can be easily modified to attend different quantities of analog inputs or communication ports. (author)

  11. Plasmid-borne prokaryotic gene expression: Sources of variability and quantitative system characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Sangram; Mazumder, Mostafizur; Velauthapillai, Tharsan; Sardana, Vandit; Dong, Guang Qiang; Movva, Ashok B.; Lim, Len H.; McMillen, David R.

    2008-02-01

    One aim of synthetic biology is to exert systematic control over cellular behavior, either for medical purposes or to “program” microorganisms. An engineering approach to the design of biological controllers demands a quantitative understanding of the dynamics of both the system to be controlled and the controllers themselves. Here we focus on a widely used method of exerting control in bacterial cells: plasmid vectors bearing gene-promoter pairs. We study two variants of the simplest such element, an unregulated promoter constitutively expressing its gene, against the varying genomic background of four Escherichia coli cell strains. Absolute protein numbers and rates of expression vary with both cell strain and plasmid type, as does the variability of expression across the population. Total variability is most strongly coupled to the cell division process, and after cell size is scaled away, plasmid copy number regulation emerges as a significant effect. We present simple models that capture the main features of the system behavior. Our results confirm that complex interactions between plasmids and their hosts can have significant effects on both expression and variability, even in deliberately simplified systems.

  12. [System design of small intellectualized ultrasound hyperthermia instrument in the LabVIEW environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Bai, Jingfeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2005-08-01

    Small-scale intellectualized medical instrument has attracted great attention in the field of biomedical engineering, and LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) provides a convenient environment for this application due to its inherent advantages. The principle and system structure of the hyperthermia instrument are presented. Type T thermocouples are employed as thermotransducers, whose amplifier consists of two stages, providing built-in ice point compensation and thus improving work stability over temperature. Control signals produced by specially designed circuit drive the programmable counter/timer 8254 chip to generate PWM (Pulse width modulation) wave, which is used as ultrasound radiation energy control signal. Subroutine design topics such as inner-tissue real time feedback temperature control algorithm, water temperature control in the ultrasound applicator are also described. In the cancer tissue temperature control subroutine, the authors exert new improvments to PID (Proportional Integral Differential) algorithm according to the specific demands of the system and achieve strict temperature control to the target tissue region. The system design and PID algorithm improvement have experimentally proved to be reliable and excellent, meeting the requirements of the hyperthermia system.

  13. Citizens’ View on Veal Calves’ Fattening System in Italy and Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were to assess citizens’ view on the current veal calves’ fattening system in Italy and on animal welfare, and to find relationships with veal meat consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, veal meat consumption habits, knowledge of veal calves rearing system and animal welfare attitudes of 100 citizens were investigated through a questionnaire submitted on a voluntary base in supermarkets/butcher shops. Results showed that 61 respondents were veal meat consumers and the remaining 39 were non-consumers. A large proportion of respondents were aware of the modern veal calves rearing system but their knowledge as such did not affect veal meat consumption. Non-consumers declared they didn’t like veal meat organoleptic characteristics, opposed the production system or considered it too expensive. Most citizens sustained animal welfare but no correlations were found between concerns for animal welfare and veal meat consumption/purchase (rs 0.05. Citizens conceptualized animal welfare through the aspects of care animals received by the farmer and veterinarian and of healthy feed for animals. It could be concluded that consumers don’t really think of animal welfare while buying or having meat, and they still have idealised notions of naturality, traditional farming, free-range and small scale production linked to farm animal production.

  14. Field-balanced adaptive optics error function for wide field-of-view space-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Brian K.; Friedman, Edward J.

    2002-03-01

    Adaptive optics are regularly used in ground-based astronomical telescopes. These applications are characterized by a very narrow (approximately 1 arcmin) field of view. For economic reasons, commercial space-based earth-observing optical systems must have a field of view as large as possible. We develop a new error function that is an extension of conventional adaptive optics for wide field-of-view optical systems and show that this new error function enables diffraction-limited performance across a large field of view with only one deformable mirror. This new error function allows for reprogramming of aberration control algorithms for particular applications by the use of an addressable weighting function.

  15. A Modern View of Perturbative QCD and Application to Heavy Quarkonium Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sumino, Y

    2014-01-01

    Perturbative QCD has made significant progress over the last few decades. In the first part, we present an introductory overview of perturbative QCD as seen from a modern viewpoint. We explain the relation between purely perturbative predictions and predictions based on Wilsonian effective field theories. We also review progress of modern computational technologies and discuss intersection with frontiers of mathematics. Analyses of singularities in Feynman diagrams play key roles towards developing a unified view. In the second part, we discuss application of perturbative QCD, based on the formulation given in the first part, to heavy quarkonium systems and the interquark force between static color charges. We elucidate impacts on order Lambda_QCD physics in the quark mass and interquark force, which used to be considered inaccessible by perturbative QCD.

  16. Manufacturing scheduling systems an integrated view on models, methods and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Framinan, Jose M; Ruiz García, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    The book is devoted to the problem of manufacturing scheduling, which is the efficient allocation of jobs (orders) over machines (resources) in a manufacturing facility. It offers a comprehensive and integrated perspective on the different aspects required to design and implement systems to efficiently and effectively support manufacturing scheduling decisions. Obtaining economic and reliable schedules constitutes the core of excellence in customer service and efficiency in manufacturing operations. Therefore, scheduling forms an area of vital importance for competition in manufacturing companies. However, only a fraction of scheduling research has been translated into practice, due to several reasons. First, the inherent complexity of scheduling has led to an excessively fragmented field in which different sub problems and issues are treated in an independent manner as goals themselves, therefore lacking a unifying view of the scheduling problem. Furthermore, mathematical brilliance and elegance has sometime...

  17. Orthogonal Views on Product/Service-System Design in an entire Industry Branch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria

    2011-01-01

    Product/Service-Systems (PSS) is an emerging research area, with terms such as ‘functional sales’, ‘servicizing’ and ‘service engineering’ all contributing to the foundation and our current understanding of PSS as a phenomenon. The field is still in its formative stages and definitions......, understandings and approaches to PSS are still fluid. Much of the literature in the field of PSS has, until now, focused largely on the actual transition from product to PSS and has typically resided in the field of engineering design. Symptomatic of the current literature is the concept of service as the adding...... case examples of these factors are sparse and limited to conceptual examples. This paper describes five orthogonal views on PSS design, fostering integrated product/service thinking across organisational boundaries, via a systematic approach to user-oriented product and service development....

  18. Foveated scanning: dynamic monodimensional enlargement of resolved field of view in lenses of scanner systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherian, Farhang; Rashidian, Bizhan

    2016-09-10

    An inconsistency between the circular symmetric geometry of conventional optical imagers and the geometry of long linear sensors used in today's line-scan cameras results in suboptimal separate design of optics and electronics of scanner systems. Based on the method of foveated optical imaging, a technique named foveated scanning (FS) is proposed in this paper. The FS technique is employed to enlarge the one-dimensional resolved field of view (RFOV) of conventional lenses and permits optimized performance on a line-of-interest in the image plane where the optoelectronic sensor is located. The achieved enlargement of RFOV is verified on a proof-of-concept basic telephoto lens. Both modulation transfer function analysis and the imaging simulation of a standard target have been performed. Results show a twofold increase in RFOV by this technique.

  19. Active control of acoustic field-of-view in a biosonar system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Yovel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Active-sensing systems abound in nature, but little is known about systematic strategies that are used by these systems to scan the environment. Here, we addressed this question by studying echolocating bats, animals that have the ability to point their biosonar beam to a confined region of space. We trained Egyptian fruit bats to land on a target, under conditions of varying levels of environmental complexity, and measured their echolocation and flight behavior. The bats modulated the intensity of their biosonar emissions, and the spatial region they sampled, in a task-dependant manner. We report here that Egyptian fruit bats selectively change the emission intensity and the angle between the beam axes of sequentially emitted clicks, according to the distance to the target, and depending on the level of environmental complexity. In so doing, they effectively adjusted the spatial sector sampled by a pair of clicks-the "field-of-view." We suggest that the exact point within the beam that is directed towards an object (e.g., the beam's peak, maximal slope, etc. is influenced by three competing task demands: detection, localization, and angular scanning-where the third factor is modulated by field-of-view. Our results suggest that lingual echolocation (based on tongue clicks is in fact much more sophisticated than previously believed. They also reveal a new parameter under active control in animal sonar-the angle between consecutive beams. Our findings suggest that acoustic scanning of space by mammals is highly flexible and modulated much more selectively than previously recognized.

  20. A Creative Helicobacter pylori Diagnosis Scheme Based on Multiple Genetic Analysis System: Qualification and Quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Zhao, Fuju; Hu, Binjie; Fang, Yi; Miao, Yingxin; Huang, Yiqin; Ji, Da'nian; Zhang, Jinghao; Xu, Lingli; Zhang, Yanmei; Bao, Zhijun; Zhao, Hu

    2015-10-01

    Currently, several diagnostic assays for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are available, but each has some limitations. Further, a high-flux quantitative assay is required to assist clinical diagnosis and monitor the effectiveness of therapy and novel vaccine candidates. Three hundred and eighty-seven adult patients [nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) 295, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) 77, gastric cancer (GC) 15] were enrolled for gastrointestinal endoscopies. Three biopsy samples from gastric antrum were collected for the following tests: culture, rapid urease test (RUT), histopathology, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Multiple Genetic Analysis System (MGAS). The diagnostic capability of H. pylori for all methods was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Based on the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of MGAS were 92.9 and 92.4%, and positive predict value (PPV) and negative predict value (NPV) were 96.0 and 87.1%, respectively. All the above parameters of MGAS were higher than that of culture (except its specificity), RUT and histopathology, and nearly closed to that of conventional PCR. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.7575 (Culture), 0.8870 (RUT), 0.9000 (Histopathology), 0.9496 (Conventional PCR), and 0.9277 (MGAS). No significant statistical difference was observed for the H. pylori DNA load in different disease groups (p = .067). In contrast, a statistically significant difference in the H. pylori DNA copy number was observed based on age (p = .043) and gender (p = .021). The data showed that MGAS performed well in detecting H. pylori infection. Furthermore, the quantitative analysis showed that the load of H. pylori was significantly different within both age and gender groups. These results suggested that MGAS could be a potential alternative method for clinical detection and monitoring of the effectiveness of H. pylori therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Quantitative proteomic view on secreted, cell surface-associated, and cytoplasmic proteins of the methicillin-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus under iron-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Kristina; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Moche, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of colonizing and infecting humans by its arsenal of surface-exposed and secreted proteins. Iron-limited conditions in mammalian body fluids serve as a major environmental signal to bacteria to express virulence determinants. Here we present a comprehensive, gel-free, and GeLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteome profiling of S. aureus under this infection-relevant situation. (14)N(15)N metabolic labeling and three complementing approaches were combined for relative quantitative analyses of surface-associated proteins. The surface-exposed and secreted proteome profiling approaches comprise trypsin shaving, biotinylation, and precipitation of the supernatant. By analysis of the outer subproteomic and cytoplasmic protein fraction, 1210 proteins could be identified including 221 surface-associated proteins. Thus, access was enabled to 70% of the predicted cell wall-associated proteins, 80% of the predicted sortase substrates, two/thirds of lipoproteins and more than 50% of secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. For iron-deficiency, 158 surface-associated proteins were quantified. Twenty-nine proteins were found in altered amounts showing particularly surface-exposed proteins strongly induced, such as the iron-regulated surface determinant proteins IsdA, IsdB, IsdC and IsdD as well as lipid-anchored iron compound-binding proteins. The work presents a crucial subject for understanding S. aureus pathophysiology by the use of methods that allow quantitative surface proteome profiling.

  2. Engineering analysis of ITER In-Vessel Viewing System guide tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, Natalia, E-mail: natalia.casal@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bates, Philip [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Bede, Ottó [Oxford Technologies Ltd., Abingdon (United Kingdom); Damiani, Carlo; Dubus, Gregory [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Omran, Hassan [Oxford Technologies Ltd., Abingdon (United Kingdom); Palmer, Jim [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Puiu, Adrian [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Reichle, Roger; Suárez, Alejandro; Walker, Christopher; Walsh, Michael [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design of IVVS Loads action on IVVS Dominant loads. • Seismic and baking conditions. • No active cooling needed for IVVS. • IVVS requires additional support points to avoid excessive deformation. - Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) will be one of the essential machine diagnostic systems at ITER to provide information about the status of in-vessel and plasma facing components and to evaluate the dust inside the Vacuum Vessel. The current design consists of six scanning probes and their deployment systems, which are placed in dedicated ports at the divertor level. These units are located in resident guiding tubes 10 m long, which allow the IVVS probes to go from their storage location to the scanning position by means of a simple straight translation. Moreover, each resident tube is supported inside the corresponding Vacuum Vessel and Cryostat port extensions, which are part of the primary confinement barrier. As the Vacuum Vessel and the Cryostat will move with respect to each other during operation (especially during baking) and during incidents and accidents (disruptions, vertical displacement events, seismic events), the structural integrity of the resident tube and the surrounding vacuum boundaries would be compromised if the required flexibility and supports are not appropriately assured. This paper focuses on the integration of the present design of the IVVS into the Vacuum Vessel and Cryostat environment. It presents the adopted strategy to withstand all the main interfacing loads without damaging the confinement barriers and the corresponding analysis supporting it.

  3. Comparison of the most common HRV computation algorithms from the systems designer point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manis, G

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the most commonly used algorithms for the computation of heart rate variability as well as some other interesting approaches. The aim of the paper is to study the problem from a different point of view, that of the systems designer. The selected algorithms are compared to each other through experimental analysis and theoretical study. The comparison criteria are efficiency, complexity, size of the object code, memory requirements, power consumption, parallel complexity and speedup achieved, ability to response in real time, simplicity of the interface and implementation in hardware. The motivation is strong since heart rate variability is an interesting problem which finds application not only in conventional computing systems, but also in small, even wearable devices implemented using embedded systems technology or directly in hardware. The computation of heart rate variability for a set of signal recordings and the classification achieved for these signals with each examined method are also presented. Signals have been recorded from young and elderly subjects and the examined methods are used to classify them into these two distinct groups.

  4. Viewing and imaging the solar system a guide for amateur astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Viewing and Imaging the Solar System: A Guide for Amateur Astronomers is for those who want to develop their ability to observe and image Solar System objects, including the planets and moons, the Sun, and comets and asteroids. They might be beginners, or they may have already owned and used an astronomical telescope for a year or more. Newcomers are almost always wowed by sights such as the rings of Saturn and the moons of Jupiter, but have little idea how to find these objects for themselves (with the obvious exceptions of the Sun and Moon). They also need guidance about what equipment to use, besides a telescope. This book is written by an expert on the Solar System, who has had a lot of experience with outreach programs, which teach others how to make the most of relatively simple and low-cost equipment. That does not mean that this book is not for serious amateurs. On the contrary, it is designed to show amateur astronomers, in a relatively light-hearted—and math-free way—how to become serious.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  6. A quantitative analysis of hydraulic interaction processes in stream-aquifer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenke; Dai, Zhenxue; Zhao, Yaqian; Li, Junting; Duan, Lei; Wang, Zhoufeng; Zhu, Lin

    2016-01-28

    The hydraulic relationship between the stream and aquifer can be altered from hydraulic connection to disconnection when the pumping rate exceeds the maximum seepage flux of the streambed. This study proposes to quantitatively analyze the physical processes of stream-aquifer systems from connection to disconnection. A free water table equation is adopted to clarify under what conditions a stream starts to separate hydraulically from an aquifer. Both the theoretical analysis and laboratory tests have demonstrated that the hydraulic connectedness of the stream-aquifer system can reach a critical disconnection state when the horizontal hydraulic gradient at the free water surface is equal to zero and the vertical is equal to 1. A boundary-value problem for movement of the critical point of disconnection is established for an analytical solution of the inverted water table movement beneath the stream. The result indicates that the maximum distance or thickness of the inverted water table is equal to the water depth in the stream, and at a steady state of disconnection, the maximum hydraulic gradient at the streambed center is 2. This study helps us to understand the hydraulic phenomena of water flow near streams and accurately assess surface water and groundwater resources.

  7. Monitoring intracellular polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems by quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Luís; Leal, Cristiano; Carvalheira, Mónica; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2014-01-01

    A rapid methodology for intracellular storage polyphosphate (poly-P) identification and monitoring in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems is proposed based on quantitative image analysis (QIA). In EBPR systems, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is usually combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate the microbial community. The proposed monitoring technique is based on a QIA procedure specifically developed for determining poly-P inclusions within a biomass suspension using solely DAPI by epifluorescence microscopy. Due to contradictory literature regarding DAPI concentrations used for poly-P detection, the present work assessed the optimal DAPI concentration for samples acquired at the end of the EBPR aerobic stage when the accumulation occurred. Digital images were then acquired and processed by means of image processing and analysis. A correlation was found between average poly-P intensity values and the analytical determination. The proposed methodology can be seen as a promising alternative procedure for quantifying intracellular poly-P accumulation in a faster and less labour-intensive way.

  8. A Quantitative Nanodiffraction System for Ultrahigh Vacuum Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Gary G.; Koch, Christoph; Spence, John C. H.

    2003-10-01

    Of all the long-lived particles available as probes of condensed matter, and of all the signals available on a modern electron microscope, electron nanodiffraction patterns provide the strongest signal from the smallest volume. The technique is therefore perfectly suited to nanostructural investigations in inorganic chemistry and materials science. The Vacuum Generators HB501S, an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) variant of the HB501 scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), with side-entry double-tilt stage, specimen preparation and analysis chamber, three postspecimen lenses, and cold field-emission tip with integral magnetic gun lens, has therefore been modified to optimize nanodiffraction and quantitative convergent beam electron diffraction (QCBED) performance. A one-micrometer grain-size phosphor screen lying on a fiber-optic faceplate atop the instrument is fiber-optically coupled to a 2048 × 2048 charge-coupled device (CCD), 16-bit camera. This arrangement promises to provide much greater sensitivity, larger dynamic range, and a better modulation transfer function (MTF) than conventional single crystal scintillator (YAG) CCD systems, with noticeable absence of cross talk between pixels. The design of the nanodiffraction detector system is discussed, the gain of the detector is measured, the spherical aberration constant of the objective lens is measured by the Ronchigram method, and preliminary results from the modified instrument are shown.

  9. Quantitative analysis of vocal fold vibration during register change by high-speed digital imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Masanobu; Kobayashi, Noriko; Hirose, Hajime; Tayama, Niro; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Kakurai, Shin'ichi; Kumada, Chieko; Wada, Mamiko; Niimi, Seiji

    2002-05-01

    The physiological study of prosody is indispensable in terms not only of the physiological interest but also of the evaluation and treatment for pathological cases of prosody. In free talk, the changes of vocal fold vibration are found frequently and these phenomena are very important prosodic events. To analyze quantitatively the vocal fold vibration at the register change as the model of prosodic event, our high-speed digital imaging system was used at a rate of 4500 images of 256-256 pixels per second. Four healthy Japanese adults (2 males and 2 females) were served as subjects. Tasks were sustained phonation containing register changes. Two major categories (Category A and B) were found in the ways of changing of vocal fold vibrations at the register change. In Category A, changes were very smooth in terms of the vocal fold vibration. In Category B, changes were not so smooth with some additional events at the register change, such as the anterior-posterior phase difference of the vibration, the abduction of the vocal folds, or the interruption of the phonation. The number of the subtypes for Category B is thought to increase if more subjects with a wider range of variety are analyzed. For the study of prosody, our high-speed digital imaging system is a very powerful tool by which physiological information can be obtained.

  10. Optimizing experimental procedures for quantitative evaluation of crop plant performance in high throughput phenotyping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Astrid; Muraya, Moses M.; Weigelt-Fischer, Kathleen; Arana-Ceballos, Fernando; Klukas, Christian; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Meyer, Rhonda C.; Riewe, David; Altmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Detailed and standardized protocols for plant cultivation in environmentally controlled conditions are an essential prerequisite to conduct reproducible experiments with precisely defined treatments. Setting up appropriate and well defined experimental procedures is thus crucial for the generation of solid evidence and indispensable for successful plant research. Non-invasive and high throughput (HT) phenotyping technologies offer the opportunity to monitor and quantify performance dynamics of several hundreds of plants at a time. Compared to small scale plant cultivations, HT systems have much higher demands, from a conceptual and a logistic point of view, on experimental design, as well as the actual plant cultivation conditions, and the image analysis and statistical methods for data evaluation. Furthermore, cultivation conditions need to be designed that elicit plant performance characteristics corresponding to those under natural conditions. This manuscript describes critical steps in the optimization of procedures for HT plant phenotyping systems. Starting with the model plant Arabidopsis, HT-compatible methods were tested, and optimized with regard to growth substrate, soil coverage, watering regime, experimental design (considering environmental inhomogeneities) in automated plant cultivation and imaging systems. As revealed by metabolite profiling, plant movement did not affect the plants' physiological status. Based on these results, procedures for maize HT cultivation and monitoring were established. Variation of maize vegetative growth in the HT phenotyping system did match well with that observed in the field. The presented results outline important issues to be considered in the design of HT phenotyping experiments for model and crop plants. It thereby provides guidelines for the setup of HT experimental procedures, which are required for the generation of reliable and reproducible data of phenotypic variation for a broad range of applications. PMID

  11. Optimizing experimental procedures for quantitative evaluation of crop plant performance in high throughput phenotyping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Astrid; Muraya, Moses M; Weigelt-Fischer, Kathleen; Arana-Ceballos, Fernando; Klukas, Christian; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Meyer, Rhonda C; Riewe, David; Altmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Detailed and standardized protocols for plant cultivation in environmentally controlled conditions are an essential prerequisite to conduct reproducible experiments with precisely defined treatments. Setting up appropriate and well defined experimental procedures is thus crucial for the generation of solid evidence and indispensable for successful plant research. Non-invasive and high throughput (HT) phenotyping technologies offer the opportunity to monitor and quantify performance dynamics of several hundreds of plants at a time. Compared to small scale plant cultivations, HT systems have much higher demands, from a conceptual and a logistic point of view, on experimental design, as well as the actual plant cultivation conditions, and the image analysis and statistical methods for data evaluation. Furthermore, cultivation conditions need to be designed that elicit plant performance characteristics corresponding to those under natural conditions. This manuscript describes critical steps in the optimization of procedures for HT plant phenotyping systems. Starting with the model plant Arabidopsis, HT-compatible methods were tested, and optimized with regard to growth substrate, soil coverage, watering regime, experimental design (considering environmental inhomogeneities) in automated plant cultivation and imaging systems. As revealed by metabolite profiling, plant movement did not affect the plants' physiological status. Based on these results, procedures for maize HT cultivation and monitoring were established. Variation of maize vegetative growth in the HT phenotyping system did match well with that observed in the field. The presented results outline important issues to be considered in the design of HT phenotyping experiments for model and crop plants. It thereby provides guidelines for the setup of HT experimental procedures, which are required for the generation of reliable and reproducible data of phenotypic variation for a broad range of applications.

  12. Perinatal programming of emotional brain circuits:An integrative view from systems to molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eBock

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental influences such as perinatal stress have been shown to program the developing organism to adapt brain and behavioral functions to cope with daily life challenges. Evidence is now accumulating that the specific and individual effects of early life adversity on the functional development of brain and behavior emerge as a function of the type, intensity, timing and the duration of the adverse environment, and that early life stress (ELS is a major risk factor for developing behavioral dysfunctions and mental disorders. Results from clinical as well as experimental studies in animal models support the hypothesis that ELS can induce functional ‘scars’ in prefrontal and limbic brain areas, regions that are essential for emotional control, learning and memory functions. On the other hand, the concept of stress inoculation is emerging from more recent research, which revealed positive functional adaptations in response to early life stress resulting in resilience against stress and other adversities later in life. Moreover, recent studies indicate that early life experiences and the resulting behavioral consequences can be transmitted to the next generation, leading to a transgenerational cycle of adverse or positive adaptations of brain function and behavior. In this review we propose a unifying view of stress vulnerability and resilience by connecting genetic predisposition and programming sensitivity to the context of experience-expectancy and transgenerational epigenetic traits. The adaptive maturation of stress responsive neural and endocrine systems requires environmental challenges to optimize their functions. Repeated environmental challenges can be viewed within the framework of the match/mismatch hypothesis, the outcome, psychopathology or resilience, depends on the respective predisposition and on the context later in life.

  13. A Cognition-based View of Decision Processes in Complex Social–Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi K. Beratan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis paper is intended to provide an overview of individual and collective decision-making processes that might serve as a theoretical foundation for a complexity-based approach to environmental policy design and natural resource management planning. Human activities are the primary drivers of change in the Earth's biosphere today, so efforts to shift the trajectory of social–ecological systems must focus on changes in individual and collective human behavior. Recent advances in understanding the biological basis of thought and memory offer insights of use in designing management and planning processes. The human brain has evolved ways of dealing with complexity and uncertainty, and is particularly attuned to social information. Changes in an individual’s schemas, reflecting changes in the patterns of neural connections that are activated by particular stimuli, occur primarily through nonconsious processes in response to experiential learning during repeated exposure to novel situations, ideas, and relationships. Discourse is an important mechanism for schema modification, and thus for behavior change. Through discourse, groups of people construct a shared story—a collective model—that is useful for predicting likely outcomes of actions and events. In effect, good stories are models that filter and organize distributed knowledge about complex situations and relationships in ways that are readily absorbed by human cognitive processes. The importance of discourse supports the view that collaborative approaches are needed to effectively deal with environmental problems and natural resource management challenges. Methods derived from the field of mediation and dispute resolution can help us take advantage of the distinctly human ability to deal with complexity and uncertainty. This cognitive view of decision making supports fundamental elements of resilience management and adaptive co-management, including fostering social learning

  14. Perinatal programming of emotional brain circuits: an integrative view from systems to molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jörg; Rether, Kathy; Gröger, Nicole; Xie, Lan; Braun, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Environmental influences such as perinatal stress have been shown to program the developing organism to adapt brain and behavioral functions to cope with daily life challenges. Evidence is now accumulating that the specific and individual effects of early life adversity on the functional development of brain and behavior emerge as a function of the type, intensity, timing and the duration of the adverse environment, and that early life stress (ELS) is a major risk factor for developing behavioral dysfunctions and mental disorders. Results from clinical as well as experimental studies in animal models support the hypothesis that ELS can induce functional "scars" in prefrontal and limbic brain areas, regions that are essential for emotional control, learning and memory functions. On the other hand, the concept of "stress inoculation" is emerging from more recent research, which revealed positive functional adaptations in response to ELS resulting in resilience against stress and other adversities later in life. Moreover, recent studies indicate that early life experiences and the resulting behavioral consequences can be transmitted to the next generation, leading to a transgenerational cycle of adverse or positive adaptations of brain function and behavior. In this review we propose a unifying view of stress vulnerability and resilience by connecting genetic predisposition and programming sensitivity to the context of experience-expectancy and transgenerational epigenetic traits. The adaptive maturation of stress responsive neural and endocrine systems requires environmental challenges to optimize their functions. Repeated environmental challenges can be viewed within the framework of the match/mismatch hypothesis, the outcome, psychopathology or resilience, depends on the respective predisposition and on the context later in life.

  15. Design of multi-view stereoscopic HD video transmission system based on MPEG-21 digital item adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokhee; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Man Bae; Kim, JongWon

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a design of multi-view stereoscopic HD video transmission system based on MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA). It focuses on the compatibility and scalability to meet various user preferences and terminal capabilities. There exist a large variety of multi-view 3D HD video types according to the methods for acquisition, display, and processing. By following the MPEG-21 DIA framework, the multi-view stereoscopic HD video is adapted according to user feedback. A user can be served multi-view stereoscopic video which corresponds with his or her preferences and terminal capabilities. In our preliminary prototype, we verify that the proposed design can support two deferent types of display device (stereoscopic and auto-stereoscopic) and switching viewpoints between two available viewpoints.

  16. Qualitative, quantitative and combination score systems in differential diagnosis of breast lesions by contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YongMei; Fan, Wei; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Rong

    2016-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of score systems in differential diagnosis of breast lesions by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). CEUS was performed in 121 patients with 127 breast lesions by Philips iU22 with Sonovue as contrast agent. Pearson Chi-square χ(2) test, binary logistic regression analysis and Student's t-test are used to identify significant CEUS parameters in differential diagnosis. Based on these significant CEUS parameters, qualitative, quantitative and combination score systems were built by scoring 1 for benign characteristic and scoring 2 for malignant characteristic. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of different analytical methods. Pathological results showed 41 benign and 86 malignant lesions. Qualitative analysis and logistic regression analysis showed that there are significant differences in enhancement degree, enhancement order, internal homogeneity, enhancement margin, surrounding vessels and enlargement of diameters (PQuantitative analysis indicated that malignant lesions tended to show higher peak intensity (PI), larger area under the curve (AUC) and shorter time to peak (TTP) than benign ones (PQualitative score systems showed higher diagnostic efficacy than single quantitative CEUS parameters. The corresponding area under the ROC curve for qualitative, quantitative and combination score systems were 0.897, 0.716 and 0.903 respectively. Z test showed that area under the ROC curve of quantitative score system was statistically smaller than that of other score systems. Quantitative score system helps little in improving the diagnostic efficacy of CEUS. While qualitative score system improves the performance of CEUS greatly in discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. The application of qualitative could develop the diagnostic performance of CEUS which is clinically promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research on field of view of optical receiving antenna based on indoor visible light communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingguang; Lan, Tian; Zhao, Tao; Zhang, Yilun; Cui, Zhenghua; Ni, Guoqiang

    2015-08-01

    Optical receiving antenna is usually positioned before the detector of an indoor visible light communication (VLC) system in order to collect more optical energy into the detector. Besides optical gain of the antenna, the field of view (FOV) plays also an important role to the performance of a VLC system. In this paper, the signal noise ratio (SNR) and inter-symbol interference (ISI) versus FOV of the antenna are simulated via Line-of-Sight (LOS) and non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) links within a room with a size of 5m × 5m × 3m. Results show that, the blind area appears while the FOV is less than 40 deg. and the SNR reduces as FOV increases and keeps small when FOV is more than 70 deg.. Furthermore, the average power of ISI rises with the increase of FOV, and the rising trend is relatively moderate when FOV is below 50 deg., while there is a rapid increase between 50 deg. and 70 deg. and finally tends to be stable after 70 deg. Therefore, it is practical to determine the FOV of the optical receiving antenna in the scope of 40 to 50 deg. based on the installment of LED lights on the ceiling here so as to avoid the blind area, attain high SNR, and reduce the influence of ISI. It is also worthwhile in practice to provide an identifiable evidence for the determination of FOV of the optical antenna.

  18. Mimicking honeybee eyes with a 280{sup 0} field of view catadioptric imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerzl, W; Boeddeker, N; Dittmar, L; Egelhaaf, M, E-mail: wolfgang.stuerzl@uni-bielefeld.d [Department of Neurobiology and Center of Excellence ' Cognitive Interaction Technology' , Bielefeld University (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    We present a small single camera imaging system that provides a continuous 280{sup 0} field of view (FOV) inspired by the large FOV of insect eyes. This is achieved by combining a curved reflective surface that is machined into acrylic glass with lenses covering the frontal field that otherwise would have been obstructed by the mirror. Based on the work of Seidl (1982 PhD Thesis Technische Hochschule Darmstadt), we describe an extension of the 'bee eye optics simulation' (BEOS) model by Giger (1996 PhD Thesis Australian National University) to the full FOV which enables us to remap camera images according to the spatial resolution of honeybee eyes. This model is also useful for simulating the visual input of a bee-like agent in a virtual environment. The imaging system in combination with our bee eye model can serve as a tool for assessing the visual world from a bee's perspective which is particularly helpful for experimental setups. It is also well suited for mobile robots, in particular on flying vehicles that need light-weight sensors.

  19. Nuclear analysis and shielding optimisation in support of the ITER In-Vessel Viewing System design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.turner@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pampin, Raul [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Loughlin, M.J. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ghani, Zamir; Hurst, Gemma [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lo Bue, Alessandro [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mangham, Samuel [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Puiu, Adrian [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Zheng, Shanliang [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    The In-Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) units proposed for ITER are deployed to perform in-vessel examination. During plasma operations, the IVVS is located beyond the vacuum vessel, with shielding blocks envisaged to protect components from neutron damage and reduce shutdown dose rate (SDR) levels. Analyses were conducted to determine the effectiveness of several shielding configurations. The neutron response of the system was assessed using global variance reduction techniques and a surface source, and shutdown dose rate calculations were undertaken using MCR2S. Unshielded, the absorbed dose to piezoelectric motors (PZT) was found to be below stable limits, however activation of the primary closure plate (PCP) was prohibitively high. A scenario with shielding blocks at probe level showed significantly reduced PCP contact dose rate, however still marginally exceeded port cell requirements. The addition of shielding blocks at the bioshield plug demonstrated PCP contact dose rates below project requirements. SDR levels in contact with the isolated IVVS cartridge were found to marginally exceed the hands-on maintenance limit. For engineering feasibility, shielding blocks at bioshield level are to be avoided, however the port cell SDR field requires further consideration. In addition, alternative low-activation steels are being considered for the IVVS cartridge.

  20. Improving quantitative precipitation nowcasting with a local ensemble transform Kalman filter radar data assimilation system: observing system simulation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Tsai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a Doppler radar data assimilation system, which couples the local ensemble transform Kalman filter with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The benefits of this system to quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN are evaluated with observing system simulation experiments on Typhoon Morakot (2009, which brought record-breaking rainfall and extensive damage to central and southern Taiwan. The results indicate that the assimilation of radial velocity and reflectivity observations improves the three-dimensional winds and rain-mixing ratio most significantly because of the direct relations in the observation operator. The patterns of spiral rainbands become more consistent between different ensemble members after radar data assimilation. The rainfall intensity and distribution during the 6-hour deterministic nowcast are also improved, especially for the first 3 hours. The nowcasts with and without radar data assimilation have similar evolution trends driven by synoptic-scale conditions. Furthermore, we carry out a series of sensitivity experiments to develop proper assimilation strategies, in which a mixed localisation method is proposed for the first time and found to give further QPN improvement in this typhoon case.

  1. 基于LabVIEW/Matlab的AUV半实物仿真系统设计%Design of AUV simulation system based on LabVIEW/Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴; 李健; 李一博

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the establishment of actual experimental environment of large AUV(Autono-mous Underwater Vehicle), and for the testing need of different units of AUV control system, a new AUV semi-physical simulation system is designed based on LabVIEW/Matlab under Windows platform. The simulation system realizes the real-time calculation of AUV’s position and posture based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic model; meanwhile, it makes serial port and Ethernet communication with deck system and master control system by imitating Phins, GAPS, fixed high altimeter, obstacle avoidance sonar, and other sensors, which realizes AUV’s motion simulation and also pro-vides evidences for determining motion control strategy. Experimentation shows that the system model is reasonable, and the given software design is feasible. The established simulation system is flexible to be extended or reduced, which is used successfully in testing experiment of AUV’s control system.%为解决大型自主式水下航行器(Autonomous Underwater Vehicle,AUV)实际实验环境搭建的困难,以及AUV控制系统各单元功能测试的需要,设计了一套新的Windows平台下基于LabVIEW/Matlab的AUV半实物仿真系统。该仿真系统基于三维空间的水动力模型,来实时计算AUV的位置和姿态等信息;同时,模仿Phins、GAPS、定高高度计、避障声呐等传感器,和AUV甲板、主控以及运动控制单元进行串行和以太网络通信,实现了AUV的运动仿真,同时也为制定运动控制策略提供相关依据。大量实验表明,该系统模型较合理,软件设计可行,具有灵活的扩展性和伸缩性,在AUV控制系统测试实验中成功应用。

  2. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for Microbial Growth Kinetics of Mixed Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, Ada; Looper, Jessica K; Mota, Linda C; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-11-01

    Microbial growth kinetics is often used to optimize environmental processes owing to its relation to the breakdown of substrate (contaminants). However, the quantification of bacterial populations in the environment is difficult owing to the challenges of monitoring a specific bacterial population within a diverse microbial community. Conventional methods are unable to detect and quantify the growth of individual strains separately in the mixed culture reactor. This work describes a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based genomic approach to quantify each species in mixed culture and interpret its growth kinetics in the mixed system. Batch experiments were performed for both single and dual cultures of Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli K12 to obtain Monod kinetic parameters (μmax and Ks). The growth curves and kinetics obtained by conventional methods (i.e., dry weight measurement and absorbance reading) were compared with that obtained by qPCR assay. We anticipate that the adoption of this qPCR-based genomic assay can contribute significantly to traditional microbial kinetics, modeling practice, and the operation of bioreactors, where handling of complex mixed cultures is required.

  3. Quantitative Digital Autoradiography for Environmental Swipe Sample Prioritization: System design, Characterization, and Initial Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Benjamin S.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; Miller, Brian W.; Bliss, Mary; Olsen, Khris B.; Kasparek, Dustin M.; Clarke, Ardelia M.

    2017-07-17

    Environmental sampling and sample analyses by the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) is a critical technical tool used to detect facility misuse under a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and to verify the absence of undeclared nuclear material activities under an Additional Protocol. Currently all environmental swipe samples (ESS) are screened using gamma spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence to estimate the amount of U and/or Pu in the ESS, to guide further analysis, and to assist in the shipment of ESS to the NWAL. Quantitative Digital Autoradiography for Environmental Samples (QDARES) is being developed to complement existing techniques through the use of a portable, real-time, high-spatial-resolution camera called the Ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector (iQID). The iQID constructs a spatial map of radionuclides within a sample or surface in real-time as charged particles (betas) and photons (gamma/x-rays) are detected and localized on an event-by-event basis. Knowledge of the location and nature of radioactive hot spots on the ESS could provide information for subsequent laboratory analysis. As a nondestructive technique, QDARES does not compromise the ESS chain of custody or subsequent laboratory analysis. In this paper we will present the system design and construction, characterization measurements with calibration sources, and initial measurements of ESS.

  4. Plasma protein fractions in healthy blood donors quantitated by an automated multicapillary electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Hansson, Lars-Olof

    2006-09-01

    During the last decade, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as an important alternative to traditional analysis of serum and plasma proteins by agarose or celluloseacetate electrophoresis. CE analysis of plasma proteins can now be fully automated and also includes bar-code identification of samples, preseparation steps, and direct post-separation quantitation of individual peaks, which permits short assay times and high throughput. For laboratory work, it is important to have reference values from healthy individuals. Therefore, plasma samples from 156 healthy blood donors (79 females and 77 males) have been analyzed with the Capillarys instrument and the new high resolution buffer, which yields higher resolution than the beta1-beta2+ buffer. Albumin concentrations in samples are measured using nephelometry in order to assign protein concentrations to each peak. The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles for both the percentages of different peaks and the protein concentrations in the peaks are calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. The Capillarys instrument is a reliable system for plasma protein analysis, combining advantages of full automation with high analytical performances and throughput.

  5. Study on Sintering System of Calcium Barium Sulphoaluminate by XRD Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium barium sulphoaluminate (CBSA, derived from calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA, has excellent cementitious properties. In this study, the sintering system of CBSA with a theoretical stoichiometric Ca3BaAl6SO16 was investigated. Rietveld refinement was performed using TOPAS 4.2 software to quantitatively calculate the content of CBSA and the actual ionic site occupancy of Ba2+. The results indicate that the content of Ca4−xBaxAl6SO16 increases with increasing sintering temperature in the 1200–1400 °C ranges. When sintered at 1400 °C for 180 min, the content of CBSA reaches 88.4%. However, CBSA begins to decompose at 1440 °C, after which the content decreases. The replacement rate of Ba2+ was also enlarged by increasing sintering temperature and prolonged sintering time. Sintering at 1400 °C for 180 min is considered as the optimum when replacement rate of Ba2+ and the content of CBSA were taken into account. Ca3.2Ba0.8Al6SO16 with a content of 88.4% was synthesized.

  6. Quantitative MRI study of progressive cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yukihiko [Suzuka National Hospital, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Konagaya, Yoko [JR Tokai General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    We investigated cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy (MSA) by quantitative analysis of MRI. The subjects were 28 patients with MSA (14 striato-nigral degeneration; SND, 14 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy; OPCA. 106 MRI examinations were performed totally) and 85 normal persons for control. The ratios of the ventral pons to the infratentorial space in the sagittal section, the putamen, cerebrum, frontal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes to the intracranial space in the horizontal section, and the temporal lobe to the intracranial space in the coronal section were measured. In the early stage of the disease, OPCA showed significant atrophy of the ventral pons compared with SND, and conversely, SND demonstrated significantly smaller putamen than that in OPCA. According to the progression of the disease, the atrophy of these neural tissues progressed, which resulted in so significant differences between SND and OPCA. The cerebral atrophy was observed in 17 MSA patients. The atrophy of the frontal lobe was much frequent and prominent to that in the temporal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes. SND showed higher incidence of the cerebral atrophy than OPCA in the early stage of the disease. In long period follow-up cases, one case showed cerebral atrophy in earlier stage, and another case in late stage. We indicated the involvement of the cerebral hemispheres in MSA, especially the frontal lobe. (author)

  7. Multi-scale dynamical behavior of spatially distributed systems: a deterministic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Le Jean, F.; Drapeau, L.; Huc, M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical and biophysical systems are spatially distributed systems. Their behavior can be observed or modelled spatially at various resolutions. In this work, a deterministic point of view is adopted to analyze multi-scale behavior taking a set of ordinary differential equation (ODE) as elementary part of the system.To perform analyses, scenes of study are thus generated based on ensembles of identical elementary ODE systems. Without any loss of generality, their dynamics is chosen chaotic in order to ensure sensitivity to initial conditions, that is, one fundamental property of atmosphere under instable conditions [1]. The Rössler system [2] is used for this purpose for both its topological and algebraic simplicity [3,4].Two cases are thus considered: the chaotic oscillators composing the scene of study are taken either independent, or in phase synchronization. Scale behaviors are analyzed considering the scene of study as aggregations (basically obtained by spatially averaging the signal) or as associations (obtained by concatenating the time series). The global modeling technique is used to perform the numerical analyses [5].One important result of this work is that, under phase synchronization, a scene of aggregated dynamics can be approximated by the elementary system composing the scene, but modifying its parameterization [6]. This is shown based on numerical analyses. It is then demonstrated analytically and generalized to a larger class of ODE systems. Preliminary applications to cereal crops observed from satellite are also presented.[1] Lorenz, Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 20, 130-141 (1963).[2] Rössler, An equation for continuous chaos, Phys. Lett. A, 57, 397-398 (1976).[3] Gouesbet & Letellier, Global vector-field reconstruction by using a multivariate polynomial L2 approximation on nets, Phys. Rev. E 49, 4955-4972 (1994).[4] Letellier, Roulin & Rössler, Inequivalent topologies of chaos in simple equations, Chaos, Solitons

  8. On-Orbit Quantitative Real-Time Gene Expression Analysis Using the Wetlab-2 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Tran, Luan; Schonfeld, Julie

    2015-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center's WetLab-2 Project enables on-orbit quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis without the need for sample return. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The project developed a RNA preparation module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use as templates in qRT-PCR reactions. Our protocol has the advantage of using non-toxic chemicals and does not require alcohols or other organics. The resulting RNA is dispensed into reaction tubes that contain all lyophilized reagents needed to perform qRT-PCR reactions. System operations require simple and limited crew actions including syringe pushes, valve turns and pipette dispenses. The project selected the Cepheid SmartCycler (TradeMark), a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR unit, because of its advantages including rugged modular design, low power consumption, rapid thermal ramp times and four-color multiplex detection. Single tube multiplex assays can be used to normalize for RNA concentration and integrity, and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The WetLab-2 system can downlink data from the ISS to the ground after a completed run and uplink new thermal cycling programs. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR and generate results on-orbit is an important step towards utilizing the ISS as a National Laboratory facility. Specifically, the ability to get on-orbit data will provide investigators with the opportunity to adjust experimental parameters in real time without the need for sample return and re-flight. On orbit gene expression analysis can also eliminate the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples and provide on-orbit gene expression benchmarking prior to sample return. Finally, the system can also be used for analysis of

  9. Analyse quantitative des effluents de pyrolyse en milieu ouvert et fermé Quantitative Analysis of Pyrolysis Effluents in an Open and Closed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans la première partie de l'article, nous décrivons une technique de pyrolyse en milieu ouvert qui permet de caractériser les matières organiques complexes comme le kérogène, le charbon, les asphaltènes de roche et d'huiles, les substances humiques et fulviques etc. Les effluents de pyrolyse sont récupérés et fractionnés quantitativement puis analysés par des techniques spécifiques comme la chromatographie en phase gazeuse et le couplage chromatographie/spectrométrie de masse. Dans la deuxième partie, est présentée une technique de pyrolyse en milieu fermé pour simuler au laboratoire l'évolution thermique des kérogènes, asphaltènes ou huiles. Nous nous sommes surtout attachés à dresser des bilans massiques et des bilans de l'hydrogène sur l'ensemble des produits de pyrolyse. Pour cela, nous avons distingué cinq classes de poids moléculaire croissant : C1, C2-C5, C6-C13, C14+ et coke. La récupération quantitative et la séparation de chacune des cinq fractions permet une analyse moléculaire détaillée de chacune d'elles. The first part of this article describes an open pyrolysis system in order to characterize complex organic matter such as kerogen, coal, rock and oil asphaltenes and humic substances, etc. Pyrolysis effluents are recovered, fractionated quantitatively by liquid chromatography, and then they are analyzed by specific techniques such as gas chromatography and chromatography/mass-spectrometry coupling. The second part describes a pyrolysis technique in a closed system, used for the laboratory simulation of the thermal evolution of kerogens, asphaltenes or oils. A special effort has been made to give the mass and hydrogen balances for all pyrolysis products. For this, five classes have been distinguised with increasing molecular weight: C1, C2-C5, C6-C13, C14+ and coke. The quantitative recovery and the separation of each of the five fractions is used to make a detailed molecular analysis of each of

  10. A birds-eye view of biological connectivity in mangrove systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Christina; Sheaves, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    contributed to shifting the initial, historical perception of mangrove-ecosystem functioning from that of a simple system based on nutrient and energy retention, to a view that includes fish-facilitated energy export. In a similar way, understanding the nature and implications of mangrove connectivity through bird movements and migrations affords new possibilities for revising our view of the extent of functional links between mangroves and other ecosystems.

  11. The Isotropic Fractionator as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis in Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ivan E; Monti, Riccardo; Tropiano, Marta; Tomasi, Simone; Arbini, Alessia; Andrade-Moraes, Carlos-Humberto; Lent, Roberto; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    One major aim in quantitative and translational neuroscience is to achieve a precise and fast neuronal counting method to work on high throughput scale to obtain reliable results. Here, we tested the isotropic fractionator (IF) method for evaluating neuronal and non-neuronal cell loss in different models of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent: (i) ischemic brain damage; (ii) intraperitoneal injection with kainic acid (KA) to induce epileptic seizures; and (iii) monolateral striatal injection with quinolinic acid (QA) mimicking human Huntington's disease. All specimens were processed for IF method and cell loss assessed. Hippocampus from KA-treated rats and striatum from QA-treated rats were carefully dissected using a dissection microscope and a rat brain matrix. Ischemic rat brains slices were first processed for TTC staining and then for IF. In the ischemic group the cell loss corresponded to the neuronal loss suggesting that hypoxia primarily affects neurons. Combining IF with TTC staining we could correlate the volume of lesion to the neuronal loss; by IF, we could assess that neuronal loss also occurs contralaterally to the ischemic side. In the epileptic group we observed a reduction of neuronal cells in treated rats, but also evaluated the changes in the number of non-neuronal cells in response to the hippocampal damage. In the QA model, there was a robust reduction of neuronal cells on ipsilateral striatum. This neuronal cell loss was not related to a drastic change in the total number of cells, being overcome by the increase in non-neuronal cells, thus suggesting that excitotoxic damage in the striatum strongly activates inflammation and glial proliferation. We concluded that the IF method could represent a simple and reliable quantitative technique to evaluate the effects of experimental lesions mimicking human diseases, and to consider the neuroprotective/anti-inflammatory effects of different treatments in the whole

  12. VerSi. A method for the quantitative comparison of repository systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaempfer, T.U.; Ruebel, A.; Resele, G. [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Moenig, J. [GRS Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Decision making and design processes for radioactive waste repositories are guided by safety goals that need to be achieved. In this context, the comparison of different disposal concepts can provide relevant support to better understand the performance of the repository systems. Such a task requires a method for a traceable comparison that is as objective as possible. We present a versatile method that allows for the comparison of different disposal concepts in potentially different host rocks. The condition for the method to work is that the repository systems are defined to a comparable level including designed repository structures, disposal concepts, and engineered and geological barriers which are all based on site-specific safety requirements. The method is primarily based on quantitative analyses and probabilistic model calculations regarding the long-term safety of the repository systems under consideration. The crucial evaluation criteria for the comparison are statistical key figures of indicators that characterize the radiotoxicity flux out of the so called containment-providing rock zone (einschlusswirksamer Gebirgsbereich). The key figures account for existing uncertainties with respect to the actual site properties, the safety relevant processes, and the potential future impact of external processes on the repository system, i.e., they include scenario-, process-, and parameter-uncertainties. The method (1) leads to an evaluation of the retention and containment capacity of the repository systems and its robustness with respect to existing uncertainties as well as to potential external influences; (2) specifies the procedures for the system analyses and the calculation of the statistical key figures as well as for the comparative interpretation of the key figures; and (3) also gives recommendations and sets benchmarks for the comparative assessment of the repository systems under consideration based on the key figures and additional qualitative

  13. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Bsa type III secretion system effectors using hypersecreting mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Broek, Charles W; Chalmers, Kevin J; Stevens, Mark P; Stevens, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. One of the virulence factors critical for early stages of infection is the Burkholderia secretion apparatus (Bsa) Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS), a molecular syringe that injects bacterial proteins, called effectors, into eukaryotic cells where they subvert cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Although the Bsa T3SS itself is known to be important for invasion, intracellular replication, and virulence, only a few genuine effector proteins have been identified and the complete repertoire of proteins secreted by the system has not yet been fully characterized. We constructed a mutant lacking bsaP, a homolog of the T3SS "gatekeeper" family of proteins that exert control over the timing and magnitude of effector protein secretion. Mutants lacking BsaP, or the T3SS translocon protein BipD, were observed to hypersecrete the known Bsa effector protein BopE, providing evidence of their role in post-translational control of the Bsa T3SS and representing key reagents for the identification of its secreted substrates. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ), a gel-free quantitative proteomics technique, was used to compare the secreted protein profiles of the Bsa T3SS hypersecreting mutants of B. pseudomallei with the isogenic parent strain and a bsaZ mutant incapable of effector protein secretion. Our study provides one of the most comprehensive core secretomes of B. pseudomallei described to date and identified 26 putative Bsa-dependent secreted proteins that may be considered candidate effectors. Two of these proteins, BprD and BapA, were validated as novel effector proteins secreted by the Bsa T3SS of B. pseudomallei.

  14. Quantitative analysis of structural variations in corpus callosum in adults with multiple system atrophy (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debanjali; Sinha, Neelam; Saini, Jitender

    2017-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, non-curable, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects nervous system and movement, poses a considerable diagnostic challenge to medical researchers. Corpus callosum (CC) being the largest white matter structure in brain, enabling inter-hemispheric communication, quantification of callosal atrophy may provide vital information at the earliest possible stages. The main objective is to identify the differences in CC structure for this disease, based on quantitative analysis on the pattern of callosal atrophy. We report results of quantification of structural changes in regional anatomical thickness, area and length of CC between patient-groups with MSA with respect to healthy controls. The method utilizes isolating and parcellating the mid-sagittal CC into 100 segments along the length - measuring the width of each segment. It also measures areas within geometrically defined five callosal compartments of the well-known Witelson, and Hofer-Frahma schemes. For quantification, statistical tests are performed on these different callosal measurements. From the statistical analysis, it is concluded that compared to healthy controls, width is reduced drastically throughout CC for MSA group and as well as changes in area and length are also significant for MSA. The study is further extended to check if any significant difference in thickness is found between the two variations of MSA, Parkinsonian MSA and Cerebellar MSA group, using the same methodology. However area and length of this two sub-MSA group, no substantial difference is obtained. The study is performed on twenty subjects for each control and MSA group, who had T1-weighted MRI.

  15. A two-view ultrasound CAD system for spina bifida detection using Zernike features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Umut; Gürgen, Fikret; Varol, Füsun

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we address a very specific CAD (Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis) problem and try to detect one of the relatively common birth defects - spina bifida, in the prenatal period. To do this, fetal ultrasound images are used as the input imaging modality, which is the most convenient so far. Our approach is to decide using two particular types of views of the fetal neural tube. Transcerebellar head (i.e. brain) and transverse (axial) spine images are processed to extract features which are then used to classify healthy (normal), suspicious (probably defective) and non-decidable cases. Decisions raised by two independent classifiers may be individually treated, or if desired and data related to both modalities are available, those decisions can be combined to keep matters more secure. Even more security can be attained by using more than two modalities and base the final decision on all those potential classifiers. Our current system relies on feature extraction from images for cases (for particular patients). The first step is image preprocessing and segmentation to get rid of useless image pixels and represent the input in a more compact domain, which is hopefully more representative for good classification performance. Next, a particular type of feature extraction, which uses Zernike moments computed on either B/W or gray-scale image segments, is performed. The aim here is to obtain values for indicative markers that signal the presence of spina bifida. Markers differ depending on the image modality being used. Either shape or texture information captured by moments may propose useful features. Finally, SVM is used to train classifiers to be used as decision makers. Our experimental results show that a promising CAD system can be actualized for the specific purpose. On the other hand, the performance of such a system would highly depend on the qualities of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and comprehensiveness of image data.

  16. 基于System View的GSM系统电路设计%System View-based Design of GSM System Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春华; 胡江汇

    2011-01-01

    The SystemView is a tool for circuit and communication system design and simulation, which avoids the complicated hardware configuration and realizes the same circuit function.Therefore, it can complete the complicated communication system design without the advanced instrument.The global system for mobile (GSM) communication system circuits are designed with SystemView software in this paper, and verified by analyzing the input and output waveforms.%System View是一个用于电路与通信系统设计、仿真的动态分析工具,它实现了功能的软件化,避开了复杂的硬件搭建,在不具备先进仪器的条件下同样也能完成复杂的通信系统设计与仿真.利用System View软件设计GSM系统电路,通过分析其输入、输出波形验证设计电路的正确性.

  17. Dental functional status in a southern vietnamese adult population-a combined quantitative and qualitative classification system analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Pham, L.H.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the dental functional status of a Southern Vietnamese adult population using a new quantitative- and qualitative-based classification system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 2,809 dentate subjects aged =/> 20 years from urban and rural

  18. Quantitative Measurement of the Exponential Growth of Spreading Width of a Quantum Wave Packet in Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunQing; LIU Fang; XING YongZhong; ZUO Wei

    2002-01-01

    The quantum correspondence of the very peculiar phenomenon of classical chaos-the exponential instability of motion can be characterized by the initially exponential growth rate of the total uncertainty measurement of the propagating quantum wave packet. Our calculation indicates that quantitatively the growth rate is approximately twice the classical maximum Lyapunov exponent of the system.

  19. Groundwater Flow Systems and Their Response to Climate Change: A Need for a Water-System View Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel J. Carrillo-Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The interest in early hydrogeological studies was the aquifer unit, as it is the physical media that stores and permits groundwater transfers from the recharge zone to the discharge zone, making groundwater available to boreholes for water extraction. Approach: Recently, the aquifer concept has been complemented by the groundwater flow system theory, where groundwater may be defined by local, intermediate and regional flow systems. This implies that groundwater may travel from one aquifer unit to another aquifer unit (or more located above or below the former. Water in a local flow system takes months or several years to travel from the recharge to the discharge zone. These flows usually transfer the best natural quality water, so a reduction in precipitation would lessen recharge and diminish stored water, making them more vulnerable to contamination and variability in climatic conditions. Thus, there is a need to define local flows and to enhance actions to protect them from contamination and inefficient extraction. Results: In contrast to local flows, intermediate and regional flows travel from a region, or country, into another, with their recharge processes usually taking place in a zone located far away from the discharge zone (natural or by boreholes. There is a need of groundwater flow systems evaluation by means of an integrated wide system-view analysis of partial evidence represented by surface (soil and vegetation covers as well as hydraulic, isotopic and chemical groundwater characterization in the related geological media where the depth of actual basement rock is paramount as well as discharge areas. The flow system definition may assist in extraction management strategies to control related issues as subsidence, obtained the water quality change, desiccation of springs and water bodies, soil erosion, flooding response, contamination processes in recharge areas, among others; many of which could be efficiently

  20. Preparing systems engineering and computing science students in disciplined methods, quantitative, and advanced statistical techniques to improve process performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.

    The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization

  1. The Surgeon's View: Comparison of Two Digital Video Recording Systems in Veterinary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, Gessica; Caramello, Vittorio; Comino, Francesco; Gandini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Video recording and photography during surgical procedures are useful in veterinary medicine for several reasons, including legal, educational, and archival purposes. Many systems are available, such as hand cameras, light-mounted cameras, and head cameras. We chose a reasonably priced head camera that is among the smallest video cameras available. To best describe its possible uses and advantages, we recorded video and images of eight different surgical cases and procedures, both in hospital and field settings. All procedures were recorded both with a head-mounted camera and a commercial hand-held photo camera. Then sixteen volunteers (eight senior clinicians and eight final-year students) completed an evaluation questionnaire. Both cameras produced high-quality photographs and videos, but observers rated the head camera significantly better regarding point of view and their understanding of the surgical operation. The head camera was considered significantly more useful in teaching surgical procedures. Interestingly, senior clinicians tended to assign generally lower scores compared to students. The head camera we tested is an effective, easy-to-use tool for recording surgeries and various veterinary procedures in all situations, with no need for assistance from a dedicated operator. It can be a valuable aid for veterinarians working in all fields of the profession and a useful tool for veterinary surgical education.

  2. A text input system developed by using lips image recognition based LabVIEW for the seriously disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S C; Shao, C L; Liang, C K; Lin, S W; Huang, T H; Hsieh, M C; Yang, C H; Luo, C H; Wuo, C M

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a text input system for the seriously disabled by using lips image recognition based on LabVIEW. This system can be divided into the software subsystem and the hardware subsystem. In the software subsystem, we adopted the technique of image processing to recognize the status of mouth-opened or mouth-closed depending the relative distance between the upper lip and the lower lip. In the hardware subsystem, parallel port built in PC is used to transmit the recognized result of mouth status to the Morse-code text input system. Integrating the software subsystem with the hardware subsystem, we implement a text input system by using lips image recognition programmed in LabVIEW language. We hope the system can help the seriously disabled to communicate with normal people more easily.

  3. An international trial of quantitative PCR for monitoring Legionella in artificial water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J V; Lai, S; Exner, M; Lenz, J; Gaia, V; Casati, S; Hartemann, P; Lück, C; Pangon, B; Ricci, M L; Scaturro, M; Fontana, S; Sabria, M; Sánchez, I; Assaf, S; Surman-Lee, S

    2011-04-01

      To perform an international trial to derive alert and action levels for the use of quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the monitoring of Legionella to determine the effectiveness of control measures against legionellae.   Laboratories (7) participated from six countries. Legionellae were determined by culture and qPCR methods with comparable detection limits. Systems were monitored over ≥10 weeks. For cooling towers (232 samples), there was a significant difference between the log mean difference between qPCR (GU l(-1) ) and culture (CFU l(-1) ) for Legionella pneumophila (0·71) and for Legionella spp. (2·03). In hot and cold water (506 samples), the differences were less, 0·62 for Leg. pneumophila and 1·05 for Legionella spp. Results for individual systems depended on the nature of the system and its treatment. In cooling towers, Legionella spp. GU l(-1) always exceeded CFU l(-1) , and usually Legionella spp. were detected by qPCR when absent by culture. The pattern of results by qPCR for Leg. pneumophila followed the culture trend. In hot and cold water, culture and qPCR gave similar results, particularly for Leg. pneumophila. There were some marked exceptions with temperatures ≥50°C, or in the presence of supplementary biocides. Action and alert levels for qPCR were derived that gave results comparable to the application of the European Guidelines based on culture. Algorithms are proposed for the use of qPCR for routine monitoring.   Action and alert levels for qPCR can be adjusted to ensure public health is protected with the benefit that remedial actions can be validated earlier with only a small increase in the frequency of action being required.   This study confirms it is possible to derive guidelines on the use of qPCR for monitoring the control of legionellae with consequent improvement to response and public health protection. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging in a porcine ischemia model using a prototype spectral detector CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Levi, Jacob; Fares, Anas; Dhanantwari, Amar; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    We optimized and evaluated dynamic myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging on a prototype spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner. Simultaneous acquisition of energy sensitive projections on the SDCT system enabled projection-based material decomposition, which typically performs better than image-based decomposition required by some other system designs. In addition to virtual monoenergetic, or keV images, the SDCT provided conventional (kVp) images, allowing us to compare and contrast results. Physical phantom measurements demonstrated linearity of keV images, a requirement for quantitative perfusion. Comparisons of kVp to keV images demonstrated very significant reductions in tell-tale beam hardening (BH) artifacts in both phantom and pig images. In phantom images, consideration of iodine contrast to noise ratio and small residual BH artifacts suggested optimum processing at 70 keV. The processing pipeline for dynamic CTP measurements included 4D image registration, spatio-temporal noise filtering, and model-independent singular value decomposition deconvolution, automatically regularized using the L-curve criterion. In normal pig CTP, 70 keV perfusion estimates were homogeneous throughout the myocardium. At 120 kVp, flow was reduced by more than 20% on the BH-hypo-enhanced myocardium, a range that might falsely indicate actionable ischemia, considering the 0.8 threshold for actionable FFR. With partial occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery (FFR  <  0.8), perfusion defects at 70 keV were correctly identified in the LAD territory. At 120 kVp, BH affected the size and flow in the ischemic area; e.g. with FFR ≈ 0.65, the anterior-to-lateral flow ratio was 0.29  ±  0.01, over-estimating stenosis severity as compared to 0.42  ±  0.01 (p  <  0.05) at 70 keV. On the non-ischemic inferior wall (not a LAD territory), the flow ratio was 0.50  ±  0.04 falsely indicating an actionable ischemic condition in a healthy

  5. Quantitative correlation of the in vitro biological effect with parameters of molecular complexation in mutagen-interceptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchelnikov, Anatoly S; Evstigneev, Maxim P

    2014-09-21

    According to the theory of interceptor-protector action a quantitative link between the physico-chemical parameters of molecular complexation and in vitro biological effect in aromatic drug-interceptor systems must exist. In the present communication such link between relative change in mutagenicity of IQ-type aromatic mutagens on addition of aromatic interceptor molecules with equilibrium hetero-association constants of mutagen-interceptor complexation has been found using the published in vitro data in bacteria cell systems.

  6. Salivary gland branching morphogenesis: a quantitative systems analysis of the Eda/Edar/NFκB paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnick Michael

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectodysplasin-A appears to be a critical component of branching morphogenesis. Mutations in mouse Eda or human EDA are associated with absent or hypoplastic sweat glands, sebaceous glands, lacrimal glands, salivary glands (SMGs, mammary glands and/or nipples, and mucous glands of the bronchial, esophageal and colonic mucosa. In this study, we utilized EdaTa (Tabby mutant mice to investigate how a marked reduction in functional Eda propagates with time through a defined genetic subcircuit and to test the proposition that canonical NFκB signaling is sufficient to account for the differential expression of developmentally regulated genes in the context of Eda polymorphism. Results The quantitative systems analyses do not support the stated hypothesis. For most NFκB-regulated genes, the observed time course of gene expression is nearly unchanged in Tabby (EdaTa as compared to wildtype mice, as is NFκB itself. Importantly, a subset of genes is dramatically differentially expressed in Tabby (Edar, Fgf8, Shh, Egf, Tgfa, Egfr, strongly suggesting the existence of an alternative Eda-mediated transcriptional pathway pivotal for SMG ontogeny. Experimental and in silico investigations have identified C/EBPα as a promising candidate. Conclusion In Tabby SMGs, upregulation of the Egf/Tgfα/Egfr pathway appears to mitigate the potentially severe abnormal phenotype predicted by the downregulation of Fgf8 and Shh. Others have suggested that the buffering of the phenotypic outcome that is coincident with variant Eda signaling could be a common mechanism that permits viable and diverse phenotypes, normal and abnormal. Our results support this proposition. Further, if branching epithelia use variations of a canonical developmental program, our results are likely applicable to understanding the phenotypes of other branching organs affected by Eda (EDA mutation.

  7. Quantitative Caffeine Analysis Using a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J [ORNL; Deibel, Michael A. [Earlham College; Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 {mu}m/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 {mu}L) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by 8% or more) than the literature values.

  8. Constructing a LabVIEW-Controlled High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System: An Undergraduate Instrumental Methods Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eugene T.; Hill, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory exercise, students develop a LabVIEW-controlled high-performance liquid chromatography system utilizing a data acquisition device, two pumps, a detector, and fraction collector. The programming experience involves a variety of methods for interface communication, including serial control, analog-to-digital conversion, and…

  9. An Integrated System of Early Childhood Education and Care Governance in Turkey: Views of Policy-Makers, Practitioners, and Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gören Niron, Demet

    2013-01-01

    Despite a wealth of evidence showing the benefits of early childhood education and care (ECEC), in Turkey participation remains low and inequitably distributed, even though access to services is soaring. Drawing from previous findings, this paper will focus on different stakeholders' views on a more integrated system of ECEC governance in Turkey.…

  10. A Systemic View of the Learning and Differentiation of Scientific Concepts: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the incompleteness of a learning process, where students' personal, often undifferentiated concepts take on more scientific and differentiated form. With regard to such concept learning and differentiation, this study proposes a systemic view in which concepts are considered as…

  11. Constructing a LabVIEW-Controlled High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System: An Undergraduate Instrumental Methods Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eugene T.; Hill, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory exercise, students develop a LabVIEW-controlled high-performance liquid chromatography system utilizing a data acquisition device, two pumps, a detector, and fraction collector. The programming experience involves a variety of methods for interface communication, including serial control, analog-to-digital conversion, and…

  12. Quantitative analysis of Hedgehog gradient formation using an inducible expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodsky Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hedgehog (Hh family of secreted growth factors are morphogens that act in development to direct growth and patterning. Mutations in human Hh and other Hh pathway components have been linked to human diseases. Analysis of Hh distribution during development indicates that cholesterol modification and receptor mediated endocytosis affect the range of Hh signaling and the cellular localization of Hh. Results We have used an inducible, cell type-specific expression system to characterize the three-dimensional distribution of newly synthesized, GFP-tagged Hh in the developing Drosophila wing. Following induction of Hh-GFP expression in posterior producing cells, punctate structures containing Hh-GFP were observed in the anterior target cells. The distance of these particles from the expressing cells was quantified to determine the shape of the Hh gradient at different time points following induction. The majority of cholesterol-modified Hh-GFP was found associated with cells near the anterior/posterior (A/P boundary, which express high levels of Hh target genes. Without cholesterol, the Hh gradient was flatter, with a lower percentage of particles near the source and a greater maximum distance. Inhibition of Dynamin-dependent endocytosis blocked formation of intracellular Hh particles, but did not prevent movement of newly synthesized Hh to the apical or basolateral surfaces of target cells. In the absence of both cholesterol and endocytosis, Hh particles accumulated in the extracellular space. Staining for the Hh receptor Ptc revealed four categories of Hh particles: cytoplasmic with and without Ptc, and cell surface with and without Ptc. Interestingly, mainly cholesterol-modified Hh is detected in the cytoplasmic particles lacking Ptc. Conclusion We have developed a system to quantitatively analyze Hh distribution during gradient formation. We directly demonstrate that inhibition of Dynamin-dependent endocytosis is not

  13. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, M. C.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Selva, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Arráns, R.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  14. A novel CMOS image sensor system for quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays to detect food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Kim, Sanghyo; An, Jeong Ho

    2017-02-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is considered as one of the alternatives to the conventional PCR and it is an inexpensive portable diagnostic system with minimal power consumption. The present work describes the application of LAMP in real-time photon detection and quantitative analysis of nucleic acids integrated with a disposable complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. This novel system works as an amplification-coupled detection platform, relying on a CMOS image sensor, with the aid of a computerized circuitry controller for the temperature and light sources. The CMOS image sensor captures the light which is passing through the sensor surface and converts into digital units using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This new system monitors the real-time photon variation, caused by the color changes during amplification. Escherichia coli O157 was used as a proof-of-concept target for quantitative analysis, and compared with the results for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica to confirm the efficiency of the system. The system detected various DNA concentrations of E. coli O157 in a short time (45min), with a detection limit of 10fg/μL. The low-cost, simple, and compact design, with low power consumption, represents a significant advance in the development of a portable, sensitive, user-friendly, real-time, and quantitative analytic tools for point-of-care diagnosis.

  15. View-Invariant Visuomotor Processing in Computational Mirror Neuron System for Humanoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Farhan; Loo, Chu Kiong

    2016-01-01

    Mirror neurons are visuo-motor neurons found in primates and thought to be significant for imitation learning. The proposition that mirror neurons result from associative learning while the neonate observes his own actions has received noteworthy empirical support. Self-exploration is regarded as a procedure by which infants become perceptually observant to their own body and engage in a perceptual communication with themselves. We assume that crude sense of self is the prerequisite for social interaction. However, the contribution of mirror neurons in encoding the perspective from which the motor acts of others are seen have not been addressed in relation to humanoid robots. In this paper we present a computational model for development of mirror neuron system for humanoid based on the hypothesis that infants acquire MNS by sensorimotor associative learning through self-exploration capable of sustaining early imitation skills. The purpose of our proposed model is to take into account the view-dependency of neurons as a probable outcome of the associative connectivity between motor and visual information. In our experiment, a humanoid robot stands in front of a mirror (represented through self-image using camera) in order to obtain the associative relationship between his own motor generated actions and his own visual body-image. In the learning process the network first forms mapping from each motor representation onto visual representation from the self-exploratory perspective. Afterwards, the representation of the motor commands is learned to be associated with all possible visual perspectives. The complete architecture was evaluated by simulation experiments performed on DARwIn-OP humanoid robot.

  16. View-Invariant Visuomotor Processing in Computational Mirror Neuron System for Humanoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Dawood

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons are visuo-motor neurons found in primates and thought to be significant for imitation learning. The proposition that mirror neurons result from associative learning while the neonate observes his own actions has received noteworthy empirical support. Self-exploration is regarded as a procedure by which infants become perceptually observant to their own body and engage in a perceptual communication with themselves. We assume that crude sense of self is the prerequisite for social interaction. However, the contribution of mirror neurons in encoding the perspective from which the motor acts of others are seen have not been addressed in relation to humanoid robots. In this paper we present a computational model for development of mirror neuron system for humanoid based on the hypothesis that infants acquire MNS by sensorimotor associative learning through self-exploration capable of sustaining early imitation skills. The purpose of our proposed model is to take into account the view-dependency of neurons as a probable outcome of the associative connectivity between motor and visual information. In our experiment, a humanoid robot stands in front of a mirror (represented through self-image using camera in order to obtain the associative relationship between his own motor generated actions and his own visual body-image. In the learning process the network first forms mapping from each motor representation onto visual representation from the self-exploratory perspective. Afterwards, the representation of the motor commands is learned to be associated with all possible visual perspectives. The complete architecture was evaluated by simulation experiments performed on DARwIn-OP humanoid robot.

  17. Adaptive field-of-view imaging for efficient receive beamforming in medical ultrasound imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anup; Yoo, Yang Mo; Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Kim, Yongmin

    2008-09-01

    Quadrature demodulation-based phase rotation beamforming (QD-PRBF) is commonly used to support dynamic receive focusing in medical ultrasound systems. However, it is computationally demanding since it requires two demodulation filters for each receive channel. To reduce the computational requirements of QD-PRBF, we have previously developed two-stage demodulation (TSD), which reduces the number of lowpass filters by performing demodulation filtering on summation signals. However, it suffers from image quality degradation due to aliasing at lower beamforming frequencies. To improve the performance of TSD-PRBF with reduced number of beamforming points, we propose a new adaptive field-of-view (AFOV) imaging method. In AFOV imaging, the beamforming frequency is adjusted depending on displayed FOV size and the center frequency of received signals. To study its impact on image quality, simulation was conducted using Field II, phantom data were acquired from a commercial ultrasound machine, and the image quality was quantified using spatial (i.e., axial and lateral) and contrast resolution. The developed beamformer (i.e., TSD-AFOV-PRBF) with 1024 beamforming points provided comparable image resolution to QD-PRBF for typical FOV sizes (e.g., 4.6% and 1.3% degradation in contrast resolution for 160 mm and 112 mm, respectively for a 3.5 MHz transducer). Furthermore, it reduced the number of operations by 86.8% compared to QD-PRBF. These results indicate that the developed TSD-AFOV-PRBF can lower the computational requirement for receive beamforming without significant image quality degradation.

  18. A systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A; Chen, Henian

    2016-04-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for communication modalities of attention, affect, orientation, touch, and composite facial-visual engagement. Time-series approaches generated self- and interactive contingency estimates in each modality. Evidence supporting the following principles was obtained: (a) Significant moment-to-moment predictability within each partner (self-contingency) and between the partners (interactive contingency) characterizes mother-infant communication. (b) Interactive contingency is organized by a bidirectional, but asymmetrical, process: Maternal contingent coordination with infant is higher than infant contingent coordination with mother. (c) Self-contingency organizes communication to a far greater extent than interactive contingency. (d) Self- and interactive contingency processes are not separate; each affects the other in communication modalities of facial affect, facial-visual engagement, and orientation. Each person's self-organization exists in a dynamic, homoeostatic (negative feedback) balance with the degree to which the person coordinates with the partner. For example, those individuals who are less facially stable are likely to coordinate more strongly with the partner's facial affect and vice versa. Our findings support the concept that the dyad is a fundamental unit of analysis in the investigation of early interaction. Moreover, an individual's self-contingency is influenced by the way the individual coordinates with the partner. Our results imply that it is not appropriate to conceptualize interactive processes without simultaneously accounting for dynamically interrelated self-organizing processes.

  19. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, N.; Chatti, K.; Coulon, P.; Maı̂trejean, S.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.

    2004-07-01

    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of β radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as 99mTc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range γ-rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm 2 for 3H and 0.01 for 14C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10 4) and spatial resolution (50 μm for 3H or 99mTc to 150 μm for 32P or 18F (β +)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitted during the interaction with an intensified CCD camera. This property may suggest new potential applications, particularly in the field of β-rays selection according to their energy. This detector provides a new fast way to detect all β-emitting isotopes in biological samples up to 20 cm×25 cm (electrophoresis gels, hybridization membranes, tissue sections on glass slides, TLC plates and any other planar two-dimension samples). It is ideal for tritium detection, 500 times faster than classical film, thus maximizing the research productivity. (2) A micro imager is based on contact imaging through a solid scintillator sheet. Light emitted is amplified through an image intensifier tube and is analyzed with a CCD camera. The full field of view is smaller than the first one (24 mm×32 mm) but a better spatial resolution is obtained (typically 15 μm for 3H, 20 μm for 14C and 35S). The specifications of this detector are: efficiency 50-100% depending on isotope, linear response over a dynamic range of 10 4, smallest activity

  20. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ), sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO) genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems. PMID:26999129

  1. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ, sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems.

  2. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-03-18

    Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ), sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO) genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems.

  3. Prioritizing quantitative trait loci for root system architecture in tetraploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Marco; El-Feki, Walid; Nazemi, Ghasemali; Salvi, Silvio; Canè, Maria Angela; Colalongo, Maria Chiara; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Optimization of root system architecture (RSA) traits is an important objective for modern wheat breeding. Linkage and association mapping for RSA in two recombinant inbred line populations and one association mapping panel of 183 elite durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) accessions evaluated as seedlings grown on filter paper/polycarbonate screening plates revealed 20 clusters of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and number, as well as 30 QTLs for root growth angle (RGA). Divergent RGA phenotypes observed by seminal root screening were validated by root phenotyping of field-grown adult plants. QTLs were mapped on a high-density tetraploid consensus map based on transcript-associated Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for bread and durum wheat, thus allowing for an accurate cross-referencing of RSA QTLs between durum and bread wheat. Among the main QTL clusters for root length and number highlighted in this study, 15 overlapped with QTLs for multiple RSA traits reported in bread wheat, while out of 30 QTLs for RGA, only six showed co-location with previously reported QTLs in wheat. Based on their relative additive effects/significance, allelic distribution in the association mapping panel, and co-location with QTLs for grain weight and grain yield, the RSA QTLs have been prioritized in terms of breeding value. Three major QTL clusters for root length and number (RSA_QTL_cluster_5#, RSA_QTL_cluster_6#, and RSA_QTL_cluster_12#) and nine RGA QTL clusters (QRGA.ubo-2A.1, QRGA.ubo-2A.3, QRGA.ubo-2B.2/2B.3, QRGA.ubo-4B.4, QRGA.ubo-6A.1, QRGA.ubo-6A.2, QRGA.ubo-7A.1, QRGA.ubo-7A.2, and QRGA.ubo-7B) appear particularly valuable for further characterization towards a possible implementation of breeding applications in marker-assisted selection and/or cloning of the causal genes underlying the QTLs.

  4. Quantitative analysis of illusory movement : spatial filtering and line localization in the human visual system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Stam, Lucas; de Jong, Tim; Pijpker, Ben A.

    2014-01-01

    A narrow bar or line (width around 1 arcmin) between two fields of which the luminances are sinusoidally and in counterphase modulated in time appears to make an oscillatory movement. It is possible to annihilate this illusory movement with a real movement and thus to analyze this phenomenon quantit

  5. Quantitative isothermal phase-field simulations of peritectic phase transformation in FeMn system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Moraes Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation shows quantitative results for the peritectic phase transformation of FeMn alloys utilizing phase-field simulations in 1-D and 2-D. The phase-field method used was based on an adaptation of the proposal of Folch and Plapp [Phys. Rev. E, 2005, 72, 011602] for the eutectic reaction. The two stages of peritectic phase transformation, the peritectic reaction and the peritectic transformation, were investigated numerically utilizing this phase-field approach. The evolution of the phases was quantitatively analyzed during the peritectic transformation and the fractions of the phases at the end of the solidification were compared with the thermodynamic equilibrium, defined by the phase diagram, for the case of 1-D simulation with peritectic concentration. An assessment of the behavior of the concentration gradient in the γ-phase (the peritectic phase through time was also carried out and a mathematical function which describes the γ-phase thickness evolution was defined. Finally, 2-D simulations were performed to clearly identify the two stages of the peritectic phase transformation. The obtained results show two main facts: (1 the numerical model is able to simulate quantitatively this phase transformation; and, (2 this numerical tool can be utilized for investigating quantitatively some aspects (normally determined indirectly that are difficult to be determined by direct measurements in experimental works.

  6. Millimeter-resolution acousto-optic quantitative imaging in a tissue model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratchenia, A.; Molenaar, R.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the application of ultrasound modulated coherent light for quantitative determination of the ratio of dye concentrations and total concentration of absorbers in a blood vessel mimicking sample. A 3-mm-diam tube containing the mixture of dyes inside an Intralipid-based gel with o

  7. Quantitative assessment of hematopoietic chimerism by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of sequence polymorphism systems after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiao-ying; WANG Jing-zhi; ZHANG Xiao-hui; LI Jin-lan; LI Ling-di; LIU Kai-yan; HUANG Xiao-jun; LI Guo-xuan; QIN Ya-zhen; WANG Yu; WANG Feng-rong; LIU Dai-hong; XU Lan-ping; CHEN Huan; HAN Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Analysis of changes in recipient and donor hematopoietic cell origin is extremely useful to monitor the effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and sequential adoptive immunotherapy by donor lymphocyte infusions. We developed a sensitive, reliable and rapid real-time PCR method based on sequence polymorphism systems to quantitatively assess the hematopoietic chimerism after HSCT. Methods A panel of 29 selected sequence polymorphism (SP) markers was screened by real-time PCR in 101 HSCT patients with leukemia and other hematological diseases. The chimerism kinetics of bone marrow samples of 8 HSCT patients in remission and relapse situations were followed longitudinally. Results Recipient genotype discrimination was possible in 97.0% (98 of 101) with a mean number of 2.5 (1-7)informative markers per recipient/donor pair. Using serial dilutions of plasmids containing specific SP markers, the linear correlation (r) of 0.99, the slope between -3.2 and -3.7 and the sensitivity of 0.1% were proved reproducible. By this method, it was possible to very accurately detect autologous signals in the range from 0.1% to 30%. The accuracy of the method in the very important range of autologous signals below 5% was extraordinarily high (standard deviation <1.85%),which might significantly improve detection accuracy of changes in autologous signals early in the post-transplantation course of follow-up. The main advantage of the real-time PCR method over short tandem repeat PCR chimerism assays is the absence of PCR competition and plateau biases, with demonstrated greater sensitivity and linearity. Finally, we prospectively analyzed bone marrow samples of 8 patients who received allografts and presented the chimerism kinetics of remission and relapse situations that illustrated the sensitivity level and the promising clinical application of this method. Conclusion This SP-based real-time PCR assay provides a rapid, sensitive, and accurate quantitative

  8. Validity and sensitivity to change of the semi-quantitative OMERACT ultrasound scoring system for tenosynovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll-Danielsen, Mads; Østergaard, Mikkel; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the metric properties of the semi-quantitative OMERACT US scoring system vs a novel quantitative US scoring system for tenosynovitis, by testing its intra- and inter-reader reliability, sensitivity to change and comparison with clinical tenosynovitis scoring in...

  9. Isolated specialist or system integrated physician – different views on sickness certification among orthopaedic surgeons: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartling Malin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness certification is a frequent and sometimes problematic task for orthopaedic surgeons. Our aim was to explore how orthopaedic surgeons view their sick-listing commission and sick-listing practice. Methods Semi-structured interviews with seventeen orthopaedic surgeons from five orthopaedic clinics in four Swedish counties. The focus was on the experiences of these physicians in relation to handling of sickness certification. Phenomenographic analysis was performed to reveal differences in existing views. Results The orthopaedic surgeons' views on sick-listing seemed mainly to be a consequence of how they perceived their role in the healthcare system. Three categories were found: The "isolated specialists", whose work and responsibilities were confined to the orthopaedic clinic, and did not really include sickness certification; the "orthopaedic advisers", who saw themselves mainly as advice-givers in the general health care system and perceived sickness certification as part of their job; the "system-integrated physicians", who perceived the orthopaedic clinic as one part of the healthcare system and whose ultimate goal was to get the patient well functioning in her life again with regained work ability, seeing sick-listing as one of the instruments to achieve this. Some informants described difficulties in handling conflicting opinions with patients in relation to the need for sick-leave. Conclusion Orthopaedic surgeons certify a large proportion of total sickness benefits. Some orthopaedic surgeons may certify sickness benefits sub-optimally for patients and society due to a narrow view of their role in the health care system or due to poor skills in handling discordant opinions with the patient. This problem can be addressed at the level of the individual physician and at the system level.

  10. Quantitative analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using a potentiometric electronic tongue in a SIA flow system

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    An advanced potentiometric electronic tongue and Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) measurement system was applied for the quantitative analysis of mixtures containing three active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs): acetaminophen, ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, in the presence of various amounts of caffeine as interferent. The flow-through sensor array was composed of miniaturized classical ion-selective electrodes based on plasticized PVC membranes containing only ion exchangers. P...

  11. Moving to a consumption-based tax system: a quantitative assessment for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years, it has been a primary issue in tax policy whether the tax system ought to be built around income tax or consumption tax. Much of the interest in tax policy arises from the widespread belief that taxes on income and savings tend to lower long-run income by retarding the creation and expansion of firms and by discouraging workers and investments. Following this belief, Brazilian government has proposed a tax reform which, basically, replaces tax on investment and labor with tax on consumption. In this paper, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents to guide our quantitative assessment of the economic and distributional implications of such tax reform. The model is calibrated in such a way that it matches some selected features of the Brazilian economy. We also use the calibrated model to calculate the deadweight loss of each type of taxation and thus provide some rationality for that rearrangement in the tax system. The main result of the paper is that, even though the tax reform increases the asset accumulation, labor and output of economy, it also raises the welfare inequality as borrowing constrained individuals cannot take advantage of the drop in tax on savings.Uma importante questão em política tributária é se o sistema de tributação deve ser construído com foco na taxação da renda ou do consumo. Muito do interesse em política tributária vem da disseminada crença que as taxas sobre a renda e a poupança tendem à reduzir o produto de longo prazo, retardando a criação e a expansão das firmas e desencorajando a oferta de trabalho e o investimento. Seguindo essa idéia, o governo brasileiro propôs uma reforma tributária a qual, basicamente, substitui a taxação do investimento e do trabalho pela taxação do consumo. Nesse artigo, nós desenvolvemos um modelo dinâmico de equilíbrio geral com agentes heterogênios para investigar quantitativamente os efeitos econômicos e

  12. Repercussion of geometric and dynamic constraints on the 3D rendering quality in structurally adaptive multi-view shooting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Bey, Mohamed; Moughamir, Saïd; Manamanni, Noureddine

    2011-12-01

    in this paper a simulator of a multi-view shooting system with parallel optical axes and structurally variable configuration is proposed. The considered system is dedicated to the production of 3D contents for auto-stereoscopic visualization. The global shooting/viewing geometrical process, which is the kernel of this shooting system, is detailed and the different viewing, transformation and capture parameters are then defined. An appropriate perspective projection model is afterward derived to work out a simulator. At first, this latter is used to validate the global geometrical process in the case of a static configuration. Next, the simulator is used to show the limitations of a static configuration of this shooting system type by considering the case of dynamic scenes and then a dynamic scheme is achieved to allow a correct capture of this kind of scenes. After that, the effect of the different geometrical capture parameters on the 3D rendering quality and the necessity or not of their adaptation is studied. Finally, some dynamic effects and their repercussions on the 3D rendering quality of dynamic scenes are analyzed using error images and some image quantization tools. Simulation and experimental results are presented throughout this paper to illustrate the different studied points. Some conclusions and perspectives end the paper. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Ontogenesis of the Gut Microbiota Composition in Healthy, Full-Term, Vaginally Born and Breast-Fed Infants over the First 3 Years of Life: A Quantitative Bird's-Eye View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Nomoto, Koji; Kawashima, Kazunari; Nagata, Satoru; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    configuration and hence underpins the importance of considering not only the gestational age, birth, and feeding modes, and ethnic/geographical background but also other potential outstanding factors when investigating the elements shaping the early microbiota development. In summary, the data demonstrate a quantitative bird's-eye view of the ontogenesis of early-life gut microbiota in typically natural and healthy milieus and should be informative and facilitative for future studies exploring various aspects of the human gut microbiota.

  14. Modelling climate change in a Dutch polder system using the FutureViewR modelling suite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W.W.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Droogers, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hydrological modelling suite, FutureViewR, which enables spatial quantification of the complex interaction between climate change, land use and soil in the Quarles van Ufford (QvU) polder entangled in and under influence of the Dutch river delta. The soil¿wa

  15. CAFCR : A multi-view method for embedded systems architecting : Balancing genericity and specificity : Proefschrift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    This document addresses the way an architect can do his work. It shows many tools that belong to the architect toolkit: The CAFCR model, tools per 5 views (Customer Objectives, Application, Functional, Conceptual and Realization), Qualities, Story telling and Reasoning in multiple dimensions

  16. Quantitative mixture fraction measurements in combustion system via laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.

    2015-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been applied to quantitative mixture fraction measurements in flames. The measured spectra of different mixtures of natural gas and air are used to obtain the calibration parameters for local elemental mass fraction measurements and hence calculate the mixture fraction. The results are compared with the mixture fraction calculations based on the ratios of the spectral lines of H/N elements, H/O elements and C/(N+O) and they show good agreement within the reaction zone of the flames. Some deviations are observed outside the reaction zone. The ability of LIBS technique as a tool for quantitative mixture fraction as well as elemental fraction measurements in reacting and non-reacting of turbulent flames is feasible. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-objective intelligent coordinating optimization blending system based on qualitative and quantitative synthetic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-lin; MA Jie; GUI Wei-hua; YANG Chun-hua; ZHANG Chuan-fu

    2006-01-01

    A multi-objective intelligent coordinating optimization strategy based on qualitative and quantitative synthetic model for Pb-Zn sintering blending process was proposed to obtain optimal mixture ratio. The mechanism and neural network quantitative models for predicting compositions and rule models for expert reasoning were constructed based on statistical data and empirical knowledge. An expert reasoning method based on these models were proposed to solve blending optimization problem, including multi-objective optimization for the first blending process and area optimization for the second blending process, and to determine optimal mixture ratio which will meet the requirement of intelligent coordination. The results show that the qualified rates of agglomerate Pb, Zn and S compositions are increased by 7.1%, 6.5% and 6.9%, respectively, and the fluctuation of sintering permeability is reduced by 7.0 %, which effectively stabilizes the agglomerate compositions and the permeability.

  18. Geothermal Power Plant Maintenance: Evaluating Maintenance System Needs Using Quantitative Kano Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynir S. Atlason

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative Kano model is used in this study to identify which features are preferred by top-level maintenance engineers within Icelandic geothermal power plants to be implemented in a maintenance tool or software. Visits were conducted to the largest Icelandic energy companies operating geothermal power plants. Thorough interviews with chiefs of operations and maintenance were used as a basis for a quantitative Kano analysis. Thirty seven percent of all maintenance engineers at Reykjavik Energy and Landsvirkjun, responsible for 71.5% of the total energy production from geothermal resources in Iceland, answered the Kano questionnaire. Findings show that solutions focusing on (1 planning maintenance according to condition; (2 shortening documentation times; and (3 risk analysis are sought after by the energy companies but not provided for the geothermal sector specifically.

  19. A Quantitative Approach to the Formal Verification of Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    my parents Lia and Daniel and to my sister Daniela , for the help and support through- out my whole life. Even though they have not been present during...transient overload, scheduling of aperiodic tasks and priority granularity in communication scheduling [49]. For this rea - son, static scheduling algorithms...Quantitative temporal rea - soning. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Computer-Aided Verification. Springer- Verlag, 1990. [34] J. Fernandez, H

  20. Quantitative autoradiography of alpha particle emission in geo-materials using the Beaver™ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardini, Paul; Angileri, Axel; Descostes, Michael; Duval, Samuel; Oger, Tugdual; Patrier, Patricia; Rividi, Nicolas; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Toubon, Hervé; Donnard, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    In rocks or artificial geo-materials, radioactive isotopes emitting alpha particles are dispersed according to the mineralogy. At hand specimen scale, the achievement of quantitative chemical mapping of these isotopes takes on a specific importance. Knowledge of the distribution of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides is of prime interest to several disciplines, from the geochemistry of uranium deposits, to the dispersion of uranium mill tailings in the biosphere. The disequilibrium of these disintegration chains is also commonly used for dating. However, some prime importance isotopes, such as 226Ra, are complicated to localize in geo-materials. Because of its high specific activity, 226Ra is found in very low concentrations ( ppq), preventing its accurate localization in rock forming minerals. This paper formulates a quantitative answer to the following question: at hand specimen scale, how can alpha emitters in geo-materials be mapped quantitatively? In this study, we tested a new digital autoradiographic method (called the Beaver™) based on a Micro Patterned Gaseous Detector (MPGD) in order to quantitatively map alpha emission at the centimeter scale rock section. Firstly, for two thin sections containing U-bearing minerals at secular equilibrium, we compared the experimental and theoretical alpha count rates, measured by the Beaver™ and calculated from the uranium content, respectively. We found that they are very similar. Secondly, for a set of eight homemade standards made up of a mixture of inactive sand and low-radioactivity mud, we compared the count rates obtained by the Beaver™ and by an alpha spectrometer. The results indicate (i) a linearity between both count rates, and (ii) that the count obtained by the Beaver™ can be estimated from the count obtained by the alpha spectrometry using a factor of 0.82.

  1. High speed optical tomography system for quantitative measurement and visualization of dynamic features in a round jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMackin, L.; Hugo, R. J.; Bishop, K. P.; Chen, E. Y.; Pierson, R. E.; Truman, C. R.

    An optical tomography system that is capable of operating at frame rates of up to 5 kHz has been used to obtain spatially resolved cross-sectional temperature images of a heated round jet. These tomographic images show dynamic details in the evolving vortical flow structures found in the near field of the jet that are consistent with previous studies of low speed jet flow. Reconstructions produced by the system are quantitative temperature distributions of a planar cross section of the jet measuring temperature differences with a spatial resolution of 1.4 mm.

  2. Patients' choice of payment system in the Swedish Public Dental Service--views on dental care and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Anna-Lena; Ahlström, Birgitta; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate new knowledge of considerations and factors having impacted the patients' choice of payment system and their views on oral health. Moreover, their later attitudes to the prepaid risk-related payment system, having been enrolled or not, were explored. A qualitative design was chosen and data was collected through semi-structured interviews.Twenty patients in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in western Sweden were strategically sampled with reference to gender, age (older/younger adults), residence (rural/urban), and choice of payment system:fee-for-service or capitation plan.The interview guide covered areas concerning the payment systems, patient considerations before choosing system, views of their own oral health and experiences of received dental care within the chosen system.The analysis was performed according to basic principles of qualitative content analysis. The results revealed two themes expressing the latent content. In the theme "The individual's relation to the PDS", expectations of the care, feelings of safety and aspects of responsibility emerged.The theme"Health-related attitudes and perceptions" revealed that views on health and self-assessment of oral health influenced the patients' considerations. Moreover, the perceived influence on oral health and risk thinking emerged as important factors in this theme. The conclusion was that the individual's relation to the PDS together with his/her health-related attitudes and perceptions were the main factors impacting the choice of payment system in the PDS. A health promotion perspective should be applied, empowering the patients to develop their risk awareness and their own resources.

  3. Development of an analytical method for quantitative comparison of the e-waste management systems in Thailand, Laos, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Sharp, Alice

    2016-11-01

    This study employed a set of quantitative criteria to analyse the three parameters; namely policy, process, and practice; of the respective e-waste management systems adopted in Thailand, Laos, and China. Questionnaire surveys were conducted to determine the current status of the three parameters in relation to mobile phones. A total of five, three, and six variables under Policy (P1), Process (P2), and Practice (P3), respectively, were analysed and their weighted averages were calculated. The results showed that among the three countries surveyed, significant differences at pe-waste to recovery centres) and P306 (treating e-waste by retailers themselves). Based on the quantitative method developed in this study, Laos' e-waste management system received the highest scores in both P1 average (0.130) and P3 average (0.129). However, in the combined Ptotal, China scored the highest (0.141), followed by Laos (0.132) and Thailand (0.121). This method could be used to assist decision makers in performing quantitative analysis of complex issues associating with e-waste management in a country.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the brain-targeted delivery of drugs and model compounds using nano-delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Luba; Stepensky, David

    2013-10-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents drugs' permeability into the brain and limits management of brain diseases. Specialized drug delivery systems (DDSs) are utterly required to overcome this barrier and to achieve efficient delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. For this purpose, drug-encapsulating nanoparticles or vesicles, drug conjugates and other types of DDSs are being developed by many research groups worldwide. However, efficiency of the brain drug/DDS delivery and targeting is usually presented in indirect and vague form and it is hard to quantitatively estimate it based on the reported data. We searched for the scientific papers that were published in 1970-2012 that reported delivery of drugs or model compounds to the brain following systemic administration of DDSs via parenteral routes and contained quantitative data on brain drug/DDS delivery and targeting efficiency. We identified 123 publications that matched the search criteria and analyzed their experimental settings, formulation types, analytical methods, and the claimed efficiencies of drug/DDS brain targeting (brain/plasma or brain/tissue concentration ratios) and brain accumulation (% of the administered dose that accumulated in the brain). Based on the outcomes of this analysis, we describe the major research trends, discuss the efficiencies of the different drug/DDS brain targeting approaches, and provide recommendations for quantitative assessment of brain-targeting DDSs in the appropriately designed studies. © 2013.

  5. A Study on Quantitative Assessment of Design Specification of Reactor Protection System Software Using Bayesian Belief Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Chang, S. C.; Park, G. Y.; Kwon, K. C

    2007-02-15

    This report propose a method that can produce quantitative reliability of safety-critical software for PSA by making use of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). BBN has generally been used to model the uncertain system in many research fields. The proposed method was constructed by utilizing BBN that can combine the qualitative and the quantitative evidence relevant to the reliability of safety-critical software, and then can infer a conclusion in a formal and a quantitative way. A case study was also carried out with the proposed method to assess the quality of software design specification of safety-critical software that will be embedded in reactor protection system. The V and V results of the software were used as inputs for the BBN model. The calculation results of the BBN model showed that its conclusion is mostly equivalent to those of the V and V expert for a given input data set. The method and the results of the case study will be utilized in PSA of NPP. The method also can support the V and V expert's decision making process in controlling further V and V activities.

  6. 应用LabVIEW RT开发实时测试系统%Development of Real Time Test System Applying LabVIEW RT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯; 肖凯

    2003-01-01

    LabVIEW是一种优秀的图形化编程语言,而LabVIEWRT是它面向实时应用的扩展.本文剖析了LabVIEW RT硬件和软件体系结构,介绍主机LabVIEW程序与RT嵌入程序通讯的两种方法,提出LabVIEW RT应用程序的开发流程.

  7. Qualitative insight and quantitative analysis of the effect of temperature on the coercivity of a magnetic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Moskalenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the response of a magnetic system to an applied field can be understood qualitatively by considering variations in the energy surface characterizing the system and estimated quantitatively with rate theory. In the system analysed here, Fe/Sm-Co spring magnet, the width of the hysteresis loop is reduced to a half when temperature is raised from 25 K to 300 K. This narrowing can be explained and reproduced quantitatively without invoking temperature dependence of model parameters as has typically been done in previous data analysis. The applied magnetic field lowers the energy barrier for reorientation of the magnetization but thermal activation brings the system over the barrier. A 2-dimensional representation of the energy surface is developed and used to gain insight into the transition mechanism and to demonstrate how the applied field alters the transition path. Our results show the importance of explicitly including the effect of thermal activation when interpreting experiments involving the manipulation of magnetic systems at finite temperature.

  8. Smartphone-Based Dual-Modality Imaging System for Quantitative Detection of Color or Fluorescent Lateral Flow Immunochromatographic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yafei; Wang, Kan; Xiao, Kun; Qin, Weijian; Lu, Wenting; Tao, Wei; Cui, Daxiang

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, lateral flow immunochromatographic assays are increasingly popular as a diagnostic tool for point-of-care (POC) test based on their simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Hence, quantitative detection and pluralistic popular application are urgently needed in medical examination. In this study, a smartphone-based dual-modality imaging system was developed for quantitative detection of color or fluorescent lateral flow test strips, which can be operated anywhere at any time. In this system, the white and ultra-violet (UV) light of optical device was designed, which was tunable with different strips, and the Sobel operator algorithm was used in the software, which could enhance the identification ability to recognize the test area from the background boundary information. Moreover, this technology based on extraction of the components from RGB format (red, green, and blue) of color strips or only red format of the fluorescent strips can obviously improve the high-signal intensity and sensitivity. Fifty samples were used to evaluate the accuracy of this system, and the ideal detection limit was calculated separately from detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The results indicated that smartphone-controlled dual-modality imaging system could provide various POC diagnoses, which becomes a potential technology for developing the next-generation of portable system in the near future.

  9. Dual view x-ray inspection system for foreign objects detection in canned food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwen; Peng, Ningsong

    2013-04-01

    X-ray inspection technique for foreign objects in food products can determine and mark the presence of contaminants within the product by using image processing and pattern recognition technique on the X-ray transmission images. This paper presents the dual view X-ray inspection technique for foreign objects in food jar via analyzing the weak points of the traditional single view X-ray inspection technique. In addition, a prototype with the new technique is developed in accordance with glass splinters detection within the food jar (glass jar especially) which is a typical tickler. Some algorithms such as: adaptive image segmentation based on contour tracking, nonlinear arctan function transform and etc., are applied to improve image quality and achieve effective inspection results. The false recognition rate is effectively reduced and the detection sensitivity is highly enhanced. Finally the actual test results of this prototype are given.

  10. Adaptive strategies of remote systems operators exposed to perturbed camera-viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Manahan, Meera K.; Bierschwale, John M.; Sampaio, Carlos E.; Legendre, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary investigation of the use of perturbed visual feedback during the performance of simulated space-based remote manipulation tasks. The primary objective of this NASA evaluation was to determine to what extent operators exhibit adaptive strategies which allow them to perform these specific types of remote manipulation tasks more efficiently while exposed to perturbed visual feedback. A secondary objective of this evaluation was to establish a set of preliminary guidelines for enhancing remote manipulation performance and reducing the adverse effects. These objectives were accomplished by studying the remote manipulator performance of test subjects exposed to various perturbed camera-viewing conditions while performing a simulated space-based remote manipulation task. Statistical analysis of performance and subjective data revealed that remote manipulation performance was adversely affected by the use of perturbed visual feedback and performance tended to improve with successive trials in most perturbed viewing conditions.

  11. Impacts and Adaptation: From the Points of View of Financial Management System in Enterprise Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The integration of international economy dominated wi th the financial market leads to fierce competition. This requires firms impleme nt modern corporate financial mechanism. From the view of the current situation of financial management in China, we demonstrates the differences in financial m anagement between Chinese enterprises and international companies by describing detailed case studies of typical large enterprises in China. To transform the enterprise management mechanism, the enterprise fi...

  12. A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method to quantitate exogenous recombinant transferrin in cerebrospinal fluid: a potential approach for pharmacokinetic studies of transferrin-based therapeutics in the central nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunhai; Bobst, Cedric E; Kaltashov, Igor A

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is an 80 kDa iron-binding protein that is viewed as a promising drug carrier to target the central nervous system as a result of its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Among the many challenges during the development of Tf-based therapeutics, the sensitive and accurate quantitation of the administered Tf in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains particularly difficult because of the presence of abundant endogenous Tf. Herein, we describe the development of a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method for the sensitive and accurate quantitation of exogenous recombinant human Tf in rat CSF. By taking advantage of a His-tag present in recombinant Tf and applying Ni affinity purification, the exogenous human serum Tf can be greatly enriched from rat CSF, despite the presence of the abundant endogenous protein. Additionally, we applied a newly developed (18)O-labeling technique that can generate internal standards at the protein level, which greatly improved the accuracy and robustness of quantitation. The developed method was investigated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and lower limit of quantitation, all of which met the commonly accepted criteria for bioanalytical method validation.

  13. Quantitative Description of Obscuration Factors for Electro-Optical and Millimeter Wave Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-25

    developed-for artil- are given in pars. 2-4 and 2-5, respectively. Quantitative lery fire, obst uring smoke, and tank-generated vehicu- estimates of natural...any further tooling results in the formation of Ttauwmiltante Th(A, through the obst urant is taht It- dew or frost. Dew point depressiotn is the...E Whie smods Mitmic Kanhtr. N.M. 196’ , (Jb U# ation te 4’ 10rin rn; -*I Iste*,~ ANs. SMawt). I L william L, woule andl (IM34r I.hi’t. Id.1h~r

  14. Toward a real time stand-off submillimeter-wave imaging system with large field of view: quasi-optical system design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Erio; Llombart, Nuria

    2015-05-01

    In the frame-work of the European project CONSORTIS, a stand-off system for concealed object detections working at submillimeter-wave frequencies is being developed. The system is required to perform real-time image acquisition over a large field of view at a short range using both an active and a passive sensor operating in the frequency range from 250 to 600 GHz. In this contribution, the main trade-offs associated with the quasi-optical system design are presented. The imaging distance is from 2 m to 5 m range with a spatial resolution lower than 2 cm. Focal plane arrays will be used to achieve high imaging frame rates. Two configurations are considered in CONSORTIS: a sparse array of active transceivers and incoherent passive staring array with a large number of elements. Both cases use mechanical scanning to achieve the required field of view. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the different trade-offs driving the quasi-optical design: from the mechanical scanner considerations to the optical beam quality required over the whole field of view. This analysis starts from the fundamental limitations of the quasi-optical mechanical systems. The limitations of the optics are discussed considering a canonical elliptical reflector as a reference. After this fundamental analysis, we compare the performances of several practical standard implementations, based on dual-reflectors and lenses, with canonical geometries. It is shown that, at short ranges, the main limitation of the optical system is the poor beam quality associated with the wide angular field of view and none of the standard implementation fulfills the requirements. In the last section, a technique to overcome this limitation is investigated. In particular, the use of optics with oversized reflectors can significantly improve the performance over a larger field of view if the coma aberrations are limited by a good angular filter.

  15. Novel quantitative calibration approach for multi-configuration electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems using data acquired at multiple elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xihe; Mester, Achim; von Hebel, Christian; van der Kruk, Jan; Zimmermann, Egon; Vereecken, Harry; van Waasen, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems offer a great potential to obtain highly resolved layered electrical conductivity models of the shallow subsurface. State-of-the-art inversion procedures require quantitative calibration of EMI data, especially for short-offset EMI systems where significant data shifts are often observed. These shifts are caused by external influences such as the presence of the operator, zero-leveling procedures, the field setup used to move the EMI system and/or cables close by. Calibrations can be performed by using collocated electrical resistivity measurements or taking soil samples, however, these two methods take a lot of time in the field. To improve the calibration in a fast and concise way, we introduce a novel on-site calibration method using a series of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) values acquired at multiple elevations for a multi-configuration EMI system. No additional instrument or pre-knowledge of the subsurface is needed to acquire quantitative ECa data. By using this calibration method, we correct each coil configuration, i.e., transmitter and receiver coil separation and the horizontal or vertical coplanar (HCP or VCP) coil orientation with a unique set of calibration parameters. A multi-layer soil structure at the corresponding measurement location is inverted together with the calibration parameters using full-solution Maxwell equations for the forward modelling within the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm to find the optimum solution under a user-defined parameter space. Synthetic data verified the feasibility for calibrating HCP and VCP measurements of a custom made six-coil EMI system with coil offsets between 0.35 m and 1.8 m for quantitative data inversions. As a next step, we applied the calibration approach on acquired experimental data from a bare soil test field (Selhausen, Germany) for the considered EMI system. The obtained calibration parameters were applied to measurements over a 30 m

  16. Control and measuring system of a two-dimensional scanning nanopositioning stage based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Jun; Gao, Si-Tian; Li, Wei; Chen, Ben-Yong; Shi, Yu-Shu; Li, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A control and measuring system of two-dimensional nanopositioning stage is designed for the multiple selection and combinations control based on LabVIEW. The signal generator of the system can not only generate the commonly used control signals such as sine, square, triangle and sawtooth waves, but also generate special signals such as trapezoidal wave and step wave with DAQ data acquisition card. The step wave can be triggered by the other signals for the strict timing corresponding relation between X-Y control signals. Finally, the performance of the control system of two-dimensional nanopositioning stage is conducted by the heterodyne interferometer. The results show that the operation of the system is stable and reliable and the noise peak - valley value is superior to 2nm while the stage moving with 6nm step. The system can apply to the field requiring the precise control to the positioning stage in nano-measurement and metrology.

  17. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanRooyen Michael J

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment – combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies – may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and sustainable health system interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe this novel multimodal assessment using emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia as a model. Methods Integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies – system characterization and observation, focus group discussions, free-response questionnaires, and by-person factor analysis – were used to identify needs, problems, and potential barriers to the development of emergency medicine in Serbia. Participants included emergency and pre-hospital personnel from all emergency medical institutions in Belgrade. Results Demographic data indicate a loosely ordered network of part-time emergency departments supported by 24-hour pre-hospital services and an academic emergency center. Focus groups and questionnaires reveal significant impediments to delivery of care and suggest development priorities. By-person factor analysis subsequently divides respondents into distinctive attitudinal types, compares participant opinions, and identifies programmatic priorities. Conclusions By combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies, our Integrated Multimodal Assessment identified critical needs and barriers to emergency medicine development in Serbia and may serve as a model for future health system assessments in post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings.

  18. Design of optoelectronic imaging system with high resolution and large field-of-view based on dual CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hanglin; Hao, Qun; Hu, Yao; Cao, Jie; Wang, Shaopu; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    With the advantages of high resolution, large field of view and compacted size, optoelectronic imaging sensors are widely used in many fields, such as robot's navigation, industrial measurement and remote sensing. Many researchers pay more attention to improve the comprehensive performances of imaging sensors, including large field of view (FOV), high resolution, compact size and high imaging efficiency, etc. One challenge is the tradeoff between high resolution and large field of view simultaneously considering compacted size. In this paper, we propose an optoelectronic imaging system combining the lenses of short focal length and long focal length based on dual CMOS to simulate the characters of human eyes which observe object within large FOV in high resolution. We design and optimize the two lens, the lens of short focal length is used to search object in a wide field and the long one is responsible for high resolution imaging of the target area. Based on a micro-CMOS imaging sensor with low voltage differential transmission technology-MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface), we design the corresponding circuits to realize collecting optical information with high speed. The advantage of the interface is to help decreasing power consumption, improving transmission efficiency and achieving compacted size of imaging sensor. Meanwhile, we carried out simulations and experiments to testify the optoelectronic imaging system. The results show that the proposed method is helpful to improve the comprehensive performances of optoelectronic imaging sensors.

  19. Component neural systems for the creation of emotional memories during free viewing of a complex, real-world event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Botzung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the neural systems that contribute to the formation of complex, self-relevant emotional memories, dedicated fans of rival college basketball teams watched a competitive game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. During a subsequent recognition memory task, participants were shown video clips depicting plays of the game, stemming either from previously-viewed game segments (targets or from non-viewed portions of the same game (foils. After an old-new judgment, participants provided emotional valence and intensity ratings of the clips. A data driven approach was first used to decompose the fMRI signal acquired during free viewing of the game into spatially independent components. Correlations were then calculated between the identified components and post-scanning emotion ratings for successfully encoded targets. Two components were correlated with intensity ratings, including temporal lobe regions implicated in memory and emotional functions, such as the hippocampus and amygdala, as well as a midline fronto-cingulo-parietal network implicated in social cognition and self-relevant processing. These data were supported by a general linear model analysis, which revealed additional valence effects in fronto-striatal-insular regions when plays were divided into positive and negative events according to the fan’s perspective. Overall, these findings contribute to our understanding of how emotional factors impact distributed neural systems to successfully encode dynamic, personally-relevant event sequences.

  20. Quantitative monitoring of relative clock wander between signal and sampling sources in asynchronous optical under-sampling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huixing Zhang; Wei Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Optical performance monitoring using asynchronous optical or electrical sampling has gained considerable attention. Relative clock wander between data signal and sampling source is a typical occurrence in such systems. A method for the quantitative monitoring of the relative clock wander in asynchronous optical under-sampling system is presented. With a series of simulations, the clock wanders recovered using this method are in good agreement with the preset clock wanders of different amounts and frequencies for both RZ and NRZ signals. Hence, the reliability and robustness of the method are proven.%Optical performance monitoring using asynchronous optical or electrical sampling has gained considerable attention.Relative clock wander between data signal and sampling source is a typical occurrence in such systems.A method for the quantitative monitoring of the relative clock wander in asynchronous optical under-sampling system is presented.With a series of simulations,the clock wanders recovered using this method are in good agreement with the preset clock wanders of different amounts and frequencies for both RZ and NRZ signals.Hence,the reliability and robustness of the method are proven.

  1. Ontogenesis of the Gut Microbiota Composition in Healthy, Full-Term, Vaginally Born and Breast-Fed Infants over the First 3 Years of Life: A Quantitative Bird’s-Eye View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Nagpal

    2017-07-01

    microbiota configuration and hence underpins the importance of considering not only the gestational age, birth, and feeding modes, and ethnic/geographical background but also other potential outstanding factors when investigating the elements shaping the early microbiota development. In summary, the data demonstrate a quantitative bird’s-eye view of the ontogenesis of early-life gut microbiota in typically natural and healthy milieus and should be informative and facilitative for future studies exploring various aspects of the human gut microbiota.

  2. Revisiting the Association Between Television Viewing in Adolescence and Contact With the Criminal Justice System in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy.

  3. Quantitative Genetic Interactions Reveal Layers of Biological Modularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrao, Pedro; Cagney, Gerard; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2010-01-01

    In the past, biomedical research has embraced a reductionist approach, primarily focused on characterizing the individual components that comprise a system of interest. Recent technical developments have significantly increased the size and scope of data describing biological systems. At the same time, advances in the field of systems biology have evoked a broader view of how the underlying components are interconnected. In this essay, we discuss how quantitative genetic interaction mapping has enhanced our view of biological systems, allowing a deeper functional interrogation at different biological scales. PMID:20510918

  4. A revision of the Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic grading system with special consideration to grade II laryngoscopic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain khan Z

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to provide adequate respiration for the patient. The most vital element in providing functional respiration is the airway. No anesthetic is safe unless diligent efforts are devoted to maintaining an intact functional airway. Difficult intubation had been classified into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy by Cormack and Lehane in 1984. This grading system has been in use to evaluate and manage those patients with difficult airway by anesthesiologists. In clinical state, grades III and IV are quite rare, so the need for a modified Cormack and Lehane grading system was felt. The use of a modified Cormack-Lehane scoring system of laryngoscopic views during direct laryngoscopy, was previously examined in the Western population. Koh and his co-workers had examined this modified Cormack and Lehane grading system in Asian population in a study in Singapore General Hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate this scoring system in Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross sectional study, a modified version of the Cormack and Lehane grading system was evaluated in 300 patients requiring tracheal intubation. In the modified system, grade II (only part of the glottis is visible was divided into IIa (part of the cords is visible and IIb (only the arytenoids or the very posterior origin of the cords are visible. Difficult intubation was defined as requiring more than one laryngoscopy or the use of special equipments.Results: Sixty eight patients (22.7% were scored as grade IIa and 32 (7.7% as grade IIb. The prevalence of difficult intubation in grade IIb was significantly higher than patients in group IIa (47.8% vs. 2.9% respectively, Fisher's exact test, p= 0.001Conclusion: The modified grading system provides more information than the original Cormack and Lehane system."n 

  5. LabVIEW-based control and data acquisition system for cathodoluminescence experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, J; Schauer, P

    2011-11-01

    Computer automation of cathodoluminescence (CL) experiments using equipment developed in our laboratory is described. The equipment provides various experiments for CL efficiency, CL spectra, and CL time response studies. The automation was realized utilizing the graphical programming environment LabVIEW. The developed application software with procedures for equipment control and data acquisition during various CL experiments is presented. As the measured CL data are distorted by technical limitations of the equipment, such as equipment spectral sensitivity and time response, data correction algorithms were incorporated into the procedures. Some examples of measured data corrections are presented.

  6. Optimization and assessment of quantitative {sup 124}I imaging on a Philips Gemini dual GS PET/CT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Rebecca A.; Hooker, Claire A.; Partridge, Mike; Flux, Glenn D. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    Quantitative {sup 124}I PET imaging is challenging as {sup 124}I has a complex decay scheme. In this study the performance of a Philips Gemini dual GS PET/CT system was optimized and assessed for {sup 124}I. The energy window giving the maximum noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and NEMA 2001-NU2 image quality were measured. The activity concentration (AC) accuracy of images calibrated using factors from {sup 18}F and {sup 124}I decaying source measurements were investigated. The energy window 455-588 keV gave the maximum NECR of 9.67 kcps for 233 MBq. {sup 124}I and {sup 18}F image quality was comparable, although {sup 124}I background variability was increased. The average underestimation in AC in {sup 124}I images was 17.9 {+-} 2.9% for nonuniform background and 14.7 {+-} 2.9% for single scatter simulation (SSS) subtraction scatter correction. At 224 MBq the underestimation was 10.8 {+-} 11.3%, which is comparable to 7.7 {+-} 5.3% for {sup 18}F, but increased with decreasing activity. The best {sup 124}I PET quantitative accuracy was achieved for the optimized energy window, using SSS scatter correction and calibration factors from decaying {sup 124}I source measurements. The quantitative accuracy for {sup 124}I was comparable to that for {sup 18}F at high activities of 224 MBq but diminishing with decreasing activity. Specific corrections for prompt {gamma}-photons may further improve the quantitative accuracy. (orig.)

  7. Simulation of a Process Control System with LabVIEW SIT%基于LabVIEW SIT的过程控制系统仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向学军; 刘平; 杨盛

    2006-01-01

    首先介绍了虚拟仪器软件LabVIEW 及simulation interface toolkit(SIT),利用LabVIEW的可视化技术,直观、生动地模拟工业系统的运行状况,可以使仿真具有更好的效果.LabVIEW SIT可以快速地将LabVIEW与Matlab/Simulink结合进行系统的仿真.以一个二阶液位过程控制系统为例介绍了基于LabVIEW SIT的过程控制系统仿真的设计.

  8. A high-throughput qPCR system for simultaneous quantitative detection of dairy Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Musemma K.; Krych, Lukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S.

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous quantitative detection of Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis and Leuconostoc species bacteriophages (phages) has not been reported in dairies using undefined mixed-strain DL-starters, probably due to the lack of applicable methods. We optimized a high-throughput qPCR system that allows simultaneous quantitative detection of Lc. lactis 936 (now SK1virus), P335, c2 (now C2virus) and Leuconostoc phage groups. Component assays are designed to have high efficiencies and nearly the same dynamic detection ranges, i.e., from ~1.1 x 105 to ~1.1 x 101 phage genomes per reaction, which corresponds to ~9 x 107 to ~9 x 103 phage particles mL-1 without any additional up-concentrating steps. The amplification efficiencies of the corresponding assays were 100.1±2.6, 98.7±2.3, 101.0±2.3 and 96.2±6.2. The qPCR system was tested on samples obtained from a dairy plant that employed traditional mother-bulk-cheese vat system. High levels of 936 and P335 phages were detected in the mother culture and the bulk starter, but also in the whey samples. Low levels of phages were detected in the cheese milk samples. PMID:28339484

  9. Integrated Smartphone-App-Chip System for On-Site Parts-Per-Billion-Level Colorimetric Quantitation of Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochun; Yang, Fan; Wong, Jessica X H; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2017-09-05

    We demonstrate herein an integrated, smartphone-app-chip (SPAC) system for on-site quantitation of food toxins, as demonstrated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), at parts-per-billion (ppb) level in food products. The detection is based on an indirect competitive immunoassay fabricated on a transparent plastic chip with the assistance of a microfluidic channel plate. A 3D-printed optical accessory attached to a smartphone is adapted to align the assay chip and to provide uniform illumination for imaging, with which high-quality images of the assay chip are captured by the smartphone camera and directly processed using a custom-developed Android app. The performance of this smartphone-based detection system was tested using both spiked and moldy corn samples; consistent results with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were obtained. The achieved detection limit (3 ± 1 ppb, equivalent to μg/kg) and dynamic response range (0.5-250 ppb) meet the requested testing standards set by authorities in China and North America. We envision that the integrated SPAC system promises to be a simple and accurate method of food toxin quantitation, bringing much benefit for rapid on-site screening.

  10. Three-dimensional video presentation of microsurgery by the cross-eyed viewing method using a high-definition video system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakawa, Yuzo; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Goto, Takeo; Ohata, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) video recording of microsurgery is a more promising tool for presentation and education of microsurgery than conventional two-dimensional video systems, but has not been widely adopted partly because 3-D image processing of previous 3-D video systems is complicated and observers without optical devices cannot visualize the 3-D image. A new technical development for 3-D video presentation of microsurgery is described. Microsurgery is recorded with a microscope equipped with a single high-definition (HD) video camera. This 3-D video system records the right- and left-eye views of the microscope simultaneously as single HD data with the use of a 3-D camera adapter: the right- and left-eye views of the microscope are displayed separately on the right and left sides, respectively. The operation video is then edited with video editing software so that the right-eye view is displayed on the left side and left-eye view is displayed on the right side. Consequently, a 3-D video of microsurgery can be created by viewing the edited video by the cross-eyed stereogram viewing method without optical devices. The 3-D microsurgical video provides a more accurate view, especially with regard to depth, and a better understanding of microsurgical anatomy. Although several issues are yet to be addressed, this 3-D video system is a useful method of recording and presenting microsurgery for 3-D viewing with currently available equipment, without optical devices.

  11. A bench-top K X-ray fluorescence system for quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticles for biological sample diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, K., E-mail: k.ricketts@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Surgery and Interventional Sciences, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Guazzoni, C.; Castoldi, A. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria Politecnico di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano P.za Leonardo da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Royle, G. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-21

    Gold nanoparticles can be targeted to biomarkers to give functional information on a range of tumour characteristics. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques offer potential quantitative measurement of the distribution of such heavy metal nanoparticles. Biologists are developing 3D tissue engineered cellular models on the centimetre scale to optimise targeting techniques of nanoparticles to a range of tumour characteristics. Here we present a high energy bench-top K-X-ray fluorescence system designed for sensitivity to bulk measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration for intended use in such thick biological samples. Previous work has demonstrated use of a L-XRF system in measuring gold concentrations but being a low energy technique it is restricted to thin samples or superficial tumours. The presented system comprised a high purity germanium detector and filtered tungsten X-ray source, capable of quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration of thicker samples. The developed system achieved a measured detection limit of between 0.2 and 0.6 mgAu/ml, meeting specifications of biologists and being approximately one order of magnitude better than the detection limit of alternative K-XRF nanoparticle detection techniques. The scatter-corrected K-XRF signal of gold was linear with GNP concentrations down to the detection limit, thus demonstrating potential in GNP concentration quantification. The K-XRF system demonstrated between 5 and 9 times less sensitivity than a previous L-XRF bench-top system, due to a fundamental limitation of lower photoelectric interaction probabilities at higher K-edge energies. Importantly, the K-XRF technique is however less affected by overlying thickness, and so offers future potential in interrogating thick biological samples.

  12. Quantitative assessment of graded burn wounds using a commercial and research grade laser speckle imaging (LSI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponticorvo, A.; Rowland, R.; Yang, B.; Lertsakdadet, B.; Crouzet, C.; Bernal, N.; Choi, B.; Durkin, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Burn wounds are often characterized by injury depth, which then dictates wound management strategy. While most superficial burns and full thickness burns can be diagnosed through visual inspection, clinicians experience difficulty with accurate diagnosis of burns that fall between these extremes. Accurately diagnosing burn severity in a timely manner is critical for starting the appropriate treatment plan at the earliest time points to improve patient outcomes. To address this challenge, research groups have studied the use of commercial laser Doppler imaging (LDI) systems to provide objective characterization of burn-wound severity. Despite initial promising findings, LDI systems are not commonplace in part due to long acquisition times that can suffer from artifacts in moving patients. Commercial LDI systems are being phased out in favor of laser speckle imaging (LSI) systems that can provide similar information with faster acquisition speeds. To better understand the accuracy and usefulness of commercial LSI systems in burn-oriented research, we studied the performance of a commercial LSI system in three different sample systems and compared its results to a research-grade LSI system in the same environments. The first sample system involved laboratory measurements of intralipid (1%) flowing through a tissue simulating phantom, the second preclinical measurements in a controlled burn study in which wounds of graded severity were created on a Yorkshire pig, and the third clinical measurements involving a small sample of clinical patients. In addition to the commercial LSI system, a research grade LSI system that was designed and fabricated in our labs was used to quantitatively compare the performance of both systems and also to better understand the "Perfusion Unit" output of commercial systems.

  13. Design of experiment system based on LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW的实验系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲志燕

    2015-01-01

    提出构建远程实验室的概念,采用B/S结构设计,利用LabVIEW 8.6和Microsoft Office Access 2007开发该实验系统。运用LabVIEW编程语言,建立友好的人机界面,实现注册、登录,虚拟实验,资源链接等功能,实现在局域网内信息的动态、交互的管理,并为培养学生自主性学习提供一种有效的实现方案。%This thesis puts forward the concept of remote laboratory construction,using B/S structure design to devel-op the experimental system with Lab VIEW 8.6 and Microsoft Office Access 2007.A friendly man-machine interface is established by LabVIEW programming language to implement the registration login management,conduct experi-ments,resource links and other functions and achieve a dynamic,interactive information management within the LAN.This thesis provides an effective implementation scheme for the cultivation of students'autonomous learning.

  14. A System View on Iterative MIMO Detection: Dynamic Sphere Detection versus Fixed Effort List Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gimmler-Dumont

    2012-01-01

    reliability information is fed back from the channel decoder to the MIMO detector. In this paper, we derive a basic framework to compare different soft-input soft-output MIMO detectors in open- and closed-loop systems. Within this framework, we analyze a depth-first sphere detector and a breadth-first fixed effort detector for different application scenarios and their effects on area and energy efficiency on the whole system. We present all system components under open- and closed-loop system aspects and determine the overall implementation cost for changing an open-loop system in a closed-loop system.

  15. Reliability Assessment of Fuel Cell System - A Framework for Quantitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Shinae; Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell (FC) technologies have been developed to overcome the operational and environmental challenges associated with using conventional power sources. Telecommunication industry, in particular, has implemented FC systems for the backup power function. The designers and manufacturers...... of such FC systems have great interest in verifying the performance and safety of their systems. Reliability assessment is designated to support decision-making about the optimal design and the operation strategies for FC systems to be commercial viable. This involves the properties of the system...... such as component failures, the system architecture, and operational strategies. This paper suggests an approach that includes Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Reliability Block Diagram (RBD). For a case study, and the service lifetime of a commercial 5 kW Proton Exchange...

  16. An evaluation of new circle system of anesthesia. Quantitative anesthesia with isoflurane in new zealand rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca,Neuber M.; Saul Goldenberg; Duvaldo Eurides; Novo, Neil F; Cirilo A. P. Lima

    1997-01-01

    A small circuit system of anesthesia was developed by Fonseca and Goldenberg in 1993. The authors used in this study New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits under closed system anesthetic regiment by insoflurane. Twenty male adult New Zealand rabbits were distributed in two groups of ten animals. No premedicant drugs were given. Endotraqueal intubation was made after intravenous administration of propofol (10mg/kg). Insoflurane was used to anesthesia management, administred by lowflow closed system t...

  17. The View of Principals on Standards Based Evaluation Systems and Their Role as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, James Allen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the implementation of standards based evaluation systems, specifically Georgia's Teacher Keys Effectiveness System, affects the principals' role of instructional leader. Using a modified Delphi study, principals from a large urban/suburban school system, gave feedback on three questions: how has their role changed; are they…

  18. Introducing nonlinear, multivariate 'Predictor Surfaces' for quantitative modeling of chemical systems with higher-order, coupled predictor variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Rebecca B; McConico, Morgan; Landry, Currie; Tran, Tho; Vogt, Frank

    2012-10-09

    Innovations in chemometrics are required for studies of chemical systems which are governed by nonlinear responses to chemical parameters and/or interdependencies (coupling) among these parameters. Conventional and linear multivariate models have limited use for quantitative and qualitative investigations of such systems because they are based on the assumption that the measured data are simple superpositions of several input parameters. 'Predictor Surfaces' were developed for studies of more chemically complex systems such as biological materials in order to ensure accurate quantitative analyses and proper chemical modeling for in-depth studies of such systems. Predictor Surfaces are based on approximating nonlinear multivariate model functions by multivariate Taylor expansions which inherently introduce the required coupled and higher-order predictor variables. As proof-of-principle for the Predictor Surfaces' capabilities, an application from environmental analytical chemistry was chosen. Microalgae cells are known to sensitively adapt to changes in environmental parameters such as pollution and/or nutrient availability and thus have potential as novel in situ sensors for environmental monitoring. These adaptations of the microalgae cells are reflected in their chemical signatures which were then acquired by means of FT-IR spectroscopy. In this study, the concentrations of three nutrients, namely inorganic carbon and two nitrogen containing ions, were chosen. Biological considerations predict that changes in nutrient availability produce a nonlinear response in the cells' biomass composition; it is also known that microalgae need certain nutrient mixes to thrive. The nonlinear Predictor Surfaces were demonstrated to be more accurate in predicting the values of these nutrients' concentrations than principal component regression. For qualitative chemical studies of biological systems, the Predictor Surfaces themselves are a novel tool as they visualize

  19. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J.; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T.; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules.

  20. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L; Doya, Kenji; Helmich, Rick C; Dirkx, Michiel; Houk, James; Jörntell, Henrik; Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Galea, Joseph M; Miall, R Chris; Popa, Traian; Kishore, Asha; Verschure, Paul F M J; Zucca, Riccardo; Herreros, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system across a range of motor and cognitive functions. The paper includes theoretical and empirical contributions, which cover the following topics: recent evidence supporting the dynamical interplay between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortical areas in humans and other animals; theoretical neuroscience perspectives and empirical evidence on the reciprocal influences between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex in learning and control processes; and data suggesting possible roles of the cerebellum in basal ganglia movement disorders. Although starting from different backgrounds and dealing with different topics, all the contributors agree that viewing the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. The paper reports the most advanced perspectives on the role of the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system and illustrates other elements of consensus as well as disagreements and open questions in the field.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of a new prosthetic suspension system with two existing suspension systems for lower limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Gholizadeh, Hossien; Ali, Sadeeq; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a newly designed magnetic suspension system with that of two existing suspension methods on pistoning inside the prosthetic socket and to compare satisfaction and perceived problems among transtibial amputees. In this prospective study, three lower limb prostheses with three different suspension systems were fabricated for ten transtibial amputees. The participants used each of the three prostheses for 1 mo in random order. Pistoning inside the prosthetic socket was measured by motion analysis system. The Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire was used to evaluate satisfaction and perceived problems with each suspension system. The lowest pistoning motion was found with the suction system compared with the other two suspension systems (P < 0.05). The new suspension system showed peak pistoning values similar to that of the pin lock system (P = 0.086). The results of the questionnaire survey revealed significantly higher satisfaction rates with the new system than with the other two systems in donning and doffing, walking, uneven walking, stair negotiation, and overall satisfaction (P < 0.05). The new suspension system has the potential to be used as an alternative to the available suspension systems. The pistoning motion was comparable to that of the other two systems. The new system showed compatible prosthetic suspension with the other two systems (suction and pin lock). The satisfaction with donning and doffing was high with the magnetic system. Moreover, the subjects reported fewer problems with the new system.

  2. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%. Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2% and policymakers in the government (40.5%. Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%, disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%, interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%, and involved them in their research (19.8%. Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%, practical constraints to implementation (66%, non-receptive policy environment (61.3%, and politically sensitive findings (57.7% hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to

  3. Is Weapon System Cost Growth Increasing? A Quantitative Assessment of Completed and Ongoing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    monitor was Jay Jordan, technical director of the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency. Other RAND Project AIR FORCE documents that address weapon system...Systems, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, MG-415-AF, 2006. As of January 15, 2007: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG415/ Asher , Norman J

  4. Review and quantitative assessment of ex situ household rainwater harvesting systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moges, G.; Hengsdijk, H.; Jansen, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Ex situ household rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems have been introduced at a large scale in Ethiopia to increase the water availability for smallholders through supplementary irrigation. The first objective of this paper is to review the performance of these systems in Ethiopia based on various as

  5. Quantitative Modeling of Human Performance in Information Systems. Technical Research Note 232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James D.

    1974-01-01

    A general information system model was developed which focuses on man and considers the computer only as a tool. The ultimate objective is to produce a simulator which will yield measures of system performance under different mixes of equipment, personnel, and procedures. The model is structured around three basic dimensions: (1) data flow and…

  6. Demonstrate Capabilities of Digital Graphics System to Obtain Quantitative Information from Flow Visualization Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    74- LOi 4-J- to - 0 1.1 CAQS Gii LO CCD s- U-o.- a) LL w II C~C L- SECTION III COMPUTER GRAPHICS IMAGE PROCESSING SYSTEM The computer graphics and...provide the necessary input to the digitial graphics system, a standard composite video signal had to be provided. A Panasonic WV-1800 High Resolution

  7. Efficiency and Equity within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Kerem, Kaie; Lauri, Triin

    2013-01-01

    We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice…

  8. Challenges of interdisciplinary research: reconciling qualitative and quantitative methods for understanding human-landscape systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

  9. Quantitative study on experimentally observed poroelastic behavior of Berea sandstone in two-phase fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiroki; Aichi, Masaatsu; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Yamamoto, Hajime; Ogawa, Toyokazu; Aoki, Tomoyuki

    2014-08-01

    Coupled two-phase fluid flow and poroelastic deformation of Berea sandstone is studied through laboratory experiment and numerical simulation. In the experiment, compressed air was infiltrated from the bottom of a water-saturated cylindrical Berea sandstone sample under hydrostatic external stress condition. Both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample showed sudden extension and monotonic and gradual extension afterward. Numerical simulation based on thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations was conducted in order to quantitatively analyze the experimental results. In a simulation assuming isotropy of material properties, the volumetric discharge rate of water at the outlet and one of the axial, circumferential, and volumetric strains at half the height of the sample were reproduced well by each parameter set, while the other two strains were not. When introducing transverse isotropy, all the experimental data were reproduced well. In addition, the effect of saturation dependency of Bishop's effective stress coefficient on the deformation behavior of porous media was discussed, and it was found that strains, both axial and circumferential, are sensitive to the coefficient.

  10. Design of freeform imaging systems with linear field-of-view using a construction and iteration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tong; Zhu, Jun; Jin, Guofan

    2014-02-10

    In this paper, a design method based on a construction and iteration process is proposed for designing freeform imaging systems with linear field-of-view (FOV). The surface contours of the desired freeform surfaces in the tangential plane are firstly designed to control the tangential rays of multiple field angles and different pupil coordinates. Then, the image quality is improved with an iterative process. The design result can be taken as a good starting point for further optimization. A freeform off-axis scanning system is designed as an example of the proposed method. The convergence ability of the construction and iteration process to design a freeform system from initial planes is validated. The MTF of the design result is close to the diffraction limit and the scanning error is less than 1 μm. This result proves that good image quality and scanning linearity were achieved.

  11. [Research on the range of motion measurement system for spine based on LabVIEW image processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Deng, Linhong; Lu, Hu; He, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A measurement system based on the image processing technology and developed by LabVIEW was designed to quickly obtain the range of motion (ROM) of spine. NI-Vision module was used to pre-process the original images and calculate the angles of marked needles in order to get ROM data. Six human cadaveric thoracic spine segments T7-T10 were selected to carry out 6 kinds of loads, including left/right lateral bending, flexion, extension, cis/counterclockwise torsion. The system was used to measure the ROM of segment T8-T9 under the loads from 1 Nm to 5 Nm. The experimental results showed that the system is able to measure the ROM of the spine accurately and quickly, which provides a simple and reliable tool for spine biomechanics investigators.

  12. [Research on the range of motion measurement system for spine based on LabVIEW image processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Deng, Linhong; Lu, Hu; He, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A measurement system based on the image processing technology and developed by LabVIEW was designed to quickly obtain the range of motion (ROM) of spine. NI-Vision module was used to pre-process the original images and calculate the angles of marked needles in order to get ROM data. Six human cadaveric thoracic spine segments T7-T10 were selected to carry out 6 kinds of loads, including left/right lateral bending, flexion, extension, cis/counterclockwise torsion. The system was used to measure the ROM of segment T8-T9 under the loads from 1 Nm to 5 Nm. The experimental results showed that the system is able to measure the ROM of the spine accurately and quickly, which provides a simple and reliable tool for spine biomechanics investigators.

  13. Acquisition of quantitative physiological data and computerized image reconstruction using a single scan TV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    A single-scan radiography system has been interfaced to a minicomputer, and the combined system has been used with a variety of fluoroscopic systems and image intensifiers available in clinical facilities. The system's response range is analyzed, and several applications are described. These include determination of the gray scale for typical X-ray-fluoroscopic-television chains, measurement of gallstone volume in patients, localization of markers or other small anatomical features, determinations of organ areas and volumes, computer reconstruction of tomographic sections of organs in motion, and computer reconstruction of transverse axial body sections from fluoroscopic images. It is concluded that this type of system combined with a minimum of statistical processing shows excellent capabilities for delineating small changes in differential X-ray attenuation.

  14. Quantitative Gait Analysis Using a Motorized Treadmill System Sensitively Detects Motor Abnormalities in Mice Expressing ATPase Defective Spastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, James W; Allison, Rachel; Reid, Evan

    2016-01-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are genetic conditions in which there is progressive axonal degeneration in the corticospinal tract. Autosomal dominant mutations, including nonsense, frameshift and missense changes, in the gene encoding the microtubule severing ATPase spastin are the most common cause of HSP in North America and northern Europe. In this study we report quantitative gait analysis using a motorized treadmill system, carried out on mice knocked-in for a disease-associated mutation affecting a critical residue in the Walker A motif of the spastin ATPase domain. At 4 months and at one year of age homozygous mutant mice had a number of abnormal gait parameters, including in stride length and stride duration, compared to heterozygous and wild-type littermates. Gait parameters in heterozygous animals did not differ from wild-type littermates. We conclude that quantitative gait analysis using the DigiGait system sensitively detects motor abnormalities in a hereditary spastic paraplegia model, and would be a useful method for analyzing the effects of pharmacological treatments for HSP.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of the Trends Exhibited by the Three Interdisciplinary Biological Sciences: Biophysics, Bioinformatics, and Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jonghoon; Park, Seyeon; Venkat, Aarya; Gopinath, Adarsh

    2015-12-01

    New interdisciplinary biological sciences like bioinformatics, biophysics, and systems biology have become increasingly relevant in modern science. Many papers have suggested the importance of adding these subjects, particularly bioinformatics, to an undergraduate curriculum; however, most of their assertions have relied on qualitative arguments. In this paper, we will show our metadata analysis of a scientific literature database (PubMed) that quantitatively describes the importance of the subjects of bioinformatics, systems biology, and biophysics as compared with a well-established interdisciplinary subject, biochemistry. Specifically, we found that the development of each subject assessed by its publication volume was well described by a set of simple nonlinear equations, allowing us to characterize them quantitatively. Bioinformatics, which had the highest ratio of publications produced, was predicted to grow between 77% and 93% by 2025 according to the model. Due to the large number of publications produced in bioinformatics, which nearly matches the number published in biochemistry, it can be inferred that bioinformatics is almost equal in significance to biochemistry. Based on our analysis, we suggest that bioinformatics be added to the standard biology undergraduate curriculum. Adding this course to an undergraduate curriculum will better prepare students for future research in biology.

  16. Scalable Energy Efficiency with Resilience for High Performance Computing Systems: A Quantitative Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Li [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Chen, Zizhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Song, Shuaiwen Leon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Energy efficiency and resilience are two crucial challenges for HPC systems to reach exascale. While energy efficiency and resilience issues have been extensively studied individually, little has been done to understand the interplay between energy efficiency and resilience for HPC systems. Decreasing the supply voltage associated with a given operating frequency for processors and other CMOS-based components can significantly reduce power consumption. However, this often raises system failure rates and consequently increases application execution time. In this work, we present an energy saving undervolting approach that leverages the mainstream resilience techniques to tolerate the increased failures caused by undervolting.

  17. Scalable Energy Efficiency with Resilience for High Performance Computing Systems: A Quantitative Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Li; Chen, Zizhong; Song, Shuaiwen

    2016-01-18

    Energy efficiency and resilience are two crucial challenges for HPC systems to reach exascale. While energy efficiency and resilience issues have been extensively studied individually, little has been done to understand the interplay between energy efficiency and resilience for HPC systems. Decreasing the supply voltage associated with a given operating frequency for processors and other CMOS-based components can significantly reduce power consumption. However, this often raises system failure rates and consequently increases application execution time. In this work, we present an energy saving undervolting approach that leverages the mainstream resilience techniques to tolerate the increased failures caused by undervolting.

  18. An integrated one-chip-sensor system for microRNA quantitative analysis based on digital droplet polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Masahiko; Wiederkehr, Rodrigo Sergio; Cai, Qing; Majeed, Bivragh; Fiorini, Paolo; Stakenborg, Tim; Matsuno, Toshinobu

    2016-04-01

    A silicon microfluidic chip was developed for microRNA (miRNA) quantitative analysis. It performs sequentially reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in a digital droplet format. Individual processes take place on different cavities, and reagent and sample mixing is carried out on a chip, prior to entering each compartment. The droplets are generated on a T-junction channel before the polymerase chain reaction step. Also, a miniaturized fluorescence detector was developed, based on an optical pick-up head of digital versatile disc (DVD) and a micro-photomultiplier tube. The chip integrated in the detection system was tested using synthetic miRNA with known concentrations, ranging from 300 to 3,000 templates/µL. Results proved the functionality of the system.

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Congested Marine Traffic Environment – An Application Using Marine Traffic Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Hasegawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty of sailing is quite subjective matter. It depends on various factors. Using Marine Traffic Simulation System (MTSS developed by Osaka University this challenging subject is discussed. In this system realistic traffic flow including collision avoidance manoeuvres can be reproduced in a given area. Simulation is done for southward of Tokyo Bay, Strait of Singapore and off-Shanghai area changing traffic volume from 5 or 50 to 150 or 200% of the present volume. As a result, strong proportional relation between near-miss ratio and traffic density per hour per sailed area is found, independent on traffic volume, area size and configuration. The quantitative evaluation index of the difficulty of sailing, here called risk rate of the area is defined using thus defined traffic density and near-miss ratio.

  20. Excised porcine skin experimental systems to validate quantitative microdialysis methods for determination of drugs in skin after topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Toshinobu; Wang, Aiping; Yuan, Dan; Saso, Yuko; Hosoya, Osamu; Chono, Sumio; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2004-11-24

    Microdialysis is useful as a method to evaluate the disposition of drugs in the skin to design improved transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs). In this study, quantitative microdialysis methods were validated in excised porcine skin experimental systems in vitro. Flurbiprofen (FP), used as a model drug, showed high affinity for the skin tissues in equilibrium states between the medium and skin. The membrane clearances of FP for permeation through the membrane of a dialysis fiber placed in the skin (CL(m in S)) were lower than that in the medium. The adsorption of components in the skin to the membrane surface of the dialysis fiber and accumulation of FP near the dialysis fiber are the most likely reasons for this. When CL(m in S) was used to predict the extracellular FP concentration in skin (C(T)), the value obtained was lower than that expected from the FP concentration in the medium on the dermis side, which should be equal to C(T) at equilibrium. In the zero net flux (ZNF) method, in which the concentration difference of perfusate (DeltaC) between the inflow and outflow were used to obtain C(T), the predicted C(T) was similar to the expected value. In an in vitro skin permeation experiment, the ZNF method was used for the prediction of C(T) near the dialysis fiber. The predicted C(T) was over 10 times higher than the FP concentration in the medium on the dermis side, suggesting a concentration gradient in the dermis. Although the ZNF method is good for predicting the C(T) in skin, the mass balance has to be considered for the quantitative evaluation of the skin permeation of drugs. In this study, the effect of the mass transfer of FP from the perfusate to the skin on the cumulative amount of FP passing through the skin was relatively low because of the use of suitable solutions as perfusate. The perfusion conditions and schedules should be designed carefully for quantitative evaluations using the ZNF method. These results provide useful information for the in